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Chapter 4 Theories of human development

PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Lecture Overview
Nature

of Human Development Major Developmental Stages in the Lifespan Physical Development Cognitive Development Socio-emotional Development Moral Development

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Developmental Psychology
The

focus of developmental psychology is on age-related changes in behaviors throughout the life span

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Key

Nature versus nurture

development issues include:

Critical and sensitive periods. Stability versus change

To what extent are behaviors the result of experience or the result of biological processes such as maturation?
Are some experiences especially important at particular ages?

Continuity versus stages

To what extent are behaviors constant over the life span? Continuity view suggests that change is uniform and gradual Stage theory suggests that change can be rapid with qualitatively different stages evident across the life span

Theoretical Issues

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Stage
Prenatal Infancy (infant) Early childhood (toddler, preschool) Middle childhood (school-age) Adolescence (adolescent) Young adulthood (adult) Middle adulthood Later adulthood (senescent, old-age)

Approximate Age
Conception to birth Birth to 18 months 18 mo. to 6 years 6-12 years 12-20 years 20-45 years 45-60 years 60 years to death

Life Span Development

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Prenatal Development
Prenatal

development occurs in 3 stages:

Germinal period (ovulation to implantation), zygote: first 2 weeks, the ovum travels down the fallopian tube, is fertilized by a sperm, and is then implanted within the wall of the uterus Embryonic period, embryo: implantation to 8 weeks Fetal period, fetus: 8 weeks to birth

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Teratogens
Teratogens

are environmental substances that can cause birth defects in the developing fetus
Maternal alcohol use leads to fetal alcohol syndrome (facial defects, low IQ, neurobehavioral defects) Nicotine exposure leads to premature births, low birth weights, fetal deaths, cognitive problems, behavioral abnormalities

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Poor

maternal nutrition can impair fetal development Drug use by father can damage sperm:
Alcohol, opiates, cocaine, lead, and various gases are known to damage sperm

Prenatal Hazards

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Body Proportions Change over the Life Span

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Cephalocaudal

principle: development proceeds in a head-to-foot direction Proximodistal principle: development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts.

Biological principles of physical and motor development

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Early

motor actions of the infant are limited to reflexes Myelination and further brain development allow for crawling and then walking

Motor Milestones

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Motor Milestones

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Perceptual Abilities at Birth


Infant

vision is poor at birth (equivalent to 20/200 to 20/600) Functionality of other sensory systems:
Hearing is functional prior to birth Smell is functional at birth Touch and pain are functional at birth

Infant

perception can be inferred by changes in heart rate upon stimulus exposure or by changes in sucking rate

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Puberty-

biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
growth spurt menarche: onset of menstruation spermarche: first ejaculation secondary sex characteristics

Adolescence

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Adolescence

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Menopause-

the cessation of the menstrual cycle Male climacteric- decline in production of sperm and testosterone After middle age, most physical changes are gradual and occur in the heart, arteries, brain, and sensory receptors

Middle Age

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Ageism-

prejudice or discrimination against an individual based on physical age Primary aging- gradual, inevitable agerelated changes in physical and mental processes
Secondary

aging- changes resulting from disease, disuse or neglect

Programmed theory Damage theory

Aging

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Jean

Piaget believed infants begin at a cognitively primitive level and progress in distinct stages. Piagets schemas are the most basic unit of intellect, which act as patterns that organize interactions with the environment.

Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Cognitive

adaptation reflects the actions of two complementary processes:

Assimilation: absorbing new information into existing schemas Accommodation: adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to better fit with the new information

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Cognitive Development Piagets Four Stages

Sensorimotor:

birth to 2 years Preoperational: 2 to 7 years Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years Formal Operational: 11 years and up
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2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Social-Emotional Development
Attachment

is defined as an active, intense, emotional relationship between two people that endures over time Attachment as an innate process:
Attachment

Bowlby argued that infants have verbal (cooing) and nonverbal (smiling, following) responses that elicit nurturance Harlow found that infant monkeys preferred contact with terry cloth surface over access to food

as contact comfort:

2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Attachment and Harlows work with monkeys--feeding or contact comfort?


2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Types of Attachment
Ainsworth

found 3 distinct categories of attachment evident in children in a strange situation:

Secure attachment: infant stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, and is happy when mother returns Avoidant: infant does not seek contact with mother and does not cry when she leaves Anxious/Ambivalent: infant is upset when mother leaves and angry when she returns
2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E

Social-Emotional Development Romantic Love and Infant Attachment

Research

suggests that early infant to caregiver attachment patterns may carry over into adult romantic relationships.
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Social-Emotional Development Baumrinds Three Parenting Styles


1. Permissive a. Permissive indifferent parents set few limits and give little attention or support. b. Permissive indulgent parents are highly involved but set few demands or controls.
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2.

Authoritarian parents are rigid and punitive.

3. Authoritative parents are tender and caring.

Study Tip: To avoid confusion, note: Two Rs in AuthoRitaRian = Rigid Ruler! Two Ts in AuThoriTarian = Tender Teacher!

Social-Emotional Development Baumrinds Three Parenting Styles

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Authoritarian

parents impose rules and expect obedience. They combine high control with little warmth. The rules are not explained. They expect the child to obey when the authority figure is near. parents are both demanding and responsive. They combine high control with high warmth. They explain the reasons & encourage discussion. They tend to have competitive children

Authoritative

Parenting Styles
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Permissive

offer warmth but little control. Parents submit to their childrens desires, make few demands, and use little punishment. Children may develop specific competencies, not many. parents provide neither warmth nor control. They may meet basic physical needs but minimize the amount of time they spend with their children and avoid becoming emotionally involved with them. They produce the least competent children.

Neglectful

Parenting Styles
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Personality Development: Eriksons Eight Psychosocial Stages


Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 year) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 years) Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) Ego Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Moral Development
Kohlberg

developed a model of moral development (right and wrong) based on responses to moral dilemmas.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Moral Development: Kohlbergs 3 Levels and 6 Stages


PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 1: punishment-obedience orientation Stage 2: instrumental-exchange orientation CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 3: good child orientation Stage 4: law-and-order orientation POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 5: social-contract orientation Stage 6: universal ethics orientation
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning

Meeting the Challenges of AdulthoodThe Socioemotional Selectivity Theory


John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

interpret and respond to death differently. Different ages also interpret and respond to death according to: Permanence Universality Grief and Death Nonfunctionality
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Cultures

Grief and Death


Kbler-Ross

developed a five stage theory of the psychological processes surrounding death: Denial (It cant be true!) Anger (Why me? Its not fair!) Bargaining (Ill change everything!) Depression (Ive lost everything.) Acceptance (I know my time is near.)
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Grief and Death


1. 2. 3. 4.

Grief is a natural reaction to loss. Four major stages of grief: Numbness Yearning Disorganization/Despair Resolution

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

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