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Banyan Tree Classification Kingdom : Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order :

Urticales

Family :

Moraceae

Genus :

Ficus

Zoological name :

Ficus Benghalensis

Found In :

Ranthambore National Park and Corbett National Park

Other names : Bargad, Bor, Ber, Ala and Pedda mari, Nayagrodha, Ala mara, Bar, Vad, Vatnam, Bahupada, Peddamarri, Al are the other names used for the Banyan tree. Indians call it a wish fulfilling tree. Description : Banyan tree is a huge tree with very extensive branches. It is said that at one time more than 10, 000 people can sit under its shade at one time. It is a evergreen tree. It branches spread out and send trunk like roots to the ground in order to support itself. It grows to a height of more than 21 meters and lives for many years. The leaves are 10 -20 cm long and has many aerial roots. The leaves are broad, oval and glossy. White milky fluid oozes out of leaves, if broken. It can grow in to the gaint tree covering several hectares. Other Species : F. aurea, F. benghalensis, F. citrifolia, F. macrophylla, F. microcarpa, F.pertusa, F. rubiginosa are the other related species of the Banyan tree. Location : Found in almost all the parts of India, Banyan tree is the National tree of India. It is grown throughout the subHimalayan region and in the deciduous forests. One can Banyan Tree in the Botanical Garden of Calcutta. They are widely grown in the Ranthambore National Park and Corbett National Park in India.

Cultivation methods :Banyan tree is easily propagated by root tip cuttings or the eye cuttings. Cut apiece of the stem about half a inch below and above the leaf. Insert the stem piece and a little of the leaf stalk into the rooting medium. To reduce evaporation from the leaf surface, you can roll the leaf and secure with a rubber band. In a couple weeks roots and a new shoot will start developing. It can grow in any type of soil. Medicinal uses : The Banyan tree also has several medicinal properties. Its leaf, bark, seeds and fig are used for the variety of disorders like diarrhea, polyuria, dental, diabetes and urine disorders. The wood of the Banyan tree is used in making door panels, boxes and the other items. Its bark is used for making paper and ropes. The milky latex that comes from its leaves and stems is used in many Ayurvedic medicines. Other uses : In India its edible leaves are used as the plates. It is planted for the soil conservation. Wood is used for well curbs, door panels, boxes, furniture etc. It is suitable for paper pulp. The wood of the aerial roots is stronger and is used for the tent poles and cart yokes. Cultural importance : Banyan tree is respected and is considered as sacred by the people in India. In the sacred Hindu Book 'Bhagwad Gita' Lord Krishna has sung praises on the Banyan tree. People in India grow Banyan tree closer to the Peepal tree. As Banyan tree is considered as the male plant closely related to the Peepal tree. It symbolize Trimurti with Vishnu as the barl, Shiva as the branches and Brahma as the roots. Indians considered Banyan tree as 'Kalpa Vriksha' the tree that fulfill all your wishes.The mighty Banyan Tree is considered as immortal and has always been the focal point for the village communities in India. It is probably the biggest and friendliest of all trees. Banyan tree is the tree of knowledge and tree of life.

Peepal Tree (raavi ) Classification Kingdom : Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order :

Rosales

Family :

Moraceae

Genus :

Ficus

Species :

F. religiosa

Scientific Name :

Ficus religiosa

Found In :

Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary

Other names : Bo tree, Bodhi tree, Sacred tree, Beepul tree, Pipers, Pimpal, Jari, Arani,Ashvattha, Ragi, Bodhidruma, Shuchidruma, Pipalla, Ashvattha and the Buddha tree are the other names used for the Banyan tree. Description : Peepal is a large, fast growing deciduous tree. It has a heart shaped leaves. It is a medium size tree and has a large crown with the wonderful wide spreading branches. It shed its leaves in the month of March and April. The fruits of the Peepal are hidden with the figs. The figs are ripen in the month of May. The figs which contain the flowers grow in pairs just below the leaves and look like the berries. Its bark is light gray and peels in patches. Its fruit is purple in colour. It is one of the longest living trees. Other Species : Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, Artocarpus incissus L., Artocarpus nobilis Thw. Are some of the other species of the Peepal tree. Location : Peepal tree is grown throughout India. It is mainly grown in State of Haryana, Bihar, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. It is also found in the Ranthambore National Park in India. Cultivation : Peepal tree is easily propagated through the seeds or through the cuttings. It can grow in any type of soil. Young peepal needs proper nourishment. It requires full sunlight and proper watering. . Medicinal uses : This tree of life has also got the medicinal value. The juice of its leaves extracted by holding them near the fire can be used as the ear drop. Its power bark has been used to heal the wounds for years. The bark of the tree is useful in inflammations and glandular swelling of the neck. Its root bark is useful for stomatitis, clean ulcers, and promotes granulations. Its roots are also good for gout. The roots are even chewed to prevent gum diseases. Its fruit is laxative which promotes digestion and checks vomiting. Its ripe fruits are good for the foul taste, thirst and heart diseases. The powered fruit is taken for Asthma. Its seeds have proved useful in urinary troubles. The leaves are used to treat constipation. Other uses : People in India collect the Peepal leaves, clean them, dry them and than paint them with the gold acrylic in order to preserve them for years. From the bark of the Peepal tree reddish dye is extracted. Its leaves are used to feed the camels and the elephants. When the leaves are dried they are used for the decoration purpose. Cultural importance : Peepal tree has the great importance in India especially among the Buddhist who regard Peepal tree as the personification of Buddha. Lord Buddha attained enlightenment mediating under the Peepal tree. It is regarded as the sacred tree and the people uses its leaves for the religious purposes. According to the Buddha 'He who worships the Peepal tree will receive the same reward as if he worshiped me in person'. The Peepal tree has its own symbolic meaning of Enlightenment and peace. People tie threads of white, red and yellow silk around it to pray for progeny and rewarding parenthood. Hindus in India holds the great spiritual regard for the Peepal Tree, they regard it as the tree beneath which Vishnu was born.

Neem Tree Classification Kingdom : Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order :

Sapindales

Family :

Meliaceae

Genus :

Azadirachta

Species :

A. indica

Scientific Name :

Azadirachta indica

Found In :

Ranthambore National Park, Bandhavgarh national Park, Mrugavani Naional Park, Bannerghata National Park, Sariska Wildlife sanctuary and Guindy National Park.

Other names : It is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as Nimba in India. The Sanskrit name of Neem is Arishtha meaning the reliever of the sickness. Margosa tree Description : It is a tall evergreen tree with the small bright green leaves. It is up to 100 feet tall. It blossoms in spring with the small white flowers. It has a straight trunk. Its bark is hard rough and scaly, fissured even in small trees. The colour of the bark is brown grayish. The leaves are alternate and consists of several leaflets with serrated edges. Its flowers are small and white in colour. The loive like edible fruit is oval, round and thin skinned. Other Species : A. juss, A. azedarac are the other related species of Neem tree. A. juss, A. azedarac are the other related species of Neem tree. A. juss, A. azedarac are the other related species of Neem tree. Location : Neem tree is found throughout India. It is a popular village tree. Although it is also widely grown in Ranthambore National Park, Bandhavgarh national Park, Mrugavani Naional Park, Bannerghata National Park, Sariska Wildlife Sanctuaryand Guindy National Park. Cultivation : Neem tree can easily be grown in the dry, stony,

shallow and clayey soils. It needs very little water and plenty of sunlight. It grows slowly during the first year of planting. It can be propagated through the seeds and cuttings. Young neem tree can not tolerate excessive cold. Medicinal uses : The indigenous people of Nilgiris consume the dried and powered tubulers of the terrestrial orchids as an energizing tonic. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Neem oil extracted from its seeds is used in medicines, pest control and cosmetics etc. Its leaves are used in the treat Chickenpox.. According to the Hindus, it is believed that the Goddess of the chickenpox, Sithala lives in the Neem tree. Neem tea is usually taken to reduce the headache and fever. Its flowers are used to cure intestinal problems. Neem bark acts as an analgesic and can cure high fever as of malaria. Even the skin diseases can be cured from the Neem leaves. Indians even believe that the Neem can even purify diseases. Other uses : People in India use its twigs to brush their teeth. Neem is considered as the useful tree in rehabilitating the waste land areas. Neem seed pulp is useful for methane gas production. It is also useful as carbohydrate which is rich base for other industrial fermentations. Neem bark contains tannins which are used in tanning and dyeing. In south India its wood is used to make the furniture. The bark of the yields the fiber that is woven into ropes. Neem cake is widely used in India as fertilizer for sugarcane, vegetable and other cash crops. Many countries have been consistently growing the Neem tree against the global warming. The worldwide Neem Foundation has helped in making the people aware about the importance of neem and its uses globally. Cultural Importance : One can find Neem in almost all the parts of India. It is said that planting Neem tree in the house is a ensured passage to heaven. Its leaves are stung on the main entrance to remain away from the evil spirits. Brides take bath in the water filled with the Neem leaves. Newly born babies are laid upon the Neem leaves to provide them with the protective aura. Neem gives out more oxygen than other trees. The neem tree is also connected with the Sun, in the story of Neembark 'The Sun in the Neem tree'. Neem is the wonder tree and finds mention in the number of ancient texts.

Arjun Tree Classification Kingdom : Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order :

Myrtales

Family :

Combretaceae

Genus :

Terminalia

Species:

T. arjuna

Zoological name :

Terminalia arjuna

Found In :

Bandhavgarh National Park, Pench Tiger Reserve and Kanha National Park

Other names : Arjuna, Koha, Kahu, Arjan, White Marudah, White Murdh, Arjuna Myrobalan, Orjun, Yerra maddi, Sadada, Sadaru and many more. Description : Arjuna is the large size deciduous tree. The height of the Arjuna tree reaches upto 60 -85 feet. It is the evergreen tree with the yellow flowers and conical leaves. It has a smooth gray bark. Fruit is 2.5 -3.5 cm long, fibrous woody, glabrous with 5 hard wings, striated with numerous curved veins. It has a buttressed trunk and a vast spreading crown from which the branches drop downwards. Its leaves are dull green above and pale brown beneath. Arjuna flowers between March to June and fruits between September to November. Other Species : Terminalia chebula, T. bellrica and T. ciliata are the other species of Arjun tree found in India. Location : Terminalia Arjuna is common throughout India especially in the sub Himalayan tracts and Eastern India. They are widely grown in Bandhavgarh National Park, Pench Tiger Reserve and Kanha National Park in India. It is mainly grown on the banks of the rivers and streams. Cultivation methods :Its fruit is dried in the sunlight and than stored up to 6 -12 months. Seeds are pretreated by soaking in the water for 48 hours before sowing in beds. 8 9 months seedlings are better to transplant in the field. Medicinal uses : The Bark of the Arjuna tree contains calcium salts, magnesium salts, and glucosides has been used in traditional Ayurvedic herbalism Juice of its leaf is used to cure dysentry and earache. Arjuna helps in maintaining the cholesterol level at the normal rate, as it contains the antioxidant properties similar to the Vitamin E. It strengths the heart muscles and maintains the heart functioning properly. It also improves functioning of cardiac muscle. Arjuna is used for the treatment of coronary artery disease, heart failure, edema, angina and hypercholesterolemia. Its bark power possesses diuretic, prostaglandin enhancing and coronary risk factor modulating properties. It is also considered as beneficial in the treatment of Asthma. Other uses : Its wood is used in boat and house building as it is very hard. Its wood is also used in the making of the agricultural implements and weapons too. It is grown in the cities and towns for the purpose of shade. Cultural Importance :Arjuna is one of the sacred tree of India. It has acquired the social and religious sanctity with the passage of time. It is said that Arjuna has been born of the two sons of Kubair after saint Narada cursed him. The leaves and flowers of this tree are offered to the Lord Vishnu and Lord Ganpati on the several religious occasions. It has been used in Ayurvedic formation since ancient times.

Indian Rosewood Classification Kingdom : Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Class:

Magnoliopsida

Order :

Fabales

Family :

Fabaceae

Subfamily :

Faboideae

Genus :

Dalbergia

Species :

D. sissoo

Scientific Name :

Dalbergia sissoo

Found In :

Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Sariska Tiger Reserve

Other names : aguru (Sanskrit), Bombay Rosewood (English), dalbergia (Arabic), nakku katti (Tamil Nadu), ostindisches Rosenholz, pradu-khaek, pradu-khaek, shinshapa (Sanskrit), shisham (Hindi), shishu (Bengali), shisu (Bengali), sisam (Hindi), sisham (Nepali), sissai (Hindi), sissau (Nepali), sisso (English), sisso (Tamil), sissoo (English), sissoo (Arabic), sissoo (Hindi), sissu (Hindi), sisu (Bengali), sisu (Spanish), sisuitti (Tamil), skuva, sonoswaseso (Javanese), tali, yette (Tamil) are some of the other names used for the Indian Rosewood. Description : Indian Rosewwod is a erect deciduous tree. It grows to the height of 25 meter and 2-3 meter in diameter. It has leathery leaves which are up to 15 cm long. The flowers are whitish pink in colour. Its crown is oval in shape. The fruit is brown and pod like in shape. The fruit is dry and hard. The sapwood is white to pale brown in colour and the heartwood is golden to dark brown in colour. Other Species : dalbergia nigra, dalbergia latifolia are the other known species of the Indian Rosewood. Location : Indian Rosewood mainly grows on the banks of the

river below 900 meter elevation. It is widely found in the Indian Stat of Haryana. It can also be found in the Periyar National Park, Bandipur National Park and Sariska Tiger Reserve in India. Cultivation methods : Indian Rosewood is mostly propagated through the root suckers and seeds. It requires fertile well drained soil. Seeds are soaked in water for 48 hours before sowing. Seeds are germinated in three weeks. Young Rosewood needs full sunlight. It requires dry to wet soil. Young plants are well watered until established. Flowers occur from October to February. Medicinal uses : Indian Rosewood holds many medicinal properties. Rosewood oil stimulates new cell growth, regenerate tissues, and heps minimize lines and wrinkles. It helps balance both dry and oily skin. It can prove useful against acne. Other uses : It is the important fuel wood and is also used for shade and shelter. Its wood is used for the making furniture, doors, windows, ship floors, plywood, skis, musical instruments, carvings etc. Because of durability Rosewood is often used in the martial art weaponary, particulary as the shaft of spears and in the gun staves. Its oil is used in Perfumes. Cultural importance : Many people grow Rosewood because they believe harvesting the wood denudes the rain forests.

Teak Tree
Classification
Kingdom : Division Class: Order : Family : Genus : Scientific Name : Found In : Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Lamiales Verbenaceae Tectona Tectona Grandis Gir National Park, Satpura National Park, Pench Tiger Reserve

Other names : Saka, Burma teak, Rangoon teak, moulmein teak, gia thi, jati sak, kyun, mai sak, rosawa and tekka are the other names used for the Teak tree. Description : Teak is tall evergreen tree. It has yellowish blonde to reddish brown wood. It attains the height of about 30 meter. The fruit is a drupe. It has bluish to white flowers. It produces the large leaf similar to the tobacco leaf. The bark is whitish gray in colour. It is generally grown straight with the uneven texture, medium lusture and the oily feel. The upper surface of the tree is rough to touch and the inner surface has hairs. The fruit is enclosed by the bladder like calyx, which is light brown, ribbed and papery. Other species : Tectona grandia, Tectona hamiltoniana, and Tectona philippinensis are the other related species of the Teak tree. Location : Teak is well grown in all the parts of India. It is also found in the Gir National Park, Satpura National Park, Pench Tiger Reserve in India. Cultivation methods : The new plants can also be propagated from cuttings. It is usually planted when the four to six weeks old. Plough the land thoroughly and level it. The best season to plant the teak is monsoon, most probably after the first shower. Carry out weeding operations regularly. Teal requires loamy soil rich in humus and having the right content of moisture with good drainage. It grows well in hilly and dry areas. It requires a dry tropical climate for its growth. It flowers in february and March. Medicinal uses : Teak also holds the medicinal value. The bark is bitter tonic and is considered useful in fever. It is also useful in headache and stomach problems. Digestion may be enhanced by the teak wood or bark. . Other uses : It is used in the furniture making, boat decks and for indoor flooring. It is widely used to make the doors and house windows. It is resistant to the attack of termites. Its wood contains scented oil which is the repellent to insects. The leaves yield the dye which is used to colour the clothes and edible. Teak is probably the best protected commercial species in the world.

Eucalyptus Tree
Classification
Kingdom : Division Class: Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida

Order : Family : Genus : Zoological name : Found In :

Myrtales Myrtaceae Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus polybrachtea Nagarhole National Park and Bandipur National Park

Other names : Tailapatra, Sugandhapatra, Tailaprana, and Nilgiri Taila are the other names used for the Eucalyptus. Description : Eucalyptus is a tall evergreen tree. It attains the height of more than 300 feet. Leaves of the tree on juvenile shoots are opposite, sessile, cordate-ovate and covered with a bluish white bloom. The adult leaves are alternate, lanceolate and are 6-12 inches long and 1-2 inches broad. It flowers are cream in colour. The appearance of its bark varies with the age of the tree. Its bark consists of long fibers and can be can be pulled off in long pieces. Stems of the seedlings and coppice shoots are quadrangular. Flowers are in cymose panicles. The fruit is a capsule. Other Species : Eucalyptus abdita, Eucalyptus acies, Eucalyptus apiculata, Eucalyptus albopurpurea, Eucalyptus alligatrix, Eucalyptus ammophila, Eucalyptus amplifolia, Eucalyptus andrewsii are the other related species of Eucalyptus. There are 700 species of Eucalyptus. Location : It is widely grown in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Haryana, Mysore, Kerala and in the Nilgiri Hill. It grows well in deep, fertile, well drained loamy soil with adequate moisture. It is also found inNagarhole National Park and Bandipur National Park in India. . Cultivation methods :Eucalyptus grown in well drained sandy soil. It is propagated through seeds, soft wood cuttings and semi hard wood cuttings. At the time planting it must be taken into account that ts roots are not broken. It needs water before and after planting. It requires full sunlight. Medicinal uses : Eucalyptus is known for its use either as an essential oil or leaf tea for its ability to relieve congestion and ease breathing in colds. It oil is also used as the pain reliever foe sore and overextended muscles. The essential oil of Eucalyptus contains cineole, a potent antiseptic that helps in killing the bacteria and fungi. It helps in increasing cardiac action. It is taken in all types of fever. It helps in purifying the blood. It lowers the blood sugar. It brings relief to the patients of Asthma and bronchitis. It is the excellent topical remedy for aching joints and rheumatism. It helps in improving the blood circulation. Other uses : Eucalyptus is used as the pulpwood in the manufacture of the paper as well as raw

material. It is used as the poles for the construction of huts and houses. It is used in making plywood, doors and windows.

AXLE WOOD TREE


Species identity
Taxonomy Current name: Anogeissus latifolia Family: Combretaceae Synonym(s) Conocarpus latifolia Common names (English) : axlewood (Hindi) : bakli, dhau, dhawa, dhawra Botanic description Anogeissus latifolia is a small to medium-sized tree up to 20(-36) m tall. Bole straight and cylindrical or sometimes more poorly shaped, branchless for 8(-10) m, up to 80(-100) cm in diameter, occasionally with small buttresses; bark surface smooth or with scales, pale to dark gray; Leaves opposite or sub-opposite, simple, entire, hairs below. Flowers sessile, in dense, globose heads on an axillary or terminal peduncle, 5-merous, small, sepals connate in a stalk-like tube, expanded at apex into a 5- lobed cup; petals absent; stamens 10, in 2 rows; disk intrastaminal, lobed; ovary inferior, 1-locular with 2 pendulous ovules, style simple. Fruit a 2-winged pseudoachene, packed into a dense head, 1-seeded; calyx tube persistent and forming a beak. The specific epithet latifolia is in reference to its wide leaves.

Ecology and distribution


Natural Habitat Found in deciduous or semi-evergreen forest, A. latifolia is a common element in teak forests but also occurs in the understorey of dipterocarp forest, in bamboo forest and even in vegetation under semi-arid conditions like savanna woodland and dry rocky hills. It is usually associated with Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia spp., Grewia tilaefolia, Albizia amara, Gyrocarpus jacquini and Mesua ferrea. Geographic distribution Native : India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka Biophysical limits Altitude: up to 1 200 m Mean annual temperature: 44 deg C Mean annual rainfall: 625-2 250 mm Soil type: Found on a variety of soil types but prefers deep alluvial soils. Does not tolerate waterlogging. Reproductive Biology In India, A. latifolia is leafless in February-May, flowers in June-September depending on

locality, and mature fruits are present in December-March. Leaf flushing begins in the dry season, reaching a peak time before the onset of rains.

Propagation and management


Propagation methods Natural regeneration of A. latifolia is very good. It can be propagated by seed and tissue culture. One year old seedlings are the best planting stock in cases of propagation by stumps. The use of wildlings is another artificial regeneration option. Stumps, usually with 22 cm root and 5 cm shoot portion are prepared from 2 year old seedlings. After preparation these are wrapped in moist gunny cloth to prevent dessication. The stumps are freshened before planting to remove the dessicated tips of the shoot and the root. Coppicing is relied upon to regenerate natural stands, coppice shoots grow fairly fast. Shoot cuttings failed to root and calluse irrespective of IBA concentrations and method of application (Modgil et Nayithal 1998). Tree Management The leaves of the seedlings are killed by severe frost. Young trees are very intolerant of weed competition but can stand light shade when young, however, adult trees are strong light demanders. The tree produces root suckers, coppices and pollards well, but these exhibit great seasonal variability. Coppicing and pollarding should not be done during the rainy season. Thinning of coppice is necesssary. A. latifolia is not very frost tender. Planting is done in 30 cu cm pits, usually after the monsoon rains (July-August). Planting operations must be suspended if no rain is expected for a few days after planting. Plantation areas need protection from animals. Germplasm Management Fruits should be collected only when they are fully ripe as immature seeds fail to germinate. The ripe fruits are collected from the trees, dried in the sun and then stored. Generally seed viability is low but increases after very dry seasons. Seed germination is increased by a 3min hot water seed treatment. Seed storage in metal tins or polythene containers is the best. There are 105 000-125 000 seeds /kg.

Functional uses
Products Fodder: Tussar silkworms are fed on its foliage which is also used as fodder for cattle and buffaloes. A. latifolia leaves contain up to 45% digestible nutrients. The leaves contain 7.4511.5% crude protein. The average digestibility coefficients of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, and N-free extract are 8, 53, 32 and 64 respectively. Total digestible nutrients per 100 kg of dry material work out to 48%. A seasonal variability in chemical composition of the leaves has been reported. Apiculture: Its flowers are an important pollen source for bees. Fuel: A. latifolia yields good charcoal and firewood with an energy value of 17 600-20 500 kJ/kg. Timber: Produces a heavy hardwood with a density of 760-940 kg/cu m. Heartwood absent or small; texture fine to medium and even. Shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate to high, and the wood is difficult to season as it is liable to warping, splitting and surface checking. It is possible to modify surface checking completely by soaking in solutions of 50% polyethylene glycol-600 for 1 day. The wood is hard, strong, and can be difficult to saw. When mixed with other woods can make good packing and writing paper. Gum or resin: Ghatty gum tapped from A. latifolia is a good substitute for gum arabic and is

used in calico printing, for sweetmeats, in dye processes, and as a binding agent in pharmaceuticals. Tannin or dyestuff: The leaves and bark are used for tanning, the leaves yield a black dye that is used commercially in India. Medicine: Used in treating snake bites and scorpion stings in India. Services Erosion control: The tree is a good survivor on eroded land. Used in river bank stabilization. Soil improver: Contributes to soil nutrient cycling, exhibiting high leaf-litter decomposition rates. Boundary or barrier or support: Wood used for erecting fences on field bunds. Pests and diseases The sapwood is susceptible to Lyctus. Sarcinella apocynacearum, S. combratcearum, Tripospermum caseariae and T. lougurensis are ectoparasitic fungi associated with living leaves. Both dead and dying trees are attacked by the stem borers, Olenecamptus anogeissi and Olenecamptus indianus. Wood products susceptible to marine borer attack mainly by the teredinids- Teredo furcifera, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Martesia striata, Teredo parksi, Bankia campanellata and Lyrodus bipartitus. The fungus Uncinula spp is reported in A. latifolia. Other fungi reportedly causing leaf spots are Pestalotiopis versicolor, Marssonina poonensis and Monochaetia jabalpurensis.

BABUL TREE
Species identity
Taxonomy Current name: Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica Family: Fabaceae Mimosoideae

Synonym(s) Acacia nilotica Common names (English) : babul acacia, (Hindi) : babul

Telugu Name : Nallatumma, Tumma

Botanic description Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica is an evergreen, usually moderate-sized (2.5-25 m) tree with a short, thick and cylindrical trunk; bark is grey, reddish-brown or black, rough, furrowed. Leaves are alternate, bipinately compound, 5-15 cm long; axis fairly hairy, with 3-8 pairs of side axes (pinnae) 1-4 cm long; leaflets 10-30 pairs on each side axis, small, narrowly oblong, 3-6 mm long, blunt at the ends with tiny hairs along edges, grey-green. Flowers many, crowded, stalkless, 6-8 mm long, composed of 5-toothed corolla 3 mm long; many yellow, threadlike stamens, 6 mm long, united at base, with yellow, dotlike anthers and pistil with slender ovary and threadlike style. Pods long, narrow, flattened, 8-17 x 1-2 cm, straight, mostly narrowed between seeds, stalked at the base, short, pointed grey or black, mostly aromatic, not splitting open, breaking in segments; seeds 8-15, beanlike, 7-9 mm in diameter, rounded, flattened, blackish-brown. It has considerable variation with nine subspecies presently recognized, three occurring in the Indian subcontinent and six throughout Africa. They are distinguished by the shape and pubescense of pods and the habit of the tree. The species is similar to other A. nilotica subspecies, but is distinguished by its glabrous fruits.

Ecology and distribution


Natural Habitat A. nilotica ssp. nilotica has a strong light requirement. Severe frost affects small seedlings as well as large trees. It is drought resistant and occurs in plain, flat or gently undulating ground and ravines. Trees grow best on alluvial soils in ravine areas subject to periodic inundation. It is considered a serious weed in South Africa. The tree is widespread in the northern savannah regions, and its range extends from Mali to Sudan and Egypt. Geographic distribution Native : Botswana, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Republic of, Zambia, Zimbabwe Exotic : Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Cape Verde, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Martinique, \, Nepal, Netherlands, Puerto Rico, South Africa, Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnam, Biophysical limits Altitude: 0-1 340 m, Mean annual temperature: 4-47 deg. C Mean annual rainfall: 200- 1 270 mm. Soil type: Grows on a wide variety of soils, seemingly thriving on alluvial soils, black cotton soils, heavy clay soils, and can tolerate poorer soils. Reproductive Biology A. nilotica ssp. nilotica is a hermaphrodite, pollinated by a wide range of insects, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. These insects mainly forage on pollen.

Propagation and management


Propagation methods Direct seeding is commonly used to propagate the tree, though potted seedlings may also be used. Pretreatment involves boiling seed in water followed by cooling or immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid for 1 hour. Germination rates of 75-95% can be realized in 1 week. Bare-root seedlings are seldom used because the high incidence of root injury causes poor survival rates. Tree Management Young seedlings are said to require full sun and frequent weeding. A. nilotica ssp. nilotica coppices very weakly. Germplasm Management Seed storage behaviour is orthodox. Viability can be maintained for several years in airtight, moisture-proof conditions at 10 deg. C. with 4.5-9% mc. There are 5000-10 000 seeds/kg.

Functional uses
Products Food:. Air-dried seeds contain crude protein and are eaten raw or roasted in India in time of acute food scarcity. Fodder: The crude protein content of the leaves is 14-20%, and 11-16 % for the highly palatable pods. Pods and shoots are used as forage for camels, sheep and goats,

In India, it constitutes a chief diet for goats and sheep, and seeds are a valuable cattle food. Apiculture, Fuel: The calorific value of the sapwood is 4500 kcal/kg, while that of the heartwood is 4950 kcal/kg. This valuable source of firewood and charcoal has been used in locomotives, river steamers and small industries.. Fibre: Young bark is used as fibre. T imber :Because of its resins, it resists insects and water, and it is harvested for boat making, posts, buildings, water pipes, well planking, ploughs, cabinet work, wheels, tool handles, carts, mallets and other implements. It is an attractive wood, good for carving and turnery termite resistant timber especially suitable for railway sleepers. Gum or resin: source of gum arabic, although this now comes mainly from A. senegal. The gum tapped from the bark is used in manufacturing matches, inks, paints and confectionery. The inner bark contains 1823% tannin, which is used for tanning and dyeing leather black. Extracts from the bark, leaves and pods are used for dyeing cotton, silk and leather. Roasted seed kernels, when crushed, provide a dye for the black strings worn by Nankani women of Sudan.medicinal uses. Services Reclamation: In India, this species is used on degraded saline and alkaline soils. It grows well when irrigated with tannery effluent and colonizes coal mine waste heaps. Over 50 % of the Chambal ravines in India have been revegetated with A. n. ssp. nilotica. Soil improver: Probably nitrogen fixing.