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RECO2006 Construction IV Concrete Repair Edward CY YIU Department of Real Estate and Construction January
RECO2006 Construction IV
Concrete Repair
Edward CY YIU
Department of Real Estate and Construction
January 2007
RECO2006 Construction IV Concrete Repair Edward CY YIU Department of Real Estate and Construction January 2007

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Intended Learning Outcomes

How to repair concrete?

What are the common concrete repair methods?

How to determine which repair methods to be used?

concrete? • What are the common concrete repair methods? • How to determine which repair methods

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Anatomy of Concrete Repairs

Anatomy of Concrete Repairs Emmons, 1993, p.99 3

Emmons, 1993, p.99

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Repair Strategy • Material selection • Method selection • Support Design • Safety Precaution •
Repair Strategy
• Material
selection
• Method
selection
• Support
Design
• Safety
Precaution
• Costs
• Logistics
Emmons, 1993, p.98
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Process

  Process

Re-bars

 

Undercutting

Cleaning

Repair

Protect

Concrete

 

Surface

preparation

Bonding

Apply new

material

Emmons, 1993, p.98

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Performance Requirements of Concrete Repair

• Protection of Rebars

• Aesthetics

 

• Integrity and Compatibility (with substrate)

Carry loads Waterproofing

 

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Repair Systems Selection Criteria

Stability of element

Cost

Disturbance to users

Existing concrete condition

Exposure condition

Compatibility of repair material to substrate

 

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Concrete Repair Methods

Buildings Department (1998) lists the following common repair techniques for concrete:

Patch Repair

Recasting/Partial Recasting

Sprayed Concrete

Micro-concrete

Pre-packed concrete

Non-shrinkage grout

Sealing system

Protective Coating

 

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Traditional Repair Methods

 

Patch Repair

 
 

Cementitious mortars

Resin-based mortars

Recasting/Partial Recasting

 

Sprayed Concrete

 

Dry process spray

Wet process spray

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Preparation Before Work

Preparation of concrete surface

 

Cleaning of reinforcement

Coating reinforcement

Bond Coat

 

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Preparation

Marking out, Hack back to 10-20mm behind re-bars, ensure concrete cover

Saw cut the edge, Brush/grind the re-bar

Prime coat for re-bar, bond coat for substrate

Batching of repair mortar and apply.

Dowel bars:

Holes drilled with rotary-percussive drills to provide keys

Air blown by pneumatic device

Required length of insertion

Give it a 1/2 turn and then turn back to original position

Give 2 hrs initial set off time

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Cleaning of reinforcement

• For cleaning of reinforcement rust, high pressure water-abrasive blasting should be the best ways of ensuring a chloride-free surface for the reinforcement. Probably, it is the only way of removing chlorides from the pits in rusting reinforcement.

• If the damage is caused by carbonation, it is less critical to remove rust from the reinforcement. Coating with a layer of firmly adhering cement paste will be sufficient to prevent further deterioration. Other material for coating can be used if the repair is not in a cementitious one.

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http://www.sadgrovesquay.com.au

/abrasive/sandblast1.jpg

1. Patch Repair

It is most suitable for small-volume repairs as to restore concretes durability. The damaged concrete should be removed and patched up with appropriate repair mortars.

In general, there are two common repair mortars used for repairing works:

Cementitious mortars

Resin-based mortars

i. Cementitious mortars:

Cementitious mortars is one type of repair mortars for patch repair on small-volume repairs. It is used to restore durability of the structure. The damaged concrete is removed and these areas will be patched up with appropriate repair mortars.

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Emmons, 1993

1. Patch Repair

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1. Patch Repair (Contd)

Mailvaganam and Taylor (1994) prefers resin based mortars. It is because the resin based mortars have an elastic modulus of about one-tenth of concrete.

The coefficient of thermal expansion is five times more than that of concrete.

It has the strongest compressive strength than the other type of cementitious based mortars.

Recently, polymer is added into the mortar in order to increase their strength.

However, there are some limitations in polymer repair materials e.g. it may cause delamination or blistering when applied on the damped areas; and

It is not recommended to be applied in areas where fire resistance is required. It has poor fire resisting property and it has thermal incompatibility with substrate concrete.

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Properties of typical concrete repair materials

(Mays, G. and Wilkinson, W., 1987)

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Types of Mortar

Types of cementitious mortars

Suitability

Reference

Medium-weight

For area where superior resistance is required to chlorides and carbon dioxide. For general purpose concrete reinstatement.

Renderoc GP;

cementitious mortar

Renderoc HB40

(with higher

performance)

Fibre-reinforced, non-

For repair of spalling, honeycombing, stair nosing, ramp etc.

Lanko 731

shrinkage mortar

Silica fume-modified

   

Silica fume-modified repair mortar

For repair load-bearing concrete

Emaco S66 Emaco S88C; Emaco S88C with MCI

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Types of Mortar (Contd)

Polymer modified

   

Polymer modified repair mortar suitable for different degree of exposure

For locations where required high compressive strength, and reinstatement of concrete.

Barra 80; Barrafill; Renderoc S; Ronafix

Mix

A; Ronafix Mix D

Polymer modified repair mortars, feature shrinkage compensating properties

Restore concrete and inhibit further deterioration before significant structural damage occurs.

Emaco R740

Polymer modified repair mortar, feature lightweight

For high build, vertical and overhead repairs (rather low compressive strength will be developed)

Barra Mortar HL; Nitomortar HB; Renderoc HB; HB25

Polymer modified repair mortar for high build with different classes of strength

Suitable for concrete repair. It can be applied in thick section and is suitable for structural and non-structural application.

Unicell 25; Unicell 40,

and

unicell ultra rapid.

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Types of Mortar (Contd)

 

Rapid Setting

   

Rapid setting underwater mortar

Specifically developed for underwater repair and restoration work.

Emaco S90UW

Rapid setting waterstopping mortar

Rapid patching and plugging of concrete segments.

Renderoc Plug 1; Renderoc Plug 20 (20mins setting)

 

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Types of Mortar (Contd)

 

Types of resin-based mortars

Suitability

Reference

Expoxy resin mortars

   

Two-part epoxy resin mortars (possesses outstanding strength and adhesive powers)

Low slump for general repair work

Expocrete GP

For use in exceptionally wet conditions and for underwater applications

Expocrete UA

High strength, abrasion- resistant epoxy reinstatement mortar

For fast and permanent reinstatement of concrete

Nitomortar S

Polyester resin mortars

   

Polyester resin mortars with high strength jointing and multi- purpose repair compounds

For fast and emergency reinstatement of concrete, bedding, jointing and reprofiling of concrete (cannot be applied to damp or wet surface)

Nitomortar PE

 

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8 tests on Repair Mortar:

compressive strength (28 days) 30-60 MPa

Tensile strength (7 days) 2 MPa

Mod of Elasticity (28 days) 15-25 kN/mm2

Bond Strength (7days) 2.0 MPa

Shrinkage Cracking (7 days) Coutinho ring test

Permeability

Workability

Chemical Analysis

Open-up inspection: 1 / 25sm patch repair

Pull-off test (bond coat adhesion strength): 1/ 50sm patch repair

Pass if 1/2 fracture in substrate or pull-off stress > 1/4 of the 7-day bond str

Core a 75mm dia. Full thick of the repair with 7days age.

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Bond Strength of Patch Repair tested by pull-off test

• Pull-off test on the adhesion strength of the bond between the repair mortar and the substrate concrete, aided by any bond coat

identify re-bar position

– Repair area shall have a minimum age of 7 days

– Re-bar sensor to identify the location of reinforcement bars

– Repair area shall have a minimum age of 7 days – Re-bar sensor to identify

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Core

• A 75mm dia. Core containing the full thickness of the repair was produced

Core • A 75mm dia. Core containing the full thickness of the repair was produced 23

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Detail of the core

Repair Mortar

Cored hole Substrate
Cored hole
Substrate
Detail of the core Repair Mortar Cored hole Substrate 24

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Dummy

• A suitable metal plate was glued to the cored hole and let it dry for one hour;

• this attachment was pulled with increasing tensile force using a calibrated device until failure occurs.

hour; • this attachment was pulled with increasing tensile force using a calibrated device until failure

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Result 1

• Criteria:

– fracture shall be at least half in the substrate concrete, unless

– the pull-off stress is not less than 1/4 (i.e. 0.5 MPa) of the minimum 7 days bond strength of the repair mortar (2.0 MPa).

• Result 1

– Fracture at bond surface, bond strength = 27psi (0.9 MPa) - PASS

of the repair mortar (2.0 MPa). • Result 1 – Fracture at bond surface, bond strength

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Result 2

• Half of the fracture at substrate, bond strength = 18psi (0.6 MPa) - PASS

Result 2 • Half of the fracture at substrate, bond strength = 18psi (0.6 MPa) -

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Results 3 & 4

• Result 3: less than half of the fracture at substrate, bond strength = 12psi (0.4MPa) - FAIL

• Result 4: fracture at surface material, bond strength = 9psi (0.3 MPa) - FAIL

strength = 12psi (0.4MPa) - FAIL • Result 4: fracture at surface material, bond strength =

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2. Recasting

In this method, the damaged part of the structural element will be demolished, replace corroded reinforcement and recast it with same or even better grade concrete in order to restore its structural strength.

Considerations for practical uses

Pay attention to the discontinuity which causes any instability to the linked structural elements due to demolition.

Dowel bars and/or replacement steel bars should be placed on the cleaned reinforcement bars.

For recasting of slabs, evacuation may be required for flats above or below the element.

The joint between old and new concrete should be paid with special attention. Poor joints will result easy seepage of water and causes of corrosion.

Shear key is required for large areas of recasting.

Pre-soaking of substrate is necessary

Avoid air trapping by thorough compaction of repair mortar.

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Recasting by form and pump

Application ranges

When defective depth is ranges from 75mm to 100mm.

Also for vertical members e.g. wall and column.

When structural restoration is required.

Emmons, 1993, p.168

Also for vertical members e.g. wall and column. • When structural restoration is required. Emmons, 1993,

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Full Depth Recast

Full Depth Recast Emmons, 1993, p.168 31

Emmons, 1993, p.168

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3. Sprayed Concrete

Sprayed concrete is a technique which is widely used in high-volume concrete repair work.

The concrete mix will be sprayed with or without admixture or polymers to the defected areas under high air pressure. This process can be done by means of nozzle gun.

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Dry Spray Concrete

There are two different methods of spraying:

Dry process spraying

Wet process spraying

Dry process spraying is the process which the mixture of damp sand and cement is passed through the delivery hose to the nozzle and the water is mixed at that time.

This process is often used for repair work.

It is because of its fast application process and restoration of structural strength at an early stage.

The performance characteristics of dry sprayed concrete are they have good density and high strength.

It has very good bond to a suitable substrate.

These advantages make it more variable than conventional concrete and wet process sprayed concrete. (SCA, 1999)

(SCA, 1999)

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Wet Spray Concrete

Wet process spraying means all the ingredients including water are mixed together before transporting to the site for repairing works.

It is not normally applied for building repairs since the size of equipment is much larger than that of dry process spraying.

(SCA, 1999)

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Cracks prevention

Concrete surface must be reinforced with small-mesh small diameter reinforcement before carrying out sprayed concrete. This can prevent developments of cracks when the concrete shrinks.

before carrying out sprayed concrete. This can prevent developments of cracks when the concrete shrinks. 35
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Spray Concrete

Considerations for practical uses

The process should be in a continuous process.

Concrete mixed should be complied with acceptable standard and quality.

The operation should be carried by experienced nozzleman.

Acceptance test should be carried out to test the skill of the nozzleman.

The process should be held at right angle to and at one meter from the surface of the repair areas.

Min. spray concrete thickness should be considered before spraying process.

Reference should be made to Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete.

Good surface preparation should be done.

Sufficient safety precautions must be taken.

Application ranges

Large areas of repairs with thickness > 50mm

In vacant flats and/or public areas, this can minimize the nuisance to peoples.

Partial strength is to be restored.

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Types of sprayed concrete

Suitability

Reference

Dry Spray

   

Polymer modified cementitious repair mortar

For large area repairs (rather low compressive strength developed) Should not be used when the temperature is <5C and falling. Should not be exposed to moving water.

Renderoc DS (aggregates used are classified as ‘non-reactive’.); Renderoc SC; Optimix RM770

Gunite mortar (cementitious based)

Specially prepared for use in dry shotcrete applications. (compressive strength: 30-40 N/mm2)

Sika Rock 30

Wet Spary

   

General concrete repair work

 

Sika Mono Top-612; Optimix RM770

 

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Other Repair Methods

 

Micro-concrete

 

Pre-packed concrete

Non-Shrinkage Grout

Joint Sealing System

 

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1. Micro-concrete

 

By applying this method, the contaminated or damaged concrete are removed and replaced by fluid micro-concrete.

It is used to re-form desired concrete profiles.

 

Usually, prescribed mixes are available in the market with shrinkage compensators to control shrinkage in plastic and hardened states.

Considerations for practical uses

 

It needs special design by the supplier and specialist advice is required.

Formwork with leakproof is required.

 

Pre-soaking of the formwork and substrate is required.

Aggregates used should not be greater than 10mm.

In order to improve workability, aggregates should be rounded in size.

Good curing of the repair is essential.

 

Application ranges

 

For use in area with limited working space or congested reinforcement

For use in thin sections where the use of normal concrete is impractical

 

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Types of micro-concrete

Suitability

Reference

Shrinkage compensated

For area where access to the repair zone is restricted or where reinforcement is congested which unable to carry out compaction and vibration. Difficult access which make hand/trowel-applied mortars impractical.

Renderoc LA

High performance shrinkage compensated

 

Renderoc LA55

Low alkali, non-reactive micro-concrete

 

Renderoc LA27

 

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2. Pre-packed Concrete

Graded aggregates similar to the substrate concrete will be placed firstly in the formwork.

After the placement of graded aggregates, cement grout will be injected into the formwork from THE BOTTOM.

The resulting concrete will be in excellent quality in proper implication.

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Considerations for practical use

All loose and spalled concrete should be repaired prior to the application.

Target compressive strength of the pre-packed concrete should be compatible with that of the substrate.

Trials on compressive strength before operation are recommended.

Careful design on aggregate size and grading is recommended.

Aggregate size shouldnt be too fine in order to avoid blockage of grout patch.

Similar to micro-concrete, formwork with leakproof is required.

Pre-soaking of the substrate with water is necessary.

Aggregate should be clean and free from silt before application.

Application ranges

For use at areas where concrete placing is difficult, e.g. at beam soffits.

For areas with congested reinforcement or depth of repair is greater than 75mm where patch repair is not suitable.

For where the structural strength have to be restored.

Advantages

Compare to sprayed concrete, it has greater density, greater uniformity, lesser permeability, lower shrinkage, less dependence on personal skills of equipment operators, less dust, less clean-up work, and more economical.

Limitations

All works in vertical surfaces require formwork. At least 3 to 4 inches of space is required for replacement.

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3. Non-shrink grout

cementitious, epoxy resin or polyester resin based

In repair works, non-shrink grout is used in crack injection repair.

Also, it is used to repair porous concrete and in those areas with very congested reinforcement.

Usually, it has a very high workability, it can be applied either flowable or in fluid.

If mixtures are according to specified instruction, the compressive strength of non-shrink grout can be higher than 50 N/mm2 although it has high workability.

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Non-shrink grout

Considerations for practical use

Please refer to micro-concrete

Application ranges

used in crack injection repair,

To repair porous concrete,

Very congested reinforcement or in limited working spaces,

Thickness of repair is thin.

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Types of non-shrink grout

Suitability

Reference

Epoxy resin based

   

Low viscosity epoxy resin injection grout

For injection of cracks of about 0.25- 9mm wide. Permits maximum resin penetration

Nitofil LV; Sikadur 752; HI- Crete 85; Conbextra EP; Expocrete S

Ultra low viscosity expoxy resin injection

As resin binder in flooring screeds or for repair of cracks subject to movement.

Ronabond EP 21SLV; Ronabond EP 21 FLV (more flexible)

Thixotropic epoxy resin injection grout

For injection of cracks of about 0.5- 9mm wide. Permits injection of open-ended cracks

Nitofil TH

Epoxy resin suitable for structural element

High strength resin and capable of restoring structural integrity

Ronabond EP 22S;

Epoxy resin suitable for structural element (suitable for use underwater)

Capable of restoring structural integrity and can be used under water

Ronabond EP 22UW

Cementitious based

   

Non-shrink cementitious

For general purpose of crack injection. Different kinds of cementitious grout are available such as, rapid set, high strength, high performance or specifically for underwater application

Conbextra GP; Conbextra Conbextra HES; Conbextra HF; Conbextra UW; Calgrout No 1

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grout

4. Joint Sealing System

This system is generally applied for repairing active cracks.

The crack must be widened and sealed as joints if any measurements or circumstances suggested that it is live crack.

When those live cracks cannot successfully be glued together with resin injection, the joints must be widened at the surface and sealed as a joint.

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Types of joint sealing system

Suitability

Reference

Versatile sealing

For joints and cracks subject to normal or large movements

Sikadur Combiflex

system

Joint sealing compound (Polyurethane base)

Permanent elastic one-compound joint sealing compound

Sikaflex PRO 2HP

One component

As an elastic adhesive and elastic joint sealant.

Sikaflex-11FC

polyurethane

sealant/adhesive

 

Instant-setting

Sealing of waterways Fast setting, Used underwater High resistance to pressure. Some of the products are with different properties, such as, high strength, flexible and elastic for use in different situation.

ERTOBLOC 224; Ronabond PU 10; Ronabond PU 20 (High strength); Ronabond PU

hydraulic

mortar/grout

 

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Protection Methods

 

Protective Coating

 

Apply Cathodic Protection

Provide Additional Concrete Cover

 

Realkalization or Desalination

 

Overcladding and Insulation

Protection with Corrosion Inhibitors

 

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5. Protective Coating

The protective coating is a thin outer layer which used to protect the substrate concrete by acting as an impermeable barrier or slowing the rate of penetration of active components from the surrounding environment.

Three main functions of protective coating are:

Change appearance;

Improve surface properties;

Barrier against the penetration of aggressive gases, liquids and vapours.

Good protective coating should allow water vapour to pass out through it in order to stop the building up of vapour pressure in the substrate concrete which causes blistering. (BSIS)

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Considerations for practical use

Good surface preparation before application of the coating, such as completed repairing of concrete and removal of surface contaminations and voids.

Remove all loose part of existing painting and check the compatibility of the existing paints before application.

If a solvent based protective coating is selected, it should be in an open space with good ventilation for coating to evaporate.

Application ranges

It should be applied on repaired concrete substrate to prevent further deterioration.

In those areas where frequent wetting of concrete surface is unavoidable.

On surfaces where exposed to aggressive surroundings.

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Types of protective coating

Suitability

Reference

Single component epoxy zinc primer (corrosion protection)

As an anti-corrosion primer for exposed steel reinforcement for use with concrete repair mortars

Nitoprime Zincrich;

Frianzinc EPE

Acrylic resin protective coating for concrete

Protection and enhancement of concrete and asbestos cement building elements, especially facades.

Sikagard 680 S-Concrete Cosmetic

Protective coating with moderate chemical resistance

As a barrier to resist chemical resistance, such as carbon ion.

Sikagard-62; Ronabond Cover Plus 150

Waterproof protective

Provides an effective barrier against the transmission of liquid water. It should be applied on concrete, brickwork and blockwork.

SikaTop Seal 107; Ronabond Joltec Finish; Ronabond Jotec Transparent; Ronabond Nigatex

coating

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6. Cathodic Protection

The purpose of applying cathodic protection is to stop the setting up of anodes on the reinforcement by applying a low voltage electric current or by a sacrificial anode.

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Sacrificial Anode System

There are two main systems of cathodic protection:

Sacrificial Anode System

Impressed Current System

In sacrificial anode system, the steel is connected to a metal which is less stable in electro-chemical series, e.g. zinc. Since zinc is more anodic than steel, the current will flow from zinc to steel and zinc will be corroded instead of steel.

zinc to steel and zinc will be corroded instead of steel. Sacrificial anodes fixed to the

Sacrificial anodes fixed to the rebar with

tie wires. (Fosroc: Galvashield XP)

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Impressed Current System

In impressed current system, an external current with sufficient intensity is applied to over-ride the corrosion current.

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Discrete impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) anode. (Fosroc: Ebonex)

Pros and Cons

Advantages:

The only way to completely stop steel corrosion

Permanent solution

Disadvantages:

Ongoing cost to maintain

Many structures not suitable (access, non- continuous reinforcement, pre-stressing steel, etc.)

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Cathodic Protection

Considerations for practical use

Installation and maintenance costs for the systems are much higher than other repair methods.

It needs special design by the supplier and specialist advice is required.

Defects must be repaired before implication of cathodic protection.

Electrical continuity has to be assessed before implication.

Application ranges

In area where corrosion is active or chloride content is high.

Recasting or large scale patch repair is not feasible.

Corrosion of steel reinforcement is not that serious while application.

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Types of cathodic protection

Suitability

Reference

Sacrificial Anode System

   

Drilled in sacrificial anode for reinforced concrete structures

For pre-stressed/post tensioned structures (Not for use with epoxy and polyester repair mortars or primers.

Galvashield CC45,

Galvashield CC65

Embedded zinc anode which acts to prevent corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete:

To be embedded within repairs performed in chloride contaminated concrete to protect adjacent steel from the onset of corrosion.

Galvashield XP

Impressed Current System

   

Discrete cathodic protection anodes

For protection of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures and steel framed buildings

Ebonex

 

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Realkalization

 

Advantages:

Based on reversing the principles of cathodic protection

Limited concrete removal

 

No ongoing maintenance

Disadvantages:

Very high installation cost

Not all structures are suitable

Environmentally unsound

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Overcladding

Advantages:

Greatly improves appearance

Provides the additional benefit of insulation

Provides a long-term solution

Disadvantages:

Very expensive

Can hide latent defects

Extended contract period

The Jardine House case

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Corrosion Inhibitors

See Sika FerroGard-903 Corrosion Inhibitor or Tyfo CIS Inhibitor

Tyfo® CIS Inhibitor Layer 2

DESCRIPTION Tyfo® CIS Layer 2 is a single-component, clear, waterbased liquid with a mild odor. It may be applied by roller or spray following the application of Tyfo® CIS Layer 1. Layer 2 controls the pH, purges and encapsulates water-soluble chlorides, fills voids in the concrete, and inhibits further penetration of moisture. Layer 2 also acts as a contact corrosion inhibitor on the reinforcing steel. After receiving both Layers 1 & 2, the exposed surfaces are cleaned by washing with fresh water or by abrasive blasting. All exposed steel is then treated with the Tyfo® CB material and the concrete section is restored using Tyfo® P or Tyfo® PF as required.

USE Tyfo® CIS Layer 2 is used with the Tyfo® Concrete Repair System on new or old concrete surfaces to seal porosity, increase compression strength, maintain pH, protect from acid and alkali attack, pacify and extract chlorides, and inhibit embedded steel corrosion.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Property

ASTM Method

Typical Test Value*

ADVANTAGES

   

• Ease of application

• Can be applied to horizontal, vertical or overhead surfaces

50% reduced voltage in 14 days (400 to 200mV)

• Restores properties of deteriorating Portland concrete cement

Corrosion Inhibition

C-876

• Can penetrate concrete 2 to 3 inches, depending upon existing porosity

• Dramatically improves condition of substrate prior to repairs

 

• Protects new concrete

Compression

C-42

Increases 2,000 psi (13.8 MPa)

• For new and old structures

Strength

• Non-toxic

   
 

Hardness Increase

 

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New concrete

C-418

14%

 

European Standards for Repair and Protection of Concrete

• The standards related to the repair and protection of concrete of concrete currently available as standards or under development by CEN TC104 SC8- Protection an Repair an Repair of Concrete. It was updated on 6 November

 

2001.

 

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State-of-the-art Repair and Protection Methods

Concrete

– Patch repair with phosphate-based

– Cathodic protection

– Chloride extraction

– Concrete re-alkalization

– Concrete strengthening plates/sheets

– Surface-applied penetrating sealer and coating

Re-bar

Fusion-boned epoxy bar coatings

Inhibitive primer

 

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1) Patch Repair: Magnesium

phosphate-based

It is a unique, two-component with rapid setting concrete repair and grouting system. It cures faster than concrete and it has a very good bonding with new and old concrete. The repair system can be applied at any temperature without shrinkage and is freeze/thaw and deicing salt resistant since it does not require water as an additive.

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loctite.com.hk.

2) Concrete strengthening

An advanced technology of concrete strengthening techniques which do not need to recast the concrete structure for strengthening.

This technique apply the use of placing an bonding CIFIRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) plates or sheets to surfaces of structural concrete members.

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Examples of Concrete Strengthening Materials

Types of concrete strengthening

Suitability

Reference

Composite fabrics for structural and seismic strengthening

Shear strengthening in a building beam and slab Flexural strengthening of slab

SikaWrap

Fibre reinforced

For structural strengthening for post-reinforcement of structural members, such as beams, columns, slabs)

Ronacrete FRP system

polymer (FRP)

system

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3) Chloride Extraction

• If there is a presence of chloride ion, the concrete will deteriorate at a faster rate. It is mainly due to the depassivating effect of chloride ions. Usually, a value of 0.8% (a critical acceptance value) is adopted for practical use.

• In this method, chloride ions are removed from concrete by dissolving in electrolyte and drawing it to an external electrode by an electrical potential. The external electrode being used in this method is a titanium wire mesh which is embedded in electrolytic paste of cellulose fibre. The paste is adhered onto the surface of concrete.

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4) Concrete Re-alkalization

• Alkaline is a substance which can protect reinforcement from corrosion. When concrete is carbonated, its alkalinity decreases and hence the protection of reinforcement is decreased. This method is used by diffusing alkaline chemicals like metallic hydroxides into concrete for increasing pH value and cause re- passivation.

• Recently, this technique is still under testing and not yet been developed for field test. Therefore, it is difficult to find this service in the market.

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5) Surface-applied Penetration Seal

• Aquron® CPT-2000 is a highly reactive catalytic agent which reacts with free alkali and/or alkaline hydrates by internally producing a silica hydro-gel which fills the pore spaces and the voids around aggregate. Furthermore, alkali is converted to a neutral compound structure, reducing the potential for internal chemical reactions. More density is added, additional bonding strength is provided and concrete is permanently hydrostatically sealed from within.

http://www.aquron.com/2000_tech_sheet.htm

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prevents ingress and migration of moisture and damaging corrosive

Deplete soluble chlorides in concrete and inhibit corrosion of imbedded reinforcing steel

and damaging corrosive – Deplete soluble chlorides in concrete and inhibit corrosion of imbedded reinforcing steel

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6) Corrosion Inhibitor

With the addition of calcium nitrite, the standard threshold of corrosion is elevated

i.e. the protective passivity layer can tolerate a higher level of chloride ions. • http://www.na.graceconstruction.com/conc rete/

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Reading

Rostam, Steen. (1996) High performance concrete cover why it is needed, and how to achieve it in practice, Construction and Building Materials, 10(5), 407-421.

– why it is needed, and how to achieve it in practice, Construction and Building Materials,

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References

Buildings Department, (1998), Interim Technical Guidelines on The Inspection, Assessment and Repair of Buildings for The Building Safety Inspection Scheme, The Government of the Hong Kong SAR.

Mays, G. and Wilkinson, W., Polymer Repairs to Concrete: Their Influence on Structural Performance, ACI-SP 100-22 Katherine and Bryant Mather International Conference 1987, pp.351-338.

Mailvaganam, N.P. and Taylor, D.A., Compatibility of Repair Systems for Concrete Structures, CANMET/IRC Symposium on Advanced Materials, Ottawa, 1994, 11 p.

Pullar-Strecker, P., (1988). Corrosion Damaged Concrete: Assessment and Repair. London: Butterworths, 1988.

Buildings Department, (1998), Interim Technical Guidelines on The Inspection,

Assessment and Repair of Buildings for The Building Safety Inspection Scheme,

• Highway Department, HKSAR Govt (2002) Guidance Note on the Repair of Spalled Concrete Road Joints, GN028. The Government of the Hong Kong SAR.

Currie, R. J. (1994). Repair and Maintenance of Reinforced Concrete. Building Research Establishment Report. Watford: BRE publication.

Schmick, Bonnie L. Pollington, Annette. (2002) Concrete repair manual American Concrete Institute. Imprint Farmington Hills, Mich. : ACI International, [2002?] 2nd ed.[HKU 624.18340288 C7 S]

The Australian Corrosion Association and The Asian Pacific Materials and Corrosion Association, (2001). Fosroc galvashield: New ways to repair and protect reinforced concrete, Corrosion & Materials, vol 26 (4), 6-7.

The Sprayed Concrete Association, (1999), Introduction to Sprayed Concrete, The

Sprayed Concrete Association.

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The End

For enquiries, please send email to Edward CY YIU

Department of Real Estate and Construction The University of Hong Kong

ecyyiu@hkucc.hku.hk

email to Edward CY YIU Department of Real Estate and Construction The University of Hong Kong

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