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# 7/13/2011

## Force & Power in Metal Cutting

During turning a carbon steel rod of 160 mm diameter by a carbide tool of geometry; 0, 0, 10, 8, 15, 75, 0 (mm) at speed of 400 rpm, feed of 0.32 mm/rev and 4.0 mm depth of cut, the following observation were made. Tangential component of the cutting force, Pz = 1200 N force, Axial component of the cutting force Px = 800 N Chip thickness (after cut), 2 = 0.8 mm. For the above machining condition determine the values of (i) Friction force, F and normal force, N acting at the chip tool interface. (ii) Yield shears strength of the work material under this machining condition. (iii) Cutting power consumption in kW. Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy Ans F = 800 N N = 1200 N 256 7 Mpa 4 021 KW

ESE2003 Conventional

BySKMondal

GATE 1995Conventional
While turning a C15 steel rod of 160 mm diameter at 315 rpm, 2.5 mm depth of cut and feed of 0.16 mm/rev by a tool of geometry 00, 100, 80, 90,150, 750, 0(mm), the following observations were made. Tangential component of the cutting force = 500 N Axial component of the cutting force = 200 N Chip thickness = 0.48 mm Draw schematically the Merchants circle diagram for the cutting force in the present case. Ans. F = 284 N, N = 457.67 N, Fn = 348.78 N, Fs = 410.31 N Friction angle =Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy 32o

ESE2000(Conventional)
The following data from the orthogonal cutting test is available. Rake angle = 100, chip thickness ratio = 0.35, uncut chip thickness = 0.51, width of cut = 3 mm, yield stress of work material = 285 N/mm2, 5, mean friction coefficient on tool force = 0.65, Determine (i) Cutting force (Fc) (ii) Radial force (Ft) (iii) Normal force (N) on tool and (iv) Shear force on the tool (Fs ). Ans. Fc = 1597 N; Ft = 678 N; Fs = 1265 N; F = 944.95 N, N = 1453.8 N Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy

ESE2005Conventional
Mild steel is being machined at a cutting speed of 200 m/min with a tool rake angle of 10. The width of cut and uncut thickness are 2 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. If the average p y g value of coefficient of friction between the tool and the chip is 0.5 and the shear stress of the work material is 400 N/mm2, Determine (i) shear angle and [Ans. 36.7o (ii) Cutting and thrust component of the machine on force. [Ans. Fc = 420 N, Ft = 125 N ]

IAS2003MainExamination
During turning process with 7 6 6 8 30 1 (mm) ASA tool the undeformed chip thickness of 2.0 mm and width of cut of 2.5 mm were used. The side rake angle of the tool was a chosen that the machining operation could be approximated to be orthogonal cutting The cutting. tangential cutting force and thrust force were 1177 N and 560 N respectively. Calculate: [30 marks] (i) The side rake angle [Ans. 12o ] (ii) Coefficient of friction at the rake face [Ans. 0.82] (iii) The dynamic shear strength of the work material [Ans. 74.43 Mpa] Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy

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GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(1)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Uncutthickness=0.5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut 5mm Chipthickness 0.7mm Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce=1200N AssumeMerchant'stheory. Thecoefficientoffrictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis (a)0.23 (b)0.46 (c)0.85 (d)0.95 Ans.(b)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(2)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Uncutthickness=0.5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut 5mm Chipthickness 0.7mm Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce=1200N AssumeMerchant'stheory. Thepercentageoftotalenergydissipateddueto frictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis (a)30% (b)42% (c)58% (d)70% Ans.(a)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(3)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Uncutthickness=0.5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut 5mm Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness 0.7mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce=1200N AssumeMerchant'stheory. Thevaluesofshearangleandshearstrain, respectively,are (a)30.3 and1.98 (b)30.3 and4.23 (c)40.2 and2.97 (d)40.2 and1.65Ans.(d)

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(1)
A cylinder is turned on a lathe with orthogonal machining principle. Spindle rotates at 200 rpm. The axial feed rate is 0.25 mm per revolution. Depth of cut is 0.4 mm. The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found that the h th t th shear angle i 27.75 l is Thethicknessoftheproducedchipis (a)0.511mm (b)0.528mm (c)0.818mm (d)0.846mm Ans.(a)

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(2)
A cylinder is turned on a lathe with orthogonal machining principle. Spindle rotates at 200 rpm. The axial feed rate is 0.25 mm per revolution. Depth of cut is 0.4 mm. The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found that the shear angle is 27.75 th t th h l i Intheaboveproblem,thecoefficientoffrictionat thechiptoolinterfaceobtainedusingEarnestand Merchanttheoryis (a)0.18 (b)0.36 (c)0.71 (d)0.908 Ans.(d) Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(1)
Orthogonal turning is performed on a cylindrical work piece with shear strength of 250 MPa. The following conditions are used: cutting velocity is 180 m/min. feed is 0.20 mm/rev. depth of cut is 3 mm. chip thickness ratio = 0.5. Th orthogonal rake angle i 7o. A l ti The th l k l is Apply Merchant's theory for analysis. Theshearplaneangle(indegree)andtheshear forcerespectivelyare (a)52:320N (b)52:400N (c)28:400N (d)28:320N Ans.(d) Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy

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GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(2)
Orthogonal turning is performed on a cylindrical work piece with shear strength of 250 MPa. The following conditions are used: cutting velocity is 180 m/min. feed is 0.20 mm/rev. depth of cut is 3 mm. chip thickness ratio = 0.5. The orthogonal rake angle is 7o. Apply ti Th th l k l i A l Merchant's theory for analysis. Thecuttingandfrictionalforces,respectively,are (a)568N;387N (b)565N;381N (c)440N;342N (d)480N;356N Ans.(b)

IES2010
The relationship between the shear angle , the friction angle and cutting rake angle is given as

Ans.(b)

IES2005
Which one of the following is the correct expression for the Merchant's machinability constant? (a) 2 + (b) 2 + (c) 2 (d) + (Where = shear angle, = friction angle and = rake angle) Ans. (a)

GATE1997
Inatypicalmetalcuttingoperation,usinga cuttingtoolofpositiverakeangle=10,it wasobservedthattheshearanglewas20. Thefrictionangleis g (a)45 (b)30 (c)60 (d)40 Ans.(c)

IAS 1999
In an orthogonal cutting process, rake angle of the tool is 20 and friction angle is 25.5. Using Merchant's shear angle relationship, the value of shear angle will be (a) 39.5 39 5 (b) 42.25 42 25 (c) 47.75 (d) 50.5

IES2003
In orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force = 900 N, the thrust force = 600 N and chip shear angle is 30o. Then the chip shear force is (a) 1079 4 N 1079.4 (b) 969 6 N 969.6 (c) 479.4 N (d) 69.6 N Ans. (c)

Ans. (b)

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IES2000
In an orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force and thrust force were observed to be 1000N and 500 N respectively. If the rake angle of tool is zero, the coefficient of friction in chiptool interface will be
1 1

IES1996
Which of the following forces are measured directly by strain gauges or force dynamometers during metal cutting ? 1. Force exerted by the tool on the chip acting normally to the tool face. 2. Horizontal cutting force exerted by the tool on the work piece. 3. Frictional resistance of the tool against the chip flow acting along the tool face. 4. Vertical force which helps in holding the tool in position. (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 Ans. (b) Compiledby:SKMondalMadeEasy

(a)2
Ans.(a)

( b)2

( c)

( d) 2 2

GATE2007
Inorthogonalturningofmediumcarbonsteel.The specificmachiningenergyis2.0J/mm3.Thecutting velocity,feedanddepthofcutare120m/min,0.2 mm/revand2mmrespectively.Themaincutting forceinNis f i Ni (a)40 (b)80 (c)400 (d)800 Ans.(d) Ans. (c)

GATE2007
In orthogonal turning of low carbon steel pipe with principal cutting edge angle of 90, the main cutting force is 1000 N and the feed force is 800 N. The shear angle is 25 and orthogonal rake angle is zero. Employing M h t th E l i Merchants theory, th ratio of f i ti the ti f friction force to normal force acting on the cutting tool is (a) 1.56 (b) 1.25 (c) 0.80 (d) 0.64

IES1997
Consider the following forces acting on a finish turning tool: 1. Feed force 2. Thrust force 2 3. Cutting force. The correct sequence of the decreasing order of the magnitudes of these forces is (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1 (c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 3, 2, 1 Ans. (c)

IES1999
The radial force in singlepoint tool during turning operation varies between (a) 0.2 to 0.4 times the main cutting force (b) 0 4 to 0 6 times the main cutting force 0.4 0.6 (c) 0.6 to 0.8 times the main cutting force (d) 0.5 to 0.6 times the main cutting force Ans. (a)

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IES1995
The primary tool force used in calculating the total power consumption in machining is the (a) Radial force (b) Tangential force (c) Axial force (d) Frictional force Ans. (b)

IES2002
In a machining process, the percentage of heat carried away by the chips is typically (a) 5% (b) 25% (c) 50% 0% (d) 75% % Ans. (d)

IES1998
In metal cutting operation, the approximate ratio of heat distributed among chip, tool and work, in that order is (a) 80: 10: 10 (b) 33: 33: 33 (c) 20: 60: 10 (d) 10: 10: 80 Ans. (a)

IAS 2003
Asthecuttingspeedincreases (a) Moreheatistransmittedtotheworkpieceandless heatistransmittedtothetool (b) Moreheatiscarriedawaybythechipandlessheatis transmittedtothetool t itt dt th t l (c) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththechipandthe tool (d) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththeworkpieceand thetool Ans.(b)

IES2001
Power consumption in metal cutting is mainly due to (a) Tangential component of the force (b) Longitudinal component of the force (c) Normal component of the force (d) Friction at the metaltool interface Ans. (a)

IAS 1995
Thrustforcewillincreasewiththeincreasein (a) Sidecuttingedgeangle (b)Toolnoseradius (c) Rakeangle (d)Endcuttingedgeangle Ans.(a)

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IES2010
Consider the following statements: In an orthogonal, singlepoint metal cutting, as the sidecutting edge angle is increased, g 1. The tangential force increases. 2. The longitudinal force drops. 3. The radial force increases. Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1 and 3 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (c)

IES1993
A 'Dynamometer' is a device used for the measurement of (a) Chip thickness ratio (b) Forces during metal cutting (c) Wear of the cutting tool (d) Deflection of the cutting tool Ans. (b)

IES2011
Theinstrumentordeviceusedtomeasurethecutting forcesinmachiningis: (a)Tachometer (b)Comparator (c)Dynamometer (d)Lactometer Ans.(c)

IAS 2003
The heat generated in metal conveniently be determined by (a) Installing thermocouple on the job (b) Installing thermocouple on the tool (c) Calorimetric setup (d) Using radiation pyrometer Ans. (c) cutting can

IES1998
The gauge factor of a resistive pickup of cutting force dynamometer is defined as the ratio of (a) Applied strain to the resistance of the wire (b) The proportional change in resistance to the applied strain (c) The resistance to the applied strain (d) Change in resistance to the applied strain Ans. (b)

IES2000
Assertion (A): In metal cutting, the normal laws of sliding friction are not applicable. Reason (R): Very high temperature is produced at the toolchip interface interface. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (b)

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GATE1992
The effect of rake angle on the mean friction angle in machining can be explained by (A) sliding (Coulomb) model of friction (B) sticking and then sliding model of friction (C) sticking friction (D) Sliding and then sticking model of friction

IES2004
Assertion (A): The ratio of uncut chip thickness to actual chip thickness is always less than one and is termed as cutting ratio in orthogonal cutting Reason (R): The frictional force is very high due to the g g occurrence of sticking friction rather than sliding friction (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true