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WIRES & CABLES: APPLICATIONS ON LOW VOLTAGE FEEDERS & BRANCH CIRCUITS

II II: MYTHS & FACTS IN WIRES & CABLES APPLICATION


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A TYPICAL LARGE CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING

MYTHS & FACTS IN WIRES & CABLES APPLICATION

THERMOPLASTIC WIRE & CABLES (TW, THW, THHN) 600 VOLTS, Stranded

MM Size

Approximate AWG Size 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 135 160 185 120 100 90 70 85 110 125 145 160 195 220 55 65 40 45 30 30 20 20 30 40 50 70 90 115 130 150 170 205 255 15 15 25

Ampacity TW 60 deg C

Ampacity THW 75 deg C

Ampacity THHN 90 deg C

2.0 mm2

3.5 mm2

5.5 mm2

8.0 mm2

14 mm2

22 mm2

30 mm2

38 mm2

50 mm2

60 mm2

80 mm2

100 mm2

AMPACITY TABLE (Based on Table on AVESCO pocket book) Not more than 3 conductors in a raceway or cable

THERMOPLASTIC WIRE & CABLES (TW, THW, THHN) 600 VOLTS, Stranded

MM Size

Approximate AWG Size 250 MCM 300 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 650 MCM 750 MCM 800 MCM 1000 MCM 455 405 400 475 485 540 370 435 315 375 280 330 240 280 295 355 400 470 535 515 580 210 255 265

Ampacity TW 60 deg C

Ampacity THW 75 deg C

Ampacity THHN 90 deg C

125 mm2

150 mm2

200 mm2

250 mm2

325 mm2

400 mm2

500 mm2

AMPACITY TABLE (Based on Table on AVESCO pocket book) Not more than 3 conductors in a raceway or cable

AMPACITY TABLE

(Lifted from AVESCO pocket book)

Note: This Table is not quite identical with NEC Table 310.16

BE CAREFUL IN REFERENCING TABLES ON WIRE & CABLE AMPACITIES.

BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT ACTUALLY IDENTICAL

See the differences on the next slide


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COMPARISON: NORTH AMERICAN, PHILIPPINE & EUROPEAN MANUFACTURED CABLES

Just curious WHICH IS THE MORE WIRE..? EXPENSIVE WIRE..? TW..? THW..? THHN..?
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WHICH IS THE SUPERIOR WIRE? TW..? THW..? THHN ? THHN..? Why?

DO YOU AGREE THAT TODAY, IN THE PHILIPPINES:

THE MOST POPULAR BUILDING WIRES ARE THE THHN? WHY?

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Its worthwhile revisiting the basics

How do we size a circuit?


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Its worthwhile revisiting the basics

Lets Test Ourselves Let s with the following exercise


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NEC TABLE 3.16

Q: What size (TW, THW, THHN) conductor does the NEC require for a 50A circuit?

a) # 10 b) # 8 c) # 6 d) Any of these?

Note: NEC TABLE 3.16 doesnt have mm sizes.

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TEST CASE

NEC TABLE 3.16

SOLUTION: SOLUTION:

1) Rating of Circuit: 50 A (Given)

2) Referring to the Table NEC 310.16:

PROBABLE ANSWERS:

TW: Use, # 6 (14 mm2), Ampacity: 55A

THW: Use, # 8 (8.0 mm2), Ampacity: 50A

THHN: Use, # 8 (8.0 mm2), Ampacity: 55A


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WHAT IS THE BEST CHOICE..?


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If your answer is: #8 THW or #8 THHN

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Sorry Guys,

THAT IS A MYTH!
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SOLUTION: SOLUTION: Rating of Circuit: 50 A (Given)

THE CORRECT ANSWERS ARE: TW: Use, # 6 (14 mm2), Ampacity: Ampacity: 55A

THW: Use, # 6 (14 mm2), Ampacity: Ampacity: 55A @ 60 deg C Column

THHN: Use, # 6 (14 mm2), Ampacity: Ampacity: 55A @ 60 deg C Column

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HOW COME..?

LET US FIRST GO BACK TO BASICS


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HOW DO WE DESIGN A NONNONMOTOR BRANCH CIRCUIT?


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A safe electrical system starts from the very basic wiring fundamentals the branch circuit. circuit.

In general terms, a branch circuit could either be non-motor (as in lighting, receptacle outlets, non& computers) or motor l d d circuit. ) loaded i i

A branch circuit is that part of a wiring system extending beyond the last or final protective device to the load it specifically serves.
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The branch circuit represents the last step in the transfer of power from the service or source of energy to utilization devices.

A branch circuit may have several lighting or receptacle outlets connected to it as a circuit or may serve a single load as in motor or heavy appliance.

A branch circuit will qualify as such when it has a protective device from the point of tapping.

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Therefore, the branch circuit is made up of :

1) )

The Over-Current Protective Device (OCPD) Over( ) 2) The Conductor (Wire or Cable) 3) The Load (Motor or Non-Motor Loads) Non-

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QUESTIONS:

From where shall we base our loads?

From where shall we base our sizing of conductors?

From where shall we base our OCPD?


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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

Th ampacity of b The it f branch circuit h i it conductors must not be less than the maximum load to be served. (NEC 210Section 210-19a).

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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

The rating of a branch circuit is established or defined by the rating or setting of its protective device. 210(NEC Section 210-3).

BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

The ampacity of branch circuit conductors must not be less than the rating of the branch circuit. (NEC 210Section 210-19a).

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

Circuit conductors shall be protected against overoverampacities, current in accordance to their ampacities, but where the ampacity of the conductor does not correspond with the standard ampere rating of a fuse or a circuit breaker, the next higher rating shall be p , g g permitted only if this rating does not exceed 800 amperes. (NEC amperes. Section 240-3). 240-

THIS MEANS A MANDATORY MATCH BETWEEN THE CONDUCTOR AMPACITY WITH ITS OCPD (OVER(OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICE).

BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

The maximum continuous load that can be served by the branch circuit conductors must not be more than 80% of the ampacity of the 210conductors. (NEC Section 210-19a).
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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

The current permitted to be carried by the branch circuit conductors has to be 80% if the load is continuous. This rule refers to a limit of the load to be 210carried by the conductors. (NEC 21022c).
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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

Continuous load refers to a load that operates for three (3) hours or more, such as store lighting, office lighting and similar loads.

This rule limits the load on the circuit conductors; it does not change the ampacity of the circuit conductors or the rating or oversetting of the circuit over-current protective 210device. (NEC 210-22c).
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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

The total load on any over-current overdevice in a panelboard must not exceed 80% of the rating of the overdevice. over-current device. (NEC Section

384384-16c).

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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

SOME EXERCISES

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ARE THE CIRCUITS DISCUSSED IN PRECEDING EXAMPLES ALREADY SAFE FROM FIRE HAZARDS?

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NOT QUITE! because

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There is the so-called soDERATING & CORRECTION FACTORS

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Note that the Derating & Correction Factors Cause to CURRENTChange the CURRENTCARRYING CAPACITY OF THE CONDUCTORS!

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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

The normal maximum ampacities of conductors in cables or raceways are 310given in NEC Tables 310-16 (copper) on a 30 deg C ambient temperature.

For ambient temperatures under or over 30 deg C, Correction Factors must be considered.
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BRANCH CIRCUITS WIRING FUNDAMENTALS

RELEVANT CODE REQUIREMENTS

These normal ampacities may have to be derated where there are more than th three conductors i a cable or raceway d t in bl

(Note 8 to Tables 310-16 through 31031031019).

This means a change in ampacities of circuit conductors.


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THUS THERE ARE TWO THINGS TO CONSIDER THAT REDUCE CONDUCTOR AMPACITIES

THESE ARE THE FOLLOWING:

AMPACITY DERATING DUE TO MORE THAN THREE (3) CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTORS CABLE, IN A CONDUIT OR CABLE, and

Correction to the conductor ampacities when installed or operated at temperatures over or under 30 deg C ambient. ambient
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THERMOPLASTIC WIRE & CABLES (TW, THW, THHN) 600 VOLTS, Stranded (NEC Table 310.16)

MM Size

Approximate AWG Size # 14 # 12 # 10 #8 #6 #4 #2 #1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 145 165 195 125 110 95 70 85 115 130 150 175 200 230 55 65 40 50 30 35 25 25 30 40 55 75 95 130 150 170 195 225 260 20 20 25

Ampacity TW 60 deg C

Ampacity THW 75 deg C

Ampacity THHN 90 deg C

2.0 mm2

3.5 mm2

5.5 mm2

8.0 mm2

14 mm2

22 mm2

30 mm2

38 mm2

50 mm2

60 mm2

80 mm2

100 mm2

50

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Given: 6 # 12 THW in a conduit at ambient temperature of 40 deg C

Q1: What is the effective ampacity of the conductor?

Q2: What is the maximum permissible continuous load for the circuit?

Q3: What is the maximum permissible nonnon-continuous load for the circuit?
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310Ampacity: # 12 THW = 20 A (NEC Table 310-16)

Effective Ampacity: 20 A x 0.80 x 0.88 = 14.08 A Notes: N t

a) Derating Factor of 0.80 for six conductors in conduit b) Correction Factor for of 0.88 for ambient temp of 40 deg C

Max permissible load (Cont. Load) = 14.08 x 0.80 or 11.264 A

Max permissible load (Non-Cont. Load) = 14.08 x 1 or 14.08 A (Non53

Q4: WHERE SHALL WE BASE THE OCPD?

a) Published Ampacity of #12 AWG which is 20 A?

b) The Effective Ampacity of #12 AWG which is14.08 A?

c) The Maximum Permissible Load which is11.264 A?

Q5: WHAT WILL BE THE SIZE OF THE BRANCH CIRCUIT OCPD?


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WHAT WILL BE THE SIZE OF THE BRANCH CIRCUIT BREAKER OR FUSE? Answer is: 15 A

Because of the mandatory match of the OCPD with respect to the ampacity of the conductor!

Note that in this case, the effective ampacity of the # 12 conductor happens to be derated at 14.08 A only.
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IF THE 20 A OCPD FOR A #12 AWG CONDUCTOR IN PREVIOUS EXERCISE IS TO BE RETAINED

THE DERATING & CORRECTION FACTORS WILL MAKE THE CIRCUIT CONDUCTORS BIGGER!
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If you decide 20 A OCPD, then the size of the conductors shall be: # 10 THW Not # 12 THW!

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ASSUMING THAT THE DERATING & CORRECTION FACTORS HAVE ALREADY BEEN CONSIDERED,

Q: IS SIZING OF CIRCUITS FINISHED?

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NOT QUITE!

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BECAUSE,

CONDUCTORS MUST MATCH THE TEMPERATURE RATINGS OF CIRCUIT DEVICES


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Wiring Conductor Ampacity to Temperature Rating

Molded-case circuit breakers are marked with bot the s e a d su at o te pe atu e at g both t e size and insulation temperature rating (e.g., #2 Cu, 60/75C) of the conductors approved for use with the circuit breaker.

Properly sized conductors allow the

circuit breaker thermal-sensing elements to match the conductor thermal protection requirements.
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SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

When selecting a conductor for a circuit, one has to be selected to accommodate the temperature termination rating rules outlined in NEC 110-14(c). This includes the compatibility of a conductor type as to the OCPDs
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& other devices the conductor terminates inside an enclosure.

SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

Underwriter Laboratories Inc. (UL) standards require that molded-case circuit breakers rated at 125 amperes or less be marked with the conductor insulation-temperature rating.

The wire temperature rating is determined by testing the circuit breaker under full-load current with conductors sized for the appropriate temperature rating, 60C or 75C.

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SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

Conductors with 90C rated insulation (THHN) can be used on circuit breakers rated for 60C or 75C wiring only if their size is based on the ampacity of the lower temperature-rated wire.

If th 90C (THHN) wire size were to be the i i t b selected based on the ampacity allowed in the 90C column of the Ampacity Table, the smaller resulting wire size would generate additional heat at the circuit breaker terminals and possibly cause nuisance tripping.

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SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

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NEC Table 310.16

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NEC Table 310.16

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IMPORTANT!!!

SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

POINT 1: For device or equipment terminals rated 100 A or less, wire sizes shall be based on the 60 deg C 60

temperature rating

listed in NEC Ampacity Table 310-16.

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NEC Table 310.16

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POINT 2:

Circuits over 100A [NEC

Sec. 110-14(c)(2)]:

SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

Unless the terminals are marked otherwise, equipment/ device i t/ d i terminals rated over 100A shall be sized according to the 75 deg C temperature rating listed in NEC Table 310-16.
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POINT 3:

What then is the purpose of 90 deg C wire if we cannot use its higher ampacity?

SIZING CONDUCTORS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATING

This is now the catch!

Ninety deg C rated conductor ampacities like the

THHNs can not be typically used for sizing circuit conductors. However, its rating only comes into play

when adjusting conductor ampacity for elevated ambient temperature (correction due to temperature) or when bundling more than three current-carrying conductors together (derating).

The advantage of 90 deg C wire (THHN) is that it can keep the designer from using a larger wire (when ampacity adjustments are needed), which require larger conduits & raceways, greater labor & increased material costs.
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TO REVIEW:

Important in the electrical & thermal relationship for circuit components are the conductor size, rated ampacity, the insulation temperature rating and the permissible connector device temperature limits.

For instance, the ampacity for a conductor with 90C insulation (THHN) is generally greater than of a conductor of the same size but with 60C (TW) insulation.

However, the greater ampacity of a THHN conductor with 90C insulation is not always permitted to be used due to limitations of the terminal temperature rating and/or the requirements of the NEC. (Reference 110.14 in the NEC for specific requirements.)
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However, there are some simple rules to follow for circuits of 100A and less.

These simple rules generally should be followed because these are the norms for the device component product standards and p p performance evaluation to these standards for fuses, blocks, disconnects, holders, circuit breakers, etc.

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less: Simple rules for 100 amps and less:

60 1. Use 60C rated conductors [110.14(C)(1)(a)(1)]. This 60 assumes all terminations are rated for 60C rated conductors.

2. Higher temperature rated conductors can be used, but the ampacity of these conductors must be as if 60 conductors. they are 60C rated conductors.

90 In other words, even if a 90C THHN conductor is used, it has to be rated for ampacity as if it were a 60 60C conductor [110.14(C)(1)(a)(2)]..
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For instance, assume an ampacity of 60A is needed in a circuit that has terminations that are rated for 60C conductors. If a 90C conductor is to be used, what is the minimum conductor size required?

The answer is 4 AWG, 90C conductor. A 6 AWG, 90C conductor has an ampacity of 75 amps per (NEC Table 310.16); but this ampacity can not be used for a 60C termination.

For this circuit, if a 90C, 6 AWG conductor is evaluated, the ampacity of this conductor must be according to the 60C conductor ampacity, which is 55A. (Ampacities are from NEC Table 310.16.)

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3. Conductors with higher temperature ratings can be used at their rated ampacities if the terminations of the circuit devices are rated for the higher temperature rated conductor [110.14(C)(1)(a)(3)].

However, the industry norm is that most devices rated 100A or less, such as blocks, disconnects and circuit breakers, have 60C or 75C rated terminations.

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4. For motors with design letters B, C or D, conductors with insulation rating of 75C of higher are permitted as long as the ampacity of the conductors is not greater than the 75C rating [110.14(C)(1)(a)(4)].

5. If a conductor is run between two devices that have terminals rated at two different temperatures, the rules above must be observed that correlate to the terminal with the lowest temperature rating.

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For circuits greater than 100A, 100A, use conductors with at least a 75C insulation 75 75 rating at their 75C rating. ampacity rating.

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So why would anyone ever want to use a conductor 90 105 with a 90C or a 105C rating if they cant be applied at their ampacity ratings for those temperatures?

The answer lies in the fact that g p y g those higher ampacity ratings can be utilized when derating due to ambient conditions or due to exceeding more than 3 current carrying conductors in a raceway.
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Example: Circuit ampacity required: 60 amps, Ambient: 45C 45

Assume that an ampacity of 60A is needed in a circuit with a 75 60 75C termination at one end and a 60C termination at the other 45 end, where the ambient is 45C.

First, since one termination temperature rating is higher than the 60 other, the lowest one must be used, which is 60C. The first choice might be a 4 AWG TW conductor with an ampacity of 60 70A at 60C.
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Example: Circuit ampacity required: 60 amps, Ambient: 45C 45

However, in the NEC the Correction Factors reveals that the 70A 45 ampacity must be derated due to the 45C ambient, by a factor of 0.71. This yields a new ampacity of 49.7A, which is less than the required 60. This is where a conductor with a higher temperature 90 rating becomes useful. A 4 AWG THHN conductor has a 90C ampacity of 95A.

Again, looking at the table at the bottom of Table 310.16, a factor 45 of .87 must be used, due to the 45C ambient. This yields a new ampacity of 82.65, which is adequate for the required 60A ampacity. 82

Example: Circuit ampacity required: 60 amps, Ambient: 45C 45

Could a 6 AWG THHN conductor be used in this application? Its 90 45 90C ampacity is 75A. Using the factor of 0.87 for the 45C ambient gives a new ampacity of 65.25, which seems adequate for a required ampacity of 60A.

However, a 6 AWG conductor of any insulation rating could never 60 be used in this application because the 60C terminal requires that the smallest amount of copper is a 4 AWG for a 60A ampacity.

The amount of copper associated with a 4 AWG conductor is terminal. required to bleed the right amount of heat away from the terminal. The use of less copper wont bleed enough heat away, and therefore overheating problems could result.
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This is now the catch!

The advantage of 90 deg C wire (THHN) is that it can keep the designer from using a larger wire

(when ampacity adjustments are needed), which require l d d) hi h i larger

conduits & raceways, greater labor & increased material costs.

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2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)

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2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)(a)(14)

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2008 NEC 110.14(C)(1)(a)(4)(12)

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AT THIS TIME,

IS SIZING OF CIRCUITS FINISHED ? FINISHED?

NOT QUITE!
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BECAUSE THE CIRCUIT OVER-CURRENT PROTECTORS OVERMAY BE THE ONES TO START FULLA FULL-BLOWN FIRE! How Come?

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SIZING OCPDS BASED ON TEMPERATURE RATINGS

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

Fault Duties (in a simplistic view) depend largely (among other factors) on the size of the source transformer and the impedance to. of the cables before the points where the fault is subjecting to.

230v For instance, if a 230v lighting panelboard is receiving supply threefrom a 500 KVA transformer, the three-phase fault duty at its kilo-amperes. secondary terminals could be as high as 30 kilo-amperes.

If the source transformer is 1,500 KVA, the fault duty could be kilo-amperes. three70 kilo-amperes. In like manner that a 100 KVA three-phase three12. transformer delivers a three-phase short circuit current at 12.0 kilo-amperes. kilo-amperes.
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Care however on the use of miniature cbs because they have relatively low capacities. short circuit capacities. Although models are available with ratings up to 16 KA, majority of mcbs only have a KA. maximum breaking capacity of 9 KA.

In this case, it has to be remembered is that the use mcbs are limited only if the enough. source transformer are small enough.

For source transformers that are large where short circuit levels are higher, molded case circuit breakers (MCCBs) available. are available.

In any case, Fault Calculations are necessary. necessary.


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ALTHOUGH FAULT CALCULATION IS NOT WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THIS MODULE,

IT IS BEST TO SHOW THE EFFECTS OF UNDERRATED CIRCUIT BREAKERS IN THE CONTEXT OF THEIR INTERRUPTING CAPACITIES!

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

What is KAIC all about?

Each circuit breaker has three most important ratings a continuous current rating, a voltage rating and an interrupting capacity (IC) rating.
A 3.6 KV MINIMUM OIL CRCUIT BREAKER BEFORE A FAULT

The IC rating is the maximum amount of current that the device will open safely to relieve a fault condition without injuring itself.

The injury means the condition where after interrupting a fault, the breaker ceased to be operable - or worse, the breaker disintegrated because the fault current is too much for the breaker to handle.

THE CRCUIT BREAKER AFTER A FAULT

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

What is KAIC all about?

The IC rating is the maximum amount of current that the device will open safely to relieve a fault condition - without injuring itself. The injury means the condition where after interrupting a fault, the breaker ceased to be operable - or worse, the breaker disintegrated because the fault current is too much for the breaker to handle. 96

INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

Therefore, it is not enough to specify the Continuous Current Rating and Voltage Rating of the breaker but most importantly, the engineer must specify the KAIC ratings of devices. these protective devices.

This does not only cover the large breakers but must transcend to all breakers including the smallest branch circuits at the end points system. of the system.
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INTERRUPTING RATINGS FOR OCPDs

LV Power Circuit Breakers

LV PCBs are recommended for mains & distribution feeder applications from 800 A to 6,300 A. Molded Case Circuit Breakers can reach up to 4,000 A rating but good only for two interruptions 106 only.

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AT THIS TIME,

IS SIZING OF SAFE CIRCUITS FINISHED ? FINISHED?

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NOT QUITE!

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Because, DESIGNING CIRCUITS Must Consider CONDUCTOR DAMAGE DURING FAULTS!

How come when Circuit Breakers are there?

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DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE

Overcurrent protection is to open a circuit before conductors are damaged when an exists. overcurrent condition exists.

During short circuits, currents to th the D i h t i it t t conductors are tremendously high that it must be removed quickly before the damage reached. point of conductor insulation is reached.

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DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE

Assuming that the OCPDs has sufficient interrupting capacities; there are still two actions of the OCPDs that are important in protecting circuit wires & cables.

a) the speed of the clearing,

letb) how much let-through current it allows to flow into the conductor.
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DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE

Although conductors do have allowable ampacity ratings, they also have maximum shortallowable short-circuit current withstand ratings. ratings.

Damage ranging from slight degradation of insulation to violent vaporization of the conductor can result if the short-circuit shortwithstand is exceeded.

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DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE

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DESIGNING CIRCUITS FROM CONDUCTOR DAMAGE

CurrentCurrent-limiting Circuit Beaker

The I2t associated with the asymmetrical current is required to be reduced to the equivalent I2t of a symmetrical current or less

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Behavior of a Typical Current Limiting Fuse


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40 KA

1.85 KA

Case 1: A # 10 AWG conductor can only withstand 4,300 amperes for one cycle and 6,020 onecycle. amperes for one-half cycle. In the circuit below, is the wire protected when the available short40, short-circuit current of 40,000 exceeds the wire withstand?

shortLOWDualUnder short-circuits, the LOW-PEAK YELLOW Dual-Element fuse (30 ampere CLF) is fast acting. It will clear & limit short circuit current before it can build up to a level higher than the wire withstand. The opening onetime of the fuse is less than one-half cycle (less than 0.008 seconds). In letthis particular example, the prospective current let-thru by the fuse is less than 1,850 amperes.

letThus the above example is safe. Opening time & current let-through of the fuse is far lower than the wire withstand rating. Conductor protection is not a problem when the conductor is protected by currentcurrent124 limiting fuses which have an ampere rating that is the same as the conductor ampacity rating.

Case 2: Does the circuit below represent a misapplication? (10 AWG THW insulated copper wire can withstand 4,300 amperes for one cycle and 6,020 onecycle). amperes for one-half cycle).

40 KA

Yes. The 40 KA short-circuit current far exceeds the withstand of the # 10 THW wire. The slow acting ordinary circuit breaker (clearing time of 1 cycle) makes the circuit misapplied.

What can be done to correct the above misapplication?

1) Use a larger size conductor (i.e., from # 10 to # 1/0 AWG), one with a withstand rating greater than the short-circuit for 1 cycle

(See Chart).

2) Use an OCPD which is a current-limiting type (CLF or CLCB) such as that shown in the previous case. 125

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REMEMBER GENTLEMEN, A FULL-BLOWN FIRE ONLY NEEDS AN IGNITION. AND IGNITION IS, YES ITS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEER.
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SO THEN,

IN SIZING CIRCUITS & FEEDERS, WE ALSO NEED TO CONSIDER THE SIZE OF THE SOURCE TRANSFORMER;

OTHERWISE, WHAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN A NICELY-DESIGNED CIRCUIT ACTUALLY TURNS OUT TO BE GROSSLY WRONG & FAULTY!
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Therefore, circuit designing is not complete without fault calculations

The question is:

ARE WE DOING IT?

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END

THANK YOU

THANK YOU THANK YOU

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