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Form 4 : Chapter 1 : Introduction to Information and Communication Technology

1. First Generation  Vacuum tube : Causing temperature regulation and climate control  Punched card : Used to store data  Magnetic tape : Faster and compact for storing data 2. Second Generation  Transistor spark : Transfer electronic signals 3. Third Generation  IBM 370  CDC 7600  Intergrated Chips (IC) 4. Fourth Generation  Apple Macintosh  IBM Microprocessor  DELL  ACER 5. Fifth Generation  Processor  Silicon chips  Virtual reality  Robotics 6. New Era Computer  Super computer  Mini computer  Mobile computer 7. Differences Between Ethic and Law Ethic Law  Guideline to computer user  Rule to control computer users  Computer users are free to follow  Judged by judicial standard  No punishments for who violetes  Punishments for who break the law  Universal  Depends on country  To produce ethical computer user  To prevent misuse of computer  Not honouring means immoral  Not honouring means committing a crime 8. Unethical  Reading your friends e-mail  Use office computer to do personal things 9. Law breaking  Send virus  Hacking  Selling pirated software
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10. Intellectual Property Protection  Patents for inventions : Utility, design, plant patents  Trademark for barand identity : Words, Names, Symbols, Devices, Images  Design for product appearance : Literary, artistic, music, films  Copyright for material : contours, colours, shape, texture 11. Authentication is a process to verify that they are who they say they are. 12. Methods Of Authentication  Biometric Devices - Iris Scanning  Fingerprint Recognition - Voice Recognition  Hand Geometry Scanning - Signature Verification System 13. Verification is the act of proving / diproving the correctness of a system with respect. 14. Methods Of Verification  User identification : username , passport, exam slip  Processed object : drivers liscense, security card, credit card 15. Issues On Controversial Contents  Pornography  Can lead to criminal acts  Can lead to sexual addiction  Slander  Can lead to unnecessary argument  Can cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person. 16. Internet Filtering  Keyword blocking : list of banned words  Site blocking : use software to prevent the access to any sites  Web rating systems : responsibility RSACI 17. Cyber Law  Digital Signature Act 1997 : secures electronic information  Computer Crimes Act 1997 : gives protection against misuse of computer  Telemedicine Act 1997 : ensure medical practitioners can practice telemedicine  Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 : ensures that information is secure 18. Computer Crimes : criminal activity (related with computers) 19. Computer Fraud 20. Copyright Infrigment : as a violation og right secured 21. Computer Theft : divert goods to the wrong destination 22. Computer Attact

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Form 4 : Chapter 2 : Computer Security
1. Computer Security is protecting our computer system against unwanted acces or modification. 2. Types Of Computer Security  Hardware Security : PC-locks, keyboard-locks, smart cards, biometric devices  Software and Data Security : activation code, serial number  Network Security : firewall 3. Malicious Code is known as rogue program. 4. Types of Malicious Code  Virus  Trojan Horse  Logic Bomb  Trapdoor / Backdoor  Worm 5. Hacker is a person who learn about the computer system in detail.  Use modem to hack targeted computers 6. Natural and Environment Threats  Natural disaster * prevent access by using password 7. Theft * detects and guard all exits  Computer is used to steal things  Stealing of computer * record any hardware transported 8. Security Measures is precautionary measures taken toward possible danger.  Data Backup vs Natural Disaster  Backup all data so that in can be recovered when emergency.  Cryptography vs Hacking  Procees of hiding information by using a key to prevent from hacking.  Antivirus vs Malicious Code  Protects a computer against viruses by removing virus, worm or Trojan.  Anti-Spyware vs Malicious Code  Tracking spyware to remove and limiting the connectivity .  Firewall vs Hacking  Limited access to unauthorised user such as hacker.  Human Aspects vs Theft 9. Data Protection  Backup Files : do frequently  Detect Virus and Do CleanUp : delete infected files  Warn Others on Virus Attack : by sending e-mail

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10. Software Applications Area Home & Education business Graphics and Multimedia Communication Software Applications Home design, image gallery, intergrated software, personal finance, legal, tax preparation Word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation graphics Video and Audio editing, Multimedia Authoriting, Desktop Publishing e-mail, web browser, chat rooms, newsgroups

11. Software Applications Packages Software Applications Word processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics Personal Information Manager Software Suite Project Management Accounting

Popular Pckages Microsoft Word Microsoft Excel Microsoft Access Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Outlook Microsoft Office Microsoft Project MYOB

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Form 4 : Chapter 3 : System Concept
1. Computer System is a combination of components designed to process data and store files. 2. Computer Hardware  Input Devices : keyboard, light pen, joystick, microphone, mouse, video,  Processor : CPU  Output Devices : printer, plotter, speaker  Storage Devices : hardisk, Floppy Disk, CD ROM, DVD ROM 3. Computer Software  System Software is computer software that helps to run computer system.  BIOS Program, Operating System, Utility Program, Programming Languages  Application Software : word processing, games, internet browser 4. Computer Hardware Block Diagram Output
Display processed data

Feed raw data

Turns it into useful information

Stores process and unprocess data

5. CPU accepts instruction and translates it into readable information. 6. Machine Cycle Instruction Cycle

Find data item from memory

Translate data item into signals

Writing the results to the storage

Perform the instruction in program

Execution cycle 7. Binary Digit : consists of two digits , 0 and 1 8. Bit : 0 and 1 9. Byte : 8 bits = 1 byte
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10. Character : 1 byte represents 1 character 11. Character Codes  ASCII : 256-character capability too small too handle only Arabic, Japanese and Chinese  EBDIC : 256-character capability cover all language  Unicode : 65,000 character 12. ASCII is pronounced as "ask-key" and standard of 7-bit code. 13. Functions of ASCII - Enables human to interact with a computer. - To produce components that are assured to operate correctly in a computer. - To purchase components that are compatible with their computer configurations. 14. Data measurement 1 KB = 1 KB = 2 bytes 1 MB = 2 bytes 1 GB = 2 bytes
40 30 20 10

- 1 TB = 2 bytes 15. Motherboard : the main circuit board of the system unit. 16. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) : controls the operation of the computer. 17. Expansion slots : provides some specialised capability - PCI connects to high speed devices. - ISA 18. Expansion Card : add new devices or capabilities to a computer. 19. RAM : can be read and written. 20. ROM : can just be read but cannot be written at all. 21. Serial port : to connect a modem via a slow-speed serial interface. 22. Parallel port : to connect a printer via the computer's parallel interface. 23. USB port : to plug in USB cable. 24. MIDI port : to connect the system unit to a musical instrument. 25. SCSI port : to attach peripheral devices such as disk drives. 26. IrDA port : to transmit data via infrared light waves to a computer. 27. Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form. 28. Functions of Computer Storage - to help users store data to be used at a later time. - stores instructions from a computer program. 29. Types of Computer Storage - Primary storage : RAM & ROM  Differences between RAM & ROM RAM ROM Data and Program Stores during and after Stores by manufacturer Content Stores temporary Stores permanently Processing time Very fast, used lot of power Fast, used a little of power Volatility Volatile Non-Volatile - Secondary storage : CD-ROMS, pendrive

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30. Software : a set of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a specific operation. 31. Categories of Software : - System Software : control and manage computer devices and operations. eg : Microsoft windows, Mac OS - Application Software : help a user perform a task and solve a problem. eg : Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excell 32. System Software vs Application Software System Software Application Software Computer : Function Usage Users : work efficiency properly Must have to function Need Depends on usage & needs Only one Number of software More than one Independent Dependent Dependency Application runs Accomplish specific task Functions 33. Types of System Software - Operating system : coordinates all the activities among the computer hardware devices eg : Microsoft XP, Linux - Utility system : allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks. eg : Antivirus, file manager 34. Functions of Operating Systems - Starting a computer  Warm boot : restarting computer that already on.  Cold boot : starting computer that already off. - Providing interface  Control information to be displayed.  To assist users interacting with software. - Managing memory 35. Application Software : computer programs that performs a particular function for the user. 36. Types of Application Software - Spreadsheet - Graphic Editing - Processing 37. PC Assembling - Fixing the processor - Installing the RAM - Install the power supply - Install the optical drive - Attaching the video card & connect the cables - Install the floppy drive - Install the hard disk
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- Connecting other peripherals - Powering the system 38. Pervasive Computing : technology that is gracefully integrated in our everyday life.

Form 4 : Chapter 3 : Computer Network and Communications

1. Computer Network : system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices. - Hardware By using - Software 2. Internetwork : two or more network are connected and able to communicate. 3. Communications : transfer of information from sender across a deistance to receiver. 4. Types Of Transmitting Data - Analog signals - Digital signals 5. Common types of Comunications Channel : - Twisted-pair wyre - Satelite systems - Coaxial cable - Wireless Systems - Fibre-optic cable 6. Network Interface Card (NIC) - Provides connection between computer - Supplies the basic addressing system - Control the flow of data on network. 7. Importance of Networks and Communications : - E-business - Online Education - E-Banking - Long distance communications 8. Types of Network - LAN : A group of computer connected together in same building. - MAN : A group of computer connected together wthin a large physical area. - WAN : A group of MANs or LANs or mixture of both devices. 9. Differences Between LAN, MAN & WAN LAN MAN WAN Low High Higher Cost Network size Small Large Largest Fastest Slower Slowest Speed Twisted-pair - Twisted-pair - Fibre optic Transmission - Fibre optic - Radio wave Media - Satellite Smallest Larger Largest Connection Limit 10. Network Architecture : describes how computer network is configured.

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11. Main Network Architecture - Client/server network  Server : computer that shares information / resources & provides service  Client : computer that request services from server - Peer-to-peer network  All computer has equal responsibilities & capabilities.  No server is needed  Network is called a peer. 12. Differences Between CLIENT / SERVER & PEER-TO-PEER CLIENT/SERVER PEER-TO-PEER Server has to control ability while client All computer have equal ability. dont. Higher cabling cost. Cheaper cabling cost. Small & large network. Small network (less than 10 computer) Easy to manage. Hard to manage. Install software only in the server. Onstall software to avery computer. Clients share the software. Server : powerful computer. No server is needed. 13. Network Topology : the structure we are planning to connect the computers to. - Bus Topology Found : LAN - Ring Topology - Star Topology 14. Differences of Network Topologies Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Structure All computer and All computer and All nodes network connected network connected connected to a to the backbone. in circle. central host. Host existence Depends Depends Yes Connection No connection Yes No between nodes Host failure Still run Will fail Will fail Node failure Still run Will fail Still run Ease of Difficult. Need to Easy. Repair or Depends on host. troubleshooting search problematic remove the failing Easier to repair the node one by one. nodes. To function. problematic host. Nodes fail each node has to be searched. Ease of adding / Easy Difficult Average removing nodes. Number of nodes Many Limited Limited Network speed Decrease : number Decrease : number Decrease : number nodes increase. nodes increase. nodes increase.
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15. Network Architecture : detailed specifications regarding method used to access and maintain communications in and between network media. 16. Network Standards : guidelines that specify the way computers access medium to which they attach. 17. Well-known standards by IEEE - 802.3 : Ethernet LAN - 802.7 : Broadband LAN - 802.8 : Fibre Optic LAN & MAN - 802.11 : Wireless LAN 18. Protocols : the rules on how computers communicate. 19. Importance Of Protocols - Define how computer communicate in a network. - To prepare and process data for an exchange information over a network. 20. Types of Protocol - HTTP : access, send and receive HTML files on the internet. - SMTP : transferring e-mail between computers. - FTP : allowed files to be copied between devices. - TCP : ensures the delivery of information packets across network. - IP : provide IP address to route information between networks. 21. Types of Communication Technology - Internet : transmit data by packet switching using the standard IP - Intranet : internet network that uses Internet that exist within organisation. - Extranet : private network that uses internet to securely share relevant information 22. Network Card - Network Interface Card : adapter card for PC that enables computer to access. - Wireless Network Interface Card : network card that provides wireless data - Modem  Internal modem : works in stand-alone computer.  External modem : separated from or mobile. - Hub/Switch : to connect segments of LAN - Router : devices that connects multiple computer and transmit data to correct destination - Wireless Access Point : allow computer to transfer data 23. Cables as a Physical Transmission Medium - Twisted-pair cable  Cancel out electromagnetic interference  Consists of two wires twisted together - Coaxial cable  Consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least 3 layers.  An insulating material. - Fibre optic cable  Uses light for data transmission  Intensity of light represent binary code.
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24. Peer-To-Peer Network OS : allow users to share resoures & files located on their computer. 25. Client/Server Networking OS : allow network to centralise functions in one or more dedicated file servers. 26. Types of Client Software - Web browser  Enables user to display and interact with HTML documents. - Email client  Read and send email. - FTP client  Connect two computer over the Internet 27. Personal Area Network (PAN) - Used for communication among computer devices eg. Bluetooth 28. Virtual Private Network (VPN) - Network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure. - To maintain privacy and security of data. eg Internet 29. Wireless LAN (WLAN) - Uses high frequency radio waves to communicate between nodes. - Improves user mobility, speed and scalability to move around. 30. WiMAX - WiMAX base station - WiMAX receiver

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Form 5 : Chapter 1 : Basic Programming Concept
1. Program : series of organised instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks. 2. Programming : creation of a set of commands which directs a computer in carrying out a task. 3. Programming Language : set of words, symbols and codes that enables humans to communicate with computers. 4. Examples of programming languages - BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic) - Instruction Code) - Pascal - Smalltalk. 5. Career in Programming - Programmer : someone who write computer programs - Computer Scientist : broad term for a professional with expertise in computer software. 6. Low-level Programming Language : programming language that provides little or no abstraction from computers microprocessor. - First Generation  Machine language : set of instructions that can execute directly.  Machine language written in binary code. - Second Generation  Assembly language : writes instruction using symbolic instruction.  Assembler ; to translates assembly language to machine language. 7. High-level Programming Language : programming language that is more abstract, easier to use, and more portable across platforms. - Third Generation  Procedural Language : uses a series of English-like words to write instructions.  Compiler / Interprater : translate high level into machine language. Eg : PASCAL, BASIC, C+ - Forth Generation  Non-procedural Language  Enables user to access data into database.  Goal oriented PL : limited to a very specific application. Eg : SQL, NOMAD, FOCUS - Fifth Generation  Visual programming language / natural language  Provides visual / graphic interface for creating source code.  User can talk andvoice recognition will convert spoken sound into written words. Eg : Mercury, Prolog

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8. Structured Programming Education
Main Program




Read student _ record

Read book_ record

Read book_loan

Print student_loan record

Top down design model. For organising and coding programs employ a hierarchy of modules. eg Ada, FORTRAN, Pascal 9. Object Oriented Programming
Object : Student Data : Name, Age Functions : studying

Prefect Hassan, 17 Studying

Librarian Chong Seng, 17 Duty in Library

Class Monitar Muthu, 18 Studying

Combines data and functions to create objects. eg Smalltalk, Java, Visual Basic 10. Basic elements in programming - Constant : the value will never change.  To declare something - Variable : the value may change at anytime  To stores data. - Data Type  String : this is string  Integer : 1, 20, 5000  Floating point : 1.2 , 3.4  Boolean : true, false - Operators - Control Structur : allow programmer to control the flow chart.

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11. Flow Chart

Input / output



NO terminator

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Form 5 : Chapter 2 : Program Development
Problem Analysing Phase Problem Design Phase

Coding Phase Testing & Debugging Phase

Documentation Phase

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