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The 8255A Programmable Peripheral Interface.

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is widely used, r r le, r llel I/O devi e. It e r r ed t tr sfer d t u der vari us diti s, fr si le I/O t i terru t I/O. It is flexi le, versatile, and economical (when multi le I/O orts are required), ut somewhat complex. It is an important eneral-purpose I/O device that can e used with almost any microprocessor.
The

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has 4 I/O pins that can e rouped primarily in two - it parallel ports: and B, with the remaining eight its as port C. The eight its of port C can e used as individual its or e grouped in two 4 it ports: CU ER (CU) and CLOWER (CL). The functions of these ports are defined y writing a control word in the control register.
The

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The BSR mode is used to set or reset the its in port C. The I/O mode is further divided into three modes: Mode 0, Mode 1, and Mode . In Mode 0, all ports function as simple I/O ports. Mode 1 is a handshake mode whereby ports and/or B use bits from port C as handshake signals. In the handshake mode, two types of I/O data transfer can be implemented: (1)status check ( ) interrupt. In Mode , port can be set up for bidirectional data transfer using handshake signals from port C, and port B can be set up either in Mode 0 or Mode 1.

8255 Programable Interface

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8255 Programable Interface

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8255 Programable Interface

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8255 Programable Interface

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block diagram shows two -bit ports ( and B), Two 4-bit ports (CU and CL) The data bus buffer, and control logic. Simplified but expanded version of the internal structure, including a control register. This block diagram includes all the elements of a programmable device; port C performs functions similar to that of the status register in addition to providing handshake signals.
The

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control section has six lines. Their functions and connections are as follows: RD (Read): This control signal enables the Read operation. When the signal is low, the M U reads data from a selected I/O port of the . WR (Write): This control signal enables the Write operation. When the signal goes low, the M U writes into a selected I/O port or the control register.
The

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RESET

(Reset): This is an active high signal; it clears the control register and sets all ports in the input mode. CS, 0, 1: These are device select signals. CS is connected to a decoded address, and 0 and 1 are generally connected to M U address lines 0 and 1, respectively.

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The

CS signal is the master chip select, and 0 and 1 specify one of the I/O ports or the control register as given below: 1 0 Selected CS 0 0 0 port 0 0 1 ort B ort C 0 1 0 0 1 1 Control Register 1 x x 8255 is not selected.

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port addresses are determined by the CS, 0, and 1 lines. The CS line goes low when 7 = 1 and 6 through 2 are at logic 0. When these signals are combined with 0 and 1, the port addresses range from 80H to 83H.
The

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contents of Control register, called the control word, specify an I/O function for each port. This register can be accessed to write a control word when 0 and 1 are at logic 1, as mentioned previously. The register is not accessible for a read operation.
The

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Bit

D7 of the control register specifies either the I/O function or the Bit Set/Reset function. If bit D7 = 1 , Bits D6-D0 determine I/O functions in various modes. If bit D7 =0, port C operates in the Bit Set/Reset (BSR) mode. The BSR control word does not affect the functions of ports and B.

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1.

2. 3.

To communicate with peripherals through the 8255A, three steps are necessary: Determine the addresses of ports A, B, and C and of the control register according to the Chip Select logic and address lines A0 and A1. Write a control word in the control register. Write I/O instructions to communicate with peripherals through ports A, B, and C.

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A and B are used as two simple 8-bit I/O ports Port C as two ,4- bit ports The input/output features in Mode 0 are as follows: 1. Outputs are latched. 2. Inputs are not latched. 3. Ports do not have handshake or interrupt capability.
Ports

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l. Identify the port addresses in Figure

shown. 2. Identify the Mode 0 control word to configure port A and port CU as output ports and port B and port CL, as input ports. 3. Write a program to read the DIP switches and display the reading from port B at port A and from port CL at port CU.

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l. Port Addresses This is a memory-mapped l/O; when the address line A15 is high, the Chip Select line is enabled. Assuming all don't care lines are at logic 0, the port addresses are as follows: Port A = 8000H {A1 = 0, A0, = 0) Port B = 8001H (A1 = 0. A0 = l) Port C = 8002H (A1 = l, A0 = 0) Control Register = 8003H(A1 =l, A0= l)

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MVI A,83H ; Load accumulator with the control word STA 8003H ; Write word in the control register to initialize the ports LDA 8001H ; Read switches at port B STA 8000H ; Display the reading at port A LDA 8002H ; Read switches at port C ANI 0FH ; Mask the upper four bits of port C; these ; bits are not input data RLC ; Rotate and place data in the upper half ; of the accumulator RLC RLC RLC STA 8002H ; Display data at port C1 HLT
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BSR mode is concerned only with the eight bits of port C, which can be set or reset by writing an appropriate control word in the control register. A control word with bit D7 = 0 is recognized as a BSR control word, and it does not alter any previously transmitted control word with bit D7 = l; thus the I/O operations of ports A and B are not affected by a BSR control word. In the BSR mode, individual bits of port C can be used for applications such as an on/off switch.
The
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Write

a BSR control word subroutine to set bits PC7 and PC3 and reset them after 10 ms. Use the schematic in Figure 8255A Chip select logic and assume that a delay subroutine is available.

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Control

register address = 83 H;

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From

an analysis of the above routine, the following points can be noted: l. To set/reset bits in port C, a control word is written in the control register and not in port C. 2. A BSR control word affects only one bit in port C. 3. The BSR control word does not affect the I/O mode.

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system is expected to read the temperature in a room, display the temperature on a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel, turn on a fan if the temperature is above a set point, and turn on a heater if the temperature is below a set point. This illustration includes the interfacing of a temperature sensor using an A/D converter and I/O devices such as a tan and a heater.
The

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1. 2.

3.

Interface a temperature sensor using an A/D converter and port A of the 8255. Interface a fan and a heater using optocouplers and triacs to drive the I/O devices. Write instructions to read the temperature. If the temperature is less than 10C, turn on the heater, and if the temperature is higher than 35C, turn on the fan.

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following components are specified for interfacing: 1. 8255 port A in Mode 0 and Port C in BSR mode. 2. 8 bit A/D converter National ADC 0801 and Temperature Sensor National LM135 3. Optoisolator MOC 3011 and Triac 2N6071
The

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The program consists of three segments: 1. Initialization of the ports and the stack 2. Starting a conversion, reading data at the end of the conversion, and checking for set values 3. Turning on and off the fan and the heater accordingly.

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GETTEMP:

This subroutine starts a conversion, checks the INTR input signal and continues to read Port A. When the conversion is complete, the INTR goes low. It reads the temperature, which is already adjusted to be read in degrees C. It checks high (35C) and low temperature (10C) limits and calls subroutines to turn on/off the fan or the heater accordingly.

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In Mode1, handshake signals are exchanged between the MPU and peripherals prior to data transfer. The features of this mode include the following: 1. Two ports (A and B) function as 8-bit I/O ports. They can be configured either as input or output ports. 2. Each port uses three lines from port C as handshake signals. The remaining two lines of port C can be used for simple I/O functions. 3. Input and output data are latched. 4. Interrupt logic is supported.
y
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following Figure shows the associated control signals used for handshaking when ports A and B are configured as input ports. Port A uses the upper three signals: PC3 PC4, and PC5. Port B uses the lower three signals: PC2, PC1 and PC0.
The

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functions of these signals are as follows: STB (Strobe Input): This signal (active low) is generated by a peripheral device to indicate that it has transmitted a byte of data. The 8255A, in response to STB, generates IBF and INTR. IBF (Input Buffer Full) This signal is an acknowledgment by the 8255A to indicate that the input latch has received the data byte. This is reset when the MPU reads the data.
The
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INTR

(Interrupt Request): This is an output signal that may be used to interrupt the MPU. This signal is generated if STB, IBF and INTE (Internal flip-flop) are all at logic 1. This is reset by the falling edge of the RD signal.

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INTE

(Interrupt Enable): This is an internal flip-flop used to enable or disable the generation of the INTR signal. The two flipflops INTEA and INTEB are set/reset using the BSR mode. The INTEA is enabled or disabled through PC4, and INTEB is enabled or disabled through PC2.

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The

8255A can be programmed to function using either status check I/O or interrupt I/O. Figure shows a flowchart for the status check I/O. In this flowchart, the MPU continues to check data status through the IBF line until it goes high. This is a simplified flowchart; however, it does not show how to handle data transfer if two ports are being used. The technique is similar to that of Mode 0 combined with the BSR mode. The disadvantage of the status check I/O with handshake is that the MPU is tied up in the loop.
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The

flowchart in Figure (b) shows the steps required for the interrupt I/O, assuming that vectored interrupts are available. The confusing step in the interrupt I/O is to set INTE either for port A or port B. Figure shows that the STB signal is connected to pin PC4 and the INTEA is also controlled by the pin PC4 (In port B, pin PC2 is used for the same purposes.) However, the INTEA is set or reset in the BSR mode and the BSR control word has no effect when ports A and B are set in Mode l.
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In

case the INTR line is used to implement the interrupt, it may be necessary to read the status of INTRA and INTRB to identify the port requesting an interrupt service and to determine the priority through software, if necessary.

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OBF

{Output Buffer Full): This is an output signal that goes low when the MPU writes data into the output latch of the 8255A, This signal indicates to an output peripheral that new data are ready to be read. It goes high again after the 8255A receives an ACK from the peripheral.

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(Acknowledge): This is an input signal from a peripheral that must output a low when the peripheral receives the data from the 8255A ports. INTR (Interrupt Request): This is an output signal, and it is set by the rising edge of the ACK signal. This signal can be used to interrupt MPU to request the next data byte for output. The INTR is set when OBF, ACK, and INTE are all one and reset by the falling edge of WR.
ACK
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INTE

(Interrupt Enable): This is an internal flip-flop to a port and needs to be set to generate the INTR signal. The two flip-flops INTEA and INTEB are controlled by bits PC6 and PC2, respectively, through the BSR mode. PC4,5: These two lines can be set up either as input or output.

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Figure

above shows an interfacing circuit using the 8255A in Mode l. Port A is designed as the input port for a keyboard with interrupt I/O, and port B is designed as the output port for a printer with status check I/O.

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Find port addresses by analyzing the decode logic Determine the control word to set up port A as input and port B as output in Mode l. Determine the BSR word to enable INTEA (port A). Determine the masking byte to verify the OBFB line in the status check I/O (port B). Write initialization instructions and a printer subroutine to output characters that are stored in memory.
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l. Port Addresses: The 8255A is connected as peripheral I/O. When the address lines A7-A2 are all l, the output of the NAND gate -goes low and selects the 8255A. The individual ports are selected as follows:

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Bidirectional Data Transfer:


mode is used primarily in applications such as data transfer between two computers or floppy disk controller interface. In this mode, port A can be configured as the bidirectional port and port B either in Mode 0 or Mode 1. Port A used five signals from port C as handshake signals for data transfer. The remaining three signals from port C can be used either as simple I/O or as handshake for port B.
This

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Illustration: Interfacing keyboard and seven-segment display.


pushbutton keyboard is connected to port A and a seven-segment LED is connected to port B of the 8255A, as shown in Figure. Port A should be configured as an input port and port B as an output port: this is a simple I/O configuration in Mode 0 without the use of handshake signals or the interrupt. Write a program to monitor the keyboard to sense a key pressed and display the number of the key at the seven-segment LED. For example, when the key K7 is pressed, the digit 7 should be displayed at port B.
A

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The programming of this problem can be divided into the following categories:
1. Check if a key is pressed. 2. Debounce the key. 3. Identify and encode the key in appropriate binary format. 4. Obtain the seven-segment code and display it.

Keyboard:

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Key Debounce:

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Seven Segment Display:

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