The Comprehensive Dictionary THE NUTTALL ENCYCLOPAEDIA A

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A'ALI PASHA, an eminent reforming Turkish statesman (1815-1871).


AALBORG (19), a trading town on the Liimfiord, in the N. of Jutland.

AAR, a large Swiss river about 200 m. long, which falls into the Rhine as it leaves Switzerland.

AARGAU, a fertile Swiss canton bordering on the Rhine.

AARHUUS (33), a port on the E. of Jutland, with a considerable export and import trade, and a fine old Gothic cathedral.

AARON, the elder brother of Moses, and the first high-priest of the Jews, an office he held for forty years.

ABACA, Manila hemp, or the plant, native to the Philippines, which yield it in quantities.

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ABACUS, a tablet crowning a column and its capital.

ABADDON, the bottomless pit, or the angel thereof.

ABARIM, a mountain chain in Palestine, NE. of the Dead Sea, the highest point being Mount Nebo.

ABATEMENT, a mark of disgrace in a coat of arms.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a French Protestant theologian and a mathematician, a friend of Newton, and much esteemed for his learning by Rousseau and Voltaire (1679-1767).

ABBADIE, two brothers of French descent, Abyssinian travellers in the years 1837-1848; also a French Protestant divine (1658-1727).

ABBAS, uncle of Mahomet, founder of the dynasty of the Abbasides (566-652).

ABBAS PASHA, the khedive of Egypt, studied five years in Vienna, ascended the throne at eighteen, accession hailed with enthusiasm; shows at times an equivocal attitude to Britain; _b_. 1874.

ABBAS THE GREAT, shah of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sophis, great alike in conquest and administration (1557-1628).

ABBAS-MIRZA, a Persian prince, a reformer of the Persian army, and a

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leader of it, unsuccessfully, however, against Russia (1783-1833).

ABBASIDES, a dynasty of 37 caliphs who ruled as such at Bagdad from 750 to 1258.

AB`BATI, NICCOLO DELL', an Italian fresco-painter (1512-1571).

ABBE, name of a class of men who in France prior to the Revolution prepared themselves by study of theology for preferment in the Church, and who, failing, gave themselves up to letters or science.

ABBEVILLE (19), a thriving old town on the Somme, 12 m. up, with an interesting house architecture, and a cathedral, unfinished, in the Flamboyant style.

ABBOT, head of an abbey. There were two classes of abbots: Abbots Regular, as being such in fact, and Abbots Commendatory, as guardians and drawing the revenues.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., and one of the translators of King James's Bible; an enemy of Laud's, who succeeded him (1562-1633).

ABBOT OF MISRULE, a person elected to superintend the Christmas revelries.

ABBOTSFORD, the residence of Sir Walter Scott, on the Tweed, near Melrose, built by him on the site of a farm called Clarty Hole.

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ABBOTT, EDWIN, a learned Broad Church theologian and man of letters; wrote, besides other works, a volume of sermons "Through Nature to Christ"; esteemed insistence on miracles injurious to faith; _b_. 1838.

ABDAL`LAH, the father of Mahomet, famed for his beauty (545-570); also a caliph of Mecca (622-692).

ABDALRAH`MAN, the Moorish governor of Spain, defeated by Charles Martel at Tours in 732.

ABDALS (lit. servants of Allah), a set of Moslem fanatics in Persia.

ABD-EL-KA`DIR, an Arab emir, who for fifteen years waged war against the French in N. Africa, but at length surrendered prisoner to them in 1847. On his release in 1852 he became a faithful friend of France (1807-1883).

ABDE`RA, a town in ancient Thrace, proverbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants.

ABDICATIONS, of which the most celebrated are those of the Roman Dictator Sylla, who in 70 B.C. retired to Puteoli; of Diocletian, who in A.D. 305 retired to Salone; of Charles V., who in 1556 retired to the monastery St. Yuste; of Christina of Sweden, who in 1654 retired to Rome, after passing some time in France; of Napoleon, who in 1814 and 1815 retired first to Elba and then died at St. Helena; of Charles X. in 1830, who died at Goritz, in Austria; and of Louis Philippe, who in 1848 retired to end his days in England.

ABDIEL, one of the seraphim, who withstood Satan in his revolt

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against the Most High.

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Turkey from 1861, in succession to Abdul-Medjid (1830-1876).

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Morocco, was only fourteen at his accession; _b_. 1880.

ABDUL-HA`MID II., sultan of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz, and his successor; under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment, and the Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred; _b_. 1842.

ABD-UL-MED`JID, sultan, father of the two preceding, in whose defence against Russia England and France undertook the Crimean war (1823-1861).

ABDUR-RAH`MAN, the ameer of Afghanistan, subsidised by the English; _b_. 1830.

A'BECKET, GILBERT, an English humourist, who contributed to _Punch_ and other organs; wrote the "Comic Blackstone" and comic histories of England and Rome (1811-1856).

A'BECKET, A. W., son of the preceding, a litterateur and journalist; _b_. 1844.

ABEL, the second son of Adam and Eve; slain by his brother. The death of Abel is the subject of a poem by Gessner and a tragedy by Legouve.

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ABEL, SIR F. A., a chemist who has made a special study of explosives; _b_. 1827.

ABEL, HENRY, an able Norwegian mathematician, who died young (1802-1828).

AB`ELARD, PETER, a theologian and scholastic philosopher of French birth, renowned for his dialectic ability, his learning, his passion for Heloise, and his misfortunes; made conceivability the test of credibility, and was a great teacher in his day (1079-1142).

ABELLI, a Dominican monk, the confessor of Catharine de Medici (1603-1691).

ABENCERRA`GES, a powerful Moorish tribe in Grenada, whose fate in the 15th century has been the subject of interesting romance.

ABEN-EZ`RA, a learned Spanish Jew and commentator on the Hebrew scriptures (1090-1168).

ABERA`VON (6), a town and seaport in Glamorganshire, with copper and iron works.

ABERCROMBIE, SIR RALPH, a distinguished British general of Scottish birth, who fell in Egypt after defeating the French at Aboukir Bay (1731-1801).

ABERDEEN (124), the fourth city in Scotland, on the E. coast,

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between the mouths of the Dee and Don; built of grey granite, with many fine public edifices, a flourishing university, a large trade, and thriving manufactures. Old Aberdeen, on the Don, now incorporated in the municipality, is the seat of a cathedral church, and of King's College, founded in 1404, united with the university in the new town.

ABERDEEN, EARL OF, a shrewd English statesman, Prime Minister of England during the Crimean war (1784-1860).--Grandson of the preceding, Gov.-Gen. of Canada; _b_. 1847.

ABERDEENSHIRE (281), a large county in NE. of Scotland; mountainous in SW., lowland N. and E.; famed for its granite quarries, its fisheries, and its breed of cattle.

ABERNETHY, a small burgh in S. Perthshire, with a Pictish round tower, and once the capital of the Pictish kingdom.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT, an apparent motion in a star due to the earth's motion and the progressive motion of light.

ABERYST`WITH (16), a town and seaport in Cardiganshire, Wales, with a university.

AB`GAR XIV., a king of Edessa, one of a dynasty of the name, a contemporary of Jesus Christ, and said to have corresponded with Him.

ABHORRERS, the Royalist and High Church party in England under Charles II., so called from their abhorrence of the principles of their opponents.

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ABIGAIL, the widow of Nabal, espoused by David.

ABICH, W. H., a German mineralogist and traveller (1806-1886).

ABINGDON (6), a borough in Berks, 6 m. S. of Oxford.

ABIOGENESIS, the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

ABIPONES, a once powerful warlike race in La Plata, now nearly all absorbed.

ABLE MAN, man with "a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute" (Gibbon).

ABNER, a Hebrew general under Saul; assassinated by Joab.

ABO, the old capital of Finland and seat of the government, on the Gulf of Bothnia.

AB`OMEY, the capital of Dahomey, in W. Africa.

ABOU`KIR, village near Alexandria, in Egypt, on the bay near which Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1799; where Napoleon beat the Turks, 1799; and where Abercrombie fell, 1801.

ABOUT, EDMOND, spirited French litterateur and journalist (1828-1885).

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ABRAHAM, the Hebrew patriarch, ancestor of the Jews, the very type of an Eastern pastoral chief at once by his dignified character and simple faith.

ABRAHAM, THE PLAINS OF, a plain near Quebec.

ABRAHAM-MEN, a class of lunatics allowed out of restraint, at one time, to roam about and beg; a set of impostors who wandered about the country affecting lunacy.

ABRAN`TES, a town in Portugal, on the Tagus; taken by Marshal Junot, 1807, and giving the title of Duke to him.

ABRAXAS STONES, stones with cabalistic figures on them used as talismans.

ABRUZ`ZI, a highland district in the Apennines, with a pop. of 100,000.

ABSALOM, a son of David, who rebelled against his father, and at whose death David gave vent to a bitter wail of grief. A name given by Dryden to the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II.

ABSOLUTE, THE, the philosophical name for the uncreated Creator, or creating cause of all things, dependent on nothing external to itself.

ABSYRTUS, a brother of Medea, whom she cut in pieces as she fled with Jason, pursued by her father, throwing his bones behind her to detain her father in his pursuit of her by stopping to pick them up.

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ABT, FRANZ, a German composer of song-music (1819-1885).

ABU, a mountain (6000 ft.) in Rajputana, with a footprint of Vishnu on the top, and two marble temples half-way up, held sacred by the Jains.

AB`UBEKR, as the father of Ayesha, the father-in-law of Mahomet, the first of the caliphs and the founder of the Sunnites; _d_. 634.

AB`U-KLEA, in the Soudan, where the Mahdi's forces were defeated by Sir H. Stewart in 1885.

A`BUL-FARAJ, a learned Armenian Jew, who became bishop of Aleppo, and wrote a history of the world from Adam onwards (1226-1286).

ABUL-FAZEL, the vizier of the great Mogul emperor Akbar, and who wrote an account of his reign and of the Mogul empire; he was assassinated in 1604.

ABUL-FEDA, a Moslem prince of Hamat in Syria, who in his youth took part against the Crusaders, and wrote historical works in Arabic (1273-1331).

ABU-THA`LEB, uncle of Mahomet, and his protector against the plots of his enemies the Koreish.

ABY`DOS, a town on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, famous as the home of Leander, who swam the Hellespont every night to visit Hero in Sestos, and as the spot where Xerxes built his bridge of boats to cross

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into Europe in 480 B.C.; also a place of note in Upper Egypt.

ABYSSIN`IA, a mountainous country SE. of Nubia, with an area of 200,000 sq. m., made up of independent states, and a mixed population of some four millions, the Abyssinians proper being of the Semite stock. It is practically under the protectorate of Italy.

ACACIA, a large group of trees with astringent and gum-yielding properties, natives of tropical Africa and Australia.

ACADEMY, a public shady park or place of groves near Athens, where Plato taught his philosophy and whence his school derived its name, of which there are three branches, the _Old_, the _Middle_, and the _New_, represented respectively by Plato himself, Arcesilaos, and Carneades. The _French Academy_, of forty members, was founded by Richelieu in 1635, and is charged with the interests of the French language and literature, and in particular with the duty of compiling an authoritative dictionary of the French language. Besides these, there are in France other four with a like limited membership in the interest of other departments of science and art, all now associated in the _Institute of France_, which consists in all of 229 members. There are similar institutions in other states of Europe, all of greater or less note.

ACADIA, the French name for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

ACANTHUS, a leaf-like ornament on the capitals of the columns of certain orders of architecture.

ACAPUL`CO, a Mexican port in the Pacific, harbour commodious, but climate unhealthy.

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ACARNA`NIA, a province of Greece N. of Gulf of Corinth; its pop. once addicted to piracy.

ACCA`DIANS, a dark, thick-lipped, short-statured Mongol race in Central Asia, displaced by the Babylonians and Assyrians, who were Semitic.

ACCA-LAURENTIA, the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who saved the lives of Romulus and Remus.

ACCIAIOLI, a Florentine family of 15th century, illustrious in scholarship and war.

ACCOLADE, a gentle blow with a sword on the shoulder in conferring knighthood.

ACCOL`TI, a Tuscan family, of 15th century, famous for their learning.

ACCOR`SO, the name of a Florentine family, of 12th and 13th centuries, great in jurisprudence.

ACCRA (16), capital and chief port in British Gold Coast colony.

ACCRINGTON (39), a manufacturing town 22 m. N. of Manchester.

ACCUM, FRIEDRICH, a German chemist, the first promoter of gas-lighting (1769-1838).

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ACCUMULATOR, a hydraulic press for storing up water at a high pressure; also a device for storing up electric energy.

ACERRA (14), an ancient city 9 m. NE. of Naples; is in an unhealthy district.

ACETIC ACID, the pure acid of vinegar; the salts are called _acetates_.

ACETONE, a highly inflammable liquid obtained generally by the dry distillation of acetates.

ACET`YLENE, a malodorous gaseous substance from the incomplete combustion of hydro-carbons.

ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of 12 towns in the Peloponnesus, formed especially against the influence of the Macedonians.

ACHAE`ANS, the common name of the Greeks in the heroic or Homeric period.

ACHAI`A, the N. district of the Peloponnesus, eventually the whole of it.

ACHARD, a Prussian chemist, one of the first to manufacture sugar from beetroot (1753-1821).

ACHARD`, LOUIS AMEDEE, a prolific French novelist (1814-1876).

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ACHA`TES, the attendant of AEneas in his wandering after the fall of Troy, remarkable for, and a perennial type of, fidelity.

ACHELO`UeS, a river in Greece, which rises in Mt. Pindus, and falls into the Ionian Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of Oceanus, and the father of the Sirens.

ACHEN, an eminent German painter (1556-1621).

ACHENWALL, a German economist, the founder of statistic science (1719-1772).

ACH`ERON, a river in the underworld; the name of several rivers in Greece more or less suggestive of it.

ACH`ERY, a learned French Benedictine of St. Maur (1609-1685).

ACH`ILL, a rocky, boggy island, sparsely inhabited, off W. coast of Ireland, co. Mayo, with a bold headland 2222 ft. high.

ACHILLE`ID, an unfinished poem of Statius.

ACHIL`LES, the son of Peleus and Thetis, king of the Myrmidons, the most famous of the Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and whose wrath with the consequences of it forms the subject of the Iliad of Homer. He was invulnerable except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him as she dipt his body in the Styx to render him invulnerable.

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ACHILLES OF GERMANY, Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery, tough old gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very blazing, far-seen character," says Carlyle (1414-1486).

ACHILLES TENDON, the great tendon of the heel, where Achilles was vulnerable.

ACHMED PASHA, a French adventurer, served in French army, condemned to death, fled, and served Austria; condemned to death a second time, pardoned, served under the sultan, was banished to the shores of the Black Sea (1675-1747).

ACH`MET I., sultan of Turkey from 1603 to 1617; A. II., from 1691 to 1695; A. III., from 1703 to 1730, who gave asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden after his defeat by the Czar at Pultowa.

ACHIT`OPHEL, name given by Dryden to the Earl of Shaftesbury of his time.

ACHROMATISM, transmission of light, undecomposed and free from colour, by means of a combination of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint glass, or by a single glass carefully prepared.

ACIERAGE, coating a copper-plate with steel by voltaic electricity.

A`CI-REA`LE (38), a seaport town in Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, in NE. of Catania, with mineral waters.

A`CIS, a Sicilian shepherd enamoured of Galatea, whom the Cyclops

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Polyphemus, out of jealousy, overwhelmed under a rock, from under which his blood has since flowed as a river.

ACK`ERMANN, R., an enterprising publisher of illustrated works in the Strand, a native of Saxony (1764-1834).

ACLAND, SIR HENRY, regius professor of medicine in Oxford, accompanied the Prince of Wales to America in 1860, the author of several works on medicine and educational subjects, one of Ruskin's old and tried friends (1815).

ACLINIC LINE, the magnetic equator, along which the needle always remains horizontal.

ACNE, a skin disease showing hard reddish pimples; ACNE ROSACEA, a congestion of the skin of the nose and parts adjoining.

ACOEMETAE, an order of monks in the 5th century who by turns kept up a divine service day and night.

ACONCA`GUA, the highest peak of the Andes, about 100 m. NE. of Valparaiso, 22,867 ft. high; recently ascended by a Swiss and a Scotchman, attendants of Fitzgerald's party.

ACONITE, monk's-hood, a poisonous plant of the ranunculus order with a tapering root.

ACONITINE, a most virulent poison from aconite, and owing to the very small quantity sufficient to cause death, is very difficult of detection when employed in taking away life.

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ACORN-SHELLS, a crustacean attached to rocks on the sea-shore, described by Huxley as "fixed by its head," and "kicking its food into its mouth with its legs."

ACOUSTICS, the science of sound as it affects the ear, specially of the laws to be observed in the construction of halls so that people may distinctly hear in them.

ACRASIA, an impersonation in Spenser's "Faerie Queen," of intemperance in the guise of a beautiful sorceress.

ACRE, ST. JEAN D' (7), a strong place and seaport in Syria, at the foot of Mount Carmel, taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, held out against Bonaparte in 1799; its ancient name Ptolemais.

ACRES, BOB, a coward in the "Rivals" whose "courage always oozed out at his finger ends."

ACROAMATICS, esoteric lectures, i. e. lectures to the initiated.

ACROLEIN, a light volatile limpid liquid obtained by the destructive distillation of fats.

ACROLITHS, statues of which only the extremities are of stone.

ACROP`OLIS, a fortified citadel commanding a city, and generally the nucleus of it, specially the rocky eminence dominating Athens.

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ACROTE`RIA, pedestals placed at the middle and the extremities of a pediment to support a statue or other ornament, or the statue or ornament itself.

ACTA DIURNA, a kind of gazette recording in a summary way daily events, established at Rome in 131 B.C., and rendered official by Caesar in 50 B.C.

ACTA SANCTORUM, the lives of the saints in 62 vols. folio, begun in the 17th century by the Jesuits, and carried on by the Bollandists.

ACTAEON, a hunter changed into a stag for surprising Diana when bathing, and afterwards devoured by his own dogs.

ACTINIC RAYS, "non-luminous rays of higher frequency than the luminous rays."

ACTINISM, the chemical action of sunlight.

ACTINOMYCOSIS, a disease of a fungous nature on the mouth and lower jaw of cows.

ACTIUM, a town and promontory at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf (Arta), in Greece, where Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra, Sept. 2, 31 B.C.

ACTON, an adventurer of English birth, who became prime minister of Naples, but was driven from the helm of affairs on account of his

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inveterate antipathy to the French (1737-1808).

ACTON, LORD, a descendant of the former, who became a leader of the Liberal Catholics in England, M.P. for Carlow, and made a peer in 1869; a man of wide learning, and the projector of a universal history by experts in different departments of the field; _b_. 1834.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, a narrative account in the New Testament of the founding of the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of Peter and Paul, written by Luke, commencing with the year 33, and concluding with the imprisonment of Paul in Rome in 62.

ACUN`HA, TRISTRAM D', a Portuguese navigator, companion of Albuquerque; NUNA D', his son, viceroy of the Indies from 1528 to 1539; RODRIQUE D', archbishop of Lisbon, who in 1640 freed Portugal from the Spanish domination, and established the house of Braganza on the throne.

ACUPRESSURE, checking hemorrhage in arteries during an operation by compressing their orifices with a needle.

ACUPUNCTURE, the operation of pricking an affected part with a needle, and leaving it for a short time in it, sometimes for as long as an hour.

ADAIR, SIR ROBERT, a distinguished English diplomatist, and frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions (1763-1855).

ADAL, a flat barren region between Abyssinia and the Red Sea.

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ADALBE`RON, the archbishop of Rheims, chancellor of Lothaire and Louis V.; consecrated Hugh Capet; _d_. 998.

ADALBERT, a German ecclesiastic, who did much to extend Christianity over the North (1000-1072).

ADALBERT, ST., bishop of Prague, who, driven from Bohemia, essayed to preach the gospel in heathen Prussia, where the priests fell upon him, and "struck him with a death-stroke on the head," April 27, 997, on the anniversary of which day a festival is held in his honour.

ADA`LIA (30), a seaport on the coast of Asia Minor, on a bay of the same name.

ADAM (i. e. man), the first father, according to the Bible, of the human race.

ADAM, ALEX., a distinguished Latin scholar, rector for 40 years of the Edinburgh High School, Scott having been one of his pupils (1741-1809).

ADAM, LAMBERT, a distinguished French sculptor (1700-1759).

ADAM, ROBERT, a distinguished architect, born at Kirkcaldy, architect of the Register House and the University, Edinburgh (1728-1792).

ADAM BEDE, George Eliot's first novel, published anonymously in 1859, took at once with both critic and public.

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ADAM KADMON, primeval man as he at first emanated from the Creator, or man in his primeval rudimentary potentiality.

ADAM OF BROMEN, distinguished as a Christian missionary in the 11th century; author of a celebrated Church history of N. Europe from 788 to 1072, entitled _Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum_.

ADAMAS`TOR, the giant spirit of storms, which Camoens, in his "Luciad," represents as rising up before Vasco de Gama to warn him off from the Cape of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the resultant success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope.

ADAMAWA, a region in the Lower Soudan with a healthy climate and a fertile soil, rich in all tropical products.

ADAMITES, visionaries in Africa in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia in the 14th and 15th, who affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went naked.

ADAMNAN, ST., abbot of Iona, of Irish birth, who wrote a life of St. Columba and a work on the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written (625-704).

ADAMS, DR. F., a zealous student and translator of Greek medical works (1797-1861).

ADAMS, JOHN, the second president of the United States, and a chief promoter of their independence (1739-1826).

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ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, his eldest son, the sixth president (1767-1848).

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH, an English astronomer, the discoverer simultaneously with Leverrier of the planet Neptune (1819-1892).

ADAMS, PARSON, a country curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with a head full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but in absolute ignorance of the world, which in his simplicity he takes for what it professes to be.

ADAMS, SAMUEL, a zealous promoter of American independence, who lived and died poor (1722-1803).

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a chain of coral reefs and sandbanks connecting Ceylon with India.

ADAM'S PEAK, a conical peak in the centre of Ceylon 7420 ft. high, with a foot-like depression 5 ft. long and 21/2 broad atop, ascribed to Adam by the Mohammedans, and to Buddha by the Buddhists; it was here, the Arabs say, that Adam alighted on his expulsion from Eden and stood doing penance on one foot till God forgave him.

ADA`NA (40), a town SE. corner of Asia Minor, 30 m. from the sea.

ADANSON, MICHEL, a French botanist, born in AIX, the first to attempt a natural classification of plants (1727-1806).

AD`DA, an affluent of the Po, near Cremona; it flows through Lake Como; on its banks Bonaparte gained several of his famous victories over

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ADDINGTON, HENRY, Lord Sidmouth, an English statesman was for a short time Prime Minister, throughout a supporter of Pitt (1757-1844).

ADDISON, JOSEPH, a celebrated English essayist, studied at Oxford, became Fellow of Magdalen, was a Whig in politics, held a succession of Government appointments, resigned the last for a large pension; was pre-eminent among English writers for the purity and elegance of his style, had an abiding, refining, and elevating influence on the literature of the country; his name is associated with the _Tatler, Spectator_, and _Guardian_, as well as with a number of beautiful hymns (1672-1749).

A`DELAAR, the name of honour given to Cort Sivertsen, a famous Norse seaman, who rendered distinguished naval services to Denmark and to Venice against the Turks (1622-1675).

ADELAIDE (133), the capital of S. Australia, on the river Torrens, which flows through it into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. SE. of Port Adelaide; a handsome city, with a cathedral, fine public buildings, a university, and an extensive botanical garden; it is the great emporium for S. Australia; exports wool, wine, wheat, and copper ore.

ADELAIDE, eldest daughter of Louis XV. of France (1732-1806).

ADELAIDE, PORT, the haven of Adelaide, a port of call, with a commodious harbour.

ADELAIDE, QUEEN, consort of William IV. of England (1792-1849).

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ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS, sister of Louis Philippe, his Egeria (1771-1841).

ADELBERG, a town of Carniola, 22 m. from Trieste, with a large stalactite cavern, besides numerous caves near it.

ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a distinguished German philologist and lexicographer, born in Pomerania (1732-1806).

A`DEN (42), a fortified town on a peninsula in British territory S. of Arabia, 105 m. E. of Bab-el-Mandeb; a coaling and military station, in a climate hot, but healthy.

AD`HERBAL, son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, killed by Jugurtha, 249 B.C.

ADI GRANTH, the sacred book of the Sikhs.

ADIAPH`ORISTS, Lutherans who in 16th century maintained that certain practices of the Romish Church, obnoxious to others of them, were matters of indifference, such as having pictures, lighting candles, wearing surplices, and singing certain hymns in worship.

AD`IGE, a river of Italy, which rises in the Rhetian Alps and falls into the Adriatic after a course of 250 m.; subject to sudden swellings and overflowings.

ADIPOCERE, a fatty, spermaceti-like substance, produced by the decomposition of animal matter in moist places.

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ADIPOSE TISSUE, a tissue of small vesicles filled with oily matter, in which there is no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin and gives smoothness and warmth to the body.

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in the State of New York; source of the Hudson.

ADJUTANT, a gigantic Indian stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft. in height, which feeds on carrion and offal, and is useful in this way, as storks are.

ADLER, HERMANN, son and successor of the following, born in Hanover; a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred Scriptures; was elected Chief Rabbi in 1891; _b_. 1839.

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS, chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover (1803-1890).

ADLERCREUTZ, a Swedish general, the chief promoter of the revolution of 1808, who told Gustavus IV. to his face that he ought to retire (1759-1815).

ADME`TUS, king of Pherae in Thessaly, one of the Argonauts, under whom Apollo served for a time as neat-herd. _See_ ALCESTIS.

ADMIRABLE DOCTOR, a name given to Roger Bacon.

ADMIRAL, the chief commander of a fleet, of which there are in

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Britain three grades--admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the first displaying his flag on the main mast, the second on the fore, and the third on the mizzen.

ADMIRALTY, BOARD OF, board of commissioners appointed for the management of naval affairs.

ADMIRALTY ISLAND, an island off the coast of Alaska.

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group NE. of New Guinea, in the Pacific, which belong to Germany.

ADOLF, FRIEDRICH, king of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles divided themselves into the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party, and the Hats, or the war-party (1710-1771).

ADOLPH, ST., a Spanish martyr: festival, Sept. 27.

ADOLPH OF NASSAU, Kaiser from 1291 to 1298, "a stalwart but necessitous Herr" Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of Edward Longshanks.

ADOLPHUS, JOHN, an able London barrister in criminal cases, and a voluminous historical writer (1766-1845).

ADONA`I, the name used by the Jews for God instead of Jehovah, too sacred to be pronounced.

ADONA`IS, Shelley's name for Keats.

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ADO`NIS, a beautiful youth beloved by Aphrodite (Venus), but mortally wounded by a boar and changed by her into a flower the colour of his blood, by sprinkling nectar on his body.

ADOPTIONISTS, heretics who in the 8th century maintained that Christ was the son of God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with Him in character and will.

ADOR`NO, an illustrious plebeian family in Genoa, of the Ghibelline party, several of whom were Doges of the republic.

ADOUR, a river of France, rising in the Pyrenees and falling into the Bay of Biscay.

ADOWA`, a highland town in Abyssinia, and chief entrepot of trade.

ADRAS`TUS, a king of Argos, the one survivor of the first expedition of the Seven against Thebes, who died of grief when his son fell in the second.

ADRETS, BARON DES, a Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty; died a Catholic (1513-1587).

A`DRIA, an ancient town between the Po and the Adige; a flourishing seaport at one time, but now 14 m. from the sea.

A`DRIAN, name of six popes: A. I., from 772 to 795, did much to embellish Rome; A. II., from 867 to 872, zealous to subject the

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sovereigns of Europe to the Popehood; A. III., from 884 to 885; A. V., from 1054 to 1059, the only Englishman who attained to the Papal dignity; A. V., in 1276; A. VI., from 1222 to 1223. See BREAKSPEARE.

ADRIAN, ST., the chief military saint of N. Europe for many ages, second only to St. George; regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and protector against the plague.

ADRIANO`PLE (60), a city in European Turkey, the third in importance, on the high-road between Belgrade and Constantinople.

ADRIA`TIC, THE, a sea 450 m. long separating Italy from Illyria, Dalmatia, and Albania.

ADULLAM, David's hiding-place (1 Sam. xxii. 1), a royal Canaanitish city 10 m. NW. of Hebron.

ADULLAMITES, an English political party who in 1866 deserted the Liberal side in protest against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced. John Bright gave them this name. See 1 Sam. xxii.

ADUMBLA, a cow, in old Norse mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost, "licking the rime from the rocks--a Hindu cow transported north," surmises Carlyle.

ADVOCATE, LORD, chief counsel for the Crown in Scotland, public prosecutor of crimes, and a member of the administration in power.

ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF, body of lawyers qualified to plead at the

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Scottish bar.

ADVOCATES' LIBRARY, a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, founded in 1632; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds the privilege of receiving a copy of every book entered at Stationers' Hall.

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI, the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman Catholic Church appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization.

AEACUS, a Greek king renowned as an administrator of distributive justice, after death appointed one of the three judges in Hades. _See_ MINOS and RHADAMANTHUS.

AEDILES, magistrates of ancient Rome who had charge of the public buildings and public structures generally.

AEE`TIS, king of Colchis and father of Medea.

AEGE`AN SEA, the Archipelago.

AEGEUS, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into the AEgean Sea, so called after him, in the mistaken belief that his son, who had been to slay the Minotaur, had been slain by him.

AEGI`NA, an island 20 m. SW. of Athens, in a gulf of the same name.

AEGIR, the god of the sea in the Norse mythology.

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AEGIS (lit. a goat's skin), the shield of Zeus, made of the hide of the goat AMALTHEA (q. v.), representing originally the storm-cloud in which the god invested himself when he was angry; it was also the attribute of Athena, bearing in her case the Gorgon's head.


AEL`FRIC, a Saxon writer of the end of the 10th century known as the "Grammarian."

AELIA`NUS, CLAUDIUS, an Italian rhetorician who wrote in Greek, and whose extant works are valuable for the passages from prior authors which they have preserved for us.

AEMI`LIUS PAULUS, the Roman Consul who fell at Cannae, 216 B.C.; also his son, surnamed Macedonicus, so called as having defeated Perseus at Pydna, in Macedonia.

AENE`AS, a Trojan, the hero of Virgil's "AEneid," who in his various wanderings after the fall of Troy settled in Italy, and became, tradition alleges, the forefather of the Julian Gens in Rome.


AE`NEID, an epic poem by Virgil, of which AEneas is the hero.

AENESIDEMUS, a sceptical philosopher, born in Crete, who flourished shortly after Cicero, and summed up under ten arguments the contention against dogmatism in philosophy. See "SCHWEGLER," translated by

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Dr. Hutchison Stirling.

AEOLIAN ACTION, action of the wind as causing geologic changes.


AEO`LIANS, one of the Greek races who, originating in Thessaly, spread north and south, and emigrated into Asia Minor, giving rise to the AEolic dialect of the Greek language.

AEOLOTROPY, a change in the physical properties of bodies due to a change of position.

AE`OLUS, the Greek god of the winds.

AEON, among the Gnostics, one of a succession of powers conceived as emanating from God and presiding over successive creations and transformations of being.

AEPYOR`NIS, a gigantic fossil bird of Madagascar, of which the egg is six times larger than that of an ostrich.

AE`QUI, a tribe on NE. of Latium, troublesome to the Romans until subdued in 302 B.C.

AERATED BREAD, bread of flour dough charged with carbonic acid gas.

AERATED WATERS, waters aerated with carbonic acid gas.

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AES`CHINES, a celebrated Athenian orator, rival of Demosthenes, who in the end prevailed over him by persuading the citizens to believe he was betraying them to Philip of Macedon, so that he left Athens and settled in Rhodes, where he founded a school as a rhetorician (389-314 B.C.).

AES`CHYLUS, the father of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished himself as a soldier both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a poet; wrote, it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are extant--the "Suppliants," the "Persae," the "Seven against Thebes," the "Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon," the "Choephori," and the "Eumenides," his plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in Sicily (525-456 B.C.).

AESCULA`PIUS, a son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, whom, for restoring Hippolytus to life, Zeus, at the prayer of Pluto, destroyed with a thunderbolt, but afterwards admitted among the gods as god of medicine and the healing art; the cock, the emblem of vigilance, and the serpent, of prudence, were sacred to him.

AESON, the father of Jason, was restored to youth by Medea.

AE`SOP, a celebrated Greek fabulist of the 6th century B.C., of whose history little is known except that he was originally a slave, manumitted by Iadmon of Samos, and put to death by the Delphians, probably for some witticism at their expense.

AESO`PUS, a celebrated Roman actor, a friend of Pompey and Cicero.

AESTHETICS, the science of the beautiful in nature and the fine arts.

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AE`TIUS, a Roman general, who withstood the aggressions of the Barbarians for twenty years, and defeated Attila at Chalons, 451; assassinated out of jealousy by the Emperor Valentinian III., 454.

AETO`LIA, a country of ancient Greece N. of the Gulf of Corinth.

AFFRE, archbishop of Paris, suffered death on the barricades, as, with a green bough in his hand, he bore a message of peace to the insurgents (1793-1848).

AFGHAN`ISTAN` (5,000), a country in the centre of Asia, between India on the east and Persia on the west, its length about 600 m. and its breadth about 500 m., a plateau of immense mountain masses, and high, almost inaccessible, valleys, occupying 278,000 sq. m., with extremes of climate, and a mixed turbulent population, majority Afghans. The country, though long a bone of contention between England and Russia, is now wholly under the sphere of British influence.

AF`GHANS, THE, a fine and noble but hot-tempered race of the Mohammedan faith inhabiting Afghanistan. The Afghans proper are called PATHANS in India, and call themselves Beni Israel (sons of Israel), tracing their descent from King Saul.

AFRA`NIUS, a Latin comic poet who flourished 100 B.C.; also a Roman Consul who played a prominent part in the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey, 60 B.C.

AFRICA, one of the five great divisions of the globe, three times larger than Europe, seven-tenths of it within the torrid zone, and containing over 200,000,000 inhabitants of more or less dark-skinned

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races. It was long a _terra incognita_, but it is now being explored in all directions, and attempts are everywhere made to bring it within the circuit of civilisation. It is being parcelled out by European nations, chiefly Britain, France, and Germany, and with more zeal and appliance of resource by Britain than any other.

AFRICA`NUS, JULIUS, a Christian historian and chronologist of the 3rd century.

AFRIDIS, a treacherous tribe of eight clans, often at war with each other, in a mountainous region on the North-Western frontier of India W. of Peshawar.

AFRIKAN`DER, one born in S. Africa of European parents.

AFRIT`, a powerful evil spirit in the Mohammedan mythology.

AGA`DES, a once important depot of trade in the S. of the Sahara, much decayed.

AGAG, a king of the Amalekites, conquered by Saul, and hewn in pieces by order of Samuel.

AGAMEM`NON, a son of Atreus, king of Mycenae and general-in-chief of the Greeks in the Trojan war, represented as a man of stately presence and a proud spirit. On the advice of the soothsayer Calchas sacrificed his daughter IPHIGENIA (q. v.) for the success of the enterprise he conducted. He was assassinated by AEgisthus and Clytaemnestra, his wife, on his return from the war. His fate and that of his house is the subject of AEschylus' trilogy "Oresteia."

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AGAMOGENESIS, name given to reproduction without sex, by fission, budding, &c.

AGANIPPE, a fountain in Boeotia, near Helicon, dedicated to the Muses as a source of poetic inspiration.

AG`APE, love-feasts among the primitive Christians in commemoration of the Last Supper, and in which they gave each other the kiss of peace as token of Christian brotherhood.

AGAR-AGAR, a gum extracted from a sea-weed, used in bacteriological investigations.

AGA`SIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, famous for his statue of the "Gladiator."

AGASS`IZ, a celebrated Swiss naturalist, in the department especially of ichthyology, and in connection with the glaciers; settled as a professor of zoology and geology in the United States in 1846 (1807-1873).

AG`ATHE, ST., a Sicilian virgin who suffered martyrdom at Palermo under Decius in 251; represented in art as crowned with a long veil and bearing a pair of shears, the instruments with which her breast were cut off. Festival, Feb. 5.

AGA`THIAS, a Byzantine poet and historian (536-582).

AGATH`OCLES, the tyrant of Syracuse, by the massacre of thousands of

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the inhabitants, was an enemy of the Carthaginians, and fought against them; was poisoned in the end (361-289 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, an Athenian tragic poet, a rival of Euripides (447-400 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, ST., pope from 676 to 682.

AG`DE (6), a French seaport on the Herault, 3 m. from the Mediterranean.

A`GEN (21), a town on the Garonne, 84 m. above Bordeaux.

AGES, in the Greek mythology four--the Golden, self-sufficient; the Silver, self-indulgent; the Brazen, warlike; and the Iron, violent; together with the Heroic, nobly aspirant, between the third and fourth. In archeology, three--the Stone Age, the Bronze, and the Iron. In history, the Middle and Dark, between the Ancient and the Modern. In Fichte, five--of Instinct, of Law, of Rebellion, of Rationality, of Conformity to Reason. In Shakespeare, seven--Infancy, Childhood, Boyhood, Adolescence, Manhood, Age, Old Age.

AGESAN`DER, a sculptor of Rhodes of the first century, who wrought at the famous group of the Laocoon.

AGESILA`US, a Spartan king, victorious over the Persians in Asia and over the allied Thebans and Athenians at Coronea, but defeated by Epaminondas at Mantinea after a campaign in Egypt; _d_. 360 B.C., aged 84.

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AGGAS, RALPH, a surveyor and engraver of the 16th century, who first drew a plan of London as well as of Oxford and Cambridge.

AGGLUTINATE LANGUAGES, languages composed of parts which are words glued together, so to speak, as cowherd.

AGINCOURT`, a small village in Pas-de-Calais, where Henry V. in a bloody battle defeated the French, Oct. 25, 1415.

A`GIS, the name of several Spartan kings, of whom the most famous were Agis III. and IV., the former famous for his resistance to the Macedonian domination, _d_. 330 B.C.; and the latter for his attempts to carry a law for the equal division of land, _d_. 240 B.C.


AG`NADEL, a Lombard village, near which Louis XII. defeated the Venetians in 1509, and Vendome, Prince Eugene in 1705.

AGNA`NO, LAKE OF, a lake near Naples, now drained; occupied the crater of an extinct volcano, its waters in a state of constant ebullition.

AGNELLO, COL D', passage by the S. of Monte Viso between France and Italy.

AGNES, an unsophisticated maiden in Moliere's _L'Ecole des Femmes_, so unsophisticated that she does not know what love means.

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AGNES, ST., a virgin who suffered martyrdom, was beheaded because the flames would not touch her body, under Diocletian in 303; represented in art as holding a palm-branch in her hand and a lamb at her feet or in her arms. Festival, Jan. 21.

AGNES DE MERANIE, the second wife of Philip Augustus by a marriage in 1193, declared null by the Church, who, being dismissed in consequence, died broken-hearted in 1201.

AGNES SOREL, surnamed _Dame de beaute_, mistress of Charles VII. of France (1409-1450).

AGNE`SI, MARIA GAETANA, a native of Milan, a woman of extraordinary ability and attainments, prelected for her father in mathematics in the University of Bologna under sanction of the Pope; died a nun at her birthplace (1718-1799).

AG`NI, the god of fire in the Vedic mythology, begets the gods, organises the world, produces and preserves universal life, and throughout never ceases to be fire. One of the three terms of the Vedic trinity, Soma and Indra being the other two.

AGNOLO, a Florentine artist, friend of Michael Angelo and Raphael, distinguished for his carvings in wood (1460-1543).

AGNOSTICISM, the doctrine which disclaims all knowledge of the supersensuous, or denies that we know or can know the absolute, the infinite, or God.

AGNUS DEI, the figure of a lamb bearing a cross as a symbol of Christ, or a medal with this device; also a prayer in the Mass beginning

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with the words, "Lamb of God."

AGONIC LINE, line along which the needle points due north and south.

AGORA, the forum of a Grecian town.

AGOS`TA, a city on east coast of Sicily.

AGOULT, COUNTESS OF, a French authoress under the pseudonym of Daniel Stern (1805-1876).

AGOUST, CAPT. DE, a "cast-iron" captain of the Swiss Guards, who on May 4, 1788, by order of the Court of Versailles, marched the Parliament of Paris out of the Palais de Justice and carried off the key. See CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION," BK. I. CHAP. VIII.

AGOU`TI, a rodent, native of Brazil, Paraguay, and Guiana; very destructive to roots and sugar-canes.

A`GRA (168), a handsome city on the Jumna, in NW. Province of India, famous for, among other monuments, the Taj Mahal, a magnificent mausoleum erected near it by the Emperor Shah Jehan for himself and his favourite wife; it is a centre of trade, and seat of manufactures of Indian wares.

AG`RAM, (37), a Hungarian town, the capital of Croatia, with a fine Gothic cathedral and a university; is subject to earthquakes.

AGRARIAN LAWS, laws among the Romans regulating the division of lands.

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AGRIC`OLA, a Roman general, father-in-law of Tacitus, who conquered Great Britain in 80, recalled by the Emperor Domitian in 87, and retired into private life (37-93).

AGRICOLA, JOHANN, a follower and friend of Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians (1492-1566).

AGRICOLA, RUDOLPHUS, a learned and accomplished Dutchman, much esteemed by Erasmus, and much in advance of his time; his most important work, "Dialectics," being an attack on the scholastic system (1442-1485).

AGRIGEN`TUM, an ancient considerable city, now Girgenti, on the S. of Sicily, of various fortune, and still showing traces of its ancient grandeur.

AGRIPPA, H. CORNELIUS, a native of Cologne, of noble birth, for some time in the service of Maximilian, but devoted mainly to the study of the occult sciences, which exposed him to various persecutions through life (1486-1535).


AGRIP`PA, M. VIPSANIUS, a Roman general, the son-in-law and favourite of Augustus, who distinguished himself at the battle of Actium, and built the Pantheon of Rome (63-12 B.C.).

AGRIPPI`NA, the daughter of Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and thus the granddaughter of Augustus; married Germanicus, accompanied him in his

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campaigns, and brought his ashes to Rome on his death, but was banished from Rome by Tiberius, and _d_. in 33.

AGRIPPINA, the daughter of Germanicus and the former, born at Cologne, and the mother of Nero. Her third husband was her uncle, the Emperor Claudian, whom she got to adopt her son, and then poisoned him, in order to place her son on the throne; but the latter, resenting her intolerable ascendancy, had her put to death in 59.

AGTELEK, a village NE. of Pesth, in Hungary with vast stalactite caverns, some of them of great height.

AGUA`DO, A. M., an enormously wealthy banker of Spanish-Jewish descent, born in Seville, and naturalised in France (1784-1842).

AGUAS CALIENTES (31), a high-lying inland trading town in Mexico.

AGUE-CHEEK, SIR ANDREW, a silly squire in "Twelfth Night."

AGUESSEAU`, D', a French magistrate under Louis XIV. and Louis XV., of unimpeachable integrity and unselfish devotion, a learned jurist and law reformer, and held high posts in the administration of justice (1668-1751).

AGUILAR, GRACE, a Jewess, born at Hackney; authoress of "Magic Wreath," "Home Influence," "Vale of Cedars"; of a delicate constitution, died young (1816-1847).

A`GULHAS, CAPE (i. e. the Needles), the most southerly point of Africa, 100 m. ESE. of the Cape, and along with the bank of the whole

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south coast, dangerous to shipping.

A`HAB, a king of Israel fond of splendour, and partial to the worship of Baal (918-896 B.C.).

AHASUE`RUS, a traditionary figure known as the Wandering Jew; also the name of several kings of Persia.

AHAZ, a king of Judah who first brought Judea under tribute to Assyria.

AHLDEN, CASTLE OF, a castle in Lueneburg Heath, the nearly lifelong prison-house of the wife of George I. and the mother of George II. and of Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.

AHMADABAD (148), a chief town of Guzerat, in the Bombay Presidency, a populous city and of great splendour in the last century, of which gorgeous relics remain.

AHMED, a prince in the "Arabian Nights," noted for a magic tent which would expand so as to shelter an army, and contract so that it could go into one's pocket.

AH`MED SHAH, the founder of the Afghan dynasty and the Afghan power (1724-1773).

AHMEDNUG`AR (41), a considerable Hindu town 122 m. E. of Bombay.

AHOLIBAH, prostitution personified. See EZEK. XXIII.

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AHOLIBAMAH, a grand daughter of Cain, beloved by a seraph, who at the Flood bore her away to another planet.

AH`RIMAN, the Zoroastrian impersonation of the evil principle, to whom all the evils of the world are ascribed.

AIDAN, ST., the archbishop of Lindisfarne, founder of the monastery, and the apostle of Northumbria, sent thither from Iona on the invitation of King Oswald in 635.

AIGNAN, St., the bishop of Orleans, defended it against Attila and his Huns in 451.

AIGUILLON, DUKE D', corrupt minister of France, previously under trial for official plunder of money, which was quashed, at the corrupt court of Louis XV., and the tool of Mme. Du Barry, with whom he rose and fell (1720-1782).

AIKIN, DR. JOHN, a popular writer, and author, with Mrs. Barbauld, his sister, of "Evenings at Home" (1747-1822).

AIKMAN, W., an eminent Scotch portrait-painter (1682-1731).

AILLY, PIERRE D', a cardinal of the Romish Church, and eminent as a theologian, presided at the council of Constance which condemned Huss (1350-1420).

AILSA CRAIG, a rocky islet of Ayrshire, 10 m. NW. of Girvan, 2 m. in

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circumference, which rises abruptly out of the sea at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde to a height of 1114 ft.

AIMARD, GUSTAVE, a French novelist, born in Paris; died insane (1818-1883).

AIME, ST., archbishop of Sens, in France; _d_. 690; festival, 13th Sept.

AIN, a French river, has its source in the Jura Mts., and falls into the Rhone; also a department of France between the Rhone and Savoy.

AINMILLER, a native of Muenich, the reviver of glass-painting in Germany (1807-1870).

AI`NOS, a primitive thick-set, hairy race, now confined to Yezo and the islands N. of Japan, aboriginal to that quarter of the globe, and fast dying out.

AINSWORTH, R., an English Latin lexicographer (1660-1743).

AINSWORTH, W. H., a popular English novelist, the author of "Rookwood" and "Jack Sheppard," as well as novels of an antiquarian and historical character (1805-1882).

AIN-TAB (20), a Syrian garrison town 60 m. NE. of Aleppo; trade in hides, leather, and cotton.

AIRD, THOMAS, a Scottish poet, author of the "Devil's Dream," the

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"Old Bachelor," and the "Old Scotch Village"; for nearly 30 years editor of the _Dumfries Herald_ (1802-1876).

AIRDRIE (19), a town in Lanarkshire, 11 m. E. of Glasgow, in a district rich in iron and coal; is of rapid growth; has cotton-mills, foundries, etc.

AIRDS MOSS, a moor in Ayrshire, between the rivers Ayr and Lugar.

AIRE, a Yorkshire river which flows into the Ouse; also a French river, affluent of the Aisne.

AIRY, SIR G. B., an eminent English astronomer, mathematician, and man of science, astronomer-royal from 1836 to 1881, retired on a pension; was the first to enunciate the complete theory of the rainbow.

AISNE, a French river which, after a course of 150 m., falls into the Oise near Compiegne; also a department in the N. of France.

AISSE, MLLE., a Circassienne brought to France about 1700; left letters on French society in the eighteenth century, sparkling with wit and full of interest.

AITON, WM., a botanist, born in Lanarkshire, the first director of the Royal Gardens at Kew (1731-1793).

AITZEMA, LEO, historian of Friesland (1600-1669).

AIX (22), a town, the ancient capital of Provence, 20 m. N. of

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Marseilles, the seat of an archbishop and a university; founded by the Romans 123 B.C.; near it Marius defeated the Teutons.

AIX, ISLE OF, island in the Atlantic, at the mouth of the Charente.

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE` (103), in Rhenish Prussia, one of the oldest cities in Germany, made capital of the German empire by Charlemagne; derives its name from its mineral springs; is a centre of manufacturing industries and an important trade; is celebrated for its octagonal cathedral (in the middle of which is a stone marking the burial-place of Charlemagne), for treaties of peace in 1668 and 1748, and for a European congress in 1818.

AIX-LES-BAINS`, a small town near Chambery, in the dep. of Savoy, and much frequented by invalids for its waters and baths.

AJAC`CIO (18), the capital of Corsica, the birthplace of the Bonaparte family, of Cardinal Fesch, and Bacciochi.

AJALON, VALLEY OF, in Palestine, scene of a battle between Joshua and five Canaanitish kings, during which the sun and moon stood still at the prayer of Joshua, to enable him to finish his victory.

A`JAN COAST, a district on the E. coast of Africa, from Cape Guardafui to the mouth of the Juba, under the protectorate of Germany.

A`JAX the name of two Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and the synonym of a fiery and impetuous warrior: AJAX, the son of Telamon of Sparta, one of the bravest of the Greeks, who, on the death of Achilles, contended with Ulysses for his arms, but was defeated, in consequence of which he lost his reason and put an end to his life; and AJAX, the son of Oileus, swift of foot, like Achilles, who suffered

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shipwreck on his homeward voyage, as a judgment for an outrage he perpetrated on the person of Cassandra in the temple of Athena in Troy.

AJMERE` (68), a city in a small territory in the heart of Rajputana, under the rule of the Viceroy; well built, and contains some famous edifices.

AJODHYA, an ancient city of Oudh, 77 m. E. of Lucknow, once, on religious grounds, one of the largest and most magnificent cities of India, now in ruins; the modern town is an insignificant place, but has an annual fair, attended by often 600,000 pilgrims.

AK`ABA, a gulf forming the NE. inlet of the Red Sea.

AKAKIA, DOCTOR, a satire of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which so excited the anger of Frederick the Great, the patron of the Academy, that he ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman, after 30,000 copies of it had been sold in Paris!

AKAKIA, MARTIN, physician of Francis I., born at Chalons-sur-Marne, his real name being Sans-Malice; _d_. 1551.

AK`BAR, the great Mogul emperor of India, who, after a minority of a few years, assumed the reins of government at the age of eighteen, and in ten or twelve years, such was his power of conquest, had the whole of India north of the Vindhya Mts. subject to his rule. He was wise in government as well as powerful in war, and one of the most large-minded and largest-hearted rulers recorded in history. He reigned half a century (1542-1605).

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AKENSIDE, MARK, an English physician, who wrote, among other productions and pieces, the "Hymn to the Naiads," especially a poem entitled the "Pleasures of Imagination," much quoted from at one time, and suggested by the study of Addison on the Imagination in the _Spectator_ (1721-1770).

AKERS, B. P., an able American sculptor (1825-1861).

AKERMAN` (55), a fortified town in Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Dniester.

AKIBA, BEN JOSEPH, a famous Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, a great authority in the matter of Jewish tradition, flayed alive by the Romans for being concerned in a revolt in 135.

AKKAS, a wandering race of negro dwarfs in Central Africa, with large heads and slender necks, who live by hunting.

AKRON (27), a town in Ohio, U.S., seat of manufactures and centre of traffic.

AKSAKOF`, a Russian litterateur and advocate of Panslavism (1823-1886).

AKSU (20), a trading town in E. Turkestan, 250 m. NE. of Yarkand.

AK`YAB (37), the capital of Aracan, in British Burmah, 90 m. SE. of Calcutta.

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AL RAKIM, the dog that guarded the SEVEN SLEEPERS (q. v.), and that stood by them all through their long sleep.

ALABA`MA (1,513), one of the United States of N. America, traversed by a river of the name, a little larger than England, highly fertile and a great cotton-growing country, and abounding in iron, coal, and marble, bounded on the W. by the Mississippi, on the N. by Tennessee, and the E. by Georgia.

ALABAMA, THE, a vessel built in Birkenhead for the Confederates in the late American Civil War, for the devastation done by which, according to the decision of a court of arbitration, the English Government had to pay heavy damages of three millions of money.

ALACOQUE, MARIE, a French nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the Sacred Heart (1647-1690).

ALAD`DIN, one of the chiefs of the Assassins in the 13th century, better known by the name of the Old Man of the Mountain.

ALADDIN, a character in the "Arabian Nights," who became possessed of a wonderful lamp and a wonderful ring, by rubbing which together he could call two evil genii to do his bidding.

ALADINISTS, free-thinkers among the Mohammedans.

ALAGO`AS (397), a maritime province of Brazil, N. of Pernambuco, with tropical products as well as fine timber and dye-woods.

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ALAIN DE L'ISLE, a professor of theology in the University of Paris, surnamed the _Doctor universel_ (1114-1203).


ALAIS` (18), a town at the foot of the Cevennes, in the centre of a mining district; once the stronghold of French Protestantism.

ALAMAN`NI, LUIGI, an Italian poet and diplomatist, born at Florence (1495-1556).

ALAND ISLES, a group of 300 small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, of which 80 are inhabited; fortified by Russia.

ALANS, a barbarous horde from the East, who invaded W. Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, but were partly exterminated and partly ousted by the Visigoths.

ALAR`CON Y MENDO`ZA, JUAN RUIZ DE, a Spanish dramatist born in Mexico, who, though depreciated by his contemporaries, ranks after 200 years of neglect among the foremost dramatic geniuses of Spain, next even to Cervantes and Lope de Vega; he was a humpback, had an offensive air of conceit, and was very unpopular; he wrote at least twenty dramas, some of which have been translated into French; _d_. in 1639.

AL`ARIC I., the king of the Visigoths, a man of noble birth, who, at the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th century, ravaged Greece, invaded Italy, and took and pillaged Rome; died at Cosenza, in Calabria, in 412, at the early age of thirty-four.

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ALARIC II., king of the Visigoths, whose dominions included all Gaul and most of Spain; defeated by the Franks at Poitiers, and killed by the hand of Clovis, their king, in 567.

ALARIC COTIN, Voltaire's nickname for Frederick the Great, the former in recognition of him as a warrior, the latter as a would-be litterateur, after an indifferent French poet of the name of Cotin.

ALAS`CO, JOHN, the uncle of Sigismund, king of Poland, and a zealous promoter in Poland of the Reformation, the friend of Erasmus and Zwinglius (1499-1560).

ALAS`KA (32), an immense territory belonging to the U.S. by purchase from Russia, extending from British N. America to Behring Strait; it is poor in resources, and the inhabitants, who are chiefly Indians and Eskimos, live by hunting and fishing, and by the export of salmon; seal fishery valuable, however.

ALASNAM, a hero related of in the "Arabian Nights" as having erected eight statues of gold, and in quest of a statue for a ninth unoccupied pedestal, finding what he wanted in the person of a beautiful woman for a wife.

ALAS`TOR, an avenging spirit, given to torment families whose history has been stained by some crime.

A`LAVA (97), the southernmost of the three Basque provinces of Spain, largest, but least populous; rich in minerals, and fertile in soil.

ALAVA, RICARDO DE, a Spanish general, born in Vittoria, joined the

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national party, and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and became eventually ambassador to London and Paris (1771-1843).

ALBA LONGA, a city of Latium older than Rome.

ALBACETE (229), a province in Spain, with a capital (30) of same name, 173 m. SE. of Madrid.

ALBAN LAKE, near Alban Mount, 6 m. in circuit, occupying the basin of an extinct volcano, its surface 961 ft. above the sea-level.

ALBAN MOUNT, a small mountain overlooking Alba Longa.

ALBAN, ST., the first martyr in Britain to the Christian faith in 303; represented in art as carrying his head between his hands, having been beheaded.

ALBA`NI, an Italian painter, a disciple of Caracci, born at Bologna; surnamed the Anacreon of painting; his pictures more distinguished for grace than vigour.

ALBA`NI, an illustrious Roman family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the Church, one, Clement XI., having been Pope.

ALBANI, MME., _nee_ Emma la Jeunesse, a well-known and highly popular operatic singer of French-Canadian descent; _b_. 1847.

ALBA`NIA, a region in Balkan peninsula, on the Adriatic, extending from Servia to Greece.

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ALBANO, LAKE OF, a small crater-like lake 15 m. SE. of Rome, near which rises the Castel Gandolfo, where the Pope has a villa.

ALBANY, the old Celtic name for the Scottish highlands.

ALBANY, a town in W. Australia, on King George Sound, 261 m. SE. of Perth, a port of call for Australian liners; also the capital (94) of the State of New York, on the Hudson River, a well-appointed city; seat of justice for the State, with a large trade and numerous manufactures.

ALBANY, COUNTESS OF, wife of English pretender, Prince Charles Stuart, a dissolute woman (1753-1824).

ALBANY, THE DUKE OF, a title formerly given to a member of the royal family, and revived in the present reign.

ALBANY, DUCHESS OF, daughter of Prince Waldeck Pyrmont and widow of Prince Leopold of England; _b_. 1861, widow since 1884.

ALBATEGNI, a distinguished Arabian astronomer, born in Mesopotamia in the 9th or 10th century of our era; his observations extended over 50 years; he so improved the methods and instruments of observation as to earn the title of the Ptolemy of the Arabs.

ALBATROSS, the largest and strongest of sea-birds, that ranges over the southern seas, often seen far from land; it is a superstition among sailors that it is disastrous to shoot one.

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ALBERO`NI, an Italian of humble birth, became a Cardinal of the Church and Prime Minister to Philip V. of Spain, wrought hard to restore Spain to its ancient grandeur, was defeated in his project by the quadruple alliance of England, France, Austria, and Holland, and obliged to retire (1664-1752).

ALBERT, archbishop of Mainz, a dignity granted him by Pope Leo X. at the ransom of L15,000, which he was unable to pay, and which, as the Pope needed it for building St. Peter's, he borrowed, the Pope granting him the power to sell indulgences in order to repay the loan, in which traffic Tetzel was his chief salesman, a trade which roused the wrath of Luther, and provoked the German Reformation (1450-1545).

ALBERT, the last Grandmaster of the Teutonic knights, who being "religious in an eminent degree and shaken in his belief" took zealously to Protestantism and came under the influence of Luther, who advised him to declare himself Duke of Prussia, under the wing of Sigismund of Poland, in defiance of the Teutonic order as no longer worthy of bed and board on the earth, and so doing, became founder of the Prussian State (1490-1568).

ALBERT, markgrave of Brandenburg, defined by Carlyle "a failure of a Fritz," with "features" of a Frederick the Great in him, "but who burnt away his splendid qualities as a mere temporary shine for the able editors, and never came to anything, full of fire, too much of it wildfire, not in the least like an Alcibiades except in the change of fortune he underwent" (1522-1557).

ALBERT, PRINCE, second son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819, an accomplished man with a handsome presence, who became the consort of Queen Victoria in 1840, and from his prudence and tact was held in the highest honour by the whole community, but died at Windsor of typhoid fever, Dec. 14, 1861, to the unspeakable sorrow of both Queen and country.

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ALBERT, ST., bishop of Liege, was assassinated by the emissaries of the Emperor Henry VI. in 1195. Festival, Nov. 21.


ALBERT I., emperor of Germany from 1298 to 1308, eldest son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, "a most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, tough, and unbeautiful man, whom his nephew at last had to assassinate, and did assassinate, as he crossed the river Reuss with him in a boat, May 1, 1308."

ALBERT II., a successor, "who got three crowns--Hungary, Bohemia, and the Imperial--in one year, and we hope a fourth," says the old historian, "which was a heavenly and eternal one," for he died the next year, 1439.

ALBERT III., elector of Brandenburg. See ACHILLES OF GERMANY.

ALBERT MEDAL, a medal of gold and of bronze, instituted in 1866, awarded to civilians for acts of heroism by sea or land.

ALBERT THE BEAR, markgrave of Brandenburg, called the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong hand, and could pick what way was straightest among crooked things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg for one there, a conspicuous country ever since," says Carlyle, "and which grows more so in our late times" (1100-1175).

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ALBINOS. of France. an illustrious Florentine family. a town of some antiquity and note in S. against which Pope Innocent III. 22 m. ALBI. on the E. Page 56 of 2772 . supreme in knowledge of the arts and sciences of the time. a religious sect. NE. ALBERTI. rivals of the Medicis and the Albrizzi. which sprung up about Albi. one of the greatest of the scholastic philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages. a fertile region with large forests in British America. an able professor of anatomy and therapeutics at Leyden Computer Lecturer. ALBINUS. in the Nile basin. and regarded by his contemporaries in consequence as a sorcerer (1190-1280). ALBER`TA (26). discovered by Sir Samuel Baker in 1864. ALBIGEN`SES. as heretical. odious. slope of the Rocky Mountains. which was carried on by Simon de Montfort in the 13th century. in the S. long by 40 broad. in the 12th century. 150 m. of France. to the Church. and 2500 feet above sea-level. a lake in Equatorial Africa. proclaimed a crusade. and by the Inquisition afterwards. teacher of Thomas Aquinas. Chennai 6. CTSTI. and the mountainous districts in minerals.com ALBERT NYAN`ZA. persons or animals with preternaturally pale skin and fair hair. of Toulouse. ALBER`TUS MAGNUS. to their utter annihilation. also with pupils of a red or pink colour. and eyes too weak to bear full light. the south abounding in cattle ranches.ramakalai@gmail.

com (1696-1770). SE. AL`BULA. ALBOR`NOZ. high. who had him assassinated for forcing her to drink wine out of the skull of her father. Page 57 of 2772 . archbishop of Toledo. CTSTI. ALBUE`RA. Chennai 6. ALBRIZZI. incurred the resentment of his wife. an impersonation of the lightning as his steed. Computer Lecturer. a wonderful horse of Mahomet. 1811) of General Beresford over Marshal Soult. scene of a victory (May 16. 7595 ft. See ALBERT. near which Marshal Suchet gained a victory over the English in 1811. a powerful Florentine family. from 561 to 573. a white cliff. ALBORAK. rivals of the Medicis and the Alberti. ALBUFE`RA. 7 m.ramakalai@gmail. ALBION. a Spanish statesman. king of the Lombards in the 6th century. Swiss mountain pass in the canton of Grisons. of Valencia. a Spanish village 12 m. S. of Badajoz. a lake on the coast of Spain. ALBOIN. and set up his capital in Pavia. a bold defender of the faith against the Moor and a plain-spoken man in the interest of Christianity (1310-1367). invaded Italy as far as the Tiber. the ancient name of Great Britain. ALBRECHT.

ancient Celtic name of Scotland. near Portugal. settled in Goa. CTSTI.com ALBUMEN. and used to visit his tomb to pray him to deliver them from the oppression of his successors (1453-1513). ALCAE`US OF MITYLENE. was established in 1176 here. The Indians long remembered his benign rule. a religious and military order. E. ALCESTE. an aristocrat by birth. long and 210 ft. Chennai 6. ALCA`LA DE HENA`RES (14). long the seat of a famous university founded by Cardinal Ximenes. the founder of the Portuguese power in India.ramakalai@gmail. ALBUQUERQUE`. of Madrid. Computer Lecturer. 21 m.C. ALFONSO D'. a town of Spain. high. built in honour of Trajan in 104. a contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho. after securing a footing in India for Portugal that he sought for. for defence against the Moors. 670 ft. a Greek lyric poet. and much admired by Horace. The Order of Alcantara. who. with a bridge of six arches. ALCAN`TARA. ALBYN. a town in Spain. and was suppressed in 1835. flourished about 600 B. on the Tagus. a glairy substance a constituent of plants and animals. where his recall at the instance of jealous rivals at home gave him such a shock that he died of a broken heart just as he was leaving. the birthplace of Cervantes. a celebrated Portuguese patriot and navigator. Page 58 of 2772 . the chief character in Moliere's _Misanthrope_. and found nearly pure in the white of an egg or in the serum of the blood.

and related to Pericles. of Valencia. a walled town in Spain.com ALCES`TIS. born at Sardis. who figures in the Odyssey as the host of Ulysses. She is the subject of one of the tragedies of Euripides. ALCME`NE. a king of the Phaeacians. its middle in toil. it has been defined to be "an art without art. a patronymic of Hercules. of a universal solvent. the early analysis of substances which has in modern times developed into chemistry. ALCI`DES. the wife of Amphitryon and the mother of Hercules. the wife of Admetus. brilliant abilities.).ramakalai@gmail. Page 59 of 2772 . ALCI`RA (18). Chennai 6." ALCIBI`ADES. but was of a wayward temper and depraved. an early Greek lyric poet. served and betrayed it by turns in the Peloponnesian war. Hercules descended to the lower world and brought her back. but failed. Computer Lecturer. possessed of a handsome person. on an island 22 m. CTSTI. who had been shipwrecked on his shore. the father of Nausicaa. the grandson of Alcaeus.C. and its end in poverty. ALCIN`OUS. who gave herself up to death to save her husband. which has its beginning in falsehood. and great wealth. and of the elixir of life. and which aimed chiefly at the discovery of the philosopher's stone. an Athenian of high birth. SW. ALCHEMY. and died by assassination in exile (450-404 B. He involved his country in a rash expedition against Sicily. ALCMAN. whom Socrates tried hard to win over to virtue.

ALCOTT. See KORAN. of Alicanti. paper. Page 60 of 2772 . who acted as a nurse to the wounded during the Civil War. of which Pericles and Alcibiades were members. acute or chronic. an eminent ecclesiastic of the reign of Edward IV. a learned Englishman. the grandson of Nestor. staple manufacture. _d_. pure or highly rectified spirit obtained from fermented saccharine solutions by distillation. LOUISA MARY. ALCOHOL. JOHN. Computer Lecturer. a disciple of Bede. Chennai 6. her works mostly addressed to the young (1832-1888). CTSTI. distinguished for his love of learning and learned men. 1500. ALCOY (30). a popular American authoress.. N. invited by Charlemagne to introduce scholarly culture into the empire and establish libraries and schools of learning. was one of those men whose work lies more in what they influence others to do than in what they do themselves (735-804). AL`CUIN. ALCOHOLISM. ALCOCK. a town in Spain.ramakalai@gmail. a powerful Athenian family. ALCORAN`.com ALCMEONIDAE. of the deleterious action of alcohol on the human system. who professed to be descended from Alcmaeon. the results. and the intoxicating principle of all spirituous liquors.

CTSTI. made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. ALDINGAR. and remarkable for the correctness of the text and the beauty and clearness of the printing. ALDOBRANDINI. 3 or 4 m. legendary character. separated from Cape de la Hogue by the dangerous Race of Alderney. and crowned Computer Lecturer. AL`DERSHOT. a Florentine jurisconsult (1500-1558). long by 2 broad. one of the Channel Islands. a limpid. for instruction in military manoeuvres. a star of the first magnitude in the eye of the constellation Taurus. the steward of Eleanor. who accused her of infidelity. issued from the press of Aldus Manutius in Venice in the 16th century. and was changed into the kingfisher. Chennai 6. ALDINE EDITIONS. ALDEHYDE. ALDE`BARAN. on a moorland 35 m. very volatile liquid. established in 1855. when an angel in the form of a child appeared and certified her innocence. of London. who threw herself into the sea after her husband. Page 61 of 2772 . obtained from the oxidation of alcohol. chiefly of the classics. daughter of AEolus. AL`DERNEY (2). SW. and offered to substantiate the charge by combat.com ALCY`ONE. of a suffocating odour. who had perished in shipwreck. wife of Henry II. the bull's-eye. it is the sun in the Arabian mythology. editions. celebrated for its breed of cows. SIR. AL`DRED.ramakalai@gmail. bishop of Worcester in the reign of Edward the Confessor.. became archbishop of York. a permanent camp.

ALEMTE`JO (369). dean of Oxford. soil fertile to Computer Lecturer. and for long gave no small trouble to Rome. who collected an immense body of interesting facts in natural history. who made them subject to the Franks. 1063. published partly in his lifetime and partly after his death (1522-1607). _d_. author of the celebrated romance _Guzman de Alfarache_.. long in use in Oxford University (1647-1710). ALEMAN`NI. first by Maximinus. a southern province of Portugal. AL`DRICH. or ALDO MANUZIO. was translated several times into French. ALEC`TO. a confederacy of tribes which appeared on the banks of the Rhine in the 3rd cent. but whose incursions were arrested. a Spanish novelist.ramakalai@gmail. than to him (1447-1515). ALEMAN`. which in 6 years ran through 26 editions. and composed many services for the Church. CTSTI.com the last of the Saxon and the first of the Norman kings of England. ALDUS MANUTIUS. Chennai 6. Franciso de Bologna. an Italian printer. wrote a system of logic. one of the three Eumenides or Furies. and invented the italic type. ALDROVAN`DI. issued the celebrated Aldine Editions of the classics. for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent. though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder. an accomplished ecclesiastic. and finally by Clovis in 496. a famous Italian naturalist of Bologna. was a skilful musician. hence the modern names in French for Germany and the Germans. died in Mexico in 1610. ULYSSES. established a printing-office in Venice in 1488. born at Bassano. Page 62 of 2772 .

000 Gauls. who fell at Crecy (1346). Page 63 of 2772 . (1500-1572). or ALANE. a town in the dep. the largest of the glaciers of the Alps. till he settled as a theological professor in Germany. ALENCON. ALETSCH GLACIER. 55 m. CTSTI. ALE`SIA. of Gaul. once one of the greatest trading centres in the world. the centre of 8 railways.. JEAN IV. SE. Chennai 6. a city in Northern Syria. ALEP`PO (130). born in Edinburgh. who fell at Agincourt (1415). ALESSANDRIA (78). CHARLES OF VALOIS. a title borne by several members of the house of Valois--e. ALESIUS. v. COUNTS AND DUKES OF. cost Caesar no small trouble to take. as situated on a hill and garrisoned by 80.com the east. Computer Lecturer. in Northern Italy. a strongly fortified and stirring town on the Tenaro. which descends round the south of the Jungfrau into the valley of the Upper Rhone. a strong place in the E. once famous for its lace. architect of the monastery and church of the ESCURIAL. q. one of the finest in the East. born at Perugia. W. of Paris. which. converted to Protestantism by Patrick Hamilton. of Orne. and took an active part in the Reformation there (1500-1563). 105 m. a noted Reformer.ramakalai@gmail. ALESSI. g. was driven first from Scotland and then from England. architect. THE. of Turin. ALENCON (17).

successor to Adrian IV. pope. to Kamchatka.. is defined to have been the right of Greek intelligence to override and rule the merely glittering barbarity of the East. America. in Asia. had himself proclaimed generalissimo of the Greeks against the Persians. hurrying on farther. till the Macedonians refusing to advance. when he suddenly fell ill of fever. born at Pella. Page 64 of 2772 .000 foot and 5000 horse. and the inspiring idea of his life. ALEXANDER III. overran Egypt.. CTSTI. he swept everything before him. stretching over the N. Pacific from Alaska in N. after subduing Greece. Chennai 6. festival. SOLOMON. ALEXANDER THE GREAT. an able man. ALEXANDER. daughter of Neoptolemus. took the Computer Lecturer. and in eleven days died at the early age of 32. ST. but finally assented to. had the philosopher Aristotle for tutor. and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris. He is said to have slept every night with his Homer and his sword under his pillow. he returned to Babylon. subdued the principal cities of Syria. ascended the throne on the death of his father. patriarch of Alexandria from 311 to 326.C. whose election Barbarossa at first opposed. the king of Macedonia. ALEXANDER. Feb 26. contributed to bring about the condemnation of Arius at the Council of Nice. and in 2 years after his accession crossed the Hellespont.. of Jewish birth.com ALEU`TIAN ISLANDS (2) a chain of volcanic islands. 150 in number. and being instructed by him in all kinds of serviceable knowledge.. all unconsciously to himself belike. king of Epirus. routed the Persians at Arbela.ramakalai@gmail. cut off during a journey to Cairo (1799-1845). son of Philip by Olympias. with these conquered the army of Darius the Persian at Granicus in 334 and at Issus in 333. first Protestant bishop of Jerusalem. 356 B. followed by 30. at the age of 20.

com part of Thomas a Becket against Henry II. aided the English barons against John.. of Scotland... was present at the battle of Austerlitz. pope from 1061 to 1073. 1249.. pope from 1689 to 1691. king of Norway. son and successor of Paul I. successfully resisted the invasion of Haco. who was forced to kiss his hand to Louis XIV. ALEXANDER VI. 1124. son of the preceding... surnamed on that account _The Fierce_.. took part in the European strife against the encroachments of Napoleon. pope from 1653 to 1667. ALEXANDER I. the sister of Henry III. sided with him against the barons. _d_. after a career of crime. a Spaniard by birth.. in 1503.. lived a licentious life and had several children. son of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret... six of the name were popes: Alexander I. not without suspicion of poison. In addition to Alexanders III. Page 65 of 2772 .. accidentally killed by falling over a cliff near Kinghorn when hunting in 1285. his father. ALEXANDER III. Alexander II. subdued a rising in the North. obtained the popehood by bribery in 1492 in succession to Innocent VIII. fought the French at Pultusk and Computer Lecturer.. and canonised him. _d_. ALEXANDER II. a just and wise ruler. a vigorous prince. called Borgia from his mother..ramakalai@gmail. married a daughter of Henry III. Alexander VII. ALEXANDER I. pope from 1409 to 1410.. and on the conclusion of peace gave his daughter in marriage to Haco's successor Eric. successor of William the Lion. and married Joan. sister of Edgar Atheling. _d_. and VI. among others the celebrated Lucretia and the infamous Caesar Borgia. Alexander IV.. Chennai 6. and stood stoutly in defence of the independent rights of both Crown and Church against the claim of supremacy over both on the part of England. pope from 1254 to 1261. emperor of Russia. king of Scotland.. Alexander VIII. Pope from 1159 to 1181. as also St. Alexander V. pope from 108 to 117. Bernard. CTSTI.

ALEXANDER NEVSKY.. Under his reign Russia rose into political importance in Europe (1777-1825). CTSTI. ALEXANDER I. revised by the treaty of Berlin. which was ended by the peace of San Stephano. Chennai 6. ALEXANDER III. the Danes. freed Russia from tribute to the Mongols. and he was killed by a bomb thrown at him by a Nihilist (1818-1881). conquered the Swedes. son and successor of Nicholas I... grand-duke of Russia. son of the preceding. is one of the saints of the Russian Church.. Page 66 of 2772 . his reign not distinguished by any very remarkable event. emperor of Russia. Computer Lecturer. was defeated at Friedland. the _Doctor irrefragabilis_ of the Schools. owing to the spread of Nihilism. had an interview with Napoleon at Tilsit in 1813. an English ecclesiastic.com Eylau. which ended in the capture of Paris and the abdication of Napoleon in 1814. _b_. The present Czar is his son and successor (1845-1894). 1876. fell heir to the throne while the siege of Sebastopol was going on. followed in the footsteps of his father. and showed a marked disposition to live on terms of peace with the other Powers. His reign is distinguished by a ukase decreeing in 1861 the emancipation of the serfs numbering 23 millions. by severe rigour of Aristotelian logic.ramakalai@gmail. entered into a coalition with the other Powers against France. His later years were clouded with great anxiety. emperor of Russia. who in his "Summa Universae Theologiae" formulated. on the conclusion of a peace applied himself to reforms in the state and the consolidation and extension of the empire. ALEXANDER OF HALES. ALEXANDER II. by the extension of the empire in the Caucasus and Central Asia. king of Servia. and the Teutonic Knights on the banks of the Neva. a member of the Franciscan order. and by the war with Turkey in the interest of the Slavs in 1877-78.

ramakalai@gmail. Page 67 of 2772 . N. _d_. but setting out against the Germans. which was burned by the Caliph Omar in 640. who wrote a poem on Alexander the Great in twelve-syllabled lines. a Roman emperor. along with his mother. Chennai 6. S. Charles XII. a world-famous city. which belonged to the library of the Computer Lecturer. king of Persia. a town on the Potomac. in 1222. of Sweden. ALEXAN`DRIA (230). and in possession of the largest library of antique literature in the world. a wise. ALEXANDER OF PARIS. ALEXANDER OF THE NORTH. who were causing trouble on the frontiers of the empire. at one time a great centre of learning. 7 m. ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. of Washington. accessible to vessels of the largest size. fell a victim. 3 m. to an insurrection among his troops not far from Mainz (205-235). Alexandria. from its intimate connection with both East and West. which was at its height on the first encounter of these elements. called after him Alexandrines. ALEXANDRIA (14). virtuous. at one time a place of great commerce. but that has very materially decayed since the opening of the Suez Canal. an MS. founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B. and pious prince. CTSTI.. conquered Artaxerxes. of Dumbarton.C. also a thriving town (7) on the river Leven. gave birth in early times to a speculative philosophy which drew its principles from eastern as well as western sources. the chief port of Egypt.com the theological principles and ecclesiastical rites of the Romish Church. a Norman poet of the 16th century. on parchment of the Septuagint Scriptures in Greek in uncial letters. ALEXANDER SEVE`RUS. in an expedition against him.

ALEXANDRINES. ALEXIS. with a letter in his hand. was Computer Lecturer. Page 68 of 2772 . CTSTI. the largest town in the Erivan district of Russian Armenia. emperor of the East. ALEXAN`DROPOL (22). ALEXANDRINE PHILOSOPHY. combining eastern with western forms of thought. czar of Russia. represented in art with a staff and in a pilgrim's habit. began life as a soldier. dying. and a fortress of great strength. sometimes lying on a mat. the first czar who acted on the policy of cultivating friendly relations with other European states (1630-1677). conspired against his father as he had broken the heart of his mother.. ALEXIS MICHAELOVITCH. said to have contained 700. after his trial by secret judges he was found dead in prison (1695-1718). ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY. a lake in Australia into which the river Murray flows.com patriarchs of Alexandra. See ALEXANDER OF PARIS. ALEXANDRI`NA LAKE. the father of Peter the Great. was condemned to death. the library burned by the Caliph Omar in 642.000 volumes.ramakalai@gmail. son of Peter the Great. ALEXIS PETROVITCH. ALEXIUS COMNE`NUS. the patron saint of beggars and pilgrims. a Gnostic philosophy. Chennai 6. ST.

5 hours. ALFONSINE TABLES. originally only count. an Arabian philosopher of the 10th century. spent his youth in dissipation before he devoted himself to the dramatic art. had Avicenna for a disciple. and to stave off the doom that impended all through his reign of thirty-seven years (1048-1118). ALFARA`BI. in a period of anarchy. and was the first to attempt an encyclopedic work. a title confirmed to him by the Computer Lecturer. the wife of Charles Edward Stuart. and defeating them had himself proclaimed king on the field of battle. Tragedy was his _forte_ as a dramatist (1749-1803)." founder of the kingdom of Portugal.. was at Paris when the Revolution broke out. an Italian dramatist. raised him to the throne at the period of the first crusade. where he died and was buried. when the empire was infested by Turks on the one hand and Normans on the other. CTSTI. in that capacity took up arms against the Moors. on the success of his first drama "Cleopatra. they divided the year into 365 days. He managed to hold the empire together in spite of these troubles. was the first king. Chennai 6. the All-Father or uncreated supreme in the Norse mythology. on whose death he married her.ramakalai@gmail. 16 seconds.com a great favourite with the soldiers. astronomical tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X. in 1252 to correct the anomalies in the Ptolemaic tables. an esparto grass valuable for making paper. Page 69 of 2772 . and returned to Florence. ALFONSO I." met at Florence with the Countess of Albany. ALFIE`RI. ALFA. wrote on various subjects. AL`FADUR. while the crusaders who passed through his territory proved more troublesome than either. the "Conqueror. who. as his father before him. 49 minutes.

1844. His fame connects itself with the preparation of the Alfonsine Tables. a learned English Jesuit. died in Zamora. after various successes over the Moors. king of Castile and Leon. but on a fresh incursion of the Moors he came forth from his retreat and triumphantly beat them back. various readings. old books to read. "old wood to burn.com Pope and made good by his practically subjecting all Portugal to his sway (1110-1185). the members of his family rose against him and compelled him to abdicate. vicar of Wymeswold and afterwards Dean of Canterbury. his works and writings were numerous. died of chagrin at Seville two years later. and included poems and hymns. ALFORD. CTSTI." It was a saying of his. Chennai 6. left two great works.. celebrated as an astronomer and a philosopher. _b_. and the remark that "the universe seemed a crank machine. king of the West Saxons. "Britannia Illustrata" and "Annales Ecclesiastici et Civiles Britannorum. first one son and then another rose against him and drove him from the throne. son of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. His great work. and old friends to converse with" (1226-1284). MICHAEL. ALFRED THE GREAT. ascended the throne in 866. was an edition of the Greek New Testament. ALFONSO III. old wine to drink.ramakalai@gmail. 910. Page 70 of 2772 . however." ALFRED. and it was a pity the Creator had not taken advice. and the most celebrated Computer Lecturer.. king of Asturias. with notes. and comments (1810-1871). DUKE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA. surnamed the Great. ALFORD. fought against and gained numerous victories over the Moors. or the Astronomer. ALFONSO X. the Wise. HENRY.

CTSTI." according to Wilhelmina. born at Bologna.ramakalai@gmail. ALGAE." and the "Cura Pastoralis" of Pope Gregory. Page 71 of 2772 . and the encouragement of learning. and driven to seek refuge on the island of Athelney. and after defeating him formed a treaty with him. After this Alfred devoted himself to legislation. Frederick the Great was attached to and patronised.com and greatest of all the Saxon kings. born at Venice. a clever Italian author. in 878. which he never showed any disposition to break. with these he fought nine battles with varied success. till after a lull of some years he was surprised by Gunthrum. sea-weeds and plants of the same order under fresh water as well as salt. and it was he who in the creation of a fleet laid the first foundation of her greatness as monarch of the deep. Frederick's sister. ALGAR`DI. and cellular throughout. the "Ecclesiastical History" of Bede. His troubles were with the Danes. for his wit. an Italian sculptor of note. stemless. it does not appear Frederick got much good out of him. then king. hilly. who at the time of his accession infested the whole country north of the Thames. but traversed with rich valleys. "one of the first _beaux esprits_ of the age. Boethius's "Consolations of Philosophy. FRANCESCO. oranges. being a man of letters himself. of Pope Leo restraining Attila from marching on Rome (1602-1654). the administration of government. his greatest work is an alto-relievo. ALGAR`VE (240). Computer Lecturer. Except his wit. Chennai 6. for the want of the due practical faculty. ALGARO`TTI. the southernmost province of Portugal. England owes much to him both as a man and a ruler. whom. vines. which yield olives. the largest existing. they are flowerless. &c. all executed for the edification of his subjects (849-901). His literary works were translations of the "General History" of Orosius. Not long after this he left his retreat and engaged Gunthrum at Edington. all the faculty he had having evaporated in talk (1712-1764).

com ALGEBRA. which is fertile. for centuries a stronghold of the Moors. ALGE`RIA. belongs to France. after a siege of twenty months. and the population numbers about four millions. presenting a striking appearance. of Africa. a universal arithmetic of Arabian origin or Arabian transmission. Page 72 of 2772 . the Romans. across the bay. stretches between Morocco on the W. and Tripoli and Tunis on the E. 5 m. founded by the Arabs in 935.. At the end of this period it became a nest of pirates. The country is divided into Departments. rendered habitable here and there by the creation of artesian wells. Since it fell into the hands of the French the city has been greatly improved. called the "silver city. in which symbols are employed to denote operations. but it was only with the conquest of it by the French in 1830 that this state of things was brought to an end. It has been successively under the sway of the Carthaginians. which only began to cease when Lord Exmouth bombarded the town and destroyed the fleet in the harbour. of which Algiers. ALGESI`RAS (12). on the southern slopes of which are marshy lakes called "shotts. the capital of Algeria. its extent nearly equal in area to that of France. Oran. ALGIERS` (75). the Arabs. the fortifications strengthened. a town and port in Spain on the Bay of Gibraltar. CTSTI. which last were in the 16th century supplanted by the Turks." on which alfa grows wild. the Atlas Highlands overlooking it on the S.. and its neighbourhood has become a frequent resort of Computer Lecturer. in the N. the Vandals.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. against whom a succession of expeditions were sent from several countries of Europe. and the Berbers." from the glistening white of its buildings as seen sloping up from the sea. the country being divided into the Tell along the sea-coast. was for centuries under its Bey the head-quarters of piracy in the Mediterranean. but taken from them by Alfonso IX. the Byzantines. of which only a quarter of a million is French. and letters to represent number and quantity. and Constantine are the respective capitals. and the Sahara beyond.

the Sheiks yearly commemorate his death. died by assassination in the Mosque at Bagdad. a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. the language they speak has been divided into five dialects. A`LI. full of affection and fiery daring. of Cape Colony. AL`GOL. a double star in the constellation Perseus.com English people in winter. one of the three aboriginal races of N. of the Cape of Good Hope. bad usage. used as size for textile fabrics. Computer Lecturer. 20 m. ALGONQUINS. founded by Muhammed II. yet with a grace. Something chivalrous in him. ALHAM`BRA (Red Castle). an inlet at the E. See Carlyle's "Heroes. See BABA. the cousin of Mahomet. originally occupying nearly the whole region from the Churchill and Hudson Bay southward to N. and one of his first followers at the age of sixteen. CTSTI. erected on the crest of a hill which overlooks Granada. Page 73 of 2772 ." Became Caliph in 656. ALGO`A BAY. wide." ALI BABA. in 1213. on which Port Elizabeth stands. and earthquake. ALGINE. E. brave as a lion. ALI. 425 m. "a noble-minded creature. of changing brightness. and from the E. (1345). and for thickening soups and jellies. a viscous gum obtained from certain sea-weeds. of the Rocky Mts. Chennai 6. to Newfoundland. has suffered from neglect. Carolina. decorated with gorgeous arabesques by Usuf I. American Indians. an ancient palace and stronghold of the Moorish kings of Granada.ramakalai@gmail.

ramakalai@gmail. when his head was severed from his body and sent to Constantinople (1741-1822). Chennai 6. Page 74 of 2772 . and notorious for his cruelty as well as craft. pasha of Janina. the family name of Dante. lined throughout with mucous membrane. ALIMENTARY CANAL. fauces. and sent Hassan Pasha to demand his head. a passage 5 or 6 times the length of the body. an Episcopal clergyman in Edinburgh. oesophagus. in a province of the same name on the Mediterranean. ALIGHIE`RI. ALIGARH` (61). able man. Computer Lecturer. pharynx. ALISON. the garrison of which mutinied in 1857. CTSTI. the third seaport-town in Spain. AL`IMA.com A`LI PASHA. an affluent on the right bank of the Congo. stomach. in French territory. ARCHIBALD. best known for his "Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste" (1757-1839). a town with a fort between Agra and Delhi. ALICAN`TE (40). he offered violent resistance but being overpowered at length surrendered. until the Sultan sentenced him to deposition. a bold and crafty Albanian. and includes mouth. of which he was a native. and small and large intestines. extends from the mouth to the anus. alternately gained the favour of the Porte and lost it by the alliances he formed with hostile powers. with a spacious harbour and strongly fortified.

his great work being a "Modern History of Europe from the French Revolution to the Fall of Napoleon. ALKALIES. and properly four in number. ALISON. many of them are poisonous and invaluable in medicine. the presumed universal solvent of the alchemists." afterwards extended to the "Accession of Louis Napoleon" (1792-1867). brother of the preceding. bodies which. are soluble in water. ALKMAAR` (14). lime. viz. lithia. on the Sutlej. similar in their properties. ALKALOIDS. grain. who were provided with forces in superior numbers. where Sir Harry Smith gained a brilliant victory over the Sikhs. Computer Lecturer. Holland. Page 75 of 2772 .. a lawyer who held several prominent legal appointments. of Amsterdam. the capital of N. ALIWAL`. and baryta. earths not soluble in water. CTSTI. and a philanthropist (1790-1859). 25 m.ramakalai@gmail. oxygen. soda. with a large trade in cattle. Chennai 6. potash. hydrogen. strontia. as well as toxicologically. PULTENEY. and cheese. in 1846. NW. bodies of vegetable origin. combining with acids form salts. SIR ARCHIBALD. W. to alkalies. professor of medicine in Edinburgh University. contain as a rule carbon. and nitrogen. son of the preceding. and ammonia. a village in the Punjab. AL`KAHEST.com ALISON. ALKALINE EARTHS. and a historian. magnesia.. viz.

the Adorable." ALL THE TALENTS. a ministry formed by Lord Grenville on the death of Pitt in 1806. president of the Royal Scottish Academy. Chennai 6. SIR WILLIAM. HENRIK VAN. 550 m. entered the service of Runjeet Singh at Lahore. ALLAHABAD` (175). ALLAN. on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna. a distinguished Scottish historical painter. a central city of British India. the reputed author of the first German version of "Reynard the Fox. ALLANTOIS. painted "Circassian Captives" and "Slave-Market at Constantinople" (1782-1850). illustrated Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd". and served him against the Afghans. a membrane enveloping the foetus in mammals.com ALKMER. a Scottish portrait and historical painter. ALLARD`. and in succession to Wilkie.ramakalai@gmail. Page 76 of 2772 . AL`LAH. his greatest work is the "Origin of Painting. the Arab name for God. many of his paintings being on national subjects. and on the railway between that city and Bombay. a French general. Computer Lecturer. trained his troops in European war tactics. he was a friend of Scott. from Calcutta. birds. ALLAN. born at Alloa. who patronised his work. adopted by the Mohammedans as the name of the one God. died at Peshawar (1785-1839). born at Edinburgh. ADMINISTRATION OF. the City of God. CTSTI. and reptiles." now in the National Gallery at Edinburgh (1744-1796). DAVID.

run parallel with the Atlantic coast.S. much in favour among religious people. Ireland. the author of a still celebrated _Miserere_ (1580-1652). in height.com ALLEGHA`NY (105). Carolina. in particular the Old Testament story. a manufacturing city in Pennsylvania. of the Shannon. a figurative mode of representation. and to some extent still. Page 77 of 2772 . ALLEGRI. the family name of Correggio. a range in the Appalachian system in U. BOG OF. on the Ohio. ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION. entitled "Alarm to the Unconverted" (1632-1674). and form the watershed between the Atlantic rivers and the Mississippi. AL`LEINE. JOSEPH. the principal subject being so kept out of view that we are left to construe the drift of it from the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject. author of a book once. do not exceed 2400 ft. LOUGH OF.. born at Rome. a Puritan writer. in King's Co. opposite Pittsburg. extending from Pennsylvania to N. of which it is a kind of suburb. Computer Lecturer. assigning a higher than a literal interpretation to the Scripture record of things. CTSTI. a dreary expanse of bogs of peat E. ALLEGHA`NY MOUNTAINS. ALLEGORY. ALLEN.ramakalai@gmail. the name of an Italian composer. and Kildare. in which a subject of a higher spiritual order is described in terms of that of a lower which resembles it in properties and circumstances. an expansion of the waters of the Shannon. Chennai 6.

387 B. ALLEYN. where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus. ETHAN. the founder of Dulwich College. THE TRIPLE. 1848. ALLIANCE.com ALLEN. and Sweden Computer Lecturer. ALLE`RION.. WM. CTSTI. Chennai 6. was a contemporary of Shakespeare (1566-1626). a stream flowing into the Tiber 11 m. man of letters. and a contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_ (1771-1843).S. of Philadelphia. taken prisoner in a raid into Canada. a member of the Society of Friends. Holland.C. ALLEN. a town on the Lehigh River. and a devoted promoter of its principles (1770-1843).D. an able upholder of the evolution doctrine and an expounder of Darwinism. ALLENTOWN (34). the great centre of the iron trade in the U. born in Kingston.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated actor in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. in heraldry. wrote a defence of deism and rational belief (1738-1789).. an M. and a prolific writer. JOHN. son of a Spitalfields weaver. the points turned downwards. of Scotch birth. NW. and without beak or feet. Page 78 of 2772 . in 1668. AL`LIA. from Rome. one of the early champions of American independence. GRANT. 50 m. and was voluntarily along with his wife one of its first beneficiaries and inmates. a distinguished chemist and philanthropist. ALLEN. between England. an eagle with expanded wings. ALLEN. EDWARD. Canada.

ramakalai@gmail. between Russia.com against Louis XIV. and though timid. his most celebrated works are "Day and Night Songs" and "Lawerence Bloomfield in Ireland". an English clergyman who turned Roman Catholic. a confluent of the river Loire. Holland. when Italy stepped into her place. and the Empire to maintain the treaty of Utrecht. between France. subsists on fish. in 1815. M. the Rock of the Church. American fresh-water crocodile. Computer Lecturer. is dangerous when attacked. in 1718. the "See of St. a poet and journalist. ALLINGHAM. Austria." ALLIGATOR. born in Ireland (1812-1898). an eminent naturalist. between Germany. and wrote. however. is slow in turning. near Nevers. ALLIES. the TRIPLE. Peter.. among others. was for a time editor of _Fraser's Magazine_ (1824-1889). numerous in the Mississippi and the lakes and rivers of Louisiana and Carolina. a N. ALLMAN. the QUADRUPLE. GEORGE J. WILLIAM. Emeritus Professor of Natural History in Edinburgh. Under it the signatories in 1887 guarantee the integrity of their respective territories. and Prussia against Liberal ideas. and Russia. and its attacks can be easily evaded. ALLIES. in France. THOMAS WILLIAM. of English origin. ALLIER. in 1872. the HOLY.D. England. also the department through which it flows. the name generally given to the confederate Powers who in 1814 and 1815 entered France and restored the Bourbons. CTSTI. born in Ireland. Austria.. in defence of the step. at the instigation of Bismarck.. Page 79 of 2772 . Chennai 6. from which Russia withdrew in 1886.

although composed of identical elements. in opposition to homoeopathy.ramakalai@gmail. ALLOWAY. in Clackmannan. such as may be presumed to be still suffering in Purgatory. or Jamaica pepper. ALLOTROPY. Chennai 6. a festival on the 2nd November to pray for the souls of the faithful deceased. a ruin S. the treatment of disease by producing a condition of the system different from or opposite to the condition essential to the disease to be cured. who occupied the country between the Rhone and the Lake of Geneva. below Stirling. 6 m. the birthplace of Burns. the capability which certain compounds show of assuming different properties and qualities. a Celtic race troublesome to the Romans. corresponding to Dauphine and Savoy. ALLOPATHY. ALLOWAY KIRK. celebrated as the scene of the witches' dance in "Tam o' Shanter. ALLOB`ROGES. from Ayr. a thriving seaport on north bank of the Forth. the 1st of November. the berry of the pimento." ALL-SAINTS' DAY. a feast dedicated to all the Saints. famous for its ale. ALLSPICE. 2 m. ALL-SOULS' DAY. Page 80 of 2772 . on the Doon. the assumed scene of Tam o' Shanter's adventure. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI.com ALLOA (12). of Ayr.

his son. ALMACK'S. in Spain. whose genius was much admired by Coleridge (1779-1843). the 7th Abbaside caliph. an American painter and poet. _b_. ALMA.com ALLSTON. a confederate of Pizzaro in the conquest of Peru. a kind of European peerage. a river in the Crimea. the 2nd Abbaside caliph and the first of the caliphs to patronise learning. of late years extended so as to include statesmen and military people. ABU GIAFAR. French. admission to which was a certificate of high social standing. founded Bagdad. a great promoter of science and learning. 833. Page 81 of 2772 . DIEGO D'.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. 20. led to his imprisonment and death (1475-1538). with rich mines of quicksilver. but being conquered by Vaca de Castro. the capital of Chile. AL-MAMOUN. ALMANSUR. CTSTI. as well as statistical information. Sept. 1854. and Turkish armies defeated the Russians under Prince Menschikoff. afterwards known as Willis's Rooms. the son of HAROUN-EL-RASCHID. a suite of assembly rooms. half-way between Eupatoria and Sebastopol. where the allied English. ALMADEN (9). who avenged his death by killing Pizzaro. WASHINGTON. published annually by Perthes at Gotha. was himself put to death (1520-1542).--DIEGO D'. ALMANACH DE GOTHA. and made it the seat of Computer Lecturer. but a quarrel with the brothers of Pizzaro about the division of the spoil on the capture of Cuzco. a town on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena. ALMA`GRO. where select balls used to be given.

_d_. ABU MOHAMMED. a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century. a personification of wit. FRANCESCO. representative of one of the old noblesse of France. on the Spanish frontier of Portugal.com the caliphate. CTSTI. ALMAVIVA. recalling all their manners and vices. by Washington Irving. _b_. 775. LAURENCE. Computer Lecturer. a character in Beaumarchais' _Marriage de Figaro_. a firm and wise governor. and intrigue. and killed on his way home by the Kaffirs at the Cape in 1510. had overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain. ALMEIDA.ramakalai@gmail. superseded by Albuquerque. it would seem. ALMERIA (37). acting under him. 1836. ALMIGHTY DOLLAR. a chief town and seaport in the S. the first Portuguese viceroy of India. and made Ceylon tributary to Portugal. ALMANSUR. a distinguished artist of Dutch descent. the Almighty whom the Americans are charged with worshipping. a strong fortress in the province of Beira. under the Moors. next to Granada. settled in London. when he was repulsed and totally defeated by the kings of Leon and Navarre in 948. and at one time a nest of pirates more formidable than those of Algiers. first applied to them. ALMEIDA. talent. his son.--LORENZO. of Spain. Chennai 6. Page 82 of 2772 . an important and flourishing place. who is duped by his valet Figaro. AL`MA-TAD`EMA. distinguished himself in the Indian seas. famous for his highly-finished treatment of classic subjects.

a high-lying town at the foot of the Himalayas. the county town of Northumberland. ALMO`RA. Africa. ST. CTSTI." ALOYSIUS.ramakalai@gmail. N. Chennai 6. 85 m. and then S.. Roche beseeching Christ to arrest the Plague at Alost. which yields a fragrant resinous substance and admits of high polish. Africa and Spain from 1129 to 1273. the seat of the Duke of Northumberland. on the Aln. NW. "St. at the north entrance is Alnwick Castle. Computer Lecturer. which contains a famous painting by Rubens. with a cathedral. ALOST (25). one of the most magnificent structures of the kind in England. ALMORAVIDES. Page 83 of 2772 . and during the Border wars a place of great strength. Spain. one of the grandest in Belgium. from Brussels. a Moslem dynasty which ruled in N. ALOE. valuable in medicine. the majority natives of S. a Belgian town on the Dender. of Bareilly. ALOES WOOD. the heart of certain tropical trees. See GONZAGA. from 1055 to 1147. 19 m. a genus of succulent plants embracing 200 species.com ALMOHADES. in particular a purgative from the juice of the leaves of several species. a Moslem dynasty which subdued first Fez and Morocco. ALNWICK.

of which textile fabrics are woven. flowing west. 1591. bounded by Hautes-Alpes on the N. cap.. fertile in the S. part of Provence. an Italian nobleman. Chennai 6. ALPINE PLANTS. ALP-ARSLAN (Brave Lion). France: the BASSES-A. is covered with a long soft silky wool. Gap. traversed by the Cottian Alps. and Var on the S. Page 84 of 2772 . made up of the territory of Nice. in appearance resembles a sheep. with its source in Arcadia. ALPACA.com ALOYSIUS. HAUTES-A. cap. plants whose natural habitat approaches the line of perpetual snow. a club of English gentlemen devoted to mountaineering... a native of the Andes. a gregarious ruminant of the camel family. bordering on Italy and the Mediterranean. MARITIMES.. climate severe. CTSTI. a sultan of the Seljuk dynasty in Persia. A. to which he himself fell a victim. ALPES.. first of all in the Alps. ALPHE`US. who joined the Society of Jesus. sterile in the N.. ST. members of which have successfully addressed themselves to attempts of the kind on loftier mountains. ALPINE CLUB. a river in the Peloponnesus. forming part of Dauphine. June 21. canonised for his devotion to the sick during the plague in Rome. three departments in SE. and who pursued her under the sea as far as Sicily. of the Basses-A. Digne. and has a long erect neck with a handsome head. and of Monaco and Var. Computer Lecturer. ceded by Italy. and particularly the tablelands of Chile and Peru. in NE. also the name of the river-god enamoured of the nymph Arethusa. Nice. but is larger in size. cap. added Armenia and Georgia to his dominions (1030-1072).ramakalai@gmail. where he overtook her and was wedded to her. E.

Germany. which at one time enjoyed the privilege of a debtors' sanctuary. ALPUJAR`RAS. within the frontiers of France. and the Dinaric. become a haunt of all kinds of nefarious characters. the household goddess of a German family. and W. ALSA`TIA. CTSTI... Middle_. the Middle. form the boundary between France. and the High. According to height. their peaks mostly covered with perpetual snow.. and _Eastern:_ the Western.640). Computer Lecturer. In respect of range or extent. but restored to Germany after the Franco-German war in 1870-71. Chennai 6. the Dauphine. the vastest mountain system in Europe. ALRUNA-WIFE.com ALPS.000 sq. is a great wine-producing country. by the peace of Westphalia in 1648. they have been distributed into _Fore. above the snow-line. Whitefriars. These giant masses occupy an area of 90. including the Dolomite. THE. is under a governor general bearing the title of "Statthalter". a rich and lovely valley which stretches S.ramakalai@gmail. yields cereals and tobacco. the highest being Mont Blanc. and extend from the 44th to the 48th parallel of latitude. London. Middle_. and Switzerland on the N. extend from the Brenner and Hungarian plain to the Danube. a territory originally of the German empire. ALSACE-LORRAINE` (1. the Middle. and _High:_ the Fore rising to the limit of trees. m. Page 85 of 2772 . extend from the Mediterranean to Mont Blanc. its cotton manufacture the most important in Germany. including the Maritime. they have been distributed into _Western. from the Sierra Nevada in Spain. till abolished in 1697. to the line of perpetual snow. and the Eastern. including the Pennine and Bernese. and the Graian. by the peace of Frankfort. the Julian. ceded to Louis XIV. extend from Mont Blanc to the Brenner Pass. and had. the Cottian. and Italy on the S.

Chennai 6. CTSTI. a Danish island adjacent to Sleswig. native of Hanover. now ceded to Germany. of France. the hair-narrow hell-bridge of the Moslem. was chief of a division. with seven snow-capped hills. a German painter and engraver. bore arms under Sir John Moore. AL`TEN. ALSTEN. who entered the British service. his "Battle of Arbela" adorns the Muenich Picture Gallery (1488-1538). one of the finest in the Baltic. stretching W. a Persian refugee. related by Carlyle in his "Miscellanies. Computer Lecturer. as well as other metals. and forming the S. and closed his military career at the battle of Waterloo (1763-1840). Page 86 of 2772 . of Leipsic." ALTHEN. abounding.com ALSEN (25). inspired with his spirit. and 4 m. from the Desert of Gobi. called the Seven Sisters. capital of Saxe-Altenburg. ALBRECHT. which every Mohammedan must pass to enter Paradise.ramakalai@gmail. who introduced into France the cultivation of madder. and as a painter. boundary of Asiatic Russia.). a distinguished officer. in silver and copper. S. its castle is the scene of the famous "PRINZENRAUB" (q. v. under Wellington. to the profit of Russia. AL-SIRAT. AL`TENBURG (33). in the Peninsular war. Norway. an island off the coast of Northland. ALTDOR`FER. KARL AUGUST. a distinguished pupil of Albert Duerer. in Central Asia. ALTAI` MOUNTAINS. which became one of the most important products of the S.

ALVA. close to Hamburg. figures carved out of a tablet so as to project at least one half from its surface.com ALTON LOCKE. a member of a Spanish sect that laid claim to perfect enlightenment. a place of transit trade. ALURED OF BEVERLEY. and healthier. his career as a general was uniformly successful. associated with the story of William Tell. ALTO`NA (148). _d_. DUKE OF. CTSTI. an English chronicler of the 12th century. an old town in the canton Uri. "very busy cutting off high heads in Brabant. ALTRUISM. on the right bank of the Elbe. a general of the armies of Charles V. but as a governor his cruelty was merciless. a Comtist doctrine which inculcates sacrifice of self for the good of others as the rule of human action. and Philip of Spain. and stirring up the Dutch to such fury as was needful for exploding Spain and Computer Lecturer. especially as the viceroy of Philip in the Low Countries. and Normans up to his own time.ramakalai@gmail. a town and seaport of Sleswig-Holstein. AL`TORF. at the S. Saxons. in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages. end of the Lake of Lucerne. a novel. Page 87 of 2772 . now belonging to Germany. by Charles Kingsley. his annals comprise the history of the Britons. ALTO-RELIEVO. ALUMBRA`DO. Chennai 6. written in sympathy with the Chartist movement. and as good as forming one city with it. 1129.

visited Abyssinia and wrote an account of it. of Spain.. surnamed the Great from his wisdom and success as a ruler (1249-1323). count of Savoy. the most distinguished of Spanish sculptors. but was not acknowledged by the Church (1383-1451). ALVAREZ. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico.ramakalai@gmail. LAKE. an eminent Venetian general. was a generous man as well as a brave. was appointed Governor of Guatemala by Charles V. Chennai 6.. that he would never model a bust of him (1768-1827). Computer Lecturer.com him" (1508-1582). and comrade of Cortez. AMADEUS. in the 15th century. distinguished himself in the defence of the republic against the Emperor Maximilian (1455-1515). subject to an almost total drying-up at times. elected king of Spain in 1870. he conceived so great an aversion. but to whom. but abdicated in 1873 (1845-1890). ALVAREZ. he was elected Pope as Felix V. for his treatment of his country.. AMADEUS VIII. born near Cordova. ALVIANO. and retired into a monastery on the death of his wife. a Portuguese who. who presented him with a gold medal. CTSTI. AMADEUS I. and patronised by Napoleon. AMADE`US V. 1st duke of Savoy. DON JOSE. Page 88 of 2772 . FRANCESCO. 2nd son of Victor Emmanuel of Italy.. PEDRO DE. as a reward for his valiant services in the interest of Spain. increased his dominions. a lake in the centre of Australia. ALVARA`DO.

written partly in Spanish and partly in French by different romancers of the 15th century. which gave much trouble to the Israelites in the wilderness. of Naples. SE.com AM`ADIS DE GAUL. AMADOU. king of the Visigoths. were as good as annihilated by King David. AMALFIAN LAWS. the mother of the grand-duke. the Duchess of Weimar.ramakalai@gmail. AMAIMON. and governed by Doges of its own. used as a styptic. as well as a model knight-errant. AMAL`FI. married a daughter of Clovis. a celebrated romance in prose. Page 89 of 2772 . a port on the N. 24 m. AMALARIC. Computer Lecturer. ANNA. _d_. 581. Chennai 6. a code of maritime law compiled at Amalfi. a warlike race of the Sinaitic peninsula. and. of the Gulf of Salerno. a devil who could he restrained from working evil from the third hour till noon and from the ninth till evening. stands for a type of a constant and deferential lover. a spongy substance. of great importance in the Middle Ages. the first four books were regarded by Cervantes as a masterpiece. The hero of the book. consisting of slices of certain fungi beaten together. of whom Don Quixote is the caricature. Amadis. collected about her court the most illustrious literary men of the time. CTSTI. surnamed the Knight of the Lion. AMA`LIA. AMALEKITES. after being steeped in saltpetre. used as tinder.

who.C." _d_. AMA`RI.ramakalai@gmail. the goat that suckled Zeus. AMA`SIS. "Kill them all. originally a simple soldier. one of whose horns became the cornucopia--horn of plenty. AMA`RA SINHA. he is famous for throwing light on the true character of the Sicilian Vespers (1806-1889). one of the leaders in the crusade against the Albigenses. a celebrated family of violin-makers. answered. AMARYL`LIS. when his followers asked him how they were to distinguish heretics from Catholics. MICHELE. an Italian patriot. who was much attached to her (1739-1807). left a valuable thesaurus of Sanskrit words. a town in Asia Minor. Page 90 of 2772 . a Hindu Buddhist. AMA`SIA (25). dethroned the reigning monarch and assumed the crown. CTSTI. God will know His own.com headed by Goethe. born at Palermo. any young rustic maiden. reigned from 570 to 546 B. Chennai 6. devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily. AMALTHE`A. a shepherdess in one of Virgil's pastorals. 1225. was an Orientalist as well. Andrea and Niccolo. proved an able ruler. AMA`TI. once the capital of the kings of Pontus. AMALRIC. and cultivated alliances with Greece. Computer Lecturer. king of Egypt. took part in an insurrection. and took part in its emancipation.

traverses the continent at its greatest breadth. its mouth 200 m. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. out. they cohabited with men of the neighbouring nations. AMAZON. a fossil resin. "an honest man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth" (_Wotton_). and after a course of 4000 m.. AMAZONS. rises in the Andes about 50 m. and by steamers as far as the foot of the Andes. AMBER. a fabulous race of female warriors. falls by a delta into the Atlantic. slew all the male children they gave birth to. from the Pacific. or sent them to their fathers. the cause of which was at one time unknown. in length. is navigable 3000 m. a town in Guatemala. generally yellow and semi-transparent. Page 91 of 2772 . AMAUROSIS. up. its current affects the ocean 150 m. America and the largest on the globe. AMATITLAN (10). wide. AMBASSADOR. that they might be able to wield the bow in war. a weakness or loss of vision. becomes electric by friction. it is presumed. one 2000 m. 20 of which are above 1000 m. the Greek word for it being _electron_. its waters increased by an immense number of tributaries. burnt off the right breasts of the females. in the 16th and 17th centuries. a river in S. its basin nearly equal in extent to the whole of Europe. and gives name to electricity. has been fished up for centuries in the Baltic. from certain extinct coniferous trees. CTSTI. the inhabitants of which are mainly engaged in the preparation of cochineal. who had a queen of their own. and excluded all men from their community. and is now used in varnishes and for tobacco pipes. derived. Chennai 6.com brothers. to perpetuate the race. at Cremona.

ramakalai@gmail. is said to have died immensely rich (1460-1510). without success. AMBOISE (5). (1563) conceded the free exercise of their worship to the Protestants. and as the Pope's legate in France effected a great reform among the religious orders. a disciple of Holbein. and the Guises. with a castle. 14 m. an ashy-coloured odorous substance used in perfumery. AMBERLEY. reduced the Public burdens. a small fish without eyes. The Edict of A. as such. U. The Conspiracy of A. his principal work being the history of Joseph in twelve pictures. his father took steps to secure the suppression of. son of Lord John Russell. Chennai 6.. CARDINAL. AMBOISE. found in the Mammoth Cave. a painter of Nuernberg in the 16th century. Computer Lecturer. the conspiracy of Conde and the Huguenots in 1560 against Francis II. AMBERGRIS.. CTSTI. of Tours. once the residence of the French kings. Catharine de Medici. as merely sceptical.S. a town on the Loire. LORD. who. a small market-town near the head of Lake Windermere. E. in the Wordsworth or so-called Lake District. presumed to be a morbid fragment of the intestines of the spermaceti whale. the popular Prime Minister of Louis XII.. wrote an "Analysis of Religious Belief. being often found floating on the ocean which it frequents. Page 92 of 2772 . GEORGE DE. AMBLESIDE." which. AMBLYOPSIS.com AMBERGER.

now used to denote a satisfactory apology or reparation. AMELIA. which are reckoned his most valuable legacy to the Church. AM`BROSE. and rich before all in spices. taking. from the tradition that a swarm of bees settled on his mouth when an Infant without hurting him (340-397). 7.com AMBOYNA (238). a character in one of Fielding's novels. _d_. and a zealous opponent of the Arian heresy. AMERBACH. bishop of Milan. and only admitted him to Church privilege after a severe penance of eight months. AMENDE HONORABLE. AMBRO`SIA. originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender. and his country. stripped to his shirt. his writings fill two vols. with a chief city of the name. his attributes are a _scourge_. distinguished for her conjugal affection. spared no expense in his art. his king. fabled to preserve in them and confer on others immortal youth and beauty. Chennai 6. a pride in it. and a _beehive_.. Computer Lecturer. JOHANN. it belongs to the Dutch. he improved the Church service.ramakalai@gmail. the first who used the Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian. Page 93 of 2772 . as a stern puritan refused to allow Theodosius to enter his church. in the Malay Archipelago. who have diligently fostered its capabilities. a celebrated printer in Basel in the 15th century. He is the Patron saint of Milan. folio. one of the Fathers of the Latin Church. Dec. ST. the most important of the Moluccas. the fragrant food of the gods of Olympus. like a true workman. CTSTI. to beg pardon on his knees of his God. wrote several hymns. from his severity. and led into court with a rope round his neck held by the public executioner. Festival. 1515. covered as his hands were with the blood of an infamous massacre. born at Treves.

on the E. the divisions are British North America. AMERICA. is less than half the size of Asia. in length... by the Atlantic. Chennai 6. consists of seven political divisions: Guatemala. United States. and the Pacific on the W. a rich fauna and flora. Nicaragua. parallel with the coast. San Salvador.. CENTRAL. the Rocky. is bounded on the N. and on the W. including both North and South. now called Alaska. bounded throughout by the Atlantic on the E. bays. AMERICA. Page 94 of 2772 . and a lower range.com AMERICA. to 28 m. of which a fourth are negroes.ramakalai@gmail. consists of a plain in the centre throughout its length. contains over 81/2 millions sq. and has now a population of 80 millions. and an exhaustless wealth of minerals. and rich in all kinds of tropical vegetation. the Appalachian. which is largely indented with gulfs. Honduras. is larger than Europe and Africa together. on the W. and the Spanish.. by the Arctic Ocean. aborigines. British Honduras. Mexico. and seas. French.. by the Pacific. m. has a magnificent system of rivers. was discovered by Columbus in 1492. NORTH. Central American Republics. RUSSIAN. and Costa Rica. CTSTI. occupies one-third of the continent. AMERICA. British. in breadth. and is about six times as large as Ireland. a high range of mountains. but is a good deal smaller than Asia. contains 161/2 millions of sq. varies from 3400 m. Computer Lecturer. is 4560 m. and half-caste. AMERICA. extends from Mexico on the north to Panama on the south. on the S. British Honduras. on the E. Mosquitia. and Dutch West Indies. by the United States. m. large lakes. is a plateau with terraces descending to the sea on each side. in length. the West Indian Republics. 9000 m. the largest in the world. belongs by purchase to the United States. and comprises the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. BRITISH N.

limited to America. and tall erect figure. black deep-set eyes. high cheek-bones. till lately belonging to Spain.com AMERICA. as is known. after his name. and Pampas. who. SOUTH. CTSTI. but the Amazon and the Plate Rivers make up for the defect of seaboard. AMERICA. America where Spanish is the spoken language. the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. SPANISH. the Patagonians being of the race. JOSEPH. while the river system is the vastest and most serviceable in the globe. was in 1492 (1451-1512). AMERICAN FABIUS. these visits were made between 1499 and 1505. which the first cartographers called America. the coast is but little indented. in a work which must have involved him in much labour (1689-1759). abounds in extensive plains. to be found still as far south as Patagonia. and afterwards of Portugal.ramakalai@gmail. AMERICAN INDIANS. AMES. Selvas. four times visited the New World. a Florentine navigator. just discovered by Columbus. and consists of a high mountain range on the west. George Washington. under the auspices first of Spain. lies in great part within the Tropics. a race with a red or copper-coloured skin. the vegetable and mineral wealth of the continent is great. Chennai 6. coarse black straight hair. Computer Lecturer. though the designation is often applied to all the countries in N. and it can match the world for the rich plumage of its birds and the number and splendour of its insect tribes. AMERI`GO-VESPUC`CI. Page 95 of 2772 . historian of early British typography. and a long plain with minor ranges extending therefrom eastward. and seems for most part fast dying out. while Columbus's discovery. which go under the names of Llanos.

on the Somme. the old capital of Picardy. of Madagascar. possesses other buildings of interest. are 11 in number. Venice." and by Ruskin as "Gothic. authoritative. also a strip of linen cloth worn over the shoulder of a priest when officiating at mass. AMIENS` (88). belonging to Britain. AMICE. Page 96 of 2772 . and is celebrated for a treaty of peace between France and England concluded in 1802. a professor of aesthetics. was an admirer of Michael Angelo. AMMANA`TI. clear of Roman tradition and of Arabian taint. and only a few feet above the sea-level. which teems with suggestive thoughts bearing on the great vital issues of the day. and afterwards of ethics at Geneva. and unaccusable". AMHERST. was the birthplace of Peter the Hermit. LORD. a group of small coral islands NE. Computer Lecturer. and Padua (1511-1592).ramakalai@gmail. Humphrey Ward. a British officer who distinguished himself both on the Continent and America. are wooded. and executed several works in Rome.com AMHA`RA. Chennai 6. who is known to the outside world solely by the publication of selections from his Journal in 1882-84. the central and largest division of Abyssinia. a Florentine architect and sculptor of note. AM`IEL. and particularly along with General Wolfe in securing for England the superiority in Canada (1717-1797). with a cathedral begun in 1220. BARTOLOMEO. CTSTI. Gothic pure. unsurpassable. AMIRAN`TES. and which has been translated into English by Mrs. a flowing cloak formerly worn by pilgrims. described as the "Parthenon of Gothic architecture.

represented with the head of a ram. CTSTI. identified in Greece with Zeus. at a great age. of nitrogen and hydrogen.ramakalai@gmail. Longinus. 1517. AM`MON. and a continual trouble to them. specially valuable as a record of contemporary events. _d_. an Egyptian deity. 243. a Greek who served as a soldier in the Roman army. author of a history of Florence (1531-1601). AMMONITES. and wrote a history of the Roman Empire. AMMIRATO. _d_. who had a temple at Thebes and in the Lybian Desert. obtained from sal-ammonia. held in high esteem by Erasmus. _d_. an Italian historian. Page 97 of 2772 . sent to England by the Pope. and founder of Neo-Platonism. Chennai 6. a Semitic race living E. AMMONITES. at continual feud with the Jews. till subdued by Judas Maccabaeus. of the Jordan.com AMMIA`NUS MARCELLI`NUS. a Latin poet born in Lucca. and Plotinus were among his pupils. Computer Lecturer. a genus of fossil shells curved into a spiral form like the ram-horn on the head of the image of Ammon. 390. AMMONIA. AMMO`NIUS SACCAS. a pungent volatile gas. ANDREA. a philosopher of Alexandria. AMMONIO. and in Rome with Jupiter. was much resorted to as an oracle of fate. he became Latin secretary to Henry and a prebendary of Salisbury. Origen.

of the Jordan. THOMAS. author of the "Life of John Buncle." and other semi-insane productions.ramakalai@gmail.com AMNION. remarkable for their pungency and aromatic properties. AMOS. &c. AMPERE`. the chief exports are tea. seemingly of tall stature. one of the open ports of China. sugar.. a genus of plants. has one of the finest harbours in the world. which nothing could avert. AMORY. with the effect that it is constantly changing its shape. AMOMUM. such as the cardamom and grains of paradise. subdued by Joshua at Gibeon. ANDRE MARIE. a French mathematician and physicist. AMOEBA. Page 98 of 2772 . Esq. he was a fanatical Unitarian (1691-1789). being a mere mass of protoplasm. who in the 8th century B. name given to the innermost membrane investing the foetus in the womb. and denounced the judgment of God as Lord of Hosts upon one and all for their idolatry. gold-leaf. NE. near Bethlehem. and a large export and import trade. paper. born at Computer Lecturer. an eccentric writer of Irish descent. Chennai 6. raised his voice in solitary protest against the iniquity of the northern kingdom of Israel. a powerful Canaanitish tribe. on a small island in the Strait of Fukien. CTSTI. a minute animalcule of the simplest structure. in Judah. AMOY` (96). a poor shepherd of Tekoa. AMORITES. absorbs its food at every point all over its body by means of processes protruded therefrom at will.C.

JEAN JACQUES. eminent as a litterateur. as Zeus proved himself to the household to be when he visited Alcmene. a son of Zeus and Antiope. a daughter of Oceanus or Nereus. CTSTI. sitting alternately at Thermopylae and Delphi. son of the preceding.ramakalai@gmail. who is said to have invented the lyre.com Lyons. AMPHI`ON. who became by him the mother of Iphicles. Page 99 of 2772 . the decisions of which were several times enforced by arms. attained to the rank of a member of the French Academy (1800-1864). a council consisting of representatives from several confederate States of ancient Greece. distinguished for his discoveries in electro-dynamics and magnetism. AM`PHITRITE. and by Zeus the mother of Hercules. two from each. a serpent fabled to have two heads and to be able to move backward or forward. the wife of Neptune. AMPHIT`RYON. Chennai 6. the king of Tiryns. it was originally instituted for the conservation of religious interests. and the influence of these on electro-telegraphy and the general extension of science (1775-1836). AMPHIC`TYONIC COUNCIL. of which there were three. mother of Triton. that met twice a year. a feat often alluded to as an instance of the miraculous power of music. Computer Lecturer. the real host. a genus of limbless lizards. and a historian and critic of literature. and gave rise to what were called _sacred wars_. and built the walls of Thebes by the sound of it. AMPHISBAENA. the man who provides the feast. AMPHITRYON THE TRUE. twelve in number at length. to settle any differences that might arise between them. and husband of Alcmene. AMPERE. and goddess of the sea.

.ramakalai@gmail. the capital of Holland. of Plutarch into French. one special industry being the cutting of diamonds and jewels. grand-almoner of France and bishop of Auxerre. a sacred city of the Sikhs in the Punjab. AMUR`. 663. which. manufactures cashmere shawls. pronounced the "scientific frontier" of India towards Afghanistan. CTSTI. JACQUES. it was much esteemed by Montaigne (1513-1593). _d_. he is said to have executed the order of the Caliph Omar for burning the library of Alexandria. was tutor of Charles. among other works. Computer Lecturer. after a course of 3060 m. falls into the Sea of Okhotsk. a great trading city and port at the mouth of the Amsel. a Mohammedan general under the Caliph Omar. Page 100 of 2772 . the houses built on piles of wood driven into the marshy ground. a large eastward-flowing river. which remains to-day one of the finest monuments of the old literature of France. on the Zuyder Zee. is a largely manufacturing place. was of humble birth.com AM`RAN RANGE. E. AMSTERDAM (456). 32 m. he was the translator. AM`RU. resting on 90 islands connected by 300 bridges. on account of a cave believed to be the dwelling-place of Siva. partly in Siberia and partly in China. a place of pilgrimage in Cashmere. who appointed him grand-almoner. conquered Egypt among other military achievements. birthplace of Spinoza. of Lahore. Chennai 6. as well as an emporium of trade. AMURNATH. and a great centre of trade. is second to Delhi in Northern India. AMYOT. AMRIT`SAR (136).

and a learned Orientalist (1713-1794). arrived at Athens. Computer Lecturer. ANABAPTISTS. in his roamings in quest of wisdom. OF PERSIA. A. Haefiz. A. as well as for a wise man living among fools. a gigantic serpent of tropical America.com AMYOT. Barere. and though it spread in various parts of Germany. but was put to death on his return home by his brother. a fanatical sect which arose in Saxony at the time of the Reformation.C. OF THE GUILLOTINE. CTSTI. his songs are in praise of love and wine. a French Jesuit missionary to China. he stands for a Scythian savant living among a civilised people.). ANACON`DA. Page 101 of 2772 . not many fragments of them are preserved (560-418 B. an account by Xenophon of the ill-fated expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes.ramakalai@gmail.000 Greeks under Xenophon who accompanied him. after the battle of Cunaxa in 401 B. See BAPTISTS. who. ANAB`ASIS. ANACREON OF PAINTERS. a celebrated Greek lyric poet.C. a native of Teos. and of the retreat of the 10. lived chiefly at Samos and Athens. Chennai 6.C. came at length to grief by the excesses of its adherents in Muenster. Francesco Albani. a Scythian philosopher of the 6th century B.. ANACHARSIS. JOSEPH. ANACHARSIS CLOOTZ. ANAC`REON. and became the friend and disciple of Solon. in Asia Minor. See CLOOTZ.

ANADYR." given to her in allusion to her arising out of the sea. the most eminent. a small town 40 m. which flows into Behring Sea. the project definable as an insane attempt to realise a social system on the basis of absolute individual freedom. the name of a famous painting of Apelles so representing her. I. the highest point in the Anamalah Mts. of the right to the control of all his vital interests. a plateau in Central Mexico. CTSTI. a range of the W. a river in Siberia. AN`AKIM. Ghats in Travancore. the birthplace of several Popes. therefore. ANASTA`SIUS. a projected social revolution. and of the training of the individual so as to become a law to himself. SE.. ANAG`NI. the professed aim of which is that of the emancipation of the individual from the present system of government which makes him the slave of others. the name of four popes: A. ANARCHISM.com ANADYOM`ENE. ANAM`ALAH MOUNTAINS. called also sons of Anak. Computer Lecturer. and in possession. a name meaning "emerging. of Rome. 7580 ft. 7000 ft. Aphrodite. Page 102 of 2772 ..ramakalai@gmail. ANAMU`DI. a race of giants that lived in the S. one of the names of Mexico prior to the conquest of it by the Spaniards. of mean elevation. Chennai 6. ANAHUAC`. of Palestine.

. and the first sovereign to be so treated by the Pope (430-515). and finding them barren except for study. festival. conceived of "as a purely immaterial principle. the Greek name for Asia Minor. ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. i.)... desires. derived the universe from a material basis. pope from 496 to 498. CTSTI. _d_. excommunicated for his severities to the Christians. A. e. ANATO`LIA. April 15. pope from 911 to 913. Page 103 of 2772 . ANAXIMANDER. pope from 1153 to 1154. III. made air the first principle of Computer Lecturer. ANASTASIUS. A. 425 B. a Greek philosopher of Clazomenae. in Ionia.. a martyr under Nero.C. described by Professor Saintsbury as "a wandering of the soul from Dan to Beersheba. was the first to assign to the _nous_. pleasures. ANASTASIUS I. IV. indeterminate and eternal (611-547 B.. of which in turn the _taedium_ is not obscurely hinted. a Greek philosopher of the school of Democritus and friend of Alexander the Great. a "mosaic" work by Burton. A. transplanted it there." ANAXAG`ORAS. ANAXAR`CHUS. but being banished thence for impiety to the gods. through all employments. II. also of Miletus. emperor of the East.ramakalai@gmail. a formative power in the origin and organisation of things". settled in Lampsacus.com pope from 398 to 401. a Greek philosopher of Miletus. ST. removed to Athens and took philosophy along with him.C. ANAXIM`ENES. Chennai 6.

ANCHI`SES. Indian plant. the worship of ancestors that prevails in primitive nations.. his wife also a distinguished writer (1792-1875). having left a flagon of wine to pursue a boar. a son of Neptune. A. ANCELOT. 23 m. ANCHOVY. born at Teneriffe. who. ANCHOVY PEAR. of the taste of the mango. the presumed original of the horse. was buried in Sicily. a town on the Loire. a Portuguese Jesuit. ANCESTOR-WORSHIP. ANCAEUS. a French dramatic poet. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. v. was killed by it. Computer Lecturer. whom his son bore out of the flames of Troy on his shoulders to the ships. a fossil animal with three hoofs. called the Apostle of the New World (1538-1597).com things. of Nantes. CTSTI. the father of AEneas. NE. a small fish captured for the flavour of its flesh and made into sauce..C. due to a belief in ANIMISM (q. Page 104 of 2772 . of Lampsacus. preceptor and biographer of Alexander the Great. ANCHIETA. fruit of a W.). distinguished both in tragedy and comedy. ANCHITHERIUM. ANCENIS (4). 500 B. _d_.

a port of Italy in the Adriatic. a region in the S. a world-famous story-teller of Danish Computer Lecturer. since 1858 used as a penal settlement. grandson of Numa. Page 105 of 2772 . second to that of Venice. a central Swiss village in Uri. S. and feels compelled to relate the tale of them as a warning to others. divided into Great and Little. of Spain watered by the Guadalquivir. ANDAMANS. and of French descent (1766-1837). 4th king of Rome. 18 m. and rich in minerals. MARSHAL. surrounded by coral reefs. founded by Syracusans. and vines. a Prussian statesman. LES. ANDERSEN. a mariner doomed to suffer dreadful penalties for having shot an albatross. extended the city and founded Ostia. a profligate minister of France during the minority of Louis XIII. of Evreux. and who. when he reaches land. HANS CHRISTIAN. ANCUS MARCIUS. of Altorf. 20 m. Chennai 6. the hero of a poem by Coleridge.ramakalai@gmail. ANCO`NA (56). NE. CTSTI.370). philosophic man of letters. ANDALUSIA (3. fertile in grains. fruits. a small town on the Seine. ANDERMATT.com ANCIENT MARINER. is haunted by the recollection of them. ANDELYS. ANCILLON. FREDERICK. ANCRE. volcanic islands in the Bay of Bengal.

S. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail.. and the founder of the Andersonian College in Glasgow (1726-1796).. a celebrated actress. native of Hermiston. which extend. a Scotch lawyer.com birth. 1859. along the west of South America from Cape Horn to Panama. ANDERSON. Anderson's Reports is still a book of authority. _d_. a distance of 4500 m. an unbroken range of high mountains. often in double and triple chains. a native of Roseneath. Navarro de Viano of New York. was some time before he made his mark. S. professor of physics in Glasgow University. ANDERSON. and by a national festival on his seventieth birthday (1805-1875). one of the chief reformers of religion in Sweden (1480-1552). a writer on agriculture and promoter of it in Scotland (1739-1808). in 1890 married M. SIR EDMUND. born at Odense. the Central as far as 10 deg. ANDES. 150 of them actively volcanic. LAWRENCE. was honoured at length by the esteem and friendship of the royal family. Page 106 of 2772 . divided into the Southern or Chilian as far as 231/2 deg. _b_. Lord Chief-Justice of Common Pleas under Elizabeth. JAMES. MARY. son of a poor shoemaker. 1605. JOHN. ANDERSON. near Edinburgh. native of California. Queen of Scots. CTSTI.. ANDERSON. and the Northern to their termination. sat as judge at the trial of Mary. ANDERSON. ANDERSON. famous for his learning and his antiquarian knowledge (1662-1728). JAMES.

a Hungarian statesman. tried and hanged as a spy in the American war in 1780. played a prominent part in diplomatic affairs on the Continent to the advantage of Austria (1823-1890). became Prime Minister in 1867. CTSTI. professor in Paris University (1797-1876). 66 m. founded in 1807. a distinguished French pathologist. ANDOVER. ANDRE II.. an old municipal borough and market-town in Hampshire. Pyrenees.com ANDOCIDES. an orator and leader of the oligarchical faction in Athens.C. of London.ramakalai@gmail. a monument is erected to him in Westminster Abbey. AN`DRASSY. was four times exiled. Chennai 6. U. also a town 23 m. a small republic in the E. ANDOR`RA (6). enclosed by mountains.). the first time for profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries (467-393 B. a brave British officer. ANDREA DEL SARTO. COUNT. took part in the fifth crusade. JOHN. famous for its theological seminary. SW. ANDRE. under the protection of France and the Bishop of Urgel. ANDRAL. was exiled from 1848 to 1851. who are a primitive people and of simple habits. GABRIEL. cattle-rearing is the chief occupation of the inhabitants. Page 107 of 2772 .S. Computer Lecturer. See SARTO. from Boston.. in Catalonia. king of Hungary from 1205 to 1235.

born at Pisa. it is said. FRANCOIS. ANDREOSSY.ramakalai@gmail. but of his sermons the criticism of a Scotch nobleman. served under Napoleon. became patron saint of Scotland. CTSTI. suffered martyrdom by crucifixion. ANDREW. holding the Gospel in his right hand. contributed greatly to free modern art from Byzantine influence (1270-1345). and Winchester. ST.. ANDREOSSY. in succession bishop of Ely. when he preached at Holyrood once. ambassador at London. eminent as a scholar. RUSSIAN ORDER OF. an eminent French engineer and mathematician (1633-1688). born in Essex. ST. one of the Apostles. and of the translators of the Authorised Version of the Bible. he was fervent in devotion. ANDREWS. Page 108 of 2772 . cross like a X. Vienna. ST. and the name of the hero. a theologian. represented in art as an old man with long white hair and a beard. ANDREW. JOSEPH. LANCELOT. a novel by Fielding. a sculptor and architect. an eminent French general and statesman. Chichester. and Constantinople. was not inappropriate: "He rather plays with his subject than preaches on it" (1555-1626). who Computer Lecturer.. and a preacher. Andrew suffered. ANDREWES. and zealous High Churchman in the reign of Elizabeth and James I.com ANDREA PISANO. THE CROSS OF. Chennai 6.. ANDREW. was one of the Hampton Court Conference. advocated the recall of the Bourbons on the fall of Napoleon. COUNT. been the form of the cross on which St.. such having. and leaning on a transverse cross. an English prelate. the highest Order in Russia.

which Perseus slew. III. dethroned his father.. and the brother of Richardson's Pamela. Page 109 of 2772 . and permanent secretary to the Academy (1759-1822). I. dethroned him. IV. the name of four Byzantine emperors: A. A. a Roman slave condemned to the wild beasts. II. ANDROM`EDA. at the fall of Troy. Chennai 6. killed his ward. CTSTI. and who recognised him as his benefactor. Alexis II. professor in the College of France. but saved by a lion. grandson of the preceding. ANDRONI`CUS.. is the subject of tragedies by Euripides and Racine respectively. an eminent physicist. she had been demanded by Neptune as a sacrifice to appease the Nereids for an insult offered them by her mother. fought stoutly against the Turks without staying their advances (1328-1341). born at Strassburg. Computer Lecturer. but was given up by him to Hector's brother. the wife of Hector and the mother of Astyanax. and was put to death.. famous for her conjugal devotion.ramakalai@gmail. sent into the arena to attack him. lived to see the empire devastated by the Turks (1282-1328). born and professor in Belfast (1813-1885). ANDROM`ACHE. ANDREWS. A. A.. COMNENUS. THOMAS. out of whose foot he had long before sucked a thorn that pained him. a beautiful Ethiopian princess exposed to a sea monster.. ANDRIEUX. usurped the throne. a French litterateur and dramatist.. receiving as his reward the hand of the maiden. and was immediately stripped of his possessions himself (1377-1378). fell to Pyrrhus. ST. 1183. Achilles' son.com is a footman. ANDRO`CLUS. Soter V.

ANDUJAR (11). and made it the subject of a poem. a town of Andalusia. an instrument for measuring the force. a tumour. ANGARA. fertile soil and productive of wine and silk. on the coat of an artery. a barometer. Chennai 6. and to whom we owe the preservation of many of Aristotle's works. ANEURISM. a tributary of the Yenisei. ANEU`RIN.). Page 110 of 2772 . the oldest dramatic poet in the Latin language (240 B.ramakalai@gmail.com ANDRONICUS. ANEMOMETER. ANDRONICUS OF RHODES. course. ANEROID. the most northern of the Cyclades. on the Guadalquivir. an eminent French architect who designed the Pont Neuf at Paris (1530-1600). a British bard at the beginning of the 7th century. LIVIUS.C. who took part in the battle of Cattraeth. consisting of a small watch-shaped. which passes through Lake Computer Lecturer. ANDROS (22). CTSTI. ANDROUET DU CERCEAU`. a disciple of Aristotle in the time of Cicero. and velocity of the wind. with internal spring-work and an index. containing blood. affected by the pressure of the air on plates exposed to its action. air-exhausted metallic box. air-tight. noted for the manufacture of porous clay water-cooling vessels.

Thomas Aquinas. devoted his life to religious subjects. whose collection of paintings. with the archangel Michael piercing the dragon on the obverse of it. and a medical school. SW. JOHN. which he treated with great delicacy. and conceived in virgin purity and child-like simplicity of soul. and finally to Rome. a hideous. ANGELICA DRAUGHT. for whose sake Orlando lost his heart and his senses. ANGERSTEIN. his work in the form of fresco-painting is to be found all over Italy (1387-1455). ANGEL. beauty. an Italian painter. an old English coin. of Paris. ANGELICO. and finish. a theological seminary. became a Dominican monk at Fiesole. voracious fish of the shark family. where he died. 160 m. in Tuscany. Page 111 of 2772 . whence he removed to Florence. ANGEL-FISH.ramakalai@gmail. ANGELIC DOCTOR. a distinguished patron of the fine arts.com Baikal. something which completely changes the affection. Petersburg. bought by the British Computer Lecturer. ANGEL`ICA. born at Mugello. FRA. with a fine cathedral. the ancient capital of Anjou. born in St. CTSTI. birthplace of David the sculptor. ANGERS` (77). a devotional service in honour of the Incarnation. on the Maine. a faithless lady of romance. Chennai 6. AN`GELUS.

an island forming a county in Wales. it allures other fishes into its maw. by which. Chennai 6. i. and especially at Waterloo. where he was very popular (1768-1854). an affection of the heart of an intensely excruciating nature. ANG`LICAN CHURCH. the body of Episcopal churches all over the British Empire and Colonies. ANGLES. was some time viceroy in Ireland. AN`GLESEA (50). e. flat. corresponding to counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. eldest son of the first Earl of Uxbridge. ANGLIA. ANGLER. MARQUIS OF. at which he lost a leg.com Government.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. sprung from the Church of England. as it burrows in the sand. ANGLESEY. fertile. CTSTI. ANGI`NA PEC`TORIS. Island of the Angles. and for his services at which he received his title. a fish with a broad. the Peninsula. EAST territory in England occupied in the 6th century by the Angles. the term _Anglo-Catholic_ being applied to the High Church section. the pain of which at times extends to the left shoulder and down the left arm. a German tribe from Sleswig who invaded Britain in the 5th century and gave name to England. and rich in minerals. Holland. both covered with appendages having glittering tips. formed the nucleus of the National Gallery (1735-1822). Page 112 of 2772 . as well as America. though not subject to her jurisdiction. separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait. famous as a cavalry officer in Flanders. big-mouthed head and a tapering body.

400). Chennai 6. with a fine cathedral.. the capital of the Azores. CTSTI. ANGOULEME. a city in the centre of Anatolia. DUCHESSE D'. CHARLES DE VALOIS. 83 m. ANGO`LA (2. the capital of which is St. AN`GRA. a Computer Lecturer. on the island of Terceira. daughter of Louis XVI. the name usually assigned to the early inflected form of the English language. gained great reputation as a military commander. DUC D'.. in a district noted for its silky. cats and dogs as well as goats. left Memoirs of his life (1575-1650). a district on the W. the eldest son of Charles X. in Venezuela. Paul de Loando.ramakalai@gmail. capital of the province of Guayana. ANGOULEME. ANGOULEME` (31). ANGO`RA (20). ANGOULEME. 240 m. and wife of the preceding (1778-1851). long-haired animals. DUC D'. the birthplace of Marguerite de Valois and Balzac. after the Revolution of 1830 gave up his rights to the throne and retired to Goritz (1778-1844). ANGOSTU`RA. of Bordeaux.com ANGLO-SAXON. subject to Portugal. Page 113 of 2772 . also a medicinal bark exported thence. coast of Africa. an old French city on the Charente. natural son of Charles IX. up the Orinoco. between the Congo and Benguela. NE.

Africa. ANILINE. at the Isle of Ruegen. a Prussian field-marshal. CTSTI. an Italian medallist of the 16th century. ANG`STROM. the name of two famous French sculptors in the 17th century. N. belonging to Britain. E. one of the Lesser Antilles. distinguished for his studies on the solar spectrum. which Michael Angelo pronounced the perfection of the art. served and distinguished himself in the war of the Spanish Succession and in Italy. ANICHINI. ANHALT-DESSAU.com fortified place. of Porto Rico. ANGUIER. a duchy of Central Germany. and extensively used in the production of dyes. _b_. and watered by the Elbe and Saale. a Swedish physicist and professor at Upsala. LEOPOLD. and the nucleus of the territory belonging to Germany. obtained chiefly from coal-tar. 1814. PRINCE OF. a port in SW. Page 114 of 2772 . or Snake Island. Computer Lecturer. a colourless transparent oily liquid. was wounded at Cassano. ANGUIL`LA (2). AN`GRA PEQUE`NA.ramakalai@gmail. AN`HALT (293). and the Saxons and Austrians at Kesseldorf (1676-1747). defeated Charles XII. rich in minerals. executed a medal representing the interview of Alexander the Great with the High Priest of the Jews. of the Orange River. Chennai 6. surrounded and split up by Prussian Saxony.

an affluent of the Tiber. its physical counterpart. AN`IO. ANKARSTROeM. connected by railway with Stettin. and that when the connection between them is dissolved by death the former lives on in a ghostly form. in 1480. a belief of a ghost-soul existing conjointly with and subsisting apart from the body. the assassin of Gustavus III. correspondent with it in attributes. ANIMISM. the seed of which is used as a carminative and in the preparation of liqueurs. Computer Lecturer. of Sweden. belonged to England till wrested from King John by Philip Augustus in 1203. ANISE. for which he was executed after being publicly flogged on three successive days. at a masked ball. a belief that there is a psychical body within the physical body of a living being. the heat produced by the chemical changes which go on in the animal system.ramakalai@gmail. an ancient province in the N. ANIMAL MAGNETISM. the intensity depending on the activity of the process. ancient Rome was supplied with water from it by means of aqueducts. Page 115 of 2772 . Chennai 6.com ANIMAL HEAT. annexed to the crown of France under Louis XI. CTSTI. of France. above Rome. of certain presumed magnetic influences acting upon it. March 15. 1792. an umbelliferous plant. a name given to the alleged effects on the animal system. in other words. in certain passive states. 4 m. ANJOU`. ANKLAM (12). an old Hanse town in Pomerania.

ANN ARBOR (10). ANNAP`OLIS (3). a city of Michigan.000). niece of Peter the Great. capital of Shoa. and is rich in minerals. also the capital (7) of Maryland. along the east coast of Indo-China. birthplace of Edward Irving.S. on river Annan. E.ramakalai@gmail. under a French protectorate since 1885. Chennai 6. with an observatory and a flourishing university. retired into a convent and wrote the life of her father. in Abyssinia. and where Carlyle was a schoolboy. Page 116 of 2772 . empress of Russia in succession to Peter II. from 1730 to 1740. AN`NAN (3). on the Huron. it has a rich well-watered soil. on the Bay of Fundy. 28 m. which led to the perpetration of great cruelties. Computer Lecturer. ANNA COMNE`NA. who. an empire. stands 8200 ft. seaport of Nova Scotia. AN`NA IVANOV`NA. her reign was marred by the evil influence of her paramour Biren over her. as shown in her portraits. of the size of Sweden. which yields tropical products. a burgh in Dumfries.com ANKOBAR." Carlyle says.. "which.. Alexius I. "was comparable to a Westphalian ham" (1693-1740). U. above the sea-level. AN`NAM (6. having failed in a political conspiracy. a Byzantine princess. CTSTI. of Washington. and at length mathematical schoolmaster. under the title of the "Alexiad" (1083-1148). was famed for her big cheek.

ANNONAY (14). first to Charles VIII. the daughter of Philip III. 1577. that flourished under it. Page 117 of 2772 . at which the Counts of Geneva had their residence. Joachim. paper the chief Computer Lecturer. ST. the daughter of Francis II. QUEEN. ANNE OF AUSTRIA.. festival. a wife of Henry VIII. on a lake of the name... wife of St. ANNE. by her marriage. during the minority of her son. the capital of Haute-Savoie. of Spain. mother of the Virgin Mary. a Spanish isle in the Gulf of Guinea. but being disappointed. triumphed over the Fronde. and the patron saint of carpentry. ANNE OF BRITTANY. the duchy was added to the crown of France (1476-1514).. _d_. Chennai 6. France. then to Louis XII. and where Francis of Sales was bishop. 22 m. a town in Ardeche. in France. daughter of Duke of Cleves.com ANNE. with Cardinal Mazarin for minister. S. and mother of Louis XIV. literary and scientific. July 26.ramakalai@gmail. wife of Louis XIII.. ANNE OF CLEVES. who fell in love with the portrait of her by Holbein. though without any patronage on the part of the Queen (1665-1714). retired to a convent on the death of Mazarin (1610-1666).. soon divorced her. daughter of James II. CTSTI. ANNOBON. her reign distinguished by the part England played in the war of the Spanish succession and the number of notabilities. ANNECY (11). of Geneva. by the union of Scotland with England during her reign in 1707 became the first sovereign of the United Kingdom. Duke of Brittany. became regent on the death of her husband..

to whom we owe the discovery and first translation of the Zend-Avesta and Schopenhauer his knowledge of Hindu philosophy. a French historian in holy orders. archbishop of Canterbury. 25 m. ANSCHAR or ANSGAR. LOUIS PIERRE. SW. and which influenced his own system so much (1731-1805). monk and abbot. ANSELM. a manufacturing town in Bavaria. visited England frequently. ANQUETIL`-DUPERRON. high-principled.. v. Chennai 6. and the margraves of which were HOHENZOLLERNS (q. an able. and a calmly resolute upholder of the teaching and authority of the Church (1033-1109). gained the favour of King Rufus. but returned at the request of Henry I. of Nuernberg.. continued by Bouillet in 6 more (1723-1806). ST. ANQUETIL`.." Computer Lecturer.). an enthusiastic Orientalist. wrote "Precis de l'Histoire Universelle" and a "Histoire de France" in 14 vols. a native of Aosta. a festival on the 25th of March in commemoration of the salutation of the angel to the Virgin Mary on the Incarnation of Christ. See CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. God-fearing man. was by appointment of the Pope the first archbishop of Hamburg (801-864). who appointed him to succeed Lanfranc. ANNUNCIATION DAY. a Frenchman born. ANSBACH (14). brother of the preceding. Page 118 of 2772 . quarrelled with Rufus and left the country. a quarrel with whom about investiture ended in a compromise. ST.com manufacture. the first to preach Christianity to the pagans of Scandinavia..ramakalai@gmail. in Piedmont. CTSTI. the capital of the old margraviate of the name.

ANSTRUTHER." witnesses Carlyle. celebrated for a treaty which he concluded with Persia whereby the majority of the cities of Asia Minor passed under the sway of the Persians. the former the birthplace of Tennant the poet. Chennai 6. his fleet reduced to one vessel. an Arab chief of the 6th century. Anson's "Voyage Round the World" contains a highly interesting account of this. a _terrae filius_ or son of the earth. the capital of Madagascar. but with L500. two contiguous royal burghs on the Fife coast. LORD. "written in brief. who was strong only when his foot was on the earth. The fable has been used as a symbol of the spiritual strength which accrues when one rests his faith on the immediate fact of things. ANTANANARI`VO (100).ramakalai@gmail. perspicuous terms. to the loss of the fruit of all the victories gained over them by Athens (387 B. one of the pleasantest little books in the world's library at this time" (1697-1762). above the sea-level. Page 119 of 2772 . ANTAR. EAST AND WEST. a Spartan general. sailed round the world.000 of Spanish treasure on board. or romance all fact. lifted in air he became weak as water. a mythical giant.C. CTSTI.). and John Goodsir the anatomist. ANTAEUS. Computer Lecturer.com ANSON. "a real poem in its kind. on a well-nigh inaccessible rocky height 5000 ft. and distinguished as a poet. ANTAL`CIDAS. a subject of romance. during war on the part of England with Spain. a celebrated British naval commander. Thomas Chalmers. and after three years and nine months returned to England. on a voyage of adventure with a fleet of three ships. a weakness which Hercules discovered to his discomfiture when wrestling with him. in the centre of the island.

Page 120 of 2772 . and gibbon. with semi-erect figures and long arms. small cloven hoofs. called also splenic fever. Chennai 6. an animal closely allied to the sheep and the goat. very like the latter in appearance. a stronghold of the Moors from 712 to 1410. luminous rings witnessed in Alpine and Polar regions. due to the invasion of a living organism which. a class of apes. and generally a very short tail. which they thrust into the ant-hills and then withdraw covered with ants. ANTHRAX. graceful limbs. orang-outang. chimpanzee. a town in Andalusia.com ANT-EATERS. have a tubular mouth with a small aperture. of Malaga. with a light and elegant figure. under certain conditions. CTSTI. Sophia in Constantinople. 22 m. ANTHON. a family of edentate mammals. especially in cattle. CHARLES. _d_. including the gorilla. N. Computer Lecturer. ANTHROPOID APES. ANTHE`MIUS. 534. slender. the architect of the church of St. breeds rapidly. ANTHE`LIA. a well-known American classical scholar and editor of the Classics (1797-1867). seen round the shadow of one's head in a fog or cloud opposite the sun. without tails. a disease.ramakalai@gmail. ANTELOPE. ANTEQUE`RA (27). and a long tongue covered with a viscid secretion.

She has been immortalised in one of the grandest tragedies of Sophocles. THE MODERN. excited the jealousy of his rivals.ramakalai@gmail. the ascription of human attributes to the unseen author of things. 301 Computer Lecturer. near Cannes and opposite Nice. Creon's son. killed himself on the spot where she was buried. CTSTI. Page 121 of 2772 .com ANTHROPOLOGY. out of love for her. ANTIGONE. led about her father when he was blind and in exile. the daughter of Oedipus. king of Thebes. ANTICHRIST. the Duchess of Angouleme. one of the generals of Alexander the Great. but is by St. Chennai 6. made himself master of all Asia Minor. in Phrygia." ANTIG`ONUS. a name given in the New Testament to various incarnations of opposition to Christ in usurpation of His authority. ANTHROPOMORPHISM. ANTIG`ONE`. of France. the science of man as he exists or has existed under different physical and social conditions. See THE PARTING SCENE IN CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. frequented by fishermen. or that Christ has come in the flesh. ANTI`BES (5) a seaport and place of ancient date on a peninsula in the S. was defeated and slain at Ipsus. surnamed the Cyclops or One-eyed. daughter of Louis XV. returned to Thebes on his death. and with hardly a permanent inhabitant. John defined to involve that form of opposition which denies the doctrine of the Incarnation. who had usurped the throne. a barren rocky island in the estuary of St Lawrence. was condemned to be buried alive for covering her brother's exposed body with earth in defiance of the prohibition of Creon. ANTICOSTI.

America. Jamaica.com B. ANTIGONUS GONATAS. on the E. and embracing the Caribbean Sea. the GREATER A. a brittle white metal.. Chennai 6. of the sea. the most productive of them belongs to Britain. in the transcendental philosophy the contradiction which arises when we carry the categories of the understanding above experience and apply them to the sphere of that which transcends it. Page 122 of 2772 . all-emancipating free spirit of Christ. a slave of the Computer Lecturer.). ANTINOMY. and Porto Rico. the Windward as far as Trinidad. the last king of the Jews of the Asmonean dynasty.ramakalai@gmail. being Cuba. the Windward Islands.C. Hayti. ANTIGONUS. grandson of the preceding. of value both in the arts and medicine. king of Macedonia.C.. but recovered it.C. ANTIGUA. ANTILLES. and the LESSER A. the doctrine that the law is superseded in some sense or other by the all-sufficing. a Bithynian youth of extraordinary beauty. and the Venezuelan along the coast of S. twice deprived of his kingdom. CTSTI. put to death in 77 B. ANTIMONY. and the Venezuelan Islands--the Leeward as far as Dominica. ANTINOMIANISM. on the N. forming the Leeward Islands. America. attempted to prevent the formation of the Achaean League (275-240 B. America to S. the seat of the government. an archipelago curving round from N. one of the Leeward Islands. ANTIN`OUS..

and famous in the early history of the Church as the seat of several ecclesiastical councils and the birthplace of Chrysostom. i. God. ANTI`OPE. with a stalactite cavern. EUPATOR. e. he enrolled him among the gods. W. ANTIP`AROS (2). A. Page 123 of 2772 . THEOS. name of three Syrian kings of the dynasty of the Seleucidae: A. AN`TIOCH (23). Saviour. He was drowned in the Nile. while artists vied with each other in immortalising his beauty. _chef-d'oeuvre_ of Correggio in the Louvre. and died delirious. being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus.. A. EPIPHANES. i. CTSTI. governed Macedonia with great ability during the absence of Alexander. son of one of Alexander's generals. e. of Paros. afterwards called Caesarea.C. tyrannised over the Jews. provoked the Maccabaean revolt. and the W.. ANTI`OCHUS. lying on the high-road between the E. erected a temple and founded a city in his honour. ANTIP`ATER. I. king from 261 to 246. once a city of great splendour and extent. Illustrious.. declared war against Rome. called the Queen of the East. _The Sleep of Antiope_. II. V. failed against Egypt. and accordingly a busy centre of trade. i. defeated the confederate Greek Computer Lecturer. one of the Cyclades. king from 164 to 162.. gave harbour to Hannibal. SOTER. killed in attempting to pillage the temple at Elymais. Chennai 6. queen of the Amazons and mother of Hippolytus. and the grief of the emperor knew no bounds. became a great favourite of his and accompanied him on all his journeys. on the Orontes. was defeated at Thermopylae and by Scipio at Magnesia. A. There was an Antioch in Pisidia. king from 281 to 261 B. the Great.ramakalai@gmail. an ancient capital of Syria. A. III. IV.com Emperor Hadrian. a Macedonian general. extended and consolidated the empire. fell heir of all Syria. king from 223 to 187. king from 175 to 104.. e..

AN`TIPHON. a febrifuge prepared from coal-tar. the highest village in the world. 19. ANTISEPTICS. ANTIPYRETICS. a pope elected by a civil power in opposition to one elected by the cardinals. to prevent or arrest putrefaction. and used as a substitute for quinine. an Athenian orator and politician. high. 13. ANTIPH`ILUS. Andes. Page 124 of 2772 .C. Chennai 6. of Germany opposed to the Jews on account of the undue influence they exercise in national affairs to the alleged detriment of the natives. also a village on its flanks. or one self-elected and usurped.000 ft. of which the chief are quinine and salicylate of soda.200 ft. who speaks of him in terms of honour. particularly in surgery. ANTIPOPE. contemporary and rival of Apelles. ANTISE`MITES.).C. a volcano of the N. first and last. ANTIPYRIN. Computer Lecturer. high.). a Greek painter. a party in Russia and the E. ANTISA`NA.com states at Cranon. was the first to formulate rules of oratory (479-411 B. in Ecuador. there were some 26 of such.ramakalai@gmail. medicines to reduce the temperature in fever. substances used. preceptor of Thucydides. reigned supreme on the death of Perdiccas (397-317 B. CTSTI.

ANTONELLI. Page 125 of 2772 .. a disciple of Socrates. taken from Bolivia after the war of 1879. "I see your pride looking out through the rent of your cloak. a town of Latium on a promontory jutting into the sea. affected to disdain the pride and pomp of the world. long antagonistic to Rome. ANTOMMAR`CHI. subdued in 333 B. O Antisthenes. Chennai 6. ANTIUM. and was the first to carry staff and wallet as the badge of philosophy. of Messina. ANTONEL`LO.com ANTIS`THENES. a mountain range running NE. but so ostentatiously as to draw from Socrates the rebuke. and founder of the Cynic school. exports silver ores and nitrate of soda. Italian painter of the 15th century. from the Taurus Mts. captured in a naval engagement. the beaks of its ships. a rising port in Chile.. Computer Lecturer. and offered a determined opposition to the Revolution." ANTI-TAURUS. CTSTI. a fortified seaport lately ceded to Montenegro. left immense wealth (1806-1876). the master of Diogenes. wrote "The Last Moments of Napoleon" (1780-1838).ramakalai@gmail. a Greek philosopher. CARDINAL. Helena. it was the birthplace of Caligula and Nero. Napoleon's attached physician at St. acting as his foreign minister there. accompanied the Pope to Gaeta.C. came back with him to Rome. ANTOFAGAS`TA (7). the chief adviser and Prime Minister of Pope Pius IX. ANTIVA`RI. introduced from Holland oil-painting into Italy (1414-1493). were taken to form a rostrum in the Forum at Home.

ANTO`NIUS. of Stoic principles. and who surpassed him in virtue. left his retreat for a while to institute monasteries. in a lonely ruin by himself. erected in the year 140 A. after the murder of the latter defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. ANTONI`NUS.C. ANTO`NIUS. CTSTI. ITINERARY OF. Page 126 of 2772 . and afterwards killed himself (83-30 B. fell in love with the famous Cleopatra. during which time the Empire enjoyed unbroken peace.C. a valuable geographical work supposed of date 44 B. AN`TONY. an earthen rampart about 36 m.. Chennai 6.com ANTONI`NUS. Roman emperor.). as a barrier against invasion from the north.ramakalai@gmail. WALL OF. a Roman emperor. resisting devils without number. from the Forth to the Clyde. being also of the Stoic school and one of its most exemplary disciples.).C. ST. who reigned with justice and moderation from 138 to 161. grandson of the preceding and warm partisan of Caesar." and has left in his "Meditations" a record of his religious and moral principles (121-180). and so became the founder of monachism. ANTONI`NUS. MARCUS. where from the age of thirty he spent 20 years of his life. but Computer Lecturer. a famous Roman orator and consul. was surnamed the "philosopher. Marcus Aurelius.D. ANTONI`NUS PIUS. slain in the civil war between Marius and Sulla. in length. successor to the following. formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus. a famous anchorite of the Thebaid. MARCUS (Mark Antony). having sided with the latter (143-87 B. in Scotland. was defeated by Octavius in the naval battle of Actium.

the spire 402 ft. exports butter. COUNT D'. inhabitants mostly Protestant. on quitting the body. in Ireland. the burial-place of Rubens. ANTWERP (240). it was to see to the disposal of the souls of the dead in the nether world. festival. the fishes came in myriads to listen. ANU`BIS. a maritime county in the NE. high. linen the chief manufacture. with a beautiful Gothic cathedral. after Socrates' death. a Persian lyric poet who flourished in the 12th century. a large fortified trading city in Belgium. from the sea. and shamed the pagans into conversion. the most vehement accuser of Socrates. one of the firebrands of the French Revolution.ramakalai@gmail. whose office. ANWARI. highest where many were high. Chennai 6. Jan. Page 127 of 2772 . says the fable. ANT`RIM (471). who listened to him when no one else would. preached to the fishes. a Minorite missionary to the Moors in Africa. of Ulster." but veered round to royalism. 17 (251-351). "rose into furor almost Pythic. an Egyptian deity with the body of a man and the head of a jackal.com returned to die. AN`YTUS. banished in consequence from Athens. June 13 (1195-1234) ANTRAIGUES. which he at length intrigued on behalf of--to death by the stiletto (1765-1812). 50 m. on the Scheldt. Computer Lecturer. ANTONY OF PADUA. CTSTI. festival. soil two-thirds arable. like that of Hermes. has a large picture-gallery full of the works of the Dutch and Flemish artists.

of many in modern time to whom the universe. a branch of the Alps extending.ramakalai@gmail. CHAP. CTSTI. on others. and possessed the power of conferring beauty. APHRODI`TE. the most celebrated painter of antiquity. long a source of trouble to the republic. APES. seems to have become a weariness and a humbug See "PAST AND PRESENT. Chennai 6. in a fertile Alpine level valley. dwellers by the Dead Sea who. sprung from sea-foam.com AOS`TA (5). wife of Hephaestos and mother of Cupid. APH`IDES. bred. according to the Moslem tradition. with all its serious voices. Page 128 of 2772 . of mastery in his art. lived at the court of Alexander the Great. like Duerer. v. the Greek goddess of love and beauty. of the United States. fit symbol. and W. but where goitre and cretinism prevail to a great extent. thinks Carlyle. a town of Italy." BK. if not born. his great work "APHRODITE ANADYOMENE" (q. DEAD SEA. by means of her magic girdle. with spurs at right angles. the cestus." AP`ENNINES. the birthplace of Anselm. a family of insects very destructive to plants by feeding on them in countless numbers. at Ephesus. as queen of beauty had the golden apple awarded her by Paris. N. were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's message to them by the lips of Moses. of Turin. nearly through the whole length of Italy. as comes out in his advice to the criticising shoemaker to "stick to his last.). III. APEL`LES. III. a fierce tribe of American Indians on the S. forming about the middle of the peninsula a double chain which supports the tableland of Abruzzi. Computer Lecturer. APA`CHES. a man conscious.

and an enemy of the Jews. the incarnation of Osiris. and his mummy regarded as an object of worship. writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B. and hostile to the privileges conceded them in Alexandria. after the close of the Hebrew canon. and ascribed to one and another of the early prophets of Israel. a town in Saxe-Weimar with extensive hosiery manufactures. was at the end of 25 years drowned in a sacred fountain. with the wisdom which rests on the fear of God and loyalty to His law. must be black all over the body.com API`CIUS. APOL`DA (20). have a white triangular spot on the forehead. A`PIS. are instinct. the second with Augustus. CTSTI.C. had his body embalmed. a literature of sixteen books composed by Jews. APOCALYPTIC WRITINGS. the figure of an eagle on the back. and under the tongue the image of a scarabaeus. has mineral springs.. forecasting the judgments ordained of God to overtake the nation. and predicting its final deliverance at the hands of the Messiah.ramakalai@gmail. The word Apocrypha means hidden writing. the sacred live bull of the Egyptians. THE. an Alexandrian grammarian of the 1st century. the name of three famous Roman epicures. and the third with Trajan. APOCRYPHA. for most part. APOLLINA`RIS. Page 129 of 2772 . which though without the unction of the prophetic books of the canon. Chennai 6. bishop of Laodicea. the first of whom was contemporary with Sulla. denied the proper humanity of Computer Lecturer. A`PION. and it was given to it by the Jews to distinguish it from the books which they accepted as canonical.

C.ramakalai@gmail.D. A. APOLOGETICS. (2) a celebrated architect of Damascus." a rather prosaic account of the adventures of the Argonauts. art. his favourite oracle at Delphi. Page 130 of 2772 . it is said. _d_. and (3). the Greek name for the Hebrew Abaddon.C. APOLLONIUS OF TYANA. and has been compared to Christ. 408 B. flourished in the 3rd century B. a grammarian and poet. was worshipped after his death.. a Jew of Alexandria. APPLLODO`RUS (1). who became an eloquent preacher of Christ. having become acquainted with some sort of Brahminism. an Athenian painter. identified with the sun and all that we owe to it in the shape of inspiration. the god _par excellence_ of the Greeks. twin brother of Artemis. poetry. Chennai 6. _d_. CTSTI. APOLLO. as well as by maintaining that His body was not composed of ordinary flesh and blood. born in the island of DELOS (q. APOL`LOS. and on account of his eloquence rated above St. v. son of Zeus and Leto. an Athenian who wrote a well-arranged account of the mythology and heroic age of Greece. _d_. the first to paint figures in light and shade. who. a Pythagorean philosopher.. the destroying angel. 390. and. professed to have a divine mission. by affirming that the Logos in Him took the place of the human soul.). and medicine. whither Leto had fled from the jealous Hera. 97. Paul. a power to work miracles. author of the "Argonautica. APOLLONIUS OF RHODES.com Christ. 129. a defence of the historical verity of the Christian Computer Lecturer. APOLLYON.

OF THE SCOTS. St. St. OF THE PICTS. Denis. APOSTOLIC FATHERS. picture of St. and Inner Rhoden. OF THE INDIAN. a mountainous system of N. St. OF THE INDIES. their utmost height. OF THE GAULS. also the name of Computer Lecturer. OF THE GENTILES. OF THE ENGLISH. St. an epithet applied to the Emperor Julian. OF THE NORTH.ramakalai@gmail. Ulfilas. APPENZELL` (67).com religion in opposition to the rationalist and mythical theories. OF IRELAND. THE FOUR. under 7000 feet. OF TEMPERANCE. Barnabas Polycarp. Paul. APOSTLE OF GERMANY. Columba. A. John. conscientiously however. the derivation of episcopal power in an unbroken line from the Apostles. and St. a canton in the NE. in the museum at Muenich. Ninian. enclosed by St. Paul. Mark. Gall. Irenaeus. Peter. St. abound in coal and iron. Fathers of the Church who lived the same time as the Apostles: Clemens. APOSTATE. OF THE GOTHS. in favour of paganism. CTSTI. Francis Xavier. Page 131 of 2772 . of Switzerland. Ansgar. which is agricultural and Catholic. divided into Outer Rhoden. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. do not reach the snow-line. from the tablelands of Alabama to the St. Boniface. abjured the Christian religion established by Constantine. Father Mathew. John Eliot. OF THE FRENCH. America that stretches NE. Chennai 6. from his having. which is manufacturing and Protestant. painted by Albert Duerer. and Hermas. and includes the Alleghanies and the Blue Mountains. St. Lawrence. Augustine. APPALA`CHIANS. St. Patrick. APOSTLES. Ignatius. St. a qualification believed by High Churchmen to be essential to the discharge of episcopal functions and the transmission of promised divine grace.

ramakalai@gmail. COUNT. APPLETON (11). AP`PIAN WAY. AUGUSTUS. AP`PIAN. to Aphrodite. and finished by Augustus. Lee surrendered to Gen. a golden apple inscribed with the words.com the capital. on the Eden. "To the most Beautiful. a celebrated naval commander under Peter the Great Computer Lecturer. U. is a health resort.S.. a city of Wisconsin. of which 11 remain. on promise that he would have the most beautiful woman of the world for wife. EDWARD. APRAXEN. an Alexandrian Greek.. a village in Virginia. Chennai 6. APPLE OF DISCORD. U. Athena. Page 132 of 2772 ." thrown in among the gods of Olympus on a particular occasion. 312 B. APPLEBY. from Rome to Brundusium. and awarded by Paris of Troy. CTSTI. Grant in 1865.S. the county town of Westmorland. on the Fox River. wrote in 2nd century a history of Rome in 24 books. founder and editor of the _Academy_ (1841-1879). a magnificent highway begun by Appius Claudius. inventor of the vertical printing-press (1788-1871). as referee. APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE.C. APPLEGATH. contended for by Hera. and Aphrodite. where Gen. CH. APPLETON..

the month of "opening of the light in the days. APU`RE. APULE`IUS. chief tributary of the Orinoco. which extends as far N. Tofana's poison. of N. having captivated a rich widow. the Water-bearer. which the sun enters Jan. 21. Chennai 6. 600 people. a river in Venezuela. of Italy. into which it falls by six branches. v. his most celebrated work was the "Golden Ass. a curious New Zealand bird with rudimentary wings. and the scene of the last stages in the second Punic war. the fourth month of the year." which contains. APU`LIA (1. African birth. Computer Lecturer. Page 133 of 2772 ." AP`TERYX. lived in the 2nd century. and of the life of the leaves. it is alleged. some solution of arsenic with which a Sicilian woman called Tofana. APRIL. and of the hearts of men.com and his right-hand man in many enterprises (1671-1728).ramakalai@gmail. an ancient province in SE. and no tail. a student of Plato. in 17th century.797). plumage like hair. and of the voices of the birds. as Monte Gargano. poisoned. AQUAVIVA. the exquisite apologue or romance of PSYCHE and CUPID (q. AQUA TOFA`NA. CTSTI. 11th sign of the Zodiac. was charged at one time with sorcery. among other stories. AQUA`RIUS.). a general of the Jesuits of high authority (1543-1615).

an Italian of noble birth. or Doctor of the Schools. was from the time of Henry II. an Italian village. was known among his pupils as the "Dumb Ox. his rival. a Judaised Greek of Sinope. AQUITAINE`. of Trieste. executed a literal translation of the Old Testament into Greek in the interest of Judaism versus Christianity in the first half of the 2nd century A.com A`QUILA (20).D." the greatest of his many works.. on the Alterno. 22 m. Computer Lecturer. Page 134 of 2772 . Chennai 6. fell sick and died. once a place of great importance. A`QUILA. CTSTI. studied at Naples. a busy place." from his stubborn silence at study. where several councils of the Church were held. sat at the feet of Albertus Magnus. and being invited to assist the Council at Lyons. AQUI`NAS. prelected at his Alma Mater and elsewhere with distinguished success. AQUILEIA. THOMAS. q. along with those of Duns Scotus. W. and the ETHICO-PRACTICAL OR REALISM OF MODERN TIMES on the other. is a masterly production. constitute the high-water mark of scholastic philosophy and the watershed of its divergence into the PHILOSOPHICO-SPECULATIVE THOUGHT on the one hand. capital of the province of Abruzzo Ulteriora. a friend of Luther who aided him in the translation of the Bible. founded by Barbarossa.ramakalai@gmail. v. (1226-1274). and to this day of standard authority in the Romish Church. the Angelic Doctor. His "Summa Theologiae. a division of ancient Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees. became a Dominican monk despite the opposition of his parents. in Pontus. A`QUILA. GASPAR. His writings. which fill 17 folio vols. and went with him to Paris. till 1453 an appanage of the English crown.

a perfect Sahara. _b_. sandy. CTSTI. ARABIA (12. only wadies. suspected of aspiring to the crown on the death of Queen Elizabeth. he claimed descent from the Prophet. has no lakes or rivers. being one-third the size of the whole of Europe. and therefore few wild animals. v. Page 135 of 2772 . mathematical or vegetable forms. banished to Ceylon. yet the birthland of a race that threatened at one time to sweep the globe. deep. where she died bereft of reason in 1615 at the age of 38. ARA`BI.. 1839. and (_c_) stretches of coast land. Computer Lecturer. and S. consisting of imaginary. has no forests. See ARABIA. often fantastic. the Great Arabian. the W. the victim all her days of jealousy and state policy. consisting of (_a_) a central plateau with pastures for cattle.. said sometimes to be 600 ft.. in the S. contains YEMEN and EL HEJAZ (q. ARABESQUE. a trading country with no roads or railways. the climate being hot and arid. ARABIA FELIX. stony. ARABIAN DESERT. oftenest dry. a cousin of King James I. Chennai 6. and the Dahna between.com ARABELLA STUART. an ornamentation introduced by the Moors.ramakalai@gmail. leader of an insurrectionary movement in Egypt in 1882. and of a religion that has been a life-guidance to wide-scattered millions of human beings for over twelve centuries of time. AHMED PASHA.000). was shut up in the Tower of London. only caravan routes. and fertile valleys. and is subject to Turkey. is divided into eight territories. the Nefud in the N. generally fertile on the W.. the most westerly peninsula of Asia and the largest in the world. but exclusive of the forms of men and animals. coast of Arabia. (_b_) a ring of deserts.).

" ARACAN. brilliant. ARAD (42). swift-handed. a people of wild.ramakalai@gmail." Such is Carlyle's opinion of the race from whom Mahomet sprang. a Lydian maiden. which is not Jewish. THE. See ARAKAN. ARABS. seat of a bishop. something most agile. taciturn rather. and iron restraint over these. Page 136 of 2772 . who excelled in weaving. she had failed in the competition. strong feelings. and previously hanged herself in her despair. on the right bank of the Maros. active. Computer Lecturer. or the Thousand and One Nights. deep-hearted. and whom Athena changed into a spider because she had proudly challenged her ability to weave as artistic a work. as given in his "Heroes. at the end of which term the king. ARACH`NE. a fortified town in Hungary. it is said. manufactures tobacco. truthful kind of men. an earnest. but eloquent. as in action. enthusiastic in their character. and first translated into French by Galland in 1704. CTSTI. The thread on which they are strung is this: A Persian monarch having made a vow that he would marry a fresh bride every night and sacrifice her in the morning. but with that deadly terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something graceful. a collection of tales of various origin and date.com ARABIAN NIGHTS. the vizier's daughter obtained permission to be the first bride. yet most meditative. "a noble-gifted people. not a loquacious people. and began a story which broke off at an interesting part evening after evening for a thousand and one nights. gifted when they do speak. trades in cattle and corn. In words too. traceable in their present form to the middle of the 15th century. Chennai 6. of Jewish kindred indeed. released her and spared her life.

of France. and at his death received a public funeral (1786-1853). author of a "Voyage Round the World" (1790-1855). ARAKAN (671). a granite hill E. of Spain. on the E. Page 137 of 2772 . ARAGUAY. would rather resign his post at the Observatory. broad. traversed by the Ebro. in Brazil. and divided as you proceed southward into the provinces of Huesca. marshy country. ARAFAT`. ARAGO. but was retained. as well as sugar and hemp. a territory in the NE. an eminent physicist and astronomer. a place of pilgrimage as the spot where Adam received his wife after 200 years separation from her on account of their disobedience to the Lord in deference to the suggestion of Satan. The natives belong to the Burman stock. the Mohammedan sheol or borderland between heaven and hell for those who are from incapacity either not morally bad or morally good. AR`AGO. was member of the Provisional Government in 1848.. a brother of the preceding. rather barren. refused to take the oath to Louis Napoleon after the _coup d'etat_. a low. a litterateur and a traveller. elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at the early age of twenty-three. a strip of land in British Burmah. which it joins after a course of 1000 m. with beautiful fertile valleys. of Mecca. AR`AGON (925). 400 m. of the Bay of Bengal. long and from 90 to 15 m. produces and exports large quantities of rice. Chennai 6. and are of the Buddhist Computer Lecturer. was a kingdom till 1469.com ARAF. born in the S. FRANCOIS. CTSTI. augmented by subsidiary streams.. Saragossa. nominated Director of the Observatory in 1830. JACQUES.ramakalai@gmail. an affluent of the Tocantins. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris when seventeen. mountainous in the N. and Teruel. in the S.

ARAL. of Palestine. the language of Palestine in the days of Christ. 150 m. larger than the Irish Sea. though there is a sprinkling of Mohammedans among them.ramakalai@gmail. was Prime Minister of Charles IV. shallow. and one of the highest of the Pyrenees. ARAN. ARAN ISLANDS.. a generic name given to the Semitic tribes that dwelt in the NE. also to those that dwelt at the mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris. the territories lying to NE. ARANDA. source of the Garonne. of Palestine. and was succeeded by Computer Lecturer. THE SEA OF. suppressed brigandage. a Semitic dialect that has now almost entirely died out. E. banished the Jesuits. and is said to be drying up. Page 138 of 2772 . to which they form a breakwater. a Pyrenean valley. 265 m. EUGENE. an eminent Spanish statesman. of the Caspian. ARAM. COUNT OF. and improperly Chaldee. ARAMAEA. to whose fate a novel of Bulwer Lytton's and a poem of Hood's have lent a romantic and somewhat fictitious interest. VAL D'.com faith. long and 145 broad. CTSTI. Chennai 6. has no outlet. the inhabitants of which spoke a Semitic dialect called Aramaic. a lake in Turkestan. three islands with antique relics across the mouth of Galway Bay. ARAMA`IC. ARAMAE`ANS. convicted of murder years after the act and executed 1759. and curtailed the power of the Inquisition. an English school-usher of scholarly attainments.

natives of and confined to the southern hemisphere.C. a town near Mosul.com Godoy (1719-1798). high. in which he was thwarted by Philip of Macedon. a thriving seaport and manufacturing town on the Computer Lecturer. AR`ARAT. a mountain in Armenia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. native of Sicyon. author of two didactic poems. it is said. by his order (271-213 B. Chennai 6. 28. ARAUCA`NIA (88). ARANJU`EZ (8). Page 139 of 2772 . SE. ARAUCA`RIA.ramakalai@gmail. the Araucos being an Indian race long resistant but now subject to Chilian authority. in Greece. ARA`TUS. the country of the Araucos. 17. in Chile. of Madrid. of Valdivia. born in Cilicia. JANOS. 331 B.C. ARBROATH (22). attained to eminence as a man of letters (1819-1882). and borders on both Turkey and Persia. was poisoned. long the spring resort of the Spanish Court. CTSTI. quoted by St Paul in Acts xvii. is within Russian territory. and interesting as the only one that has proved itself able to govern itself and hold its own in the presence of the white man. a popular Hungarian poet of peasant origin.). of Concepcion and N. promoter of the Achaean League. AR`ANY.000 ft. ARBE`LA. S. also a Greek poet. where Alexander the Great finally defeated Darius. tall conifer trees. a town 28 m.

com Forfarshire coast." ARBUTHNOT. It is the "Fairport" of the "Antiquary. the study or the science of the monuments of antiquity. born in Kincardineshire. and was the seat of the worship of Artemis and Pan. denied that we had any accurate criterion of truth. long by 40 broad. joint-author with Swift. a physician and eminent literary man of the age of Queen Anne and her two successors. ARCESILA`US. AR`CACHON (7). CTSTI. a Greek philosopher. ARCA`DIUS. the friend of Swift and Pope and other lights of the time. ARCA`DIA. a weak. born in Spain. much esteemed by them for his wit and kind-heartedness. luxurious prince. ARCHAEOLOGY. of Bordeaux. Page 140 of 2772 . with the picturesque ruins of an extensive old abbey. a popular watering-place. it is thought. 50 m. Computer Lecturer. and rustic simplicity and bliss. who held in opposition to the Stoics that perception was not knowledge. of Dundee. N. JOHN. favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints. leaving the government in other hands (377-405). of the "Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus" and the "History of John Bull" (1667-1735). of which Cardinal Beaton was the last abbot. a mountain-girt pastoral tableland in the heart of the Morea. and denounced all dogmatism in opinion. a member of the Platonic School and founder of the New Academy. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. SW. as distinct from palaeontology. 17 m. the first emperor of the East. which has to do with extinct organisms or fossil remains. conceived by the poets as a land of shepherds and shepherdesses. with a fine beach and a mild climate. 34 m.

the angel who reveals. Page 141 of 2772 . and by the help of Duessa or Deceit. of these. also the Ethnarch of Judea. Azrafil.. ARCHER. WM. dramatic critic. on the Dvina. born in Edinburgh. the angel who fights. of a satiric and often bitter vein. ARCHIMA`GO. Michael. conquered by Sulla twice over. tallow. deposed by Augustus. born in Perth. and tar. 1856. the angel of death.). with whom Euripides found refuge in his exile. and has a large trade in flax. a celebrated lyric poet of Greece. is connected with the interior by river and canal. ARCHANGELS. ARCHER.ramakalai@gmail. near its mouth. a sorcerer in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. the judge of which is called the dean. an ecclesiastical court of appeal connected with the archbishopric of Canterbury. Azrael. the angel of the resurrection. on the White Sea. AR`CHES. a general of Mithridates. COURT OF. 400 B. king of Macedonia. according to the Koran. 1824. Chennai 6. the oldest seaport of Russia.com ARCHANGEL (19). and patron of art and literature. ARCHIL`OCHUS. Computer Lecturer. AR`CHIL. ARCHELA`US. JAMES. seduces the Red-Cross Knight from Una or Truth.C. _d_. son of Herod. there are four: Gabriel. CTSTI. the inventor of iambic verse (714-676 B. timber.C.. portrait-painter." who in the disguise of a reverend hermit. died at Vienne. a purple dye obtained from lichens. is accessible to navigation from July to October.

the tenure of office was first for life. was drowned in the Adriatic Sea. each over a separate department. Chennai 6. and a man. the greatest mathematician of antiquity. and influential in that capacity over the minds of Plato.ramakalai@gmail. When Syracuse was taken by the Romans. the lowest part of an entablature. originally the AEgean Sea.com ARCHIME`DES OF SYRACUSE. famous as a statesman.C. while busy on some problem. now the name of any similar sea interspersed with islands. by a Roman soldier.). in its original form a hollow spiral placed slantingly to raise water by revolving it." He discovered how to determine the specific weight of bodies while he was taking a bath. ARCHIPEL`AGO. and finally for one. notwithstanding the order of the Roman general that his life should be spared. his contemporary. shouting "_Eureka! Eureka!_ I have found it! I have found it!" (287-212 B. CTSTI. a man of superlative inventive power. his body lay unburied on the shore till a sailor humanely cast a handful of sand on it.. He is credited with the boast: "Give me a fulcrum. a chief magistrate of Athens. otherwise he would have had to wander on this side the Styx Computer Lecturer. ARCHIMED`ES SCREW. a soldier. and was so excited over the discovery that. of which there were nine at a time. he darted off stark naked on the instant through the streets. it is said. Page 142 of 2772 . then for ten years. and Aristotle. and I will move the world. a geometrician. ARCHITRAVE. and slain. resting immediately on the capital. AR`CHON. ARCHY`TAS OF TARENTUM. he was unconscious of the fact. a Pythagorean in philosophy. or the group of islands included in it.C. a philosopher. well skilled in all the mechanical arts and sciences of the day. 4th century B.

who believed him dead. ARCIS`-SUR-AUBE (3). star of the first magnitude and the chief in the N. after long absence. Chennai 6. his wife. in the Presidency of Madras. captured by Clive in 1787. covered with ice-fields. scene of a defeat of Napoleon. a forest. and dies broken-hearted. 65 m. hero of a poem by Tennyson..com for a hundred years. the name of two districts. a town 17 m. a tract of rugged woodland on the confines of France and Belgium. of Madras. ARDEN. ARDENNES. March 1814. and S. on the borders of Computer Lecturer. including numerous islands. in France. also chief town (11) in the district. N. CTSTI. once the capital of the Carnatic. the Gulf Stream penetrates it. also department of France (325). an affluent of the Rhone. constellation Booetes. of the Severn. AR`COT. SW. ENOCH. flat shores. E. birthplace of Danton. with low. ARCTIC OCEAN.. gives name to a department traversed by the Cevennes Mountains. a circular ocean round the N. Pole. ARDECHE. _munera pulveris_. Page 143 of 2772 . married happily to another. ARCTU`RUS. does not disclose himself. a large forest at one time in England. source in the Cevennes. who finds. on his return from the sea.ramakalai@gmail. of Troyes. ARDEN. as Horace calls it. and a current flows out of it into the Atlantic. N. such the virtue of a little dust. its diameter 40 deg.

" AREOP`AGUS. ARETHU`SA. still extant. Chennai 6. wrote a treatise on diseases. is much subject to earthquakes. the Greek god of war in its sanguinary aspects. transformed from a Nereid pursued thither from Elis. LEOPOLD. and whose sentences were uniformly the awards of strictest justice. a Russian of literary ability.com Belgium. described by Prof. 8000 ft. inventor of a system of stenography extensively used on the Continent (1817-1882). the hill of Ares in Athens. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. founded by Pizarro in 1536. from Crieff. 30 m. AREOPAGITICA. the goddess of strife. A`RES. 7 m. and cures. their causes. and was almost destroyed by one in 1868. charged with judgment in criminal offences. ARENDS. identified by the Romans with Mars. a prose work of Milton's. and had for sister Eris. Page 144 of 2772 . near Syracuse. above the sea. a city in Peru. who used to pander to his passion. was fond of war for its own sake. AREQUI`PA (35).ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated fountain in the island of Ortygia. which gave name to the celebrated council held there. in Greece. was the son of Zeus and Hera. AR`DOCH. a Greek physician of 1st century. inland. the most complete in Britain. in a fruitful valley of the Andes. symptoms. Saintsbury as "a magnificent search for the Dead Truth. a tribunal of 31 members. ARETAE`US. with the remains of a Roman camp. a place in Perthshire.

so that the waters of the river henceforth mingled with those of the fountain. he fixed the position of 22. of Florence. born at Memel. alternately attached to people and repelled from them by his wit.000 stars. inventor of the argand lamp. Petrarch." ARGAND. and eventually subject to it.ramakalai@gmail. strong-limbed. a sheep of Siberia. a French soldier who turned to letters. ARETI`NO. sure-footed. author of sceptical writings. 38 m. of which the best known is entitled "Lettres Juives" (1704-1771). with enormous grooved curving horns. MARQUIS D'. professor at Bonn. AR`GENS. AR`GALI. Page 145 of 2772 . as invented by him. Computer Lecturer. a Swiss physician and chemist. ARGELAN`DER. introduced a circular wick (1755-1803). Chennai 6. ARGAN`. which. moved from one centre of attraction to another. AREZZO (44).com by the river-god Alphaeus. the hypochondriac rich patient in Moliere's "Le Malade Imaginaire. and recorded observations to prove that the solar system was moving through space (1799-1874). and swift. in Tuscany. a distinguished astronomer. and Vasari. born at Geneva. Michael Angelo. Guido. called the "Scourge of Princes. CTSTI." a licentious satirical writer. where he died after an uncontrollable fit of laughter which seized him at the story of the adventure of a sister (1492-1557). settled in Venice. as large as a moderately-sized ox. an ancient Tuscan city. SE. PIETRO. the birthplace of Maecenas. born at Arezzo.

000). French statesman.ramakalai@gmail. the daughter of the king. the title of a poem on the Argonautic expedition by Apollonius of Rhodes. RENE-LOUIS. CTSTI. who left "Memoirs" of value as affecting the early and middle part of Louis XV. by Bolivia and Paraguay. and Germans. Computer Lecturer. Italians. English. a perilous venture. the Greek heroes. AR`GO. a confederation like that of the United States of 14 states and 9 territories. AR`GOLIS.). Chennai 6. AR`GONAUTS.com ARGENSON. Page 146 of 2772 . its area ten times that of Great Britain and Ireland. broad.000 foreigners. French. sailors in the _Argo_. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. but it proved successful with the assistance of Medea. MARQUIS D'. Spaniards. who. long by 5 m. ARGONAUTICA. with the fleece. is 12 m. bounded on the N. and one of the 13 provinces of Greece. whom. Jason in the end brought away with him to be his wife.'s reign (1694-1757). while the population includes 600. the fifty-oared ship of the ARGONAUTS (q. a new element lately discovered to exist in a gaseous form in the nitrogen of the air. sailed for Colchis in quest of the golden fleece. occupying the eastern slopes of the Andes and the vast level plain extending from them to the Atlantic. which was guarded by a dragon that never slept. the north-eastern peninsula of the Morea of Greece. or ARGENTINA (4. v. AR`GON. under the command of Jason.

Marquis. and Duke. of France. their first patent of nobility dating from 1445. so called from the eye-like markings on its plumage. but Hermes killed him after lulling him to sleep by the sound of his flute. of which one half was always awake. however. a beautiful Oriental game-bird. ARGYLL. ARGUS. that immediately after he dropped down dead. consisting of deeply indented mainland and islands. appointed by Hera to watch over Io. ARGYLL. of Scotland." a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes. fought against Montrose. FOREST OF. but paled before the power of Sparta. and their earldom from 1453. he was the only creature that recognised Ulysses under his rags on his return to Ithaca after twenty years' absence. with scenery often picturesque as well as wild and savage. moorlands. within the borders of which the Duke of Brunswick was outwitted by Dumouriez in 1792. a pheasant.com ARGONNE`. Page 147 of 2772 . and abounding in mountains. sided with the Covenanters. CTSTI. at Scone. played for long a prominent part in the history of Greece. disgusted with the execution of Charles I. immortalised by Homer. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. her favourite bird.ramakalai@gmail. AR`GUS. AR`GOS (9). "a long strip of rocky mountain and wild wood" in the NE. surnamed the "All-seeing. and lochs. ARGYLL (74). whereupon Hera transferred his eyes to the tail of the peacock. Chennai 6. the capital of Argolis. Also the dog of Ulysses. after the Restoration committed Computer Lecturer.. 1ST MARQUIS OF. a large county in the W. a noble family or clan of the name of Campbell. under such excitement. crowned Charles II. the members of which have held successively the title of Earl.

and another in the same interest in 1884 entitled "The Unity of Nature". as Marquis of Lorne took a great interest in the movement which led to the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843. released at the Restoration and restored to his estates. Palmerston. Dionysos found her and married her. defeated Mar at Sheriffmuir. _b_. fought under Marlborough. and Gladstone." in vindication of Theism. where. CTSTI. fought for Charles II. made a descent on Scotland. takes a deep interest in the scientific theories and questions of the time. ARIAD`NE. of late has shown more Conservative tendencies. was taken prisoner. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. 8TH DUKE OF. GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL. a book in 1866 entitled "The Reign of Law. met death nobly (1598-1661). and according to another. daughter of Minos.). 1824. the heresy of ARIUS (q.. and was condemned to death. son of the preceding. placing her at her death among the gods. proved rebellious at last. for which Theseus promised to marry her. Computer Lecturer. JOHN CAMPBELL. Artemis killed her. was a member of the Cabinets of Aberdeen. ruled Scotland under Walpole (1678-1743). took her with him to Naxos and left her there. opposed the return of the Stuarts. was created an English peer. ARIANISM. 2ND DUKE OF. king of Crete.ramakalai@gmail. ARGYLL. according to one tradition. Page 148 of 2772 . v. escaped to Holland. a Whig in politics. ARGYLL. wrote. was tried and condemned. Chennai 6. 9TH EARL OF. favoured the Union.com to the Tower. gave to Theseus a clue by which to escape out of the labyrinth after he had slain the Minotaur. was captured and executed in 1685. among other works. and hanging her wedding wreath as a constellation in the sky. ARGYLL.

a department of France. and liberates on condition of her serving him for a season.com ARIA`NO (12). A`RIEL. his great Computer Lecturer. the sailors plotted to kill him. the chief outlet for the produce of Bolivia. owing to the precession of the equinoxes. were apprehended and punished. when he begged permission to play one strain on his lute. in Shakespeare's "Tempest. was received on the back of one of them. an outcast angel. the Ram. CTSTI. has extensive forests and is rich in minerals. and was almost destroyed in 1832. ARIOS`TO. which she willingly engages to do. on their landing. ARIEL. returning in a ship from a musical contest in Sicily laden with prizes. ARI`ON. has a trade in wine and butter. the first of the signs of the Zodiac.ramakalai@gmail. above the sea-level. spent his life chiefly in Ferrara. which the sun enters on March 21. a city with a fine cathedral. in Lombardy. mostly in poverty. and does. LUDOVICO. whereupon he leapt over the bulwarks. Corinth. lived chiefly at the court of Periander. arriving there before the sailors. a seaport connected with Tacna. Page 149 of 2772 . who. ARIEGE. and carried to Corinth. dolphins crowded round the ship." a spirit of the air whom Prospero finds imprisoned by Sycorax in the cleft of a pine-tree. Chennai 6. ARIES. a lyrist of Lesbos. NE. is no longer within the limits of the sign. of Peru. ARI`CA. an illustrious Italian poet. though the constellation itself. an idol of the Moabites. S. born at Reggio. at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pyrenees. of Naples. 1500 ft. suffers again and again from earthquakes. which being conceded.

a son of Apollo. an Athenian general and statesman. who devoted his life to the elucidation and correct transmission of the text of the Greek poets. ARISTAE`US. of hunters and herdsmen. ARISTI`DES.ramakalai@gmail. covered himself with glory at the battle of Marathon. some of which stung Eurydice to death. there issued from the carcasses of the victims a swarm of bees.com work "ORLANDO FURIOSO" (q. ARIOVISTUS. first taught the management of bees. CTSTI. a German chief. invaded Gaul. in 1532. the guardian divinity of the vine and olive. a Greek astronomer. this done. a celebrated Greek grammarian and critic. published the first edition. and was thought to be endowed with a soul that could at will leave and enter the body. ARISTE`AS. in 1516. in promulgating which idea he was accused of impiously disturbing the serenity of the gods (280 B. ARISTAR`CHUS OF SAMOS. In this extremity Aristaeus applied to Proteus. was made archon Computer Lecturer. Page 150 of 2772 . whereupon the nymphs. who turns up here and there in Greek tradition. the work is so called from the chief subject of it.). but was forced back over the Rhine by Caesar. ARISTARCHUS OF SAMOTHRACE. in 40 cantos. and the third in 46 cantos. which reconciled him to the loss of the first ones. and threatened to overrun it.C. a sort of Wandering Jew of Greek fable. set upon his bees and destroyed them. v. companions of Orpheus. and especially Homer (158-88 B.).C. the madness of Roland induced by the loss of his lady-love through her marriage to another (1474-1532). surnamed The Just. who first conceived the idea of the rotundity of the earth and its revolution both on its own axis and round the sun. who advised him to sacrifice four bullocks to appease the manes of Eurydice. her husband. Chennai 6.).

till at length finding resistance hopeless he put an end to his life on the tomb of his daughter.C.. a pronounced Helleniser. a disciple of Socrates. celebrated for his struggle with the Spartans. ARISTOBU`LUS I. son of John Hyrcanus. Also a Greek sculptor.com next year.. a philosopher. A. was buried at the public charges. ARISTOM`ENES. in his teaching laid too much emphasis on one principle of Socrates. 34 B.C. which at length fell to the enemy. was reconciled to Themistocles. ARISTION. drowned by Herod in the Jordan.C.. and distinguished himself at Plataea. ARISTODE`MUS. died at Rhodes. recalled three years after the invasion of Xerxes. apart from the rest. Page 151 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. a mythical king of Messenia. fought bravely at Salamis. founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. II. king of Messenia.C. tyrant of Athens. and his resistance to them on Mount Ira for 11 years. Computer Lecturer. 4th century B. III.C.. ARISTIP`PUS OF CYRENE.C. CTSTI. in insisting too exclusively upon pleasure as the supreme good and ultimate aim of life. carried on for 20 years a war with Sparta. first of the Asmonaean dynasty in Judea to assume the name of king. was banished by ostracism at the instance of his rival. A. while he escaped and was snatched up by the gods. 86 B. assassinated 50 B. put to death by order of Sylla. last of Asmonaean dynasty. managed the finances of the State with such probity that he died poor. twice carried captive to Rome. _d_.. which he did from 104-102 B. and left the State to provide for his children. 724 B. in the discharge of the duties of which office he received his surname. whom he had sacrificed to ensure the fulfilment of an oracle to the advantage of his house. Themistocles. Chennai 6.

. Page 152 of 2772 . of which 11 have come down to us. a Greek philosopher. the religious. and held up to ridicule such men as Socrates and Euripides. on Alexander's expedition into Asia. which were very keen. or literary creed and practice of the country. where he died. is the author of a great number of writings which covered a vast field of speculation.C. a presbyter of Alexandria in the 4th century. directed the shafts of his wit.C.C. and founder of Arianism. at the request of Philip. He was the oracle of the scholastic philosophers and theologians in the Middle Ages. in Euboea. _d_.). philosophical. is often referred to as the incarnation of the philosophic spirit (385-322 B. returned to Athens and began to teach in the Lyceum. king of Macedon. remained in Plato's society there for 20 years. a doctrine which hovered for a time between acceptance and rejection throughout the Catholic Church. of which the progress of modern science goes to establish the value. from which circumstance his school got the name of Peripatetic. of these the "Clouds" aim at Socrates. as it was presumed. contemporary of Aristotle. 384 B. author of the "Elements of Harmony. as well as Cleon the tanner. a native of Stagira. amend.ramakalai@gmail. in Thrace. who held him in high honour. deprived of his parents while yet a youth. AR`ISTOTLE. CTSTI. A`RIUS. the great comic dramatist of Athens. was condemned first by a local synod which met at Alexandria in 321. the "Acharnians" and the "Frogs" at Euripides. and then by a Computer Lecturer. after 13 years he left the city and went to Chalcis. which denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father in the so-called Trinity. Chennai 6. after the death of Plato. became the preceptor of Alexander the Great. wrote 54 plays.com ARISTOPHANES. and. social. lived in the 5th century B. where it was his habit to walk up and down as he taught." the only one of his many works extant. then only 13 years old. came in his 17th year to Athens. against all of whatever rank who sought in any way to alter. and the "Knights" at Cleon. political. and one of the oldest writers on music. ARISTOX`ENUS OF TARENTUM. and hence named the Stagirite.

and Aaron's rod. of the Mississippi. 21/2 cubits long and 11/2 in breadth. and the shekinah radiance between. much of the surface a barren plateau 11. and copper. who ordered him to be restored. and it was this man. ARK OF THE COVENANT. See CANON. nearly four times as large as Scotland. of Louisiana and W. and had to flee. of New Mexico. Strutt of Derby. high. Lancashire.000 ft. grows cotton and corn. Computer Lecturer. ARKWRIGHT. "that had to give to England the power of cotton" (1732-1792). born at Preston. fell in with Mr. and the possession of them voted to be a crime. a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold. by poison. "French Revolutions were a-brewing. ARIZO`NA (59). Chennai 6. after three years he was recalled by Constantine. silver. a territory of the United States N. rich in mines of gold. the lid supported the mercy-seat.com General Council at Nice in 325. invented the spinning frame. who entered into partnership with him. to resist the same in any way. prospered in business and died worth half a million. Imperial Caesars were impotent without the cotton and cloth of England. was about to be readmitted into the Church when he died suddenly. rich in metals.ramakalai@gmail. with a cherub at each end. ARKANS`AS (1. one of the Southern States of America. fertile in the lowlands. contained the two tables of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments. of Mexico and W. which the Emperor Constantine attended in person. alleged his friends--by the judgment of God. SIR RICHARD. his writings burned. was mobbed for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages.128). said his enemies (280-336). bred to the trade of a barber. through which the canon of the Colorado passes. Page 153 of 2772 . CTSTI. a little larger than England. the gold pot with the manna." says Carlyle. with the help of a clockmaker. the author was banished to Illyricum. N. took interest in the machinery of cotton-spinning.

of Marseilles. in his exile. born near Versailles (1789-1856).000 soldiers. of the whole fleet only 53 ships found their way back to Spain. EARL OF. being impeached when in office. pierced by a tunnel. N. served under Charles I. named the Invincible. HENRY BENNET. with ruins of an amphitheatre and other Roman works. or Christ and Antichrist. consisting of 130 war-vessels. seconded by Drake.. mounted with 2430 cannon. an armament fitted out in 1588 by Philip II. the English losing only one ship. Hawkins. AR`LINGTON. a prosperous town in Belgium. and nearly four miles in length. on the Rhone. Page 154 of 2772 . completely dispersed and shattered by a storm in retreat on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. a prominent member of the famous Cabal. ARLES (14). and these nearly all _hors de combat_. and manned by 20. lost favour and retired into private life (1618-1685). CTSTI. and Frobisher. a French romancer.com ARLBERG. capital of Luxemburg. was defeated in the Channel on July 20 by Admiral Howard. VISCOUNT D'. ARMA`DA. 46 m. of Spain against England. one of the oldest in France. where Constantine built a palace. and accompanied Charles II. ARMAGEDDON. the seat of several Church Councils. a city. a mountain mass between the Austrian provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol. AR`LINCOURT. a name given in Apocalypse to the final battlefield between the powers of good and evil. AR`LON (8). one of the three that penetrate the Alps. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer.

celebrated for its wine and brandy. 32 m. from early times have emigrated into adjoining. of Belfast. at mortal feud with the Bourguignons. ARMED SOLDIER OF DEMOCRACY. warlike marauding tribes in the mountainous districts of Northern Greece. and are. part of Gascony. N. Chennai 6. Napoleon Bonaparte. of the Caspian Sea and N. in France. of Kurdistan Mts. the wealthier of them especially in banking. mainly engaged in commercial pursuits. played a prominent part in the War of Independence in 1820. which culminates in Mt. CTSTI. W. Ireland. Ararat. and a town (18) in it. a country in Western Asia. from the 5th to the 9th century the capital of Ireland. a people of the Aryan race occupying Armenia. 12 m. in which the Euphrates and Tigris have their sources.com ARMAGH (143). occupying a plateau interspersed with fertile valleys. and Persia. ARMENIANS. long by 20 m. like the Jews. ARMAGNAC. broad. countries. as it is the ecclesiastical still. ARME`NIA.. SW. anciently independent. now in dep. 33 m. the chief manufacture linen-weaving. Russia. now divided between Turkey. a county in Ulster. ARMAGNACS. a district. and even remote. ARMENTIERES (27). a faction in France in time of Charles VI. ARMATO`LES. of Gers. of Lille. Computer Lecturer. early converted to Christianity of the Eutychian type.ramakalai@gmail. Page 155 of 2772 . a manufacturing and trading town in France.

and author of "The Art of Preserving Health" (1709-1779).D. the Deliverer of Germany from the Romans by the defeat of Varus. established the Elswick engine works in the suburbs of his native city. a beautiful enchantress in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered. JOHN. CTSTI. ARMINIUS. ARMIN`IUS. born in Roxburghshire. overpowered her by his love and persuaded her to become a Christian. WILLIAM GEORGE. by her charms. ARMSTRONG. which he got the Government to adopt. the Roman general. as well as of Wilkes and Smollett. knighted in 1858. in which she enchanted Rinaldo. an assertion of the free-will of man in the matter of salvation against the necessitarianism of Calvin (1560-1609). born at Newcastle. a learned Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism. Chennai 6. or HERMANN. when the spell was broken. near Detmold (where a colossal statue has been erected to his memory). JACOBUS.com ARMI`DA. ARMINIANISM. devoted his attention to the improvement of heavy ordnance. has become a synonym for any merely visionary but enchanting palace of pleasure. ARMSTRONG. friend of poet Thomson.ramakalai@gmail. a Scotch doctor and poet. produced the hydraulic accumulator and the hydraulic crane. killed in some family quarrel in his 37th year. practised medicine in London. as Circe did Ulysses." who bewitched Rinaldo. invented the Armstrong gun. a district of Gaul from the Loire to the Seine. and in 1887 raised to the Computer Lecturer. LORD. and who in turn. in 9 A. one of the Crusaders. ARMOR`ICA. See ARMINIUS. Page 156 of 2772 . _The Almida Palace_..

and acted pastor to them till his death (1641-1721). among others Pascal. Computer Lecturer. an inveterate enemy of the Jesuits. ARNDT. and his "Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?" strikes a chord in the breast of every German all the world over (1710-1860). his songs and eloquent appeals went straight to the heart of the nation and contributed powerfully to its liberation. he accompanied them in their exile to Schomberg. Page 157 of 2772 . one of the first to rouse his countrymen to shake off the tyranny of Napoleon. died at Brussels (1612-1694). in Germany and elsewhere. ARNDT. which seemed withering away under the influence of a lifeless dogmatism (1553-1621). the "great Arnauld.ramakalai@gmail. _La Mere Angelique_ as she was called. his co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution of the Count of Savoy. ANTOINE. became religious director of the nuns of Port Royal des Champs. AR`NAUD. defended Jansenism against the Bull of the Pope. CTSTI. JOHN. his "Geist der Zeit" made him flee the country after the battle of Jena. a German poet and patriot. ARNAULD. a Lutheran theologian. _b_. a pastor of the Vaudois. turned soldier to rescue. 1810. but when the Vaudois were exiled a second time. Chennai 6. HENRI. doctor of the Sorbonne." a French theologian. ARNAULD. the author of "True Christianity. MARIE ANGE`LIQUE. and did rescue. expelled from the Sorbonne and banished the country. associated here with a circle of kindred spirits.com peerage. a victim of the persecutions of the Jesuits to very death (1624-1684). ERNST MORITZ. has contributed to infuse a new spirit of life into the profession of the Christian religion." a work which. sister of the preceding and abbess of the Port Royal. whose memory is much revered by the whole German people.

and sentenced to imprisonment. Page 158 of 2772 . Cibber was his sister (1719-1778). a native of Frankfort. wife of Ludwig Arnim. an African rhetorician who. flows westward past Florence and Pisa into the Mediterranean. entitled "Disputations against the Heathen. accused in the latter capacity of purloining State documents. and has a large transit trade.ramakalai@gmail. the capital of Guelderland. and corresponded with him afterwards. sister of Clemens Brentano. part of which correspondence appeared subsequently under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child" (1785-1859). visited him at Weimar. LUDWIG ACHIM VON. at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe. Mrs. ARN`HEIM (51). during over 40 years. then in his 60th year. Chennai 6. ambassador of Germany. THOMAS AUGUSTINE. a German poet and novelist (1781-1831)." ARNOLD.com ARNE. COUNT. an American military general. ARNO. rises in the Apennines. BENEDICT. embraced Christianity. CTSTI. BETTINE VON. ARNOBIUS. a musical composer of versatile genius. among others the world-famous chorus "Rule Britannia". still extant. a succession of pieces in every style from songs to sonatas and oratorios. died in exile at Nice (1824-1881). a river of Italy. in the beginning of the 4th century. ARNIM. subject to destructive inundations. first at Rome and then at Paris. ARNIM. produced. ARNIM. is situated on the right bank of the Rhine. entered the ranks of Computer Lecturer. and of great value. and wrote a book in its defence.

negotiated with the English general Clinton to surrender an important post entrusted to him. at Gravesend." "Culture and Anarchy.ramakalai@gmail. and especially literary culture. declaimed against the temporal power of the Pope." says Swinburne. his "Life and Correspondence" was edited by Dean Stanley (1795-1842). familiar with Indian literature. died suddenly at Liverpool. _b_. and disciple of Abelard. ARNOLD. and edited Thucydides. "by his verse and not his prose he must be judged. the corruptions of the Church." "St. _d_. author of the "Light of Asia. to inquire into educational matters there. in England in 1801. CTSTI. poet and journalist. eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby. SIR EDWIN. distinguished himself in several engagements. was liberal in his principles and of a philanthropic spirit. Paul and Protestantism. by his moral character and governing faculty effected immense reforms in Rugby School. Germany." and is being now judged (1822-1888). Page 159 of 2772 ." &c. influential as he was in that regard. "It is.com the colonists under Washington during the War of Independence. head-master of Rugby. ARNOLD OF BRESCIA. and Holland. 1832. "Essays on Criticism." and other works in prose and verse. Chennai 6. promoted to the rank of general." "Light of the World. professor of Poetry in Oxford from 1857 to 1867. and the avarice of the clergy. headed an insurrection against the Computer Lecturer. wrote two separate reports thereon of great value. an Italian monk. and professor of Modern History at Oxford. author of "Poems. and served in them against his country. escaped to the English ranks on the discovery of the plot. MATTHEW. THOMAS." "Literature and Dogma. He was more eminent as a poet than a critic. commissioned twice over to visit France. of which he is reckoned the apostle. a man of culture. inspector of schools for 35 years from 1851. ARNOLD. poet and critic.." of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift. ARNOLD. he wrote a "History of Rome" based on Niebuhr.

famous for its defence by a handful of English and Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny. birthplace of Cicero and Marius. AROU`ET. established for the Magyars a firm footing in the country. was founder of the Arpad dynasty. _d_. author of the "Elements of Physics" and of several hygienic inventions (1788-1874). broke the lines of the Austrians at Sempach in 1386 and decided the fate of the battle. and his ashes thrown into the Tiber. 36 m. especially that distilled from the juice of the cocoa-nut tree and from fermented rice. at last was burned alive in 1156. ARQUA. a peasant of the canton of Unterwald. AR`PAD. ARNOTT. the national hero of Hungary. a native of Arbroath. which became extinct in 1301. from Patna.ramakalai@gmail. SW. the Decius of Switzerland. NEIL. Arouet l. by the voluntary sacrifice of his life. ARPI`NO (ARPINIUM). his name formed by an ingenious transposition he made of the letters of his name. CTSTI. ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED. Computer Lecturer. the family name of Voltaire. an ancient town in Latium. S. j. of Padua. a town in Bengal. who. (jeune). Chennai 6. AR`RAH. ARRACK. a spirituous liquor. a village 12 m. Page 160 of 2772 . of Rome. where Petrarch died and was buried. 907. which collapsed under the Pope's interdict.com Pope in Rome. DR.

ARRAS (20). who wrested the throne from Antiochus II. 250 B. _b_. highest summit Goatfell. in Buteshire. 250 B. the last of the Seleucidae. pearls.. the birthplace of Damiens and Robespierre. thrust a poniard into her own breast. belonging to Holland.com ARRAN (4). the same as the CUNEIFORM (q. to which he had been sentenced. a mountainous island. the founder of the dynasty of the Arsacidae. whose seat is Brodick Castle. a French town in the dep. nearly all the property of the Duke of Hamilton. &c. CTSTI. v. Page 161 of 2772 . who. Computer Lecturer. and then handed it to him. largest island in the Firth of Clyde.). a Bithynian. W. "It is not painful. AR`SACES I.ramakalai@gmail. 100.C. wrote a "History of Alexander the Great. export mother-of-pearl." whereupon he followed her example. 2866 ft. a friend of Epictetus the Stoic. with a margin of lowland round the coast. Chennai 6. a dynasty of 31 Parthian kings. of Pas-de-Calais. and died at an advanced age. AR`RIAN. of New Guinea.. ARSACIDAE. a group of 80 coralline islands. AR`RIA. tortoise-shell. a Roman matron. ARROW-HEADED CHARACTERS. edited his "Enchiridion"." and "Periplus. by a revolt which proved successful against the Seleucidae. FLAVIUS." an account of voyages round the Euxine and round the Red Sea. to encourage her husband in meeting death. long celebrated for its tapestry. saying. ARRU ISLANDS (15).C.

II.A. A. a Swedish naturalist. and the Mechanical: the Liberal." ARTA." published by Linnaeus after his death (1703-1735). king from 465 to 424 B. "Ichthyologia. entitling the holder to append M. MNEMON. and promoted education.C. A. to his name. Page 162 of 2772 . founder of the dynasty Sassanidae. graduation in which is granted by universities. king from 405 to 359 B. ARTS. who had revolted against him. assisted Linnaeus in his "Systema Naturae". grandson of Sassan. concluded a peace with Greece after a war of 52 years. gulf forming the NW. OCHUS.. Computer Lecturer. amended the laws. ARTE`DI.ramakalai@gmail.D. as holding of the entire. III. the name of several Persian monarchs: A. called the "Long-handed. restored the old religion of the Magi. ARTAXER`XES. implying skill. and the Fine. IV. A. slew all his kindred on ascending the throne. frontier of Greece.. GULF OF. vanquished and killed his brother Cyrus at Cunaxa in 401. implying scholarship. v. Chennai 6. entertained Themistocles at his court. king from 359 to 338 B. in Egypt slew the sacred bull Apis and gave the flesh to his soldiers.com ARSIN`OE." from his right hand being longer than his left. his own great work. heart as well as brain. the name of several Egyptian princesses of antiquity.). implying the possession of a soul.. There are three classes of these. CTSTI.C. also a prude in Moliere's "Misanthrope. discriminated from the mechanical by the word spiritual. imposed in 387 on the Spartans the shameful treaty of ANTALCIDAS (q. for which his eunuch Bagsas poisoned him. undivided man. I.C. son of the preceding.. the Fine. the Liberal. 223 to 232. THE. son of Xerxes I.. the Mechanical. king from A.

CTSTI. joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Page 163 of 2772 . son of the preceding. wells made by boring for water where it is lower than its source. expelled him. ARTEMUS WARD. ARTESIAN WELLS. born in the Isle of Delos. a promontory N. and one of the great divinities of the Greeks. Chennai 6. PHILIP VAN. near which Xerxes lost part of his fleet. the impersonation and champion of Justice in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. and fought with valour at Salamis. was guardian of flocks. was the Diana of the Romans. chosen chief in a revolt against Count Louis of Flanders.com AR`TEGAL.C." AR`TEMIS. twin sister of Apollo. 440 B. also queen. defeated Louis II. 355 B. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. represented as a huntress armed with bow and arrows. A. made a treaty with Edward III. ARTEMI`SIUM. but with the help of France Louis retaliated and defeated Computer Lecturer. of Euboea. a virgin goddess. raised a tomb over the grave of her husband Mausolus. F. 480 B. the moon the type of her and the laurel her sacred tree. and got mixed up with deities in other mythologies. as lord-superior of Flanders. was massacred in a popular tumult (1300-1345). so as to obtain a constant supply of it. See C. ARTEMI`SIA.. JACOB VAN. presided over the birth of animals.C.C. AR`TEVELDE. II. a wealthy brewer of Ghent. ARTEVELDE.ramakalai@gmail. BROWNE. queen of Halicarnassus. and became king. in the Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and Leto.

black. CHESTER ALAN.. heir to the throne of England by the death of his uncle Richard I. who is supposed to have lived at the time of the Saxon invasion in the 6th century. THE THIRTY-NINE. to the rendering of which Tennyson devoted so much of his genius. "the blue. and slew him in 1382. and covering with a vapoury mantle the jagged. which every clergyman of the Church of England is bound by law to subscribe to at his ordination. Computer Lecturer. a lion-shaped hill 822 ft. Page 164 of 2772 . whatever it may be now. CTSTI. originally Forty-Two. PRINCE.com the Flemings. rough crags and rude precipices at our feet ('where not a hillock rears its head unsung'). a young thief." AR`THUR. whose exploits and those of his court have given birth to the tradition of the Round Table. Chennai 6.. ARTHUR. a lawyer by profession. as the accepted faith of the Church. ARTICLES. supplanted by King John. majestic. with Edinburgh at their base. venerable masses of stone-work. with the Fife hills swelling gradually into the Grampians behind it on the N. DUKE OF BRITTANY. ARTHUR. everlasting ocean. twenty-first president of the United States. from the top of which the prospect is unrivalled.. ARTHUR SEAT. close to Edinburgh on the E. clustering proudly over her rugged foundations. and a prominent member of the Republican party (1830-1886). ARTFUL DODGER. and show like a city of fairyland"--such the view Carlyle had in a clear atmosphere of 1826.. an expert in the profession in Dickens' "Oliver Twist. a creed framed in 1562. a British prince of wide-spread fame. that stretch far and wide.ramakalai@gmail.

AR`UNDEL (2). now in the possession of the University of Oxford. CTSTI.com ARTIST. v. which he prints in small caps. the most important of which is one from Paros inscribed with a chronology of events in Grecian history from 1582 to 264 B. Lord Chancellor. of Pas-de-Calais. archbishop of York. of Chichester. brother of Louis XVI. as described in Carlyle's "French Revolution. AR`TOIS. E. according to a definition of Ruskin. famed. a persecutor of the Wickliffites.C. ARUNDEL MARBLES. but a munificent benefactor of the Church (1353-1414). united to the crown in 1659. son of Tarquinus Superbus. THOMAS. comprising the dep. the seat of the Earls of Arundel. ancient Grecian marbles collected at Smyrna and elsewhere by the Earl of Arundel in 1624.." for "breeches of a new kind in this world". and parts of the Somme and the Nord. PRINCE OF. ARTOIS. a municipal town in Sussex. ARUNDEL. Computer Lecturer. with a castle of great magnificence. "a person who has submitted to a law which it was painful to obey.). MONSEIGNEUR D'. so called by his countrymen. who fell in single combat with Brutus. the date of the marbles themselves is 263 B. ARUNS. Albert Duerer.C. (q. and afterwards CHARLES X..ramakalai@gmail. that he may bestow a delight which it is gracious to bestow." ARTISTS. successively bishop of Ely. and archbishop of Canterbury.. an ancient province of France. Chennai 6. 9 m. on the Arun. Page 165 of 2772 .

Celts. Chennai 6. FRATRES. CTSTI. and to have branched off at different periods north-westward and westward into Europe. ARVA`TES. from which sprung the Greeks. AR`YANS. Slavs. Latins. and the Persians and Hindus on the other. ARVE. E. of the Hindu-Kush. a college of twelve priests in ancient Rome whose duty it was to make annual offerings to the Lares for the increase of the fruits of the field. 22 m.ramakalai@gmail. a fetid inspissated sap from an Indian umbelliferous tree. ASAFOE`TIDA. a community of origin that is attested by the comparative study of their respective languages. and southward into Persia and the valley of the Ganges. a musician of the temple at Jerusalem. a race that is presumed to have had its primitive seat in Central Asia. with Roman remains. AR`ZEW. Teutons. or Indo-Europeans. used in medicine. an affluent of the Arve from the Mer de Glace. from Oran. Computer Lecturer. an affluent of the Congo on the right bank below the Stanley Falls. a river that flows through the valley of Chamouni and falls into the Rhone below Geneva. Page 166 of 2772 . exports grain and salt. ASAPH.com ARUWI`MI. ARVEYRON. of the Caspian Sea and N. on the one hand. a seaport in Algeria.

paper. ASCA`NIUS. AS`CAPART. a coaling and victualling station for the navy. from Chester. distinguished as a naturalist. and particularly as a collector of folk-lore. of St. a bare volcanic island in the Atlantic. rising to nearly 3000 ft. ASBJOeRN`SEN. Page 167 of 2772 . gas-stoves. AS`CALON. assiduous Methodist preacher and missionary. a Dane. who trotted _non passibus aequis_ ("with unequal steps") by the side of his father as he escaped from burning Troy. one of the five cities of the Philistines. seat of a bishopric. a town in Flintshire. ASBES`TOS. 500 m. a zealous. a giant conquered by Bevis of Southampton.ramakalai@gmail. was founder of Alba Longa. sent to America. ST. much contested for during the Crusades. Computer Lecturer. was consecrated the first bishop of the newly organised Methodist Church there (1745-1816). NW. &c. CTSTI. 20 m. ASCENSION.com ASAPH. from the coast of Africa. and horse under his arm. as well as an author of children's stories (1812-1885). which has been manufactured into cloth.. his wife. though so huge as to carry Bevis. lamp-wick. an incombustible mineral of a flax-like fibrous texture. belonging to Britain. the son of AEneas. Helena. FRANCIS. Chennai 6. AS`BURY.. and 900 m. steam-pipes.

scholar. Johnson. a dissenting divine. a Bithynian who practised medicine with repute at Rome in Cicero's time. a manufacturing town in the Magdeburg district of Prussia. Chennai 6. an ancient town of Bavaria. 20 m. from Frankfort. wrote a book on archery. a Yorkshireman. 6 m. of Windsor. and end his days in the debtors' prison." an admirable treatise on education. SW. deemed a classic. ASCLEPI`ADES. writing pamphlets. ASCHAM. Computer Lecturer. and much esteemed by her. the rainbow. a good classical. with an old castle and cathedral. i.ramakalai@gmail.com ASCHAF`FENBURG (14). ROGER. the garden or heaven of the Asen or gods in the Norse mythology. his chief work. author of an English dictionary. in which each had a separate dwelling. the "Schoolmaster." for which Henry VIII. the races at which. Fellow of Cambridge. JOHN. ASGILL. instituted by Queen Anne. CTSTI. and who held intercourse with the other spheres of existence by the bridge Bifroest. held in high regard by Dr. settled a pension on him. JOHN. on the Main. AS`GARD. and to express his belief that he would be translated. Page 168 of 2772 . a racecourse in Berks. ASH. an eccentric Englishman. to spend 30 years. ASCHERSLE`BEN (22). was tutor and Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth. take place a fortnight after the Derby. wrote a book to prove that death was due to want of faith. apparently quite happily. "learn by teaching" (1515-1560). and was great in hygiene. e. and particularly Greek. entitled "Toxophilus. AS`COT. and translated he was. the sum of which is _docendo discas_.

JOHN. ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH. a faithful adherent and attendant of Charles I. a member of the Long Parliament. and well cultivated.. 5TH EARL OF. warlike. figures in "Ivanhoe. most cheery. ASHBURTON." with the ruins of a castle in which Queen Mary was immured." an admirer. W. 1878. or ASHANTEE. which led to the submission of the king and the appointment of a British Resident. N. and assistant to him in his troubles (1603-1671). solid. sent special ambassador to the United States in 1842. CTSTI. wooded. concluded the boundary treaty of Washington. of Leicester. ASH`ANTI. simple-hearted old man" (1774-1848). and rare books known as the Ashburnham Collection. Computer Lecturer.com valuable for the number of obsolete and provincial words contained in it (1724-1779). ASHBURNHAM. LORD. natives intelligent. "a very worthy man. ALEXANDER BARING. son of the preceding. twice over provoked a war with Great Britain. ASHBURNHAM. well watered. known as the Ashburton Treaty. Lady Harriet. of Thomas Carlyle (1797-1844). _d_. a negro inland kingdom in the Upper Soudan. ASHBURTON.ramakalai@gmail. collected a number of valuable MSS. second son of Sir Francis Baring. Page 169 of 2772 . member of Peel's administration in 1834-35. a small market-town 17 m. sagacious. of Gold Coast territory. and finally the despatch of a military expedition. Chennai 6. WILLIAM BINGHAM BARING. in his retirement "a really good. a Liberal politician. and skilful. and his wife. turned Conservative. still more.

a cotton-manufacturing town near Manchester. ASH`TON-UNDER-LYNE (47). ASHMUN. JEHUDI. a celebrated antiquary and authority on heraldry. with a population of 840. See ASTARTE. of Jaffa. with every variety of climate.. with a richly varied flora and fauna. the largest of the four quarters of the globe.). Chennai 6. an American philanthropist. from a centre of high elevations. ASH`TAROTH. of which four flow N. stretches southward into three large peninsulas separated by three immense arms of the sea.com ASHDOD. and with lakes which though they do not match those of America and Africa. seat of the Dagon worship. which. Page 170 of 2772 . presented to the University of Oxford a collection of rarities bequeathed to him. and deep depressions. also the largest in the world. on the W.. ELIAS. and associated with the worship of that goddess. which laid the foundation of the Ashmolean Collection there (1617-1692). v. founder of the Negro Republic of Liberia. CTSTI. ASIA. coast of Africa (1794-1828). strikingly stand at a higher level as we go E. contains one-third of all the land. with rivers the largest in the whole world. being the half of that of the globe. extensive plains.ramakalai@gmail. an image of ASTARTE (q. a maritime Philistine city 20 m. with a large continental basin. S. two SE. and as good as in touch with the other three..000. of Computer Lecturer. ASHE`RA.. ASH`MOLE.000. and eastward into three bulging masses and three pronounced peninsulas forming seas. protected by groups of islands. and eight S.

at different stages of civilisation. Page 171 of 2772 . all more or less busy centres of trade. made a proclamation of this faith Computer Lecturer. ASKEW. after his accession in 264 B. from Asmon. tortured on the rack and burnt at the stake. Mongolian. ASIA MINOR.000. a peninsular extension westward of the Armenian and Kurdistan highlands in Asia. and consists of a plateau with slopes all round to the coasts. ASO`KA. bounded on the N. ASKEW. ASMODE`US. into a State religion. as Constantine did Christianity." or the "Devil on Two Sticks. a victim of persecution in the time of Henry VIII. and on the S. on the W. a name given to the Maccabees." as lifting off the roofs of the houses of Madrid and exposing their inmost interiors and the secret doings of the inhabitants. a mischievous demon or goblin of the Jewish demonology. and Malay.ramakalai@gmail. indented all round. Chennai 6. with bays and harbours. ASMONAE`ANS. by the Levant. called also ANATOLE`. who gloats on the vices and follies of mankind. Mahomet. or Christ. 1546. a collector of rare and curious books (1722-1774). ANTONY. mainland as well as adjoining islands. in India. by the Black Sea. ANNE.000. and figures in Le Sage's "Le Diable Boiteux.com chiefly three races. a king of Behar. became an ardent disciple of Buddha.C. convened the third great council of the Church of that creed at Patna. by far the majority professing the faith of Brahma. has a population of over 28. a physician and classical scholar. by the Archipelago. for denying transubstantiation. Caucasian. organised Buddhism. and as regards religion. Buddha. the place of their origin. a lady of good birth. CTSTI. is as large as France.

so called from the asphalt on its surface and banks. in their imagination.com as far as his influence extended. ASPHALT. a woman remarkable for her wit. Socrates included. a mineral pitch of a black or brownish-black colour.C. May 21. a term frequently employed by Carlyle to denote a much more recondite. a village in Austria. and more or less in every quarter of the globe. v. evidence of which is still extant in pillars and rocks inscribed with his edicts in wide districts of Northern India. and culture. of Vienna. ASP. called hence the Asphodel Meadow.ramakalai@gmail. ASPHYX`IA. Chennai 6. her character was often both justly and unjustly assailed. also a limestone impregnated with bitumen. AS`PERN. came and settled in it. 1809. suspended respiration in the physical life. where a charge of the Austrians under the Archduke Charles was defeated by Napoleon. and Marshal Lannes killed.). consisting chiefly of carbon. Computer Lecturer. covered the Elysian fields. corresponding phenomenon in the spiritual life. _d_. ASPA`SIA. NE. became the wife of Pericles. Page 172 of 2772 . a poisonous Egyptian viper of uncertain species. but a no less real. on the Danube. the DEAD SEA (q. 223 B. and with which they. 4 m. being attracted to Athens. beauty. AS`PHODEL. CTSTI. a lily plant appraised by the Greeks for its almost perennial flowering. and her home the rendezvous of all the intellectual and wise people of the city. a native of Miletus. ASPHALTIC LAKE.

near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862. and defied with bayonets at his breast to utter a cry of alarm. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. a rural economist who did much to promote silk culture in Italy (1726-1818). Chennai 6. "Ho. and the hills covered with tea plantations. yielding at one time. ceded to Britain after the Burmese war in 1826. whose celebrity depends on a single act of defiance: having entered a wood to reconnoitre it the night before the battle of Kloster Kampen. and fell dead on the instant. and devoted zealously his fortune and time to the task (1753-1821). to the saving of his countrymen. long and 50 broad. ASQUINI. captain of the French regiment of Auvergne. ASPROMON`TE. of Bengal. a province E. overlooking the Strait of Messina. CTSTI. a town founded by an American of the name in 1800. a coaling-station belonging to Italy. at the Atlantic extremity of the Panama railway. coast of the Red Sea. the first to open a school for deaf-mutes in Italy. if not still. named Colon. pierced with bayonets. a mountain close by Reggio. AS`SAS. with ranges of hills along the Brahmapootra. on the W. being an alluvial plain. COUNT. Auvergne!" he exclaimed. since the Empress Eugenie presented it with a statue of Columbus. was suddenly surrounded by the enemy's (the English) soldiers. Page 173 of 2772 . an Italian philanthropist. ASSAB BAY. born at Genoa.com ASPINWALL. NICOLAS. 450 m. the low lands extremely fertile and productive. three-fourths of the tea raised in India. ASSAROTTI. ASSAM` (5.500).

the Commons section of the States-General of France which met on May 5. 1789. African tribes with deadly effect in war. constituted itself into a legislative assembly. half clergymen and half laymen. the chief court of the Presbyterian Church. from July 1. GENERAL. and so called because they braced their nerves for their deeds of blood by draughts of an intoxicating liquor distilled from hashish (the hemp-plant). and discipline in the National Church. whose stronghold was a rock fortress at Alamut. used by certain S. ASSEMBLY. to Feb. at the time of the Crusades. a representative body. 1643. and gave a new constitution to the country. CTSTI. ASSEGAI. a fanatical Moslem sect organised in the 11th century. devoted to the assassination of all enemies of the Moslem faith.ramakalai@gmail. convened at Westminster to determine questions of doctrine. and put them wholesale to the sword. of Aurungabad. ASSAYE`. of which 117 were clergymen.com ASSASSINS. ASSEMBLY. which sits in Edinburgh for ten days in May. with the result that the members of it were unanimous in regard to doctrine. NE. ASSEMBLY. a body composed of 140 members. 1649. and which held its sittings. and determines appeals. a small town 46 m. A Tartar force burst upon the horde in their stronghold in 1256. Chennai 6. worship. WESTMINSTER. in Persia. a spear or javelin of wood tipped with iron. but were divided in the matter of government. under a chief called the Old Man of the Mountain. disposes of the general business of the Church. over 1100 of them. where Sir Arthur Wellesley gained a victory over the Mahrattas in 1803. NATIONAL. Page 174 of 2772 . 22. Computer Lecturer.

the few of whom that remain do farming on the banks of the Saskatchewan. Francis. a province in Canada between Saskatchewan and the United States. monk of St. it was a celebrated place of resort of pilgrims. Chennai 6. 12 m. GIUSEPPE. a treaty with Spain to supply negroes for her colonies.com ASSEMANI. tutor. issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France in 1790. and based on the security of Church and other lands appropriated by it. JOHN. bills or notes. STEPHANO. and the birthplace of Metastasio. librarian of the Vatican. concluded in succession with the Flemings. and biographer of Alfred the Great. Page 175 of 2772 . who relinquished their rights in 1750 on compensation by Spain. of Perugia. ASSI`SI (3). is said to have suggested the founding of Oxford University. and which in course of time sunk in value. to the number of 45 thousand million. ASSER. a town in Central Italy. who sometimes came in great numbers. David's. to the ruin of millions. the English. nephew. in Wales. ASSINIBOINES. ASSIEN`TO. a learned Syrian Maronite. certain aborigines of Canada. friend. and finally the South Sea Company. Computer Lecturer. the Genoese. SE. AS`SIGNATS. _d_. CTSTI. wrote "Acta Sanctorum Martyrum" (1707-1782). 909.ramakalai@gmail. ASSINIBOI`A. held the same office. a French company. wrote an account of Syrian writers (1687-1768). the birthplace and burial-place of St.

or IST`AR. a connection in the mind between two ideas. which lay to the E.com ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS. and Babylonia on the S. in whose hands it is now a desert. such that the consciousness of one tends to recall the other. FEAST OF THE. like Apollo. on the right bank of the Nile.. long and 150 broad. a French burlesque poet ridiculed by Boileau (1604-1679). and afterwards a satrapy of the Persian empire.ramakalai@gmail.C. the alleged day of the event. between the Niphates Mountains of Armenia on the N. mythical name of the founder of Assyria. ASSOUCY. ASSYR`IA. near the last cataract. festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to heaven. these two being representative respectively of the conceptive and generative powers of nature. an ancient kingdom. ASSUMPTION. the origin and early history of which is uncertain. in 606 B. the southernmost city of Egypt. a fact employed to explain certain recondite psychological phenomena. the female divinity of the Phoenicians. as Baal was the male. D'. and the former. by the sun. became a province of Media. or ASHTORETH. like Computer Lecturer. and has been under the Turks since 1638. Chennai 6. chiefly in a Biblical interest. 280 m.. ASSOUAN`. with a fertile soil and a population at a high stage of civilisation.. ASSUR. Page 176 of 2772 . celebrated on the 15th of August. the ancient Syene. ASTAR`TE. the latter. ASSYRIOLOGY. the study of the monuments of Assyria. and symbolised. CTSTI.

inscribed. Page 177 of 2772 . and went about in male attire. and to whom Philip had replied he would accept them when he made war on the birds. Computer Lecturer. _b_. championed the rights of women. sped an arrow from the wall of a town Philip was besieging. PHILIP. the rites connected with her worship were of a lascivious nature. Aster. Aster will hang for it. by the moon. from Turin. "When Philip takes the town. AS`TEROIDS. along with Franconi established the Cirque Olympique in Paris (1742-1814). birthplace of Alfieri. to be revenged. sometimes identified with Urania and sometimes with Venus. a famous equestrian and circus manager. gradually found to number more than 200. boasting of his skill in bringing down birds on the wing. is noted for its wine. a knight-errant in mediaeval legend who generous-heartedly is always to do greater feats than he can perform. CTSTI. small planets in orbits between those of Mars and Jupiter.ramakalai@gmail. 1801. and possesses a horn that with a blast can discomfit armies. LUISE. with a Gothic cathedral. 1. ASTON. "To the right eye of Philip." and he was true to his word. whereupon Philip sped back another with the words. an ancient city in Piedmont. German authoress." which took effect. surmised in 1596. ASTLEY.com Artemis or Diana. all discovered in the present century. and named Ceres. ASTER. 26 m. of Amphipolis. AS`TI (33). an archer who offered his services to Philip of Macedon. or Planetoids. SE. on the Tanaro. ASTOLFO. the first on Jan. Chennai 6. in "Orlando Furioso" he brings back Orlando's lost wits in a phial from the moon. 1820.

in Oregon. a suburb of Birmingham. _b_. to correspond to it. the name given to an era which piques itself on the return of the reign of justice to the earth. CTSTI. the withdrawal explained to mean the vanishing of the ideal from the life of man on the earth. dwelt among men during the Golden Age.) Computer Lecturer. of which it is the chief port. became proprietor of the _Pall Mall Gazette_ and _Budget_ in 1893. Page 178 of 2772 . WILLIAM WALDORF. now placed among the stars under the name of Virgo. and to be capable of BILOCATION (q. ASTOR. and her sister Pudicitia along with her. son of the preceding. with numerous salmon-tinning establishments. 1848. v. ASTOR. AS`TRAKHAN (43). Chennai 6. came to London. the daughter of Zeus and Themis. a millionaire. a fur-trading station. ASTRAEA REDUX. who made a fortune of four millions in America by trading in furs (1763-1848). known as the "landlord of New York" (1792-1875). ASTRAE`A. ASTO`RIA. ASTRAL BODY.ramakalai@gmail. but left the earth on its decline. the goddess of justice. a Russian trading town on the Volga. an ethereal body believed by the theosophists to invest the animal. from its mouth in the Caspian Sea. 1891.com ASTON MANOR (54). JOHN JACOB. His son doubled his fortune. 40 m. son of a German peasant. devoted to politics.

and to hover unembodied through space exercising demonic influence on embodied spirits. a science founded on a presumed connection between the heavenly bodies and human destiny as more or less affected by them. ASUN`CION. ASURAS. lest he should live and restore the city. Page 179 of 2772 . from the principal town. ASTRUC. in overcoming whom the gods asserted their sovereignty in the Computer Lecturer.C. THE. a French physician and professor of medicine in Paris. dethroned by Cyrus. spirits believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies. now named Oviedo. now noted as having discovered that the book of Genesis consists of Elohistic and Jehovistic portions. gives title to the heir to the crown. CTSTI. and few great families at one time but had an astrologer attached to them to read the horoscope of any new member of the house. ASTU`RIAS (579). ASTY`AGES. and with good fisheries. a science at one time believed in by men of such intelligence as Tacitus and Kepler. ASTROLOGY. so called from having been founded by the Spaniards on the Feast of the Assumption in 1535. was cast down by the Greeks from the ramparts after the fall of Troy. ASTY`ANAX. Chennai 6. rich in minerals. to whom worship was paid.com ASTRAL SPIRITS. of Spain. in the Hindu mythology the demons of the darkness of night. JEAN. the capital of Paraguay. on the left bank of the Paraguay. or ASSUMPTION (18). 549 B. an ancient province in the N. and who by this discovery founded the modern school called of the Higher Criticism (1681-1766). last king of the Medes. the son of Hector and Andromache.ramakalai@gmail.

ramakalai@gmail.com universe. as well as gold in considerable quantities. an all but rainless desert in the N. a line always approaching some curve but never meeting it. Chennai 6. and was strangled by his orders in 1533. at last one suitor. ASYMPTOTE. for the annoyance she gave him. was banished by her father Zeus. a beautiful Grecian princess celebrated for her agility. America. ATACA`MA. Computer Lecturer. the lowest tributary of the Nile. the last of the Incas of Peru. of ancestors dead generations before. little short of a year after the Spaniards landed in Peru. where she has not been idle since. name given to the reappearance in progeny of the features. a province. in the Greek mythology the goddess of strife and mischief. of Chile. AT`AVISM. provided him by Venus. kept dropping first one golden apple. also of vengeance. from heaven to earth. that is. ATALAN`TA. the prize of any suitor who could outstrip her on the racecourse. but as he neared the goal. stooping to lift which lost her the race. accepted the risk and started along with her. and a lake in British N. and even diseases. whereupon Hippomenes claimed the prize. Page 180 of 2772 . a river. ATE`. failure being death. ATAHUALPA. or Black River. ATHABA`SCA. CTSTI. who fell into Pizarro's hands through perfidy. then another. ATBA`RA. from the Highlands of Abyssinia. abounding in silver and copper mines. which it joins near Berber. Hippomenes his name.

took a prominent part against Arius in the Council at Nice. ascribed to Athanasius at one time. ATHEISM. spent the last 10 years of his life as bishop at Alexandria. ISLE OF. in the life. a native of Alexandria.ramakalai@gmail. Christian theologian." ATHELNEY. in the intellect.C. where he died. for which she was in the end massacred by her subjects. of the orthodox creed of the Church as against the Arians. the Son. though embracing his theology in affirmation of the absolute co-equal divinity of the Father. 9th century B. but now believed to be of later date. driven forth again and again from his bishopric under persecution of the Arians. was chosen bishop of Alexandria. and was his most uncompromising antagonist. and a deacon of the Church. Page 181 of 2772 . CTSTI. and in vindication of the doctrine of the Trinity viewed in the most absolute sense (296-373). an island in a marsh near the confluence of the Computer Lecturer.com ATHALIA. ATHANASIUS. celebrated for her crimes and impiety. ascribed by Ruskin to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy in teaching children what they cannot understand. ATHEISM. disbelief in the existence of God. retired into the Thebaid for a time. in the form of a confession. the latter the more common and the more fatal form of it. MODERN. which may be either theoretical. and damnatory of every article of the heresy severally. and in employing young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not know. Chennai 6. ATHANASIAN CREED. and the Holy Ghost in the Trinity. or practical. the queen of Judah. daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. a statement. his works consist of treatises and orations bearing on the Arian controversy.

ATHE`NA.com Tone and Parret.' in the heavens. a school of learning established in Rome about 133 by Hadrian. Page 182 of 2772 . while the monuments of temple and statue that still adorn it give evidence of a culture among the citizens such as the inhabitants of no other city of the world have had the genius to surpass. of war as of peace. CTSTI. the Greek virgin goddess of wisdom. and the chief city of ancient Greece. the olive among trees. the capital of Attica. at once the brain and the heart of it. and in this way the child of both wisdom and power. ATHENAEUS. to have issued full-armed from the brain of Zeus. ATHENAEUM. was Athenian and a pagan by birth." extant only in an imperfect state. wrote an apology in its defence.ramakalai@gmail. an able Christian apologist of the 2nd century. ATHENAG`ORAS. though the name Athens has been adopted by or applied to several cities. are the Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. and in the heart". or the Suppers of the Learned. and is the name of over twenty places in the United States. particularly in the domain of literature and art. a Greek writer of the 3rd century. from all parts of the country and lands beyond. particularly in the arts. and bears on her left arm the aegis with the Medusa's head. Alfred's place of refuge from the Danes. in the earth. wrote a curious miscellany of a book entitled "Deipnosophistae. both erected on the Acropolis. The two chief monuments of the architecture of ancient Athens. Somerset. and the owl among animals. that have been considered to rival it in this respect. and a treatise on the resurrection of the dead. wears a helmet. is said to have been the conception of Metis. but being converted to Christianity. ATH`ENS. Edinburgh in particular. the resort in ancient times of all the able and wise men. were sacred to her. happily called by Ruskin the "'Queen of the Air.

and a chief military station. in Turkey. ATHLONE (7).com PARTHENON (q. a market-town on the Shannon.S. ATLANTES. U. 1840 A`THOS. which divides it. Chennai 6. ATHOLE-BROSE. oatmeal. inhabited exclusively by monks of the Greek Church. a temple dedicated to Poseidon close by. the monks devote themselves to gardening. Page 183 of 2772 . v.ramakalai@gmail.. the largest city in Georgia. Computer Lecturer. SIR JOHN JAMES HUGH STEWART-MURRAY. a large manufacturing and railway centre. ATLANTA (65).). 7TH DUKE OF. a mountain 6780 ft. is the capital (100) of modern Greece. which gives name to a branch of the Murray family. or MONTE SANTO (6). the more devout among them at one time celebrated for the edification they derived from the study of their own navels. and rich in curious manuscripts. ATHOLE. _b_. of Perthshire. and other rural occupations. honourably distinguished for having devoted years of his life to editing the records of the family and the related history. the seat of the government. MOUNT. and the residence of the king. and the Erechtheum. a district in the N. covered with monasteries. honey. ATHOLE. high at the southern extremity of the most northerly peninsula of Salonica. CTSTI. figures of men used in architecture instead of pillars. dedicated to Athena. the finest building on the finest site in the world. bee-culture. and whisky mixed.

with waves in consequence of greater height and volume than those of any other sea. THE. CTSTI. THE NEW. Africa. the GREATER in Morocco. the most important. THE.000 ft. ATMAN. it is centred in the heart of the universe. Computer Lecturer. the LESSER extending besides through Algeria and Tunis. AT`LAS. of the Pillars of Hercules. or from 3 to 5 m. which Lord Bacon began to outline but never finished.. best known. to Cape Bon. for his want of hospitality. ATLAN`TIS. and is the same there as in the heart of man. changed into a mountain by exposing to view the head of the Medusa...com ATLANTIC. the Old World and the New. conceived of as a small being having its seat in the heart.000 feet. rather than separating. where it may be felt stirring. the highest 11. its average depth 15.ramakalai@gmail. although another account makes him a king of Mauritania whom Perseus. a Titan who. Page 184 of 2772 . the divine spirit in man. the heart and eye of the world.. an island alleged by tradition to have existed in the ocean W. travelling whence along the arteries it peers out as a small image in the eye. in the Hindu philosophy. in Morocco. covers nearly one-fifth of the surface of the earth. connecting. for his audacity in attempting to dethrone Zeus. and appears with dazzling effect in the sun. was doomed to bear the heavens on his shoulders. the pupil. and an account of its fabulous history. and the whole system extending from Cape Nun. most traversed and best provided for traffic of all the oceans on the globe. a range in N. Chennai 6. a Utopia figured as existing somewhere in the Atlantic. length 9000 m. ATLAS MOUNTAINS. in Tunis. its average breadth 2700 m. Plato has given a beautiful picture of this island.

into a canal to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. to be converted. who. proposed. a Polynesian one. since the failure of the Panama scheme. Page 185 of 2772 .. Clotho. bequeathed his wealth to the Roman people Computer Lecturer. A. one of the three Fates. kept up the league with Rome (157-137). A. the name of three kings of Pergamos: A. Lachesis. appointed to spin the thread. is navigable for 200 m.com AT`OLL. killed his two sons. a river in Colombia which flows N. a family frequently referred to as capable of and doomed to perpetrating the most atrocious crimes. the theory that all compound bodies are made up of elementary in fixed proportions. AT`ROPOS. to direct it. ATOMIC THEORY. his descendants had to pay heavy penalties.. a son of Pelops and king of Mycenae. into the Gulf of Darien. along with San Juan River. particularly Agamemnon and Menelaus. I.. the one who cut asunder the thread of life. III. Chennai 6. to avenge a wrong done him by his brother Thyestes.ramakalai@gmail.C. as tradition shows.. ATRI`DES. for which act. given to a coral island consisting of a ring of coral enclosing a lagoon. descendants of Atreus. II. the weight of an atom of any body compared with that of hydrogen. CTSTI. the unit. AT`TALUS.). A`TREUS. the name. and the other. ATOMIC WEIGHT. ATRA`TO. one of her sisters. founded the library of Pergamos and joined the Romans against Philip and the Achaeans (241-197 B. and served them up in a banquet to him.

from the simplicity and elegance of his style. CTSTI. ATTIC FAITH. originally the purest and most refined style of the ancient literature of Greece. ATTIC MUSE. He was a scholarly man.ramakalai@gmail. and wrote an eloquent style (1662-1731). classical. ATTIC SALT. ATTIC BEE. Sophocles. a country in ancient Greece. a pure. inviolable faith. opposed to Punic. pointed and delicate wit. Computer Lecturer. ATTICISM. and elegant style. bishop of Rochester. and dean of Westminster. died in Paris. which has nevertheless had a history of world-wide fame and importance. TITUS P. Chennai 6. a zealous Churchman and Jacobite. on the NE. Page 186 of 2772 . which last brought him into trouble on the accession of the House of Hanover and led to his banishment. of the Peloponnesus. an eloquent preacher.. a pure and refined style of expression in any language. ATTERBURY. Xenophon.com (137-132). from the sweetness and beauty of his productions. FRANCIS. an English prelate. within an area not larger than that of Lanarkshire. ATTICUS. ATTIC STYLE. in succession dean of Christ Church. a wealthy Roman and a great friend of Cicero's. AT`TICA.

took no part in politics. the slaves who dug the grave having. CTSTI. as in falling bodies (1745-1807). a town and fortress in the Punjab. beloved by Cybele. and was buried in a gold coffin containing immense treasures in 453. it is said. died of voluntary starvation rather than endure the torture of a painful and incurable disease (110-33 B. after she had. led his forces into Germany and Gaul. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. the name given the first law officer and legal adviser of the Crown in England and Ireland. A`TYS. surnamed "the Scourge of God. been killed. Page 187 of 2772 . retreated across the Alps and ravaged the N. ATTWOOD. the king of the Huns. AT`TOCK (4)." from the terror he everywhere inspired.com devoted to study and the society of friends. on the day of his marriage. Computer Lecturer. it is alleged. extorting heavy tribute. who turned him into a pine. vanquished the emperors of both East and West.). a beautiful Phrygian youth. or Etzel. THOMAS. was defeated in a great battle near Chalons-sur-Marne by the combined armies of the Romans under Aetius and the Goths under Theodoric. Chennai 6. overran the Roman Empire at the time of its decline. of Italy. an eminent English musician and composer. on the Indus where the Kabul joins it--a river beyond which no Hindu must pass. invented a machine for illustrating the law of uniformly accelerated motion. GEORGE. it was built by Akbar in 1581.C. wrote a few anthems (1767-1836). driven him mad. lest they should reveal the spot.ramakalai@gmail. died of hemorrhage. ATTWOOD. by her apparition at his marriage to forbid the banns. a mathematician. AT`TILA.

John of Jerusalem. AUBUSSON. Page 188 of 2772 . and Wales. the sole witness of the crime and the avenger of it being his dog. French knight murdered by ROBERT MACAIRE (q.com AUBE (255). published one work. but released by a mob. THE ABBE. Chennai 6. a French statesman. a French town on the Creuse. in France. AUBUSSON. v. 1382. born at Caen." &c. who in 1480 gallantly defended Rhodes when Computer Lecturer. Hereford. provost of Paris under Charles V. preserved a good deal of the gossip of the period (1624-1697). AUBRY DE MONTDIDIER. (1782-1871). born at Paris (1731-1814). all of which he lost by lawsuits and bad management. PIERRE D'. a friend of Anthony Wood's. manufactures carpets and tapestry. left a vast number of MSS.). inherited estates in Wilts. AU`BERT. "Miscellanies." "Le Domino Noir. born at Dijon. his operas included "La Muette de Portici. grand-master of the Knights of St. an eminent antiquary..ramakalai@gmail. was intimate with all the literary men of the day." "Fra Diavolo. CTSTI. was imprisoned in it for heresy. of French descent. a French fabulist. died at Dijon. a dep.: built the famous Bastille. JOHN. AUB`REY. formed of Champagne and a small part of Burgundy. AUB`RIOT. with Troyes for capital. a popular French composer of operas. AU`BER." being a collection of popular superstitions.

returned afterwards to his post in the Admiralty (1784-1849). son of the following. AUCHINLECK. and 200 m. a village in Perthshire. island. Governor-General of India. Page 189 of 2772 . with a splendid cathedral perched on a hill. and drove the assailants back. 10 m. LORD. gave name to Auckland. capital of the dep. a village 15 m. long. AUCKLAND. of Toulouse. of Ayr.000 men (1423-1503). with the mansion of the Boswell family. a Whig in politics. SW. and accessible only by a flight of 200 steps. amounting to no fewer than 100. BISHOP (11). broad. E. with an excellent harbour in the Gulf of Hauraki. with the palace of the bishop. and the capital of a district of the name. with a fertile soil and a fine climate. 400 m. the largest town in New Zealand. of Durham and in the county of Durham. France. and the creation of the Free Church in 1843. W. CTSTI. in the N.ramakalai@gmail. GEORGE EDEN.. has a trade in wine and brandy. a town on the Wear. where the forcing of a presentee by a patron on an unwilling congregation awoke a large section in the Established Church to a sense of the wrong. First Lord of the Admiralty. AUCKLAND. Chennai 6. and the assertion of the rights of the people and led to the disruption of the community. rich in natural products of all kinds. 14 m. AUCK`LAND (60). of Gers. AUCHTERAR`DER.com besieged by Mahomet II. was the capital of New Zealand till the seat of government was transferred to Wellington. Computer Lecturer. AUCH (12).

ramakalai@gmail. being a portion of Languedoc. CTSTI. AUDHUMBLA. Computer Lecturer. and Poussin. JEAN VICTOR. Chennai 6. and an authority on criminal law (1744-1814). (1488-1554). and is rich in minerals. born in Essex. S. the selfish. a group of small islands 180 m.com AUCKLAND. a maritime dep. he did some fine illustrations of the battles of Alexander the Great (1640-1703). AUDE (317). son of a yeoman. the cow. all exquisitely done (1759-1800). WILLIAM EDEN. with some good harbours. born at Lyons. wine. and lived herself by licking the hoar-frost off the rocks.. became Speaker of the House of Commons and Lord Chancellor of England. AUDLEY. LORD. a French artist and naturalist. and rich in vegetation. Mignard. engraved the works of Lebrun. GERARD. LORD. was employed by the French Government to inquire into and report on the diseases of the silkworm. AU`DOUIN. diplomatist. of New Zealand. JEAN BAPTISTE. &c. of France. AUDRAN. SIR THOMAS. an eminent French entomologist. yields cereals. an engraver. AUDEBERT. devoted himself to the illustration in coloured plates of objects of natural history. the most eminent of a family of artists. and the insects that destroy the vines (1797-1841). in the Norse mythology. that nourished Hymir. AUCKLAND ISLANDS. such especially as monkeys and humming-birds. unscrupulous tool of Henry VIII. in the S. Page 190 of 2772 .

became professor at Bonn. or as Dr. a celebrated American ornithologist of French Huguenot origin. common-sense. at the hands of the modern party of unbelief. and who profess to settle all questions of reason. Page 191 of 2772 .com AU`DUBON. author of two great works. COUNT VON. conspicuously of the present time. _b_. of faith. JOHN JAMES." drawn and illustrated by himself. are in the main of a somewhat philosophical bent. Stirling defines it. "that stripping of us naked of all things in heaven and upon earth. born in Silesia. which have been widely translated." Computer Lecturer. 1822. the members of which pique themselves on ability to disperse the darkness of the world. by appeal to private judgment and majorities. Chennai 6. CTSTI. was professor of Sanskrit in Edinburgh University. a movement. an Austrian lyrical and satirical poet. THEODOR. AUF`RECHT. born in the Black Forest. returning to Germany. AUFKLAeRUNG. if they could only persuade men to forego reason. a German poet and novelist of Jewish birth. his novels. the former characterised by Cuvier as "the most magnificent monument that Art up to that time had raised to Nature" (1780-1851). and under the guidance of so-called rationalism. of liberal politics. as the only test of truth. an Austrian physician. the "Birds of America" and the "Quadrupeds of America. AU`ERBACH. and a pronounced enemy of the absolutist party headed by Metternich (1806-1876). he having been early led to the study of Spinoza. THE. that is. AU`ERSPERG. eminent Sanskrit scholar. discoverer of the method of investigating diseases of the chest by percussion (1722-1809). and accept sense. and having begun his literary career as editor of his works. his "Village Tales of the Black Forest" were widely popular (1812-1882).ramakalai@gmail. or Illuminationism. AU`ENBRUGGER. BERTHOLO.

a document drawn up by Melanchthon in name of the Lutheran reformers. against Computer Lecturer. produced brilliant comedies for the French stage through a period of 40 years. renowned as a critic (1772-1829). AUGSBURG CONFESSION. the work of reformation proper. and one of the Argonauts. born at Paris. AUGS`BURG (75). in Greece. His only rivals were Dumas _fils_ and M. AU`GEREAU. once a city of great importance.. born at Paris. Chennai 6. 1797. the act a symbol of the worthless lumber a reformer must sweep away before his work can begin. ensuring religious freedom. PIERRE FRANCOIS CHARLES. He was simply a soldier. on account of his having supported the Bourbons during his absence. EMILE. a legendary king of Elis.com AUGE`AS. in Bavaria. Sardou (1820-1889). CTSTI. distinguished in the campaigns of the Republic and Napoleon. a French litterateur. marshal of France and duke of Castiglione. all distinctly on the side of virtue.ramakalai@gmail. and with no great brains for anything else but military discipline (1757-1816). had a stable with 3000 oxen. and where the peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555. headed by the Elector of Saxony in statement of their own doctrines. his services were rejected by Napoleon on his return from Elba. but was cleansed by Hercules turning the rivers Peneus and Alpheus through it. that had not been cleaned out for 30 years. rude and rough-mannered. a busy manufacturing and trading town on the Lech. Page 192 of 2772 . executed the _coup d'etat_ of the 4th Sept. where in 1531 the Protestants presented their Confession to Charles V. able French dramatist. AUGER. and of the doctrines of the Church of Rome. AU`GIER.

as on suggestion of a friend he took up the epistle to read it in answer to an appeal he had made to him to explain a voice that was ever whispering in his ears. 14). "Take and read". ST. _d_.. which began in March. AUGUSTAN AGE. the bishop of Hippo and the greatest of the Latin Fathers of the Church. Page 193 of 2772 . the time in the history of a nation when its literature is at its best. originally called Sextilis. AUGUSTIN. in Numidia. 231 m. Chennai 6. as the sixth month of the Roman year. 13. son of a pagan father and a Christian mother. a native of Tagaste. was converted to Christ by a text of St. sent thither with a few monks by Pope Gregory in 596 to convert the country to Christianity. AU`GUSTINE. also a town (10) the capital of Maine.com which they protested. AUGUST. 605. and which were sometimes carried about in a coop to consult on emergencies. of Canterbury. became Computer Lecturer. born near Gotha (1771-1841). Paul (Rom.. xiii. founded the see. a prosperous town in Georgia. after a youth of dissipation.. a German rationalist theologian of note. Monica. CTSTI. AUGUSTI. the apostle of England. which his eyes first lit upon. or rather archbishopric. and named August in honour of Augustus. St. AUGURS. or AUSTIN. AUGUSTA (33). as being the month identified with remarkable events in his career. began his labours in Kent. on the Savannah.ramakalai@gmail. U. ST.S. from its mouth. a college of priests in Rome appointed to forecast the future by the behaviour or flight of birds kept for the purpose. U.S.

" his "City of God. a monarch surnamed the "pious" and the "Justinian of Saxony" (1526-1586). Computer Lecturer. his principal works are his "Confessions. mendicant.-A. became consul. called also Black Cenobites. CTSTI. (_a_) Canons. AUGUSTUS. AUGUSTUS I. a Lutheran prince. defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. 14). and became master of the Roman world. It is safe to say.ramakalai@gmail. Paul (354-430). had 200 houses in England and Wales at the Reformation.. under a less severe discipline than monks. formed one of a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus. the name of several princes of Saxony and Poland in the 16th and 17th centuries.com bishop in 396. (_b_) Friars. the first of the Roman Emperors or Caesars. proved a wise and beneficent ruler. Page 194 of 2772 . AUGUSTUS.D. and took an active part in the Church controversies of his age. and the Pelagians. and his heir. opposing especially the Manichaeans. along with Antony overthrew the Republican party under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. Elector of Saxony. a portion of them barefooted. and patronised the arts and letters. Chennai 6. whose reign was peaceful comparatively. joined the Republican party at Caesar's death. nurses of the sick. ultimately CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS.C. and he was himself both a good man and a good ruler. AUGUSTINIANS.C. called at first CAIUS OCTAVIUS.. his reign forming a distinguished epoch in the history of the ancient literature of Rome (63 B. devoted himself to pastoral duties. the Donatists." and his treatises on Grace and Free-Will. no Churchman has ever exercised such influence as he has done in moulding the creed as well as directing the destiny of the Christian Church. (_c_) Nuns. He was especially imbued with the theology of St. grand-nephew of Julius Caesar. was voted the title of "Augustus" by the Senate in 27 B.

" says Carlyle. of date from 1495 to 1654. from which there was no appeal. leagued with the Spaniards. was convicted of treason. AUMALE. and founded the Dresden Picture Gallery (1670-1733). three hundred and fifty-four of them (Marshal Saxe one of the lot). son of the preceding. distinguished himself in Algiers.com AUGUSTUS II..--of physical strength. a cake with 5000 eggs and a tun of butter. Chennai 6. became governor of Paris. "in several things. it had no constitution. and lived and died with the emperor. supreme council in the old German Empire. DUC D'. dealt with judicial matters. "attained the maximum. Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Page 195 of 2772 . died an exile at Brussels (1556-1631). a patron of the fine arts. which he held against Henry IV. one of the chiefs of the League. AULIS. DUC D'. and left his estate and valuables to the French nation Computer Lecturer. acknowledged the Republic." He was. AULIC COUNCIL. and having escaped. was burned in effigy. was sacrificed by her father Agamemnon. half-crowns with finger and thumb. and of bastards.. where the fleet of the Greeks assembled before taking sail for Troy. a port in Boeotia. to procure a favourable wind. and was governor of Algeria. like many a monarch of the like loose character. AUGUSTUS III. lived in England for twenty years after. CTSTI. proved an incompetent king (1696-1763). which he resigned when his father abdicated. is known to history as "The Strong". fourth son of Louis Philippe. had twice to retire. but was reinstated. of sumptuosity. nay. no man of his means so regardless of expense. forced himself on Poland. could break horse-shoes..ramakalai@gmail. baked the biggest bannock on record. AUMALE. an event commemorated in the "Iphigeneia in Aulis" of Euripides. beat Stanislaus Leszcynski in the struggle for the crown of Poland. and where Iphigeneia.

MARCUS. See ANTONI`NUS. AUNGERVILLE. on the Jourdanne. a German wild ox. was elected emperor. and while on his way to crush a rebellion in Persia was assassinated by his troops (212-275). a wreath of light represented as encircling the brows of the saints and martyrs. and left a curious work called "Philobiblon" (1281-1345). VICTOR SEXTUS. 270. AU`ROCHS. of Cantal.ramakalai@gmail. AURELIA`NUS. queen of Palmyra.com (1822-1897). carrying her captive to Rome. AURILLAC (14). subdued a usurper in Gaul. vanquished Zenobia. RICHARD. built round the famous abbey of St. sent on embassies to various courts. was a lover and collector of books. LUCIUS DOMITIUS. capital of the dep.. or RICHARD DE BURY. Geraud. AUNOY. Page 196 of 2772 . affluent of the Dordogne. COMTESSE D'. powerful in physique. now extinct. AURE`LIUS. drove the barbarians out of Italy. distinguished as a skilful and successful general. tutor to Edward III. a French authoress. CTSTI. son of a peasant of Pannonia. bishop of Durham. AUREOLA. now in ruins. known and appreciated for her fairy tales (1650-1705). a Roman consul and a Latin historian of the 4th century. AURE`LIUS. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. and an able Roman emperor.

U. AUSCULTATION. the murder of two brothers and of the son of one of these. the Carnatic. among whom he beforehand divided it (1615-1707).S. a city in Illinois. once the capital. Mogul emperor of Hindustan. Chennai 6. SW. ascended the throne by the deposition of his father. name in "Sartor Resartus. Page 197 of 2772 . AUSCULTATOR. his rule was far-shining.. in the Nizam's dominions.com AURO`RA. charged with opening for the sun the gates of the East. and Bengal. said to have been the first town to light the streets with electricity. but as yet only expectant of employment in it. and rode in a rosy chariot drawn by four white horses. or Northern Lights. he governed with skill and courage. a city in Hyderabad. the Roman goddess of the dawn. had a star on her forehead.ramakalai@gmail. understood to be an electric discharge through the atmosphere connected with magnetic disturbance. Computer Lecturer. extended his empire by subduing Golconda. now much decayed. was a patron of letters. of Chicago. but the empire was rotten at the core. AURORA (19). See EOS. third son of Shah Jehan. and when he died it crumbled to pieces in the hands of his sons. discerning by the sound whether there is or is not disease in the interior organs of the body. 35 m. AURUN`GABAD` (50). with the ruins of a palace of Aurungzebe. CTSTI. and though fanatical and intolerant." the hero as a man qualified for a profession. AU`RUNGZEBE. AURORA BOREALIS.

JANE. if sufficiently observed and selected. and thought so by himself. where Napoleon defeated the emperors of Russia and of Austria. a native of Gaul. poet-laureate in succession to Tennyson. tutor to the Emperor Gratian. DECIMUS MAGNUS. daughter of a clergyman in N. one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories. named after Stephen Austin. born near Leeds." says Professor Saintsbury. born in Bordeaux. but that should be of the absolutely first quality as literature. which she achieved in an inimitably charming manner. but devoted to literature as journalist. AUSONIUS.ramakalai@gmail. AUSTEN. 1805. bred for the bar. member of a quiet family circle. made him prefect of Latium and of Gaul. AUSTIN (14). and the delineation of it." was published in 1811. a town in Moravia. to furnish forth prose fiction not merely that would pass. a gifted English novelist. "She showed once for all. near Bruenn. CTSTI. but no poet (300-394). an ancient name of Italy. at "the battle of the three emperors. AUSTIN." Dec. 2. who was chiefly instrumental in annexing Texas to the States. her interest being throughout in ordinary quiet cultured life. AUS`TERLITZ (3). "Persuasion. Page 198 of 2772 . "Sense and Sensibility. writer. Chennai 6. and combined with due art. "the capabilities of the very commonest and most ordinary life. Hampshire. ALFRED. the capital of Texas. occupied herself in writing without eye to publication. on the Colorado River. and consul of Rome. a Roman poet." her masterpiece. Computer Lecturer. and only in mature womanhood thought of writing for the press. as Scott is the father of it" (1775-1816). on coming to the throne. Her first novel." and others.com AUSONIA. He was a good versifier and stylist. who. She is the mother of the English 19th-century novel. and was followed by "Pride and Prejudice.

ramakalai@gmail. a distinguished English jurist. 1835. but being too profound in his philosophy. only one river. (_nee_ Sarah Taylor). the Murray. a Satire. New Zealand. between which and the sea is a varying breadth of coast-land. mastered the science of law by the study of it in Germany. and either in flood or dried up. AUSTIN. it will be with her" (1793-1867) AUSTIN FRIARS. the coast has singularly few inlets. to W. the interior consists of a low desert plateau. on the S. depressed in the centre. bordered with ranges of various elevation. AUSTIN. has written "The Golden Age. CTSTI. a continent entirely within the Southern Hemisphere. Chennai 6.. "If I 'swear eternal friendship' with any woman here. Carpentaria." "English Lyrics. Southern Asia). the rivers are few. about one-fourth smaller than Europe.. was unsuccessful as professor. long. MRS. the chief mountain range is in the E. executed translations from the German. a name given to Australia. J." and his Lectures. only one great gulf. like her husband. _b_. See AUGUSTINIANS. he wrote to his wife of her. e. its utmost length from E.. were published by his widow after his death (1790-1859). coast. "The Province of Jurisprudence Determined." "Savonarola. Page 199 of 2772 . though many and spacious harbours. and the islands adjoining.. professor of Jurisprudence in London University. and extends more or less parallel all the way with the E. and one bight. was introduced to Carlyle when he first went up to London. of any consequence. and breadth 1971. being 2400 m.com and poet. was. the Great Australian Bight. 2345 m. JOHN. on the N. of the utilitarian school.. wife of the preceding. AUSTRALASIA (i. Computer Lecturer. AUSTRALIA. "Falk's Characteristics of Goethe" for one. his great work. for the climate is very parching." and several works in prose.

or the East Kingdom. which are numerous.000. all of which have their mouths in other countries. is the third country for size in it. Queensland. the capital Vienna. capital of which was Metz. it was celebrated for its rivalry with the kingdom of Neustria. including. S. the Danube in chief. is divided by the Leitha. Computer Lecturer. Australia. and the territory divided into Victoria. AUSTRIA. the natives are disappearing. of birds. New South Wales.000. occupies the centre of Europe. the cassowary and the emu.ramakalai@gmail. the colonists in 1904 numbering close upon 4. its chief seaport. the eucalyptus and the acacia the most characteristic. 5 of them kingdoms. are shallow and nearly all salt..com while the lakes. AUSTRIAN LIP. Australia. which with Tasmania federated in 1900 and became the Commonwealth. is watered by rivers. or AUSTRO-HUNGARY. has three zones of climate with corresponding zones of vegetation. and the duck-bill. that existed from 511 to 843.000. and the population over 40. and Trans-Leithan on the E. the fauna is no less peculiar. Page 200 of 2772 . minerals abound. in the absence of many animals of other countries. a kingdom on the E. the flora is peculiar. into Cis-Leithan on the W.000. fruits. the useful animals being likewise all imported. speaking different languages. AUSTRASIA. Trieste. is rich in minerals. is a country of every variety of surface and scenery. a tributary of the Danube. or the Western Kingdom. Chennai 6. and edible roots being all imported. and W. a thick under-lip characteristic of the House of Hapsburg. is inhabited by peoples of different races and nationalities. grains. the kangaroo. the dingo. yet has free communication with the seas on all sides of it. as many as 20. but songless. CTSTI. both the precious and the useful. and composed of 50 different states. manufacturing chiefly in the W. of the possessions of the Franks in Gaul. and smaller ones of great beauty. is largely pastoral and agricultural.. has next to no coast-line.

Computer Lecturer. prior to being burned alive. and was the work of 47 men selected with marked fairness and discretion. Cambridge. and melody of the English language. famed for his cunning and robberies. London. and received thirty pounds each. the whole being thereafter revised by a committee of six. and that has since woven itself into the affectionate regard of the whole English-speaking people. grace. and has contributed more than anything else to prevent it from degenerating into the merely frivolous and formal.. and Oxford. in which the condemned. The men who executed it evidently felt something of the inspiration that breathes in the original. CTSTI. walked in a procession of monks. a village in the dep.ramakalai@gmail. now included in Paris. to hear a sermon on the true faith. AUTOCHTHONS. Greek for aborigines. dressed in a hideously fantastic robe. dignity. so that it is not undeservedly called King James's Bible. followed by carts containing coffins with malefactors' bones. the rest being done for nothing. AUTHORISED VERSION OF THE BIBLE was executed between the years 1604 and 1610 at the instance of James I. of the Seine. Page 201 of 2772 . in the Greek mythology a son of HERMES (q. v. divided into three groups of two sections each. a ceremony held by the court of the Inquisition in Spain. called the San Benito. and maternal grandfather of Ulysses by his daughter Anticlea.com AUTEUIL. AUTOL`YCUS. and they have produced a version that will remain to all time a monument of the simplicity. Chennai 6. who met for nine months in Stationers' Hall. its very style has had a nobly educative effect on the national literature. synonym for thief. preliminary to the execution of a heretic. or Act of Faith. the most famous auto-da-fe took place in Madrid in 1680.). who held their sittings for three years severally at Westminster. and a pointed cap. The result was a translation that at length superseded every other. AUTO-DA-FE.

manufactures serges. in the Kantian metaphysics denotes the sovereign right of the pure reason to be a law to itself. the highlands of which separate the basin of the Loire from that of the Garonne. carpets. AVA. with a fine cathedral and rich in antiquities. an ancient city. an ancient city in the dep. of Puy-de-Dome. an ancient province of France. and attained distinction by the production of the tragedy "La Fille d'Eschyle" (1813-1877). AUVERGNE`. AUTUN` (15). velvet. of Yonne. AUTONOMY (i. he was of the school of Lamartine. the charioteer of Achilles. now in ruins from an earthquake in 1839. 90 m. born at Marseilles. of Paris. Page 202 of 2772 . Cantal. Self-law). drives a large trade in wine. Chennai 6. &c.ramakalai@gmail. e. NW. CTSTI. has a fine cathedral in the Flamboyant style.com AUTOM`EDON. AUTRAN`. AUXERRE` (15). in the Celtic mythology an island of faerie in the region Computer Lecturer. capital of the Burmese empire from 1364 to 1740 and from 1822 to 1835. of Saone-et-Loire. on the Arroux. in 1610. they speak a strange dialect. from Chalons. a French poet and dramatist. embracing the deps. where Talleyrand was bishop. and part of Haute-Loire. united to the crown under Louis XIII. capital of the dep. JOSEPH. AV`ALON. SE. and supply all the water-carriers and street-sweepers of Paris. and contain a hardy and industrious race of people descended from the original inhabitants of Gaul. 28 m.

driven from their home in the Altai Mts.ramakalai@gmail. of Naples. 28. a theory both characteristic of Vishnuism and marking a new epoch in the religious development of India. a Bavarian historian. AVENTINE HILL. of Marlborough. &c. and committed ravages in it for about three centuries. paper. and the final home of the heroes of chivalry when their day's work was ended on earth. AVE MARIA. AVELLI`NO (26). surmised to have been erected and arranged in memory of some great victory. an invocation to the Virgin. invaded the E. 59 m.com where the sun sinks to rest at eventide. CTSTI. or Descent.. author of the "Chronicon Bavariae" Computer Lecturer. 6 m. the mount to which the plebs sullenly retired on their refusal to submit to the patrician oligarchy. Page 203 of 2772 . in the middle of a so-called Druidical structure consisting of 100 monoliths. famous for its trade in hazel-nuts and chestnuts. AVATAR`. or ABERY. and all but exterminated in 827. has been subject to earthquakes. chief town in a province of the name in Campania. Chennai 6. E. the incarnation and incarnated manifestation of a Hindu deity. a tribe of Huns who. macaroni. and from which they were enticed back by Menenius Agrippa by the well-known fable of the members of the body and the stomach. so called as forming the first two words of the salutation of the angel in Luke i. AVEBURY. till they were subdued by Charlemagne. of Europe about 553. a village in Wiltshire. AVENTI`NUS. by the Chinese. W. AVARS. manufactures woollens. one of the seven hills of Rome.

a valuable record of the early history of Germany (1477-1534). and conceived. 11/2 m. in the S. AVICEN`NA. with excellent pastures. AVIE`NUS. AVER`ROES. the teacher of Averroes (1073-1103). occupying the crater of an extinct volcano. near Naples. an Italian town 8 m. RUFUS FESTUS. an illustrious Arabian physician. AVEYRON`. a geographer and Latin poet. amid vineyards and orange groves. from Naples. AVENZO`AR. AVERSA (24). of France. devoted himself to the study and the exposition of Aristotle. an Arabian physician and philosopher." though he appears to have coupled with the philosophy of Aristotle the Oriental pantheistic doctrine of emanations (1126-1198). a mountainous dep. his philosophy being of the school of Aristotle with a mixture of Neoplatonism. as well as from the mephitic vapours it exhaled." being the supreme in medical science for centuries (980-1037). earning for himself the title of the "Commentator. at one time surrounded by a dark wood. a Moor by birth and a native of Cordova. much resorted to by the Neapolitans.com (Annals of Bavaria). CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. and identified with it. Page 204 of 2772 . to be the entrance to the infernal world. Chennai 6. a deep lake in Italy. from its gloomy appearance. surnamed the prince of physicians. a man of immense learning and extensive practice in his art. an Arabian physician. AVERNUS. of authority in philosophy as well as in medicine. or versifier Computer Lecturer. his "Canon of Medicine. in circumference. where the Roquefort cheese is produced.

the name of several English rivers. Theresa. or VALONA. AV`OLA (12). it contains a number of interesting buildings. above the sea-level. CTSTI. an ancient city beautifully situated on the left bank of the Rhone. birthplace of St. for his zeal in planting the Gospel in its mountains. of Old Castile. in S. with a Gothic cathedral and a Moorish castle. place of export of the Hybla honey. near the confluence of the Durance. rebuilt since. and of Bristol. AVILA Y ZINUGA. a soldier. of Vaucluse. France. a seaport on the E. such as Shakespeare's in Warwickshire.com rather. Computer Lecturer. of Salisbury in Wiltshire. and fruits. A`VON. and belonged to the Papacy from that time till 1797. on an inlet of the Adriatic. AVILA. at that period. a port of Albania. of the 4th century. capital of the dep. was the seat of the Papacy from 1305 to 1377.. Chennai 6. purchased by Pope Clement VI. a town in Spain. 3000 ft. grows and manufactures silk in large quantities. and historian under Charles V. JUAN D'. rising in Wiltshire. a Spanish priest. oil. 1569. ruined by an earthquake in 1693. A`VILA (10). in a province of the name. surnamed the Apostle of Andalusia. when it was appropriated to France. Page 205 of 2772 . _d_. AVIGN`ON (37). diplomatist. and carries on a large trade in wine.ramakalai@gmail. of various fortune from its foundation by the Phocaeans in 539 B.C. coast of Sicily. AVLO`NA (6).

Chennai 6. the spot marked by a stone. Lincolnshire. believed to be in its preliminary or tadpole state of existence. the place. belonging to Britain. in the centre of Argyllshire. founded by Pizarro in 1539. AWE. the second in size of Scottish lakes. once a forest. and which as the outpost of Christendom fell early before the Mohammedan power. 17 m. a tract of land in NW. flax. lace-making the staple industry. LOCH. Page 206 of 2772 . 25 m. producing hemp. AX`OLOTL. Normandy. AX`UM. above the sea-level. studded with islands. capital of an Ethiopian kingdom in Abyssinia. where Henry II. one with the ruin of a castle. CTSTI. AXIM. and now fertile. numerous in Mexico and the Western States. AYACU`CHO. born in Zealand. where the Peruvians and Colombians achieved their independence of Spain Computer Lecturer. and compelled them to adopt Christianity. in length. a batrachian. Africa. a Danish patriot with Norse blood. a thriving town in Peru. now in ruins. then a marsh. AXEL. subdued tribes of Wends. ISLE OF. overshadowed by mountains. broad. a trading settlement on the Gold Coast. a town in dep. and trade in agricultural products. archbishop of Lund. &c. AXHOLME.com AVRANCHES` (7).ramakalai@gmail. the scenery gloomily picturesque. drained in 1632. belonged to Holland till 1871. long and 5 m. where Christianity was introduced in the 4th century. of Manche. rape. its surface is 100 ft. received absolution for the murder of Thomas a Becket.

the dominant people of Peru at the Computer Lecturer. he is satirised by Spenser in the "Shepherd's Calendar" (1521-1594). and a book of poems entitled the "Rhymes of the Court" (1332-1407). supplies the London market with ducks. Page 207 of 2772 . in an agricultural district. PEDRO LOPEZ D'. a Spanish soldier. wrote a "History of the Kings of Castile. it is said. but released her on condition that she should not again interfere in State matters (610-677). AYLOFFE." which was more than a chronicle of wars. American continent. being also a review of them." who is styled by them the "Mother of the Faithful" (see KADIJAH). 40 m.ramakalai@gmail. born in Murcia. "A woman who distinguished herself by all manner of qualities among the Moslems. from which it would appear sprang the Quinchuas. AYESHA. and a friend to neither Papist nor Puritan. She was. statesman. the chief native race of Peru and Bolivia. NW. and diplomatist. the daughter of Abubekr. JOHN. AYLMER. whom he married soon after the death of Kadijah. SIR JOSEPH. a borough and market-town in Buckinghamshire. and ended the rule of Spain in the S. CTSTI. bishop of London. Chennai 6. AYLES`BURY (9). AYA`LA. born in Sussex (1708-1781). On Mahomet's death she opposed the accession of Ali. for he died in her arms.com in 1824. as much devoted to Mahomet as he was to her. and favourite wife of Mahomet. AYE-AYE. English antiquary. AYMA`RAS. a highly arbitrary man. the only wife of Mahomet that remained a virgin. of London. tutor to Lady Jane Grey. who defeated her and took her prisoner. a lemur found in the woods of Madagascar.

AYMON. who made his fortune by a Latin panegyric to King James I. JACOB. by the Firth of Clyde. dating from 1200. of the style of HANS SACHS (q. with elegant villas in the suburbs. its divisions. a poet of considerable merit. Page 208 of 2772 . of the Doon. ancient town. and number to-day 500. to the S. concerning which there is an old rhyme: "Kyle for a man. and doubly so among Scottish towns as the birthplace near it of Robert Burns. a large and wealthy county in the W. AYR`ER.). Galloway for 'oo. well built. Cunningham for butter and cheese. Kyle. and particularly as paladins of Charlemagne. was on friendly terms with the eminent literary men Computer Lecturer. a native of Fife. on his accession. agricultural and pastoral. bordered on the W. SIR ROBERT.com time of the Spanish conquest. THE COUNT OF DORDOGNE. Carrick for a coo. between the Doon and the Irvine. Renaud. famous in early Scottish history. renowned in the legends of chivalry. on the N. attained a high degree of civilisation. a peasant of Dauphine. a good harbour and docks for shipping. born at Kinaldie. the county town of Ayrshire. v. and Cunningham. CTSTI. of Scotland. granted by William the Lion. and Richard." AYTON. who in the 17th century professed to discover springs and treasures hid in the earth by means of a divining rod. Chennai 6.000. Guiscard. a clean. a German dramatist in the 16th century. its charter. Alard. AY`MAR-VER`NAY. with a large coal-field and thriving manufactures. the father of four sons. Carrick.ramakalai@gmail. at the mouth of a river of the same name.. AYR (23). AYRSHIRE (226).

prov. and rich in minerals. and 900 m. was Victor Emanuel's right-hand man. AZ`RAEL. W. the climate is mild. WILLIAM EDMONDSTOUNE. they were known to the Carthaginian mariners. and good for pulmonary complaints. his poems are written in pure and even elegant English. of the river Aras. i." an admirable collection of light verse (1813-1865). Michael's and Fayal. AZEGLIO. of Armenian Persia. but fell out of the map of Europe till rediscovered in 1431. fighting for Italian independence. 800 m. AYTOUN. in the latitude of Lisbon. some in Latin. poet and critic. a group of nine volcanic islands in the Atlantic. Hawk Islands (250). very shallow. retired in favour of Cavour. S. Ben Jonson in particular. along with Sir Theodore Martin. the angel of death according to Rabbinical tradition. an opening from the Black Sea. CTSTI. native of Turin. of the "Gaultier Ballads. of it.ramakalai@gmail. Page 209 of 2772 . W. AZOV. e. a native of Edinburgh. of Portugal. AZORES. wounded at Vicenza in 1848. Computer Lecturer. being an amateur in art (1798-1866). an Italian patriot and statesman. professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University. entered the Piedmontese Parliament. and gradually silting up with mud from the Don. he was not altogether engrossed with politics.000). covered with orange groves. MARCHESE D'. and forming a province of it. and have only recently been collected together (1571-1638). author of the "Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers". he was also editor. with fertile plains. Chennai 6. cattle-breeding. AZERBIJAN (2. are in general mountainous. of which the chief are St. SEA OF.com of his time.

of reddish-brown skin. BA`AL (meaning Lord). was patronised by the king of Bavaria. what might rather be called a theosophy than a philosophy. Page 210 of 2772 . and broad featured. and the controversy hinged on the question whether the Lord's Supper was instituted before the Passover season was finished. author of "Droit Maritime de l'Europe" (1729-1827). Chennai 6. CTSTI. and taught in 16 vols. _PL_. and were overthrown by the Spaniards in 1520. the name given to a party in the Church who insisted that only unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist. an Italian jurist. and became professor in Muenich. with its self-sufficiency of the reason. which occupied the Mexican plateau for some centuries before the Spaniards visited it. and offended the king (1765-1841).com AZ`TECS. which he studied in England. who. DOMINICO ALBERTO. FRANZ XAVIER VON. revolting alike from the materialism of Hume. and in the latter leavened. and God even in life. identified with the sun as the great Computer Lecturer. BAALIM. made a special study of maritime law. lean. or after. a civilised race of small stature. AZUNI. which regarded God in Himself. He. the principal male divinity of the Canaanites and Phoenicians.ramakalai@gmail. AZYMITES. identified himself with the liberal movement in politics. a German philosopher. and the transcendentalism of Kant. however. as incomprehensible realities. fell back upon the mysticism of Jacob Boehme. born in Sardinia. president of the Court of Appeal at Genoa. as in the former case the bread must have been unleavened. B BAADER. born at Muenich.

in his later years was famous for his hostility to street organ-grinders (1791-1871). being that of the Canaanites. one of the most magnificent ruins of the East.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. BAALISM. NW. covering an area of four acres.com quickening and life-sustaining power in nature. but under the zealous preaching of the prophets it was eventually stamped out. City of Baal. CAPE. spent much time and money over the invention of a calculating machine. Baal-worship. an English Catholic gentleman. BABBINGTON. CTSTI. an ancient city of Syria. of Damascus. incense. and at one time threatened to swamp it. in Asia Minor. Page 211 of 2772 . in Anatolia. called by the Greeks. once a place of great size. CHARLES. ALI. wealth. the name given to the worship of natural causes. e. the most conspicuous of which is the Great Temple to Baal. Heliopolis. and professor there. tending to the obscuration and denial of the worship of God as Spirit. and dancing. was for a time mixed up with the worship of Jehovah in Israel. worshipped on hill-tops with sacrifices. a mathematician. 35 m. his crowning attribute. BABA. a word which he accidentally overheard. and splendour. wrote on "The Economy of Manufactures and Machinery. strength. v. the character in the "Arabian Nights" who discovers and enters the den of the Forty Thieves by the magic password "SESAME" (q. now in ruins. or the Sun). conspired against Computer Lecturer. ANTONY.). with a town of the name. born in Devonshire. the most western point in Asia. studied at Cambridge." and an autobiography entitled "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher". BABA. BABBAGE. BAAL`BEK (i. the god who presided over the labours of the husbandman and granted the increase.

and divorce. left memoirs. BABES IN THE WOOD. was guillotined.ramakalai@gmail. his dynasty lasted for three centuries. the Gate of Tears). BABOON. the name Arbuthnot gives to Louis XIV. a descendant of Tamerlane. LEWIS. Irish banditti who infested the Wicklow Mountains in the 18th century. headed an insurrection against the Directory. or BABU. a violent revolutionary in France. BABOO. confessed his guilt.com Elizabeth on behalf of Mary. the founder of the Mogul empire in Hindustan. insisted on the emancipation of women. and often cause wreckage to vessels attempting to pass it. self-styled Gracchus. so called from the strong currents which rush through it. See CHILDREN. CTSTI. a strait between Asia and Africa forming the entrance to the Red Sea. BABIS. have suffered from persecution. BABOEUF. Chennai 6. thrice invaded India. name applied to a native Hindu gentleman who has some knowledge of English. concubinage. "which died in the birth. and was executed at Tyburn in 1586. their doctrines a mixture of pantheistic with Gnostic and Buddhist beliefs. e. a modern Persian sect founded in 1843. adverse to polygamy. after attempting to commit suicide (1764-1797). Queen of Scots. FRANCOIS NOEL. and were guilty of the greatest atrocities. BAB-EL-MANDEB (i. BABER. stifled by the soldiery". in his Computer Lecturer. Page 212 of 2772 . but are increasing in numbers. convicted of conspiracy. and became at length master of it in 1526.

which flowed through it and by Darius in 519 B. with alterations. The 8th century B.com "History of John Bull. and is to-day to great centres of population.. From very early times it was the seat of a highly developed civilisation introduced by the Sumero-Accadians. by Cyrus in 538 B. the name given by the Greeks to that country called in the Old Testament. in which Babylonia eventually succumbed and became an Assyrian province. a system of nursing new-born infants whose parents may wish them out of sight. the gigantic walls and hanging gardens of which were classed among the seven wonders of the world. In that year Cyrus conquered it for Persia." BA`BRIUS. through the self-sacrifice of Zophyrus. The name was often metaphorically applied to Rome by the early Christians. by diverting out of their channel the waters of the Euphrates. BABYLON. such as London. where the overcrowding. asserted his independence. and "the land of the Chaldees". Babel.C.C. it occupied the rich. Chennai 6. are conceived to have a corrupting effect on the religion and morals of the inhabitants. and under his son Nebuchadnezzar. But Nabopolassar in 625 B. the accumulation of material wealth. BABY-FARMING.ramakalai@gmail. now the Turkish province of Irak-Arabi or Bagdad. a Greek poet of uncertain date. or GABRIUS. fertile plain through which the lower waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris flow. one of the richest and most magnificent cities of the East. Page 213 of 2772 .C. CTSTI.. Judah was captive in the country from 599 to 538 B.C. Semitic tribes subsequently settled among the Accadians and impressed their characteristics on the language and institutions of the country. who descended on the plain from the mountains in the NW. and the so-called refinements of civilisation. Shinar. the capital city of Babylonia. according to tradition. BABYLO`NIA. turned the fables of AEsop and of others into verse. Babylonia rose to the zenith of its power. Computer Lecturer. was taken. was marked by a fierce struggle with the northern empire of Assyria.C.

represented as riding in a car drawn by tame tigers. in honour of Bacchus. they wore their hair dishevelled and thrown back. originally of a loose and riotous character. a Greek lyric poet. a Corsican officer. the name given to the deportation of Jews from Judea to Babylon after the capture of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon. CTSTI. Benjamin.C. and were called by a number of names. See DIONYSUS. BACCHYL`IDES. and was created by Napoleon Prince of Lucca (1762-1841).). those who took part in the festival of Bacchus. BACCIO`CHI.com and its history became merged in that of Persia. he rendered signal service to Zeus in the war of the gods with the GIANTS (q. such as Maenads. 5th century B. See BARTOLOMEO. v. a rival of Pindar. BABYLONISH CAPTIVITY. and carrying a THYRSUS (q. who married Maria Bonaparte. till they were allowed to return to their own land by Cyrus. nephew of Simonides and uncle of Eschylus.ramakalai@gmail. son of Zeus and Semele. FRA. v. those who returned were solely of the tribes of Judah. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6..). and promoter of its culture as well as the civilisation which accompanied it. BACCHANALIA. the god of the vine. only a few fragments of his poems extant. Page 214 of 2772 . a festival. BACCHANTES. who had conquered Babylon. &c. and which continued for 70 years. BACCIO DELLA PORTO. and had loose flowing garments. Thyads. confined originally to women.. BAC`CHUS. and Levi.

Thomas. Page 215 of 2772 . CTSTI. a director of concerts. was an etcher as well as painter (1631-1708). a little rod). others being more or less rounded.com BACH. famous for his sea-pieces and skill in depicting sea-waves. was knighted in 1837. a Dutch painter. and finally director of music at the School of St. one of the greatest of musical composers. BACKHUY`SEN. noted--sixty of them--for musical genius. from their originality and scientific rigour. was in succession a chorister. LUDOLPH. A. a theory in favour of which she has received small support (1811-1859). his works. was a French captive for five years.ramakalai@gmail. BACHE. BACON. DALLAS. DELIA. superintended the coast survey (1806-1867). born at Stockport. a bacterium. difficult of execution (1685-1750). distinguished as being twice as long as it is broad. and in 1857 made admiral (1796-1878). JOHANN SEBASTIAN. See BACTERIA. discovered instead and traced the Great Fish River in 1839. BACHELOR. entered the navy. BACIL`LUS (lit. associated with Franklin in three polar expeditions. born at Philadelphia. a name given to one who has achieved the first grade in any discipline. Chennai 6. BACK. Computer Lecturer. an American physicist. SIR GEORGE. though she did not originate. an organist. a devoted Arctic explorer. the theory of the Baconian authorship of Shakespeare's works. born in Eisenach. an American authoress. went in search of Sir John Ross. who first broached. of a family of Hungarian origin. Leipzig.

such as the telescope. Computer Lecturer. and gunpowder. the camera obscura." and "De Augmentis Scientiarum. became at last in succession Attorney-General. the air-pump. a fearless truth-seeker of great scientific attainments. Somerset. attached himself to Essex. CTSTI. BACON. was a favourite with the queen. suggested several scientific inventions." "Novum Organum. London. the diving-bell. like many of his countrymen (1763-1845). the father of the inductive method of scientific inquiry. Privy Councillor and Keeper of the Great Seal under Queen Elizabeth.com BACON. fined and imprisoned. called to the bar when 21." but is seen to best advantage by the generality in his "Essays. after study at Gray's Inn. ROGER. represented successively Taunton. son of Sir Nicholas Bacon. SIR NICHOLAS. a Franciscan monk. he suffered from his liberal political opinions. these show such shrewdness of wit as to embolden some (see _SUPRA_) to maintain that the plays named of Shakespeare were written by him (1561-1626). accused of magic. Page 216 of 2772 . spent his retirement in his favourite studies. indeed. Chennai 6. exceedingly minute organisms of the simplest structure. Liverpool. but witnessed against him at his trial. deposed. LORD VERULAM. born in the Strand. educated at Cambridge. FRANCIS. a Hungarian poet. BACSANYI. which served him little. and wrote some eighty treatises (1214-1294). was convicted of venality as a judge. JANOS. Privy Councillor. but pardoned and released. and Lord Chancellor. BACTE`RIA.ramakalai@gmail. BACON. Lord Keeper." which are full of practical wisdom and keen observation of life. convicted and condemned to imprisonment. the father of Francis. and Ipswich in Parliament. born at Ilchester. his great works were his "Advancement of Learning. and much honoured and trusted by the queen (1510-1579). from which he was released only to die. Lord Bacon. a prudent and honourable man and minister.

BADAKANS. fraught. are of the Aryan family and speak Persian. capital of a Spanish province of the name. of Manchester. living on the Nilghiri Mountains. it is 200 m.ramakalai@gmail. v. BACUP (23). and the purpose they serve in nature. to S. as happens. rods. CTSTI. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. and to the knowledge of which.). in S. Computer Lecturer. BADAJOZ` (28). and multiply by fission with great rapidity. near the frontier of Portugal. the presumed fatherland of the Aryans and the birthplace of the Zoroastrian religion. and 150 from N. the scene of fearful outrages after its capture. BAC`TRIA. a picturesque hill country. the inhabitants. or intermediate shapes. rich in minerals. which develop in infusions of organic matter. to W.. in the shape of spheres. from E. a name given to Zoroaster as a native of Bactria. NE. a Mohammedan territory NE. surrendered to Soult in 1811. conspicuous by the part they play in the process of fermentation and in the origin and progress of disease. from Marco Polo onwards. of Afghanistan. a Dravidian people of small stature. so much has been contributed by the labours of M. Chennai 6. now BALKH (q.com being merely cells of varied forms. on the Guadiana. a province of ancient Persia. BACTRIAN SAGE. BADAKHSHAN` (100). it has been often visited by travellers. India. called Badakhshans. about 20 m. with life or death to the higher forms of being. Page 217 of 2772 . a place of great strength. and taken after a violent and bloody struggle by Wellington in 1812. Pasteur.

is rich in timber. BA`DEN (4). after a time settled in Paris. high. Heidelberg and Freiburg. CTSTI. of Barcelona. traversed by the Spey. even in Mecca itself. also a town near Vienna. 10. and wrote an account of his travels (1766-1818). BAD`ENOCH. a German duchy. NE. BADI`A-Y-LABLICH. belonged originally to the Comyns. and is a popular summer resort. consists of valley. a town in the canton of Aargau. his disguise was so complete that he passed for a Mussulman. wood-carving. India. a Spaniard. is believed to be the first Christian admitted to the shrine of Mecca. which were known to the Romans. and mineral springs. 45 m. of Zurich. a shrine of Vishnu. travelled in the East. in the SE. disguised himself as a Mohammedan under the name of Ali-Bei. 14 m. from Carlsruhe and 22 from Strassburg. 18 m. there are two university seats. Page 218 of 2772 . long by 19 broad. Chennai 6. much Computer Lecturer. born at Barcelona. BADEN-BADEN (13). having acquired a knowledge of Arabic and Arab customs. became finally the property of the Earl of Huntly. long a fashionable resort for its mineral springs. BADRINATH. mountain. but was forfeited by them. in N. BAD`EN. a seaport 5 m. a forest-covered district of the Highlands of Scotland.725).W. a town in the duchy of Baden. includes the Black Forest. noted for its hot mineral springs. and plain. NW. THE GRAND-DUCHY OF (1.com BADALO`NA (15). and jewellery employ a great proportion of the inhabitants. minerals. Switzerland.ramakalai@gmail. extends along the left bank of the Rhine from Constance to Mannheim.000 ft. was bestowed by Bruce on his nephew. cotton fabrics. of Inverness-shire.

is still considerable. famed for the guide-books to almost every country of Europe that he published (1801-1859). Page 219 of 2772 . BAFFIN BAY. it has belonged to Turkey since 1638. It is a station on the Anglo-Indian telegraph route. Passage. on the Tigris. Formerly a centre of Arabic culture.ramakalai@gmail. which are believed to be potent to cleanse from all pollution. BAER. Petersburg. KARL ERNST VON. discovered Baffin Bay (1584-1622). red and yellow leather. and one of the most flourishing cities of Asiatic Turkey. the discoverer of the law. born in Somerset. America and Greenland. BAEDEKER. BAFFIN. open four months in summer to whale and seal fishing. and silk are manufactured. and connected with the Euphrates by canal.W. though less than formerly. it suffers from visitations of cholera and famine. professor of zoology. styled the "father of comparative embryology". cotton. CTSTI. a strait stretching northward between N. grain. KARL. Chennai 6. and horses are exported. an early English Arctic explorer. is the capital of a province. who. that the embryo when developing resembles those of successively higher types (1792-1876). WALTER. an English political economist. a Computer Lecturer. when acting as pilot to an expedition in quest of the N. WILLIAM. and is served by a British-owned fleet of river steamers plying to Basra. from its mouth.com frequented by pilgrims for the sacred waters near it. An imposing city to look at. discovered in 1615 by William Baffin. 500 m. known by his name. a native of Esthonia. a German printer in Coblenz. dates. first in Koenigsberg and then in St. the greatest of modern embryologists. wool. BAGEHOT. BAGDAD (185). and the transit trade.

name of five native states in Central India. SE. a disciple of Ricardo. to S. from N. wrote in a vigorous style (1826-1877). Rewah the most prosperous. in which he was quite at home. besides other publications. GIORGIO. "Adam and Eve". an illustrious Italian physician. a pastoral epic. to W. BAGHE`RIA. a Danish poet. a Mohammedan kingdom in Central Africa. his chief works. 8 m. BAGIR`MI. BAGLIO`NI. which traced all diseases to alterations in the solid parts of the body (1667-1706). though from his egotism and irritability he was personally unpopular (1764-1826). 240 m. his minor pieces are numerous and popular. and an authority on banking and finance." and a mock epic.ramakalai@gmail. wrote mostly in German. where citizens of the latter have more or less stylish villas. well-known watering-places. an important work. "The English Constitution". and 150 m. JENS EMMANUEL. BAGGE`SEN. from Palermo. wrote "De Fibra Motrice" in defence of the "solidist" theory. as it is called.com banker by profession. Page 220 of 2772 . two French towns on the Pyrenees. wrote. an Italian fresco-painter of note (1573-1641). travelled a good deal. from E. CTSTI. BAGNERES. BAGHELKAND. Computer Lecturer. was editor of the _Economist_. Chennai 6. "Parthenais oder die Alpenreise. a town in Sicily. of Lake Tehad. BAGLI`VI.

with a capital of the name. BAHAWALPUR (650). flat coral islands in the W. and Friedland. name given to convict prisons in France since the abolition of the galleys. Indies. Page 221 of 2772 . is again rising in importance. of Patna. burn at Darmstadt. 34 m. of which 20 are inhabited. Chennai 6." prefixed to the name of many places occupied by Arabs. FELIX. yield tropical fruits. &c. and in 1812. CTSTI. BAeHR. BAGRA`TION. THE (47). classical scholar. and on one of which Columbus landed when he discovered America. BAHAR (263). JOE. or San Salvador (200). BAHI`A. against Napoleon. turtle. Eylau. in the Bay of All Saints." BAHA`MAS. an Arabic word meaning "river. a feudatory state in the NW.. sponges. is connected administratively with the Punjab. and thousands of rocks. BAGSTOCK. of India. a fine city. and originally the capital in a province of the name stretching along the middle of the coast. wrote a "History Computer Lecturer. after falling into decay. SE. a group of over 500 low. a "self-absorbed" talking character in "Dombey & Son. distinguished in many engagements. fell at Borodino (1765-1812). belonging to Britain. commanded the vanguard at Austerlitz. one of the chief seaports of Brazil.com BAGNES. achieved a brilliant success at Smolensk. Russian general. Nassau the capital. BAHR.ramakalai@gmail. a town on the Ganges. PRINCE.

BAHR-EL-GHAZAL. including the district watered by the tributaries of the Bahr-el-Arab and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. a French poet one of a group of seven known in French literature as the "Pleiade. deep." whose aim was to accommodate the French language and literature to the models of Greek and Latin. the largest Olkhin. 397 m. by 10 m. a district of French Congo lies W. BAIAE. born at Kirkwall. BAIKIE. W. it abounds in fish. long and 10 broad. died at Sierra Leone (1825-1864). in S. long famous for their pearl-fisheries. and at its surface 1560 ft. and it was through it Marchand made his way to Fashoda. BAIF. now in ruins and nearly all submerged. CTSTI. the richest in the world. for its climate and its baths.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. it contains several islands." in high repute (1798-1872). a small town near Naples. especially sturgeon and salmon. Manamah (20). BAHREIN` ISLANDS (70). Page 222 of 2772 .com of Roman Literature. Chennai 6. a clear fresh-water lake. famous as a resort of the old Roman nobility. BAIKAL. a group of islands in the Persian Gulf. 1884. the third largest in Asia. long and from 13 to 54 wide. cap. surgeon in the Royal Navy. above the sea-level. on which sledges ply for six or eight months in winter. was attached to the Niger Expedition in 1854. 32 m. opening the region up and letting light in upon it at the sacrifice of his life. an Orcadian. and ultimately commanded it. it was wrested from Egypt by the Mahdi. BALFOUR. in some parts 4500 ft. under the protection of Britain. an old Egyptian prov. of Siberia. the largest 27 m. belonging to Muscat. of it. and steamboats in summer.

very popular in its day. wrote on Morbid Anatomy (1761-1823). ethics. both comedies and tragedies. _b_. NATHAN. acquired in business. JOANNA. physician.ramakalai@gmail. a poetess. _d_. Chennai 6. an English author. born in Glasgow. 1742." and "The Age". born at Bothwell. BAILLIE." was acted in the Theatre Royal. BAILLIE. she does not stand high either as a dramatist or a writer (1762-1851). whose dictionary. and political economy. English poet. 1816. PHILIP JAMES. was succeeded by "The Angel World. one of which. an early English lexicographer. the "Family Legend. CTSTI. resisted Laud's attempt to thrust Episcopacy on the Scotch nation." "The Universal Hymn. produced a series of dramas entitled "Plays of the Passions." besides many others. a liberal-minded man. BAILLIE. "And werena my heart licht I wad dee" is well known (1665-1740). MATTHEW." a work that on its appearance in 1839 was received with enthusiasm. BAILEY. an heroic Scotch lady. BAILLIE. which he was delegated Computer Lecturer. who wrote on psychology. LADY GRIZEL. and left a fortune. famous for her songs. born in Nottingham. passed through 11 editions in England and 30 in America. Edinburgh. author of "Festus. SAMUEL.com BAILEY. he has been rated by some extravagantly high. child of the Presbyterian manse there. born in Sheffield. Page 223 of 2772 . a utilitarian in philosophy. brother of Joanna. a Scotch Presbyterian divine. under the auspices of Sir Walter Scott. to his native town (1787-1870). BAILEY. stayed afterwards with a sister at Hampstead." "The Mystic. and became a zealous advocate of the national cause. ROBERT. joined a brother in London. was the basis of Johnson's.

' said he meekly. he was a royalist all the same. amid curses and bitter frost-rain. which he connected with physiology." in five volumes. BAILLIE. born in Bristol.ramakalai@gmail. lost favour with the people.. Exposed beforehand "for hours long. 'it is for cold. born at Aberdeen. a sculptor. ALEXANDER. "Eve Listening to the Voice.' Crueller end. wrote the "History of Astronomy. Ancient and Modern. the subject of one of his critical essays (1599-1662)." BAILY. elected president of the National Assembly. has written on composition in a very uninteresting style. _b_. 'Mon ami. ROBERT. Chennai 6. "had no mortal. thou tremblest. H. studied under Flaxman. and was made principal of Glasgow University. BAILLY. was imprisoned as an enemy of the popular cause and cruelly guillotined." "The Emotions and the Will." and the "Graces Seated" (1788-1867). was distracted from further study of the science by the occurrence of the Revolution. and are commended by Carlyle as "veracious. E. born at Paris." "The Sleeping Girl. installed mayor of Paris. CTSTI. where he was much esteemed by and exercised a great influence over his pupils. professor of Logic in the university. and barbarously executed the same day (in 1683) for fear he should die afterwards and cheat the gallows of its victim. was based on empiricism and the inductive method. tried for complicity in the Rye House Plot. "The Senses and the Intellect." forming. a zealous Scotch Presbyterian. and twice Lord Rector. 'Bailly. "His Letters and Journals" were published by the Bannatyne Club. an astronomer. his most popular works were.com to represent twice over in London. Page 224 of 2772 . as they do. Computer Lecturer. BAIN." says Carlyle." and "Mental and Moral Science".' said one. to the utter exclusion of all _a priori_ or transcendental speculation. he is of the school of John Stuart Mill. his chief works. his psychology. JEAN SYLVAIN. such as hails from Kant and his school. who endorsed his philosophy. and unfairly condemned to death.

BAIRD. FULLERTON. an American naturalist. wrote. who died there.com 1818. the capital of Upper Franconia. e_. a Mohammedan festival of three days at the conclusion of the Ramadan.ramakalai@gmail. seventy days later. ironmaster. SIR DAVID. Computer Lecturer. Aberdeenshire.. with a large theatre erected by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions. as well as contributed to fish-culture and fisheries (1823-1887). Egypt. S. and the siege of Pondicherry. to the memory of Jean Paul. CTSTI. BAIRD. a distinguished English general of Scotch descent. and on the fall of Sir John Moore at Corunna. born at Newbyth. BAI`REUTH (24). founder of the Baird Lectureship. called the Second Bairam. and at the Cape.000 to support churches (1802-1876). left "Memoirs" of her time (1709-1758). simple but massive. MARGRAVINE OF. and accompanied with sacrifices. was present at the taking of Seringapatam. sultan of the Ottoman Turks. sister of Frederick the Great. wounded. surnamed ILDERIM. and with a monument. BAIRD. on the birds and mammals of N. as was fit. BAIREUTH. followed by another of four days. in command when the Cape of Good Hope was wrested from the Dutch. JAMES. Chennai 6. entered the army at 15. BAJAZET` I. in commemoration of the offering up of Isaac. served in India. in vindication of Scotch orthodoxy. he afterwards retired (1757-1829). Page 225 of 2772 . _i. BAIRAM. WILHELMINA. America. bequeathed L500. in Bavaria. along with others.

born in London.ramakalai@gmail. MICHAEL. pushed everything before him in his advance on Europe. a word used all over the East to denote a small fee for some small service rendered. discovered the Albert Nyanza. visited Cyprus and travelled over India. commanded an expedition under the Khedive into the Soudan. from the energy and rapidity of his movements. MOUNT. reckoned by hundreds. BAKER. a volcano in the Cascade range. 11. are connected by pipes with Computer Lecturer. a man of enterprise and travel. Page 226 of 2772 . who is said to have shut him in a cage and carried him about with him in his train till the day of his death (1347-1403). in some cases so gushing as to overflow in streams. but was met and defeated on the plain of Angora by Tamerlane. a country gentleman.. author of "The Chronicle of the Kings of England. left a record of his travels in five volumes with different titles (1821-1893). as the Jansenists did after him (1513-1580). SIR SAMUEL WHITE. where he died (1603-1645). in a district so impregnated and saturated in parts with petroleum that by digging in the soil wells are formed. "Ismailia". deputy from the University of Louvain to the Council of Trent. where he incurred much obloquy at the hands of the Jesuits by his insistence of the doctrines of Augustine. SIR RICHARD.000 ft. BA`JUS. Chennai 6. aimed at Constantinople. still subject to eruptions. BAKER. a Russian port on the Caspian Sea. often referred to by Sir Roger de Coverley.com Lightning. BAKU (107). BAKER. wrote an account of it in a book. BAKSHISH. which wells." which he wrote in the Fleet prison. CTSTI. born in Kent.

and famous in the war. and said to be in favour of the country whose exports exceed in value the imports in that respect. of Sebastopol. and a leader of the movement. the difference in value between the exports and the imports of a country." BALANCE OF POWER. a worm-like marine animal. was long ago a centre of attraction to the Parsees or fire-worshippers of the East. SE. CTSTI. BALACLA`VA. Chennai 6. the head-quarters of the British during the Crimean war.-xxiv. native of Moscow. a small port 6 m. a district which. preservation of the equilibrium existing among the States of Europe as a security of peace. and resorted to by them as holy ground. BALANCE OF TRADE.com refineries in the town. Page 227 of 2772 . with a large land-locked basin. was banished to Siberia.. joined the International.ramakalai@gmail. the largest lake in Wales. Computer Lecturer. and with a depth of 100 ft. regarded by the zoologist as a possible connecting link between invertebrates and vertebrates. for the "Charge of the Six Hundred. from the spontaneous ignition of the petroleum. and their probable fate. the county town of Merioneth. a Midianitish soothsayer. BA`LAAM. and Carlyle's essay on the "Corn-Law Rhymes" for its application to modern State councillors of the same time-serving type. BALANOGLOS`SUS. BALA. but escaped. in Wales. 4 m. for the account of him see Num. MICHAEL. BAKU`NIN. among other events. but was expelled (1814-1876). xxii. an extreme and violent anarchist. long. for long an important consideration with European statesmen. Bala Lake.

broad. "the beautiful. goes under the name of bully. the wise. Chennai 6. the faithful old domestic in Scott's "Bride of Computer Lecturer. suspended from the roof. BALBO`A. BALBO. the sun-god of the Norse mythology.ramakalai@gmail. LAKE. a Castilian noble. discovered the Pacific. BALD`ER.com BALATA. being at once ductile and elastic. and abounds in fish. 48 m. altars. Page 228 of 2772 . BALDACHINO. and 10 m. ADRIANO." who is fated to die. the largest lake in Hungary. a pathetic symbol conceived in the Norse imagination of how all things in heaven. devoted his later years to literature. who composed in French a number of works bearing on geography (1782-1848). BALBI. a geographer of Italian descent. are subject in the long-run to mortality. either supported on columns. BALDERSTONE. VASCO NUNEZ DE. CTSTI. CALEB. or thrones. an Italian statesmen and publicist. and to the grief of. 56 m. took possession of territory in the name of Spain. all the gods of the pantheon. wrote a life of Dante. of Pesth. CAESARE. put to death by a new governor. a vegetable gum used as a substitute for gutta-percha. long. and dies. or projecting from the wall. SW. in spite of. slightly saline. from jealousy of the glory he had acquired and the consequent influence in the State (1475-1517). born at Turin. established a settlement at Darien. works in advocacy of Italian independence (1789-1853). BAL`ATON. a tent-like covering or canopy over portals. as on earth. born at Venice. the benignant.

in Ireland. author of a Computer Lecturer. archbishop of Canterbury.. the first Latin emperor of Constantinople..ramakalai@gmail. JOHN. and supported by Cromwell. by birth. BALDRICK." now in Freiburg Cathedral (1300-1347). king of Jerusalem. II. died in 1186 (1058-1118). made himself master of most of the towns on the coast of Syria. a child of some eight years old. CTSTI. his greatest work. a friend of Duerer's. last king of the Latin dynasty. returned to Jerusalem. BALDUNG. joined the fourth crusade. dagger. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Bulgarians (1171-1206). accompanied him on the crusade.. the last of whom. there were five of this name and title. crowned Richard Coeur de Lion. a German artist. bishop of Ossory. a convert from Popery. or horn suspended from it. which lasted only 57 years (1217-1273). BALDWIN. was made bishop by Edward VI. and was made emperor. succeeded his brother Godfrey de Bouillon. B. died at Acre in 1191. eight in all. Page 229 of 2772 . born in Suffolk. and was buried on Mount Calvary. BALE. BALDWIN.. count of Hainault and Flanders. BALDWIN I. or HANS GRUeN. nephew of Baldwin I. with a sword. a masterpiece. HANS. contracted a disease in Egypt. persecuted out of the country as an apostate from Popery. an ornamental belt worn hanging over the shoulder. led the van in the capture of Constantinople. BALDWIN I. the name of several counts of Flanders. across the body diagonally.." the family he serves his pride. born in Suabia. Chennai 6. a painting of the "Crucifixion. assuming said title.com Lammermoor.

Majorca the largest. one of the Samoa Islands. BALFOUR. an unprincipled man. J. to his own advantage. native of Fife. of Whittinghame. sided now with this party. _b_. and that at the most critical period in Scottish history. A. 1848. Page 230 of 2772 . produces cotton." BALI. now with the opposite. brother of the preceding. author of a "Defence of Philosophic Doubt" and a volume of "Essays and Addresses". a musical composer. career was cut short by death in attempting to ascend the Wetterhorn (1851-1882). BALFOUR. nephew of Lord Salisbury. BALEARIC ISLES (312). BALFOUR." his masterpiece. BALFE. educated at Eton and Cambridge. a group of five islands off the coast of Valencia. and world-famous (1808-1870). BALFOUR OF BURLEY. Lord President of the Court of Session. and tobacco. long by 40 m. Chennai 6. 1583. of Irish birth. leader of the Covenanters in Scott's "Old Mortality. having been one and all systematically trained to the use of the sling from early childhood. SIR JAMES. CTSTI. _d_. Palma (58).. broad. 75 m. and First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the House of Commons in Lord Salisbury's ministry. author of "The Bohemian Girl. in Spain. East Lothian. coffee. a promising biologist. cap. FRANCIS MAITLAND. born near Wexford. MICHAEL WILLIAM.ramakalai@gmail. inhabitants in ancient times famous as expert slingers. Computer Lecturer.com valuable account of early British writers (1495-1563).

the waters clear. rosewood. son of the following. was driven from the kingdom. LAKE. broad.. Page 231 of 2772 . long and 73 m. trade in mahogany. on receipt of a pension. but rebelled. 1369. Oxford. supported by Edward III. 150 m. in their stinging humorous style.ramakalai@gmail. 780 ft. BALIOL... above sea-level. son of the following. Computer Lecturer. and was forced publicly to resign the crown. properly the range dividing Bulgaria from Roumania. laid claim to the Scottish crown on the death of the Maid of Norway in 1290. JOHN DE. SIR JOHN DE. satirised by the Scotch. 1269. by the Save and the Lower Danube. 6500 ft. or BELIZE. founder of Baliol College. of Norman descent. BALKAN PENINSULA. in Central America. BALKASH. a guardian to the heir to the Scottish crown on the death of Alexander III. a lake in Siberia. Chennai 6. was supported by Edward I. THE. but intensely salt. CTSTI. as King Toom Tabard. invaded Scotland. and did homage to him for his kingdom. &c. bounded on the N. EDWARD. and on the S. e. BALKANS. i. and obliged to renounce all claim to the crown. after spending some three years in the Tower. _d_. BALIZE. died in 1314 in Normandy. mean height. BALIOL. was crowned king at Scone. Empty King Cloak. the capital of British Honduras.com BALIOL. by Greece. the territory between the Adriatic and the AEgean Sea. died at Doncaster. a mountain range extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.

with a capital of the same name. JOHN." his aim being the regeneration of society (1814-1847). mathematician and astronomer. a native of Kelso. a story in verse. glass-stainer and poet.. 250 m. BALLANTINE. born in Dublin. birthplace of Zoroaster. BALLAD. a priest who had been excommunicated for denouncing the abuses of the Church. author of works on astronomy and mechanics. distinguished counsel in celebrated criminal cases (1812-1887).ramakalai@gmail. SERJEANT. Astronomer-Royal for Ireland. a failure in which Scott was seriously implicated (1772-1833). BALLANCHE. BALL. and sung originally to the harp. 1840. reduced now to a village. his chief work "la Palingenesie Sociale. Computer Lecturer. failed in business. long and 120 m. a district of Afghan Turkestan lying between the Oxus and the Hindu-Kush. S. CTSTI. a mystic writer. BALL`ANTYNE. JAMES. Page 232 of 2772 . JAMES. BALLANTINE. generally of patriotic interest. SIR R. BALL. born at Lyons. PIERRE SIMON. printed all Sir Walter Scott's works. _b_. the best known of a popular kind on the former science being "The Story of the Heavens". composed with spirit. became a printer in Edinburgh. born in Edinburgh (1808-1877). Chennai 6. anciently called Bactria. captured and executed. broad.com BALKH. a ringleader in the Wat Tyler rebellion.

brother of preceding. stands 668 ft. from Aberdeen. very much to the delight of Sir Walter (1774-1821).com BALLANTYNE. on a site which took the fancy of both the Queen and the Prince Consort on their first visit to the Highlands. it is the seat of both a Roman Catholic and a Church of England bishopric. the centre of the chief gold-fields in the colony. above sea-level. a castle on the upper valley of the Dee. and now crushed out of the quartz rocks and dug out of deep mines.ramakalai@gmail. the precious metal being at first washed out of the soil. a celebrated Alpine guide (1796-1834). 521/2 m. 9 m. an able Spanish Journalist. NW. CTSTI. JACQUES. author of "Protestantism and Catholicism compared in their Effects on the Civilisation of Europe" (1810-1848). BALL`ATER. of Chamounix. Chennai 6. of Melbourne. BALMOR`AL. about 100 m. a clean Aberdeenshire village on the Dee. a favourite summer resort. a confidant of Sir Walter's in the matter of the anonymity of the Waverley Novels. a town in Victoria. a prejudiced Scotch clergyman in "Waverley." BAL`MEZ. the Highland residence of Queen Victoria. BALLARAT` (40). Page 233 of 2772 . BALMAT. JOHN. and since 1851 the second city in the province. an inimitable story-teller and mimic. at the foot of Braemar. BALMAWHAPPLE. Computer Lecturer. from Ballater.

ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. and tobacco. The industries are varied and extensive. minister of Louis XI. tobacco. engaged in hardware manufacture. the exports. iron. so sharp that a smith cut in two by it did not know he was so cut till he began to move. 1579. grain. flour. BALTIMORE (550). BALNAVES. the navigation of it is practically closed from the middle of December to April. long and from 100 to 200 m. 900 m. Chennai 6. by Louis in an iron cage for eleven Computer Lecturer. Page 234 of 2772 .. is picturesquely situated. 250 m. a thriving suburb of Birmingham. and a fellow-sufferer with him in imprisonment and exile. an inland sea in the N. BALSALL. owing to the inlets being blocked with ice. BALTIC PROVINCES. _d_. including textiles. about the size of England and Wales. the metropolis of Maryland. flour. not quite so regular in design as most American cities. for having conspired with Charles the Rash. afterwards contributed towards formulating the creed of the Scotch Church. BALTIC SEA. of Europe. the sharp-cutting sword of Siegfried. imprisoned. owing to the number of rivers that flow into it and the slight evaporation that goes on at the latitude.com BALMUNG. HENRY. but noted for its fine architecture and its public monuments. from the Atlantic. waters fresher than those of the ocean. BALUE. and educated in Germany. and steel. has no tides. Russian provinces bordering on the Baltic. on an arm of Chesapeake Bay. comparatively shallow. It is the seat of the John Hopkins University. The staple trade is in bread-stuffs. coadjutor of John Knox in the Scottish Reformation. when he fell in pieces. broad. born at Kirkcaldy. CARDINAL.

" but in this way did much to improve the language. the natives are negroes of the Mohammedan faith. a Soudan state on the banks of the Upper Niger.com years (1421-1491). BALUCHISTAN. warmth and fertility of imagination. dates. the Emperor Henry II. the infant in pictures surrounded by a halo and angels." says Prof. Computer Lecturer. BAMBERG (35).000). his productions remarkable for their sense of reality. once the centre of an independent bishopric. "he deliberately wrote. and palm-oil. a magnificent edifice. and subtle and profound delineation of human passion.ramakalai@gmail. his design in producing them being to make them form part of one great work. they show power of observation. Page 235 of 2772 . with a cathedral. See Beluchistan. _d_. Bavaria. CTSTI. HONORE DE. Chennai 6. a manufacturing town in Upper Franconia. born at Angouleme. yields grain. one of the most brilliant as well as prolific novelwriters of modern times. BAMBAR`RA (2.. in France. BALZAC. a French litterateur and gentleman of rank. opened up to trade. JEAN LOUIS GUEZ DE. who devoted his life to the refinement of the French language. containing the tomb of its founder. the soil fertile. of Afghanistan and extending to the Persian Gulf. cotton. BAMBINO. and not because he had anything particular to say." the whole being a minute dissection of the different classes of society (1799-1850). the "Comedie Humaine. and contributed by his "Letters" to the classic form it assumed under Louis XIV. native of Tours. Saintsbury. "for the sake of writing. a country lying to the S. a figure of the infant Christ wrapped in swaddling bands. BALZAC. and are good husbandmen. 1685.

one of them 173 ft. RICHARD. of Belford. GEORGE. Page 236 of 2772 . and historian. a zealous Churchman and an enemy of the Puritans. all of ancient date. BANCROFT. BAMIAN`. a market-town in Oxfordshire. side.. annual lectures on Christian subjects. rich in tin. W. belonging to the Dutch. author of a "History of the Pacific States of N. America". and a faithful account (1800-1891). an American historian. _b_." issued finally in six vols. an island in the Eastern Archipelago. on the coast of Northumberland. diplomatist. BANCROFT. CTSTI. 8500 ft. left property which yields a revenue worth L200 a year. with an unhealthy climate. worked by Chinese. represented the Church at the Hampton Court Computer Lecturer. full of caves. canon of Salisbury. BAMBOUK (800). for the endowment of which John Bampton. with mineral wealth and deposits of gold. HUBERT. celebrated for its cross and its cakes. BANCA (80). BANBURY. BAMPTON LECTURES. born in Massachusetts. a high-lying valley in Afghanistan. a fertile but unhealthy negro territory. now an alms-house.com BAMBOROUGH CASTLE. of Bambarra. an ancient fortress E. archbishop of Canterbury. Chennai 6. out of the rocks on its N. his chief work "The History of the United States.ramakalai@gmail. above sea-level. an American statesman. high. eight in number. 1832. are hewn huge figures of Buddha. BANCROFT.

BANDELLO. BANDA ISLES. some twelve in number.. Chennai 6. are subject to earthquakes. made his first appearance in Birmingham in 1861. retired in 1885. on the Moray Firth. SIR SQUIRE. belonging to Holland. yield nutmegs and mace. to the cause of Italian independence. See URUGUAY.com Conference. and SE. some of which furnished themes and incidents for Shakespeare. fishing and agriculture the great industries. Wilton. BANFF (7). though mountainous on the S. and have appeared since only occasionally. Massinger. an Italian Dominican monk. and other dramatists of their time (1480-1562). opened with her the Haymarket Theatre in 1880. married Mrs. the county itself (64) stretches level along the coast. his work "Hercules and Cacus" is the most ambitious of his productions. an actress. and was chief overseer of the Authorised Version of the Bible (1554-1610). a Florentine sculptor. BANDINELLI. Page 237 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. a group of the Moluccas. a writer of tales. in Milan Cathedral (1487-1559). at the mouth of the Deveron. BANCROFT. county town of Banffshire. born in London. BANDA ORIENTAL. born in Venice. English actor. martyrs. did a "Descent from the Cross" in bas-relief. in 1844. brothers. BANDIE`RA. tried hard to rival Michael Angelo and Cellini. at which time both retired. CTSTI.

and on the shore of which he died. the "Venice of the East". Computer Lecturer. the centre of the foreign trade. from the beauty of its surroundings.ramakalai@gmail. BANGA. BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY.com BANFFY. 3690 ft. _b_. Premier of Hungary. he is a strong Liberal. stands high. with large slate quarries. is manufacturing and trading. preached before George I. BARON. BANGHIS. with the royal palace standing on an island. above sea-level. and half as wide. on the Menam. 20 m. a controversy in the Church of England provoked by a sermon which Hoadley. and the capital. Page 238 of 2772 . Chennai 6. Wales. styled. BANGK`OK (500). BANGWEO`LO. bishop of Bangor. the capital of Siam. born at Klausenburg. discovered by Livingstone. from the sea. an episcopal city in Carnarvon. BAN`GALORE (180). was elected a peer on the formation of the Upper Hungarian Chamber. in the courtyard of which several white elephants are kept. became in 1874 provincial prefect of Transylvania. a very striking city. long. carried on by Europeans and Chinese. 150 m. the Hindu name for the Delta of the Ganges. 1841. in 1717. the largest town in Mysore. a place of summer resort. N. which offended the sticklers for ecclesiastical authority. a low-caste people in the Ganges valley. a lake in Equatorial Africa. CTSTI. and was made Premier in 1893. BANGOR (9). from the canals which intersect it.

poetry. Chennai 6. dissolved in 1861. of Irish stories. &c. born at Lambeth. BANKS. a collector. first appreciated by the Empress Catharine. Page 239 of 2772 . on June 24.com BANIAN DAYS. a non-Aryan race in Central India. of which it printed 116. whether in history. BANIM. BANNATYNE CLUB. or general literature. SIR JOSEPH. BANJARI." now in the entrance-hall of Burlington House. 1314. a club founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish interest. his finest works. a zealous naturalist. "Psyche" and "Achilles Enraged. who.. an eminent English sculptor. president of the Royal Society for 41 years (1744-1820). a complete set having been sold for L235. the scene of the victory. a native of Kilkenny. of specimens in natural history. his health giving way. of Robert the Bruce over Edward II. the carriers and caravan-conductors of the region. in lands far and wide.ramakalai@gmail. JOHN. he fell into poverty. a manufacturing village 3 m. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. SE. THOMAS. BAN`NOCKBURN (2). all deemed of value. particularly in botany. novelist of Irish peasant life on its dark side. BANKS. along with his brother Michael. he excelled in imaginative art (1735-1805). Irish author. days when no meat is served out to ships' crews. left his collection and a valuable library and herbarium to the British Museum. of Stirling. Michael survived him 32 years (1798-1842). it manufactures carpets and tartans. wrote 24 vols.. which reasserted and secured Scottish independence. but was rescued by a public subscription and a pension.

being in several respects superior. Banting. Chennai 6. BANYAN. the name of most of the races. a tree whose branches. whence the Bantam fowl is thought to have come. and kept guard over it. a London merchant. believed to be attached to a family. S. however. take root and form new stocks. recommended by a Mr. coast of Ireland. though." for with him form was everything. chiefly initial. till they cover a large area and become a forest. in a "Letter on Corpulence" in 1863. well characterised as "_Roi des Rimes_. who gave warnings by wailings of an approaching death in it. and the matter comparatively insignificant. to 20 deg. are negroid rather than negro.com BAN`SHEE. bending to the ground. BANTING SYSTEM. not final. lat.. BANTRY BAY. the name.ramakalai@gmail. the language differing radically from all other known forms of speech--the inflection. born at Moulins. a French poet. CTSTI. a deep inlet on the SW. Computer Lecturer. among the Irish. suggests rather a linguistic than an ethnological distinction. a place of shelter for ships. Page 240 of 2772 . abandoned as unhealthy by the Dutch. a chief town in Java. BANTU. and the avoidance of sugar and starchy foods. BANVILLE. N. THEODORE DE. that occupy Africa from 6 deg. for one thing. the Indian fig. there are touches here and there of both fine feeling and sharp wit (1823-1891). a fairy. a dietary for keeping down fat. BANTAM. he recommended lean meat. and in some parts of the Highlands and Brittany. with their languages.

its leaves and seeds are used in medicine. Carlyle refers to this cult in "Sartor. sometimes detached from a church. sometimes called Anabaptists to distinguish them from Paedobaptists. BAPTISTS. vi. in which the rite of baptism is administered. 4) with that No to the world which precedes or rather accompanies Yea to God. and more so in England than in Scotland. and alienation all over the Churches of Christendom. but which they may rather be surmised to have invoked to curse them if they failed in their vow. BAPTISTE. a circular building. but a misunderstanding of the nature of which has led to endless diversity. particularly in America. Paul (Rom.ramakalai@gmail. the Christian rite of initiation into the membership of the Church. CTSTI. a mysterious image. they are a numerous body. a denomination of Christians. the High Church doctrine that the power of Computer Lecturer. II. a large African tropical tree. BAPTISMAL REGENERATION." end of Bk. JEAN. the thickness of its branches. BAPTISM. where he speaks of the "Baphometic fire-baptism" of his hero. insist that the rite of initiation is duly administered only by immersion. Chennai 6. BAPHOMET. chapter vii. Page 241 of 2772 . remarkable for the girth of its trunk. identified by St. who. however they may and do differ on other matters. BAPTISTRY.. and have included in their membership a number of eminent men. under which all the spectres that haunted him withered up. which the Templars were accused of worshipping. the most remarkable. a name given to the French Canadians. debate.com BA`OBAB. that of Pisa. and to those who are of age to make an intelligent profession of faith. presumed represent Mahomet. and their expansion.

ST. originally those who could not speak Greek. and a crown. BARBARIANS. one of the Windward Islands. Dec. and of Mantua. Computer Lecturer. as well as under Louis Napoleon. a Christian martyr of the 3rd century. Chennai 6. ACHILLE. ginger. BARATARIA.. how. and where in most comical situations he learned how imaginary is the authority of a king. healthy and well cultivated. instead of governing his subjects. or BARBICAN.ramakalai@gmail. subject to hurricanes. his subjects govern him. 4. a fortification to a castle outside the walls. Page 242 of 2772 . beheaded by her own father.com spiritual life. is bestowed on the soul in the sacrament of baptism duly administered. generally at the end of the drawbridge in front of the gate. and aloes. presided at the trial of Marshal Bazaine (1795-1878). who was immediately after the act struck dead by lightning. BARAGUAY D'HILLIERS`. particularly literary. arrowroot. is the most densely peopled of the Windward Islands. almost encircled by coral reefs. a sword. forfeited by the Fall. distinguished himself under Louis Philippe in Algeria. and ultimately synonymous with the uncivilised and people without culture. the imaginary island of which Sancho Panza was formally installed governor. BARBA`DOES (182). BARBARA. a fanatical heathen. it yields sugar. rather larger than the Isle of Wight. Festival. this is the sense in which Matthew Arnold uses it. she is the patron saint of those who might otherwise die impenitent. BARBACAN. CTSTI. a French marshal who fought under Napoleon at Quatre-Bras. her attributes are a tower.

winking. became viceroy of the Porte. and of which there is a colony on the Rock of Gibraltar. only half-asleep. made admiral under the sultan. beard had grown through the table.ramakalai@gmail.. He sits within a cavern near Saltzburg. a native of Mitylene. Page 243 of 2772 . a tailless monkey of gregarious habits. e. brother and successor of the preceding. advocate. asked something about the time it was. ravaged the coast of Italy. declared an enemy of the people. as a peasant once tumbling into the interior saw him. joined the Rolands. CHARLES. but the shot miscarried. but only sleeping. when he will reappear. native of the mountainous parts of Barbary. Computer Lecturer. held out against Marat and Robespierre. mistook a company approaching for Jacobins. the surname of Frederick I. Chennai 6. CTSTI. turned corsair. BARBAROSSA. had to flee. was captured and guillotined (1767-1794). but will be soon. died at Constantinople in 1546. HORUK. who had adopted him as an ally against Spain. drew his pistol and shot himself. that "he is not yet dead. BARBAROUX. sent "fire-eyed" message to Marseilles for six hundred men "who knew how to die". came to Paris "a young Spartan. born at Marseilles. Red-beard). the only one in Europe." and became chief of the Girondins in the French Revolution. then drooped his eyelids again: 'Not yet time. of which he became town-clerk. BARBARY APE. and streamed out on the floor. emperor of Germany. represented Marseilles in the Constituent Assembly and the Convention. at a marble table. leaning on his elbow. KHAIR-EDDIN. till the bad world reach its worst.com BARBAROSSA. became sovereign of Algiers by the murder of Selim the emir. of whom there is this tradition. was defeated twice by the Spanish general Gomarez and slain (1473-1518). and joined the French against Spain. opposed Andrea Doria.'" BARBAROSSA (i. He looked at the peasant one moment.

died at the Hague (1809-1870). CTSTI. of Pretoria. a feast in the open air on a large scale. 180 m. expatriated himself voluntarily. surnamed the Bayard of Democracy. Tunis. BAR`BECUE. ARMAND. the four states of Morocco. BARBERI`NI. a French politician. a French bibliographer. Computer Lecturer. ANNA LAETITIA. America." in which she was assisted by a brother. an English popular and accomplished authoress. wrote "Hymns in Prose for Children. several of the members of which were cardinals. 1432.com BARBARY STATES. BARBES. author of a "Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works" (1765-1825). (1743-1825). ANTOINE ALEX. and one made pope in 1623 under the name Urban VIII." "Evenings at Home. BARBAZAN. BARBERTON. and Tripoli. formerly common in the SW. liberated in 1854.ramakalai@gmail.. _nee_ Aiken. States of N. and VII. an illustrious and influential Florentine family. BARBAULD. so called from the Berbers who inhabit the region. E. BARBIER. at which the animals are roasted and dressed whole. &c. Page 244 of 2772 .. a mining town and important centre in the Transvaal. Algeria. Chennai 6. imprisoned in 1848. who deservedly earned for himself the name of the Irreproachable Knight. a French general under Charles VI. _d_.

known as the Barcine faction. and its chief port. historical and anecdotical. which closed at Bannockburn. between Tripoli and Egypt. a poet and prose-writer. BARCELO`NA (280). called the "Spanish Manchester. his only extant work a poem entitled "The Bruce. has numerous churches." partly a translation and partly Computer Lecturer. name of a Carthaginian family to which Hamilcar. BARCA (500). of Africa. bred a monk in England. and the national spirit in it full grown into life. figs. of Scotch birth. a man of learning and sagacity.ramakalai@gmail. BARCLAY. on the Mediterranean. and olives. Hasdrubal." being a long history in rhyme of the life and achievements of Robert the Bruce. a work consisting of 13. "the whole of the eager struggle for Scottish freedom against the English. born in Paris. born in Paris." the staple manufacture being cotton. wrote "The Ship of Fools. is the seat of a bishopric and a university. convents. and theatres. BARBOUR. archdeacon of Aberdeen.. BARCA. Chennai 6. 1195. (1689-1771). of the time of Louis XV." _d_. author of "Iambics" (1805-1882). the largest town in Spain next to Madrid.. wrote vigorous political verses. ED. and determinedly opposed to the ascendency of Rome. JOHN. with a naval arsenal. which he ceased to be on the dissolution of the monasteries. a Scotch poet and chronicler. FR. and its largest manufacturing town. ALEX.com BARBIER.000 octosyllabic lines. produces maize. BARBIER. and possessing both historical and literary merit. CTSTI. HENRY. author of a journal. dates. a French satirical poet. and Hannibal belonged. "represents." says Stopford Brooke. jurisconsult of the parliament. a Turkish province in the N. Page 245 of 2772 .

BARCLAY. Computer Lecturer. a Russian general and field-marshal. WILLIAM. on Napoleon's invasion of Russia his tactic was to retreat till forced to fight at Smolensk." a great work. and elevated to the rank of prince (1761-1818). JOHN. born in France. and led them into France in 1815. Page 246 of 2772 . his promotion rapid. his greatest work.com an imitation of the German "Narrerschiff" of Brandt. 1605. translated more than once into English (1582-1621). a stanch Catholic. "but it was popular because it attacked the follies and questions of the time. much thought of by Cowper. BARCLAY." says Stopford Brooke. he was afterwards Minister of War at St. JOHN. and its sole interest to us is in its pictures of familiar manners and popular customs" (1475-1552). and of the same family as Robert Barclay the Quaker. wrote the "Argenis. the celebrated apologist of Quakerism. of Scottish descent. father of John (1)." a Latin romance. CTSTI. BARCLAY. as the same is held forth and preached by the People called in scorn Quakers. commanded the Russians at Dresden and Leipzig. on the latter's death was made commander-in-chief. distinguished in successive Russian wars. "It has no value. All these Barclays were of Scottish descent. in spite of his unpopularity as German born. but intuition. "An Apology for the True Christian Divinity. and dedicated to Charles II. educated by the Jesuits. and patent to the understanding of every truth-loving soul (1645-1690). joined the Society of Friends. tempted hard to become a Catholic. leader of the sect of the Bereans (1734-1798). an eminent citizen and professor of Law at Angers. _d_. BARCLAY. born in Morayshire. Petersburg. written in Latin as well as in English.. ROBERT. and superseded in command by Kutusow. he was defeated. Chennai 6. as his father had done before him. BARCLAY DE TOLLY. the leading thesis of which is that Divine Truth is not matter of reasoning.ramakalai@gmail.

Page 247 of 2772 . the collective name of a number of Afghan tribes between the Hindu-Kush and the Soliman Mountains." says Carlyle.com BARD OF AVON.. BAR-DURANI. the business being no less than introducing of the Christian religion into real practice in the social affairs of this nation. swaggering." 12th December in the same year. Shakespeare. OF RYDAL MOUNT. Cromwell's Little Parliament. a drunken. CTSTI. OF OLNEY. Rogers. Burns. OF HOPE. Campbell. BAREGES. OF TWICKENHAM.. Wordsworth. MRS. BARDOLPH. Computer Lecturer. OF IMAGINATION. and the Little Parliament had to go its ways again. a village on the Hautes-Pyrenees. resorted to for its mineral waters. BARDELL`. from which one can see right across England. OF MEMORY. Cowper. at 4000 ft. BAREBONE'S PARLIAMENT. could not but fail.ramakalai@gmail.. Chennai 6. above the sea-level." who sues Pickwick for breach of promise. worthless follower of Falstaff's. "If not the remarkablest Assembly. OF AYRSHIRE. a widow in the "Pickwick Papers. BARDON HILL. a hill in Leicestershire. In this it failed. from one Praise-God Barebone. with what we call the Devil and all his angels against it. a member of it. "that ever met in the modern world.. met 4th July 1653. Pope. yet the Assembly for the remarkablest purpose. Akenside. derisively called Barebone's Parliament.

and by Mercier. See VENGEUR. where William the Conqueror set out with his fleet to invade England. E. CTSTI. became secretary of the Royal Academy (1719-1789). BARI. THE. Page 248 of 2772 . from his flowery oratory. and doubled the NE. a seaport 15 m. born in Friesland. 153 m. was called by Burke. BARERE. and the Convention. the Anacreon of the Guillotine." "the largest. of the Caspian. "The tree of Liberty thrives only when watered by the blood of tyrants." escaped the fate of his associates. most inspiring piece of _blaque_ manufactured. extremity of Nova Zembla. BARFRUeSH (603). born in Turin. "the greatest liar in France. an Arctic explorer. the National Assembly of France. Chennai 6. India. BARENTZ. the chief town in Rohilkhand. for some centuries. patronised by Johnson." of the "Sinking of the _Vengeur_. a goblin long an object of terror in the N. voted in the Convention for the execution of the king." he was inventor of the famous fable "his masterpiece. a member of the States-General. of England. a city in NW. a small negro nation on the banks of the White Nile." died in beggary (1755-1841). E. uttering the oft-quoted words. became a spy under Napoleon. and died the same year. notable as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first broke out. GIUSEPPE. an Italian lexicographer. of Delhi. BAR`GUEST. Computer Lecturer. BARETTI. of Cherbourg. BARFLEUR. discovered Spitzbergen. by any man or nation. famous for its bazaar.com BAREILLY (121). a town S. taught Italian in London.ramakalai@gmail. French revolutionary. in 1596.

and romance. HENRY." published originally as a series of papers in _Bentley's Miscellany_ (1788-1879). a prince like Buddha. NE." an arduous work. CTSTI." in love with Peggotty. E. Paul's. founder of the great banking firm of Baring Brothers & Co. a carrier-lad in "David Copperfield. a classical scholar.com BARING. rector of Lew-Trenchard. JOHN. born at Canterbury. his literary name Thomas Ingoldsby. BARKING. BARING-GOULD. in which Josaphat. SIR FRANCIS. _b_. 1834. SABINE. friend of Sidney Smith. theology. a mediaeval legend. BARKIS.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. RICHARD HARRIS. Devonshire. and a man of wide reading." BARKER. author of "Ingoldsby Legends. died in poverty (1788-1839). history. a market-town in Essex. of London. with the remains of an ancient Benedictine convent. minor canon of St.. "Barkis is willin'. Page 249 of 2772 . being a Christianised version of an earlier legend relating to Buddha. BARLEYCORN. value of it said to have been nearly seven millions (1740-1810). a voluminous writer on all manner of subjects. the exhilarating spirit distilled from barley Computer Lecturer. 7 m. BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT. edited Stephens' "Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. amassed property. celebrated in various departments of literature. is converted by Barlaam to a like ascetic life. especially the latter. BARHAM. born in Yorkshire.

as to excite the jealousy of the caliph so much. an imaginary feast. in Rhenish Prussia. which proved a long succession of merely empty dishes. and child of them massacred at midnight in cold blood.com personified. BARNABAS. woman. inventor of the repeating watch. consisting of a series of hamlets. in extent. that he had the whole family invited to a banquet. and his four sons rose along with him to such influence in the government. and that in the end met with the cruellest fate. was chosen by the world-famous Haroun-Al-Raschid on his accession to the caliphate to be his vizier. _d_. Chennai 6. BAR`MEN (116).ramakalai@gmail. the manufacture of ribbons. BAR`MACIDES. one of them. JOEL. and it is the centre of that industry on the Continent. and was visited with a gnawing remorse to the end of his days. BARLOW. never forgave himself for this cruelty. an American poet and diplomatist. a French watchmaker. so called from a story in the "Arabian Nights" of a hungry beggar invited by a Barmacide prince to a banquet. it is gratifying to learn. Page 250 of 2772 . ST. wrote a poem "The Vision of Columbus" (1755-1812). and it had fatal issues to his kingdom as well as himself. the staple industry. the population consists chiefly of Protestants. BARMACIDE FEAST. 1690. for his Republican zeal. a member of the first Christian brotherhood. eminent for ability and virtue. a Computer Lecturer.. was in 1792 accorded the rights of citizenship in France. CTSTI. a Persian family celebrated for their magnificence. and which he enjoyed with such seeming gusto and such good-humour as to earn for himself a sumptuous real one. BARLOWE. and every man. The caliph. 6 m. a long town. Yahya.

bound. BARNABITES. born in Connecticut. authoress of "Auld Robin Gray. stoned to death at Cyprus. daughter of Lindsay. and by a vow in addition. HENRY. and after his death. 1811. Barnave speaks it. BARNABY RUDGE. American educationist. in Durham. June 11. BARNARD. in London (1750-1825). Chennai 6. lived several years at the Cape. with the Gospel of St. he is usually represented in art as a venerable man of majestic mien. born in Fife. where he was born. born at Grenoble." BARNAVE." named after a Balcarres herd. and the scene of Scott's "Rokeby. as the rest are. "Whatsoever those three have on hand. the Epistle to the Hebrews has by some been ascribed to him. an epistle extant bears his name. Lameth does it. a proselytising order of monks founded at Milan. but is not believed to be his work. Dupont thinks it.ramakalai@gmail." a defender of the monarchy from the day he gained the favour of the queen by his gallant Computer Lecturer." BAR`NARDINE. where Barnabas was reported to have been bishop. and characterised in the Acts as "a good man". a reckless character in "Measure for Measure. French lawyer. birthplace of John Baliol. where her husband held an appointment. published in 1841. Festival.com companion of St. an old tower W. LADY ANNE. JOSEPH MARIE. in 1530. Matthew in his hand. of Darlington. Page 251 of 2772 . the 5th Earl of Balcarres. one of Dickens' novels. CTSTI. one of the trio in the Assembly of whom it was said. by the three monastic vows. president of the French Constitutional Assembly in 1780. BARNARD. BARNARD CASTLE. Paul's. not to sue for preferment in the Church.

whose ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed. concluded a truce with Spain. author of operas and a number of fugitive pieces (1802-1891). Chennai 6. to get rid of the rats. with sanction. being an Arminian. Computer Lecturer. BARNETT." in three vols. a local philologist. WILLIAM. scene of a battle in 1471. to which Maurice belonged. JOHN. of a distinguished family. BARNES. composer. BARN-BURNERS. born at Bedford. a favourite resort of Londoners. Grand Pensionary of Holland.ramakalai@gmail. editor of the _Times_. BARNEVELDT. JOHANN VAN OLDEN. too. tried. a town in Hertfordshire. studied law at the Hague. was arrested. of the Synod of Dort. convicted by documentary evidence of conspiring with the court against the nation.com conduct to her on her way back to Paris from her flight with the king to Varennes. BARNES. at which Warwick. BARNET (5). THOMAS. burned his barns. in 1619. author of "Poems of Rural Life in Dorset. in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice. native of Dorsetshire. was slain. Page 252 of 2772 . CTSTI. as imitating the Dutchman who. and practised as an advocate there. took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party.. name formerly given to an extreme radical party in the United States. and condemned to death as a traitor and heretic. wrote on subjects of philological interest (1830-1886). the king-maker. and died on the scaffold at 71 years of age. was guillotined (1761-1793). fought for the independence of his country against Spain. almost a suburb of London. under whom the paper first rose to the pre-eminent place it came to occupy among the journals of the day (1786-1841). has a large annual horse and cattle fair.

which he lost. Computer Lecturer.com BARNSLEY (35). BARO`DA (2. a great Catholic ecclesiastic. whose political schemes he had frustrated (1538-1607). minister of Napoleon III. a native state of Gujerat. a celebrated Italian painter. failed of the popehood from the intrigues of the Spaniards. a French statesman. "Annales Ecclesiastici. BARNUM. the third city in the presidency. CAESAR. started in 1871 with his huge travelling show.415). picked up Tom Thumb in 1844. of Bombay. BARONS' WAR. priest of the Congregation of the Oratory under its founder. PIERRE-JULES. written to prove that the Church of Rome was identical with the Church of the 1st century. BAROCHE. CTSTI. BARO`NIUS. the sovereign of which is called the Guicowar. and realised another fortune. BAROCCI. began with the exhibition of George Washington's reputed nurse in 1834. cardinal and librarian of the Vatican. a war in England of the barons against Henry III. Page 253 of 2772 . (1802-1870). a manufacturing town in W." being a history of the first 12 centuries of the Church. an American showman. with a capital (101) of the same name. in the prov. of Sheffield. N. Chennai 6. his great work. 18 m. with Hindu temples and a considerable trade. engaged Jenny Lind for 100 concerts in 1849. dying worth five million dollars (1810-1891). and realised a fortune. Yorkshire. a work of immense research that occupied him 30 years..ramakalai@gmail. and ultimately Superior. imitator of the style of Correggio (1528-1612). manufactures textile fabrics and glass. born near Naples.

. Uist. and which lasted from 1258 to 1265. the offence of inciting and stirring up riots and quarrels among the Queen's subjects. 15 m. BAR`RACKPUR (18)." voted in the National Convention for the execution of the king. this artillery officer the commandant. entered Parliament. a small island. ISAAC. also a fraud by a ship captain on the owners of a ship. more lavish and showy rather than true and tasteful. much in vogue from the 16th to the 18th centuries. employed Bonaparte to command the artillery. supported Pitt." was a member of the Directory till Bonaparte swept it away (1755-1829). soldier and statesman. BAR`RATRY. tall. "a man of heat and haste. born in Provence.ramakalai@gmail. took part in the siege of Toulon. PAUL FRANCOIS. a town on the Hooghly. Page 254 of 2772 . above Calcutta. put an end to the career of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror. charged with Computer Lecturer.. a healthy resort of the Europeans. 5 m. BARRAS. born in Dublin.. the inhabitants of which are engaged in fisheries. served under Wolfe in Canada. ballads by Rudyard Kipling. where the lieutenant-governor of Bengal has a residence. BAROQUE. named general-in-chief to oppose the reactionaries.com headed by Simon de Montfort. Chennai 6. and handsome to the eye. one of the Hebrides. BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS. of S. "he the commandant's cloak. with a fine martial strain. a member of the Jacobin Club. CTSTI. ornamentation of a florid and incongruous character. BARRA. BARRE. SW.

. would-be assassin of Henry IV. among other works. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. of 1200 m. born at Kirriemuir ("Thrums"). extent." deemed by some likely to prove the most enduring thing he has yet written. a writer with a rich vein of humour and pathos. BARREL MIRABEAU. BARRIERE. born in Essex. "Auld Licht Idylls" in 1888. and recently "Margaret Ogilvie. See BARERE. _b_. 1860. off the coast. CTSTI. Leeds. London. produced. began his literary career as a contributor to journals. Page 255 of 2772 ." in 1889. French historian of the Revolution (1786-1868). WILSON. JAMES MATTHEW. JEAN FRANCOIS.com authorship of "Junius' Letters". BARRIE. _d_. produced his Hamlet in 1884. and growing narrower as they go N. of France. BARRIER REEF. English actor.. and 100 m. and protect the intermediate channel from the storms of the Pacific. lessee of the Grand Theatre. BARRIERE. BARRETT. THE GREAT. so called from his bulk and the liquor he held. broken on the wheel in 1593. 1802. BARRERE.ramakalai@gmail. a slightly interrupted succession of coral reefs off the coast of Queensland. and of the Court and the Princess's Theatres. PIERRE. are from 70 to 20 m. Viscount de Mirabeau. brother of the great tribune of the name. wide at the S. 1846. _b_. and "A Window in Thrums. in Forfarshire. made his _debut_ at Halifax.

the fifth. JOHN SHUTE. a man of great intellectual ability and force of character. left a "Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy. BARRINGTON. Page 256 of 2772 . mathematician. 1st Lord of the name. a battle fought within the walls of Paris in 1814 between Napoleon and the Allies. appointed professor of Greek at Cambridge. born at Villefort. distinguished in the naval service. "Asia Portugueza. his great work. English scholar. retired after the _coup d'etat_. BATTLE OF THE. Chennai 6." and an Irish peerage from George I. ODILON. and Samuel. particularly Daines. BARROW. a distinguished Portuguese historian. in a pure and simple style. born in London. besides mathematical works." relates. a graduate of Cambridge. and became an admiral in 1787 (1678-1764). for his "Dissuasive from Jacobitism". BARROW.ramakalai@gmail. ISAAC. he did not live to complete it (1493-1570). falls into Waterford harbour.. the fourth. BARROS. contributed to the Revolutions of both 1830 and 1848. 1st Viscount. and divine. a river in Ireland rising in the Slievebloom Mts. the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in the Indies. assisted under Lord Howe at the relief of Gibraltar. left six sons. all more or less distinguished. JOAO DE.com BARRIERS. subsequently Lucasian professor of Mathematics (in which he had Newton for successor). accepted office under Louis Napoleon. which ended in the capitulation of the city and the abdication of Napoleon. and fellow of Trinity College. BARROT. CTSTI. famous as an advocate. and master of Trinity." and a body of sermons remarkable for their vigour of thought and nervousness of Computer Lecturer. and soon after Gresham professor of Geometry. and founder of the library. to return to office in 1872 (1791-1873). gained the favour of the Nonconformists by his "Rights of Dissenters. distinguished in law (1727-1800). after a course of 114 m.

having had other ships placed under his command. CTSTI. but was deposed. BARRY CORNWALL. See PROCTER. Howe. SIR CHARLES. defeated the Dutch admiral. born at Dunkirk.ramakalai@gmail. captured his squadron laden with corn. was captured by the English. he was one of the bravest of men and the most independent. and much esteemed in that department. of recent rapid growth. BARRY. architect. the principal landowners in the district being the Dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch. secretary to the Admiralty for 40 years. BARROW. architect of the new Palace of Westminster. which has led to the establishment of smelting works and the largest manufacture of steel in the kingdom. owing to the discovery of extensive deposits of iron in the neighbourhood. a distinguished French seaman. painter. for which he was ennobled by Louis XIV. born at Westminster. became professor of Painting at the Royal Academy. BARRY. entered the French service at 20. made numerous prizes. a town and seaport in N. his masterpiece is the "Victors at Olympia" (1741-1806). BARROW-IN-FURNESS (51).com expression (1630-1677). and Peter the Great (1764-1848). painted the "Death of General Wolfe".. served under De Ruyter. De Vries. son of a fisherman. BART. Computer Lecturer. born in Cork. JEAN. Page 257 of 2772 . died in poverty. but escaped. Anson. purchased a ship of two guns. JAMES. was subsidised as a privateer. distinguished also as a man of letters. Chennai 6. SIR JOHN. wrote the Lives of Macartney. unhampered by red-tapism of every kind (1651-1702). Lancashire. or BARTH. besides other public buildings (1795-1860).

an associate of Odilon Barrot in the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848." in five volumes (1821-1865). wrote several archaeological works. born at Colmar. in Provence. a French baron and politician. physiologist. PAUL JOSEPH. is celebrated among physiologists as the advocate of what he called the Vital Principle as a physiological force in the functions of the human organism. a poet and politician. an Oriental as well as Greek scholar. and warm supporter of Louis Napoleon (1796-1867). his principal works. Computer Lecturer. a celebrated physician. for a time professor of Greek and Roman Philosophy in the College of France.ramakalai@gmail. an enemy of the Bourbons. in chief. BARTHELEMY SAINT-HILAIRE. where he founded a medical school. HEINRICH. Buddhism. Chennai 6. and Mahomet. author of "Nemesis. educated by the Jesuits. _b_. AUGUSTE-MARSEILLE. a French sculptor. JULES. manners. and subsequently a zealous supporter of M. suffered greatly during the Revolution. Page 258 of 2772 . and the "Iliad" into verse. THE ABBE. translated the works of Aristotle.com BARTH. had great skill in numismatics. CTSTI. "Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grece. author of "Travels in the East and Discoveries in Central Africa. his greatest achievement. his work "Nouveaux Elements de la Science de l'Homme" has been translated into all the languages of Europe (1734-1806). born at Cassis." and the best French translation of the "AEneid. a French historian and antiquary. 1805. as well as wrote on the Vedas. BARTHOLDI. BARTHELEMY." in verse. Thiers. born at Paris. was much esteemed and honoured by Napoleon. born at Hamburg. BARTHEZ. an ardent Imperialist. and customs of Greece (1716-1795). born at Marseilles. and Encyclopaedist. BARTHELEMY. JEAN JACQUES. a great African explorer. born at Montpellier." long treated as an authority in the history.

founded in 1123. U. an overhanging wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of ancient fortifications. an hospital in Smithfield. BARTLETT. Charles IX. JOHN H.. represented in art with a knife in one hand and his skin in the other. BARTHOLOMEW. till Charles was coerced to grant liberty of conscience throughout the realm. an apostle of Christ. being 150 ft. author of "Dictionary of Americanisms. ST.com "Lion le Belfort. 24.. an American ethnologist and philologist.. born at Rhode Island. day in 1572 memorable for the wholesale massacre of the Protestants in France at the instance of Catharine de Medici. has a medical school attached to it." the largest bronze statue in the world. when it ceased to be a market and became an occasion for mere dissipation and riot. cruelly gloried in by the Pope and the Spanish Court. _b_. sometimes been painted as being flayed alive. an annual market held at Smithfield. Festival.ramakalai@gmail. then regent of the kingdom for her son. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY.. BARTIZAN. which kindled a fire in the nation that was not quenched. BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. and instituted in 1133 by Henry I. Chennai 6. with which the names of a number of eminent physicians are associated. although it extinguished Protestantism proper in France. an event.. also as headless.S. ST. 24th August." among other works particularly on ethnology (1805-1886). erected at the entrance of New York harbour. 1834. London. to be kept on the saint's day. Aug. Computer Lecturer. BARTHOLOMEW HOSPITAL. high. London. but abolished in 1853. CTSTI. and martyr. Page 259 of 2772 ." and "Liberte eclairant le Monde..

BERNARD. ELIZABETH. where he died. an eminent engraver. BARTOLINI. and she was led by them to pronounce sentence against the divorce of Catharine of Aragon. born at Florence." a poor country servant-girl. a Florentine sculptor. born in Kent." after Carlo Dolci. Mark" and "St. PIETRO. the "Quaker poet. subject from nervous debility to trances." after Annibale Caracci. he was the father of Madame Vestris (1725-1815). "St. wrought at his art both in England and in Portugal. FRA." after Michael Angelo. BARTOLOZ`ZI. Page 260 of 2772 . BARTON. born at Florence. which involved her and her abettors in a charge of treason. patronised by Napoleon. till her communications were taken advantage of by designing people.ramakalai@gmail. engraved a great number of ancient works of art (1635-1700). LORENZO. BARTOLOMME`O. FRANCESCO. for Computer Lecturer. BARTOLI. a clerk nearly all his days in a bank. Sebastian" among his best productions (1469-1517). in which she gave utterances ascribed by Archbishop Warham to divine inspiration. DANIELE. and "Virgin and Child. CTSTI. the "Prometheus. a celebrated Florentine painter of sacred subjects. as well as more substantial patronage in the shape of a government pension (1784-1849). friend of Raphael. his chief works. his poems." born in London. BARTON. "the Maid of Kent. born at Ferrara (1635-1685). Italian engraver. a learned Italian Jesuit. "Clytie. Chennai 6. gained him the friendship of Southey and Charles Lamb.com BARTOLI. mostly on homely subjects. but instinct with poetic feeling and fancy. an adherent of Savonarola. produced a great number of busts (1777-1850).

on his Computer Lecturer. and his scribe. on the Rhine. and laboured for 12 years to effect the reformation of the Church from within. CTSTI. the people are Protestant and German-speaking. but obviously written after the event. JOHANN BERNARD. who was cast with him into prison. but was hampered at every step by the opposition of Pope Eugenius IV. and has manufactures of silks and chemicals. born at Hamburg. affecting to predict the fall of Jerusalem. a zealous educational reformer. of Switzerland. just before it enters Germany." BASEDOW. Peter and St. failed from his irritability of temper. Page 261 of 2772 . however. and the home for several years of Erasmus.com which they were all executed at Tyburn (1506-1534). it is now a great money market. it cited him on two occasions to appear at its bar. (2) a book in the Apocrypha. BASEL (74). his method modelled according to the principles of Rousseau. instinct with the spirit of Hebrew prophecy. established a normal school on this method at Dessau. and museum. Asserting the authority of a general council over the Pope himself. and accompanied him into Egypt. BARYE. his best works. has a cathedral. a French sculptor. COUNCIL OF. distinguished for his groups of statues of wild animals (1795-1875). which led to a rupture with his colleagues (1723-1790). met in 1431. "Christ in the Garden" and the "Calling of St. was a centre of influence in Reformation times. BASEL. a rival of Bellini. ascribed to him. (3) also a book entitled the Apocalypse of Baruch. Andrew. BASAITI. in the NW. BARUCH.ramakalai@gmail. university. which. (1) the friend of the prophet Jeremiah. It effected some compromise with the Hussites. a Venetian painter of the 15th and 16th centuries. library. Chennai 6.

it elected a rival pope. and the council gradually melted away.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. Palestine of considerable extent. as well as. Russia. They were all confirmed by Nicholas V. however. they number some 500. was recognised by the whole Church. the men of it were remarkable for their stature.. Felix V. the indecorousness of certain festivals. undisciplined troops in the pay of the Sultan. the papal prerogatives and exactions. BASHAHR. who travelled a good deal with her mother. BASHI-BAZOUKS`. tributary to the British Government. and left a journal of her life. owing to the secession of his supporters. supported Eugenius. in 1449.. who was. Felix resigned. a fertile and pastoral district in NE. professing Mohammedanism. an immense sensation from the confessions it contains (1860-1884). and at one time densely peopled. a native hill state in the Punjab. BA`SHAN. the pope died. in the time of the Crimean war. BASHKIRS. rendered themselves odious by their brutality in the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876. when published after her death.com refusal declared him contumacious. Failing to effect its purpose. The decrees of the council were directed against the immorality of the clergy. Chennai 6. BASHKIRTSEFF.000. MARIE. At length. The Emperor Frederick III. originally a Finnish nomad race (and still so to some extent) of E. but scantily recognised. noted her impressions. and dealt with the election of popes and the procedure of the College of Cardinals. but are not recognised by modern Roman canonists. Computer Lecturer. a precocious Russian young lady of good family. traversed by the Sutlej. and ultimately endeavoured to suspend him. which created. irregular. and Nicholas V. more or less. but of delicate constitution. Page 262 of 2772 .

his son and successor. They were first erected by the Romans. whose rules are followed by different monastic communities. Ambrose. BASILICA. in Cappadocia. Basil. BASIL I. the altar being in the apse. who flourished in the 4th century. 886. governed wisely. and with an emaciated appearance (326-380). and Leo. founded a monastic body. THE GREAT. fought successfully against the Saracens. had Julian the Apostate for a fellow-student.ramakalai@gmail. containing a defence of the royal prerogative. a work written by James I. for the instruction of his son. bareheaded. CTSTI. his birthplace. compiled. Royal Gift). in 60 books. bishop of Ancyra. compiled by Basil I. bishop of Caesarea. on the adoption of Christianity. the Macedonian. surnamed the Philosopher. though he had raised himself to the throne by a succession of crimes. along with his son Leo. Chennai 6. There were several Basils of eminence in the history of the Church: Basil. twice as long as broad.. before the union of the crowns. is represented in Christian art in Greek pontificals. originally open to the sky. a conspicuous opponent of the Arian heresy.. emperor of the East. and defender of the Nicene Creed. ST. BASILICON DORON (i. in 1599. but eventually covered in. and Basil. and with the judge's bench at the end opposite the entrance. the lifelong friend of Gregory Nazianzen. first published in 887. the code of laws. BASILICA.com BASIL. Page 263 of 2772 . for public business and the administration of justice.. Computer Lecturer. afterwards. the friend of St. tried in vain to unite the Churches of the East and West. 180 B. _d_. a spacious hall. Prince Henry.. a code of laws that were in force till the fall of the empire. the mystic. studied at Athens. in a circular apse added to it. and named after the former.C. they were converted into churches. e.

BASILI`DES, a Gnostic of Alexandria, flourished at the commencement of the 2nd century; appears to have taught the Oriental theory of emanations, to have construed the universe as made up of a series of worlds, some 365 it is alleged, each a degree lower than the preceding, till we come to our own world, the lowest and farthest off from the parent source of the series, of which the God of the Jews was the ruler, and to have regarded Jesus as sent into it direct from the parent source to redeem it from the materialism to which the God of the Jews, as Creator and Lord of the material universe, had subjected it; which teaching a sect called after his name accepted and propagated in both the East and the West for more than two centuries afterwards.

BAS`ILISK, an animal fabled to have been hatched by a toad from the egg of an old cock, before whose breath every living thing withered and died, and the glance of whose eye so bewitched one to his ruin that the bravest could confront and overcome it only by looking at the reflection of it in a mirror, as PERSEUS (q. v.) was advised to do, and did, when he cut off the head of the Medusa; seeing itself in a mirror, it burst, it as said, at the sight.

BASKERVILLE, JOHN, a printer and typefounder, originally a writing-master in Birmingham; native of Sion Hill, Worcestershire; produced editions of classical works prized for their pre-eminent beauty by connoisseurs in the art of the printer, and all the more for their rarity (1706-1756).

BASNAGES, JACQUES, a celebrated Protestant divine, born at Rouen; distinguished as a linguist and man of affairs; wrote a "History of the Reformed Churches" and on "Jewish Antiquities" (1653-1723).

BASOCHE, a corporation of lawyers' clerks in Paris. See BAZOCHE.

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BASQUE PROVINCES, a fertile and mineral district in N. of Spain, embracing the three provinces of Biscaya, Guipuzcoa, and Alava, of which the chief towns are respectively Bilbao, St. Sebastian, and Vittoria; the natives differ considerably from the rest of the Spaniards in race, language, and customs. See BASQUES.

BASQUE ROADS, an anchorage between the Isle of Oleron and the mainland; famous for a naval victory gained in 1809 over a French fleet under Vice-Admiral Allemand.

BASQUES, a people of the Western Pyrenees, partly in France and partly in Spain; distinguished from their neighbours only by their speech, which is non-Aryan; a superstitious people, conservative, irascible, ardent, proud, serious in their religious convictions, and pure in their moral conduct.

BAS-RELIEF (i. e. low relief) a term applied to figures very slightly projected from the ground.

BASS ROCK, a steep basaltic rock at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, 350 ft. high, tenanted by solan geese; once used as a prison, specially in Covenanting times.

BASS STRAIT, strait between Australia and Tasmania, about 150 m. broad.

BASSANIO, the lover of Portia in the "Merchant of Venice."

BASSANO, a town in Italy, on the Brenta, 30 m. NW. of Padua; printing the chief industry.

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BASSANO, DUC DE, an intriguing French diplomatist in the interest of Bonaparte, and his steadfast auxiliary to the last (1763-1839).

BASSANO, JACOPO DA PONTE, an eminent Italian painter, chiefly of country scenes, though the "Nativity" at his native town, Bassano, shows his ability in the treatment of higher themes (1510-1592).

BASSOMPIERRE, FRANCOIS DE, a marshal of France, born in Lorraine; entered military life under Henry IV., was a gallant soldier, and one of the most brilliant wits of his time; took part in the siege of Rochelle; incurred the displeasure of Richelieu; was imprisoned by his order twelve years in the Bastille; wrote his Memoirs there; was liberated on the death of Richelieu; his Memoirs contain a lively description of his contemporaries, the manners of the time, his own intrigues, no less than those of his friends and enemies (1579-1646).

BASSORAH (40), a port in Asiatic Turkey, on the Shatt-el-Arab; a place of great commercial importance when Bagdad was the seat of the caliphate; for a time sank into insignificance, but has of late revived.

BASTI`A (22), a town in NE. Corsica, the most commercial in the island, and once the capital; was founded by the Genoese in 1383, and taken by the French in 1553; exports wine, oil, fruits, &c.

BASTIAN, ADOLF, an eminent ethnologist, born at Bremen; travelled over and surveyed, in the interest of his science, all quarters of the globe, and recorded the fruits of his survey in his numerous works, no fewer than thirty in number, beginning with "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," in three vols.; conducts, along with Virchow and R. Hartman, the _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_; _b_. 1826.

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BASTIAN, DR. H. C., a physiologist, born at Truro; a materialist in his theory of life; a zealous advocate of the doctrine of spontaneous generation; _b_. 1837.

BASTIAT, FREDERIC, an eminent political economist, born at Bayonne; a disciple of Cobden's; a great advocate of Free Trade; wrote on behalf of it and against Protection, "Sophismes Economiques"; a zealous Anti-Socialist, and wrote against Socialism (1801-1850).

BASTIDE, JULES, French Radical writer, born in Paris; took part in the Revolution of 1848, and became Minister of Foreign Affairs (1800-1879).

BASTILLE (lit. the Building), a State prison in Paris, built originally as a fortress of defence to the city, by order of Charles V., between 1369 and 1382, but used as a place of imprisonment from the first; a square structure, with towers and dungeons for the incarceration of the prisoners, the whole surrounded by a moat, and accessible only by drawbridges; "tyranny's stronghold"; attacked by a mob on 14th July 1789; taken chiefly by noise; overturned, as "the city of Jericho, by miraculous sound"; demolished, and the key of it sent to Washington; the taking of it was the first event in the Revolution. See Carlyle's "French Revolution" for the description of the fall of it.

BASUTOLAND (250), a fertile, healthy, grain-growing territory in S. Africa, SE. of the Orange Free State, under protection of the British crown, of the size of Belgium; yields large quantities of maize; the natives keep large herds of cattle.

BASUTOS, a S. African race of the same stock as the Kaffirs, but superior to them in intelligence and industry.

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BATANGAS, a port in the island of Luzon, one of the Philippine Islands, which has a considerable trade.

BATAVIA (105), the capital of Java, on the N. coast, and of the Dutch possessions in the Eastern Archipelago; the emporium, with a large trade, of the Far East; with a very mixed population. Also the ancient name of Holland; _insula Batavorum_ it was called--that is, island of the Batavi, the name of the native tribes inhabiting it.

BATES, HENRY WALTER, a naturalist and traveller, born at Leicester; friend of, and a fellow-labourer with, Alfred R. Wallace; author of "The Naturalist on the Amazons"; an advocate of the Darwinian theory, and author of contributions in defence of it (1825-1892).

BATH (54), the largest town in Somerset, on the Avon; a cathedral city; a place of fashionable resort from the time of the Romans, on account of its hot baths and mineral waters, of which there are six springs; it was from 1704 to 1750 the scene of Beau Nash's triumphs; has a number of educational and other institutions, and a fine public park.

BATH, MAJOR, a gentleman in Fielding's "Amelia," who stoops from his dignity to the most menial duties when affection prompts him.

BATH, ORDER OF THE, an English order of knighthood, traceable to the reign of Henry IV., consisting of three classes: the first, Knights Grand Cross; the second, Knights Commanders, and the third, Knights Companions, abbreviated respectively into G.C.B., K.C.B., and C.B.; initiation into the order originally preceded by immersion in a bath, whence the name, in token of the purity required of the members by the laws of chivalry. It was originally a military order, and it is only since 1847 that civil Knights, Knights Commanders, and Companions have been admitted as Knights. The first class, exclusive of royal personages and

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foreigners, is limited to 102 military and 28 civil; the second, to 102 military and 50 civil; and the third, to 525 military and 200 civil. The motto of the order is _Tria juncta in uno_ (Three united in one); and Henry VI.'s chapel at Westminster is the chapel of the order, with the plates of the Knights on their stalls, and their banners suspended over them.

BATHGATE (5), largest town in Linlithgowshire; a mining centre; the birthplace of Sir J. Simpson, who was the son of a baker in the place.

BATHILDA, ST., queen of France, wife of Clovis II., who governed France during the minority of her sons, Clovis III., Childeric II., and Thierry; died 680, in the monastery of Chelles.

BATH`ORI, ELIZABETH, a Polish princess, a woman of infamous memory, caused some 650 young girls to be put to death, in order, by bathing in their blood, to renew her beauty; immersed in a fortress for life on the discovery of the crime, while her accomplices were burnt alive; _d_. 1614.

BATHOS, an anti-climax, being a sudden descent from the sublime to the commonplace.

BATH`URST (8), the capital of British Gambia, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western Africa; inhabited chiefly by negroes; exports palm-oil, ivory, gold dust, &c.

BATHURST (10), the principal town on the western slopes of New South Wales, second to Sydney, with gold mines in the neighbourhood, and in a fertile wheat-growing district.

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BATHURST, a district in Upper Canada, on the Ottawa, a thriving place and an agricultural centre.

BATHYB`IUS, (i. e. living matter in the deep), substance of a slimy nature found at great sea depth, over-hastily presumed to be organic, proved by recent investigation to be inorganic, and of no avail to the evolutionist.

BATLEY (28), a manufacturing town in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; a busy place.

BATN-EL-HAJAR, a stony tract in the Nubian Desert, near the third cataract of the Nile.

BATON-ROUGE (10), a city on the E. bank of the Mississippi, 130 m. above New Orleans, and capital of the state of Louisiana; originally a French settlement.

BATON-SINISTER, a bend-sinister like a marshal's baton, an indication of illegitimacy.

BATOUM` (10), a town in Transcaucasia, on the E. of the Black Sea; a place of some antiquity; recently ceded by Turkey to Russia, but only as a mere trading port; has an excellent harbour, and has improved under Russian rule.

BATRACHOMYOMACHIA, a mock-heroic poem, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice," falsely ascribed to Homer.

BATTAS, a Malay race, native to Sumatra, now much reduced in

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numbers, and driven into the interior.

BATTERSEA, a suburb of London, on the Surrey side of the Thames, opposite Chelsea, and connected with it by a bridge; with a park 185 acres in extent; of plain and recent growth; till lately a quite rural spot.

BATTHYA`NI, COUNT, an Hungarian patriot, who fought hard to see his country reinstated in its ancient administrative independence, but failed in his efforts; was arrested, tried for high treason by court-martial, and sentenced to be shot, to the horror, at the time, of the civilised world (1809-1849).

BATTLE, a market-town in Sussex, near Hastings, so called from the battle of Senlac, in which William the Conqueror defeated Harold in 1066.

BATTLE OF THE SPURS, (_a_) an engagement at Courtrai in 1302 where the burghers of the town beat the knighthood of France, and the spurs of 4000 knights were collected after the battle; (_b_) an engagement at Guinegate, 1513, in which Henry VIII. made the French forces take to their spurs; OF THE BARRIERS (see BARRIERS); OF THE BOOKS, a satire by Swift on a literary controversy of the time; OF THE STANDARD, a battle in 1138, in which the English, with a high-mounted crucifix for a standard, beat the Scots at Northallerton.

BATTUE, method of killing game after crowding them by cries and beating them towards the sportsmen.


BAUDELAIRE, CHARLES, French poet of the romantic school, born in

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Paris; distinguished among his contemporaries for his originality, and his influence on others of his class; was a charming writer of prose as well as verse, as his "Petits Poemes" in prose bear witness. Victor Hugo once congratulated him on having "created a new shudder"; and as has been said, "this side of his genius attracted most popular attention, which, however, is but one side, and not really the most remarkable, of a singular combination of morbid but delicate analysis and reproduction of the remotest phases and moods of human thought and passion" (1821-1867).

BAUDRICOURT, a French courtier whom Joan of Arc pressed to conduct her into the presence of Charles VII.

BAUDRY, PAUL, French painter, decorated the _foyer_ of the Grand Opera in Paris; is best known as the author of the "Punishment of a Vestal Virgin" and the "Assassination of Marat" (1828-1886).

BAUER, BRUNO, a daring Biblical critic, and violent polemic on political as well as theological subjects; born at Saxe-Altenburg; regarded the Christian religion as overlaid and obscured by accretions foreign to it; denied the historical truth of the Gospels, and, like a true disciple of Hegel, ascribed the troubles of the 19th century to the overmastering influence of the "ENLIGHTENMENT" or the "AUFKLAeRUNG" (q. v.) that characterised the 18th. His last work was entitled "Disraeli's Romantic and Bismarck's Socialistic Imperialism" (1809-1882).

BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, professor of Philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder; disciple of Wolf; born at Berlin; the founder of AEsthetics as a department of philosophy, and inventor of the name (1714-1762).

BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, a German theologian of the school of Schleiermacher; professor of Theology at Jena; born at Merseburg; an authority on the history of dogma, on which he wrote (1788-1843).

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BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN, head of the Tuebingen school of rationalist divines, born near Stuttgart; distinguished by his scholarship and his labours in Biblical criticism and dogmatic theology; his dogmatic treatises were on the Christian Gnosis, the Atonement, the Trinity, and the Incarnation, while his Biblical were on certain epistles of Paul and the canonical Gospels, which he regarded as the product of the 2nd century; regarded Christianity of the Church as Judaic in its origin, and Paul as distinctively the first apostle of pure Christianity (1792-1861).

BAUSSET, cardinal, born at Pondicherry, who wrote the Lives of Bossuet and Fenelon (1748-1824).

BAUTZEN, a town of Saxony, an old town on the Spree, where Napoleon defeated the Prussians and Russians in 1813; manufactures cotton, linen, wool, tobacco, paper, etc.

BAVARIA (5,590), next to Prussia the largest of the German States, about the size of Scotland; is separated by mountain ranges from Bohemia on the E. and the Tyrol on the S.; Wuertemburg lies on the W., Prussia, Meiningen, and Saxony on the N. The country is a tableland crossed by mountains and lies chiefly in the basin of the Danube. It is a busy agricultural state: half the soil is tilled; the other half is under grass, planted with vineyards and forests. Salt, coal, and iron are widely distributed and wrought. The chief manufactures are of beer, coarse linen, and woollen fabrics. There are universities at Muenich, Wuerzburg, and Erlangen. Muenich, on the Isar, is the capital; Nueremberg, where watches were invented, and Angsburg, a banking centre, the other chief towns. Formerly a dukedom, the palatinate, on the banks of the Rhine, was added to it in 1216. Napoleon I. raised the duke to the title of king in 1805. Bavaria fought on the side of Austria in 1866, but joined Prussia in 1870-71.

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BAVIE`CA, the famous steed of the Cid, held sacred after the hero's death.

BAVOU, ST., a soldier monk, the patron saint of Ghent.

BAXTER, RICHARD, an eminent Nonconformist divine, native of Shropshire, at first a conformist, and parish minister of Kidderminster for 19 years; sympathised with the Puritans, yet stopped short of going the full length with them; acted as chaplain to one of their regiments, and returned to Kidderminster; became, at the Restoration one of the king's chaplains; driven out of the Church by the Act of Uniformity, was thrown into prison at 70, let out, spent the rest of his days in peace; his popular works, "The Saint's Everlasting Rest," and his "Call to the Unconverted" (1615-1691).

BAY CITY (27), place of trade, and of importance as a great railway centre in Michigan, U.S.; the third city in it.

BAYADERE, a dancing-girl in India, dressed in loose Eastern costume.

BAYARD, a horse of remarkable swiftness belonging to the four sons of Aymon, and which they sometimes rode all at once; also a horse of Amadis de Gaul.

BAYARD, CHEVALIER DE, an illustrious French knight, born in the Chateau Bayard, near Grenoble; covered himself with glory in the wars of Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I.; his bravery and generosity commanded the admiration of his enemies, and procured for him the thrice-honourable cognomen of "The Knight _sans peur et sans reproche_"; one of his most brilliant feats was his defence, single-handed, of the bridge over the Garigliano, in the face of a large body of Spaniards; was

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mortally wounded defending a pass at Abblategrasso; fell with his face to the foe, who carried off his body, but restored it straightway afterwards for due burial by his friends (1476-1524).

BAYEUX (7), an ancient Norman city in the dep. of Calvados, France; manufactures lace, hosiery, &c.; is a bishop's seat; has a very old Gothic cathedral.

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, representations in tapestry of events connected with the Norman invasion of England, commencing with Harold's visit to the Norman court, and ending with his death at the battle of Hastings; still preserved in the public library of Bayeux; is so called because originally found there; it is 214 ft. long by 20 in. wide, divided into 72 scenes, and contains a variety of figures. It is a question whose work it was.

BAYLE, PIERRE, a native of Languedoc; first Protestant (as the son of a Calvinist minister), then Catholic, then sceptic; Professor of Philosophy at Padua, then at Rotterdam, and finally retired to the Boompjes in the latter city; known chiefly as the author of the famous _Dictionnaire Historique et Critique_, to the composition of which he consecrated his energies with a zeal worthy of a religious devotee, and which became the fountain-head of the sceptical philosophy that flooded France on the eve of the Revolution; pronounced by a competent judge in these matters, a mere "imbroglio of historical, philosophical, and anti-theological marine stores" (1647-1700).

BAYLEN, a town in the province of Jaen, Spain, where General Castanos defeated Dupont, and compelled him to sign a capitulation, in 1808.

BAYLEY, SIR JOHN, a learned English judge; author of a standard work "On the Law of Bills of Exchange"; _d_. 1841.

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BAYONNE (24), a fortified French town, trading and manufacturing, in the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, at the confluence of the Adour and Nive, 4 m. from the Bay of Biscay; noted for its strong citadel, constructed by Vauban, and one of his _chef-d'oeuvres_, and its 12th-century cathedral church; it belonged to the English from 1152 to 1451.

BAZAINE, FRANCOIS ACHILLE, a marshal of France, born at Versailles; distinguished himself in Algiers, the Crimea, and Mexico; did good service, as commander of the army of the Rhine, in the Franco-German war, but after the surrender at Sedan was shut up in Metz, surrounded by the Germans, and obliged to surrender, with all his generals, officers, and men; was tried by court-martial, and condemned to death, but was imprisoned instead; made good his escape one evening to Madrid, where he lived to write a justification of his conduct, the sale of the book being prohibited in France (1811-1888).

BAZARD, SAINT-AMAND, a French socialist, founder of the _Charbonnerie Francaise_; a zealous but unsuccessful propagator of St. Simonianism, in association with ENFANTIN (q. v.), from whom he at last separated (1791-1832).

BAZOCHE, a guild of clerks of the parliament of Paris, under a mock king, with the privilege of performing religious plays, which they abused.

BEACHES, RAISED, elevated lands, formerly sea beaches, the result of upheaval, or left high by the recession of the sea, evidenced to be such by the shells found in them and the nature of the debris.

BEACHY HEAD, a chalk cliff in Sussex, 575 ft. high, projecting into the English Channel; famous for a naval engagement between the allied

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English and Dutch fleets and those of France, in which the latter were successful.

BEACONSFIELD, capital of the gold-mining district in Tasmania; also a town in Buckinghamshire, 10 m. N. of Windsor, from which Benjamin Disraeli took his title on his elevation to the peerage.

BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF, English novelist and politician, born in London; son of Isaac D'Israeli, litterateur, and thus of Jewish parentage; was baptized at the age of 12; educated under a Unitarian minister; studied law, but did not qualify for practice. His first novel, "Vivian Grey," appeared in 1826, and thereafter, whenever the business of politics left him leisure, he devoted it to fiction. "Contarini Fleming," "Coningsby," "Tancred," "Lothair," and "Endymion" are the most important of a brilliant and witty series, in which many prominent personages are represented and satirised under thin disguises. His endeavours to enter Parliament as a Radical failed twice in 1832; in 1835 he was unsuccessful again as a Tory. His first seat was for Maidstone in 1837; thereafter he represented Shrewsbury and Buckinghamshire. For 9 years he was a free-lance in the House, hating the Whigs, and after 1842 leading the Young England party; his onslaught on the Corn Law repeal policy of 1846 made him leader of the Tory Protectionists. He was for a short time Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Derby in 1852, and coolly abandoned Protection. Returning to power with his chief six years later, he introduced a Franchise Bill, the defeat of which threw out the Government. In office a third time in 1866, he carried a democratic Reform Bill, giving household suffrage in boroughs and extending the county franchise. Succeeding Lord Derby in 1868, he was forced to resign soon afterwards. In 1874 he entered his second premiership. Two years were devoted to home measures, among which were Plimsoll's Shipping Act and the abolition of Scottish Church patronage. Then followed a showy foreign policy. The securing of the half of the Suez Canal shares for Britain; the proclamation of the Queen as Empress of India; the support of Constantinople against Russia, afterwards stultified by the Berlin Congress, which he himself attended; the annexation of Cyprus; the Afghan and Zulu wars, were its salient

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features. Defeated at the polls in 1880 he resigned, and died next year. A master of epigram and a brilliant debater, he really led his party. He was the opposite in all respects of his protagonist, Mr. Gladstone. Lacking in zeal, he was yet loyal to England, and a warm personal friend of the Queen (1804-1881).

BEAR, name given in the Stock Exchange to one who contracts to deliver stock at a fixed price on a certain day, in contradistinction from the _bull_, or he who contracts to take it, the interest of the former being that, in the intervening time, the stocks should fall, and that of the latter that they should rise.


BEAM, an ancient prov. of France, fell to the crown with the accession of Henry IV. in 1589; formed a great part of the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, capital Pau.

BEATIFICATION, religious honour allowed by the pope to certain who are not so eminent in sainthood as to entitle them to canonisation.

BEATON, or BETHUNE, DAVID, cardinal, archbishop of St. Andrews, and primate of the kingdom, born in Fife; an adviser of James V., twice over ambassador to France; on the death of James secured to himself the chief power in Church and State as Lord High Chancellor and Papal Legate; opposed alliance with England; persecuted the Reformers; condemned George Wishart to the stake, witnessed his sufferings from a window of his castle in St. Andrews, and was assassinated within its walls shortly after; with his death ecclesiastical tyranny of that type came to an end in Scotland (1494-1546).

BEATON, JAMES, archbishop of Glasgow and St. Andrews, uncle of the

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preceding, a prominent figure in the reign of James V.; was partial to affiliation with France, and a persecutor of the Reformers; _d_. 1539.

BEATTIE, JAMES, a poet and essayist, born at Laurencekirk; became professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen; wrote an "Essay on Truth" against Hume; his most admired poem, "The Minstrel," a didactic piece, traces the progress of poetic genius, admitted him to the Johnsonian circle in London, obtained for him the degree of LL.D. from Oxford, and brought him a pension of L200 per annum from the king; died at Aberdeen (1735-1803).

BEATRICE, a beautiful Florentine maiden, Portinari, her family name, for whom Dante conceived an undying affection, and whose image abode with him to the end of his days. She is his guide through Paradise.

BEAU NASH, a swell notability at Bath; died in beggary (1674-1761).

BEAU TIBBS, a character in Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," noted for his finery, vanity, and poverty.

BEAUCAIRE (8), a French town near Avignon, on the Rhone, which it spans with a magnificent bridge; once a great centre of trade, and famous, as it still is, for its annual fair, frequented by merchants from all parts of Europe.

BEAUCHAMP, ALPHONSE DE, a historian, born at Monaco; wrote the "Conquest of Peru," "History of Brazil," &c. (1769-1832).

BEAUCLERK, Henry I. of England, so called from his superior learning.

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BEAUCLERK, TOPHAM, a young English nobleman, the only son of Lord Sydney Beauclerk, a special favourite of Johnson's, who, when he died, lamented over him, as one whose like the world might seldom see again (1759-1780).

BEAUFORT, DUKE OF, grandson of Henry IV. of France; one of the chiefs of the Fronde; was surnamed Roi des Halles (King of the Market-folk); appointed admiral of France; did good execution against the pirates; passed into the service of Venice; was killed at the siege of Candia in 1669.

BEAUFORT, HENRY, cardinal, bishop of Winchester, son of John of Gaunt, learned in canon law, was several times chancellor; took a prominent part in all the political movements of the time, exerted an influence for good on the nation, lent immense sums to Henry V. and Henry VI., also left bequests for charitable uses, and founded the hospital of St. Cross at Winchester (1377-1447).

BEAUHAR`NAIS, ALEXANDRE, VICOMTE DE, born at Martinique, where he married a lady who, afterwards as wife of Napoleon, became the Empress Josephine; accepted and took part in the Revolution; was secretary of the National Assembly; coolly remarked, on the news of the flight of the king, "The king's gone off; let us pass to the next business of the House"; was convicted of treachery to the cause of the Revolution and put to death; as the father of Hortense, who married Louis, Napoleon's brother, he became grandfather of Napoleon III. (1760-1794).

BEAUHARNAIS, EUGENE DE, son of the preceding and of Josephine, born at Paris, step-son of Napoleon, therefore was made viceroy of Italy; took an active part in the wars of the empire; died at Muenich, whither he retired after the fall of Napoleon (1781-1824).

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BEAUHARNAIS, HORTENSE EUGENIE, sister of the preceding, ex-queen of Holland; wife of Louis Bonaparte, an ill-starred union; mother of Napoleon III., the youngest of three sons (1783-1837).

BEAUMAR`CHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE, a dramatist and pleader of the most versatile, brilliant gifts, and French to the core, born in Paris, son of a watchmaker at Caen; ranks as a comic dramatist next to Moliere; author of "Le Barbier de Seville" (1775), and "Le Mariage de Figaro" (1784), his masterpiece; astonished the world by his conduct of a lawsuit he had, for which "he fought against reporters, parliaments, and principalities, with light banter, clear logic, adroitly, with an inexhaustible toughness of resource, like the skilfullest fencer." He was a zealous supporter of the Revolution, and made sacrifices on its behalf, but narrowly escaped the guillotine; died in distress and poverty. Of the two plays he wrote, Saintsbury says, "The wit is indisputable, but his chansons contain as much wit as the Figaro plays." He made a fortune by speculations in the American war, and lost by others, one of them being the preparation of a sumptuous edition of Voltaire. For the culmination and decline, as well as appreciation, of him, see the "French Revolution," by Carlyle (1732-1799).

BAUMA`RIS, principal town in Anglesea, Wales, on the Menai Strait, near Bangor, a favourite watering-place, with remains of a castle erected by Edward I.

BEAUMONT, CHRISTOPHE DE, archbishop of Paris, born at Perigord, "spent his life in persecuting hysterical Jansenists and incredulous non-confessors"; but scrupled to grant, though he fain would have granted, absolution on his deathbed to the dissolute monarch of France, Louis XV.; issued a charge condemnatory of Rousseau's "Emile," which provoked a celebrated letter from Rousseau in reply (1703-1781).

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, dramatic poet, born in Leicestershire, of a family of good standing; bred for the bar, but devoted to literature; was

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a friend of Ben Jonson; in conjunction with his friend Fletcher, the composer of a number of plays, about the separate authorship of which there has been much discussion, the dramatic power of which comes far short of that so conspicuous in the plays of their great contemporary Shakespeare, though it is said contemporary criticism gave them the preference (1585-1615).

BEAUMONT, JEAN BAPTISTE ELIE DE, French geologist, born in Calvados; became secretary to the Academy of Sciences; was joint-editor of a geological map of France. He had a theory of his own of the formation of the crust of the earth (1798-1874).

BEAUREGARD, PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT, American Confederate general, born at New Orleans; adopted the cause of the South, and fought in its behalf (1818-1893).

BEAUREPAIRE, a French officer, noted for his noble defence of Verdun against the Prussians; preferred death by suicide to the dishonour of surrender (1748-1792).

BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC, a Huguenot divine, born at Poitou; fled to Holland on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled in Berlin, and became a notability in high quarters there; attracted the notice of the young Frederick, the Great that was to be, who sought introduction to him, and the young Frederick "got good conversation out of him"; author of a "History of Manichaeism," praised by Gibbon, and of other books famous in their day, a translation of the New Testament for one (1659-1738).


BEAUTY AND THE BEAST, the hero and heroine of a famous fairy tale. Beauty falls in love with a being like a monster, who has, however, the

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heart of a man, and she marries him, upon which he is instantly transformed into a prince of handsome presence and noble mien.

BEAUVAIS (19), capital of the dep. of Oise, in France, 34 in. SW. of Amiens, an ancient town, noted for its cathedral, its tapestry weaving, and the feat of Jeanne-Hachette and her female following when the town was besieged by Charles the Bold.

BEAUVAIS, a French prelate, born at Cherbourg, Bishop of Senez, celebrated as a pulpit orator (1731-1790).

BEAUVILLIER, a statesman, patron of letters, to whom Louis XIV. committed the governorship of his sons; died of a broken heart due to the shock the death of the dauphin gave him (1607-1687).

BEBEK BAY, a fashionable resort on the Bosphorus, near Constantinople, and with a palace of the sultan.

BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO, one of the best painters of the Sienese school, distinguished also as a sculptor and a worker in mosaic (1486-1550).

BECCA`RIA, CAESARE BONESANA, MARQUIS OF, an Italian publicist, author of a celebrated "Treatise on Crimes and Punishments," which has been widely translated, and contributed much to lessen the severity of sentences in criminal cases. He was a utilitarian in philosophy and a disciple of Rousseau in politics.

BECHE-DE-MER, a slug, called also the trepang, procured on the coral reefs of the Pacific, which is dried and eaten as a dainty by the Chinese.

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BECHER, JOHANN JOACHIM, chemist, born at Spires; distinguished as a pioneer in the scientific study of chemistry (1635-1682).

BECHSTEIN, a German naturalist, wrote "Natural History of Cage Birds" (1757-1822).

BECHUANA-LAND, an inland tract in S. Africa, extends from the Orange River to the Zambesi; has German territory on the W., the Transvaal and Matabele-land on the E. The whole country is under British protection; that part which is S. of the river Molopo was made a crown colony in 1885. On a plateau 4000 ft. above sea-level, the climate is suited for British emigrants. The soil is fertile; extensive tracts are suitable for corn; sheep and cattle thrive; rains fall in summer; in winter there are frosts, sometimes snow. The Kalahari Desert in the W. will be habitable when sufficient wells are dug. Gold is found near Sitlagoli, and diamonds at Vryburg. The Bechuanas are the most advanced of the black races of S. Africa.

BECHUA`NAS, a wide-spread S. African race, totemists, rearers of cattle, and growers of maize; are among the most intelligent of the Bantu peoples, and show considerable capacity for self-government.

BECKER, KARL, German philologist; bred to medicine; author of a German grammar (1775-1842).

BECKER, NICOLAUS, author of the "Wacht am Rhein," was an obscure lawyer's clerk, and unnoted for anything else (1810-1845).

BECKER, WILLIAM ADOLPHE, an archaeologist, born at Dresden; was professor at Leipzig; wrote books in reproductive representation of ancient Greek and Roman life; author of "Manual of Roman Antiquities"

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BECKET, THOMAS A, archbishop of Canterbury, born in London, of Norman parentage; studied at Oxford and Bologna; entered the Church; was made Lord Chancellor; had a large and splendid retinue, but on becoming archbishop, cast all pomp aside and became an ascetic, and devoted himself to the vigorous discharge of the duties of his high office; declared for the independence of the Church, and refused to sign the CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON (q. v.); King Henry II. grew restive under his assumption of authority, and got rid of him by the hands of four knights who, to please the king, shed his blood on the steps of the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, for which outrage the king did penance four years afterwards at his tomb. The struggle was one affecting the relative rights of Church and king, and the chief combatants in the fray were both high-minded men, each inflexible in the assertion of his claims (1119-1170).

BECKFORD, WILLIAM, author of "Vathek," son of a rich alderman of London, who bequeathed him property to the value of L100,000 per annum; kept spending his fortune on extravagancies and vagaries; wrote "Vathek," an Arabian tale, when a youth of twenty-two, at a sitting of three days and two nights, a work which established his reputation as one of the first of the imaginative writers of his country. He wrote two volumes of travels in Italy, but his fame rests on his "Vathek" alone (1759-1844).

BECKMANN, a professor at Goettingen; wrote "History of Discoveries and Inventions" (1738-1811).

BECKX, PETER JOHN, general of the Jesuits, born in Belgium (1790-1887).

BECQUEREL, ANTOINE CAESAR, a French physicist; served as engineer in the French army in 1808-14, but retired in 1815, devoting himself to

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science, and obtained high distinction in electro-chemistry, working with Ampere, Biot, and other eminent scientists (1788-1878).

BED OF JUSTICE, a formal session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts, the last session being in 1787, under Louis XVI., at Versailles, whither the whole body, now "refractory, rolled out, in wheeled vehicles, to receive the order of the king."

BEDCHAMBER, LORDS or LADIES OF, officers or ladies of the royal household whose duty it is to wait upon the sovereign--the chief of the former called Groom of the Stole, and of the latter, Mistress of the Robes.

BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL, born at Clifton, son of Thomas Beddoes; an enthusiastic student of science; a dramatic poet, author of "Bride's Tragedy"; got into trouble for his Radical opinions; his principal work, "Death's Jest-Book, or the Fool's Tragedy," highly esteemed by Barry Cornwall (1803-1849).

BEDE, or BEDA, surnamed "The Venerable," an English monk and ecclesiastical historian, born at Monkwearmouth, in the abbey of which, together with that of Jarrow, he spent his life, devoted to quiet study and learning; his writings numerous, in the shape of commentaries, biographies, and philosophical treatises; his most important work, the "Ecclesiastical History" of England, written in Latin, and translated by Alfred the Great; completed a translation of John's Gospel the day he died. An old monk, it is said, wrote this epitaph over his grave, _Hac sunt in fossa Bedae ... ossa_, "In this pit are the bones ... of Beda," and then fell asleep; but when he awoke he found some invisible hand had inserted _venerabilis_ in the blank which he had failed to fill up, whence Bede's epinomen it is alleged.

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BEDELL, bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; superintended the translation of the Old Testament into Irish; though his virtues saved him and his family for a time from outrage by the rebels in 1641, he was imprisoned at the age of 70, and though released, died soon after (1571-1642).

BEDFORD (160), a midland agricultural county of England, generally level, with some flat fen-land; also the county town (28), on the Great Ouse, clean and well paved, with excellent educational institutions, famous in connection with the life of John Bunyan, where relics of him are preserved, and where a bronze statue of him by Boehm has been erected to his memory by the Duke of Bedford in 1871; manufactures agricultural implements, lace, and straw plaiting; Elstow, Bunyan's birthplace, is not far off.

BEDFORD, JOHN, DUKE OF, brother of Henry V., protector of the kingdom and regent of France during the minority of Henry VI., whom, on the death of the French king, he proclaimed King of France, taking up arms thereafter and fighting for a time victoriously on his behalf, till the enthusiasm created by Joan of Arc turned the tide against him and hastened his death, previous to which, however, though he prevailed over the dauphin, and burnt Joan at the stake, his power had gone (1389-1435).

BEDFORD LEVEL, a flat marshy district, comprising part of six counties, to the S. and W. of the Wash, about 40 m. in extent each way, caused originally by incursions of the sea and the overflowing of rivers; received its name from the Earl of Bedford, who, in the 17th century, undertook to drain it.

BEDLAM, originally a lunatic asylum in London, so named from the priory "Bethlehem" in Bishopsgate, first appropriated to the purpose, Bedlam being a corruption of the name Bethlehem.

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BEDMAR, MARQUIS DE, cardinal and bishop of Oviedo, and a Spanish diplomatist, notorious for a part he played in a daring conspiracy in 1618 aimed at the destruction of Venice, but which, being betrayed, was defeated, for concern in which several people were executed, though the arch-delinquent got off; he is the subject of Otway's "Venice Preserved"; it was after this he was made cardinal, and governor of the Netherlands, where he was detested and obliged to retire (1572-1655).

BEDOUINS, Arabs who lead a nomadic life in the desert and subsist by the pasture of cattle and the rearing of horses, the one element that binds them into a unity being community of language, the Arabic namely, which they all speak with great purity and without variation of dialect; they are generally of small stature, of wiry constitution, and dark complexion, and are divided into tribes, each under an independent chief.

BEE, THE, a periodical started by Goldsmith, in which some of his best essays appeared, and his "Citizen of the World."

BEECHER, HENRY WARD, a celebrated American preacher, born at Litchfield, Connecticut; pastor of a large Congregational church, Brooklyn; a vigorous thinker and eloquent orator, a liberal man both in theology and politics; wrote "Life Thoughts"; denied the eternity of punishment, considered a great heresy by some then, and which led to his secession from the Congregational body (1813-1887).

BEECHER-STOWE, HARRIET ELIZABETH, sister of the above, authoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," of which probably over a million copies have been sold. Born at Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., in 1812; _d_. 1896.

BEECHY, REAR-ADMIRAL, born in London, son of the following; accompanied Franklin in 1818 and Parry in 1819 to the Arctic regions; commanded the _Blossom_ in the third expedition of 1825-1828 to the same regions; published "Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole"

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BEECHY, SIR WILLIAM, portrait-painter, born in Oxfordshire; among his portraits were those of Lord Nelson, John Kemble, and Mrs. Siddons (1753-1839).

BEEF-EATERS, yeomen of the royal guard, whose institution dates from the reign of Henry VII., and whose office it is to wait upon royalty on high occasions; the name is also given to the warders of the Tower, though they are a separate body and of more recent origin; the name simply means (royal) dependant, a corruption of the French word _buffetier_, one who attends the sideboard.

BEEHIVE HOUSES, small stone structures, of ancient date, remains of which are found (sometimes in clusters) in Ireland and the W. of Scotland, with a conical roof formed of stones overlapping one another, undressed and without mortar; some of them appear to have been monks' cells.

BEEL`ZEBUB, the god of flies, protector against them, worshipped by the Phoenicians; as being a heathen deity, transformed by the Jews into a chief of the devils; sometimes identified with Satan, and sometimes his aide-de-camp.

BEERBOHM TREE, HERBERT, actor, born in London, son of a grain merchant; his first appearance was as the timid curate in the "Private Secretary," and then as the spy Macari in "Called Back"; is lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London, and has had many notable successes; he is accompanied by his wife, who is a refined actress; _b_. 1852.

BEER`SHEBA, a village in the S. of Canaan, and the most southerly, 27 m. from Hebron; associated with Dan, in the N., to denote the limit of

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the land and what lies between; lies in a pastoral country abounding in wells, and is frequently mentioned in patriarchal history; means "the Well of the Oath."

BEESWING, a gauze-like film which forms on the sides of a bottle of good port.

BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VON, one of the greatest musical composers, born in Bonn, of Dutch extraction; the author of symphonies and sonatas that are known over all the world; showed early a most precocious genius for music, commenced his education at five as a musician; trained at first by a companion named Pfeiffer, to whom he confessed he owed more than all his teachers; trained at length under the tuition of the most illustrious of his predecessors, Bach and Haendel; revealed the most wonderful musical talent; quitted Bonn and settled in Vienna; attracted the attention of Mozart; at the age of 40 was attacked with deafness that became total and lasted for life; continued to compose all the same, to the admiration of thousands; during his last days was a prey to melancholy; during a thunderstorm he died. Goethe pronounced him at his best "an utterly untamed character, not indeed wrong in finding the world detestable, though his finding it so did not," he added, "make it more enjoyable to himself or to others" (1770-1827).

BEETS, NICOLAS, a Dutch theologian and poet, born at Haarlem; came, as a poet, under the influence of Byronism; _b_. 1814.

BEFA`NA, an Italian female Santa Claus, who on Twelfth Night fills the stockings of good children with good things, and those of bad with ashes.

BEGG, JAMES, Scotch ecclesiastic, born at New Monkland, Lanark; was a stalwart champion of old Scottish orthodoxy, and the last (1808-1883).

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BEGHARDS, a religious order that arose in Belgium in the 13th century, connected with the Beguins, a mystic and socialistic sect.

BEGUINS, a sisterhood confined now to France and Germany, who, without taking any monastic vow, devote themselves to works of piety and benevolence.

BEGUM, name given in the E. Indies to a princess, mother, sister, or wife of a native ruler.

BEHAIM, MARTIN, a geographer and chartographer, born in Nueremberg; accompanied Diego Cam on a voyage of discovery along W. coast of Africa; constructed and left behind him a famous terrestrial globe; some would make him out to be the discoverer of America (1459-1507).

BEHAR (24,393), a province of Bengal, in the valley of the Ganges, which divides it into two; densely peopled; cradle of Buddhism.

BEHE`MOTH, a large animal mentioned in Job, understood to be the hippopotamus.

BEHIS`TUN, a mountain in Irak-Ajemi, a prov. of Persia, on which there are rocks covered with inscriptions, the principal relating to Darius Hystaspes, of date about 515 B.C., bearing on his genealogy, domains, and victories.

BEHM, ERNST, a German geographer, born in Gotha (1830-1884).

BEHN, AFRA, a licentious writer, born in Kent, for whom, for her

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free and easy ways, Charles II. took a liking; sent by him as a spy to Holland, and through her discovered the intention of the Dutch to burn the shipping in the Thames. She wrote plays and novels (1640-1689).

BEHRING STRAIT, a strait about 50 m. wide between Asia and N. America, which connects the Arctic Ocean with the Pacific; discovered by the Danish navigator Vitus Behring in 1728, sent out on a voyage of discovery by Peter the Great.

BEIRA (1,377), a central province of Portugal, mountainous and pastoral; gives title to the heir-apparent to the Portuguese throne.

BEKE, DR., traveller, born in London; travelled in Abyssinia and Palestine; author of "Origines Biblicae," or researches into primeval history as shown not to be in keeping with the orthodox belief.

BEKKER, IMMANUEL, philologist, born in Berlin, and professor in Halle; classical textual critic; issued recensions of the Greek and Latin classics (1780-1871).

BEL AND THE DRAGON, HISTORY OF, one of the books of the Apocrypha, a spurious addition to the book of Daniel, relates how Daniel persuaded Cyrus of the vanity of idol-worship, and is intended to show its absurdity.

BELA I., king of Hungary from 1061 to 1063; an able ruler; introduced a great many measures for the permanent benefit of the country, affecting both religion and social organisation.

BELA IV., king of Hungary, son of Andreas II., who had in 1222 been compelled to sign the Golden Bull, the _Magna Charta_ of Hungarian

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liberty; faithfully respected the provisions of this charter, and incurred the enmity of the nobles by his strenuous efforts to subdue them to the royal power.

BELCH, SIR TOBY, a reckless, jolly, swaggering character in "Twelfth Night."

BELCHER, SIR EDWARD, admiral, was engaged in several exploring and surveying expeditions; sailed round the world, and took part in the operations in China (1812-1877).

BELFAST (256), county town of Antrim, and largest and most flourishing city in the N. of Ireland; stands on the Lagan, at the head of Belfast Lough, 100 m. N. of Dublin; is a bright and pleasant city, with some fine streets and handsome buildings, Presbyterian, Catholic, and Methodist colleges. It is the centre of the Irish linen and cotton manufactures, the most important shipbuilding centre, and has also rope-making, whisky, and aerated-water industries. Its foreign trade is larger than even Dublin's. It is the capital of Ulster, and head-quarters of Presbyterianism in Ireland.

BELFORT (83), a fortified town in dep. of Haut-Rhin, and is its capital, 35 m. W. by N. of Basel; capitulated to the Germans in 1870; restored to France; its fortifications now greatly strengthened. The citadel was by Vauban.

BELGAE, Caesar's name for the tribes of the Celtic family in Gaul N. of the Seine and Marne; mistakenly rated as Germans by Caesar.

BELGIUM (6,136), a small European State bordering on the North Sea, with Holland to the N., France to the S., and Rhenish Prussia and Luxemburg on the E.; is less than a third the size of Ireland, but it is

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the most densely populated country on the Continent. The people are of mixed stock, comprising Flemings, of Teutonic origin; Walloons, of Celtic origin; Germans, Dutch, and French. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Education is excellent; there are universities at Ghent, Liege, Brussels, and Louvain. French is the language of educated circles and of the State; but the prevalence of dialects hinders the growth of a national literature. The land is low and level and fertile in the N. and W., undulating in the middle, rocky and hilly in the S. and E. The Meuse and Scheldt are the chief rivers, the basin of the latter embracing most of the country. Climate is similar to the English, with greater extremes. Rye, wheat, oats, beet, and flax are the principal crops. Agriculture is the most painstaking and productive of the world. The hilly country is rich in coal, iron, zinc, and lead. After mining, the chief industries are textile manufactures and making of machinery: the former at Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels, and Liege; the latter at Liege, Mons, and Charleroi. The trade is enormous; France, Germany, and Britain are the best customers. Exports are coal to France; farm products, eggs, &c., to England; and raw material imported from across seas, to France and the basin of the Rhine. It is a small country of large cities. The capital is Brussels (480), in the centre of the kingdom, but communicating with the ocean by a ship canal. The railways, canals, and river navigation are very highly developed. The government is a limited monarchy; the king, senate, and house of representatives form the constitution. There is a conscript army of 50,000 men, but no navy. Transferred from Spain to Austria in 1713. Belgium was under French sway from 1794 till 1814, when it was united with Holland, but established its independence in 1830.

BELGRADE (54), the capital of Servia, on the confluence of the Save and Danube; a fortified city in an important strategical position, and the centre of many conflicts; a commercial centre; once Turkish in appearance, now European more and more.

BELGRA`VIA, a fashionable quarter in the southern part of the West End of London.

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BELIAL, properly a good-for-nothing, a child of worthlessness; an incarnation of iniquity and son of perdition, and the name in the Bible for the children of such.

BELIEF, a word of various application, but properly definable as that which lies at the heart of a man or a nation's convictions, or is the heart and soul of all their thoughts and actions, "the thing a man does practically lay to heart, and know for certain concerning his vital relations to this mysterious universe, and his duty and destiny there."

BELINDA, ARABELLA FERMOR, the heroine in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."

BELISA`RIUS, a general under the Emperor Justinian, born in Illyria; defeated the Persians, the Vandals, and the Ostrogoths; was falsely accused of conspiracy, but acquitted, and restored to his dignities by the emperor; though another tradition, now discredited, alleges that for the crimes charged against him he had his eyes put out, and was reduced to beggary (505-565).

BELIZE, British Honduras, a fertile district, and its capital (6); exports mahogany, rosewood, sugar, india-rubber, &c.


BELL, ANDREW, LL.D., educationist, born at St. Andrews; founder of the Monitorial system of education, which he had adopted, for want of qualified assistants, when in India as superintendent of an orphanage in Madras, so that his system was called "the Madras system"; returned from India with a large fortune, added to it by lucrative preferments, and bequeathed a large portion of it, some L120,000, for the endowment of education in Scotland, and the establishment of schools, such as the Madras College in his native city (1753-1832).

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BELL, BESSY, and MARY GRAY, the "twa bonnie lassies" of a Scotch ballad, daughters of two Perthshire gentlemen, who in 1666 built themselves a bower in a spot retired from a plague then raging; supplied with food by a lad in love with both of them, who caught the plague and gave it to them, of which they all sickened and died.

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE, a ceremony at one time attending the greater excommunication in the Romish Church, when after sentence was read from the "book," a "bell" was rung, and the "candle" extinguished.



BELL, GEORGE JOSEPH, a brother of Sir Charles, distinguished in law; author of "Principles of the Law of Scotland" (1770-1843).

BELL, HENRY, bred a millwright, born in Linlithgowshire; the first who applied steam to navigation in Europe, applying it in a small steamboat called the _Comet_, driven by a three horse-power engine (1767-1830).

BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD, born in Glasgow, a lawyer and literary man, sheriff of Lanarkshire; wrote a vindication of Mary, Queen of Scots, and some volumes of poetry (1803-1874).

BELL, JOHN, of Antermony, a physician, born at Campsie; accompanied Russian embassies to Persia and China; wrote "Travels in Asia," which were much appreciated for their excellency of style (1690-1780).

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BELL, PETER, Wordsworth's simple rustic, to whom the primrose was but a yellow flower and nothing more.

BELL, ROBERT, journalist and miscellaneous writer, born at Cork; edited "British Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper," his best-known work, which he annotated, and accompanied with careful memoirs of each (1800-1867).

BELL, SIR CHARLES, an eminent surgeon and anatomist, born in Edinburgh, where he became professor of Surgery; distinguished chiefly for his discoveries in connection with the nervous system, which he published in his "Anatomy of the Brain" and his "Nervous System," and which gained him European fame; edited, along with Lord Brougham, Paley's "Evidences of Natural Religion" (1774-1842).

BELL, THOMAS, a naturalist, born at Poole; professor of Zoology in King's College, London; author of "British Quadrupeds" and "British Reptiles," "British Stalk-eyed Crustacea," and editor of "White's Natural History of Selborne" (1792-1880).

BELL ROCK, or INCHCAPE ROCK, a dangerous reef of sandstone rocks in the German Ocean, 12 m. SE. of Arbroath, on which a lighthouse 120 ft. high was erected in 1807-10; so called from a bell rung by the sway of the waves, which the abbot of Arbroath erected on it at one time as a warning to seamen.

BELL-THE-CAT, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Arran, so called from his offer to dispose by main force of an obnoxious favourite of the king, James III.

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BELLA, STEPHANO DELLA, a Florentine engraver of great merit, engraved over 1000 plates; was patronised by Richelieu in France, and the Medici in Florence (1610-1664).

BELL`AMY, JACOB, a Dutch poet, born at Flushing; his poems highly esteemed by his countrymen (1752-1821).

BELLANGE, a celebrated painter of battle-pieces, born at Paris (1800-1866).

BELLAR`MINE, ROBERT, cardinal, born in Tuscany; a learned Jesuit, controversial theologian, and in his writings, which are numerous, a valiant defender at all points of Roman Catholic dogma; the greatest champion of the Church in his time, and regarded as such by the Protestant theologians; he was at once a learned man and a doughty polemic (1542-1621).

BELLAY, JOACHIM DU, French poet; author of sonnets entitled "Regrets," full of vigour and poetry; wrote the "Antiquites de Rome"; was called the Apollo of the Pleiade, the best poet and the best prose-writer among them (1524-1560).

BELLE FRANCE, (i. e. Beautiful France), a name of endearment applied to France, like that of "Merry" applied to England.

BELLE-ISLE (60), a fortified island on the W. coast of France, near which Sir Edward Hawke gained a brilliant naval victory over the French, under M. de Conflans, in 1759.

BELLEISLE, CHARLES LOUIS AUGUSTE FOUQUET, COUNT OF, marshal of France; distinguished in the war of the Spanish Succession; an ambitious

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man, mainly to blame for the Austrian Succession war; had grand schemes in his head, no less than the supremacy in Europe and the world of France, warranting the risk; expounded them to Frederick the Great; concluded a fast and loose treaty with him, which could bind no one; found himself blocked up in Prague with his forces; had to force his way out and retreat, but it was a retreat the French boast comparable only to the retreat of the Ten Thousand; was made War Minister after, and wrought important reforms in the army (1684-1761). See CARLYLE'S "FREDERICK" for a graphic account of him and his schemes, specially in Bk. xii. chap. ix.

BELLENDEN, JOHN, of Moray, a Scottish writer in the 16th century; translated, at the request of James V., Hector Boece's "History of Scotland," and the first five books of Livy, which remain the earliest extant specimens of Scottish prose, and remarkable specimens they are, for the execution of which he was well rewarded, being made archdeacon of Moray for one thing, though he died in exile; _d_. 1550.

BELLENDEN, WILLIAM, a Scottish writer, distinguished for diplomatic services to Queen Mary, and for the purity of his Latin composition; a professor of belles-lettres in Paris University (1550-1613).

BELLER`OPHON, a mythical hero, son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus; having unwittingly caused the death of his brother, withdrew from his country and sought retreat with Proetus, king of Argos, who, becoming jealous of his guest, but not willing to violate the laws of hospitality, had him sent to Iobates, his son-in-law, king of Lycia, with instructions to put him to death. Iobates, in consequence, imposed upon him the task of slaying the Chimaera, persuaded that this monster would be the death of him. Bellerophon, mounted on Pegasus, the winged horse given him by Pallas, slew the monster, and on his return received the daughter of Iobates to wife.

BELLEROPHON, LETTERS OF, name given to letters fraught with mischief

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to the bearer. See SUPRA.

BELLES-LETTRES, that department of literature which implies literary culture and belongs to the domain of art, whatever the subject may be or the special form; it includes poetry, the drama, fiction, and criticism.

BELLEVILLE, a low suburb of Paris, included in it since 1860; the scene of one of the outrages of the Communists.

BELLIARD, COMTE DE, a French general and diplomatist; fought in most of the Napoleonic wars, but served under the Bourbons on Napoleon's abdication; was serviceable to Louis Philippe in Belgium by his diplomacy (1769-1832).

BELLI`NI, the name of an illustrious family of Venetian painters.

BELLINI, GENTILE, the son of Jacopo Bellini, was distinguished as a portrait-painter; decorated along with his brother the council-chamber of the ducal palace; his finest picture the "Preaching of St. Mark" (1421-1508).

BELLINI, GIOVANNI, brother of the preceding, produced a great many works; the subjects religious, all nobly treated; had Giorgione and Titian for pupils; among his best works, the "Circumcision," "Feast of the Gods," "Blood of the Redeemer"; did much to promote painting in oil (1426-1516).

BELLINI, JACOPO, a painter from Florence who settled in Venice, the father and founder of the family; _d_. 1470.

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BELLINI, VINCENZO, a musical composer, born at Catania, Sicily; his works operas, more distinguished for their melody than their dramatic power; the best are "Il Pirati," "La Somnambula," "Norma," and "Il Puritani" (1802-1835).

BELLMANN, the poet of Sweden, a man of true genius, called the "Anacreon of Sweden," patronised by Gustavus Adolphus (1741-1795).

BELLO`NA, the goddess of fury in war among the Romans, related by the poets to Mars as sister, wife, or daughter; inspirer of the war-spirit, and represented as armed with a bloody scourge in one hand and a torch in the other.

BELLOT, JOSEPH RENE, a naval officer, born in Paris, distinguished in the expedition of 1845 to Madagascar, and one of those who went in quest of Sir John Franklin; drowned while crossing the ice (1826-1853).

BELLOY, a French poet, born at St. Flour; author of "Le Siege du Calais" and numerous other dramatic works (1727-1775).

BELON, PIERRE, a French naturalist, one of the founders of natural history, and one of the precursors of Cuvier; wrote in different departments of natural history, the chief, "Natural History of Birds"; murdered by robbers while gathering plants in the Bois de Boulogne (1518-1564).

BEL`PHEGOR, a Moabite divinity.

BELPHOEBE (i. e. Beautiful Diana), a huntress in the "Faerie Queene," the impersonation of Queen Elizabeth, conceived of, however, as a pure, high-spirited maiden, rather than a queen.

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BELSHAM, THOMAS, a Unitarian divine, originally Calvinist, born at Bedford; successor to the celebrated Priestley at Hackney, London; wrote an elementary work on psychology (1750-1829).

BELSHAZZAR, the last Chaldean king of Babylon, slain, according to the Scripture account, at the capture of the city by Cyrus in 538 B.C.

BELT, GREAT and LITTLE, gateways of the Baltic: the Great between Zealand and Fuenen, 15 m. broad; the Little, between Fuenen and Jutland, half as broad; both 70 m. long, the former of great depth.

BELT OF CALMS, the region in the Atlantic and Pacific, 4 deg. or 5 deg. latitude broad, where the trade-winds meet and neutralise each other, in which, however, torrents of rain and thunder-storms occur almost daily.

BELTANE, or BELTEIN, an ancient Celtic festival connected with the sun-worship, observed about the 1st of May and the 1st of November, during which fires were kindled on the tops of hills, and various ceremonies gone through.

BELTED WILL, name given to Lord William Howard, warden in the 16th and 17th centuries of the Western Marches of England.

BELU`CHISTAN (200 to 400), a desert plateau lying between Persia and India, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea; is crossed by many mountain ranges, the Suliman, in the N., rising to 12,000 ft. Rivers in the NE. are subject to great floods. The centre and W. is a sandy desert exposed to bitter winds in winter and sand-storms in summer. Fierce extremes of temperature prevail. There are few cattle, but sheep are numerous; the camel is the draught animal. Where there is water the soil is fertile,

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and crops of rice, cotton, indigo, sugar, and tobacco are raised; in the higher parts, wheat, maize, and pulse. Both precious and useful metals are found; petroleum wells were discovered in the N. in 1887. The population comprises Beluchis, robber nomads of Aryan stock, in the E. and W., and Mongolian Brahuis in the centre. All are Mohammedan. Kelat is the capital; its position commands all the caravan routes. Quetta, in the N., is a British stronghold and health resort. The Khan of Kelat is the ruler of the country and a vassal of the Queen.

BE`LUS, another name for BAAL (q. v.), or the legendary god of Assyria and Chaldea.

BEL`VEDERE, name given a gallery of the Vatican at Rome, especially that containing the famous statue of Apollo, and applied to picture-galleries elsewhere.

BELZO`NI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a famous traveller and explorer in Egypt, born at Padua, of poor parents; a man of great stature; figured as an athlete in Astley's Circus, London, and elsewhere, first of all in London streets; applied himself to the study of mechanics; visited Egypt as a mechanician and engineer at the instance of Mehemet Ali; commenced explorations among its antiquities, sent to the British Museum trophies of his achievements; published a narrative of his operations; opened an exhibition of his collection of antiquities in London and Paris; undertook a journey to Timbuctoo, was attacked with dysentery, and died at Gato (1778-1823).

BEM, JOSEPH, a Polish general, born in Galicia; served in the French army against Russia in 1812; took part in the insurrection of 1830; joined the Hungarians in 1848; gained several successes against Austria and Russia, but was defeated at Temesvar; turned Mussulman, and was made pasha; died at Aleppo, where he had gone to suppress an Arab insurrection; he was a good soldier and a brave man (1791-1850).

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BEMBA, a lake in Africa, the highest feeder of the Congo, of an oval shape, 150 m. long and over 70 m. broad, 3000 ft. above the sea-level.

BEMBO, PIETRO, cardinal, an erudite man of letters and patron of literature and the arts, born at Venice; secretary to Pope Leo X.; historiographer of Venice, and librarian of St. Mark's; made cardinal by Paul III., and bishop of Bergamo; a fastidious stylist and a stickler for purity in language (1470-1547).

BEN LAWERS, a mountain in Perthshire, 3984 ft. high, on the W. of Loch Tay.

BEN LEDI, a mountain in Perthshire, 2873 ft. high, 41/2 m. NW. of Callander.

BEN LOMOND, a mountain in Stirlingshire, 3192 ft. high, on the E. of Loch Lomond.

BEN NEVIS, the highest mountain in Great Britain, in SW. Inverness-shire, 4406 ft. high, and a sheer precipice on the NE. 1500 ft. high, and with an observatory on the summit supported by the Scottish Meteorological Society.

BEN RHYDDING, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 15 m. NW. of Leeds, with a thoroughly equipped hydropathic establishment, much resorted to.

BENARES (219), the most sacred city of the Hindus, and an important town in the NW. Provinces; is on the Ganges, 420 m. by rail NW. of Calcutta. It presents an amazing array of 1700 temples and mosques with

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towers and domes and minarets innumerable. The bank of the river is laid with continuous flights of steps whence the pilgrims bathe; but the city itself is narrow, crocked, crowded, and dirty. Many thousand pilgrims visit it annually. It is a seat of Hindu learning; there is also a government college. The river is spanned here by a magnificent railway bridge. There is a large trade in country produce, English goods, jewellery, and gems; while its brass-work, "Benares ware," is famous.

BENBOW, JOHN, admiral, born at Shrewsbury; distinguished himself in an action with a Barbary pirate; rose rapidly to the highest post in the navy; distinguished himself well in an engagement with a French fleet in the W. Indies; he lost a leg, and at this crisis some of his captains proved refractory, so that the enemy escaped, were tried by court-martial, and two of them shot; the wound he received and his vexation caused his death. He was a British tar to the backbone, and of a class extinct now (1653-1702).

BENCOOLEN, a town and a Dutch residency in SW. of Sumatra; exports pepper and camphor.

BENDER, a town in Bessarabia, remarkable for the siege which Charles XII. of Sweden sustained there after his defeat at Pultowa.

BENEDEK, LUDWIG VON, an Austrian general, born in Hungary; distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1848-1849; was defeated by the Prussians at Sadowa; superseded and tried, but got off; retired to Graetz, where he died (1804-1871).

BENEDETTI, COUNT VINCENT, French diplomatist, born at Bastia, in Corsica; is remembered for his draft of a treaty between France and Prussia, published in 1870, and for his repudiation of all responsibility for the Franco-German war; _b_. 1817.

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BENEDICT, the name of fourteen popes: B. I., from 574 to 575; B. II., from 684 to 685; B. III., from 855 to 858; B. IV., from 900 to 907; B. V., FROM 964 TO 965; B. VI., from 972 to 974; B. VII., from 975 to 984; B. VIII., from 1012 to 1024; extended the territory of the Church by conquest, and effected certain clerical reforms; B. IX., from 1033 to 1048, a licentious man, and deposed; B. X., from 1058 to 1059; B. XI., from 1303 to 1304; B. XII., from 1334 to 1342; B. XIII., from 1724 to 1730; B. XIV., from 1740 to 1758. Of all the popes of this name it would seem there is only one worthy of special mention.

BENEDICT XIV., a native of Bologna, a man of marked scholarship and ability; a patron of science and literature, who did much to purify the morals and elevate the character of the clergy, and reform abuses in the Church.

BENEDICT, BISCOP, an Anglo-Saxon monk, born in Northumbria; made two pilgrimages to Rome; assumed the tonsure as a Benedictine monk in Provence; returned to England and founded two monasteries on the Tyne, one at Wearmouth and another at Jarrow, making them seats of learning; _b_. 628.

BENEDICT, ST., the founder of Western monachism, born near Spoleto; left home at 14; passed three years as a hermit, in a cavern near Subiaco, to prepare himself for God's service; attracted many to his retreat; appointed to an abbey, but left it; founded 12 monasteries of his own; though possessed of no scholarship, composed his "Regula Monachorum," which formed the rule of his order; represented in art as accompanied by a raven with sometimes a loaf in his bill, or surrounded by thorns or by howling demons (480-543). See BENEDICTINES.

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS, musician and composer, native of Stuttgart; removed to London in 1835; author of, among other pieces, the "Gipsy's

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Warning," the "Brides of Venice," and the "Crusaders"; conducted the performance of "Elijah" in which Jenny Lind made her first appearance before a London audience, and accompanied her as pianist to America in 1850 (1806-1885).

BENEDICTINES, the order of monks founded by St. Benedict and following his rule, the cradle of which was the celebrated monastery of Monte Casino, near Naples, an institution which reckoned among its members a large body of eminent men, who in their day rendered immense service to both literature and science, and were, in fact, the only learned class of the Middle Ages; spent their time in diligently transcribing manuscripts, and thus preserving for posterity the classic literature of Greece and Rome.

BENEDICTUS, part of the musical service at Mass in the Roman Catholic Church; has been introduced into the morning service of the English Church.

BENEFIT OF CLERGY, exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before a secular judge.

BE`NEKE, FRIEDRICH EDUARD, a German philosopher and professor in Berlin of the so-called empirical school, that is, the Baconian; an opponent of the methods and systems of Kant and Hegel; confined his studies to psychology and the phenomena of consciousness; was more a British thinker than a German (1798-1854).

BENENGE`LI, an imaginary Moorish author, whom Cervantes credits with the story of "Don Quixote."

BENETIER, the vessel for holding the holy water in Roman Catholic churches.

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BENEVENTO (20), a town 33 m. NE. of Naples, built out of and amid the ruins of an ancient one; also the province, of which Talleyrand was made prince by Napoleon.

BENEVOLENCE, the name of a forced tax exacted from the people by certain kings of England, and which, under Charles I., became so obnoxious as to occasion the demand of the PETITION OF RIGHTS (q. v.), that no tax should be levied without consent of Parliament; first enforced in 1473, declared illegal in 1689.

BENFEY, THEODOR, Orientalist, born near Goettingen, of Jewish birth; a great Sanskrit scholar, and professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at his native place; author of "Lexicon of Greek Roots," "Sanskrit Grammar," &c. (1809-1881).

BENGAL (76,643), one of the three Indian presidencies, but more particularly a province lying in the plain of the Lower Ganges and the delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra, with the Himalayas on the N. At the base of the mountains are great forests; along the seaboard dense jungles. The climate is hot and humid, drier at Behar, and passing through every gradation up to the snow-line. The people are engaged in agriculture, raising indigo, jute, opium, rice, tea, cotton, sugar, &c. Coal, iron, and copper mines are worked in Burdwan. The manufactures are of cotton and jute. The population is mixed in blood and speech, but Hindus speaking Bengali predominate. Education is further advanced than elsewhere; there are fine colleges affiliated to Calcutta University, and many other scholastic institutions. The capital, Calcutta, is the capital of India; the next town in size is Patna (165).

BENGA`ZI (7), the capital of Barca, on the Gulf of Sidra, in N. Africa, and has a considerable trade.

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BENGEL, JOHANN ALBRECHT, a distinguished Biblical scholar and critic, born at Wuertemberg; best known by his "Gnomon Novi Testamenti," being an invaluable body of short notes on the New Testament; devoted himself to the critical study of the text of the Greek Testament (1687-1752).

BENGUE`LA, a fertile Portuguese territory in W. Africa, S. of Angola, with considerable mineral wealth; has sunk in importance since the suppression of the slave-trade.

BENICIA, the former capital of California, 30 m. NE. of San Francisco; has a commodious harbour and a U.S. arsenal.

BENI-HASSAN, a village in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, above Minieh, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated.

BENI-ISRAEL (i. e. Sons of Israel), a remarkable people, few in number, of Jewish type and customs, in the Bombay Presidency, and that have existed there quite isolatedly for at least 1000 years, with a language of their own, and even some literature; they do not mingle with the Jews, but they practise similar religious observances.

BENIN`, a densely populated and fertile country in W. Africa, between the Niger and Dahomey, with a city and river of the name; forms part of what was once a powerful kingdom; yields palm-oil, rice, maize, sugar, cotton, and tobacco.

BENI-SOUEF`, a town in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 70 m. above Cairo; a centre of trade, with cotton-mills and quarries of alabaster.

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BENJAMIN, Jacob's youngest son, by Rachel, the head of one of the twelve tribes, who were settled in a small fertile territory between Ephraim and Judah; the tribe to which St. Paul belonged.

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, an American journalist, born at Keith, Scotland; trained for the Catholic priesthood; emigrated, a poor lad of 19, to America, got employment in a printing-office in Boston as proof-reader; started the _New York Herald_ in 1835 at a low price as both proprietor and editor, an enterprise which brought him great wealth and the success he aimed at (1795-1872).

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, son of preceding, conductor of the _Herald_; sent Stanley out to Africa, and supplied the funds.

BENNETT, SIR STERNDALE, an English musical composer and pianist, born at Sheffield, whose musical genius recommended him to Mendelssohn and Schumann; became professor of Music in Cambridge, and conductor of the Philharmonic Concerts; was president of the Royal Academy of Music (1816-1873).

BENNETT, WM., a High-Churchman, celebrated for having provoked the decision that the doctrine of the Real Presence is a dogma not inconsistent with the creed of the Church of England (1804-1886).

BEN`NINGSEN, COUNT, a Russian general, born at Brunswick; entered the Russian service under Catherine II.; was commander-in-chief at Eylau, fought at Borodino, and victoriously at Leipzig; he died at Hanover, whither he had retired on failure of his health (1745-1826).

BENTHAM, GEORGE, botanist, born near Plymouth, nephew of Jeremy and editor of his works, besides a writer on botany (1800-1884).

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BENTHAM, JEREMY, a writer on jurisprudence and ethics, born in London; bred to the legal profession, but never practised it; spent his life in the study of the theory of law and government, his leading principle on both these subjects being utilitarianism, or what is called the greatest happiness principle, as the advocate of which he is chiefly remembered; a principle against which Carlyle never ceased to protest as a philosophy of man's life, but which he hailed as a sign that the crisis which must precede the regeneration of the world was come; a lower estimate, he thought, man could not form of his soul than as "a dead balance for weighing hay and thistles, pains and pleasures, &c.," an estimate of man's soul which he thinks mankind will, when it wakes up again to a sense of itself, be sure to resent and repudiate (1748-1832).

BENTINCK, LORD GEORGE, statesman and sportsman, a member of the Portland family; entered Parliament as a Whig, turned Conservative on the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832; served under Sir Robert Peel; assumed the leadership of the party as a Protectionist when Sir Robert Peel became a Free-trader, towards whom he conceived a strong personal animosity; died suddenly; the memory of him owes something to the memoir of his life by Lord Beaconsfield (1802-1848).

BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM HENRY CAVENDISH, Indian statesman, governor of Madras in 1806, but recalled for an error which led to the mutiny at Vellore; but was in 1827 appointed governor-general of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms. Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in 1835, became member for Glasgow in 1837, and died before he made any mark on home politics (1774-1839).

BENTINCK, WILLIAM, a distinguished statesman, first Earl of Portland, born in Holland; a favourite, friend, and adviser of William III., whom he accompanied to England, and who bestowed on him for his services great honours and large domains, which provoked ill-will against

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him; retired to Holland, after the king died in his arms, but returned afterwards (1648-1709).

BENTIVOGLIO, an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B., Guido, cardinal, though a disciple of Galileo, was one of the Inquisitors-General who signed his condemnation (1579-1641).

BENTLEY, RICHARD, scholar and philologist, born in Yorkshire; from the first devoted to ancient, especially classical, learning; rose to eminence as an authority on literary criticism, his "Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris," which he proved to be a forgery, commending him to the regard and esteem of all the scholars of Europe, a work which may be said to have inaugurated a new era in literary historical criticism (1662-1742).

BENUE, an affluent of the Niger, 300 m. long, falling into it 230 m. up, described by Dr. Barth and explored by Dr. Baikic, and offers great facilities for the prosecution of commerce.

BENVOLIO, a cantankerous, disputatious gentleman in "Romeo and Juliet."

BENYOW`SKY, COUNT, a Hungarian, fought with the Poles against Russia; taken prisoner; was exiled to Kamchatka; escaped with the governor's daughter; came to France; sent out to Madagascar; was elected king by the natives over them; fell in battle against the French (1741-1786).

BENZENE, a substance compounded of carbon and hydrogen, obtained by destructive distillation from coal-tar and other organic bodies, used as a substitute for turpentine and for dissolving grease.

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BENZOIN, a fragrant concrete resinous juice flowing from a styrax-tree of Sumatra, used as a cosmetic, and burned as incense.

BEOWULF, a very old Anglo-Saxon romance consisting of 6356 short alliterative lines, and the oldest extant in the language, recording the exploits of a mythical hero of the name, who wrestled Hercules-wise, at the cost of his life, with first a formidable monster, and then a dragon that had to be exterminated or tamed into submission before the race he belonged to could live with safety on the soil.

BERANGER, PIERRE JEAN DE, a celebrated French song-writer, born at Paris, of the lower section of the middle class, and the first of his countrymen who in that department rose to the high level of a true lyric poet; his first struggles with fortune were a failure, but Lucien Bonaparte took him up, and under his patronage a career was opened up for him; in 1815 appeared as an author, and the sensation created was immense, for the songs were not mere personal effusions, but in stirring accord with, and contributed to influence, the great passion of the nation at the time; was, as a Republican--which brought him into trouble with the Bourbons--a great admirer of Napoleon as an incarnation of the national spirit, and contributed not a little to the elevation of his nephew to the throne, though he declined all patronage at his hands, refusing all honours and appointments; has been compared to Burns, but he lacked both the fire and the humour of the Scottish poet. "His poetical works," says Professor Saintsbury, "consist entirely of chansons political, amatory, bacchanalian, satirical, philosophical after a fashion, and of almost every other complexion that the song can possibly take" (1780-1859).

BERAR` (896), one of the central provinces of India, E. of Bombay; it occupies a fertile, well-watered valley, and yields large quantities of grain, and especially cotton.

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BERAT, FREDERIC, a French poet and composer, author of a great number of popular songs (1800-1853).

BERBER, native language spoken in the mountainous parts of Barbary.

BERBER (8), a town in Nubia, on the Nile, occupied by the English; starting-point of caravans for the Red Sea; railway was begun to Suakim, but abandoned.

BER`BERAH, the seaport of Somaliland, under Britain, with an annual fair that brings together at times as many as 30,000 people.

BERBERS (3,000), a race aboriginal to Barbary and N. Africa, of a proud and unruly temper; though different from the Arab race, are of the same religion.

BERBICE, the eastern division of British Guiana; produces sugar, cocoa, and timber.

BERBRUGGER, a French archaeologist and philologist; wrote on Algiers, its history and monuments (1801-1869).

BERCHTA, a German Hulda, but of severer type. See BERTHA.

BERCY, a commune on the right bank of the Seine, outside Paris, included in it since 1860; is the great mart for wines and brandies.

BERE`ANS, a sect formed by John Barclay in 1778, who regard the Bible as the one exclusive revelation of God.

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BERENGER, or BERENGA`RIUS, OF TOURS, a distinguished theologian, born at Tours; held an ecclesiastical office there, and was made afterwards archdeacon of Angers; ventured to deny the doctrine of transubstantiation, a denial for which he was condemned by successive councils of the Church, and which he was compelled more than once publicly to retract, though he so often and openly recalled his retractation that the pope, notwithstanding the opposition of the orthodox, deemed it prudent at length to let him alone. After this he ceased to trouble the Church, and retired to an island on the Loire, where he gave himself up to quiet meditation and prayer (998-1088).

BERENGER I., king of Italy, grandson of Louis the Debonnaire, an able general; provoked the jealousy of the nobles, who dreaded the abridgment of their rights, which led to his assassination at their hands in 934. B. II., king of Italy, grandson of the preceding, was dethroned twice by the Emperor Otho, who sent him a prisoner to Bamberg, where he died, 966.

BERENGER, THOMAS, a French criminalist and magistrate (1785-1866).

BERENI`CE, a Jewish widow, daughter of Herod Agrippa, with whom Titus was fascinated, and whom he would have taken to wife, had not the Roman populace protested, from their Anti-Jewish prejudice, against it. The name was a common one among Egyptian as well as Jewish princesses.

BERESFORD, WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT, an English general, natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford; distinguished himself in many a military enterprise, and particularly in the Peninsular war, for which he was made a peer; he was a member of the Wellington administration, and master-general of the ordnance (1770-1854).

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BERESI`NA, a Russian river, affluent of the Dnieper, into which it falls after a course of 350 m.; it is serviceable as a water conveyance for large rafts of timber to the open sea, and is memorable for the disastrous passage of the French in their retreat from Moscow in 1812.

BEREZOV`, a town in Siberia, in the government of Tobolsk; a place of banishment.

BERG, DUCHY OF, on right bank of the Rhine, between Duesseldorf and Cologne, now part of Prussia; Murat was grand-duke of it by Napoleon's appointment.

BER`GAMO (42), a Lombard town, in a province of the same name, and 34 m. NE. of Milan, with a large annual fair in August, the largest in Italy; has grindstone quarries in the neighbourhood.

BERGASSE, French jurisconsult, born at Lyons; celebrated for his quarrel with Beaumarchais; author of an "Essay on Property" (1750-1832).

BERGEN (52), the old capital of Norway, on a fjord of the name, open to the Gulf Stream, and never frozen; the town, consisting of wooden houses, is built on a slope on which the streets reach down to the sea, and has a picturesque appearance; the trade, which is considerable, is in fish and fish products; manufactures gloves, porcelain, leather, etc.; the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral.

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM (11), a town in N. Brabant, once a strong place, and much coveted and frequently contested for by reason of its commanding situation; has a large trade in anchovies.

BER`GENROTH, GUSTAV ADOLPH, historian, born in Prussia; held a State

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office, but was dismissed and exiled because of his sympathy with the revolutionary movement of 1848; came to England to collect materials for a history of the Tudors; examined in Simancas, in Spain, under great privations, papers on the period in the public archives; made of these a collection and published it in 1862-68, under the title of "Calendar of Letters, Despatches, &c., relating to Negotiations between England and Spain" (1813-1869).

BERGERAC (11), a manufacturing town in France, 60 m. E. of Bordeaux, celebrated for its wines; it was a Huguenot centre, and suffered greatly in consequence.

BERGERAC, SAVINIEN CYRANO DE, an eccentric man with comic power, a Gascon by birth; wrote a tragedy and a comedy; his best work a fiction entitled "Histoire Comique des Etats et Empires de la Lune et du Soleil"; fought no end of duels in vindication, it is said, of his preposterously large nose (1619-1655).

BERGHAUS, HEINRICH, a geographer of note, born at Cleves; served in both the French and Prussian armies as an engineer, and was professor of mathematics at Berlin; his "Physical Atlas" is well known (1797-1884).

BERGHEM, a celebrated landscape-painter of the Dutch school, born at Haarlem (1624-1683).

BERGMAN, TORBERN OLOF, a Swedish chemist, studied under Linnaeus, and became professor of Chemistry at Upsala; discovered oxalic acid; was the first to arrange and classify minerals on a chemical basis (1735-1784).

BERI, a town in the Punjab, 40 m. NW. of Delhi, in a trading centre.

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BERKELEY, a town in Gloucestershire, famous for its cattle.

BERKELEY, GEORGE, bishop of Cloyne, born in Kilkenny; a philanthropic man, who conducted in a self-sacrificing spirit practical schemes for the good of humanity, which failed, but the interest in whom has for long centred, and still centres, in his philosophic teaching, his own interest in which was that it contributed to clear up our idea of God and consolidate our faith in Him, and it is known in philosophy as Idealism; only it must be understood, his idealism is not, as it was absurdly conceived to be, a denial of the existence of matter, but is an assertion of the doctrine that the universe, with every particular in it, _as man sees it and knows it_, is not the creation of matter but the creation of mind, and a reflex of the Eternal Reason that creates and dwells in both it and him; for as Dr. Stirling says, "the object can only be known in the subject, and therefore is subjective, and if subjective, ideal." The outer, as regards our knowledge of it, is within; such is Berkeley's fundamental philosophical principle, and it is a principle radical to the whole recent philosophy of Europe (1684-1753).

BERKSHIRE (238), a midland county of England, with a fertile, well-cultivated soil on a chalk bottom, in the upper valley of the Thames, one of the smallest but most beautiful counties in the country. In the E. part of it is Windsor Forest, and in the SE. Bagshot Heath. It is famous for its breed of pigs.

BERLICHINGEN, GOETZ VON, surnamed "The Iron Hand," a brave but turbulent noble of Germany, of the 15th and 16th centuries, the story of whose life was dramatised by Goethe, "to save," as he said, "the memory of a brave man from darkness," and which was translated from the German by Sir Walter Scott.

BERLIN` (1,579), capital of Prussia and of the German empire; stands on the Spree, in a flat sandy plain, 177 m. by rail SE. of Hamburg. The royal and imperial palaces, the great library, the university, national

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spirits." "Romeo and Juliet. with the "Symphonie. in the dep. art. bronze ware. 1806. Its position between the Baltic and North Seas. Manufactures are extensive and very varied. the Bermudas. on the S. have a delightful. its staple trade is in grain. machinery. and wool. and beer. a group of 400 coral islands (five inhabited) in mid-Atlantic. They produce a fine arrowroot. of Isere. a busy SE. BERLIOZ. SE. Paganini was so struck that he presented him with 20. Chennai 6. BER`MONDSEY. zoological and botanical gardens. technical and military academies. There are schools of science. the chief are woollens. BERLIN DECREE. render it a most important commercial centre.000 francs (1803-1869). and are provided with docks and fortifications." which he produced while he was yet but a student at the Conservatoire in Paris. of New York." and the "Damnation of Faust". France. HECTOR. Computer Lecturer. abandoned it for music. and the arsenal are all near the centre of the city. 677 m. to which he devoted his life. and export onions. agriculture. and are a popular health resort for Americans. BERMOO`THES. They are held by Britain as a valuable naval station. declaring Britain in a state of blockade. a cathedral and some old churches. 21. the Spree.com gallery and museums. temperate climate. CTSTI. cattle. drapery goods. Page 319 of 2772 . a decree of Napoleon of Nov. bank of the Thames.ramakalai@gmail. and mining. a celebrated musical composer and critic. born near Grenoble. suburb of London. and vessels trading with it liable to capture. the numerous canals and railways which converge on it. BERMU`DAS (15). His best known works are the "Symphonie Fantastique. sent to study medicine in Paris.

that of the liver the transformation into sugar of certain elements in the blood. prepared the statutes for the Knights-Templar. Festival. JEAN BAPTISTE JULES. and procured his condemnation. born at Dole. in the construction of canals and forts (1779-1839). though between him and Napoleon there was constant distrust. drew around him disciples who rose to eminence as soldiers of the cross. or as bearing the implements of Christ's passion (1091-1174). BERNARD. distinguished as such in the service of Napoleon. ST. born at Fontaines. founded in 1115 a monastery at Clairvaux. he studied at Paris. defeated Abelard in public debate. and that there are nervous centres in the body which act independently of the great cerebro-spinal centre (1813-1878).. king of Sweden. rose from the ranks. Page 320 of 2772 . and for vast engineering works executed in the United States. of his adopted country (1764-1844). a French engineer. SIMON. became king of Sweden himself under the title of Charles XIV. content if he could only awake some divine passion in other men. awoke Europe to a second crusade. 20. entered the monastery of Citeaux. BERNARD. pronounced one of the grandest figures in the church militant. a distinguished French physiologist. adopted by Charles XIII. born at Pau. Julien. a marshal of France. discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion of ingested fats. distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. dealt death-blows all round to no end of heretics.. studied in Paris. and declined all honours to himself. Aug. founded 160 monasteries. born at St.. Chennai 6. CLAUDE. joined the Allies as a naturalised Swede in the war against France in alliance with Russia. in Champagne. or as contemplating an apparition of the Virgin and the Child. to the material welfare. as it proved. BERNARD.com BERNADOTTE. abbot of Clairvaux. Computer Lecturer. represented in art as accompanied by a white dog.ramakalai@gmail. was Majendie's assistant and successor in the College of France. in Burgundy. CTSTI.

called by Carlyle "the swan-song of old dying France." (1739-1814). June 15." written on the eve of the Revolution. commands a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps. JOHN BOUCHIER. (1380-1444). born at Havre.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. in a populous canton of the same name. wife of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria. founder of the monasteries of the Great and the Little St. whom his father. a busy trading and manufacturing city. BERNE (47). OF SIENA. wrote a poem entitled "De Contemptu Mundi. commonly called Saint-Pierre simply. Chennai 6." BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE. AGNES. fill five folio vols. had convicted of sorcery and drowned in the Danube. Page 321 of 2772 . and restoration on strict lines. his works. an ecclesiastic. written in a mystical vein. which almost surrounds it. of the Franciscan order. was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1516. ST. writer or translator of romance. and governor of Calais from 1520. a monk of Cluny. translated Froissart's "Huon of Bordeaux. BERNARDINE." translated by Dr. born at Massa Carrara. including "Jerusalem the Golden." &c. BERNAUER. Neale. author of "Paul and Virginia. founder of the Observantines. in Italy. CTSTI. a branch. displeased at the marriage. LORD. of the 11th century. a celebrated French writer. a fine Swiss town on the Aar. BERNERS.. established 300 monasteries of the said branch.com BERNARD OF MENTHON. Bernard. BERNARD OF MORLAIX. in the passage of the Alps (923-1008). Festival. since 1848 the capital of the Swiss Confederation. of noble family.

by poison (1604-1639). BERNIER. promoted afterwards to be Bishop of Orleans (1762-1806). held command of the left wing at the battle of Luetzen.ramakalai@gmail. lived in the 14th century. born in Tuscany. BERNI. Page 322 of 2772 . born in Paris. said to have been prioress of a nunnery. one of the principal authors of the Concordat. who excelled in the burlesque. without sufficient proof. and completed the victory after the fall of Gustavus. published "Travels. SARAH. of which she has given proof." a work full of interest. France. writer on hunting and hawking. and a model of exactitude (1625-1688). BERNIER. distinguished specially as a tragedienne. DUKE OF WEIMAR. CTSTI. physician for 12 years to Aurungzebe. BERNHARDT. 1844. JULIANA. an Italian poet. but baptized as a Christian. born in Mayenne. of Jewish descent. the Great Mogul. distinguished himself on the Protestant side in the Thirty Years' war. FRANCESCO. fought under the standard of Gustavus Adolphus. of abilities qualifying her to shine in other departments of the profession and of art. of which the eastern half is called the Bernese Oberland. BERNHARD. a great German general. Computer Lecturer. form the watershed between the Aar and the Rhone.com BERNERS. remodelled Boiardo's "Orlando Innamorato" in a style surpassing that of the original. as alleged. died at Neuburg. to whom the Italian as a literary language owes much. a chain in the Middle Alps. Chennai 6. _b_. a dramatic artiste. THE ABBE. BERNESE ALPS. a French physician and traveller. born at Angers.

290 ft. was professor first at St. a celebrated statesman. discovered the exponential calculus and the method of integrating rational fractions. BERNSTORFF.ramakalai@gmail. and obtained the emancipation of the serfs (1711-1772). a priest of the temple of Belus in Babylon. COUNT. BERNOUIL`LI. and architect. JOHN. Peter's. Chennai 6. and designed the colonnade of St. BERNSTORFF. in Computer Lecturer. who. 3rd century B. and philanthropist of Denmark. son of the preceding. and DANIEL. he died wealthy (1598-1680). Danish minister. founded an Agricultural Society and an hospital at Copenhagen.com BERNI`NA. though of Dutch origin--JAMES. diplomatist. BERNINI. of whom John is the most celebrated.C. born at Naples.. produced his "Apollo and Daphne" at eighteen. was architect to the Pope. high. name of a Swiss family of mathematicians. BERNSTORFF. GIOVANNI LORENZO. called the Danish Oracle by Frederick the Great. COUNT. remarkable for its extensive glaciers. Petersburg and then at Basel. PIERRE. 13. his masterpiece. a nephew of the preceding. born at Basel. BERO`SUS. CTSTI. Richter. as well as the line of swiftest descent (1667-1748). sculptor. a guardian of civil and political liberty (1735-1797). a mountain in the Swiss canton of Grisons. an Italian painter. Page 323 of 2772 . valuable fragments of which are preserved by Josephus and Eusebius. translated into Greek certain records of Babylonish history. these have been collected and published by W. also statesman and diplomatist (1712-1772).

took to politics after the fall of the Empire. inimical to the Second Empire. Chennai 6. wrote a science primer for children entitled "La Premiere Annee d'Enseignement Scientifique" (1833-1886). BERRI. of the spinning-wheel Computer Lecturer. PAUL. assassinated by a fanatic.ramakalai@gmail. second son of Charles X. giving title to a succession of French princes. whence his name (which means bare of sark or shirt of mail). born at Paris. and a duchy in 1630. BER`SERKER. and father of Count de Chambord. was professor of Physiology at Paris. BERRI. BERTHA. DUC DE. a red-hot Legitimist. forms dep. and openly protested against the _coup d'etat_ (1790-1868). dowager of preceding. died of fever soon after. an eminent French barrister. was member of the National Assembly of 1848. as he was leaving the Opera House (1778-1820). of Indre and Cher. born at Auxerre.. a benevolent man. German mythology. Louvel. and is said to have been inspired with such fury as to render him invulnerable and irresistible. CTSTI. BERRI. Minister of Public Instruction under Gambetta. which brought him into trouble. Page 324 of 2772 . a French physiologist and statesman. an ancient province of France. BERT. BERRYER. goddess in the S. which became crown property in 1100 under Philippe I.com Germany. distinguished herself by her futile efforts to restore the Bourbon dynasty in the reign of Louis Philippe (1798-1890). PIERRE ANTOINE. a Norse warrior who went into battle unharnessed. sent governor to Tonquin. DUCHESSE DE.

professor in the College of France. a Swiss patriot. prince of Wagram and marshal of France. the employment of carbon in purifying water.. BERTHELIER. PIERRE EUGENE. and was Computer Lecturer.. a French chemist. native of Savoy. &c. so called from her club foot. and of the household as dependent on it. swore fealty to the Bourbons at the restoration of 1814. became a senator and officer of the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. he laid the foundation of thermo-chemistry. wife of Pepin the Short. wife of Ethelbert. e. Chennai 6. an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition to lord it over Geneva. BERTHE "au Grand Pied" (i. _b_. attached himself to the Bourbons on their return. and mother of Charlemagne. BERTHA.ramakalai@gmail. Page 325 of 2772 . BERTHOLLET. a British princess. and his attempt to produce organic compounds. and rose to distinction in the Revolution. king of Kent. CTSTI. maddened at the sight of Russian troops marching past to the French frontier (1753-1815).com principally. served with Lafayette in the American war. threw himself from a window. to whom we owe the discovery of the bleaching properties of chlorine. 1827. ST. and many improvements in the manufactures. distinguished for his researches in organic chemistry. BERTHIER. in behalf of which and its economical management she is often harsh to idle spinners. a famous chemist. on Napoleon's return retired with his family to Bamberg. the dyeing trade owes much to his discoveries in the extraction of dyes from coal-tar. born at Paris. became head of Napoleon's staff. ALEXANDRE. Long Foot). COUNT. BERTHELOT. born at Versailles. at her festival thrift is the rule. and his companion in all his expeditions. converted him to Christianity.

conducted his remains back to France in 1840 (1770-1844). born at Turin. of whom R.ramakalai@gmail. accompanied him in all his campaigns. invented by Taylor in England (1751-1819). long a favourite in Paris (1710-1788). which he started in 1799. BERTIN. a French journalist. founder and editor of the _Journal des Debats_. born at Paris. Minister of Marine under Louis XVI. and faithful adherent of Napoleon. settled in Paris. native of Switzerland. BERTRAND and RATON. Helena. introduced stenography into France. BERTIN "l'Aine. as well as in his exile at St. surnamed the _enfant terrible_ of the monarchy (1744-1818). milliner to Marie Antoinette. COMTE. a celebrated actor. famed for her devotion to her. to and from Elba. CTSTI. Page 326 of 2772 ." or the Elder. BER`TRAND. a celebrated clockmaker. invented the marine chronometer to determine the longitude at sea (1727-1807). BERTINAZZI. HENRI GRATIEN. friend of Chateaubriand (1766-1841).com created a peer (1744-1822). eats it. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. a French general.. BERTIN. cracks the nut and B. two personages in La Fontaine's fable of the Monkey and the Cat. BERTHOUD. a fiery partisan of royalty. BERTRAND DE MOLLEVILLE. ROSE. PIERRE.

in Haddingtonshire. instituted the chemical notation by symbols based on the notion of equivalents. Greenlaw the county town. one of the creators of modern chemistry. BERULLE. NORTH. reckoned since 1835 in Northumberland. specially for the golfing links. left "Memoirs" (1670-1734). CTSTI. Baron. was present with him at the battle of the Boyne. a town on the Scotch side of the Tweed. hilly and pastoral. defended the rights of his father. JOHAN JAKOB. at its mouth. determined the equivalents of Computer Lecturer. of hill and dale. inclusive. a celebrated Swedish chemist. during which it frequently changed hands. and the Tweed. though at one time treated as a separate county. and of the Congregation of the Oratory (1576-1629). BERWICK. fell at the siege of Philippsburg. composed operas. till in 1482 the English became masters of it. a fertile Scottish county between the Lammermoors.ramakalai@gmail. a richly fertile plain in the S. along the banks of the Leader.. French composer of operas (1726-1780). the Lammermoors.. Chennai 6. CARDINAL. DUKE OF.com BERTON. a naturalised Frenchman. and Lauderdale. JAMES FITZ-JAMES. shore of the Forth. distinguished himself in Spain. a summer resort. dividing the Merse from Mid and East Lothian. PIERRE. is divided into the Merse. founder of the order of Carmelites. of interest from its connection with the Border wars. Henri. a place on the S. BERZE`LIUS. was made marshal of France. born at Troyes. a natural son of James II. BERWICK. BERWICK-ON-TWEED (13). his son. Page 327 of 2772 . where he gained the victory of Almanza. wrote a treatise on harmony (1761-1844). BERWICKSHIRE (32).

of Irish descent. born in London. _b_. BESME. 1847. fortified by Vauban. a royalist stunned into a state of helpless dismay at the first outbreak of the Revolution in Paris. of Doubs. watchmaking a staple industry. drifted into theosophy. wrote a number of novels jointly with James Rice. ANNIE. a Bohemian in the pay of the Duke of Guise. manufactures also porcelain and carpets. SIR WALTER. _nee_ WOOD. born at Portsmouth. near the mouth of the Dardanelles. in France. of which she is now an active propagandist. capital of the dep. 1838. a man of letters. CTSTI. Chennai 6. and is the author of "French Humourists. eminent chiefly as a novelist of a healthily realistic type. took a keen interest in social questions and secularism. assassinated Computer Lecturer. and shared with Davy the honour of propounding the electro-chemical theory.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. abounds in relics of Roman and mediaeval times.com a great number of simple bodies. a Swiss. BESANCON (57). married to an English clergyman." as well as short stories. is an interesting woman. such as cerium and silenium. a very strong place. could do nothing in the face of it but run for his life (1722-1791). BARON. champion of the cause of Authors _versus_ Publishers. he ranks next to Linnaeus as a man of science in Sweden (1779-1848). and is chairman of the committee. BESANT. BESENVAL. a bay on the Asiatic coast. and has an interesting address as a lecturer. employing some 15. discovered silenium. BESANT. Page 328 of 2772 . from whom she was legally separated..000 of the inhabitants. BESIKA BAY. commandant of Paris under Louis XVI. MRS.

BESSEL. GOOD QUEEN. of his many inventions the chief is the process. civil engineer and inventor. a Protestant gentleman. BESS. a process which has revolutionised the iron and steel trade all over the world. too much of a Grecian to recommend himself to the popehood. Chennai 6. cardinal. and director of the Observatory. a government in the SW. and only a definite quantity of carbon is left in combination." on which he spent 10 years. "Fundamenta Astronomiae. Page 329 of 2772 . between the Dniester and the Pruth. joined the latter. and was made cardinal.com Coligny. a Prussian astronomer of prominent ability. BESSEMER. Computer Lecturer. JOHN. BESSAR`ION. exports cattle.ramakalai@gmail. to which he was twice over nearly elevated (1395-1472). Herts. of patient toil and painstaking accuracy (1784-1846). born at Charlton. to the production of thirty times as much steel as before and at one-fifth of the cost per ton (1813-1898). BESSARA`BIA (1. born at Minden. as has been calculated. and was himself killed by Berteauville. wool. SIR HENRY. leading.688). a marvel. and tallow. like all he did. named after him. discovered--what was a great achievement--the parallax of the fixed star 61 Cygne. in 1571. of Russia. native of Trebizond. contributed by his zeal in Greek literature to the fall of scholasticism and the revival of letters. FRIEDRICH WILHELM. CTSTI. his greatest work. a familiar name of Queen Elizabeth. a cattle-breeding province. professor of Mathematics at Koenigsberg. tried hard to unite the Churches of the East and the West. of converting pig-iron into steel at once by blowing a blast of air through the iron while in fusion till everything extraneous is expelled.

328 B. in Egypt. with a convent containing the Church of the Nativity. assumed the title of king of Computer Lecturer. BETHANY. a satrap of Bactria under Darius. BESSIERES. a name given to a class of books treating of animals. rose from the ranks. a friend and one of the ablest officers of Napoleon. a place 11 m. and much esteemed by him. BESSUS. was shot at Luetzen the day before the battle (1768-1813). e. JEAN BAPTISTE. DUKE OF ISTRIA. viewed allegorically.C. house of God). Page 330 of 2772 . in 1425 discovered and conquered the Canaries. the birthplace of Jesus Christ and King David. BETHLEN-GABOR. BETHLEHEM (3). BETHENCOURT. by whom he was put to death. of humble parentage. N. a village 6 m. and famous in the history of the patriarchs. a Norman baron. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. distinguished himself in the Italian campaign. of Jerusalem. and held them as a fief of the crown of Castile. Chennai 6. S. but was delivered over by Alexander to Darius's brother. CTSTI. BETHEL (i. BESTIARY. born at Languedoc. near it is the grotto where St.com BESSEMER PROCESS. abode of Lazarus and his sisters. prince of Transylvania.ramakalai@gmail. of the Mount of Olives. scene of Jacob's dream. of Jerusalem. marshal of France. village on E. See BESSEMER. who assassinated his master after the battle of Arbela. and at Marengo.

in the centre of a mining district. adopted a liberal policy. BEUTHEN (36). left "Memoirs" (1809-1886). held office under Macmahon (1826-1874). BEUST. of strong conservative leanings.com Hungary. BETHNAL GREEN (129). a German statesman. known as the Infant Roscius. BETTINA. became Chancellor of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Computer Lecturer. COUNT VON. BETTY. and as such an interpreter of Shakespeare on. CTSTI. Chennai 6. a French statesman and archaeologist. lived afterwards retired (1791-1874). a poor district. the traditional lines. a boy actor. and scene of benevolent enterprises. BEULE. which contains the tombs of the Percys. sympathised with France in the Franco-German war. amassed a fortune. resigned office in 1871. NW. friendly to Austria. Minister for Foreign Affairs in Saxony. born at Dresden. BEVERLEY (12). an eastern suburb of London. THOMAS. a passionate admirer of Goethe. the Countess of Arnim. HENRY. Page 331 of 2772 . a manufacturing town in Prussian Silesia. W. with a Gothic minster. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. a tragic actor. it is believed. of Hull. assisted Bohemia in the Thirty Years' war (1580-1629). superintended excavations on the Acropolis of Athens. 8 m. a parliamentary borough. born at Westminster. BETTERTON.ramakalai@gmail.

a very ancient place. wrote in criticism "De l'Amour. BEYLE.ramakalai@gmail. or HAMPTON. BEYPUR.. 721." the success of which led to the publication of his "History of British Birds. apprenticed to the trade in Newcastle. THEODORE. did a cartoon from the Elgin Marbles for Goethe (1795-1866). archbishop of York. the most nourishing commercial city on the coast of Syria. was one of the most learned men of his time. SIR. _d_. a famous knight of English mediaeval romance. a man of gigantic stature. born in Northumberland. and the port of Damascus. usually known by his pseudonym "De Stendal. THOMAS. a railway terminus. WILLIAM. and founder of a college for secular priests at Beverley." and in fiction "La Chartreuse de Parme" and "Le Rouge et le Noir". Chennai 6. a great wood-engraver." BEWICK. from which it is distant 55 m. born in Burgundy. JOHN. showed his art first in woodcuts for his "History of Quadrupeds. a French Protestant theologian. BEWICK. and an artist (1753-1828). of Computer Lecturer. Page 332 of 2772 . BEZA." born at Grenoble. a port in the Madras presidency. CTSTI.com BEVERLEY. whose marvellous feats are recorded in Drayton's "Polyolbion. MARIE HENRI. BEVIS OF SOUTHAMPTON. a learned man. in the truest sense. with coal and iron in the neighbourhood. French critic and novelist." in which he established his reputation both as a naturalist. an ambitious writer and a cynical (1788-1842). BEYROUT (200). a distinguished wood-engraver. tutor to the Venerable Bede.

conducted mainly by Chinese. 49 m. the chief centre of trade with China. calculated to allay the scruples of Arjuna. BHARTPUR` (68). 265 m. from the Chinese frontier. with quarries of building stone. became the friend and successor of Calvin. persuaded the king of Navarre to favour the Protestants. professor of Greek at Lausanne. died at 86 (1519-1605). of Calcutta. as it was with his own kindred. in a native state of the name. from which he shrunk. NW. BEZANTS. a town in Bengal. (i. called Upanishads. a town in Burmah. the whole conceived from the point of view or belief. BHAMO` (6).com good birth. a manufacturing town in the dep. manufactures silk fabrics and confectionary. settled in Geneva. CTSTI. cotton.ramakalai@gmail. only 40 m. Page 333 of 2772 . a poem introduced into the Mahabharata. sugar. e. Chennai 6. wrote a book." in which he justified the burning of Servetus. which regards the extinction of existence as absorption in the Deity. BHAGALPUR` (69). BEZIERS (42). yielding wheat. of Montpellier. and each section into six chapters. a town in Rajputana. where they were current till the time of Edward III. 30 Computer Lecturer. "De Hereticis a Civili Magistratu Puniendis. maize. of Herault. BHAGAVAD GITA. divided into three sections. SW. introduced by the Crusaders into England. and a military station. deputed from Germany to intercede for the Huguenots in France. Byzantine gold coins of varying weight and value. being a series of mystical lectures addressed by Krishna to his royal pupil Arjuna on the eve of a battle. Song of Krishna). and a "History of the Reformed Churches" in France. on the right bank of the Ganges.

BHOPAL` (952). a rude pro-Aryan race of Central India. with magnificent scenery. a large bay in the Gulf of Guinea. born at Lyons. BHARTRIHARI. a bathing-place on the Bay of Biscay. became a place of fashionable resort by the visits of the Empress Computer Lecturer. carries on an industry in the manufacture of chowries. French _genre_ painter.com m. has a government like that of Thibet. BHILS. religion the same. a well-governed native state in Central India. CTSTI.000. BHOD-PA. under a government that has been always friendly to Britain. in W. sketching by the way. BIGHT OF. and applied by the Hindus to all the Thibetan peoples. and receives into it the waters of the Calabar rivers. with a capital city (70) of the same name. an independent state in the Eastern Himalayas. the country exports horses. Page 334 of 2772 . was successful in rendering burlesque groups (1800-1882). BIARRITZ. BIAF`RA. 6 m. Chennai 6. who appears to have lived in the 11th century B. still untrained to settled life. musk.ramakalai@gmail. BIARD. AUGUSTE FRANCOIS. W. journeyed round the world. number 750. and salt. BHUTAN (20). though the people are at a low stage of civilisation. under British protection. Indian author of apothegms. and to have been of royal rank. name given to the aborigines of Thibet. of Bayonne.. includes several islands. SW. subsidised by Britain. of Agra. Africa.C.

and is known as the Vulgate.com Eugenie. 385-404. a book consisting of some 50 leaves. and the manners of the Jews. was translated into Latin in a grotto near Bethlehem by St. both equally divine. CTSTI. in the 15th century. the Old. Jerome.ramakalai@gmail. was distinguished for his indifference to possessions. Page 335 of 2772 . is faith. written in Hebrew. and the Hagiographa. from wooden blocks. the Prophets. which moth and rust can corrupt. A. BIBLIA PAUPERUM (i. Computer Lecturer. Bible of the Poor). and that its final aim is to guide men in the way of life. THE (i. and is known as the Septuagint. e. not in a speculative or a scientific. one of the seven wise men of Greece. and not so much a book as a library of books).. born at Priene. The Old Testament was translated into Greek at Alexandria by 72 Jews. comprehending three groups of books. the Acts of the Apostles. the institutions. The spirit in which it is composed is the spirit of conviction. after which the two came to be regarded by the Church as of equal divine authority and as sections of one book. the Old Testament and the New. lived in the 6th century B. comprehending the Four Gospels. and that primarily in a moral power above. and the Epistles. and explanatory inscriptions. 280 B. printed. the Book _par excellence_. the Pentateuch. The one principle of the book is that loyalty to the divine commands is the one foundation of all well-being. with pictures of scenes in the Life of Christ. but a spiritual interest. BIBLE. and thieves break through and steal. individual and social.C.C. and the New. bearing on the religion. in Ionia.D. BIAS.. It may be permitted to note that the Bible is written throughout. and the whole book. e. and ultimately a moral principle within. the history. a collection of sacred writings divided into two parts. written in Greek. many wise sayings are ascribed to him. Old and New. both in the root of it and the fruit of it. Chennai 6. its essence. and before the invention of printing by movable types.

a colleague of Julius Caesar. copper. originally a Carthusian monastery. and now for confirmed lunatics. side of Paris. ISAAC. whose name was adopted as a _nom de plume_ by Swift and Steele. an eminent French anatomist and physiologist. and the Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. English clergyman. a _faineant_. author of several evangelical works. vice-admiral. as "Sartor" has it. and zinc. made at Bidar. BICHAT. SIR RICHARD. physician to the Hotel-Dieu. BICETRE. followed by the Lord's Prayer. CTSTI. ware of tin." his great work "Anatomie Generale appliquee a la Physiologie et a la Medecine". BIDDLE. lead. and one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance (1786-1850). Page 336 of 2772 . with a commanding view of the Seine and the city. one of the first to resolve the structure of the human body into. and died commander-in-chief at Plymouth in 1792. since used for old soldiers. Chennai 6. MARIE FRANCOIS XAVIER. an Irish dramatist of 18th century. JOHN. a Socinian writer in the time of Charles I. vascular. BIDDERY WARE. an exhortation to prayer in some special reference. BICKERSTETH. "cellular. in India. a hospital. and muscular tissues. Paris. BIDDING PRAYER. in which the congregation joins. EDWARD.com BIBULUS. BICKERSTAFF. in the S. BICKERTON. a mere cipher. served in several naval engagements. died at 31 (1771-1802).

highest of the Altai Mountains. Page 337 of 2772 . born in Massachusetts (1814-1879).100 ft. sometimes unobserved. in the Swiss canton of Berne. and was imprisoned. so as to prevent inundation below. and widely translated. BIFROeST. much persecuted for his belief. 11. BIELEFELD (39). but released by Cromwell. CTSTI. author of a "Confession of Faith concerning the Holy Trinity" (1615-1662). represented in the rainbow. every six years. of firm solidity and exquisite workmanship. or PILPAI. regarded as the founder of English Unitarianism. appears. a manufacturing town in Westphalia. Pierre. an Austrian officer.com Commonwealth. BIENNE. American inventor of weaving machines. in extensive circulation over the East. the retreat of Rousseau in 1765. on the shores of it are remains of lake-dwellings. ERASTUS BRIGHAM. of which the colours are the reflections of the precious stones. BIGELOW. with its twin peaks. a comet discovered by Biela. Computer Lecturer. with a large trade in linen. the presumed author of a collection of Hindu fables of ancient date. in 1826. and the centre of the trade. a bridge in the Norse mythology stretching from heaven to earth. the Aar is led into it when in flood.ramakalai@gmail. St. Chennai 6. BIELA'S COMET. BIELU`KA. LAKE OF. BIDPAI. and an island in it.

imaginary author of poems in the Yankee dialect. John Brown and of the Gladstone ancestry. unrepentant" member of the Jacobin Club.com BIG-ENDIANS. a name given to the Catholics. CTSTI. in Spain." BILDERDIJK. BILE. when a rapier was called a "bilbo. a fluid secreted from the blood by the liver to aid in digestion. now deserted. Page 338 of 2772 . which Bonaparte made him free to do. "a grim. Chennai 6. was president of the Convention. famous at one time for its steel. city in the presidency of Bombay. BIGLOW. and content to die there rather than return to France. capital of the Basque prov. JEAN NICOLAS. resolute. of Biscay. written by James Russell Lowell. Computer Lecturer. BIGGAR. but with remains of its former greatness. as Little-endians is the name given to the Protestants. a town in Lanarkshire. died at Port-au-Prince (1756-1819). was deported to Surinam. specially in Queen Elizabeth's time. WILLEM. BILLAUD-VARENNES. birthplace of Dr. assisted at the fall of Robespierre. Dutch poet. once the capital of an extensive kingdom. BILBA`O (50). a commercial city of ancient date. of which the former are regarded as heretics by the latter because they break their eggs at the big end.ramakalai@gmail. egged on the mob during the September massacres in the name of liberty. born at Amsterdam (1756-1831). BIJAPUR`. in the imaginary kingdom of Lilliput. the secretion of which is most active after food. but could not avert his own.

Chennai 6." born at Nevers. and released on promise not to preach. martyr. BILLINGS. BIMINI. his great work "Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland. died at Venice in 1817. was twice arraigned. born in London. as well as delineating them (1813-1874). kept up her celebrity to the last. the power or state. Page 339 of 2772 . _nee_ WEICHSEL." richly illustrated. of German descent. the ratio usually proposed being 1 to 151/2. born in London. architect. BILOCATION. ascribed to certain of the saints. called "Maitre Adam. a priest who adopted the reformed doctrine. THOMAS. and was at last burned as a heretic in 1531. was engaged in the restoration of old buildings. BILNEY. a fabulous island with a fountain possessed of the virtue of Computer Lecturer. a fish-market in London. a celebrated singer. delineator of old historical buildings. ROBERT WILLIAM. ELIZABETH. _d_. BILLINGTON. also a name given to low.ramakalai@gmail. 1662. the carpenter poet. BILLINGSGATE. of appearing in two places at the same time.com BILLAUT. born in Norfolk. coarse language indulged in there. ADAM. below London Bridge. but could not refrain. CTSTI. BIMETALLISM. the employment of two metals (gold and silver) in the currency of a country as legal tender at a fixed relative value. and designated "Virgile au Rabot" (a carpenter's plane).

a manufacturing and trading town on the left bank of the Rhine. born at Wakefield.com restoring youth. an English divine. astronomer. a contemporary of Theocritus. BIOT. Computer Lecturer. took part in measuring an arc of the meridian along with Arago. author of "Origines Ecclesiasticae.ramakalai@gmail. an eminent French mathematician. v.. Chennai 6." a laborious and learned work. BION. wrote works on astronomy (1774-1862). JOSEPH. BINGHAM. professor of Physics in the College of France. and contributed numerous memoirs to scientific journals. and physicist. name of the theory that derives life from life. BIOLOGY. in Grand-Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt. translator of Horace and Virgil (1732-1812). BINET. in its varied forms and through its successive stages. was poisoned. JEAN BAPTISTE. born at Paris. by a rival. the science of animal life in a purely physical reference.C. CTSTI. little of his poetry survives. born at Smyrna. it is said. Page 340 of 2772 . settled in Sicily. lost his all in the South-Sea Scheme and died (1668-1723). or of life in organised bodies generally. and opposed to ABIOGENESIS (q. BINGEN.). including that of plants. BIOGENESIS. a French litterateur. opposite which is the tower associated with the myth of Bishop Hatto. made observations on the polarisation of light. a Greek pastoral poet of 3rd century B.

"Non Nobis. SAMUEL. THOMAS. the nest of a species of swift. archaeologist and Egyptologist. born in Wolverhampton. of which he himself died (1815-1854)." the "Field of Chevy Chase. BIRCH-PFEIFFER. M. BIRD. BIRCH. born at Milan. as the chief instigator of the St. an English _genre_ painter. and esteemed a great luxury by the Chinese. wrote dramas (1800-1868). especially by contemporary historians. Page 341 of 2772 . among his works are the "Choristers Rehearsing.com BIRAGUE. wrote largely. had an extensive knowledge of Egyptology. GOLDING. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. CHARLOTTE. Domine.D. RENE DE. BIRD. EDWARD. BIRD'S NEST. born in London. CTSTI. Chennai 6. WILLIAM. a musician in the time of Elizabeth. born in London. composed madrigals. cardinal and chancellor of France." and the "Day after the Battle." pronounced his masterpiece (1772-1819). BIRD. actress. Bartholomew Massacre (1507-1583). antiquary. formed from a marine plant that has been first digested by a bird. wrote a history of the Royal Society (1705-1765). and contributed articles on that and kindred archaeological subjects (1813-1885)." is ascribed to him (1563-1623). a great authority in kidney disease. acted in Berlin. keeper of Oriental antiquities in the British Museum. BIRCH. settled in Bristol. born in Stuttgart.. charged.

BIRMINGHAM (478). where the triennial musical festival is held. GEORGE. and Priestley. and a great town-hall. was banished to Siberia. Chennai 6. a Yorkshireman. nails. several times imprisoned during the Commonwealth for his obtrusive royalism (1615-1679). in the NW. BIRNAM. George Dawson. of Warwickshire. in Perthshire. has large shipbuilding-yards and docks. a hill near Dunkeld. which in six years after he relinquished in favour of his eldest son (1687-1772). BIRKBECK. but recalled. opposite Liverpool and a suburb of it. art gallery and museums. NW. was founder of the London Institute. in Cheshire. a zealous promoter all over the country of mechanics' institutes. BIRKENHEAD (100). of London by rail. CTSTI.. a cathedral. due to the vicinity of Liverpool. DUKE OF COURLAND. M. It is a picturesque town with many fine buildings. a town of rapid growth. a political writer. son of a peasant. buttons. silver. and screws are specialties. contains part of a forest mentioned in "Macbeth. copper.ramakalai@gmail. SIR JOHN.D. is the chief town of the Midlands. cutlery and ammunition are made here. on the Mersey. steel pens. All kinds of engines and machinery. in consociation with Brougham and others interested in the diffusion of useful knowledge (1776-1841). and brass ware. ruled with great cruelty.com BIREN. educational institutions. and had his honours restored to him. fine gold. Of this town Burne-Jones was a native. favourite of the Russian Empress Anne. libraries. and Dale were dissenting ministers. Page 342 of 2772 . BIRKENHEAD. held the reins of government even after her death. 112 m. and celebrated all over the world for its metal ware." Computer Lecturer.

served also bravely under Henry IV.. and 400 m. extending from Cape Ortegal. BISCAY. "You will find it in Biron's note-book" (1524-1592). carried a note-book with him everywhere. born at Nueremberg. BISCHOFF. experimented on the inflammable power of gas (1792-1870). Page 343 of 2772 . but being a man of no principle and discontented with the reward he got for his services. and of both at Muenich (1807-1882). Bartholomew. of Physiology at Giessen. professor at Bonn. born at Hanover. and. BAY OF. under SW. born at Perigord. eventually an overseer of churches. Chennai 6. CTSTI. though a Catholic. marshal of France. served bravely under Henry IV. to Cape Finisterre. winds particularly. BISCHOF. one of the stormiest of seas. KARL GUSTAV. after trial.. and conceived of by High-Churchmen as representing the apostles and deriving his powers by transmission from them. a bay in the Atlantic. especially of a district. where. originally an overseer of souls. a madcap lord in "Love's Labour's Lost." BIRON. he was beheaded (1562-1602). BISHOP. BIRON. was professor of Anatomy at Heidelberg. DUC DE. son of the preceding. favoured the Huguenots. of depth varying from 20 to 200 fathoms. broad.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. intrigued with the Duke of Savoy and with Spain against Henry. chemist. was arrested and sent to the Bastille. in France.com BIRON. THEODOR LUDWIG WILHELM. made a special study of embryology. BARON DE. was killed at the siege of Epernay. narrowly escaped at the Massacre of St. in Spain. and so observant was he that it passed into proverb. distinguished biologist.

helpless at his feet. it has coal-mines close by. of Durham. a palatial structure. and welding them into one under the crown of Prussia. where the bishop of Durham has his residence. the humiliation of Austria at Koeniggraetz in 1866. NE. the Germans proved to be a nation of soldiers. SIR HENRY ROWLEY. BISHOP-AUCKLAND (10). His next feat. and the consequent erection of a German Confederation. as once in office there. and beat the French ignominiously back from the Rhine. SW." are still in favour. conceived the idea of freeing the several States of Germany from foreign control. His treatment of Napoleon III. took a bold stand against revolutionary ideas and measures. Augustine. St." "The Miller and his Men. EDUARD LEOPOLD. made him the idol of the nation. the German empire restored under a Computer Lecturer. under the protectorate of Germany. produced 60 pieces. To the surprise of nearly all Europe. born at Schoenhausen. and to an advance on the part of the French against Berlin.ramakalai@gmail.com BISHOP. marshalled as army never was before. Chennai 6. an English composer. as well as that of Austria. that still threatened. manufactures machinery and cotton goods. BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO (188). of New Guinea. and eventually held a similar chair in Oxford (1786-1855). PRINCE VON. Count Bismarck had the satisfaction of seeing the power of France. but the annexation of Sleswig-Holstein by force of arms in 1863 raised him into general favour. BISHOP OF HIPPO. his influence was at first distrusted. born in London. with Prussia at its head. woke up into civil life by the events of 1848. Summoned in 1862 by King William to be his political adviser. was for a brief space professor of Music in Edinburgh University. of which "Guy Mannering. Page 344 of 2772 . composer and director of music in Covent Garden Theatre for 14 years. BISMARCK-SCHOeNHAUSEN. an archipelago formerly called New Britain. provoked the latter into a declaration of war. CTSTI. a market-town 9 m.

and repressed Socialism--equalled this great feat. and himself installed as chancellor of the monarch he had served so well. Maltha when viscid. intrusted by him to finish a statue he left unfinished at his death. a pupil of Thorwaldsen. of Van. Nothing he did after this--though he reformed the coinage. with a large negro population. an inflammable mineral substance. BITHYNIA. and belong now to Portugal. codified the law. W. Computer Lecturer.. born in Sleswig. and for this a grateful nation must ever honour his name. stands in a valley 8470 ft. BITUMEN. above Cawnpore. above. Petroleum when less fluid and darker.com Hohenzollern king. where Nana Sahib lived. he produced some fine works. anciently so called. 62 m. a Danish sculptor. established protection. BISSEN. Page 345 of 2772 . presumably of vegetable origin. the people of it were of Thracian origin. increased the army. and concocted the conspiracy which developed into the mutiny of 1857. a country in the NW. but his best known are his "Cupid Sharpening his Arrow" and "Atalanta Hunting" (1798-1868). 12 m. If he ceased to be chancellor of Germany on the accession of William II. a group of some 20 volcanic islands off the coast of Senegambia. with a population of Mohammedans and Armenians. yield tropical products. called Naphtha when liquid and light-coloured. it was because the young king felt he would have a freer hand with a minister more likely to be under his control (1815-1898). a high-lying town in Asiatic Turkey. BITHUR. a town on the right bank of the Ganges. and Asphalt when solid. CTSTI. the sea-level. BITLIS (25). of Asia Minor.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. BISSA`GOS.

his writings are numerous. NW. professor of Chemistry. with an excellent harbour. born at Paris. "A Daughter of Heth. BIZERTA (10). a Norwegian author. the discoverer of what has been called latent heat. fascinating from their charming simplicity and truth. started life as a journalist in connection with the _Morning Star_. his songs being highly appreciated by his countrymen. Page 346 of 2772 . where his lectures were very popular. then in Edinburgh. but what is really transformed energy. composed tales. first in Glasgow. born at Kvikne. all of distinguished merit and imbued with a patriotic spirit. a Swiss author. of the capital." "The Strange Adventures of Computer Lecturer. over 30 in number. _b_. dramas. born in Glasgow. his discoveries in chemistry were fruitful in results (1728-1799). northernmost town in Africa. of Scotch parents. composed stories of Swiss life under the _nom de plume_ of Jeremias Gotthelf. the duties of which he continued to discharge till his death (1797-1854). an operatic composer." "Macleod of Dare." the "Madcap Violet. has written several novels. his greatest work "Carmen". died of heart-disease shortly after its appearance (1838-1875). a celebrated chemist. BJOeRNSEN. WILLIAM. and they rank high. his best play "Sigurd the Bastard". born at Bordeaux. he is much admired by Ruskin. 1832. was by profession a Protestant pastor. both in religion and politics. about the West Highlands of Scotland. and lyrics. BLACK. a seaport of Tunis.ramakalai@gmail. GEORGES. JOSEPH. 38 m.com BITZIUS. BLACK. the best known and most admired. an active and zealous promoter of liberalism. Chennai 6. sometimes extreme. CTSTI. rich in picturesque description. BIZET. novelist.

BLACK ART. which. BLACK FRIARS. believed to be the same as the Oriental plague. which runs parallel with the Rhine. Black?" said Carlyle to him one day (1841-1898). silver. name of a district in London where they had a monastery. their sufferings were excruciating. name given to the presumed power of evoking evil spirits. and E. a plague at Oxford in 1557. a confined apartment 13 ft. BLACK FOREST (488). through Wuertemberg and Baden. into which 146 English prisoners were crammed by the orders of Surajah Dowia on the 19th June 1756." "But when are you going to write a book. a wooded mountain chain 4000 ft. such as wooden clocks. of it. copper. cobalt. caught at the assize from the prisoners under trial.com a Phaeton. where are mineral springs. a name given to a succession of fatal epidemics that devastated the world from China to Ireland in the 14th century. Mr. lead. &c." and "A Princess of Thule. Computer Lecturer. BLACK ASSIZE. as is reckoned. as Baden-Baden and Wildbad. monks of the Dominican order. the most serious was that of 1348. Chennai 6. Page 347 of 2772 . high (so called from the black pines that cover it). and only 23 survived till morning.ramakalai@gmail. which carried off 300 victims. and iron are wrought in many places. it possesses many health resorts. BLACK HOLE OF CALCUTTA. the women and children of the region make articles of woodwork. BLACK DEATH. from the Swiss frontier to Carlsruhe. is remarkable for its picturesque scenery and its mineral wealth. though attended with peculiar symptoms. square. stripped England alone of one-third of its inhabitants. CTSTI.

ramakalai@gmail. Bulgaria. It has but one island. in greatest breadth. off the mouths of the Computer Lecturer. 4th August 1621. of from 3 to 20 ft. and an intense cold. remarkable for the extreme darkness that prevailed. BLACK PRINCE. receives the waters of the Danube. the Sea of Marmora. gained the battle of Poitiers. to die (1330-1376). BLACK ROD. from the colour of his armour. but involved his country in further hostilities with France. it is said. with the Mediterranean. communicates in the N. CTSTI. and consisting of a layer of black earth or vegetable mould. lands in the heart of Russia.com BLACK LANDS. under which many died. distinguished himself at Crecy. Dneister. an inland sea. in thickness. twice the size of Britain. with the Sea of Azov. and in the SW. and Asia Minor. Rumelia. Page 348 of 2772 .. from Europe. being 700 m. from its exhaustless fertility. son of Edward III. constituting one-third of the soil. Adassi. Chennai 6. through the Bosphorus. and the Kizil-Irmak and Sakaria from Asia--three times as much as is received by the Mediterranean. Easter Monday in 1351. extending between the Carpathians and the Urals. Prince of Wales. a stormy day of great darkness. Russia. guards the privileges of the House. or EUXINE. and Don. name given in Scotland to Saturday. an official of the House of Lords. summons the Commons to the House.. so called. lying between Europe and Asia. broken in health. BLACK MONDAY. returned to England. and a chief source. of the wealth of the country. GENTLEMAN USHER OF. whose badge of office is a black rod surmounted by a gold lion. Bug. and the Dardanelles. &c. BLACK SATURDAY. BLACK SEA. It washes the shores of Turkey. in greatest length and 400 m. regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy.

of Manchester. a common 7 m. BLACKBURN (120). BLACKIE. CTSTI. of London. bred to the bar. no reefs or shoals. is the birthplace of Hargreaves. BLACK WATCH. spoke much and wrote much in his day on manifold subjects. Batoum. the first two are ice-bound in January and February. which are numerous.com Danube. Computer Lecturer. a centre of the cotton industry. and the greatest in the world. Among the chief ports are Odessa. for long provided the only golfing-course in England. BLACKHEATH. two Highland regiments. and Sinope. Trebizond. 21 m. and afterwards that of Greek in Edinburgh. founded a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh University.ramakalai@gmail. Austrians (1784). Kherson. Its waters are fresher than those of the ocean. For three centuries the Turks excluded all other nations from its waters. the 42nd and 73rd. raised originally for the preservation of the peace in the Highlands. but devoted to literary pursuits. the inventor of the spinning-jenny. executed a metrical translation of Goethe's "Faust. "Self-Culture" is the most likely to survive him longest (1809-1895). but other warships are excluded. SE. and it has no noticeable tides. Page 349 of 2772 . once a favourite haunt of highwaymen. Chennai 6." Part I. hence in summer navigation is very safe. and Homer's "Iliad" in verse. filled the chair of Humanity in Aberdeen. born in Glasgow. now a place of holiday resort for Londoners. studied German. but the Russians (1774).. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. Russia and Turkey keep fleets in it. JOHN STUART. took an active interest in everything affecting the welfare and honour of Scotland. In winter it is harassed by severe storms. among his works. AEschylus. French and English (1802) secured trading rights. so called from the dark colour of the tartan. NW. was a zealous educational reformer. a man of versatile gifts and warm human sympathies.

a clergyman. novelist. and made himself the butt of all the wits of the period. adventurer. 18 m. and in 1746 called to the bar. and beheaded in 1747. Page 350 of 2772 . born in Annan. SIR WILLIAM. after occupying a charge for two years. BLACKMORE. physician. 1729. has written several novels. Chennai 6. Oxford. was patronised by the king. BLACKPOOL (23). the best known "Lorna Doone." which. born in Berks. born in Wilts. BLACKMORE. became highly popular. published four long worthless poems.com BLACKLOCK. set up as a teacher in Edinburgh. besides essays and psalms. studied medicine. _b_. SIR RICHARD. the most voluminous of poetasters. the son of a silk-mercer. author of the well-known "Commentaries on the Laws of England. he is pronounced unrivalled in his day as a writer of rustic comedy. _d_. a watering-place on the coast of Lancashire." BLACKSTONE. took to printing. Computer Lecturer. of Preston. born in London. was supported by his wife. convicted of conspiracy. CTSTI.. &c. ALEXANDER. sometimes called the "Brighton of the North." an authority on the subject and a work that has appeared in many editions (1723-1780).ramakalai@gmail. BLACKWELL. born in Aberdeen. NW. blind from early infancy. though coldly received at first. with saving for his country and humanity at large one of the most gifted of his country's sons (1721-1791). on his release went to Sweden. an eminent jurist and judge. was influential in inducing Burns to abandon his intention to emigrate. thrown into prison for debt. bred to the bar. became first Vinerian professor of Law at Oxford. 1825. and may be credited. therefore. was fellow of Pembroke College. had Jeremy Bentham for one of his pupils. RICHARD DODDRIDGE. THOMAS.

his terrestrial and celestial globes have been admired for their excellence and accuracy (1571-1638). _d_. British admiral." in 11 volumes. BLAEU. his successor. his third son. WILLEM JANZSOON. 1821. born in Bristol. was admitted into the Maternity Hospital in Paris. _b_. much trusted by Nelson. a French naturalist. held subsequently high naval positions (1770-1832).com BLACKWELL. HUGH. born in Edinburgh. born at Alkmaar. and Computer Lecturer." which latter are of the nature of moral essays rather than sermons. and procured him a pension of L200 from the king. BLACKWOOD. HENRI MARIE. no less distinguished in the cause of literature (1818-1879). JOHN. in 1817. succeeded him as professor of Comparative Anatomy. distinguished at Aboukir Bay and Trafalgar. CTSTI. 1673. originator of _Blackwood's Magazine_. Page 351 of 2772 . originally a bookseller. and has since distinguished herself as a social reformer. BLACKWOOD. wrote largely on natural science. were much esteemed at one time for their polished style. and particularly on subjects connected with his appointment as a professor (1777-1850). his principal literary advisers being Professor Wilson and Lockhart. and to St. ELIZABETH.ramakalai@gmail. he was a man of great critical acumen. and the first to hold a medical diploma in the United States. BLAINVILLE. born in Edinburgh. clergyman. devoted himself to medicine. Chennai 6. was present at Nelson's death. graduated in 1849. Dutch cartographer. as it was called. Bartholomew's in London. held in succession several charges in Scotland. His son JAN edited a valuable atlas called "Atlas Major. conducted it as editor till his death (1776-1834). author of "Lectures on Rhetoric" and "Sermons. started _Maga_. WILLIAM. BLAIR. and became professor of Rhetoric in Edinburgh University. a lady doctor. SIR HENRY. became assistant to Cuvier.

Chennai 6.com the celebrated Schleiermacher did not think it beneath him to translate some of them into German (1718-1800). Catherine Boucher (1757-1828). with rare intervals. poet. where he was succeeded by Home.ramakalai@gmail. BLAIR. author of "The Grave. whom he assisted with his drawings. started on original lines of his own as illustrator of books and a painter. CHARLES. WILLIAM. minister of Athelstaneford. and engraver. sailed under the great guns of Tunis into the harbour." a thoughtful and cultured man. born at Madrid." Blair's "Grave. the author of "Douglas. and finally. BLANC. where he fired a fleet of Turkish pirates. Computer Lecturer. ROBERT. apprenticed to an engraver. wrote "Songs of Innocence. painter. JEAN JOSEPH LOUIS. a French art critic." and the "Book of Job. took first to sea in pursuit of Prince Rupert and the royalist fleet. brother of Louis Blanc (1813-1882). born in Edinburgh. BLANC. a French Socialist." "Gates of Paradise." and "Songs of Experience". "one of the fiercest actions ever fought on land or water" (1598-1657). BLAKE. and had for wife an angel. BLAKE." His poem has the merit of having been illustrated by William Blake (1699-1743). illustrated Young's "Night Thoughts. most vivid feeling and imagination. successful as a soldier under the Commonwealth. the great English admiral and "Sea King. annihilated a Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay under the shadow of the Peak of Teneriffe. CTSTI. devoted his leisure to poetry. before he tried seamanship. was an intensely religious man of deep spiritual insight. he spent his life a mystic from his very boyhood. ROBERT." He was a man of stainless character but eccentric habits. his greatest feat. beat the Dutch under Van Tromp de Ruyter and De Witt." "Marriage of Heaven and Hell. which he destroyed. Page 352 of 2772 . born in London." born at Bridgewater. where.

GIORGIO.com started as a journalist. first in Poland. regent of France during the minority of her son and during his absence in crusade. BLANDRATA. BLANCHET. and eventually of the National Assembly. Piedmontese physician. THE ABBE. governed with great discretion and firmness. died of grief over the long absence of her son and his rumoured intention to stay in the Holy Land (1186-1252). died at Cannes (1811-1882). Chennai 6. BLANCHE OF CASTILE. threatened with impeachment. and published separately in 1840 "Organisation of Labour. returned to France on the fall of the Empire. inventor of the parachute. LAMAN.ramakalai@gmail. the Mer de Glace the chief. died by suicide (1803-1845). who for his religious opinions was compelled to take refuge. born at Yarmouth. BLANC." which had already appeared in the _Revue_. CTSTI. 15. wrote an "elaborate and well-written" "History of the French Revolution". and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1871. wife of Louis VIII." much esteemed (1707-1784). sends numerous glaciers down its slopes. a celebrated French aeronaut. of France and mother of St. author of "Apologues and Tales. BLANCHARD. BLANCHARD. FRANCOIS. the highest mountain in Europe. he fell from his balloon and was killed at the Hague (1738-1809). Louis. a man of a singularly buoyant spirit. fled to England. founded the _Revue du Progres_. Page 353 of 2772 . MONT. was member of the Provisional Government of 1848. crushed by calamities.. almost entirely within France. a work which gained the favour of the working-classes. then in Computer Lecturer.780 ft. French litterateur. a prolific periodical and play writer.

Cork. BLASIUS. LOUIS AUGUSTE. which is said to endow whoso kisses it with a fair-spoken tongue. a celebrated French publicist and economist. Say. a stone in Castle Blarney. defined by Ruskin as the opposite of euphemy. the patron of wool-combers." BLATANT BEAST. would appear to have posed as a martyr. BLASPHEMY.. slanderous. culminating in wishing ill to God. a brother of the preceding. as the height of "ill-manners. CTSTI. a great authority on theosophy. ST. bishop of Sebaste. Page 354 of 2772 . BLARNEY-STONE. born in Holstein.com Transylvania.. his chief Computer Lecturer. FRIEDRICH. BLAVATSKY. suffered martyrdom in 316. BLEEK. eminent German Biblical exegete and critic of the Schleiermacher school. BLANQUI. his principal work. born at Nice. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. born in Russia. BLANQUI. hence the application of the word. clamour of the mob. and a free-trader. a theosophist. B. Spenser's name for the ignorant. and as wishing ill to anything. spent nearly half his life in prison (1805-1881). where he sowed the seeds of Unitarianism (1515-1590). MME. a disciple of J. the doctrines of which she professed she derived from the fountain-head in Thibet (1813-1891). professor at Bonn. of difficult access. "History of Political Economy in Europe" (1798-1854). in Armenia. a French republican of extreme views and violent procedure. ADOLPHE.

an island separated from Lilliput by a strait 800 yards wide. and giving name to it. but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct (1753-1817). being extravagant. near Augsburg. STEEN STEENSEN.S. Danish poet of rural life (1782-1848). Page 355 of 2772 . BLEEK. others are Introductions to the Old and to the New Testaments (1793-1859). Chennai 6. accompanied Colenso to Natal. the gift. son of preceding." a great work.. and set him adrift." and wrote several novels. he arrived in England. BLESSINGTON. and had to flee the country (1789-1849). BLICHER. an Irish lady celebrated for her beauty and wit. a naval officer. inhabited by pigmies. for his military services in the Spanish Succession war.ramakalai@gmail. BLENHEIM. BLIGH. when his crew mutinied under his harsh treatment. Computer Lecturer. WM. commanded the _Bounty_ at Tahiti. "Commentary on the Hebrews. and published "Conversations with Byron. BLEFUSCU. in an open boat. figured much in intellectual circles in London. Oxford. with the Woodstock estate. with 18 others. a philologist. was afterwards governor of N.. was on intimate terms with Byron.com work. after incredible privations. African Languages" (1827-1875). Wales. WM. a village in Bavaria. of the country to the Duke of Marlborough. BLENHEIM PARK. near Woodstock. CTSTI. author of "Comparative Grammar of the S. served under Captain Cook. understood to represent France. had her salon at Kensington. COUNTESS OF. in which. famous for Marlborough's victory in 1704. fell into debt.

and Charles IX. above the sea-level. on the Loire. a clergyman. and sentenced to prison in consequence of a pamphlet he wrote entitled "German Hunger and German Princes. took part in the risings of 1848. where he interested himself in democratic movements. a dune near Haarlem. CORNELIA. and the scene of events of interest in the history of France. BLOEMAERT. Page 356 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. France. KARL." BLINKERT DUNE. and cultivated his literary as well as his political proclivities by contributing to magazines. 197 ft." but rescued by the mob. and otherwise. BLOMEFLELD." BLIND. born at Norfolk. of Loire and Cher. a wandering Scottish minstrel of the 15th century. produced at the expense of the wealthiest princes of Germany (1723-1799). composed in verse "The Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland. FRANCIS. MARCUS ELIESER. born at Mannheim.. Chennai 6.com BLIMBER. S. his "Ichthyology" is a magnificent national work.ramakalai@gmail. author of "Topographical History of the County of Norfolk" (1705-1751). born at Anspach. BLOCH. of Orleans. a naturalist. _b_. 1826. a prim school-matron in "Dombey & Son. of Jewish descent. a favourite residence of Francis I. revolutionist and journalist. a family of Flemish painters and engravers in 16th and 17th centuries. capital of the deps. 35 m. Sir William Wallace. BLIND HARRY. found refuge in England. BLOIS. MRS. CTSTI.

a hobgoblin feared by children. an acrobat and rope-dancer. who. active in the Church extension of his diocese (1785-1857). 1824. BLONDEL. and received afterwards into royal favour with a pension of L500 per annum. bishop of London. BLOODY STATUTE. _b_. THOMAS. Greek scholar. a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion. France. BLOOD. unaccountably pardoned by Charles II. statute of Henry VIII. a troubadour of the 12th century. Page 357 of 2772 . and for carrying off the regalia in the Tower. CTSTI. BLOODY ASSIZES. born at St. the judicial massacres and cruel injustices perpetrated by Judge Jeffreys during Circuit in 1685. making it a crime involving the heaviest penalties to question any of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church. Chennai 6. BLONDIN. COLONEL. and released.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. and committed to the King's Bench. Edmunds. discovered the place of Richard's imprisonment in Austria by singing the first part of a love-song which Richard and he had composed together. an Irish desperado. Omer. CHARLES. and by the voice of Richard in responding to the strain. BLOODY BONES. it is said..com BLOMFIELD. noted for his daring attempts against the life of the Duke of Ormonde. celebrated for his feats in crossing Niagara Falls on the tight-rope. He was afterwards charged with conspiracy. born at Bury St.

" born at Rostock. BLOWPIPE. and full of gloomy ravines and beetling precipices." a highly popular production. pressed forward to Paris at the time of Napoleon's abdication. from 5000 to 7000 ft. a deist. BLUE NOSE. served first in the Swedish army. in height. BLUE MOUNTAINS. pursued the French across the Rhine. died by his own hand (1654-1693). and the flame directed upon some fusible substance to fuse or vitrify it. to W. author of the "Farmer's Boy. also a chain of mountains in New South Wales of two parallel ranges. ROBERT. assailant of revealed religion. spent his last days in ill-health struggling with poverty. CHARLES. the highest 4100 ft.com BLOOMFLELD. at the age of 70 commanded the centre of the Allied Army in 1813. Computer Lecturer. Prussian field-marshal. 16th June 1815. by trade a shoemaker. BLUeCHER. distinguished himself at Luetzen and Leipzig. CTSTI. a range of thickly wooded mountains traversing Jamaica from E. born in Suffolk.. defeated by Napoleon at Ligny. BLOUNT. which brought on dejection of mind (1766-1823).ramakalai@gmail. with a deep chasm between. a nickname given to an inhabitant of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick. distinguished as a leader of cavalry. Chennai 6. and contributed to decide the fate of the day (1742-1819). arrived on the field of Waterloo just as the French were preparing to make their last charge. an English poet. Page 358 of 2772 . translated into French and Italian. then in the Prussian. was involved in all the controversies of the time. familiarly named "Marshal Forwards. a contrivance by which a current of air is driven through a flame. and met with varying fortune. born in London.

Parliamentary documents bound in _blue_ paper. the owner of a castle. BLUE-BOOKS. Computer Lecturer. marries a beautiful woman. who at once despatch the husband to his merited doom. her disobedience is discovered. a female pedant or _femme savante_. the gift of the king. a wealthy seigneur. _b_. at Venice. they have been published regularly since the beginning of the 18th century. with injunctions not to unlock any of the doors. born at Cologne. BLUE-GOWN. BLUM. a German politician. tried by court-martial and shot for abetting a political movement in Vienna in 1848.ramakalai@gmail. formed in the 15th century. a name given to Christ's Hospital. founded in the reign of Edward VI. or HARRY. and leaves her in charge of the keys of the apartments in his absence. who wore blue stockings as a badge. from the blue coats worn by the boys. but is rescued. London. and finds to her horror the remains of his former wives locked up in one of them. an injunction which she fails to respect. in Scotland a beggar. BLUE-COAT SCHOOL. of England. and had his license to beg. those of a single session now forming a collection of some 60 folio volumes. as she lies with her head on the block. by the timely arrival of her brothers. who wore a blue gown. BLUE-STOCKING. 1807. as the corresponding documents in France are in _yellow_. CTSTI. and she is to prepare for death. a name derived from a learned coterie. BLUFF HAL. Page 359 of 2772 .. Chennai 6. a proceeding which created a wide-spread sensation at the time all over Europe. a bedesman of the king.com BLUEBEARD. Henry VIII.

founder and president of the Protestant Union called the _Protestantenverein_ (1808-1881). from 1481 to 1492. JOHN HENRY. Page 360 of 2772 . field-marshal in the Prussian army. "Weep as a woman for a throne you have not been able to defend as a man". studied at Jena. BLUNTSCHLI.. was a great advocate for religious liberty (1752-1840). but who opened his eyes to see that it is not in sentiment. died shortly after in Africa. recklessly throwing away his life on a field of battle. D. born at Gotha. Computer Lecturer.com BLUMENBACH. BOABDIL." and wept as he looked back on the Alhambra. BLUMENTHAL. his works gave a great impulse to scientific research in all directions. that the soul's cravings can find satisfaction. an eminent strategist. expelled from his throne by Ferdinand of Castile and Aragon." the last Moorish king of Granada. Chennai 6. or ABU-ABDALLAH. Austria. while his mother added to his bitterness with the cutting sarcasm. he made craniology a special study. became professor at Goettingen. an authority in international law.D. a liberal conservative both in Church and State. CTSTI. distinguished in the wars with Denmark. JOHANN FRIEDRICH. and France. however fine. born at Chelsea. LEONARD VON. as he rode off he halted on a hill called "The Last Sigh of the Moor. _b_.ramakalai@gmail." "Manual of Natural History. JOHANN KASPAR. the siren that Calypsowise in "Sartor" seduced Teufelsdroeckh at the commencement of his career." "Manual of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology". BLUMI`NE. a distinguished jurist. the chief were "Institutiones Physiologicae. surnamed "The Unfortunate. BLUNT. 1810. an office he filled for 60 years. a distinguished German naturalist and ethnologist. born at Zurich. wrote largely on theological and ecclesiastical subjects (1823-1884).

daughter of the king. BOB`ADIL.D. gave himself up to story-telling in prose and verse. the "Decameron". under the Empire and the Restoration. an end to her life by poison. GIOVANNI. early formed a lifelong friendship with Petrarch. attacked their settlements and destroyed them. son of an upholsterer of the St. fell in love with Maria. the type of the merry-andrew at country fairs. Computer Lecturer. lectured on Dante in Florence. A. for whom he wrote several of his works. BOANERGES (i. showed early a passion for literature. BOAZ and JACHIN. e. CTSTI. who. Antoine faubourg. and he died the year after (1313-1375). roused by indignity done to her and her people by the Romans. sent by his father to Naples to pursue a mercantile career. a beautiful woman. 61. two pillars of brass at the entrance of Solomon's Temple. she put. a braggadocio in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour." BOBECHE. a French theatrical clown. queen of the Iceni. Petrarch's death deeply affected him. styled by him Fiammetta. a British heroine. in her despair. but being attacked and defeated in turn by Suetonius Paulinus. BOCCACCIO. born near Florence. Chennai 6. signifying respectively strength and stability. gathered round her an army. the celebrated Italian _raconteur_. Cowper made her the theme of one of his poems. along with whom he contributed to the revival and study of classic literature. the Roman governor. Sons of Thunder). applied by Christ to the sons of Zebedee for the vehemence of their zeal.com BOADICE`A.ramakalai@gmail. Page 361 of 2772 . CAPTAIN. with a murderous onslaught. who occupied Norfolk and Suffolk. and his great work.

published at first in French and then in Latin." gave name to the law of the planetary distances. pastor at Caen. was associated with Manfredi. It possesses 400. although it was observed by Kepler long before his day (1747-1826). well called the filter of the Rhine. BODLEIAN LIBRARY. a celebrated troubadour of the 13th century. wrote a treatise on sacred geography.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated Italian musical composer. CTSTI. an astronomer. his works were numerous. author of "The Republic." in six books. BODIN. JEAN. called Bode's Law. BOCHART.000 printed volumes and 30. born at Arras. produced a number of astronomical works. BODEL. born at Angers. was professor of Astronomy and director of Observatory at Berlin. SAMUEL. celebrated for a nine-days' discussion with the Jesuit Verin (1599-1667). one of his best. Chennai 6. JOHANN ELERT. the violinist.com BOCCHERINI. appears to have lived in poverty and obscurity (1740-1805). BODENSEE. which summed up all the political philosophy of his time. LUIGI. and contributed to prepare the way for subsequent speculations. by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1593. enlarged from time to time by bequests. Computer Lecturer. BODE. "An Introduction to the Knowledge of the Starry Heavens. often munificent.000 MSS. the university library of Oxford. Page 362 of 2772 . another name for the Lake of Constance. born at Rouen. a geographer and an Orientalist. founded. a Protestant divine. born at Lucca. or rather restored. born at Hamburg. a publicist and diplomatist. was the precursor of Hobbes and Montesquieu (1530-1596).

France. Virgil. Page 363 of 2772 . Tacitus. a distinguished Swiss critic. horses." and "History of Scotland" in excellent Latin (1465-1536). a humanist and Scottish historian. He was often tempted to Rome. and. wrote "History of Bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen. in the inauguration of a new era. the first. an Italian printer. employed on embassies by Elizabeth on the Continent. settled at Parma. BODONI. JOHANN JACOB. where his press was set up in the ducal palace. bequeathed them and his fortune to the university library of Oxford. BODMIN (5). Computer Lecturer. whence issued magnificent editions of the classics. BOeDTCHER. Homer. Horace. but he refused to quit Parma and the patronage of the ducal house there (1740-1813). last of all. Tasso. supersedes Truro as capital. SIR THOMAS. born at Exeter. born at Dundee. born at Copenhagen.com BODLEY. the county town of Cornwall. England. a Danish lyric poet. and sheep. was principal of university at Aberdeen.ramakalai@gmail. along with others. professor of Philosophy at Paris. and Italy. has large annual fairs for cattle. HECTOR. Chennai 6. CTSTI. lived chiefly in Italy (1793-1874). an important agricultural centre. BODMER. by study of the masters in literature of Greece and Rome. BOECE. where he collected a number of valuable books. friend of Erasmus. to wake up Germany to a sense of its poverty in that line. named after him (1545-1613). LUDWIG. born near Zurich. and who aided. which he did more by his republication of the Minnesingers and part of the "Nibelungen Lied" than by his advocacy (1698-1783).

JACOB. as all of his stamp are.. in his way of thinking. Computer Lecturer. viewing the divine as it is in itself. patronised by the Queen and royal family. and his philosophy would seem to have anticipated the secret of Hegel. executed a colossal statue of the Queen at Windsor. a classic of the first rank. of Hungarian parentage. who acknowledges him as one of the fathers of German philosophy. and a contributor on a large scale to all departments of Greek classical learning. saw in the Bible a revelation of these as in no other book. that is. and bore up with the meekness which all men of his elevation of character ever do--"quiet. a thinker very fascinating to all minds of the seer class. classical antiquary. born at Carlsruhe. CTSTI." as they all are to the very core. BOEHM. and as it returns to itself in the human soul (1575-1624). seemed to have eyes given him to see visions of these things himself. born at Goerlitz. PHILIP AUGUST. He was subject to persecution. BOEHMER. born in Vienna. gentle. He left writings which embody a scheme of mystical theology. sculptor. for which he felt he had no organ to express. &c. and which he conveyed to others in mystical. BOEHME. by the men of the letter. a seated statue of Carlyle on the Thames Embankment. Chennai 6. as it comes out in nature. author of works on the Carlovingian period of history (1795-1863). and modest. Paul's by the Queen's desire (1785-1869). a statue of Bunyan at Bedford. was an eminently learned man. setting forth the trinity in unity of the Hegelian system. SIR JOSEPH EDGAR. buried in St. and an authority in different departments of learning (1785-1867). of an imaginatively meditative turn from boyhood as a neat-herd. a celebrated German mystic. Page 364 of 2772 .com BOECKH. professor of Ancient Literature in Berlin. a German historian. spent his whole life in meditation on divine things. and afterwards in his stall as a shoemaker. apocalyptical speech.ramakalai@gmail. born at Frankfort. settled in England.

and patients from far and wide came to consult him--among others. his reputation spread over Europe. and regarded as boors and dullards by the educated classes of Greece. peasants engaged in tillage). BOERS (i. Chennai 6. and yet Hesiod. Consul among others. innocent of culture. Boerhaave. he was canonised as a martyr. a country of ancient Greece. held the highest offices. employing verse and prose alternately. were mere tillers of the soil under a heavy atmosphere. wrote in prison his "De Consolatione Philosophiae. BOERHAAVE. ultimately professor of Medicine and Botany there. Dutch colonists of an independent republican temper. ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS. a character in "Ivanhoe. CTSTI. a Roman statesman. of Consular rank. as well as of Chemistry. Page 365 of 2772 . born near Leyden." and found him. the natives. chairs of which he filled and adorned with the greatest distinction. he was cast into prison. under Theodoric the Goth. his character was as noble as his abilities were great. Pope Benedict VIII." "Libellus de Materia Medica.ramakalai@gmail. and Plutarch were natives of Boeotia." and "Institutiones Chemicae" (1668-1738). N." in five parts. gave themselves to agriculture and cattle-rearing. and even as far as China--a letter from which bore the simple address. FRONT DE. who in the 17th century squatted in S. his integrity and opposition to injustice procured him enemies. e. and his influence was great during the Middle Ages (470-524). and finally put to death." "Aphorismi de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis. which King Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon. Europe.com BOEO`TIA. a profoundly learned man. and particularly of Athens. of the Gulf of Corinth. BOETHIUS. and son of a pastor. his principal works were "Institutiones Medicae. Pindar. his system was adopted by the profession. Africa. and Peter the Great. born at Rome." Computer Lecturer. though brave. a great physician. BOEUF. settled at length in the Transvaal in a self-governed community by themselves. "To M. who accused him of treason.

BOGERMANN. is 8600 ft. library. Dutch divine. BOGUE. BOHEMIA (5. and observatory. and has a spring-like climate. The Erzgebirge separate it from Saxony. KARL HEINRICH VON. its situation and the want of a railway hinder trade. is best known as the author of the "Golden Treasury" (1690-1744). the Boehmerwald.843). a Congregational minister. is encircled by mountains. iron. a name given to the Scottish moss-troopers. and the Religious Tract Societies (1750-1825). and precious metals. CTSTI. and the Computer Lecturer. and several schools.ramakalai@gmail. the Riesengebirge. salt. capital of the United State of Colombia. BOGOTA` (100). Page 366 of 2772 . his best-known poem "Psyche" (1743-1803). with innumerable churches. a mint.com BOGATZKY. called by his countrymen the "Russian Anacreon". religious writer. two-thirds the size of Scotland. situated on a remarkable. the highest navigable point of the Magdalena. the most northerly province in Austria. almost mountain-encircled. Though the country is fertile and the mountains rich in coal. It is regularly built. university. of its port. born in Berwickshire. Honda. DAVID. the Foreign Bible. plateau. from Prussia. BOGDANOVITCH. now to certain Irish for their agility in escaping over bogs. and drained by the upper Elbe and its tributaries. Chennai 6. SE. wrote hymns and an autobiography. from Bavaria. BOG-TROTTER. translated the Bible into Dutch. above sea-level. JOHANN. one of the founders of the London Foreign Missionary. 65 m. a Russian poet. and was President of the Synod of Dort (1576-1633). on the river Bogota.

and were invited. by Count Zinzendorf to settle on his estate.com Moravian Mountains. a fraternity of an extreme sect of the Hussites. of the Slavonic race. linen and woollen manufactures. and the latter agitating for the elevation of the province to the same status as that of Hungary. and porcelain clay. BOHEMOND. BOHLEN. the most useful metals. from Moravia. broken up in the Thirty Years' War. Education is better than elsewhere in Austria. liberated.ramakalai@gmail. organised as United Brethren in 1455. a German Orientalist. calico-printing. The people are mostly Czechs. silver. BOHEMIAN. and the restoration of the Austrian House. Roman Catholics in religion. there are iron-works and sugar-refineries. Chennai 6. he collected troops and recaptured the city (1056-1111). the former being riled at the official use of the Czech language. The glassware is widely celebrated. Page 367 of 2772 . set out on the first crusade. there is a university at Prague. The transit trade is very valuable. besieged and took Antioch. the capital. forests are extensive. the extermination of the Protestants. sulphur. This was followed by the Thirty Years' War. under the name of Moravians or Herrnhuters. and imprisoned for two years. name given to one who lives by his wits and shuns conventionality. CTSTI. with whom the Czechs. flax and hops the chief products. Dyeing. was besieged in turn by the Saracens. VON. including coal. there is a large and influential German minority of about two millions. met in secret. Computer Lecturer. BOHEMIAN BRETHREN. who are twice as numerous. the soil fertile. The mineral wealth is varied and great. The climate is mild in the valleys. are the chief industries. In the 16th century the crown was united with the Austrian. first prince of Antioch. son of Robert Guiscard. professor at Koenigsberg (1796-1840). but in 1608 religious questions led to the election of the Protestant Frederick V. do not amalgamate.

an Italian poet. Petersburg. CTSTI." "L'Art Poetique. and was for long the law-giver of Parnassus. an ancient people of Gaul. born at Chambery." "Telemaque. in which he attached and employed his wit against the bad taste of his time. an enterprising publisher." &c. and the prince of the Mahrattas. Russia. diplomatist. which he dealt out generously and for the benefit of his country (1751-1830). Sanskrit scholar. of a Sanskrit dictionary in 7 vols. among other works. NICOLAS (surnamed Despreaux. BOIARDO. served under France." reckoned his masterpiece. surnamed the "Flower of Chivalry". born in St. brought up to the law. author of "Orlando Innamorato" (1456). but devoted to letters. to whom he rendered signal service." "Le Lutrin. a distinguished French musical composer of operas. COUNT DE. born in Paris.1815. Chennai 6. East India Company. author of "Satires" and "Epistles. courtier. BOIELDIEU. author of the "Calife de Bagdad. a German. BOILEAU. a German. BOII. occupying territory between the Allier and the Loire. to distinguish him from his brother).com BONN. was an Computer Lecturer. author.. associating himself with La Fontaine. OTTO. called the French Mozart (1775-1834). a French soldier of fortune. MATTEO MARIA. and Moliere. and statesman." which eclipsed it (1434-1494). born in London. as Pascal did to reform the prose. _b_. BOIGNE. Racine. did much to reform French poetry." and "La Dame Blanche. amassed wealth. poet and critic. BOeHTLINGK. Count of Scandiano.. HENRY GEORGE.ramakalai@gmail. ADRIEN FRANCOIS. the model of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso. Page 368 of 2772 . issued a series of works identified with his name (1796-1884).

BOISSIERE. a French Greek scholar.. levelled muskets at him. the president sat unyielding. with grave. 1714. they menaced him. THE ABBE. of Amsterdam. for a time carried away by the revolutionary movement. and with a fine cathedral. a French fabulist of remarkable fecundity (1743-1831). became a senator and commander of Computer Lecturer. patronised by Richelieu (1592-1662). BOISSY D'ANGLAS. BOIS-LE-DUC (27). capital of North Brabant. COUNT. advocate of free trade. and yielded not". seat of an archbishop. JEAN FRANCOIS.. shot dead a young deputy. noted for his firmness and coolness during the frenzy of the Revolution: one day the Parisian mob burst in upon the Convention. Page 369 of 2772 . THE ABBE. Feraud. a French lexicographer (1806-1885). covered. one of the best French pulpit orators of the 18th century (1715-1786). stern air he bowed to it. 45 m. cousin of Vauban. CTSTI. Chennai 6. SE.ramakalai@gmail. "sweeping the members of it before them to the upper-bench . BOISARD. BOISSONADE. like a rock in the beating of seas. but abandoned politics for letters (1774-1857). a French poet. a member and president of the Convention in Paris. BOISROBERT. BOIS-GUILLEBERT. but especially of Horace (1636-1711). _d_. BOISMONT. a French economist. he yielded not.com imitator of Pope. one of the first members of the French Academy. they held up Feraud's bloody head to him.

In the sands of the Oxus. silk. jewellery. BOLINGBROKE. a high-lying. cotton. The capital. Rice. 8 or 9 m. her marriage with Henry had important bearings on the English Reformation (1507-1536). attracted the admiration of Henry. daughter of Sir Thoman Bullen (afterwards Earl of Wiltshire). the Great. (1756-1826). but the Khan is a vassal of the Czar. charged with adultery and conspiracy. JOHN. nominally independent. a Mohammedan State in Central Asia. CTSTI. Zarafshan. the name of several dukes of Poland. cotton-thread. and Karshi. The surface is arid. Computer Lecturer. and cereals are grown. or BULLEN. was of the Reformed faith.800). deep. It has important trade and large slave markets. a mile. was made a peer by Louis XVIII. was found guilty and beheaded. was married to him. gold and salt are found. with numerous colleges and mosques. narrow gorge. in circumference. ANNE. mud-built city. a walled. is on the plain of the Zarafshan. and firearms are manufactured. of whom the most famous is Boleslaus I. BOLESLAUS. and cultivation possible only near the rivers-the Oxus. N. sloping upwards at an inclination of 90 ft. of Afghanistan. Chennai 6. English statesman. second wife of Henry VIII. The people are of Turk and Persian origin. VISCOUNT.com the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. after a three years' residence at the French Court became maid of honour to Queen Katherine. BOISTE. Bokhara (70).ramakalai@gmail. a French lexicographer (1765-1824). Page 370 of 2772 . is traversed by a torrent. extending between Quetta (Beluchistan) and Kandahar (Afghanistan). BOLEYN. BOKHA`RA (1. HENRY ST. who ruled from 992 to 1025. cutlery. orator. and became queen. and mother of Elizabeth. the centre of learning and religious life in Central Asia. BOLAN` PASS.

and surrounded by Peru. BOLIVIA (1. and cinchona are cultivated. devoted himself to the cause of S." says Prof. and the author of "Letters" bearing upon politics and literature. after her dismissal of the Whigs. silver. he abdicated. from wheat and maize to tropical fruits. however disinterested he may be. of the Andes. but puny ephemeral forms of them--the partisan and personal politics of his day. SIMON. Trade Computer Lecturer. with the sage reflection on his lips. was impeached and attainted. cotton. Argentina. tobacco. The most important industry is mining: gold. The very varied heights afford all kinds of vegetation. was the friend of Pope and Swift. achieved in 1824 the same for Upper Peru.500). after his name. In the lower plains coffee. the singularly shallow form of infidelity called Deism and the like. CTSTI. in the N. a man of good birth and liberal education. in 1819. copper. he has been called the Washington of S. henceforth called Bolivia. Brazil. returned in 1723 to his estates. is chiefly desert.com and political writer. if not most. Page 371 of 2772 . "is a rhetorician pure and simple.' exhibit him at his best. but the subjects of his rhetoric were not the great and perennial subjects. surnamed the Liberator. "Bolingbroke. an inland republic of S." It was he who suggested to Pope his "Essay on Man" (1678-1751). accused of aspiring to the Dictatorship.' a sort of apologia. and was preparing to leave the country when he died of fever. The 'Letter to Windham. America (1783-1830). freed from the yoke of Spain Venezuela and New Grenada. BOLIVAR. general and statesman. he erected into a republic under the name of Colombia. born at Battersea. America. Prime Minister of Queen Anne in the Tory interest. Chennai 6. American independence. is always dangerous in a State that is new to freedom". which. and tin. and his time deprived him of many. on the accession of George I. of the rhetorician's most telling weapons. and the 'Ideal of a Patriot King. are Lake Titicaca and many well-watered valleys. The S. Paraguay. and Chili. seized with the passion for freedom during a visit to Madrid and Paris. born at Caracas.ramakalai@gmail. an indignity which he resented by working the overthrow of Walpole. "The presence of a soldier. occupying lofty tablelands E. Saintsbury. but denied a seat in the House of Lords. fled to France and joined the Pretender.

Peru. Computer Lecturer. BOLSENA. and considerable trade. BOLLAND. but helped by railways from Chili. CTSTI. a university. BOLOGNA. BOLOR-TAGH. and Argentina. it lost its sea provinces in the war with Chili. one of the oldest in Europe. Page 372 of 2772 . 1879-83. 83 m. and abounding with fish." BOLLANDISTS. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail." which was continued by others. JOHN. at the foot of the Lower Apennines. one of the most celebrated sculptors of art in his time. a small town in Italy. of the Lives of the Saints called "Acta Sanctorum. Silver is the chief export. compiled five vols. shore of Lake Bolsena. on a fertile plain. The country has been independent since 1825. manufactured goods are imported. of Florence. born at Douai. libraries. a succession of Jesuits who produced the Lives of the Saints. The capital is Sucre (12). called after him "Bollandists. a Jesuit of Antwerp. N. now extended to sixty vols. an ancient walled city of Italy. a high tableland in Central Asia. settled at Florence (1524-1608). schools of music and art.com is hampered by want of navigable rivers. stretching from the Hindu Kush mountains northwards to the Tian Shan. BOLSE`NA. born in Belgium. but with an unwholesome atmosphere. but La Pay (45) and Cochabamba (14) are larger towns. a lake with clear water in a hollow crater of a volcano. BOLOGNA (147). JOHN OF. and art collections. on the E. has many fine buildings. There are some silk and other industries.

Chennai 6. The climate is hot and moist on the coast and in the plains. with sugar. it is alleged.. Page 373 of 2772 .. of the Nerbudda River the country is flat and fertile. 6 m. and is one of the greatest of seaports. given him. the chief city. a fortress of the island of Aland occupied by Russia. BOMBAY (26. and gold are mined. iron. its position promises to make it the most important commercial centre in the East. embraces 26 British districts and 19 feudatory states. but pleasant on the plateaux. S. BOLTON ABBEY. but coal is wanting. connected with the coast by a causeway. opium. BOMBASTES FURIOSO. stands on an island. tea. N. Cotton manufacture has developed extensively and cotton cloths. of it are mountain ranges and tablelands. salt. BOMBAY (822). an old abbey in Yorkshire. BOMA. destroyed by the Anglo-French fleet in 1854. In the fertile N. wool. late king of the Two Sicilies.ramakalai@gmail. from his calling upon his soldiers to bombard his people during an insurrection. BOMBA. of Skipton. once a great slave mart. the western Presidency of India. the Russians bound not to restore it. E. as it already is in the Computer Lecturer. BOMARSUND. was founded by the Augustinian canons. and has a magnificent harbour and noble docks. nickname of Ferdinand II. It is rapidly surpassing Calcutta in trade.960). coal. Machinery. cotton. a station on the Lower Congo. an opera by Thomas Rhodes in ridicule of the bombastic style of certain tragedies in vogue. manufacturing town of Lancashire. CTSTI. and drugs are exported. and liquors are imported. oil. In the S.com BOLTON (115). and wheat are the staple products. in the Congo Independent State.

He denied that language was innate. the episcopal city of Augustine. BON GAULTIER. Its prosperity began when the Civil War in America afforded it an opening for its cotton. a seaport in Algeria. looked upon the Catholic religion and the royal authority as fundamental to the stability of the social fabric. but revealed. and its merchandise is mainly in the hands of the Parsees. is much improved since its occupation by the French in 1832. It is the most English town in India. and that causation was inherent in matter (1758-1840). a French publicist. one of feuillant order of monks (1609-1674).com cotton trade of the world. It came to England from Portugal as dowry with Catherine of Braganza. an ascetic writer. Near it are the ruins of Hippo.. with an excellent harbour and a growing trade. but the name under which she was worshipped is not known. worshipped by women. BONALD. Page 374 of 2772 . CTSTI. BONAPARTE. and was opposed to the law of divorce. _nom de plume_ assumed by Professor Aytoun and Sir Theodore Martin. surnamed the Fenelon of Italy. which led to its alteration. VICOMTE DE. Chennai 6. on a bay of the Mediterranean. BONA DEA (the good goddess). It swarms with people of every clime. who leased it to the East India Company for L10 a year.ramakalai@gmail. the descendants of the ancient fire-worshippers. in the province of Constantine. her priests vestals and her worship by rites from which men were excluded. name of a celebrated family of Italian origin settled in Computer Lecturer. BONA (30). a Roman goddess of fertility. Her symbol was a serpent. wife of Charles II. a violent royalist and ultramontanist. BONA.

was a mystic in theology. born in Anjou. surnamed the Seraphic Doctor. during the session of which he died. _b_. 1820. Prince Camille Borghese. his daughter. in 1803. _b_. MARIE PAULINE. 1825. 1782. married. _b_. and prince of Canino. 1826. 1806. who became prince of Lucca. 1844. _b_.). became king of Naples. daughter of Victor Emmanuel. _b_. 1840. became president of the Council of the Five Hundred. by second marriage. 1775. died at Florence. was chosen general of the Order and papal legate at the Council of Lyons in 1274. MARIE-ANNE-ELIZA..ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. 1822. 1777. ST. married Felix Bacciochi. Prince Napoleon. and died at Florence. 1778. 1785. his writings were admired by Luther (1221-1274). Princess Catherine of Wuertemburg. _b_. 1780. Page 375 of 2772 . married General Leclerc. MARIE-LAETITIA RAMOLINO.. married Hortense de Beauharnais. CHARLES. LOUIS. _b_. died at Trieste. 1839. NAPOLEON I. born at Ajaccio. married Marat in 1800. died at Rome. became Duchess of Guastalla. the principal members of it were: CHARLES MARIE. CTSTI. father of Napoleon III. his real name John Fidenza. a clergyman of the Free Church of Scotland. king of Spain from 1808 to 1813. BONCHAMP. retired to United States after Waterloo.com Corsica. returned to Europe. v. married. cardinal. a state which could be recovered only by a life of purity and prayer. and his son. died at Florence. LUCIEN. then queen of Naples. died in 1860. 1767. 1784. _b_. king of Westphalia (from 1807 to 1813). afterwards. the Princess Mathilde. called Jerome. 1801. and a celebrated hymn writer. Jerome. 1750. 1744. 1836. married Princess Clothilde. born in Tuscany. born at Edinburgh (1808-1889). born at Ajaccio. entered the Franciscan Order. HORATIUS. marshal of France in 1850. 1846. ascribed knowledge of the truth to union with God. (q. such as existed between man and his Maker prior to the Fall. MARQUIS DE. BONAVENTURA. became Grand-duchess of Berg and Cleves. of which marriage was born Prince Victor Napoleon in 1862. served Computer Lecturer. died in Viterbo. CAROLINE-MARIE. died at Montpellier. BONAR. died at Leghorn. king of Holland (from 1806 to 1810). French general. of this union were born eight children: JOSEPH.

1793.com in the American war. brought up in poverty from ill-fortune. B. a country of Senegambia. through the Empress Eugenie she received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. Computer Lecturer. JACQUES. 1822. who with his son. especially in miniature on ivory. her best-known works are the "Horse Fair" and the "Hay Harvest in Auvergne. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. GEORGE PHILLIPS. _d_. assumed the title of First Bishop of Christendom. born at Truro (1755-1834). BONIFACE." "Ploughing with Oxen. I. a German fabulist and Dominican monk of the 14th century. WILLIAM. II. Page 376 of 2772 . discovered a satellite of Neptune and an eighth satellite of Saturn (1826-1865). relented over the blood already shed." considered her masterpiece. fruits. ROSA. pope from 418 to 422. was about to massacre. author of "Der Edelstein" (The Jewel). BONE.. ordered the release of 5000 prisoners which his party. a dependency of France. Chennai 6. BONHOMME. fell at the battle of Cholet. taught by her father. a distinguished American astronomer (1789-1815). a book of fables. B. _b_. HENRY. BOND. and when dying. a name of contempt given by the nobility of France to the peasants in the 14th century. a celebrated enamel painter. exhibited when she was 19. pope from 530 to 532. BONDU (30). became one of the chiefs of the Vendean army.. a celebrated French animal painter. cotton. born at Bordeaux. in their revenge. yields maize. the name of nine popes. during the siege of Paris her studio was spared by order of the Crown Prince. BONER. ULRICH. BONHEUR.

immortalised by Lord Byron in his "Prisoner of Chillon". VIII. the birthplace of Beethoven. pope from 617 to 625. a Prussian town on the Rhine. VII. pope for 10 months. the first pope to wear the Triple Crown. an old Roman station. consecrated Pepin le Bref. painted the "Ducal Palace" and "Grand Canal" at Venice. a Duke of Savoy. pope from 974 to 985.ramakalai@gmail. pope from 1294 to 1303. pope from 1389 to 1405. who arrested him at Anagni. Chennai 6. B. and though liberated by the citizens died on his way to Rome. BONNAT. with a monument to his memory. of Cologne. III. the second time for six years in the Castle of Chillon.. IV. an eminent English landscape painter of exceptional precocity. he was released at the Reformation.. B. and a cause of much turmoil in Europe. CTSTI. pope from 608 to 614.. it is a stronghold of the old Catholics. pope in 896. a French painter. provoked a war with Philip the Fair of France. was made Primate of Germany. VI. imitated for Computer Lecturer. the Apostle of Germany. Page 377 of 2772 . IX. from 607 to 608. born near Nottingham. was. BONIN`. and since 1878 subject to it. V. B. RICHARD. a Genevese patriot and historian. BONINGTON. twice imprisoned by Charles III. massacred by the barbarians of Friesland. BONN (38). whom he sought to convert (680-755).. his real name Winfried. his masterpieces (1801-1828). B. with a famous university.. B. a group of rocky islands SE. JOSEPH LEON. and adopted Protestantism (1496-1571). with 53 companions. a strenuous assertor of the papal supremacy over all princes. SE. ST. born in Devonshire. B. FRANCOIS DE.. of Japan.. born at Bayonne. BONIVARD. for his sympathy with the struggles of the Genevese against his tyranny...com B. BONIFACE.

went out again to America. Francia in Paraguay as a spy. EDMUND. brought home a large collection of plants. arrested by Dr. was restored by Mary. CTSTI. BONNER. died in the Marshalsea Prison: he does not deserve all the odium that has been heaped on his memory. BONNIE DUNDEE. "Christ at the Cross" in the Palais de Justice. against the Pope. and bore the indignities done him with manly fortitude (1495-1569). Chennai 6. his studies as a naturalist gave a materialistic cast to his philosophy. Viscount Dundee. thousands of species of them new to Europe. COMTE DE. American scientific explorations. Page 378 of 2772 . Graham of Claverhouse. is his work.. BONNET. was again deposed and imprisoned for refusing to take the oath of supremacy under Elizabeth. a gold coin of James V.ramakalai@gmail. he gave to material impressions a dominant influence in determining its manifestations (1720-1793). though he did not deny the existence of mind. of Scotland. sided with Henry VIII. was chaplain to Wolsey. 1833. fell into disgrace under Edward VI. See ACHMED PASHA. BONNET-PIECE. BONNEVAL. BONPLAND. kept prisoner there for about nine years. Paris. whom he served in her Anti-Protestant zeal. he was faithful as a bishop. Swiss naturalist and philosopher. so called from the king being represented on it as wearing a bonnet instead of a crown. but since 1862 has followed a style of his own. a French botanist and traveller. consistent in his conduct. _b_. CHARLES DE. born at Worcester. CLAUDE-ALEXANDRE. bishop of London. Computer Lecturer. AIME.com a time the religious paintings of the old masters. still less that of its sovereign Author. companion of Alexander von Humboldt in his S. born at Geneva. affected to welcome Elizabeth to the throne. born at Rochelle.

psychology. of Corrientes. Burmah. where he died. acted Shakespearean. inventor of the plough in the Greek mythology. a Buddhist priest in China. though thrown forward. a Swiss publicist and judge. characters and Hamlet's ghost (1681-1733). BOOLE. and "Differential Equations" (1815-1864). the brightest star in which is Arcturus. BOOTH. Page 379 of 2772 . it takes a whirling course upwards till it stops. 1822. wrote on anthropology. (1745-1832). DANIEL. born at Berne. a famous American backwoodsman. settled in the prov. BARTON. BOOeTES (the ox-driver or waggoner). BOONE. BONSTETTEN. a missile of hard curved wood used by the Australian aborigines of 21/2 ft. English actor. so constructed that. Computer Lecturer. &c." an original work. &c. translated along with his ox to become a constellation in the northern sky.com released. when it returns with a swoop and falls in the rear of the thrower. CHARLES VICTOR DE. author of "Laws of Thought. ROGER. _d_. BOOMERANG. aged 84. Chennai 6. BONZE. born at Lincoln. English mathematician. a son of Ceres.ramakalai@gmail. BONTEMPS. Japan. wrote several works bearing on plants (1773-1858). CTSTI. mathematical professor at Cork. a French personification of a state of leisure and freedom from care. a deadly weapon. long.

Gothic. born at Dax. KATHARINA. subject to the Dutch. Lithuanian. of the Gulf of Boothia. who. originally a nun. discovered by Sir John Boss in 1830. and became the mother to him of six children. BORA. was professor of Oriental Literature and General Philology at Berlin. Computer Lecturer. an island in the Malay Archipelago. BOOTON. "A Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit. magnetic pole of the earth is situated. Latin. proved "a pious and faithful wife" to Luther. a peninsula of British N. BOOTH. son of an actor. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. founder and general of the Salvation Army. served in both army and navy. Old Slave. BOPP. and was shot by his captors (1839-1865). BOOTHIA. as he says of her. 1839. Zend. BORDA. born in Meissen. three sons and three daughters (1499-1552). one of those employed in measuring an arc of the meridian to establish the metric system in France (1733-1799)." q. and German". Page 380 of 2772 . Greek. v. published "In Darkest England". a man of singular self-devotion to the religious and social welfare of the race. in the dep. _b_. FRANZ. W. born in Nottingham.com BOOTH. assassinated Lincoln. was at Luther's instance released from her convent. Chennai 6. (1791-1867). a celebrated German philologist and Sanskrit scholar. the wife of Luther. WILLIAM. JOHN WILKES. America. his greatest work. translated portions of the "MAHABHARATA. of Celebes. born at Mayence. with eight others. and in which the N. SE. of Landes. a French mathematician and physicist.

the Black Prince.. of the dep. THE. a great industrial and commercial city. in England. a watery ridge rushing violently up an estuary. name of a family of high position and great wealth in Rome: Camillo. having become Pope in 1605 under the title of Paul V. a pupil of Titian and Giorgione. his father. sister of Napoleon. cap. BORGHESE. an Italian painter. There are schools of science. glass and chemical works. and Prince Borghese having married Pauline Bonaparte. BORDERS. The cod-fishing industry has its base here. museum. in those of Brazil. the Computer Lecturer.. and rich picture-gallery. the god of the north wind. who separated himself from her on the fall of her brother (1775-1832). potteries. the birthplace of Rosa Bonheur and Richard II. Mark to the Doge" (1500-1570). BORDONE. Chennai 6. There are sugar-refineries. A cathedral dates from the 11th century. due to a strong tidal wave travelling up a gradually narrowing channel. Page 381 of 2772 . the shifting boundary between Scotland and England before the Union. and chief seat of the wine trade in France and the third seaport on the Garonne. BORDER MINSTREL. born at Treviso. and son of the Titan Astraeus and of Aurora. and at the mouth of the Severn. theology. his most celebrated picture. a centre of endless fighting and marauding on the opposite sides for centuries. "The Gondolier presenting the Ring of St. foundries. BORE. a library. BOREAS. Bores are common in the estuary of the Ganges and other Asiatic rivers.com BORDEAUX (256). having had his seat here as governor of Aquitaine. and navigation.ramakalai@gmail. art. medicine. CTSTI. Sir Walter Scott. of Gironde.

fertile and densely-peopled state in Africa. COUNT. an Italian savant skilled in numismatics (1781-1860). and has a rich collection of paintings. FRANCESO. which have made his name a synonym for every action that is most crafty. an honour he relinquished to become a soldier. Just. BORGIA. is a masterpiece. third general of the Order of the Jesuits. was celebrated for her beauty and her patronage of letters. in one of the chief towns of which Mungo Park lost his life. Page 382 of 2772 . in the Borghese gallery. BORGHESI. in which capacity it is alleged he gave himself up to deeds of inhumanity. revolting. he is reputed to have been just as a ruler in his own domain. her father annulled her first marriage. LUCRETIA. when she married the Duke of Ferrara.. WILLIAM. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. Notwithstanding the execration in which his memory is held. BORLASE. BORGIA. a portrait of him by Raphael. who was murdered by her brother's assassins. 1671 (1510-1572). and gave her to a nephew of the king of Naples.. born at Rome. BORGIA. and a patron of art and literature. sister of Caesar Borgia. Chennai 6. fourth son of Pope Alexander VI. was made cardinal at the age of 17. author of "Observations on the Antiquities of Cornwall" and Computer Lecturer. antiquary and naturalist. traversed by the Niger. and canonised by Clement IX. born in St. subject to the Royal Niger Company. and cruel. a post he filled with great zeal as well as prudent management. though she has been accused of enormities as well as her brother (1480-1523). CAESAR.com palace of the family one of the finest in Rome.. 1507. BORGU. Cornwall. CTSTI. was beatified by Urban VIII.

the ruin of a magnificent Buddhist temple in Java. of Jewish parentage. and fishing the occupation of the inhabitants. of England and his sons. and turned Radical. Kinabalu the highest (13. Chennai 6. Malay. was vicar in his native parish (1696-1772). ebony. has no volcanoes. &c. Page 383 of 2772 . BORNHOLM (35)." BORNE. was disappointed with the result. of Lake Tehad. covered with mountains in the interior. has no good harbour. bordered all round with wide plains and low marshy ground. born at Frankfort. BORNEO (1. population mostly negroes. the ruling race of Arab descent. and S.800). possessed in great part by the Dutch. an island belonging to Denmark. teak. is placed by Dante in the "Inferno. LUDWIG. but temperate in the high. one of the most celebrated troubadours of the 12th century. agriculture.com "Natural History of Cornwall". aggravated the quarrel between Henry II. and in the north part by the British. an island in the Malay Archipelago. W. BERTRAND. CTSTI. disgusted with the state of things in Germany. in the Baltic. he and Heine were at deadly feud (1787-1837).). Australia and New Guinea being larger. climate hot and unhealthy in the low ground. BORN. the population is Dyak. cattle-breeding. BORO BUDOR. its length 800 m. Computer Lecturer. rich in vegetation and in minerals.000). went to Paris after the Revolution there of 1830. BORNU (5. called Shuwas. famed for a breed of horses.ramakalai@gmail. and Chinese. all tropical crops and spices are cultivated. and its breadth 700. a Mohammedan State in the Central Soudan. a political writer. in gold and precious stones.. born in Perigord..000 ft. its forests abound with valuable timber. the third largest in the globe.

BORORO. cardinal and archbishop of Milan. COUNT. the scene of a bloody battle between Napoleon and the Russians. a large Brazilian nation between Cuyaba and Goyaz. in Scotland BURGH. BORROME`O. a village 70 m. of which three were converted into gardens by Count Borromeo in 1671. a Polish dwarf. 1812. Its charter may be held from the Crown or granted by Parliament. conspicuous by his self-sacrificing offices during a plague in the city of which he was the archbishop (1538-1584). but it is further an area of local government. of perfect symmetry. and deriving its income from rates levied on property within its bounds. processions. and contributed to the Tridentine Catechism. with representations of battles. on one of which stands a palace of the Borromeos. CARLO. and sometimes educational. of Moscow. BOROWLASKI. Chennai 6. BORROME`AN ISLANDS. Sept. and in Scotland sometimes from "common good" and petty customs. ST. BOROUGH ENGLISH. BOROUGH. supervision. though only three feet in height. 7. exercising police. W. four islands in Lago Maggiore. enriched with fine paintings and other works of art. &c.ramakalai@gmail. is in its modern sense primarily a town that sends a representative to Parliament. Page 384 of 2772 . descent of lands to a youngest son. Computer Lecturer. a prominent member of the Council of Trent.com ornamented with figures of Buddha and scenes in his life. CTSTI. BORODINO. sanitary. chariot races. attained the age of 98.

meaning "word-master. a British admiral. he wrecked and ruined a fine French fleet. where Queen Mary and Bothwell spent four days together in June 1567. where. of Edinburgh. known from his fearlessness as "Old Dreadnought". of equal status in the Church. BORROW. born at Ragusa." which he was). advocated the molecular theory of physics. JEAN BAPTISTE. BORTHWICK CASTLE. and similar character (1584-1631). showed early a passion for adventure and a facility in languages. entitled "The Bible In Spain". Cape Finisterre. an Italian mathematician and astronomer. traveller and philologist. entered the Order of the Jesuits. BORROWDALE. born in Norfolk. was appointed agent for the Bible Society in Russia and Spain. distinguished himself in engagements at Puerto Bello. W. SE. FREDERIGO. Page 385 of 2772 . EDWARD. and a famous book. a French traveller and naturalist (1780-1846). Chennai 6. wrote "Lavengro. Cathagena. and afterwards at Milan. BOSCOVICH.com BORROMEO. Cumberland. which is chiefly autobiography (1803-1831). after a "sea hunt" of 24 hours. celebrated for its beautiful scenery. CTSTI. was professor in Pavia. wrote an account of those in Spain. eager to elude his grasp (1711-1761). in his fondness for open-air life.ramakalai@gmail. with which Computer Lecturer. BOSCAWEN. GEORGE HENRY. nephew and successor of the preceding. 13 m. ROGER JOSEPH. BORY DE SAINT-VINCENT. a valley in the Lake District. and the Bay of Lagos. associated much with the gipsies. a ruined peel tower." his masterpiece (a gipsy designation applied to him. discovered the equator of the sun and the period of its rotation.

Page 386 of 2772 .com his name is associated. wrote largely. JACQUES BENIGNE. and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. CTSTI. the inhabitants of Servian nationality. BOS`QUET. BARON. under Austria-Hungary. or rather of the Crown. was wounded at the storming of the Malakoff (1810-1861). BOSNA-SERAI (38).200). BOS`PHORUS (Ox-ford). Chennai 6. BOSIO. in the form of an ox. distinguished in Algiers and the Crimea. proved himself more a time-server than a bold. crossed into Europe with Europa on his back. according to the Greek myth.ramakalai@gmail. PIERRE FRANCOIS JOSEPH. broad. subject to Turkey. surnamed the "Eagle of Meaux. conceived a violent dislike to Madame Guyon. It derives its name from the channel which. took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican clergy. bishop of Meaux. a marshal of France. born at Dijon. and seat of authority. of the Balkan Peninsula. BOSNIA (1. strongly defended by forts. died insane (1701-1787). one of the greatest of French pulpit orators. BOS`SUET. and about 30 fathoms deep. long and from 3 to 1/2 m. and the first attempt at a philosophy of history. and one of the ablest defenders of the doctrines of the Catholic Church. outspoken champion of the truth." of the see of which he became bishop. as against the claims of the Pope. a channel 17 m. patronised in France (1769-1845). a celebrated Italian sculptor. his "Discourse on Universal History" is on approved lines. a province in NW. the great aim of his life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith. Zeus. and to Fenelon for his defence of her and her Quietists. Computer Lecturer. extending from the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea. capital of Bosnia.

CTSTI. The most unfortunate incident of his life was his controversy with Fenelon" (1627-1704). cotton. farm produce. There is a large cattle and sheep market. which is a conspicuous landmark and beacon at sea. BOSSUT. and tobacco exported. and imports timber and general goods. corn. Though he is always aiming at the sublime. edited Pascal's works (1730-1814). and chemicals are imported. SE. while his "Politique founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right of kings.. Among famous natives were Franklin. and in his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons. 30 m. "was more of a speaker than a writer. The Boston riots of 1770 and 1773 were the heralds of the revolution. or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous.. he scarcely ever oversteps it. also canvas and sail-cloth works. exports coal. a Lincolnshire seaport. and the first battle was fought at Bunker Hill. and wool. boot and shoe making is one of many varied industries. wool. It has a spacious church. Sugar. is the capital of Massachusetts and the chief city of New England. one of the best-built and best-appointed cities of the Union. machinery. "Bossuet. born near Lyons. His excellence lies in his wonderful survey and grasp of the subject. while most American men of letters have been associated with it.. cattle. The many educational institutions and its interest in literature and art have won for it the title of American Athens. and very wealthy. BOSTON (561). Fox. not far off. on the Witham. the martyrologist. Poe.ramakalai@gmail. now included in it. CHARLES.. With an excellent harbour and eight converging railways it is an emporium of trade. _confrere_ of the Encyclopaedists. in the contagious enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point. Page 387 of 2772 . and Emerson.com his Funeral Orations are monuments of the most sublime eloquence. BOSTON (19). his chief work "L'Histoire Generale des Mathematiques".. on Massachusetts Bay.." says Professor Saintsbury. hides. Chennai 6. French mathematician. was a native. of Lincoln. Computer Lecturer.

who had impugned his character. on Dec. and hurled several hundred chests of it into Boston harbour. born at Duns. a work unique in biography. disguised as Indians. fell in with Johnson on a visit to London in 1763. became minister of Ettrick. made a tour with him to the Hebrides in 1773. in 1782. but acquitted (1775-1822). an antiquary. to his father's estate. BOSTON TEA-PARTY. with an income of L1600 a year. lost both crown and life in 1485. author of the "Fourfold State. born at Edinburgh.ramakalai@gmail." a popular exposition of Calvinism. the "Journal" of which he afterwards published. 1773. SIR ALEXANDER." BOSWELL.com BOSTON. and was called to the English bar. and such as no man could have written who was not a hero-worshipper to the backbone. CTSTI. He succumbed in the end to intemperate habits. exercised a great influence on the religious views of the most pious-minded of his countrymen (1676-1732). an event which terminated the Wars of the Roses and led to the accession of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of Computer Lecturer. and conceived for him the most devoted regard. a town in Leicestershire. third as redeemed. Chennai 6. near which Richard III. and "The Crook in the Lot. showed early a penchant for writing and an admiration for literary men. THOMAS. mortally wounded in a duel with James Stuart of Dunearn. a Scottish divine. aggravated by the death of his wife (1740-1795). BOSWORTH. for which the latter was tried. Boswell's "Life" of him appeared five years after. Auchinleck. "making it black with unexpected tea. the former an account of the state of man. 16. JAMES. succeeded. Page 388 of 2772 . three English ships laden with tea. second as fallen. the insurgent American colonists who." both at one time much read and studied by the pious Presbyterian burghers and peasantry of Scotland. son and heir of the preceding. and fourth as in glory. settled in London. BOSWELL. boarded. educated at Edinburgh. the biographer of Johnson. Johnson dying in 1784. first in innocence. He was a shrewd man and a quaint writer. in Ayrshire.

JOSEPH. BOSWORTH. scene of a battle between Monmouth and the Covenanters in 1679. after ten years of misery he died. was believed to have murdered Darnley. by Sir Joseph Banks. was acquitted. pardoned. was a great favourite with the queen. an Anglo-Saxon scholar. divided into E. on the Clyde.ramakalai@gmail. worked frequently on the same canvas. JAMES HEPBURN. of Glasgow. CTSTI. BOTH. an inlet in New South Wales. a prov. became professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford. the former a landscape and the latter a figure painter. and was kept captive there at Malmoee. 8 m. Flemish painters of the 17th century. carried off Mary to Dunbar Castle. SE. discovered by Captain Cook in 1770. was made Duke of Orkney. JOHN AND ANDREW. one of the envoys sent in 1560 to convey Mary. was the author of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Dictionary (1789-1876). Earl of. and W. from France home. so called. Chennai 6. fled to Norway. BOTHWELL. of Sydney. was made Privy Councillor the year after. BOTHNIA. parted with her at Carberry Hill. a village in Lanarkshire. insane. Page 389 of 2772 . BOTANY BAY. 5 m. of Sweden.com England in the person of Henry VII. was once an English convict settlement. by a gulf of the name. S. was recalled by Mary on her marriage with Darnley. born in Derbyshire. had to flee to France for an act of conspiracy. though when tried. from the variety and beauty of its flora. Queen of Scots. BOTHWELL. as is believed (1525-1577). Computer Lecturer. and married to her at Holyrood.

a pupil of Fra Lippo Lippi. born at Turin. discovered the ruins of Nineveh. SANDRO. a species of Ficus. the figure of Spring... son of the preceding. Computer Lecturer. though he was no less fascinated with classical--mythological conceptions. Chennai 6. roses as he has done. See BUDDHA. was the author of some poems (1766-1837). an Italian political historian. CARLO GIUSEPPE. BOTTICELLI. began as a goldsmith's apprentice. "the thoughts of heathens and Christians equally. which Ruskin has reproduced on the title-page of his recent books. PAUL EMILE.ramakalai@gmail." he adds.com BOTOCUDOS.. his most important work is his "History of Italy from 1789 to 1814". in 1843. he understood. when consul at Mosul. CTSTI. BO-TREE. or ALESSANDRO. a very low type of men. the best-known examples of his art are on religious subjects. are demon-worshippers. made further explorations. BOeTTGER. near the coast. and at a very low stage of civilisation. Assyriologist. published in the "Memoire de l'Ecriture Cuneiform Assyrienne" and "Monuments de Ninive" (1802-1870). invented the celebrated Meissen porcelain (1682-1719). or is likely to draw. and could in a measure paint both Aphrodite and the Madonna" (1447-1515). and it is a rose on the petticoat of one of his figures. and are said to have no numerals beyond _one_. particularly in the drawing of flowers. remarking that "no one has ever yet drawn. in his experiments on porcelain. a wandering wild tribe in the forests of Brazil. is distinguished for his attention to details and for delicacy. BOTTA. an alchemist who. Page 390 of 2772 . a celebrated painter of the Florentine school. sacred to the Buddhists as the tree under which Buddha sat when the light of life first dawned on him. born in Piedmont. BOTTA.

as "The Colleen Bawn" and "The Shaughraun" (1822-1890). BOUFFLERS. died in England (1364-1421). MARQUIS DE. one of the bravest and noblest of French soldiers. BOUCICAUT. BOTTOM. BOUCHARDON. Titania falls in love with under the influence of a love-potion. Page 391 of 2772 . a dramatic writer. born at Paris (1703-1770). born at Tours. BOUCHER DE PERTHES. field-marshal of France. BOUFFLERS. a celebrated French sculptor (1698-1762). with his ass's head. German archaeologist. a weaver in the interlude in "Midsummer-Night's Dream. a French painter.com BOeTTIGER. especially classical (1760-1835). marshal of France. courtier and author (1737-1815). was taken captive by the English at Agincourt. and his masterly retreat Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. CHEVALIER DE. BOUCICAULT. DION.ramakalai@gmail. author of popular Irish pieces. born in Ardennes (1783-1868). French naturalist and anthropologist. distinguished for his defence of Namur (1695) and of Lille (1708). was a voluminous writer on antiquities. BOTZARIS. KARL AUGUSTE. MARSHAL DE. CTSTI. one of the heroes of the war of Greek independence (1789-1823)." whom. BOUCHER. distinguished in several famous battles.

originally a German duchy. wrote on optics and the figure of the earth (1698-1758). born at Carlisle.com from Malplaquet (1645-1711). died in London. voyaged round the world." BOUILLON.. a "quick. French physicist. adamantine man". which occupied him two years and a half. did his utmost for royalty. sharp-discerning. with valour. born in Paris. an intrepid. Chennai 6. See for the part he played in it. CTSTI. BOUGH.ramakalai@gmail.. born at Paris (1628-1702). landscape painter. PIERRE. a French general. and settled in Edinburgh for 20 years (1822-1878). nay. failed. his subjects both classical and religious.. and left "Memoirs of the French Revolution" (1759-1800).. MARQUIS DE. distinguished in the Seven Years' War. born at Rochelle in 1825. LOUIS ANTOINE DE. stubbornly-endeavouring man. CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. BOUHOUR. Page 392 of 2772 . BOUGUER. as well as portraits. favoured the flight of Louis XVI. French litterateur. BOUGUEREAU. his "Travels" had a remarkably stimulating effect on the imaginations of the "philosophies. district in Belgium. BOUILLE. LE PERE. BOUGAINVILLE. SAM. and quitted France. born in Brittany. in the West Indies and during the Revolution. born in Auvergne." as described by him in "Un Voyage autour du Monde" (1729-1811). ADOLPHE. with suppressed-explosive resolution. a French navigator. muzzled and fettered by diplomatic pack-threads. a distinguished French painter. belonged Computer Lecturer. choleric. "last refuge of royalty in all straits". headlong audacity.

JEAN MARIE. on the Nile.com to Godfrey. BOUILLY. a son. BOULEVARD. BOULOGNE. CTSTI. the port of Cairo. Chennai 6. and the dangerous popular enthusiasm which he excited. BOULAINVILLIERS. a French historian.ramakalai@gmail. JEAN NICOLAS. and committed suicide at Brussels (1837-1891). BOULDER. took part in the redaction of the Civil Code. BOULAK (20). born near Tours. was a faithful adherent of Napoleon (1761-1840). the crusader. a French statesman. nicknamed. a French dramatist. vice-president of the Republic from 1849 to 1851 (1797-1858). BOIS DE. who pledged it to raise funds for the crusade. Page 393 of 2772 . born at Rennes. a promenade between Paris and St. author of a "History of Mahomet" (1658-1722). BOULAY DE LA MEURTHE. BOULAN`GER. though the boulevard is not always on the line of a rampart. fled the country. much Computer Lecturer. Cloud. a large mass or block of rock found in localities often far removed from the place of its formation. of note for the political intrigues with which he was mixed up during the last years of his life. distinguished as an orator. the rampart of a fortified city converted into a promenade flanked by rows of trees and a feature of Paris in particular. and transported thither on the ice of the Glacial Age. Henri. a French general. from his sentimentality "poete lacrymal" (1763-1842). accused of peculation.

of Calais. BOURBAKI. is the centre of an important coasting trade. and a favourite watering-place.com frequented by people of fashion. MATTHEW. from which it is separated by the Bois-de-Boulogne. an eminent engineer. the chief station of the North Sea fisheries. afterwards retired. CHARLES DENIS SOTER. Bligh reached England after a time. _b_. contributed to the improvement of the coinage (1728-1809). born at Birmingham. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. on the English Channel. a fortified seaport in France. 1816. and likely to become a naval station. Page 394 of 2772 . to the seizure at length of certain of the offenders and the execution of others. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER (46). on the 28th April 1789. where Napoleon collected in 1803 a flotilla to invade England. Chennai 6. bound from Otaheite to the West Indies. it rivals that of the Champs Elysees. and a favourite place of recreation. entered into partnership with James Watt. SW. suffered disastrously in the Franco-German War. of Paris. a mutiny which took place on the ship _Bounty_. who returned to Otaheite after setting the captain (Bligh) adrift with others in an open boat. CTSTI." MUTINY OF THE. SW. a town on the right bank of the Seine. is connected by steamer with Folkestone. BOULOGNE-SUR-SEINE (32). in the dep. "BOUNTY. and attempted suicide. a French general. one of the principal ports for debarkation from England. on the part of 25 of the crew. Those who escaped founded a colony on Pitcairn Island. of Pas-de-Calais. 5 m. served for a time under Gambetta. and established with him a manufactory of steam-engines at Soho. born at Pau. BOULTON. on a barren heath near his native place. 27 m. served in the Crimean War and in Italy. reported the crime.

defeated the French at Pavia. did not suffer by comparison with Bossuet. Chennai 6. and lived in royal state. and Spain. the former branch still (1899) in power. BOURDALOUE. perhaps imaginary. the latter ending with Francis II. and took Francis captive.com BOURBON. was for his daring in the field named Constable of France by Francis I. a French painter. CHARLES DE. but fearless and uncompromising (1632-1704). and fell in the assault. a French Jesuit. Naples. LOUIS.. called the "king of preachers. his contemporary. cap. and the latter ending with Louis Philippe and his line... by Benvenuto Cellini (1489-1527). he clandestinely entered the service of the Emperor Charles V.. BOURDON. the one entitled "The Passion. born at Bourges. it is said. carefully reasoned. second son of Louis XIII. ancient province in the centre of France. though junior. both of which trace back to Henry IV. parted from Charles. SEBASTIAN.. one of the most earnest and powerful of his sermons.. hailing from Bourbonnais. with Philip of Orleans. his Computer Lecturer." is deemed the greatest. a family of French origin. acquired immense wealth by the death of an elder brother and by his marriage. and the other. being the duchy of Bourbon. born at Montpellier. Page 395 of 2772 . in 1860. laid siege to Rome. injustice Francis did him. held sway in France. BOURBON. one of the most eloquent pulpit orators of France. CTSTI. BOURBONNAIS. Two branches. the former ending with Charles X. one beginning with Louis XIV. styled the Constable de Bourbon.. The branches of the family ruling in Spain and Naples began with Philip VI. and free from ornament. and who severally ruled their territories under a more or less overweening sense of their rights as born to reign.. members of which occupied for generations the thrones of France. called the Orleans. and his family. Moulins.ramakalai@gmail. and preacher of kings". united to the crown in 1531. offended at some. eldest son of Louis XIII. grandson of Louis XIV. mortally wounded. His sermons are ethical in their matter from a Christian standpoint.

painter to George III. and Bourdaloue. professional people. BOURGEOIS. but applied by the Socialists to the capitalists as distinct from the workers. left his collection to Dulwich College. Page 396 of 2772 . banished to Guiana." and distinct from the romantist and naturalistic. _b_. 1852.ramakalai@gmail. BOURGEOISIE. member of the Convention. BOURIGNON. and L10. CTSTI.000 to build a gallery for them (1756-1811). Chennai 6. of Cher. and often consulted on the matter (1712-1779). BOURGELAT. was an authority on horse management. resolved religion into emotion. a French revolutionist. the name given in France to the middle class. on which he bestows great pains.com _chef-d'oeuvre_ "The Crucifixion of St. a famous French veterinary surgeon. with a clear and elegant style. an eminent French novelist and essayist. to the derangement of others as well as herself (1615-1680). born at Amiens. a French town in the dep." executed for the church of Notre Dame (1616-1671). BOURDON DE L'OISE. a subtle analyst of character. BOURGES (43). ANTOINETTE. born at Lyons. Peter. SIR FRANCIS. a Flemish visionary and fanatic. where he died in 1791. Computer Lecturer. brought herself into trouble by the wild fancies she promulgated.. BOURGET. PAUL. birthplace of Louis XI. as distinguished from the nobles and the peasants. and founder of veterinary colleges at Lyons in 1762. his novels are what he calls "psychological. and merchants.

joined the Bourbons at the Restoration. BOURNE. held high commands under Napoleon. and then from left to right. but dismissed for being implicated in disgraceful money transactions. BOURRIENNE. CTSTI. a town in Hants. and a school friend. refused allegiance to Louis Philippe on his accession. secretary of Napoleon. born at Sens.. founder of the Primitive Methodists. is of recent. and he appears to have wrought at his trade while prosecuting his mission. SW. a town in Central Africa.ramakalai@gmail. which he did extensively both in Britain and America (1772-1852). of Southampton. and was dismissed the service (1773-1846). commanded the expedition against Algiers. where Mungo Park lost his life as he was going up the Niger. LOUIS ANTOINE FAUVELET. as in ploughing a field. a great health resort. the Revolution of 1830 and the loss of his fortune affected his mind. 37 m. COMTE DE. he was a carpenter by trade. BOURNEMOUTH (38). LOUIS AUGUSTE VICTOR. and has been of rapid. at the Revolution joined the Bourbons on the frontiers. HUGH. a French marshal. Chennai 6. served the royal cause in La Vendee. BOUSSA. on Poole Bay. held the post for five years. wrote "Memoirs" disparaging to Napoleon (1769-1834). with a fine sandy beach. capital of a State of the same name. deserted on the eve of Waterloo to Louis XVIII. growth. an ancient mode of writing from right to left. and he died a lunatic at Caen. BOUSTROPHE`DON.com BOURMONT. Page 397 of 2772 . commanded under Ney on Napoleon's return from Elba. gave evidence against Ney to his execution. Computer Lecturer. and a zealous propagator of their principles.

in 1437 from 1153 (1385-1449). wrote an interesting account of it in his "Mission to Ashanti" (1791-1824). a gallant British naval commander. wrote "History of Poetry and Eloquence among the Modern Races" (1766-1828). Page 398 of 2772 . BOWDOIN. BOWEN. THOMAS.com BOUTERWEK. edited expurgated editions of Shakespeare and Gibbon in the interest of moral purity. accompanied with an elaborate commentary (1773-1838). CTSTI. and by his captures of the enemy's ships. published "Practical Navigation. a zealous advocate of American independence. JAMES. THOMAS EDWARD. an English physician. and expounder of their doctrines. Scottish chronicler. sent on a mission to Guinea. American mathematician. then of Jacobi. born at Salem. BOWER. killed by grape-shot at the storming of Santa Cruz. BOWDICH. distinguished himself in several engagements. Bowdlerism (1754-1825). abbot of Inchcolm. Chennai 6. added in consequence a new term to the English language. author of "Discourse on the Constitution of the United States" (1727-1790). FRIEDRICH. BOWDITCH." translated the "Mecanique Celeste" of Laplace. Computer Lecturer. NATHANIEL. a German philosopher and professor of Philosophy at Goettingen.ramakalai@gmail. a practical scientist. BOWDLER. continued Fordun's History down to the death of James I. at the moment when Nelson was wounded (1761-1797). born in Boston. a disciple of Kant. and penetrated as far as Coomassie. an English traveller. born at Bristol. an American statesman. Massachusetts. RICHARD. WALTER. of French extraction.

a boy chosen on 6th December. the old nobility of Russia. Morton. "BOX AND COX. and published an edition of the Greek New Testament with notes (1699-1777). which varied. M. he was treated as bishop. a poet. his sonnets. BOYARS. Chennai 6. as developed in the Lake School (1762-1850). CTSTI. born in London. BOWLING. linguist and political writer. friend and disciple of Bentham as well as editor of his works. BOY BISHOP. born in Northamptonshire. BOWYER. first editor of _Westminster Review_. For the term of his office. born at Exeter. "of nature's aspect to human feeling. Page 399 of 2772 .com BOWLES. TOM. St. a typical British sailor in "Roderick Random. wrote on the origin of printing. to act as bishop and do all his episcopal duties. also the landed aristocracy of Roumania. generally out of the choir. whose undue influence in the State was broken by Peter the Great. The term of office was limited in 1279 to 24 hours. became governor of Hong-Kong. WILLIAM LISLE. Computer Lecturer. WILLIAM. SIR JOHN. and their appearance is believed to have inaugurated a new era in English poetry. by their "linking." were much admired by Coleridge. remarkable for a successful run such as is said to have brought the author L7000. at the instance of the English Government visited the Continental States to report on their commercial relations. Nicholas' Day." BOWLING. which caused dissatisfaction at home (1792-1872).ramakalai@gmail." as Professor Saintsbury has it. printer and scholar. except celebrate mass. ordered the bombardment of Canton. and if he died during his tenure of it was buried with episcopal honours." a farce by J.

published a collection of the "Cathedral Music of the Old English Masters". known to fame as A. and the encouragement he gave to native artists. returned to Scotland in consequence of the persecution of the Huguenots. in France. died at Bournemouth by mischance of swallowing a lotion instead of a sleeping-draught (1825-1899). attendant on Napoleon. he issued also Hume's "History of England. B." which was widely read. CTSTI." with 96 plates in illustration of Shakespeare. BOYD. chiefly of church music. bred for the bar.. a Scottish clergyman and writer.com BOYCE. wrote works on anatomy and surgical diseases.ramakalai@gmail. ZACHARY." a naval song sung by ships' crews at one time before going into action (1710-1779). BOYD. a Scottish divine. composed "Hearts of Oak. preached before Cromwell after the battle of Dunbar. an Irish landlord's agent in Connemara. French anatomist and surgeon. H. and of Reminiscences of his life. K. ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON. famous for his "Shakespeare Gallery. BARON. Glasgow. Page 400 of 2772 . composer. author of "Recreations of a Country Parson. called "Boyd's Bible" (1585-1653). born in London. BOYDELL. author of the "Last Battell of the Soule in Death" and "Zion's Flowers. and rector of the University. which continued for long text-books on those Computer Lecturer. BOYCOTT." being mainly metrical versions of Scripture. afterwards professor in the University of Paris. regent of a Protestant college at Samur." with 196 plates in illustration (1719-1804). but entered the Church. with whom the population of the district in 1880 refused to have any dealings on account of disagreements with the tenantry. an English engraver and print-seller. WILLIAM. BOYER. JOHN. Chennai 6. CAPTAIN. became minister of Barony Parish.

secured the independence of the country. THE HON. the lecturer must deliver eight lectures in defence of Computer Lecturer. born at Port-au-Prince of a negress and a Creole father. when Cromwell saw how his estates were managed he remarked. BOYER.ramakalai@gmail. the lectureship founded by the Hon. was a man of very conservative opinions (1757-1833). born at Lismore. of the Orrery family. where he spent the rest of his life and died (1776-1850). and held for a tenure of three years. fourth Earl of Orrery. BOYLE.com subjects. president of Hayti. as well as pneumatics. ROBERT. and for its connection with an astronomical contrivance by one Graham to illustrate the planetary system (1676-1731). first and great Earl of Cork. also for the honours conferred upon him for his patriotism. was one of the originators of the "Royal Society". refused the presidentship of the Royal Society. distinguished among Irish patriots and landlords for what he did to improve his estates and develop manufactures and the mechanical arts in Ireland. BOYLE LECTURES. devoted his life and contributed greatly to science. RICHARD. retired to Paris. BOYLE. that had there been one like him in every province in Ireland rebellion would have been impossible (1566-1643). the endowment being L50 per annum. a distinguished natural philosopher. but suspected of consulting his own advantage more than that of the country. was driven from power by a revolution in 1843. CHARLES. founded by his will an endowment for the "Boyle Lectures" in defence of Christianity against its opponents and rivals. Robert Boyle in 1691. distinguished for the connection of his name with the Bentley controversy. CTSTI. held the presidency for 25 years from 1818. Page 401 of 2772 . Chennai 6. and declined a peerage (1626-1691). JEAN PIERRE. especially chemistry. being a student of theology. BOYLE.

BOYNE. Chennai 6. Brabant. or Dutch Brabant. is now divided between Holland and Belgium. gives name to the battle in which William III. cap. BRADAMANTE. being his nickname when a boy for a little brother. BRACTON. had a lance which unhorsed every one it touched. and became major-general in 1754. an English "justice itinerant. Page 402 of 2772 . entered the Coldstream Guards. which flows through Meath into the Irish Sea. Antwerp. Johnson's familiar name for Boswell. also Belgian." a writer on English law of the 13th century. and S. Brussels. BRABANT. 1268. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail." a "Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England.com Christianity. inhabitants Walloons. HENRY DE. of the Low Countries." and the first attempt of the kind. BOZZY. BOYLE'S LAW. fell in an attempt to invest Fort Computer Lecturer. _d_.. the whole mostly a plain. a Belgian prov. the N. in mediaeval times was an important prov. and one of the heroines in "Orlando Furioso". Antwerp. sister to Rinaldo. inhabitants Flemings. that the volume of a gas is inversely as the pressure. cap. cap. EDWARD. inhabitants Dutch. It comprises three provs. and some of the most eminent men have held the post. author of "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae. born in Perthshire. commanded a body of troops against the French in America. on 30th July 1690. a river in Ireland. defeated the forces of James II. BRADDOCK. Breda. a _nom de plume_ under which Dickens wrote at first.. British general. BOZ.

BRADFORD (216). had for associate in the advocacy of his views Mrs. a popular novelist. but not allowed to sit till he took the oath. BRADDON. GEORGE. an engraver of maps in Manchester. of Leeds. published maps illustrative of certain canal systems. wrote the "Impeachment of the House of Brunswick" (1833-1891). Page 403 of 2772 . on a tributary of the Aire. and did the same service for railways.000 astronomical observations (1693-1762). BRADSHAW. and has an important wool market. and astronomer-royal at Greenwich. and lost nearly all his men (1695-1755). CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. in Wilts. born at Stockport. John Maxwell). authoress of "Lady Audley's Secret. a social reformer on secularist lines. had a chequered career. and opposed to the Protectorate. born in London. president of the High Court of Justice for trial of Charles I." "Aurora Floyd. for Northampton thrice over. Also the name of a manufacturing town on the Avon. MISS (Mrs. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. JOHN." and some 50 other novels. elected M. became president of Computer Lecturer. BRADSHAW. and iron-works and machinery-making are its other industries. astronomer. bred for the bar. Chennai 6. which developed into the well-known "Railway Guide" (1830-1863). born in London. coal and iron mines are at hand. _b_. BRADLEY. CHARLES. which he did in 1886. it is the chief seat of worsted spinning and weaving in England.. BRADLAUGH. a friend of Milton. born in Gloucestershire. professor of Astronomy at Oxford. a thorough republican. W.P. Annie Besant. made 60. JAMES.com Duquesue. discovered the aberration of light and the nutation of the earth's axis. 9 m. contributed largely to magazines. 1837. died respected by all parties in the House of Commons.

THOMAS. Computer Lecturer. was buried in Westminster. was present at Crecy and at the taking of Calais. his body was exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration (1586-1659).." BRAEMAR`. Portugal. the eighth duke of Braganza having ascended the throne in 1640. with a mild expression of face. the residence of the Primate. a city. son of Odin and Frigga. the heroine of "Waverley. BRAGI. NE. gives name to the ruling dynasty of Portugal. BRADWARDIN. much frequented by tourists. called the House of Braganza. BRAG. BRAGANZA. the capital of Minho. the Norse god of poetry and eloquence. BRAGA (23). capital of Traz-os-Montes. on the liberation of Portugal from the yoke of Spain. 34 m. of Aberdeenshire. BRADWARDINE. of Oporto. JACK. died of the black death shortly after his consecration (1290-1348).ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. Page 404 of 2772 . archbishop of Canterbury.com the Council on Cromwell's death. the name of a baron and his daughter. a Scottish Highland district SW. surnamed "Doctor Profundus" from his treatise "De Causa Dei" against Pelagianism. in Portugal. chaplain to Edward III. received in Valhalla the heroes who fell in battle. Chennai 6. and resorted to for summer country quarters. represented as an old man with a long flowing beard and unwrinkled brow. a pretender who ingratiates himself with people above him.

and. BRAHE. and as such is not an object of worship. JOHN. or immediate relationship with. of noble birth.com BRAHAM. the most so in Europe of his day. TYCHO. one of the sacred caste of the Hindus that boasts of direct descent from. Brahma. circles round the E. of Jewish parents. Page 405 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. born in London. composed operas. BRAHMAPUTRA (i. or BRAHMIN. treatises on the ceremonial system of Brahminism. accepted an invitation of the Kaiser Rudolf II. he was. son of Brahma). Scott described him as "a beast of an actor. on the king's death. BRAHMA. v. and known all over Europe. from which all beings issue and into which they all merge. the custodians and mediators of religion. of the Himalayas. but an angel of a singer" (1774-1856). which. after a course of some 1800 Computer Lecturer. BRAHMAN. See TRIMURTI. with prescriptions bearing upon ritual. Chennai 6. of which VISHNU (q. however. e. was particularly effective in rendering the national songs. where he made observations for 20 years. discovered a new star in Cassiopeia. but a subject of meditation.) is the preserver AND SIVA (q. a celebrated tenor singer. and therefore of high-priestly rank. where he continued his work and had Kepler for assistant and pupil (1546-1601). killing that he may make alive. to Prague. BRAHMANAS.) the destroyer. and abounding in legends and speculations. in the Hindu religion and philosophy at one time the formless spirit of the Universe. v. compelled to retire under persecution at the hand of the nobles. a Swedish astronomer. had an observatory provided for him on an island in the Sound by the king. a river which rises in Tibet. CTSTI. and at another the creator of all things. spent his life in the study of the stars. were only dramas interspersed with songs.

director of the London fire brigade. Kshatriyas. Brahma.ramakalai@gmail. has no living rival. political. According to the religious conception of this class. like an inland sea. principles. and the Brahmaputra in British India. and in the lower part of its course overflows the land. BRAIDWOOD. the first incarnation of the universal spirit. church of God). founded on theistic. CTSTI. which triple incarnation constitutes a trimurti or trinity. e. born in Edinburgh. of great promise from a boy. 1833. Computer Lecturer. See CASTE. the Dihong in Assam. _b_. particularly Assam. settled in Vienna. JAMES. the creed and ritual of the Brahmans. In this way Brahma. Chennai 6. had four sons. JOHANNES. Vishnu.com m. or that social. or the universal spirit. originated in 1830 by Rammohun Roy. as well as a profession of a sense of the brotherhood of man no less than the unity of God. Page 406 of 2772 . Vaisyas. takes form or incarnates himself successively as Brahma. BRAHMO-SOMAJ (i. approaches Beethoven as no other does. and developed by Chunder Sen. BRAHMINISM. unitarian. a distinguished composer. and religious organisation which developed among the Aryans in the valley of the Ganges under the influence of the Brahmans. the appearance of compositions of his an event in the musical world.. born at Hamburg. it has numerous tributaries. distinguished for his heroism on the occasion of great fires both in Edinburgh and London (1790-1861). from whom issued the four castes of India--Brahmans. i. e. called the Sampo in Tibet. distinguished as a performer as well as a composer. and the rational ideas and philosophy of Europe. and Siva. or rather monotheistic. brings down twice as much mud as the Ganges. and Sudras--all the rest being outcasts or pariahs. a secession from traditional Hinduism. joins the Ganges. BRAHMS.

JOSEPH. archbishop of Armagh. was foolhardy enough once to engage. in public debate with such a dialectician as Thomas Hobbes on the questions of necessity and free-will (1594-1663). MISS TABITHA. 18 of which were patented. an engineer. BRAN. and of anything but a sweet temper. SIR FREDERICK. Peter's at Rome. architect. an ungainly maiden at forty-five. born in Barnsley. civil engineer. Computer Lecturer. president of the British Association in 1888. BRAMANTE. a blind Frenchman. named after him (1748-1814).ramakalai@gmail. his Life was written by Jonathan Edwards. MATTHEW. name given to Fingal's dog. a gouty humorist in "Humphrey Clinker". a high-handed Churchman and imitator of Laud. Yorkshire. Chennai 6. BRAMAH. and previously of Association of Engineers. 1818. born in Connecticut. laid the foundation of St. nowise to his credit. BRAMWELL. DONATO. invented printing in relief for the blind (1809-1852). CTSTI. BRAINERD.com BRAILLE. BRAMBLE. JOHN. yet generous and kind. born in Yorkshire. author of many mechanical inventions. who has a sister. _b_. among others the hydraulic press. BRAMHALL. Page 407 of 2772 . of a fretful temper. in whose house he died (1718-1747). American missionary to the Red Indians. which he did not live to complete (1444-1514).

JOHN.. THE HOUSE OF. born at Strassburg.com BRAND. a Swedish chemist. Chennai 6. wrote a "Popular Antiquities" (1744-1784). from which descended the kings of Prussia. born in London. but. SEBASTIAN. BRANDENBURG. and the nucleus of the Prussian kingdom. he returned to it in 1862. chemist. though they were received with more favour afterwards. BRANDES. BRANDT. and that figured on charts as late as 1755. BRANDENBURG (2. his views of the present tendency of literature in Europe provoked at first much opposition in Denmark. after a stay in Berlin. up to which time it was believed to exist. a satirical writer. 1692.ramakalai@gmail. BRANDAN. CTSTI. the opposition to his views were such that he was forced to leave Copenhagen. with fertile districts and woodlands here and there. born at Copenhagen.542). born in Durham. _d_. in quest of which voyages of discovery were undertaken as recently as the beginning of the 18th century. with the support of a strong party in his favour. BRANDE. such as silver. author of Computer Lecturer. ISLAND OF. of Jewish parents. ST. chanced on the discovery in 1669 of phosphorus while in quest of a solvent to transmute metals. GEORGE. a literary critic. Brandan as lying W. most of it a sandy plain. author of "Manual of Chemistry" and other works (1788-1866). is a central Prussian province. an illustrious German family dating from the 10th century. in the great northern plain of Germany. antiquary. an island reported of by St. BRANDT. into gold. of the Canary Islands. Page 408 of 2772 .

1807. a small river in Delaware. Indian chief who sided with the British in the American war. BRANDYWINE CREEK. BRASS. born in Perigord. Chennai 6. affected feeling for his clients. a knavish attorney in "Old Curiosity Shop"." BRANT.C. whom he fleeced. BRASIDAS. distinguished in the Peloponnesian war. and wrote Memoirs remarkable for the free-and-easy. of the flower of the Athenian army at Amphipolis. evil-spoken family in Miss Burney's "Evelina. called latten. Page 409 of 2772 . and insculpt with figures and inscriptions of a Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. from her fondness for brandy. THE. _d_. a brave and good man. with a small body of helots and mercenaries. inlaid in a slab of stone. SAMPSON. contemporary of Montaigne. and vivid delineations of the characters of the most celebrated of his contemporaries (1527-1614). the defeat at the expense of his life. a nickname for Queen Anne.com the "Narrenschiff" or "Ship of Fools. a Spartan general. BRANDY NAN. BRASSES. led the life of a knight-errant. in 422 B.ramakalai@gmail. PIERRE DE BOURDEILLES. a vulgar. a French chronicler. faithful. BRANGTONS. his most celebrated action. JOSEPH. BRANTOME." of which there have been many translations and not a few imitations (1458-1521). sepulchral tablets of a mixed metal.. scene of a victory of the British over the Americans in 1777.

. so called from his fearlessness in battle. occupies the eastern angle of the continent. and comprises the Amazon basin. who. that succeeded the weak Silver Age.. due to a change in food from succulent to dry. Napoleon had on one occasion said. Chennai 6. contracted for the construction of railways in all parts of the world (1805-1870). and the maritime highlands. almost equal to Europe. BRAY. and of value (1809-1856). the oldest in England is at Stoke d'Abernon. its vicar from 1540 to 1588. born in Cheshire. an inflammatory disease in sheep. "That man is a lion. James II. BRAZEN AGE. in the Greek mythology the age of violence. William III. German archaeologist. a Berkshire village. forests tenanted by an endless variety of Computer Lecturer..000). born at Gotha. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. See AGES. never scrupled to change his principles. BRAUN. the tablelands of Matto Grosso. the upper basin of the Paraguay. BRAZIL (14. famous for Simon Aleyn. Marshal Ney. Queen Anne. in Surrey. AUGUSTE EMIL. he lived in the reigns of Charles II. a great railway contractor. BRASSEY. THOMAS. the largest South American State. and George I.com monumental character. Great stretches of the interior are uninhabitable swamp and forest lands. to retain his living. BRAVEST OF THE BRAVE." BRAXY. and the name given to the mutton of sheep affected with it. works numerous. Page 410 of 2772 . with the valleys of the Parana and San Francisco.

and an empire in 1822. and government unsettled. fled to his colony. The population at the seaports is mostly white. of great value for dyeing red. is used as bread. and annexed by Portugal. expelled by the French in 1808. Chennai 6. when roasted. Discovered in 1500. the coasts are often humid and unhealthy. the colouring principle being named Brasilin. Pedro II. The vast mineral wealth includes diamonds. of the Congo for France. Bahia and Pernambuco. _b_. rubber. an island in the Adriatic. BRECHE-DE-ROLAND. and copper. Page 411 of 2772 . CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. the other seaports. yields marble. education is very backward.ramakalai@gmail. and fruit are exported. but the upper levels have a fine climate. the religion. BRAZZA. translator into French of Bopp's "Comparative Grammar". Roman Catholic. which was made a kingdom 1815. a South Sea island tree producing a fruit which. The emperor. belonging to Austria. gold. mercury. BRAZIL-WOOD. The capital is Rio Janeiro. PIERRE SAVORGNAN DE. the Portuguese king. BRAZZA (22). and Indian. cotton. inland it is negro. a gorge in the dep. and obtained a governorship. The language is Portuguese. is richly wooded. acquired land N. which. born at Landau. and a republic established on the federal system. Almost all the country is within the tropics. timber of all kinds. noted for its wines. explorer. a French philologist. which has been harassed ever since by desultory civil war. 1852. Most of the trade is with Britain and America. BREAL. was driven out in 1889. 1832..com brilliant-plumed birds and insects. born in Rome. _b_. of the Haute-Pyrenees. mulatto. MICHEL. a wood found in Brazil. BREADFRUIT-TREE. Vegetable products are indescribably rich and varied. coffee and sugar are the chief crops.

a French chronometer-maker. W. BREGNET. BREHM. 85 ft. Brabant." BREECHES REVIEW.ramakalai@gmail. and issued hence his declaration prior to his restoration. an authority in it. BREDA (23). BRECHIN. Charles II. ALFRED EDMUND. after Hamburg.com according to tradition. BREECHES BIBLE. the capital of N. BREMEN (126). a body of judge-created laws that for long formed the common law of Ireland. in which "aprons" is rendered "breeches. of Montrose. with a cathedral and an old round tower near it. Charlemagne's Paladin of the name of Roland cleft with one stroke of his sword when he was beset by the Gascons. resided here for a time during his exile. Page 412 of 2772 . so called at one time. German naturalist. 7. who had been a leather-breeches maker at Charing Cross. and whether it was at first traditional. is on the Computer Lecturer. a famous inventor of astronomical instruments (1747-1823). a town in Forfarshire. the chief seaport of Germany. so called from its rendering in Gen. the only one of the kind in Scotland besides being at Abernethy. The origin of the code is unknown. CTSTI. from one Place. many manuscript redactions of portions exist still. his chief work "Illustrirtes Thierleben" (1829-1884). the _Westminster_. iii. high. Esk. fortified town. BREHON LAWS. on the S. born at Neuchatel. Chennai 6. the Geneva Bible. existed from prehistoric times till Cromwell's conquest. a place of historical interest.

" are perhaps her best stories. high. BRENDAN. after taking and pillaging Rome. as the gold was being weighed out he threw his sword and helmet into the opposite scale. Page 413 of 2772 . distinguished in the Burmese and Chinese wars (1786-1850). died in 577. BRENNUS. BRENNER PASS." "The President's Daughter. which facilitates trade between Venice.com Weser. and Austria. was one of the principal cities of the Hanseatic League.C.. it is the head-quarters of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company. between Innsbruck and Botzen.ramakalai@gmail. 6853 ft. BREMER. 300 B. Chennai 6. pass on the central Tyrolese Alps. "The Neighbours. founded for the accommodation of large vessels in 1830. a highly popular Swedish novelist. crossed by a railway. and paper industries add to its prosperity. ST. founded a monastery at Clonfert. invested the Capitol for so long that the Romans offered him a thousand pounds' weight of gold to retire. from its mouth. half the total of emigrants sail from its docks. CTSTI. with a large hospice for emigrants. FREDRIKA. BREMER. a Gallic chief. celebrated for his voyages in quest of "a land beyond human ken" and his discovery of "a paradise amid the waves of the sea". adding _Vae Computer Lecturer. on the estuary of the Weser. Textiles. 50 m. an Irish saint. Germany.. BREMERHAVEN. SIR JAMES. with a territory less than Rutlandshire. the port of Bremen. tobacco. in his ninety-fourth year. born in Finland. has been called the Jane Austen of Sweden." and "Strife and Peace. rear-admiral. and is a free city. Its export and import trade is very varied. who. born at Tralee.

silks. a Roman temple excavated in 1822. is on the Oder.ramakalai@gmail. BRESLAU (335). leather. and has a first-class fortress." an insolence which so roused Camillus. BRENZ. near Lerwick. one of the Shetland Isles.com victis_. and has a large woollen industry and grain market. on the Mella and Garza. 50 m. market-town in Middlesex. there are a cathedral. waters Bassano. and debouches near Venice. BRESCIA (43). of London. and library. BRESSAY. "Woe to the conquered. was a roving genius (1778-1849). that figures in history and literature. and Danube trade. BRENTFORD. university. BRENTANO. E. BRENTA. poet of the romanticist school. its manufactures are woollens. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. by rail SE. 10 m. on the Brent. of Frankfort. the reformer of Wuertemberg. the capital of Silesia. and now a classical museum. and one of the authors of the Wuertemberg Confession. it stands in the centre of the Baltic. 150 m. Chennai 6. with one of the Computer Lecturer. as well as a catechism extensively used (1499-1570). an Italian river. an art gallery and library. Page 414 of 2772 . JOHANN. an important commercial and manufacturing centre. a city of Lombardy. of Milan. W. and totally routed the whole host. that he turned his back and offered battle to him and to his army. rises in the Tyrol. and wine. second city in Prussia. has two cathedrals. CTSTI. brother of Goethe's Bettina von Arnim. North Sea. CLEMENS.

born at Gera. a German rationalistic theologian. born at Courrieres. has large shipbuilding yards and arsenal. BRETSCHNEIDER. Computer Lecturer. flowing style (1800-1873). 1788. 1827. led a bohemian life. much regarded for his sound judgment in critical matters. first made a marine arsenal by Richelieu. CTSTI. besides satirical writings. BARON DE. "Handbuch der Dogmatik. a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God." and the comic epic. and one of the safest. held political posts. composed. and paper manufactures. KARL GOTTLIEB. served in the army. Page 415 of 2772 . waxcloth. an ex-secretary of Louis XVI. in Pas-de-Calais. its industries are chiefly related to naval equipment. (1733-1807).com best natural harbours in the world. BRETON. Spanish poet and dramatist. BREST (76). "Almanach der Heiligen auf das Jahr." founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote. with a magnificent harbour." "Wallers Leben und Sitten. BRETON DE LOS HERREROS." and an edition of Melanchthon's works. a French _genre_ and landscape painter. BRETEUIL. wrote comedies and satires in an easy. HENRY GOTTFRIED VON. with leather. Chennai 6. "Graf Esau" (1739-1810). his theological writings are of permanent value. of France. a strongly-fortified naval station in the extreme NW. JULES ADOLPHE. his chief works. BRETHREN OF THE COMMON LIFE. one of the chief naval stations in France. BRETSCHNEIDER. a German satirical writer.ramakalai@gmail.

and for his optical inventions. the father. from his fondness for horrible subjects (1559-1637).. "HELLISH" B. a title apparently of some kind of acknowledged supremacy among the Anglo-Saxon kings. John. BREUGHEL. Page 416 of 2772 . specially distinguished for his discoveries in light. (1510-1570).. a father and two sons. g. author of "Calendar of Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. BREWER. such as the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope. and the "Pontifical. Computer Lecturer. as well as Lives of Euler.com BRETWALDA. a book containing the daily services in the Roman Catholic Church and corresponding to the English Prayer-Book. Jacob Arteveld. BREWER OF GHENT. connected with most scientific associations of his time. wrote largely on scientific and other subjects. e. BREWSTER." in the pages of which Carlyle served his apprenticeship. a son. and the leader in war." his work the sole authority on Henry's early reign (1810-1879). a Life of Newton. called "OLD" B. edited the "Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. London.ramakalai@gmail. Peter. SIR DAVID. his studies in optics. professor of English Literature in King's College. differs from the "Missal." which gives those for special occasions. historian. JOHN SHERREN. Chennai 6. CTSTI. BREVET`. a commission entitling an officer in the army to a nominal rank above his real rank. Peter. BREVIARY.. an eminent Scottish natural philosopher. a family of Butch painters. born at Jedburgh. either from his dress or from the vivid freshness of his colours (1560-1625).'s Reign. "VELVET" B. and the other." which gives the services connected with the celebration of the Eucharist.

WILLIAM. and disciple of St. Principal of the United Colleges of St. the twenty-fifth battle in which he defeated them. 19. in 1620. from Grenoble. v. and afterwards of Edinburgh. 4300 ft. an Irish chief. being. died defeating the Danes at Clontarf. BRICE'S. BRIANCON. a Uranid with 50 heads and 100 arms. ST. who years before defeated him as candidate for the Natural Philosophy chair in Edinburgh. Andrews. Massachusetts. being succeeded at St. 42 m. according to another account. one of THE GIANTS (q. CTSTI. BRIAREUS. i. and for a time a probationer (1781-1868). Martin. a day in 1002 on which a desperate attempt was made to massacre all the Danes in England and stamp them wholly out. bred originally for the Church. ST. Heaven and Earth. BRIAN BOROIHME. an attempt which was avenged by the Danish king. the highest town in France. leader of the Pilgrim Fathers in the _Mayflower_. Page 417 of 2772 . e. whom Poseidon cast into the sea and buried under Etna. Festival.ramakalai@gmail.. and made great efforts for the civilisation of the country. above sea-level. Sweyn. but whom Zeus delivered to aid him against the Titans.. who conveyed them to Plymouth. with a trade in cutlery. Computer Lecturer. BRICE. son of Ouranos and Gaia. SE. and others of the class. Andrews by James David Forbes. bishop of Tours in the beginning of the 5th century.com Kepler. it is said. had been a clergyman of the Church of England.). Nov. who early in the 10th century established his rule over a great part of Ireland. BREWSTER. Chennai 6.

entered a monastery at 14. of Computer Lecturer. a village on Allan water. a covered way in Venice leading from the Ducal Palace to the State prison. BRIDGENORTH.com BRICK. so called from St." BRIDGET. NE. born at Dundalk. a house of correction in Blackfriars. Venice. Page 418 of 2772 . 58 m.ramakalai@gmail. JEFFERSON. Feb. MRS. S. a thriving manufacturing town and seaport of Connecticut. and over which culprits under capital sentence were transported to their doom. Columba. founded monasteries. Patrick and St. MAJOR RALPH. with a mild climate and mineral waters. an Irish saint.. of Stirling. N. and 72 monasteries of the Order. ST. so called from a ceremony in which her espousals were celebrated by the Doge casting a ring into the Adriatic. Also the name of a Swedish saint in the 14th century. a Roundhead in "Peveril of the Peak. CTSTI. London. 1 (453-523). Chennai 6.. BRIDGETON. takes rank in Ireland with St. a character in "Tristram Shandy. BRIDGE OF ALLAN.S. BRIDGE OF SIGHS.." BRIDE OF THE SEA. BRIDEWELL. a manufacturing town in New Jersey." BRIDGEPORT (48). 3 m. Festival. an American politician in "Martin Chuzzlewit. BRIDGET. founded a new Order. whence the name. from New York. Bridget's well. U. near it. 38 m.

U. a college. a seaport town in Somersetshire. embarking in it all his wealth. of Flamborough Head. capital of Barbadoes. FRANCIS EGERTON. born in New Hampshire. it has suffered frequently from hurricane and fever. called "Bridgewater Treatises. bequeathed L8000 for the best work on natural theology. seat of the government. SW. he did not take part in politics. dumb." who decided cases by the throw of dice. a judge in Rabelais' "Pantagruel. 29 m. BRIDGWATER. celebrated for his self-sacrificing devotion to the improvement and extension of canal navigation in England. BRIDGEWATER. SW. 8TH EARL OF. which his trustees expended in the production of eight works by different eminent men.ramakalai@gmail. Dickens gives an account of her in his "American Notes" (1829-1889).. educated for the Church. and blind child. JUDGE. with a chalybeate spring. noted for the surprising development of intellectual faculty notwithstanding these drawbacks. CTSTI. &c. died unmarried (1736-1803). BRIDLINGTON. of Bristol. a watering-place in Yorkshire. FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON. a deaf. LAURA. the bishop. Chennai 6. though he was a supporter of Pitt.S. BRIDGEWATER. Computer Lecturer." all to be found in Bohn's Scientific Library (1758-1829).com Philadelphia. BRIDGETOWN (21).. 6 m. BRIDLEGOOSE. BRIDGMAN. 3RD DUKE OF. in which he was aided by the skill of Brindley. Page 419 of 2772 .

France. CTSTI. BRIENNE. called brigadier. which was accepted by Napier. BRIGADE. 2 m. Page 420 of 2772 . distinguished in several engagements (1797-1814). long. or battalions. _d_. a powerful British tribe that occupied the country between the Humber and the Roman Wall. BRIENZ. the chief of the Mormons (1801-1877). BRIGGS. of Cotes-du-Nord. a distinguished English mathematician. above sea-level. HENRY. a favourite resort for tourists. abounding in fish. and is the system now in use (1561-1631). (19). made an important improvement on the system of logarithms. descendant of an old French family. 1237. a thriving. BRIEG (20). and of great depth in certain parts. lake in the Swiss canton of Bern. Town of. VISCOUNT. LAKE OF. first Savilian professor at Oxford. JEAN DE.. 8 m. a seaport and an episcopal city in the dep. the inventor. ST. elected king of Jerusalem. over 800 ft. a body of troops under a general officer. third.ramakalai@gmail. town in Prussian Silesia. then emperor of Constantinople. squadrons. broad. BRIGHAM YOUNG. commercially speaking.com BRIDPORT. a British admiral. 25 m. BRIGANTES. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. consisting of a number of regiments. of Breslau. SE. BRIEUC.

BLIGHT'S DISEASE. he was closely associated with the 1867 Reform Act. an animated and eloquent orator. a museum. he was a strong opponent of protection. due to several diseased conditions of the organ. originally built for George IV. _b_. engaged in manufacture. of Quaker birth and profession. though his business interests suffered severely. Gladstone pronounced one of the noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another (1811-1889). schools of science and art.ramakalai@gmail. took an early interest in political reform. Richard Bright. so called from Dr. BRIGHT. in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow University. the game laws. he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. and soon was associated with Cobden in its great agitation. BRIGHTON (128). the principal building is the Pavilion or Marine Palace. he seceded from Gladstone's Government on the Egyptian policy in 1882. S. of which it is virtually a suburb.com BRIGHT. Page 421 of 2772 . English statesman. a splendid aquarium. Also the name of a suburb of Melbourne. a disease in the kidneys. and the 1870 Irish Land Act. son of a Lancashire cotton spinner. Chennai 6. Oxford. a fine parade extends along the whole length of the sea front. of London. he advocated financial reform and the reform of Indian administration. Irish Church Disestablishment 1869. historian." a book of superior literary merit. CTSTI. and again in 1881. in 1873. but was interrupted by illness. a much-frequented watering-place in Sussex. JOHN. 1832. entering Parliament in 1843. a place of fashionable resort ever since George IV. took a fancy to it. and on the outbreak of the American Civil War supported the North. born near Rochdale. who first Computer Lecturer. Master of University College. he was a man of lofty and unblemished character. has many handsome edifices. JAMES FRANCK. public library and public gallery. 50 m. at his death Mr. he joined the Anti-Corn-Law League on its formation in 1839. author of "English History for the Use of Public Schools. his Ministerial career began in 1868. and later of the Crimean war. and strenuously opposed Home Rule in 1886.

a Dutch writer. born at Antwerp. MARQUISE DE. of whom Paul. published posthumously. a mechanician and engineer. and three days by steam from Alexandria. regarded rivers as mere "feeders to canals" (1716-1772). landscape painters. and for Palestine in mediaeval. Page 422 of 2772 . his best pictures are in Rome. on the Adriatic coast. JAN TEN. BRIL BROTHERS. Computer Lecturer. brother. notorious for her gallantries and for poisoning her father. was professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825). BRIN`DISI (15). devoted his skill and genius to the construction of canals. employed in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the Vatican at Rome. has risen in importance since the opening of the Overland Route as a point of departure for the East. was the greater artist. a seaport of Southern Italy. See AQUA TOFANA.ramakalai@gmail. bred a millwright. it was the port of embarkation for Greece in ancient times. CTSTI. _b_. and two sisters for the sake of their property. 1834. a French gastronomist.com investigated its nature. under the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater. it is 60 hours by rail from London. BRINDLEY. distinguished as a critic in the department of belles-lettres. the younger. an art which one of her paramours taught her (1630-1676). Chennai 6. BRILLAT-SAVARIN. author of "Physiologie du Gout. as the greatest service he could render to his country. BRINVILLIERS. was tortured and beheaded. BRINK. born in Derbyshire. MATTHEW AND PAUL. JAMES. the poison she used appears to have been the Tofana poison." a book full of wit and learning.

SIR JAMES. 500 m. a man of science and an astronomer. was made governor of St. Chennai 6. BRISBANE. and what it led to. and in 1807 the island of Curacoa. prosperity began when the colony was opened to free settlement in 1842. saw service as a soldier. British general. BRISSAC. BRISBANE. Melbourne. BRISE`IS. as Homer relates. 25 m. Vincent (1769-1829). born near Largs. succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society (1773-1860). for ten long years. was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the colony. captured in 1796 Dutch warships. CTSTI. three ships of the line among them. from the sea. it has steam communication with Australian ports and London. of Sydney. capital of Queensland. in Saldanha Bay. a naval officer of distinction under Lords Hood and Nelson. gave name to the capital of Queensland. on the Brisbane River.com BRISBANE (49). Page 423 of 2772 . naval officer. who fell to the lot of Achilles among the spoil of a victory. but whom Agamemnon carried off from him. the name of a noble family which supplied several marshals to France. a young virgin priestess. Computer Lecturer. it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city incorporated in 1859. and railway communication with Sydney. the theme of the "Iliad" being the "wrath of Achilles" on this account.ramakalai@gmail. served under Lord Howe and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829). and Adelaide. is the chief trading centre and seaport of the Colony. in consequence. Ayrshire. whereupon he retired to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further part in the war. to its prolongation. SIR THOMAS MACDOUGALL. brother of the preceding. N. BRISBANE. ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES. catalogued over 7000 stars.

it has a cathedral. Chennai 6. and inhabited by Celts. 8 m. son of a pastry-cook. French publicist and journalist. it forms a county in itself. in length. HENRI. midway between the Jacobins and them. and with a depth of from 5 to 40 fathoms.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. and 118 m. is subject to very high tides. JEAN PIERRE. between S. from 5 to 43 in breadth. returned on the outbreak of the Revolution. as Gaul also was. numerous rivers flow into it. from its mouth. joined the Girondists. a name for Britain as old as the days of Caesar. consists of Computer Lecturer. bred to the bar. is the largest town in Gloucestershire. took to letters. and S. an inlet in SW. and completed in 1850. formed a Radical administration in 1898. but resigned after a few months. a French revolutionary. 6 m. BRISTOL (286). fell under suspicion like the rest of the party. designed by Robert Stephenson. named after him Brissotins. two colleges. spent some time in the Bastille. of London. a library and many educational institutions. after holding presidentships in the Chamber became premier in 1885. or rather of a party of his own. Wales and Devon and Cornwall. tried and guillotined (1754-1793). it manufactures tobacco. born at Chartres. with Irish. and as such dangerous to shipping. which was short-lived. liberated. W. boots and shoes. W. 1835. BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE. by a charter of Edward III. and a great seaport. Page 424 of 2772 . _b_. of England. he went to America. a railway bridge spanning the Menai Strait.com BRISSON. Indian. sat in the National Assembly. BRITANNIA. was arrested. became an outspoken disciple of Rousseau. BRISSOT DE WARVILLE. became one of the leaders. American trade. BRISTOL CHANNEL. the seventh in England. on the Avon.

antiquities. and anthropological. an association. is a lady knight in the "Faerie Queene. BRITISH MUSEUM. BRITOMART. the name given to John Bull when roused by opposition. in Montagu House as it happened. of British America. a national institution in London for the collection of MSS. and cereals do well.ramakalai@gmail. ethnology. being 800 m. Chennai 6. and objects of natural history. long and four times the size of Great Britain. and from the United States on the S. BRITISH ASSOCIATION. and took five years in erecting. for the public benefit till 1759. Page 425 of 2772 . geographical. of men of all departments of science for the encouragement of scientific research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge. founded as far back as 1700. which holds its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished scientist.com hollow tubes of wrought-iron plates riveted together.. though not opened. of Sir David Brewster's suggestion. books. BRITANNICUS. poisoned by Nero. BRITISH LION." representing chastity with a resistless magic spear. it is divided into eight sections--mathematical. the son of Claudius and Messalina. mechanical. BRITISH ARISTIDES. now in that selected central city of the country. prints and drawings. economic. to Alaska on the N. rich in timber and minerals.. chemical. biological. a western fertile prov. Computer Lecturer. geological. rain is abundant. CTSTI.. now in this. extending between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific. name applied to Andrew Marvell from his corresponding incorruptible integrity in life and poverty at death. &c. BRITISH COLUMBIA (98).

from Nov.com BRITTANY (3. a third of its inhabitants still retain their Breton language. that section of the Church which inclines to liberal opinions in theology. are a series of inland lakes in the E. so called from the powerful parties represented in it. JOHN. BROAD CHURCH. 1744 to Mar. a southern suburb of London. and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or form. are "Antiquities of Great Britain" and "Cathedral Antiquities of England". born in Wiltshire in humble position. CTSTI. they are Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. perhaps to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements distinctive of the Christian system. a coalition of great weight under Mr. and works of value. on the Surrey side. THE NORFOLK. BROAD ARROW.162). land of the Bretons. 1755.. BRITTON. topographer and antiquary. comprising the peninsula opposite Devon and Cornwall. the "Antiquities in Normandy" did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects (1771-1857). Pelham. his principal works. a stamp like an arrow-head to indicate government property. BROAD BOTTOM MINISTRY. stretching westward between the Bays of Cancale and Biscay." instalment of a work embracing all the counties of England and Wales. an old French prov. Page 426 of 2772 . author of "Beauties of Wiltshire. BROADS. was in former times a duchy. a district of the city that has of late years extended immensely. BRIXTON. his chief work is 14 volumes. of Norfolkshire.ramakalai@gmail. which look like expansions of the rivers.

Gobin manufactory (1773-1810). anthropologist. a mineralogist and geologist. in comparison with whom Gulliver was a pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked from the lazy finger of a maid. director of the St. called also Picts' towers and Duns." BROCA. Computer Lecturer. famous for a "SPECTRE" so called. BROCKEN. Chennai 6. a single doorway. dry-stone circular towers. an eminent French surgeon. and open to the sky. a man of scholarly parts. or BLOCKSBERG.) of the Harz Mts. held a succession of important appointments. keen air. long an object of superstition. the mists. cultivated to the summit. BROCKHAUS. an imaginary country in "Gulliver's Travels. Page 427 of 2772 . BROCHANT DE VILLIERS. properly a native of the country. but which is only the beholder's shadow projected through. BROCHS. PAUL. and one of the chief French evolutionists. began business in Amsterdam. fishing and boating attractions." and a great many other important works (1772-1823). the highest peak (3740 ft.com favourite holiday resorts on account of the expanse of strange scenery. publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon. each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple". CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. and magnified by. of Scotland. a German publisher. and W. BROB`DINGNAG." inhabited by giants. found on the edge of straths or lochs in the N. FRIEDRICH ARNOLD. born at Dortmund. abundant vegetation. and was the author of a number of medical works (1824-1880). but settled in Leipzig. born in Paris. with thick Cyclopean walls..

author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th century". BRODIE. DUC DE. marshal of France. CHARLES VICTOR. BRODIE. Computer Lecturer. BROGLIE. being "a firm disciplinarian". BROGLIE. in June 1813. 1821 BROGLIE. a Conservative politician and litterateur. professor of surgery. ALBERT. _b_. and the American ship _Chesapeake_. DUC DE. born in Banff. for 30 years surgeon in St. Page 428 of 2772 . SIR BENJAMIN. born at Ipswich. held office under Louis Philippe. SIR PHILIP BOWES VERE. was summoned by royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak of the Revolution.ramakalai@gmail. George's Hospital. 49 guns. rear-admiral. negotiated a treaty with England for the abolition of slavery. and died at Muenster (1718-1804). and likely to be long remembered in the naval annals of the country (1776-1841). was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard. one of the most brilliant naval actions on record. did numerous busts and statues (1815-1881). retired after the _coup d'etat_ (1785-1870). a forest in Brittany famous in Arthurian legend. was medical adviser to three sovereigns. surgeon. in which he boarded the latter and ran up the British flag. president of the Royal Society (1783-1862). Chennai 6. 38 guns. son of the following. distinguished in the Seven Years' War. could not persuade his troops to fire on the rioters. and an enemy of the Second Empire.com BROCOLIANDO. a Scottish sculptor. was an Orleanist. celebrated for the action between his ship _Shannon_. had to "mount and ride". a Liberal politician. took command of the Emigrants in 1792. WILLIAM. BROKE. CTSTI. born in Wiltshire. a French statesman. born at Paris. VICTOR FRANCOIS.

in Kensington. district of London. originally his servant.ramakalai@gmail. BROME. now a fashionable district. an elementary fluid of a dark colour and a disagreeable smell. his great work "Travels and Archaeological Researches in Greece" (1780-1842). and some political (1626-1666). BROME. extracted from bittern. SW. BROMPTON. SE. BROeNDSTED. a market-town in Kent. _d_. Chennai 6. a cavalier." where by excavations he made important discoveries. BROMINE. writer of songs and lampoons instinct with wit. a busy town on the Brahe. some festive. and were characterised by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study. it suffered much in times of war. and where there is a home called Warner's College for clergymen's widows. and of his songs some are amatory. a liquid which remains after the separation of salt. and spirit. his plays are numerous. an English comic playwright. now called S. author of "Travels and Researches in Greece.com BROMBERG (41). Computer Lecturer. RICHARD. whim. being a frontier town. with several public buildings and the Oratory. CTSTI. Page 429 of 2772 . in Prussian Posen. of London. and a rival. once a rustic locality. where the bishops of Rochester had their palace. PETER OLAF. ALEXANDER. 1652. 10 m. BROMLEY (21). a Danish archaeologist. Kensington. contemporary with Ben Jonson.

director of the porcelain works at Sevres. to Haworth. Page 430 of 2772 ." a remarkable production. CTSTI. and in some cases overlapping these two. the name of three ladies. "Jane Eyre. Charlotte. and Anne.ramakalai@gmail. in conjunction with her sisters. daughters of a Yorkshire clergyman of Irish extraction: CHARLOTTE. she set to novel writing. Nothing daunted. French botanist. Nicholls.com BRONGNIART. BRONTE (16). ANNE (Acton). two years younger. first. introduced a new classification of reptiles." which proved a failure." appeared. Yorkshire. and she died (1816-1855). EMILY (Ellis). on the western slope of Etna. which gave title of duke to Nelson. author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic arts (1770-1847). on her return. revived painting on glass. at the age of four. four years younger. son of the succeeding. born at Paris. a town in Sicily. wrote "Wuthering Heights. removed with her father." then "Shirley. prepared and published a volume of poems under the pseudonyms respectively of "Currer. born at Thornton. where she lived most of her days. ALEXANDRE. BRONTE. in the same county. BRONGNIART. but her constitution gave way. and her fame was established. which she did not live to develop. the age in the history of a race intermediate between the Stone Age and the Iron. Computer Lecturer. when weapons and tools were made of bronze. collaborateur with Cuvier. spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher. BRONZE AGE. but very ephemeral productions. showing still greater genius. Mr. ADOLPHE. Emily. a moorland parish. Ellis. also wrote two novels. In 1854 she married her father's curate. and her success was instant. the first to discover and explain the function of the pollen in plants (1801-1876). a French chemist and zoologist. and Acton Bell." and then "Villette. Chennai 6. poet rather than novelist.

_b_. author of the "Fool of Quality. educated in England.. CTSTI. STOPFORD." a "Primer of English Literature. but continued to preach in Bloomsbury." and "Life of Milton. wrote. BROOKE.S. Irish dramatist and novelist. an abortive literary community organised on Fourier's principles. after other clerical appointments became incumbent of Bedford Chapel. Computer Lecturer.com BRONZI`NO. a Florentine painter. BROOKE. arrived at Sarawak. assisted the governor in suppressing an insurrection. in Borneo. among other things. born at Benares. "Descent of Christ into Hell" (1502-1572). entered the Indian army. U. conceived the idea of suppressing piracy and establishing civilisation in the Indian Archipelago. Page 431 of 2772 . Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the community. sailed in a well-manned and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object. being succeeded in Sarawak by a nephew (1803-1868). his famous picture. finally returned to England and died. wrote the "Life of Robertson of Brighton. 1832." "Theology in the English Poets. and was made rajah. born in co." "History of English Poetry. HENRY. 8 m. returned in consequence to England. Bloomsbury." a book commended by John Wesley and much lauded by Charles Kingsley. Cavan. Chennai 6. rajah of Sarawak. from conscientious motives seceded from the Church. swept the seas of pirates. from Boston. for which he was rewarded by the English government." all works in evidence of critical ability of a high order. preacher and writer. painted both in oil and fresco.ramakalai@gmail. was wounded in the Burmese war. a great admirer of Michael Angelo. BROOKE. a poem called "Universal Beauty. was appointed governor of Labuan. the former rajah being deposed in his favour. SIR JAMES. and Queen's chaplain. born in Donegal. by George Ripley in 1840. BROOK FARM." and a play called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783). and the only one of his works that survives. and wrote an account of it. brought the province under good laws.

BROSSES. born at Dijon. sent to Russia to inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry and labouring classes there. clothing. it is now incorporated in Greater New York. and his editor and commentator (1671-1743). parks.com BROOKLYN (806). RICHARD. his report published in his "Russians of the South". a fanatic. the largest in the world. and educated at the High School and University of that city. on Long Island. and the fourth in the Union. CHARLES DE. separated from New York by the East River. born in London. he was the author of several works (1816-1874). a French litterateur. friend of Boileau. writing the "Essence of Parliament. was admitted to Computer Lecturer. was on the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_. formed a connection with _Punch_ in 1851. chemicals. extensive docks and warehouses. metallic wares. and pleasure grounds. has many fine buildings. and tobacco. dock. has 10 m. and storehouse. HENRY. of water front. manufactures include glass. the city is really a part of New York. as well as by some 12 lines of ferry boats plied by steam. CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY. who believed and persuaded others to believe that the English people were the ten lost tribes of Israel (1757-1824). born in Newfoundland." and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor in 1870. CTSTI. novelist and journalist. and connected with it by a magnificent suspension bridge. a suburb of New York. Page 432 of 2772 . though ranking as a city. BROSSETTE. BROOKS. born at Lyons. there is a naval yard. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. a French archaeologist. LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX. BROTHERS. born in Edinburgh. as well as in Syria and Egypt. BROUGHAM. a mile broad. wrote among other subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and prehistoric man (1709-1777). and does an enormous shipping trade.

BROUGHTON. RHODA. one of the founders of the _Edinburgh Review_. BROUGHTON. a writer on scientific. entering Parliament in 1810. novelist. excluded from promotion in Scotland by his liberal principles. LORD. speedily acquired a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in Crown libel actions. and law reform. her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well". won universal popular favour. 1840. spent his last days at Cannes. Jeffrey. and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. an English seaman. he associated with the Whig opposition. companion of Vancouver. the capital of the Turkish empire till the taking of Constantinople in 1453. and philosophical themes. a city in the extreme NW. 12 m. Computer Lecturer. 1820.. BROUSSA (37). but four years afterwards his political career closed. Chennai 6. Olympus. by his eloquence in the cause of Queen Caroline. historical. BROUGHTON. and. he joined the English bar in 1808. of Asiatic Turkey. wrote also "Cometh Up as a Flower. where he died (1778-1868). became Lord Chancellor in 1830. near Dundee. and a favourite place of residence of Dundee merchants.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. Page 433 of 2772 . from the Sea of Marmora. at the foot of Mt. threw himself into the agitation for the abolition of slavery. also of London University. See HOBHOUSE. and is celebrated for its baths." "Red as a Rose is She. _b_. discovered a portion of Oceania (1763-1822). political. and Sidney Smith.com the Scotch bar in 1800. the cause of education." &c. a man of versatile ability and untiring energy. WILLIAM ROBERT. abounds in mosques. with villas. he was a supporter of many popular institutions. but his violence and eccentricity hurt his influence. a watering-place. BROUGHTY FERRY (9). along with Horner.

or pretext for. mostly of low. a member of the Parlement of Paris. British general. born near Elgin. BROUWER. FORD MADOX. distinguished both in the Peninsular and in the Crimean war. JOSEPH VICTOR. born in Philadelphia. when in command of the Light Division (1790-1863). BROUSSON.com BROUSSAIS." "Edgar Huntly. the organisation of the Fronde. an American novelist. died in France. CHARLES BROCKDEN. and disease into too much or too little (1772-1838). annulled her marriage. as familiar with it. SIR GEORGE. resolved life into excitation. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. BROUSSEL. Page 434 of 2772 . was severely wounded at Inkerman. but declared her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876). was the cause of. whose arrest. the Pope. born at Calais. BROWN. one of which is "Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III. a French materialist. a Dutch painter. BROWN." &c. his best-known fictions are "Wieland. (1771-1810).ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. an English painter. of Quaker connection. in 1648. which. anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism (1821-1893). in 1816. and was broken on the wheel. BROWN. he depicted with great spirit (1605-1638). a French Huguenot who returned to France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 1698. the first wife of the Duc de Berri. AMY. born in England. his subjects nearly all of a historical character. vulgar life.". founder of the "physiological school" of medicine. BROWN.

and commenced quiet practice in Edinburgh." "Rab and his Friends." and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787). near Abernethy. JOHN. BROWN. son of a poor weaver. JOHN. he was "the best and truest friend of all my life. who says of him. an American sculptor. seized. and by none more than by John Ruskin. Perthshire. and those due to deficiency of excitation. and hanged (1800-1859). JOHN. Chennai 6. was surrounded. JOHN." and other works. the eminent surgeon. Page 435 of 2772 . Berwickshire. with six others. a man of considerable learning. of Haddington. those resulting from redundancy of excitation. and resolutely opposed the project of making it a slave state. reduced diseases into two classes.. was a pupil of James Syme. tried. seized on the State armoury at Harper's Ferry in hope of a rising. CTSTI. HENRY KIRKE. settled in Kansas. became a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington. BROWN." "Pet Marjorie. born at Bunkle. and deep piety. educated in Edinburgh High School and at Edinburgh University.ramakalai@gmail. a self-educated Scotch divine. was a fine and finely-cultured man. left an orphan at 11. author of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on the Old and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). BROWN.. great-grandson of the preceding. BROWN. born at Carpow.D.com BROWN. founder of the Brunonian system of medicine.. in the interest of emancipation. a colossal one of Washington among them (1814-1886). born at Biggar.. M." "John Leech. author of "Horae Subsecivae. author of "Dictionary of the Bible. Nothing can tell the loss to me in his death. American slavery abolitionist. entrenched himself armed in it. See BROUSSAIS. nor the grief to how many greater souls than mine that had been possessed in patience through his love" (1810-1882).. did a number of statues.D. M. Computer Lecturer. much beloved by all who knew him.

out of the fear of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858). AND ROBINSON.D. as figured in the pages of _Punch_. which he did not live to see realised: a man of genius.. BROWN. in N.com BROWN. a brilliant conversationist Computer Lecturer. to a reconstruction of the science of atomics. son of an Episcopal clergyman. where Ruskin found him and conceived a warm friendship for him (1803-1883). died at Venice. work of 20 years' hard labour. ROBERT. a distinguished botanist. born in Haddington. BROWN. born at Montrose. a youth of great promise both as an artist and poet. with 4000 plants mostly new to science. died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874).)." left unfinished at his death. his great work. the Linnean Society. where he spent a great part of his life. America. RAWDON. and drawn by Richard Doyle.000 ft. grandson of John Brown of Haddington. and of a wide range of knowledge. styled by Humboldt _botanicorum facile princeps_. with the zeal of a mediaeval alchemist. spent his life at Venice in the study of Italian history. became librarian to. M. which he classified and described in his "Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae". accompanied an expedition to survey the coast of Australia in 1801. BROWN. BROWN. OLIVER MADOX.ramakalai@gmail. JONES. CTSTI. son of Ford Madox. much of which died along with him. he was a man of most minute and accurate observation. MOUNT (16. and finally president of. SAMUEL. BROWN. especially in its relation to English history. chemist. which he prosecuted with unwearied industry. the highest of the Rocky Mts. returned after four years' exploration. three middle-class Englishmen on their travels abroad. Chennai 6. "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern Italy.. historical scholar. Page 436 of 2772 . whose life was devoted.

and Smollett. travelled over America lecturing. Carlyle." and two volumes of "Essays. his lectures. CHARLES FARRAR. all improvised on the spur of the moment. Ainsworth. HABLOT KNIGHT.ramakalai@gmail. BROWN WILLY. he was skilful as an etcher and an architectural draughtsman (1815-1882). illustrated Dickens's works. wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory of Christianity. "Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth sense.com and an associate of the most intellectual men of his time. the highest peak (1368 ft. Scottish psychologist. U. born in Kirkcudbrightshire. he was obliged from ill-health to resign his professorship after 10 years (1778-1820).) in Cornwall. a humorist and satirist. Chennai 6. BROWNE. and Emerson. CTSTI.. the first Computer Lecturer. BROWN. born in Rutland. bred to medicine. Fielding. were published posthumously. founder of the Brownists." born in Maine. but their wives plural (1834-1867). which he called the "muscular. "Pickwick" to begin with. BROWNE. among the number De Quincey. colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart. professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. he spent some time among the Mormons. Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856). and the Abbotsford edition of Scott. THOMAS. ROBERT." He was a man of precocious talent. known by the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward. and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success." as well as the works of Lever. carrying with him a whimsical panorama as affording texts for his numerous jokes. under the pseudonym of "Phiz. born in London. and defined their religion as singular. to the injury of his health and the shortening of his life.S. his first literary effort was as "showman" to an imaginary travelling menagerie. artist. and a devoted student." "Lectures on the Atomic Theory. BROWNE. Page 437 of 2772 . which he brought with him to London.

." "a man. was an imitator of Spenser. where he was imprisoned for assaulting a constable.. as he favoured good husbandry. BROWNIE. died in jail at Northampton. steer. his principal works are "Religio Medici. with some opening exquisitely beautiful verses." Professor Saintsbury says. though his project of secession proved a failure. BROWNE. English pastoral poet. CTSTI. with a strong tinge of the fantastic.ramakalai@gmail. imaginative. and on the former in its relation to. he may be accounted the father of the Congregational body in England (1540-1630). which he did at Norwich.. He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast. "was." adds the professor. and the first to found a Church of his own on Congregational principles. "Steer hither." says Coleridge. contemplative. Page 438 of 2772 . the latter" (1605-1682). author of "Britannia's Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe. a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk".. "all of the very first importance in English literature.. and his presence an evidence that the internal economies were approved of." on the story of Ulysses and Circe. SIR THOMAS. in the whole range of English".. BROWNE WILLIAM. He meditated much on death and the hereafter. exuberant in conceptions and conceits. Chennai 6. born in London. believed in Scotland to render obliging services to good housewives." among them. was knighted by Charles II." and "Hydriotaphia. often truly great. and he returned to the English Church. when all things are taken together. and a sort of key to the others. "the greatest prose writer perhaps. born at Tavistock.. a good-natured household elf. or Urn-Burial." a collection of eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque. Computer Lecturer.com seceder from the Church of England. and was partial to houses where it was observed. or leading on to. "rich in various knowledge. and died there. "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest favourite. and a parallel has been instituted between him and Keats (1590-1645). and magnificent in his style and diction. resided at Norwich for nearly half a century. physician and religious thinker." "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors.

lies buried in Westminster Abbey. deep insight. poetess. Chennai 6. of a genius and learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of. Durham. v." and in 1844 "The Cry of the Children"." in 1855 his "Men and Women. BROWNING. his first poem "PAULINE" (q. Page 439 of 2772 . 'James Lee. not like most poets. 'the fear of death did not trouble him..' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the century. finishing up with "Asolando. who immediately took her abroad. and his restful faith "it is all right with the world" (1812-1889). appeared. she took an interest all through life in public affairs. went to Torquay for her health.' In the browner shades of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang." and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh. born at Carlton Hall. this was succeeded by a succession of others. Computer Lecturer. in which he was not idle. which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861).com BROWNING. his longest poem.' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra. and imagination.ramakalai@gmail. ROBERT. which developed early. suffered from injury to her spine. her work is marked by musical diction. sensibility. but Love and Life. prepared himself for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary. with some of his "Dramatic Romances and Lyrics." in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows. _nee_ BARRETT." which appeared the day he died at Venice. of Browning it has been said by Professor Saintsbury.). early given to write verses. CTSTI. and strong faith. a woman of great natural abilities. that gave her a shock the effect of which never left her. witnessed the death by drowning of a brother. poet. and more analytic than poetic. settling in Florence. born in Camberwell." and in 1868 "THE RING AND THE BOOK" (q. "Timor mortis non conturbabat.. published in 1838 "The Seraphim.. was a poet of great subtlety." "a novel in verse." and in 1860 "Poems before Congress". one of the two greatest in the Victorian era. knowledge. "Sordello" in 1840.) published in 1833. v. if not highest. among the poetesses of England. which was followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835. ranks high. after a time. Love and Death. ELIZABETH BARRETT." His creed was an optimism of the brightest. creative power. wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese. fell in with and married Robert Browning in 1846.

stayed two years in Abyssinia. born in Paris. BRUCE. commanded the French fleet at the Crimea (1796-1885). and published works on the subject. Robert de Bruis. a French architect. rival with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on Computer Lecturer. of American parentage. BRUAT." born at Kinnaird House. died of consumption. who came over with the Conqueror. 1697.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. called the "Abyssinian.. Page 440 of 2772 . physiologist. made a special study of the nervous system and nervous diseases. born near Loch Leven. elated with his success. born in Mauritius. BRUCE. and who acquired lands first in Northumberland and then in Annandale. practised in New York. BRUCE. a Scotch poet. and for relief from the chagrin wrote an account of his travels in five quarto vols. as far as it goes. CTSTI. his poems singularly plaintive and pathetic. 1818. _d_.com BROWN-SEQUARD. set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source of the Nile: believed he had discovered it. BRUANT. studied in Paris. and returned home by way of France. Stirlingshire. traveller. a French admiral. felt hurt that no honor was conferred on him. BRUCE. a family illustrious in Scottish history. and became a professor in the College de France. architect of the Invalides and the Salpetriere. MICHAEL. ROBERT. his title to the authorship of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention (1746-1767). in the parish of Portmoak. the general accuracy of which. JAMES. Chennai 6. has been attested by subsequent explorers (1730-1794). studied for the Church. descended from a Norman knight. in poor circumstances.

BRUCIN. decided in favour of Baliol (1210-1295). earl of Carrick. author of "Historia Critica Philosophiae" (1696-1770). 17 m. an abbe converted by Bossuet. where he died in the thirty-third year of his reign (1274-1329). though much weaker. French dramatist. and a pastor there. BRUEYS. through Marjory his wife. in 1328. born at Augsburg. DAVID AUGUSTIN DE. served under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one instance. the Maiden of Norway. and obliged to flee to Rathlin. stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at Dumfries. allied in action to strychnine. son of the preceding.ramakalai@gmail. small town in Bavaria. cleared the English out of all the fortresses except Stirling. sued for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304). NW. ROBERT. historian of philosophy. 1306. spent his last two years at Cardross Castle. and was that same year crowned king at Scone. returned and landed in Carrick. BRUCKER. with Comyn for rival. against whose claim Edward I. the independence of Scotland was acknowledged as well as Bruce's right to the crown. BRUeCKENAU. being only a twenty-fifth of the strength. born at Aix. and actively engaged in propagating the faith. with mineral springs good for nervous and skin diseases. Ireland. son of the preceding. and on 24th June 1314 defeated the English under Edward II. did homage for a time to Edward. BRUCE. king of Scotland. at Bannockburn.com the death of Margaret. of Kissingen. Page 441 of 2772 . suffering from leprosy. an alkaloid. CTSTI. ROBERT. BRUCE. after which. Chennai 6. managed to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays Computer Lecturer. but joined the national party and became one of a regency of four. was defeated by an army sent against him. on the Clyde.

BRUMMELL. and shipbuilding yards. sugar-refineries. born in London. e. BRUeHL. Page 442 of 2772 . BRUGES (49). an unprincipled man. in a decayed and a decaying place. was associated with Mariette in his excavations at Memphis. COUNT VON. HEINRICH KARL. patronised by the Prince of Wales. BEAU. one specially noteworthy.ramakalai@gmail. where. in his day the prince of dandies. the 9th November 1799. as well as some of the streets.com (1650-1725). reduced to destitution. intersected by canals crossed by some 50 bridges. king of Poland. 1827. BRUGSCH. CTSTI. little disturbed by traffic. a German Egyptologist. one of these canals. textile and chemical. the day when Napoleon. overthrew the Directory and established himself in power. fled from his creditors to Calais. _b_. the foggy month). HEINRICH. the 18th (i. it has several manufactures. the church of Notre Dame. having once had a population of 200. cap.. Chennai 6. afterwards George IV.000. in Belgium. BRUIN. he lived some years in the same reckless fashion. and indulged himself. quarrelled with the prince.. whence its name "Bridges". Flanders. has a number of fine churches. the bear personified in the German epic of "Reynard the Fox. his works on the subject are numerous. on his return from Egypt. born at Berlin. and of great value. became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo. as well as distilleries. so that when the Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to flee from Dresden and seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763). settled at Computer Lecturer. who encouraged his master. of considerable depth. minister of Augustus III. though many of them are now." BRUMAIRE. in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance. of W. connecting it with Ostend.

classical scholar. born in Rouen. edited several classical works. but had to surrender after Waterloo. assisted his father in his engineering operations. MARIE. BRUNCK. the first to cross the Atlantic. Italian architect. son of the preceding. had to sell his library in order to live (1729-1803). constructed bridges and naval docks (1806-1859). an able French Hellenist. studied at Rome. entered the French navy. on his release. of France. and brutally murdered and his body thrown into the Rhone (1763-1815). was imprisoned. SIR ISAMBARD. designed and constructed the _Great Eastern_. emigrated to the United States. the Pitti Palace. and. BRUNELLESCHI. BRUNEL. and was attacked by a mob of Royalists at Avignon as he was setting out for Paris. CTSTI. constructed the Thames tunnel. and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo (1377-1444). was the first to apply the screw propeller to steam navigation. settled in England. born at Strassburg. saw service in the Vendean war and in Italy. engineer. Computer Lecturer. submitted to Bourbons in 1814. returned to his native city. Chennai 6. begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849). Page 443 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. BRUNE. ISAMBARD KINGDOM. French marshal. distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland. played a perilous part in the French Revolution. born in Florence. became block-maker to the Royal Navy. bred a goldsmith. was chief engineer of New York. where he died insane (1778-1805). BRUNEL. and critic. designed the _Great Western_ steamship. was appointed to a post of command in the S.com length in Caen. G. in particular the Thames tunnel. built the Duomo of the Cathedral. joined Napoleon on his return from Elba. was engineer of the Great Western Railway.

born at Arezzo. and was twice ambassador at the English Court (1797-1875). and wrote a history of it. a masculine queen in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to marry the man that could beat her in feats of strength. Saintsbury. French critic. _b_. represented Russia in several conferences. had a lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde. Fredegunde's son. and meditated the death of Siegfried. hence called Aretino. promises to be one of the chief monuments that the really "higher" criticism has yet furnished. BRUeNN (95). and dragged to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse. of Vienna. about one-half of the population Czechs. BRUNETTO-LATINI. which she accomplished by the hand of Hagen. Page 444 of 2772 . and was obliged to flee to Paris. the other division of the Frankish world. capital of Moravia. born at Dresden.com BRUNETIERE. was papal secretary. Also a queen of Austrasia. who. according to Prof. a Russian diplomatist. who played an important part among the Guelfs. was deceived by Siegfried into marrying Gunther. who had married her rival Chriemhilda. Austrian city. BRUNI. which at her death she seized possession of for a time. settled in Florence. woollens the staple of the country. entitled "L'Evolution des Genres de l'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise". about the 7th century. did much by his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of Greek (1369-1444). beautifully situated. an Italian writer. begun in the form of lectures in 1890. with large manufactures. his chief work. 93 m. COUNT VON. where he had Dante for a pupil (1220-1294). connected with the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ and now editor. LEONARDO. but was overthrown by Clothaire II. CTSTI. Chennai 6. Italian humanist. a very sound and sensible critic. BRUNNOW. Computer Lecturer. N. 1849..ramakalai@gmail. BRUNHILDA. queen of Neustria.

_d_. attacked the scholastic philosophy. CTSTI. Chennai 6. went for more freedom to Paris. as sthenic or asthenic. who he thought should.. attached himself to Calvin for a time. the capital. retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble with six others. BRUNSWICK (404). GIORDANO. as the Earth-Spirit does in Goethe's "Faust"--a definition of Nature in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor Resartus". chancellor of the Empire. 6. Oct. third son of Henry the Fowler. where each lived in cells apart. BRUNO THE GREAT. had to leave France as well. quitted his monastery. in Italy. a N. and after seven years spent in prison was burned as a heretic.. and contains part of the Harz Mts. he was a pantheist. 1600. and regarded God as the living omnipresent soul of the universe. German duchy. BRUNO. born at Nola. ST. represent and encourage it (928-965). climate and crops are those of N. was arrested by the Inquisition. See BROWN. and they met only on Sundays. JOHN.com BRUNO. born at Cologne. is mountainous. a bold and fervid original thinker. the first house of which was established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). propagated his views in Germany and Italy. a system which regards and treats diseases as due to defective or excessive excitation. BRUNSWICK (101). in fact. once a member Computer Lecturer. Germany generally. BRUNONIAN SYSTEM. archbishop of Cologne. a great lover of learning. before all. mostly in the upper basin of the Weser. made up of eight detached parts. founder of the Carthusian Order of Monks.ramakalai@gmail. spent two years in England in friendship with Sir Philip Sidney. Festival. and promoter of it among the clergy. was for heterodoxy obliged to flee from it. Page 445 of 2772 . and Nature as the living garment of God. a Dominican monk. a busy commercial town.

leather. and fell into comparative decay after the decay of the League. but when Tarquin's son committed an outrage on Lucretia. a ship-canal and numerous railways foster commerce.C. and manufactures textiles. 27 m. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. it saved his life when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death. one of the sons of the Computer Lecturer. and expelled the tyrant. The new town is well built. is the capital of Belgium.. The manufactures include linen. took part in the Peninsular war. fell repelling an attempt to restore the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns. on the Senne. fell fighting at Ligny. affected idiocy (whence his name. CTSTI. sentenced his two sons to death for conspiring to restore the monarchy. was elected one of the two first Consuls of Rome. in the 6th century B. the town-hall a magnificent building. and squares. ribbons. 140 m. but a Revolutionary army under Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy. in the heart of the country. BRUSSELS (477). boulevards. the founder of Republican Rome. The old town is narrow and crooked. There are many parks. brother of Queen Caroline. art-gallery. and sewing-machines. but picturesque. DUKE OF. museum and library. it has a cathedral. university and art schools. Prussian general. LUCIUS JUNIUS. and one of the finest in Europe. a cathedral. emitted a violent. and compelled him to retreat in 1792. was beaten by Davout at Auerstaedt. S.com of the Hanseatic League. raised troops against France. commanded the Prussian and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution. two days before the battle of Waterloo (1771-1815). blustering manifesto. headed a revolt. Page 446 of 2772 . BRUTUS. being embarked for England. and mortally wounded (1735-1806). BRUNSWICK. an irregularly built city. of Antwerp. CHARLES WILLIAM. of Berlin. SW. he threw off his disguise. which. DUKE OF. and paper. BRUNSWICK. FREDERICK WILLIAM. It is Paris in miniature. on the Oker. meaning stupid).

Oxford. BRUTUS. MARCUS JUNIUS. Chennai 6. bred to the bar and practised at it. lost his seat from his uncompromising views on that question. Gladstone's last cabinet. a descendant of the preceding. and was recognised by Caesar among the conspirators as party to his death.C. bred to the bar. some of the later his best (1794-1878).com banished king. BRYANT. Illinois. but escaped capture by falling on a sword held out to him by one of his friends. but defeated. BRYCE. his chief literary work. for a time professor of Civil Law at Oxford. "The Holy Roman Empire. 1860. was defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus. WILLIAM CULLEN. WILLIAM JENNINGS. his poems were popular in America. "O Virtue. author of "Characteres de Theophraste.). CTSTI. BRYAN. American statesman. entered Congress in 1890 as an extreme Free Silver man. historian and politician. was 50 years editor of the _New York Evening Post_. the chief. a French writer. forced to flee from Rome after the event. 1838. was twice nominated for the Presidency in opposition to Mr McKinley. American poet. BRUYERE." a satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696). and son of Cato Uticensis's sister. Fellow of Oriel College. joined the conspirators. _b_. born in Salem.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. Computer Lecturer. "The Age. born at Belfast. entered Parliament in 1880. Page 447 of 2772 . much beloved by Caesar and Caesar's friend." a work of high literary merit. was member of Mr. exclaiming as he did so." published in 1821. wrote short poems all through his life. but persuaded by Cassius and others to believe that Caesar aimed at the overthrow of the republic. JAMES. thou art but a name!" (85-42 B.

it died in India from a wound. born at Strassburg. in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it. and a city in Lower Egypt. BUCCLEUCH. BUCCANEERS. called to the bar. the Egyptian Diana. wrote novels and poems. SIR SAMUEL EGERTON. Computer Lecturer. the horse which Alexander the Great. was M. SW. e. Chennai 6. giving the head the title of earl or duke. of Selkirk. with their head-quarters in the Caribbean Sea. in Kent. adopted the Reformed faith. American continent. with a stronghold of the Scott family. an association. BUBASTIS. born at Wootton House. a glen 18 m. BUCER MARTIN. on the Hydaspes.P. The town. Bucephala. originally a Dominican. a German Reformer. the state galley. Page 448 of 2772 . BUCEPH`ALUS (i.ramakalai@gmail. on the eastern branch of the Nile. while yet a youth. differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli. the wife of Ptah. and edited old English writings of interest (1762-1837). invited by Cranmer to England. which they were carrying home across the sea. ministered as pastor and professor in his native place. while he tried to reconcile them. but devoted to literature.com BRYDGES. an Egyptian goddess. and on which he rode through all his campaigns. worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers. chiefly English and French. for Maidstone for six years. organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S. ox-head). CTSTI. of piratical adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries. was built near its grave. BUCEN`TAUR. broke in when no one else could. English antiquary. lived afterwards and died at Geneva.

BUCHAN. born at Killearn. it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury him. he ordered her to distribute what Computer Lecturer. CLAUDIUS. died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him. Leonard's College.com he accepted the invitation." and his book "De Jure Regni. was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary. Page 449 of 2772 . LEOPOLD VON. CTSTI. chaplain in Barrackpur under the East India Company. born at Cambuslang. one of the first to awaken an interest in India as a missionary field. near Glasgow. imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the Inquisition. a German geologist. and became professor of Divinity at Cambridge. in St. a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt. Calcutta. wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853). adopted the volcanic theory of the earth. professor for three years in the College at St. returned to Scotland. came back to Scotland. The Comyns were earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309. and had several offices of State conferred on him. was buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard. of Aberdeenshire. abounds in magnificent rock scenery. who esteemed him highly. became tutor to James V. wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815). in 1566 principal of St. driven from one place to another. BUCHANAN." against the tyranny of peoples by kings.. vice-provost of the College at Fort William. but his bones were exhumed and burned a few years later (1491-1551). BUCH. a district in the NE.ramakalai@gmail. when dying. where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the Psalms. where he died. and when he found there was not. between the rivers Deveron and Ythan. a most distinguished scholar and humanist. Andrews and Paris. escaped to France. GEORGE. in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI. Stirlingshire. Chennai 6.'s illegitimate sons. imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for satires against the monks. educated at St. Andrews. wrote a "History of Scotland. BUCHANAN. Barbe.

Chennai 6. who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. Simonian Society. with the reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe. from the Black Sea." which attacks the Christian religion. is a meanly built but well-fortified town. retired after his Presidentship into private life (1791-1868). a French historian. a writer in prose and verse. there is a Catholic cathedral and a university. CTSTI. at the time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head. capital of Roumania. and Socialist. BUCHANAN. statesman of the United States. became a Christian Socialist. and coal are the chief articles in its markets. favoured the South. his first work. grain. named after a Mrs. BUCHANITES. and a collaborateur in an important historical work. which involved him in some trouble. in a fertile plain. ROBERT. xii.ramakalai@gmail. besides novels. figured in political life after the Revolution Computer Lecturer. and he has since written a goodly number of poems. metal. _b_." a volume of verse published by him in 1863. BUCHANAN. born in Warwickshire.1841. of Scotland in 1783. JOSEPH. was ambassador in London in 1853. the last "The Wandering Jew. picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza. a tributary of the Danube. 180 m. joined the St. the fifteenth in order. made President in 1856. BUCHAREST (220). some of them of very high merit. and one in particular. a fanatical sect who appeared in the W.com there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as they saw good (1506-1582). has written magazine articles. JAMES. politician. it is the emporium of trade between the Balkan and Austria. "Undertones. hides. Buchan. textiles. the "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution". BUCHEZ. Page 450 of 2772 . educated at Glasgow University.

born at Darmstadt. physician and materialist. JAMES SILK. Chennai 6. BUCKINGHAM. of Oxford.com of 1848. Page 451 of 2772 . W. wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846). and gave offence to the East India Company by his outspokenness. a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man (1627-1688). DUKE OF. lectured at Tuebingen University. CTSTI. born in Leicestershire. rose under favour of the former to the highest offices and dignities of the State. but retired to private life after the establishment of the Empire (1796-1865). fell into disfavour with the people. Force and Matter. favourite of James I. and Charles I. son of the preceding. where his cause was warmly taken up. served under Charles I. e. of Bedford and Hertford." i. in the Civil War. BUCKINGHAM. on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628). LUDWIG. GEORGE VILLIERS. BUCHON. conducted a journal in Calcutta. BUCKINGHAM. traveller and journalist. provoked by his conduct wars with Spain and France. became minister of Charles II. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185). which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899). English S. and had to retire into private practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy. born in Falmouth.ramakalai@gmail. was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton. was at the battle of Worcester. had to return to England. by his writings and speeches paved the way for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855). BUeCHNER. a learned Frenchman. lying E.. GEORGE VILLIERS. is full of beautiful and varied Computer Lecturer. DUKE OF. midland county. wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff..

his theory as regards the development of civilisation is. and water. in delicate health from his infancy. NW. editor of the _Times_. The Chiltern Hills cross the county.. born in Lee. his intellect gave way in 1850. an advanced thinker. and he remained in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856). studied at Oxford.com scenery. BUCKLAND. his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects. was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel. dale. contributed largely to the journals. wood. 60 m.ramakalai@gmail." "Familiar History of British Fishes. dairy produce. _b_. and died at Damascus. a distinguished geologist. such as the _Field_. BUCKLE. which he started in 1866 (1826-1880). visited the East for his health. is a Fellow of All Souls' College. cattle and poultry feeding. BUCKLE. having previously belonged to the editorial staff." &c. too ambitious for his powers. where he distinguished himself. and edited _Land and Water_. hill. BUCKLAND. Chennai 6. and sheep rearing the sources of wealth. and the Thame through the centre. son of the succeeding. born at Tiverton. CTSTI. in Kent.. of London. Page 452 of 2772 . WILLIAM. thought himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England. on the Ouse. The Thames forms the southern boundary. the Ouse flows through the N. 1854. was inspector of salmon fisheries." in connection with that of Europe. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3). but failed. that national character depends on Computer Lecturer. had a predilection from boyhood for natural science. tried it. born near Bath. bred to medicine. wrote "Curiosities of Natural History. HENRY THOMAS. naturalist. FRANCIS (FRANK). awoke in Oxford University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology. devoted to the study of animal life. exerted himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in Genesis. Agriculture is the prevailing industry. became editor in 1884. GEORGE EARLE.

in his contemplation of the vanity of existence. i. the light of truth rose full-orbed upon him. for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre. an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements at work. CTSTI. till. BUCKSTONE. like Christ's. which he continued to do for 40 years. e. an able comic actor and popular dramatist. GAUTAMA. e. Page 453 of 2772 . believed was a gospel to every creature. the two cities being connected by a suspension bridge.C. JOHN BALDWIN. i. retired into solitude at the age of 30. and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones. nothing could detain him. BUDDHA. who went forth without sword. the son of a king." as Mahomet in his way did after him. like Christ's. where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be held every year. could get no good out of them. of an intensely contemplative nature. BUDA-PESTH (506). Buda (Ger. a twin city.com material environment. London (1802-1870). the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B. born a Hindu. the capital of Hungary. however. consulted religious books.. solitary of the Sakyas. as Sakyamuni. on the Danube. the former on a rocky elevation and the latter on level ground. leaving behind him disciples. a great commercial centre. he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862). when at the end of ten years.ramakalai@gmail. who did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left. "I know it all. or SAKYA-MUNI. he abstracted himself more and more from everything external. Computer Lecturer. from which. the Enlightened. born in London. and that progress depends upon the emancipation of rationality. by-and-by. soul with soul. as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone with the universe. his tribe. now he said to himself. to preach what they. Chennai 6. and became a preacher to others of what had proved salvation to himself. BUDASTIS. an ancient town in Lower Egypt. and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as Buddha.

set itself solely to the work of salvation. ever tend to do. several Protestant churches. when finished. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith. a university and military school. Page 454 of 2772 . the climate does not correspond with the name it bears. so called from the place of the inventor's abode. was the Buddhist Nirvana. cigar-making. a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand burner. it is a progressing city. 150 m. and the centre of export and import trade. which erelong became a formality. CTSTI. it at one time overran the whole of India. improving in appearance. eschewing all speculation about God and the universe. libraries and hospitals. in such form as it has assumed. BUENOS AYRES (543). understood to be the religion of 340 millions of the human race. it is the principal Argentine port. a religion which. NW. never attempted to do. who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulae. 133 m. under the name of Tripitaka. stands on the right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate. BUDE-LIGHT. a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau. BUDWEIS (28).com BUDDHISM. a great deal of the foreign trade is Computer Lecturer. it is. from the Atlantic. which Buddha. the end of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being. often a highly beggarly one. capital of the Argentine Republic. as it is called. cloth and boot manufacture are the leading industries. the religion of Buddha. but in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form. with a cathedral. and the "way" to which was the mortification of all private passion and desire which mortification.ramakalai@gmail. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising religion. Buddha is not answerable for this. printing. knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the spirit giveth life. Buddha wrote none himself. of Vienna. or triple basket. Chennai 6. but his followers. or of this high order. and though it is now in small favour there. as all faiths of the kind.

the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain. and healthy city. his motto was _Ense et aratro_. of New York. Chennai 6. BUGEAUD. BUFFON. cattle. was made governor. JOHANN.. retired from service till 1830. produced 15 vols. a great French naturalist. THOMAS. spent some time in England. at the E. born at Limoges. served under Louis Philippe. BUFFALO (256). due NW. and coal. while immense iron-works. contributed to the conquest of Algiers. end of Lake Erie. 300 m. electric power for lighting. BUGENHAGEN. studied law at Dijon. is a well-built. &c. BUGGE. CTSTI. born at Montbard. devoted from early years to science. a city of New York State. handsome. Page 455 of 2772 . a German Reformer. in Burgundy.ramakalai@gmail. by Daubenton and others. "By sword and plough" (1784-1849). 1833. helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558). of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between the years 1749 and 1767. served under Napoleon.com conducted through Monte Video. professor at Christiania. and he has been measured by some according to his own standard. COMTE DE. Computer Lecturer. a convert of Luther's and coadjutor. but it monopolises all the inland trade. GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC. his father one of the _noblesse de robe_. Norwegian philologist. and flour-mills represent the industries. though more to the display of it. studying the English language. and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi. marshal of France. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780). _b_. traction. assisted. breweries. and more than assisted. and created duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the battle of Isly in 1844. tanneries. is supplied from Niagara. The saying "Style is the man" is ascribed to him.

mountains and forests in the S. BULL. Chennai 6. the people industrious. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in 1878. attar of roses. GEORGE. which takes its name from the inventor (see INFRA). while the Black Sea washes the eastern shores. is the principal port. on the Black Sea. BUKOWINA (640). an edict of the Pope. Davids. CTSTI. and duchy in the E. ornamental work for furniture. and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885. BULL. is the seat of a university. bishop of St. inventor of the work which bears his name (1642-1732). v. of Austria-Hungary. so called from a leaden seal attached to it." in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN CREED (q. an Italian cabinet-maker. with hills and fertile plains in the N. wine and tobacco. CHARLES ANDRE. manufactures of woollens. breeds cattle and horses. or with metals of another colour.). and "Defensio Fidei Nicenae. Servia the western. BULGARIA. Socinians. the capital. The climate is mild. with Eastern Roumelia (3. Page 456 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail.. constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland. rich in minerals.com BUHL. and Computer Lecturer. BUHL. the Danube the northern. much in fashion in Louis XIV. the chief import is live stock. SOFIA (50). consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel. a small prov. a stanch Churchman. born at Wells.'s reign.. the chief export is cereals. are staple industries. wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul and James on the matter of justification.154). Turkey is the southern boundary. VARNA (28). and denied or modified by Arians.

with marked distinction in the 60th King's Royal Rifles. BULLER. good-natured. _b_. a French architect and sculptor. "The History of John Bull. and Catherine de Medicis. pupil of Paganini.. Ashanti. BULLER. CHARLES. JOHN. BULL. born in Bergen. from Washington. OLE BORNEMANN. Chennai 6. HEINRICH. built the tombs of Montmorency. BULL RUN. 25 m. as well as wrought at the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578). conceived of as well-fed. where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate.com Sabellians (1634-1709)." in which the Church of England figures as his mother. but a fool in spending it (1810-1880).S. born in Calcutta. and plain-spoken. Norway. died in his prime. a stream in Virginia. universally beloved and respected (1806-1848). CTSTI. and the Soudan. BULLINGER. served in China. BULL. a politician. the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire. a Liberal in politics. BULLANT. born in Aargau. pupil of Thomas Carlyle. Page 457 of 2772 . U. July 1861 and August 1862. and was for a short time Under-Secretary for Ireland. friend and Computer Lecturer. has held staff appointments. was a wise man at making money. Egypt. GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY. entered Parliament at 24.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated violinist.. South Africa. Henry II. held distinguished State appointments. 1839. justice-loving. a humorous impersonation of the collective English people. honest-hearted. a Swiss Reformer.

"An Autumn in Greece. _b_. a famous pianist. originator of the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ (1803-1877). BULOZ. pupil of Liszt (1830-1894). was a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575). was party to the conclusion of several important treaties. Chennai 6. served the Liberal interest. BUeLOW. having been secretary to several embassies and charge d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war. heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816). Foreign Secretary of the German empire. BARON VON. defeated the French under the Empire in several engagements. HENRY LYTTON. a French litterateur. a Prussian general. BUeLOW. the bull being one who buys in the hope that the value may rise. and contributed to the victory at Waterloo. FRIEDRICH WILHELM.com successor of Zwingli. and the bear one who sells in the hope that it may fall. assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession." a "Life of Byron." &c. GUIDO VON. (1801-1872). Page 458 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI.. wrote several works. BUeLOW. BUMBLE. BULLS AND BEARS. in the Stock Exchange. and has done important diplomatic work in connection with it. born near Geneva. early entered the Foreign Office. BERNARD VON." Computer Lecturer. a beadle in "Oliver Twist. MR. 1850. See BEAR. BULWER. served his country in the war with Revolutionary France. an experienced and successful diplomatist.

now included in Boston. born at Goettingen. e. BUNKER HILL. Page 459 of 2772 . has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense. BUNDELKHAND (2. between the Chambal and the Jumna. and the burner called after him.S. India. an eminence 112 ft. BUNSEN." i. and succeeded Niebuhr. in Waldeck. BARON VON.ramakalai@gmail. Provinces. was partial to English institutions. ROBERT WILLIAM. invented the charcoal pile. Congress." "Hippolytus and his Age. discovered the antidote to arsenic. under Niebuhr. and much esteemed in England. CTSTI." regarded as an oracle by Captain Cuttle. a district in N. a territory in NW. JACK. (1791-1860). studied at Marburg and Goettingen. settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg. Carolina. became acquainted with Niebuhr at Berlin.. author of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762). BUNSEN. a German historian. studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de Sacy at Paris. commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son. a diplomatist and man of letters. wrote the "Church of the Future. for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the U. to please one's constituency. became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England.000). recommended himself to the king. became secretary." &c. whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe. born at Korbach. a distinguished German chemist. Chennai 6. with hydrate of iron and the Computer Lecturer. the magnesian light. the scene on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of Independence. to the Prussian embassy at Rome. BUNSBY.com BUNAU. BUNCOMBE.

BUNSEN BURNER. like Michael Angelo. encouraged by the success of it--for it leapt into popularity at a bound--Bunyan wrote some sixty other books. in the spring of 1676. and in the precincts of Bedford jail. extended. associate of Shakespeare. RICHARD. a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the bottom of it to let in air. BUONTALENTI. the whole finished the year after. and published at the end of it. and bred himself to that humble craft. the son of a tinker.. v. one of the greatest. a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield. _b_.ramakalai@gmail. his masterpiece. JOHN." noted for Computer Lecturer. took the chief role in "Hamlet. CTSTI. an Italian artist. 1811. Chennai 6. English tragedian. that he dreamed his world-famous dream." &c. and it was towards the close of it. here two-thirds of it were written." continue to be read (1628-1688). but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress. he was early visited with religious convictions. after a time of resistance to them. and causes at the top a non-luminous flame. author of the "Pilgrim's Progress. and ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world. (1562-1618). and sculptor (1536-1608). "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War." born in Elstow." "Richard III. BUNYAN. not more than two of these. BURCHELL.). BURBAGE. near Bedford. being.com SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. born in London. his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment. and brought. born at Florence. MR.. but except this. at once architect. to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ. it came out eventually in two parts. largely used in chemical operations. painter. an imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years." "King Lear. which burns with the gas. Page 460 of 2772 .

GEORGE. born at Lausanne. returned to Egypt. and got himself into serious trouble. the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts. which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well as patriotic objects. and imprisoned three months. _b_. and assumed Arabic customs. born at Bale. and died a member of it (1770-1844). BURCKHARDT. pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim--the first Christian to risk such a venture. a popular member of Parliament. a wealthy London banker. inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts. her grandfather. Swiss historian and archaeologist.P. sent out from England by the African Association to explore Africa. fined L1000 for condemning the Peterloo massacre. THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA. his travels were published after his death. was prosecuted for a libel. and died at Cairo just as he was preparing for his African exploration. travelled by way of Syria. author of "Village Sermons. BARONESS. married Sophia.. many of which have since been adopted. becoming M. CTSTI. Congregational minister. he resolutely opposed the government measures of the day. daughter of Sir Francis. was made a peeress in 1871. BURDETT-COUTTS. and acquired through her a large fortune. became secretary to the London Missionary Society. William Lehman Computer Lecturer. BURDETT. Chennai 6. Page 461 of 2772 . SIR FRANCIS.ramakalai@gmail. BURCKHARDT. 1818. BURDER. and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817). traveller. and in 1881 married Mr.com his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to believe." which were once widely popular (1752-1832). joined the Conservative party in 1835. received the freedom of the city of London in 1874. author of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance". advocated radical measures of reform. acquired a proficiency in Arabic. JOHN LUDVIG.

English general. painter and engraver. boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period. led a wild life in youth. CTSTI. and "The Wild Huntsman. devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama. BUeRGER. JOHN. and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain. author of the ballads "Lenore. BURGOS (34). 225 m. of Old Castile. BURGOYNE. died in poverty (1747-1794). a name for government by bureaux. defended his conduct with ability and successfully afterwards. SIR JOHN. and Inkerman in the Crimea. field-marshal. N. was present at the battles of Alma. and a very unhappy one in later years. joined the Royal Engineers.com Ashmead-Bartlett. and. of Madrid by rail. born at Augsburg. BURGOYNE. a German lyric poet. 1804. being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga. served under Abercromby in Egypt. Chennai 6. GOTTFRIED AUGUST. Computer Lecturer." as well as songs. who obtained the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts. a name given to a department of public administration. the "Heiress" in the latter his best (1723-1792). was governor of the Tower (1782-1871).ramakalai@gmail. celebrated for his woodcuts. BURGKMAIR. BUREAU. Balaclava. and once a university seat. amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531). an American. after a victory or two. ancient cap. it has linen and woollen industries. hence bureaucracy. was the birthplace of the Cid. HANS. and an old castle. fell into disfavour. Page 462 of 2772 . _b_." which was translated by Sir Walter Scott. on the Arlanzon. and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies.

of France. called after him Buridan's Ass. and a place of great extent." to which he was to the last chief contributor. and economical reform. silks. a scholastic doctor of the 14th century. as formerly. of Irish descent. Computer Lecturer. SIR JOHN BERNARD. JEAN. of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass. "a rhetorician (i. Chennai 6." which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects of the time. born in London. was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in the Deccan. in particular by his speeches on the American war. prior to the 16th century. CTSTI. a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE. a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will. and E. he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution.com BURGUNDY was. for its muslins. Page 463 of 2772 . BURKE. and educated at Dublin University. BURKE. the country is still noted for its wines. and famous as the reputed author. is now in comparative decay. but still famous. born in Artois." and another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful. and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections. of Bombay. "He was. BURHANPUR (32). wrote in early life two small but notable treatises. though there is no evidence of it in his works. NE." says Professor Saintsbury. a town in the Central Provinces of India." a weighty appeal. entered Parliament in 1765. and brocades. Catholic emancipation. distinguished himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side. "A Vindication of Natural Society. and probably the greatest that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797). an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose of suasion). between a bottle of hay and a pail of water. 280 m. genealogist. and sometime after planned the "Annual Register. his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings. author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom". BURIDAN. in the Nimar district. e.ramakalai@gmail. annexed to France as a province in the 6th century. EDMUND. orator and philosophic writer. born at Dublin.

com produced. Australian explorer. WILLIAM. besides editing successive editions of it. he held for forty years. born in Suffolk. WILLIAM CECIL. LORD. His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without respect of persons. Page 464 of 2772 . born in Galway. Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities. concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870). a great statesman. native of Ireland. after terrible sufferings from privation and drought (1820-1861). a notorious murderer. after intoxicating them with drink. WILLIAM. American diplomatist. an office which. Chennai 6. becoming informer. BURKITT. managed to escape the Marian persecution. bred to the legal profession. and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts. whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox. a number of works on aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892). conducted an expedition across Australia. who. but on the way back both he and his companion Wells perished. executed in 1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation. and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598). BURLEIGH. ANSON. got off. Computer Lecturer. and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset. he had an accomplice as bad as himself. ROBERT O'HARA. author of "Expository Notes on the New Testament. and appointed him chief-secretary of state. Biblical expositor. till his death." once held in high esteem (1650-1703). BURLINGAME. born in Lincolnshire.ramakalai@gmail. sent ambassador to China. BURKE. CTSTI. to the glory of the queen and the good of the country. whom the citizens mobbed. BURKE.

and for his travels next year in Asia Minor and Persia. CTSTI. RICHARD. was annexed in 1886." which give evidence of a most keen. came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. born at Bedford. studied for the Church. FRANCIS COWLEY. the climate varies with the elevation.000 ft. observant wit: _b_. copper. rice is the chief crop. the country is mountainous. 1836. Rangoon. and was seized by Britain in 1826 and 1854. at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge. pierced by an Arab spear. an empire nearly as large as Spain. Mandalay. English vicar. SIR EDWARD. entitled "Happy Thoughts. the forests yield teak. BURN. an expert at the burlesque. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam. and Sittang Rivers. was chiefly distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary. silver. BURNE-JONES. Chennai 6. Upper Burma. BURNAND. iron. and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it. drained by the Irawadi. having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885). the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785). and with Gordon in the Soudan. he was a daring aeronaut.com BURMA (9. a tall. Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue. BURNABY. China. powerful man. of the Bay of Bengal. and bounded landward by Bengal. killed. lead. editor of _Punch_. the mines. gum. whose deltas are flat fertile plains. the heights on the Chinese frontier reach 15. born in Westmoreland. which is at Computer Lecturer. COLONEL.ramakalai@gmail. but is mostly hot and trying. cap. cap. a traveller of daring adventure. a vast province of British India. Salween. artist. Page 465 of 2772 . and author of a series of papers. and his account of them in "On Horseback through Asia Minor". Tibet. and Siam. lying E. of which he published a spirited account. and became a Roman Catholic. and bamboo.606). of Welsh descent. compiled several law digests. and rubies. travelled in South and Central America. born at Birmingham.

of the artists of his day. born at Montrose." an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles." the "History of His Own Times". but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715). Swift. that of Salisbury. novelist. London. BURNET.ramakalai@gmail. along with his brother and others. the most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times. SIR ALEXANDER. was murdered. he was a Whig in politics. born at Fisherrow. was an officer in the Indian army. Chennai 6. Page 466 of 2772 . distinguished for the services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the native languages.com once mystical in conception and realistic in execution. of an old Aberdeen family. William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford. if not the foremost. bishop of Salisbury. born at Edinburgh. author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth. wrote the "History of the Reformation. GILBERT. BURNETT. wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's. BURNET. engraver and author. THOMAS. CTSTI. born in Yorkshire. his father a cousin of Robert Burns. took an active part in supporting the claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne. appointed Resident at Cabul. master of the Charterhouse. professor of Divinity in Glasgow. he was one of the foremost. imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment. by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection (1805-1841)." a work which Pope. BURNET. born in Manchester. was rewarded with a bishopric. and a man of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity. engraved Wilkie's works. BURNES." and other stories of Computer Lecturer. and wrote on art (1784-1868). resident for a time in America. and used to spend their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898). and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715). JOHN. afterwards preacher at the Rolls Chapel." eloquent in descriptive parts. FRANCES HODGSON. a broad Churchman in creed.

com Lancashire manufacturing life. BURNEY.500 (1757-1817). made a special study of Buddhism. musical composer and organist. was four times elected member of the London County Council for Battersea. a friend of Johnson's. wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821). Page 467 of 2772 . got into trouble in consequence. 27 m. of Manchester. bred to be an engineer. brother of preceding. a great classical scholar. professor of Sanskrit in the College of France. characterised by shrewd observation. JOHN. and popular among the working class. _b_. a Frenchman." and the father of Madame d'Arblay. _b_. accompanied Cook in his last two voyages. politician and Socialist. pathos. JAMES. left a fine library. son of preceding. rear-admiral. wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852). breweries. 1849. and descriptive power. a refugee of the Commune from Paris. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. foundries. imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman. born at Shrewsbury. &c. BURNLEY (87). settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814). BURNEY. 1858. N. BURNS. EUGENE. BURNOUF. an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature. an illustrious Orientalist. CHARLES. and has been twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament. born in Paris. CTSTI. CHARLES. Chennai 6. author of "The History of Music. edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata Purana. with cotton mills." a book embodying Hindu mythology.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. BURNEY. purchased by the British Museum for L13. became a platform orator in the interest of Socialism. of humble parentage. born at Vauxhall.

"he has found a tune and words for every mood of man's heart. born in Connecticut. fell into bad health." he says. And that spirit. "His sun shone as through a tropical tornado.. of Adelaide.. but took to rhyming by preference.. realised a few pounds thereby. meditated emigrating to Jamaica. in hut and hall. in 1759. ELIHU. as the heart unfolds itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence.. but did not prosper. forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast. his poems were reprinted. and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon. best known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great Computer Lecturer. driven desperate in his circumstances. a copper-mine in S. he was invited to Edinburgh.. Australia. a blacksmith. intelligent peasant. of which he knew many." BURRA-BURRA.. we may almost say. and published a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end. ROBERT. both ancient and modern.. about 103 m. NE... and money came in. Chennai 6. born at Alloway. the _voice_ of that joy and that woe. soon after he married. tried farming himself on his father's decease in 1784. He is at his best in his "Songs. devoted to the study of languages. its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom. near Ayr. the _name_. son of an honest. soon sank to the dust. CTSTI. when friends and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay. and died in 1796. BURRARD INLET. who tried farming in a small way. is the name and voice which Burns has given them." he adds. and was about to set sail. but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given. and took a farm. celebrated Scottish poet. In them. in British Columbia." See Carlyle's "Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. which he thinks "by far the best that Britain has yet produced. To the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more venerable. an inlet of river Fraser. aged 37.com BURNS. which might have soared could it but have walked. without ever having lived. and died. BURRITT. accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries.ramakalai@gmail. Page 468 of 2772 . but failing.

Page 469 of 2772 . was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1809-1881). popular author. wrote an account of his visit in his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage. and discovered Lake Tanganyika. bred for the bar. SIR RICHARD FRANCIS." "The Book-Hunter. JOHN. and broken up by the Government in 1819. till Nero. &c. a Roman general. and Computer Lecturer.com part of Europe. a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire. BURTON. traveller. born in New York. Napier. born at Aberdeen. and opposed his tyrannical acts. _b_. characterised by Lord Rosebery as a "dispassionate historian". and Western Africa. historian and miscellaneous writer. weary of his expostulations. and the "mother of the potteries". a farmer. an association of students in the interest of German liberation and unity. his works on his travels numerous. and wrote "The City of the Saints". Chennai 6. on which he has written largely and _con amore_. CTSTI. BURTON. travelled in Brazil. served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals. 1837. visited Utah. JOHN HILL. BURRUS. a cultured man." "The Scot Abroad. with a great liking for country life and natural objects. BURSLEM (31). an able man. accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife.. Palestine. who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education. born in Hertfordshire.". translated the "Arabian Nights". "Life of Hume. BURROUGHS. got rid of him by poison.ramakalai@gmail." &c. BURSCHENSCHAFT. formed in 1813. on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879). manufactures porcelain and glass. visited Mecca and Medina as an Afghan pilgrim." "History of Scotland. penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke.

26 m. familiar and unfamiliar. born at Lutton.000 troops beat Massena with 65. Locke. born in Leicestershire. EDMUNDSBURY (16). spending his time in it for some 50 years in study. a market-town in Suffolk. from every manner of source (1576-1640). ROBERT. See ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. named from Edmund. martyred by the Danes in 870. author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy. a book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic. lived chiefly in Oxford. BURY ST. a town in Staffordshire. or ST. had a number of eminent men for his pupils. Scholar of Christ Church. NW. dye-works. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. NW. BUSBY.000. Computer Lecturer. brews and exports large quantities of ale. king of East Anglia. and South (1606-1695).com show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890). Chennai 6. famous for its abbey. distinguished English schoolmaster. CTSTI. Portugal. an English clergyman. was head-master of Winchester School. where Wellington with 40. the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes. &c." BUSA`CO. EDMUNDS. but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works. Oxford. of Manchester. BURTON. 10 m. BURY (56).ramakalai@gmail. among others Dryden. of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. of Beira. Lincolnshire. RICHARD. BURTON-ON-TRENT (46). a mountain ridge in the prov." which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind. of Ipswich. Page 470 of 2772 . in whose honour it was built. originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture.

and sacrificed him. a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in sacrifice. CTSTI. BUSHMEN. and separated from the mainland on the N. gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793). a rude. BUTE. and How to Use it" (1815-1882). BUSK. a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage. author of "The Rifle. BUSHIRE (27). one of the originators of the Volunteer movement. at one time numerous. BUSKIN. aborigines of South-west Africa. of Arran. the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf." Computer Lecturer. ANTON FRIEDRICH. BUSIRIS. Chennai 6. or BOSJESMANS. by a winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute. his "Erdbeschreibung. nomadic race. but Hercules snapped the bonds he was bound with.com BUeSCHING. at one time caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings. HANS. nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property." and there associated with other desperadoes. about 16 m. but now fast becoming extinct. BUSHRANGERS. long and from 3 to 5 broad. born in Wales. seized Hercules and bound him to the altar. and a synonym for tragedy. and a great trading centre. in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush. Page 471 of 2772 . an island in the Firth of Clyde." the first geographical work of any scientific merit. N. a celebrated German geographer.ramakalai@gmail. with his seat at Mount Stuart.

and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime Minister under George III. Page 472 of 2772 .com BUTE. in virtue of his merits alone. born in Bute. Secretary of State. and interested in university education. and second. his leading idea being the supremacy of the king. his great work. ALBAN. Natural and Revealed. head of the college at St. born in Northampton. an eminent English divine. BUTLER. wrote "Historical Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832). born of an old Scotch family.. _b_. over whom he had a great influence.ramakalai@gmail. born at Strensham. was raised. to establish a conformity between the divine order in revelation and the order of nature. spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement. JOSEPH. son of the second marquis. wrote "Lives of the Saints" (1710-1773). "The Analogy of Religion. born a Dissenter. 1849. BUTLER. made dean of St. devoting himself to literature and science (1712-1792). hagiographer. JOHN STUART. to the see of Bristol. was very unpopular as a statesman. an English barrister." the aim of which is twofold--first. CTSTI. SAMUEL. born in London. Omer. Chennai 6. BUTLER. to the Constitution and Course of Nature. conformed to the Church of England. Paul's. in Berks. his style is far from interesting. admitted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1868. BUTE. born at Wantage. devoted to archaeological studies. and finally bishop of Durham. and is often obscure (1692-1752). in Computer Lecturer. CHARLES." the first three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral science. statesman. to show that the objections to revealed religion are equally valid against the constitution of nature. became preacher at the Rolls. THIRD EARL OF. where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons. a master of burlesque. BUTLER. MARQUIS OF.

CTSTI. Ireland. professor of Philology in Berlin.000 octosyllabic lines. its wit wearies us at last. and the third in 1678. operatic singer. in which he subjects to ridicule the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the Civil War and the Commonwealth. "the fierce reaction that (at the Restoration) had set in against Puritanism." he adds. a philosophical writer. professor of Moral Philosophy at Dublin.ramakalai@gmail. a German philologist. good sense.com Worcestershire. Chennai 6." a poem of about 10. who was never weary of quoting from it. it is sparkling with wit. _b_. Page 473 of 2772 . It is justly famed. entered Parliament. BUTTMANN. WILLIAM ARCHER. learning. author of "Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848). in accordance with the new criticism. CLARA. BUTT. best known by his "Greek Grammar" (1764-1829). and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party. and retired (1813-1879). born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. the author of "Hudibras. Computer Lecturer. and ingenious drollery. the son of a small farmer. BUTLER. PHILIPP. and it undoes the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its exaggeration" (1612-1680). yet is hard reading. but it is too long. born near Clonmel. born in Sussex. the first in 1663. "It represents. BUTT. It is often as terse as Pope's best work. "for wit. distinguished for his scholarship at Dublin University." and in "Orfeo" at the Lyceum. the second soon after. became editor of the _Dublin University Magazine_. it appeared in three parts. ever since which appearances she has been much in demand as a singer. but could not control it.. and few who take it up read it through. and. Irish patriot. ISAAC." says Stopford Brooke. is absolutely without obscurity. was an especial favourite with Charles II. 1872. made her _debut_ in London at the Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend.

member of a family of Orientalists. in Computer Lecturer. once governor of S. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. and member for King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868. "Master of the Rabbis" (1564-1629). stalactite cavern. was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727. JOHN. worn out with sorrow. in the Greek mythology a daughter of Miletus. educated at Harrow and Cambridge. was conspicuous for his interest in benevolent movements. entered life as a brewer. _b_. favoured the Prince of Orange. is also famous for its rock crystals. a tall man of energetic character. she was changed into a fountain. till. a high-lying town in Derbyshire. GEORGE. Australia. a Liberal in politics. commanded the squadron that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape Passaro. admiral. admiral. in love with her brother Caunus. fourth son of the preceding. noted for its calcareous and chalybeate springs. and a resort for invalids. professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle. a philanthropist. such as the amelioration of criminal law and the abolition of slavery. whom she pursued into far lands. and made his fortune. Chennai 6. Page 474 of 2772 . represented Weymouth in Parliament from 1818 to 1837. BYNG. a celebrated Hebraist. BYNG.ramakalai@gmail. BUXTON. BYBLIS. an office he held till his death (1663-1733). was known by the title. having failed to compel the French to raise the blockade of Minorca. was recalled. CTSTI.com BUXTON. and won the navy over to his interest. VISCOUNT TORRINGTON. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. 1837. and fine scenery. born in Westphalia. BUXTORF. he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845). BUXTON. was made a baronet in 1840. grandson of the preceding. born in Essex. a philanthropist and Evangelical Churchman.

spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother. and Catherine Gordon of Gight. contributed as "John Shadow" to the _Spectator_. now superseded." completed several short poems." and other work. the promise of such. and which he had the sole right of teaching for 21 years. wrote "Hours of Idleness. author of the pastoral. His poems. produced the "Giaour. who in a year left him never to return. threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece.com deference to popular clamour. poet and stenographer. spending. when a storm raised against him on account of his private life drove him from England. when at the latter. Page 475 of 2772 ." "Hebrew Melodies. Computer Lecturer." "Bride of Abydos. his vacations in London. made a great impression on his age. risked his all in the emancipation of the latter. and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank. an heiress. from the character of the passion that breathed in them. or anyhow. a fate it is now believed he did not deserve. the earth is looking green again once more. where his mother had taken a house. on the Continent. died at Missolonghi in a fit. BYROM. and embarking in it. BYRON. In his school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth. and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge." a poor first attempt. under the breath. now a widow." and soon afterwards left England and spent two years in foreign travel. finished "Childe Harold. JOHN. See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824). and wrote "Don Juan". an English poet. born in London. and being tried and condemned as guilty of treason. if not already past. was Happily Spent". was shot at Portsmouth. at the age of 36. and he never came back. moved from place to place. but the like interest in them is happily now passing away. son of Captain Byron of the Guards. which called forth a severe criticism in the _Edinburgh Review_. of a new spring-time. Aberdeenshire. and which he bore like a man and a Christian (1704-1757). it is believed. his poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763). "My Time. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail." "awoke one morning and found himself famous". GEORGE GORDON. wrote first part of "Childe Harold. and which he satirised in "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. Chennai 6. born near Manchester. invented a system of shorthand. SIXTH LORD. but she had not returned his affection. O ye Muses.

Egypt in Africa. suffered almost unexampled hardships. and it lasted with varied fortune for ten centuries after the accession of Arcadius. died in England (1723-1786). called also the Eastern.ramakalai@gmail. nicknamed from his misfortunes "Foul-weather Jack". BYRON. BYZANTINE ART. Page 476 of 2772 .com BYRON. Asia Minor.. till Constantinople was taken by the Turks in 1453. who established the seat of his government at Byzantium. dates from 395 A. BYRSA.D. Computer Lecturer. and Ancient Greece.C. a celebrated citadel of Carthage. HENRY JAMES. it has been described by Mr. founded by Greek colonists in 667 B. by the death of Theodosius. ending in their debasement. or the Greek Empire. and commanded the squadron in the West Indies during the American war. but was wrecked in his ship the _Wager_. when. naval officer. the empire included Syria. accompanied Anson in his voyage round the world. he rose to the rank of admiral. the Eastern section falling to the share of the former. Fairholt as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon classic forms." BYZANTINE EMPIRE. the Roman empire was divided between his two sons. JOHN. wrote "Our Boys" (1834-1884). BYZANTIUM. CTSTI. Arcadius and Honorius. the Lower. dramatist. a decorative style of art patronised by the Romans after the seat of empire was removed to the East. the ancient name of Constantinople. of which he wrote a classical account on his safe return home. grandfather of the poet. Chennai 6. born in Manchester. Pontus.

probably an aerolite. a name applied to a junto of five ministers of Charles II. The name comes from a Hebrew word suggesting "to receive. peasant life (1797-1877)." and denotes "that which is received" or tradition.). their names were Clifford.com C CAABA. Computer Lecturer. and Lauderdale. Chennai 6. CAB`ALA. FERNAN. a science which really owes its existence to a dissatisfaction in the rabbinical mind with the traditional literal interpretation. the initials of whose names go to make up the word. letters. on which all pilgrims who visit the shrine imprint a kiss. CABANEL. born at Montpellier (1828-1889). a French painter. Ashley.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. by means of which the Rabbis affected to interpret the pretended mystic sense of the words. wrote charmingly. "the Keblah of all Moslem. a secret intriguing faction in a State. derived from CABALA (q. CABALLERO. in power from 1668 to 1673. an ancient Arab temple. told stories of Spanish. a collector of folk tales. Buckingham. born in Switzerland. v. built in it. ALEXANDRE. Arlington. the eyes of innumerable praying men being turned towards it from all the quarters of the compass five times a day. and a sense that there is more in Scripture than meets the ear." CABAL`. Page 477 of 2772 . a small square structure in the grand mosque of Mecca. particularly Andalusian. the _nom de plume_ of Cecilia Boehl. of German descent. and very accents of the Hebrew Scriptures. a secret science alleged to have been divinely imparted to Moses and preserved by tradition. a popular Spanish authoress. with a mysterious black stone.

his materialism was of the grossest. a celebrated painter of the Dutch school. Chennai 6. 1844. and friend of Mirabeau. CABI`RI. CABOT. America. first in Texas and then at Nauvoo. Louis broken-hearted (1788-1856)." a body of whom he headed to carry out his schemes in America.com CABANIS. and held that the brain secretes thought just as the liver secretes bile (1757-1808). SEBASTIAN. born at Genoa. in the dep. a journalist. a French communist. provoked prosecution. 1498. in connection with nature-worship. settled in Bristol. has written interestingly on.." in description of a communistic Utopia. _b_. which became the text-book of a communistic sect called "Icarians. a leader of the Carbonari. and fled to England. a pronounced materialist in philosophy. born in Cosnac. PIERRE JEAN GEORGE. son of the preceding. a celebrated French medical man. of Charente Inferieure. at Labrador. and discovered part of the mainland of N. and published an account of it. and created an interest in. GIOVANNI. GEORGE WASHINGTON. entered the service of Henry VII. born at Ryswick (1631-1698). v. died at St. author of the "Voyage en Icarie. but failed. Page 478 of 2772 . CABOT. CABLE. and especially with that of DEMETER and DIONYSUS (q. wrote a history of the First Revolution. treated the soul as a nonentity.). born at New Orleans. born in Dijon. CABET. CTSTI. certain mysterious demonic beings to whom mystic honours were paid in Lemnos and elsewhere in Greece. Creole life in America. CABEL.ramakalai@gmail. a Venetian pilot. about 1497: _d_. born either in Venice or Computer Lecturer. ETIENNE. in which he defended the Jacobins. attended him in his last illness.

died in England. "Deposition from the Cross. famous for its bacon and sausages. or KABUL (50). accompanied his father to N. on the high route between Central Asia and the Punjab. a great highway of trade. produces wild olives.ramakalai@gmail. and established a factory at Calicut in 1501 (1460-1526). PEDRO ALVAREZ. CACERAS (350). 1500. sailing for the Indies. returned to Spain. cap. CTSTI. one of the Balearic Isles. Italian fresco-painter. as the province is for cattle-rearing. Page 479 of 2772 . a Portuguese navigator. and a depot for European goods. and of which he is accounted by some the discoverer. CABRERA. 6000 ft. _d_. Catalonia. CABRAL. CACCIA. for which he was imprisoned and banished. to plant colonies in Brazil with no success. first in Spain then in England. in a mild climate.com Bristol. a zealous supporter of the claims of Don Carlos. used as a penal settlement by Spain. on which he planted the Portuguese flag. the name also of its capital (14). Computer Lecturer. his best work. born at Tortosa. did altar-pieces. continued his course. America. CABUL`. 1625. Chennai 6. a Spanish province in the N. sought service as a navigator. CABRE`RA. drifted on the coast of Brazil. was the first to notice the variation of the magnetic needle." at Novara. but failed. and to open up to England trade with Russia (1474-1557). of a province of the name in Afghanistan. took up arms in his behalf. he was an unscrupulous adversary (1810-1877). a Spanish general. in height. attempted under Charles V. on an elevated plateau of great fertility. of Estremadura.

a warrant issued in France before the Revolution. CADEMOSTO. and the extent of their estates.. was answered by an armed force. a Venetian in the service of Portugal. Computer Lecturer. JACK. Chennai 6. CA`CUS. LETTRE DE. a mythological brigand of gigantic stature who occupied a cave in Mount Aventine. CACHE. CADASTRE. in 1450. CTSTI. dragging them to his cave tail foremost to deceive the owner. entered the city. but was overtaken and slain. which he defeated. he had to flee. under the royal seal. could not prevent his followers from plundering. with maps illustrative called Cadastral Maps. represented by Virgil as breathing smoke and flames of fire. stole the oxen of Hercules as he was asleep. CADE. often obtained to gratify private ends. name given in Canada to a hole in the ground for hiding provisions when they prove cumbersome to carry.com CACHAR (313). published posthumously (1432-1480). strangled by Hercules in his rage at the deception quite as much as the theft. abolished in 1790.ramakalai@gmail. headed an insurrection in Kent. demanded of the king redress of grievances. a great tea-growing district in Assam. discovered the Cape de Verde Islands in 1457. wrote the first book giving an account of modern voyages. the citizens retaliating. a register of the landed proprietors of a district. an Irish adventurer. encamped with his following on Blackheath. for the arrest and imprisonment of a person. in the reign of Henry VI. Page 480 of 2772 . CACHET.

called Gades by the Romans. arrested. an English poet of the 7th century. originally a simple olive branch. one of the chief commercial ports in Spain.ramakalai@gmail. slew the dragon. Chennai 6. CADOUDAL. was in the hands of the god possessed of magical virtues. the winged rod of Hermes. founded by the Phoenicians about 1100 B. in the quest of his sister Europa. chief of the CHOUANS (q. is the oldest specimen extant of English poetry. became the forefathers of Thebes. with a view to its sacrifice. founder of Thebes. after a short trial. having confessed his intention to overthrow the Republic and establish Louis XVIII. which sprang up into a body of armed men.C. the story goes.). but was defeated. and carries on a large export trade. whither he had retired. condemned and executed. which devoured them. the son of a farmer. born in Brittany. Page 481 of 2772 . in Boeotia. was suspected of evil designs against the person of Bonaparte.. CAEDMON. all but five.com CADIZ (62). came over from London. from Gibraltar.. tried hard and took up arms to restore the Bourbons in the teeth of the Republic. from Xeres and 50 m. it was the symbol of peace. to whom is ascribed the introduction of the Greek alphabet from Phoenicia and the invention of writing. a semi-mythological personage. who would fain have enlisted him. on the throne (1769-1804). having seen in him "a mind cast in the true mould". at the NW. extremity of the Isle of Leon. arrived at the spot where the cow lay down. the fragment of a hymn by whom. and. on a secret mission from Charles X. who. his companions to a well guarded by a dragon. wrote a poem on the beginning of things at the call of a voice Computer Lecturer. in Andalusia. CTSTI. CAD`MUS. entwined with two serpents. was told by the oracle at Delphi to follow a cow and build a city where she lay down. and separated from the rest of the island by a channel crossed by bridges. refused to serve under Bonaparte. he sent. v. a brave man. sowed its teeth. GEORGES. who speared each other to death. preserved by Bede. it is 7 m. CADUCEUS.

though the title was applied to succeeding emperors and to the heirs-apparent of the Western and the Eastern Empires. of Cherbourg. on the death of Sulla returned to Rome.). and contains relics of Roman times. SE. "Caedmon. which the emperors of Rome from Augustus to Nero of right inherited. capital of Calvados. celebrated by Tennyson in connection with Arthurian legend. the burial-place of William the Conqueror. CAESAR. it survives in the titles of the Kaiser of Germany and the Czar of Russia. a large library. it is a very ancient place. by birth and marriage connected with the democratic party. the story of Genesis and Exodus. as Stopford Brooke reports.com from heaven. CAESAR. and a noble collection of pictures. and the story of Christ and the Apostles. Page 482 of 2772 . CAESALPINUS. and was by an edict of proscription against him obliged to quit the city. then dictator.C. was professor of botany at Pisa. lace the chief manufacture. was forerunner of Harvey and Linnaeus. and thereupon he began to sing. and the native place of Charlotte Corday. of Newport. was appointed to the government of Gaul. come sing me some song". pronounced the greatest man of antiquity. 21/2 m. and finally to the consulship. on the Usk. discovered sex in plants. CAIUS JULIUS. and gave hints on their classification (1519-1603). CAEN (45). was elected to one civic office after another. about 80 m. born at Arezzo. name of an old Roman family claiming descent from the Trojan AEneas. NE. and has fine old public buildings. it is a well-built town. CTSTI. which he subdued after Computer Lecturer. a small old town in Monmouthshire. United with Pompey and Crassus in the First Triumvirate (60 B. and of heaven and hell to come. many other tales in the sacred Scriptures. saying as he slept. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. early provoked the jealousy of Sulla. a fine old Norman town. CAER`LEON. Italian natural philosopher.

lies on the slopes of a hill.C. v. distinguishing himself in Egypt and elsewhere. by means of which he perpetrated the most audacious frauds. CAESAREA. when he was assassinated on the Ides (the 15th) of March. and wrung large sums from his dupes wherever they went. 30 m.C. who became an accomplice. professed supernatural powers. early acquired a smattering of chemistry and medicine. and defeated him at Pharsalia (48 B. _b_. a Syrian seaport.. his real name being Giuseppe Balsamo. on assuring Himself that His disciples were persuaded of His divine sonship. Also C. after which they absconded to Paris and lived in Computer Lecturer.). of poor parents. who had fled to Greece. COUNT ALESSANDRO DI. in the fifty-sixth year of his age. the summit of which is 300 ft. and is on the site of an ancient Carthaginian town. Chennai 6. CTSTI. CAGLIOSTRO.C. CAGLIARI. coast. N. Page 483 of 2772 . which. when detected in one place were repeated with even more brazen effrontery in another.100 B.C. the cap of Sardinia. PHILIPPI. born in Palermo. now in ruins. 44 B. this roused Caesar. proper name of PAUL VERONESE (q. conceived and executed vast schemes for the benefit of the city.). who had gone over to the aristocratic side. his successes awoke the jealousy of Pompey. at the source of the Jordan. he soon saw all Italy lying at his feet (49 B.ramakalai@gmail. whence Christ.). assumed name of an arch-impostor. whence they were expelled by the Spaniards.C. high. built in honour of Augustus Caesar by Herod the Great. pursued Pompey. and so by His sacrifice perfect their faith in Him. of Joppa. and became the idol of its citizens. was a colony of Jews from the time of Tiberius till 1492. married a pretty woman named Lorenza Feliciani. returned to Rome (47 B. though a place of note in the days of the Crusades. on the S. turned to go up to Jerusalem. and he was recalled.). was thereupon elected dictator and consul for five years. CAGLIARI (44). and crossing the Rubicon with his victorious troops.com nine years to the dominion of Rome. PAOLO. and the chief port.

numbering 9000. Italian architect. they were by their manner of life in course of time freed. here he was thrown into the Bastille for complicity in the DIAMOND NECKLACE AFFAIR (q. it is argued. CAGNOLA. it has been supposed. treated as outcasts in the Middle Ages. CAICOS. CAGOTS. of Toulouse.). of Lot. in the S. LOUIS DE LA. on his wife turning informer. N. registered stars of the Southern Hemisphere. in his native city. v. CTSTI. a race in the SW. his wife having retired into a convent (1743-1795). his greatest work. Page 484 of 2772 . astronomer. See CARLYLE'S "MISCELLANIES" for an account of his character and career. the High-Priest of the Jews who condemned Christ to death as a violator of the law of Moses. Chennai 6. to some taint of leprosy. a town in the dep. CAHORS (13). with interesting Roman and other relics of antiquity. and committed to the fortress of San Leone. a wild savage race in the woods of Brazil. CAIAPOS." of white marble. born at Milan. of France. CAIAPHAS.com extravagance.ramakalai@gmail. hard to persuade to reconcile themselves to a settled life. studied at the Cape of Good Hope. LUIGI. the "Arco della Pace. a group of small islands connected with the Bahamas. before unknown. calculated the table of eclipses for 1800 years (1713-1762). of France of uncertain origin. owing. from which. where he died at 52. MARQUIS OF. but annexed to Jamaica since 1874. 71 m. he was consigned to the tender mercies of the Inquisition. the execution of which occupied him over 30 years (1762-1833). CAILLE. Computer Lecturer.

such as the "Deemster" and the "Manxman". interpreter of Kant and Computer Lecturer. collecting minerals and making observations (1787-1869). the "Christian. though less so in America. CAIN. the temptation was a prize of 10. which he was in the habit of using in answering inquirers about the progress of the American revolution by his friends in France. _b_. CA IRA. in Central Africa. Page 485 of 2772 . 1853. "It will go on. THOMAS HENRY HALL. his most recent novel. EDWARD. which he received with a pension of 1000 besides (1799-1839). Nubia. born in Cheshire. RENE. and the murderer of his brother Abel. said to have been a phrase of Benjamin Franklin's. CTSTI. which he did in 1828.ramakalai@gmail. CAIN. brother of the following. born in Nantes. CAILLIE. CAIRD. Chennai 6. a chief of the Jacquerie. and therefore of the race.000 marks offered by the Geographical Society of Paris. born in Poitou. French traveller in Africa. began life as architect and took to journalism. a peasant insurrection in France in 1358." a popular song in France during the Revolution. and Ethiopia." his greatest but most ambiguous work. eminent novelist. of Manx blood. CAILLIAUD. and much challenged in England. travelled in Egypt. French mineralogist. the first-born of Adam and Eve. the first European to penetrate as far as Timbuctoo. author of a number of novels bearing on Manx life. where the verdict is divided.com CAILLET. it has been translated into most of the languages of Europe. taken prisoner and tortured to death. according to Genesis.

called to the English bar. lawyer and politician. generally by way of a sepulchral monument. born at Greenock. succeeded Jowett as master of Balliol. 1825. in Aberdeenshire. so named. and London. 120 m. SE. just above the Delta. became Lord Chancellor under Disraeli's government in 1868. famous for a sermon entitled "The Religion of Common Life" preached before the Queen at Crathie in 1855. CTSTI." and edited the lectures and sermons of his brother.com Hegel. and presents a strange Computer Lecturer. CAIRNGORM. entered Parliament. born in co. EARL. Louth. Principal of Glasgow University. Ireland. JOHN. JOHN ELLIOT. on one of the Scottish Grampians. among other places. CAIRO (400). author of works on political economy (1823-1875). Chennai 6. and wrote eloquently on it. Down. made a special study of the philosophy of religion. though not always. and it would seem sometimes in execration of some foul deed. CAIRN. cap.ramakalai@gmail. of Alexandria. CAIRD. representing Belfast. HUGH MACCALMONT. CAIRNES. Ireland. and largest city in Africa. and again in 1874. has written on the "Evolution of Religion. a yellowish-brown variety of rock-crystal. Page 486 of 2772 . _b_. professor successively in Dublin. Galway. took an active interest in philanthropic movements (1819-1885). a heap of stones often. on the right bank of the Nile. loosely thrown together. more especially the Christian version of it (1820-1898). covers an extensive area on a broad sandy plain. born in co. so called from being found. an eloquent Scotch preacher. CAIRNS. of Egypt. a political economist of the school of John Stuart Mill with modifications.

43 m. and latticed houses. fishing the chief industry. and on the "Summa Theologiae" of Aquinas.500). by 28 m. a district under British protection on the coast of Upper Guinea. old walls. &c. a level. still represent the brightest period of Saracenic art. the country flat and the climate unhealthy. These. palaces.com agglomeration of ancient and modern elements. though much spoiled by time and tourists. and somewhat barren. not Gaelic. and university with 2000 students. and 400 mosques. born in Gaeta. Page 487 of 2772 . CALABAR`. Turks. of which Wick is the chief seat.. CALABRIA (1. CTSTI. The modern city is the fourth founded in succession on the same site. with a bold and rocky coast. and Greeks are numerous. represented the Pope at the Diet of Augsburg.. embraced in the SW. of Scotland. general of the Dominicans.. a fertile prov. Chennai 6. gateways. The population is mixed. seed of an African bean. peninsula of Computer Lecturer. Extensive railway communication and the Nile waterway induce a large transport trade. being poisonous. has flagstone quarries. narrow streets. known as the Ordeal Bean. half Egyptian. and remains of the former cities are included in it. but there is little industry. except in the W. while Copts. is the language spoken. it is a centre of Mohammedan learning. CAJETAN. hotels. There is a rich museum. CARDINAL. and since 1882 the centre of British influence in Egypt. having been used to test the innocence of people charged with witchcraft. as. employed in medicine. the townsfolk are half Arab. CALABAR BEAN. bare. Italians. and tried in vain to persuade Luther to recant. wrote a Commentary on the Bible. CAITHNESS (37). The most modern part of the city consists of broad boulevards. and S. the inhabitants are to a great extent of Scandinavian origin. with European-built villas. Jews. county in the NE. and English.ramakalai@gmail. and has all the advantages of modern civic appliances.

on whom. honorary degrees were conferred by the Edinburgh. is inhabited by a race of somewhat fiery temper. favourable to Royalty. and the last town held by them on French soil. took up her case. was in possession of the English from 1347 to 1558. Voltaire. accept (1600-1666). yields grains and fruits. a Presbyterian divine. refused a bishopric. whose son committed suicide.ramakalai@gmail. on conscientious grounds.com Italy. and the protectorate of Cromwell. of San Francisco. opposed the execution of Charles I. CALAMY. while the widow escaped into Switzerland. to grant a sum of money out of the royal bounty for the benefit of the family. got the process revised. after which his property was confiscated. an eminent Nonconformist minister in London. CALAIS (56). a fortified seaport in France. is much subject to earthquakes. and his children compelled to embrace the Catholic faith. a tradesman of Toulouse. CALAMY. where it is 21 m. EDMUND. a grandson of the preceding. Chennai 6. and has considerable export trade. EDMUND. E. and a variety of minerals. CALAS. Glasgow. and Louis XV. and Aberdeen universities (1671-1732). and traversed by the Apennines. Page 488 of 2772 . across. an inland county of California. after the Restoration. for the high esteem in which he was held. with tunny and anchovy fisheries. but zealously opposed to Episcopacy. born in London. made chaplain to Charles II. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. and sentenced to torture and death on the wheel (1762). as well as cotton and tulle manufactures. proved to the satisfaction of the legal authorities in France the innocence of the victims. to his immortal honour. against which he vigorously protested with his pen. on the Strait of Dover. and who was charged with murdering him to prevent his going over to the Catholic Church. is the chief landing-place for travellers from England to the Continent. convicted. CALAVE`RAS. was tried. which he could not. JEAN.

and the initial position and velocity. the change of speed. bank. an excellent water-supply. gas. and the residence of the Governor-General. in mathematics. is the capital of Bengal and the Indian Empire. and many other English Buildings have earned for it the name "city of palaces". are still squalid. iron-works. though being improved. If we know the successive positions of the moving body at successive short intervals of time. the rules of the differential calculus enable us to calculate the speed. g. there are extensive dockyards. and tramway services. the soothsayer who accompanied Agamemnon to the siege of Troy. The nature of the method and the necessity for it may be indicated by a simple example. Chennai 6. ships of 5000 tons enter Computer Lecturer. CALCHAS. Expressed somewhat crudely. St. add to the amenities. while the integral calculus is a process of summation or _integration_ of these differentials. and the effective force acting on the body. enjoined the sacrifice of Iphigenia to propitiate the gods. CTSTI. Conversely. university. the curvature of the path). given the force at every point. town hall. extensive railway and steamboat communications make it the chief emporium of commerce in Asia. with copper and gold mines. numerous quays. a device by means of which Troy was surprised and taken. e. Paul's cathedral. and jute mills. or the motion of a planet in its orbit. foretold the length or the war. about 80 m. the rules of the integral calculus assist us in calculating the position and velocity of the body at any future time.ramakalai@gmail.com rich in minerals. timber yards. the houses of mud or bamboo. but the native quarters. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL. the motion of a train in a track. e. on the left bank of the Hooghly. and advised the construction of the wooden horses. the differential calculus has to do with the _differentials_ (increments or decrements) of varying quantities. the Government buildings. the change of direction of motion (i. Bishop's College (now an engineering school) High Court. from the sea. the largest and westernmost branch of the Ganges delta. CALCULUS. museum. an esplanade. CALCUTTA (900). warehouses. is the method by which we discuss the properties of continuously varying quantities. Page 489 of 2772 .

was tried by court-martial. entered the army. artist. CALDERON DE LA BARCA. less than a third Mohammedan. Page 490 of 2772 .com the docks. and then banished for resisting the attempts of James VI. became the capital of India in 1772. whither he had retired. and has suffered frequently from cyclones. born at Dalkeith. exercised his art chiefly in book illustrations. "Altare Damascenum. British naval officer. wrote a book. whither he had gone to recruit (1846-1886). RANDOLPH. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. served bravely in several naval engagements. and 41/2 per cent. though professionally untrained. CALDER. first imprisoned. the great Spanish dramatist. a Scotch ecclesiastic. born at Madrid.ramakalai@gmail. he was a dramatist of the first order. and served in Italy and Flanders. graceful humour. being a searching criticism of the claims of the Episcopacy. and became a canon of Toledo. and instinct with a kindly. returned on the death of the king. the population are two-thirds Hindus. to establish Episcopacy in Scotland. his abilities as an artist were promptly and generously recognised by the Academy. which were full of life. a sentence which was afterwards found to be unjust. and has been ranked by the more competent critics among the foremost of the class in both ancient and modern times (1600-1681). founded in 1686. and reprimanded for not following up a victory which he had gained. but to the last continued to write poems and plays. took holy orders. CALDERWOOD. DAVID. Christian. became minister of Crailing. CALDECOTT. and the "Black Hole" massacre perpetrated in 1756. CTSTI." in Holland. born in Chester. SIR ROBERT. he suffered from ill-health. producing the while dramas which were received with great enthusiasm. and died in Florida. Calcutta was captured by Surajah Dowlah. and wrote a "History of the Kirk" (1575-1650). attained afterwards the rank of admiral (1745-1818).

a slave in Shakespeare's "Tempest. CALHOUN. 40 m. of which consist of natural lakes. CAL`GARY. JOHN CALDWELL. so called as the day on which the feast days and unlucky days of the month were announced. since applied poetically to the whole of Scotland. chief town on the Malabar coast. cost L1. CALEDONIAN CANAL.000. was constructed for the benefit of coasting vessels to save the risks they encountered in the Pentland Firth. an American statesman. for the passage of ships between the Atlantic and the North Sea." Computer Lecturer. and champion of the slave-holding States. long. of the Wall of Antoninus. Chennai 6. a canal across the NW. finished 1823. CALICUT (66). CALENDS.com CALEDONIA. born in S. CALIBAN. Carolina. the capital of Alberta. 60 m. in the Madras Presidency of India. Page 491 of 2772 . the first day of the Roman month. CTSTI. in vindication of the doctrine that the Union was a mere compact. in NW.300. the first port at which Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. executed by Telford. regarding slavery as an institution fraught with blessing to all concerned. leader of "the States rights" movement. begun 1803. of Scotland. and any State had a right to withdraw from its conditions. has 28 locks. the Roman name for Scotland N. territory of Canada. whence the cotton cloth first imported from the place got the name "calico.ramakalai@gmail. all through his public life in high civic position. of Irish descent. His chief work is a treatise on the "Nature of Government" (1789-1850)." of the grossest animality of nature.

It is the second largest State. Roman emperor from A. dry. ruled with wisdom and magnanimity at first. LOWER (30). larger by a quarter than the United Kingdom. having ingratiated himself with Tiberius. In the N. stretching southward from the State. through which falls the Merced River. as Sacramento is the capital of the State. copper.D. mountainous. in the S. shipbuilding. agriculture is carried on in some of the valleys. the discovery of gold next year raised great excitement. Constituted a State in 1850. CTSTI. and seaward. the most south-westerly State in the American Union. an extensive. CALIFORNIA. and a delightful climate. Page 492 of 2772 .208). Chennai 6.com CALIFORNIA (1. sulphur. and brought thousands of adventurers from all over the world. the grape and all manner of fruits grow luxuriantly. had his horse installed as consul in mockery of the office. and is bounded landward by Nevada and Arizona. the original lawlessness gradually gave way to regular administration. silk-growing. coal. in Mexican territory. was named his successor. Mineral wealth is great: it is the foremost State for gold and quicksilver. till a conspiracy was formed against him on his return from an expedition Computer Lecturer. the chief port being San Francisco. declared himself a god. there is little rain. and Southern Pacific railroads. The industries include brandy and sugar manufactures. silver. and scarcely habitable peninsula. wished Rome had only one head. and had divine honours paid to him. and pearl and whale fisheries support some coast towns. occupies the Pacific seaboard between Oregon and Mexico. is the most wonderful gorge in the world. lead. and progress has since been steady and rapid. The Yosemite Valley. that he might shear it off at a blow. eastward by the great Central. would entertain people at a banquet and then throw them into the sea. in the Sierra Nevada. 37 to 41. youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina. All products are exported. and winters severe.ramakalai@gmail. CALIGULA. while he lived in the unbridled indulgence of every lust. iron. Union. born at Antium. and fishing. Captured from Mexico in 1847. the largest city. but after an illness due to his dissipation. gave way to the most atrocious acts of cruelty and impiety. the rainfall is excessive. Wheat is the most important product. and many other minerals abound.

CALIPH. travelled for four years in Germany. England. CTSTI. which might embrace both. a Lutheran theologian of an eminently tolerant type. Chennai 6. The principal caliphates are: (1) the Caliphate of the East. and placed by Jupiter among the stars. CALLA`O (32).. king of Arcadia. (3) the Caliphate of Egypt. from Lima. Page 493 of 2772 . a port in Peru. CALIXTUS. and for considering the Apostles' Creed a broad enough basis for Christian union and communion. born at Sleswick. changed by Juno into a she-bear. which is less than it was before the annexation of the nitrate fields to Chile. CALLCOTT. its prosperity depends on trade. It was at Bagdad that Moslem civilisation achieved its final development. established by Abubekr at Mecca. with a fine harbour the safest on the coast. when he was assassinated (12-41). accused of heresy. II. if not in the world. as supreme in both civil and religious matters. JOHN WALL. established at Cordova by Abderrahman (756-1031). daughter of Lycaon. and France. I. stood by him. C. for the liberal spirit in which he had learned in consequence to treat both Catholics and Calvinists. established by the Fatimites (909-1171)..ramakalai@gmail. an eminent musical composer. CALISTO.com into Gaul. his friends. Pope from 218 to 222. 7 m. Pope from 1455 to 1458. C. the title adopted by the successors of Mahomet. born at Computer Lecturer. III. the name of three popes: C. pope from 1119 to 1124. (2) the Caliphate of Cordova. however. or rather apostasy.. transferred to Bagdad by the Abassides (632-1258). and he retained the position he held in the Lutheran Church (1586-1656). Belgium. GEORGE. CALIXTUS.

10 m. which are said to have been on a variety of subjects and very numerous. LADY MARIA. Greek poet. CTSTI. architect of the Parthenon in Athens. CALLERNISH. the muse of epic poetry and eloquence.com Kensington. in height. from Stornoway. only a few epigrams and hymns remain. See MUSES. CALLIS`THENES. a district in the W. CALLIM`ACHUS. Greek architect. and sometimes with a paper roll. landscape painter. wife of Sir Augustus. of his writings. CALLI`OPE. is represented with a tablet and stylus. and was put to death by his order for remonstrating with him on his adoption of the manners and style of the potentates of the East. author of "Little Arthur's History of England" (1779-1842). of the island of Lewis. was keeper of the library there. Page 494 of 2772 . along with Ictinos. brother. was knighted for his eminent skill as an artist (1779-1841). 4th century B. Chennai 6. a disciple of Aristotle. inventor of the Corinthian order. and is celebrated for his glee compositions (1766-1821).ramakalai@gmail.C. CALLIC`RATES. the whole in cruciform arrangement. but professedly on a charge of treason. Ovid. CALLIMACHUS. was admired by Catullus. and flourished in the 3rd century B.C. SIR AUGUSTUS WALL. born in Cyrena. from 10 to 17 ft. who accompanied Alexander the Great to India. noted for its circles of standing stones. taught grammar and belles-lettres at Alexandria. was a pupil of Haendel's. Computer Lecturer. and Propertius.

French financier under Louis XVI. "and he did it. on the confines of the trade winds. executed many of them at the instance of the Grand-duke of Tuscany and Louis XIII. he wrote also a "Commentary on the Bible" in 23 vols. born in Lorraine. but known in England by his "Historical. born at Douay. a Spanish statesman. THE. CALMS. Critical." the first published book of its kind of any note. CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE. "his task to raise the wind and the winds. CALLOT. could do nothing but convoke the Notables in 1787." says Carlyle. a man of "fiscal genius. as also those of the gipsies with whom he associated in his youth (1593-1633).ramakalai@gmail. JACQUES. which are much admired. his etchings. CALONNE. minister of Ferdinand VII. and a reactionary.com CALLIS`TRATUS. before all things for borrowing". CALOMAR`DE. a learned Benedictine and biblical scholar. tracts of calm in the ocean. escaped into France by bribing his captors (1773-1842). Page 495 of 2772 . after four years of desperate attempts at financial adjustment. engraver and etcher. and Chronological Dictionary of the Bible. obnoxious to the people. and much referred to at one time as an authority.. and had to quit Paris and France. and which lasts for weeks at a time. an Athenian orator. DUKE.. succeeded Necker in 1783 as comptroller-general of the finances in France. and led to his execution as a traitor. AUGUSTINE. such as those of the sieges of Breda and Rochelle. arrested for treachery." referring to the Computer Lecturer. was dismissed. genius for persuading. a violent enemy of liberal principles and measures. who kindled in Demosthenes a passion for his art. of France. and a "Universal History" in 17 vols. Chennai 6. his Spartan sympathies brought him to grief.. (1672-1757). CTSTI. amounted to 1600 pieces. born at Nancy. CALMET. could give no account of his administration that would satisfy them.

a city 38 m. who. alive to the danger of conspiracy. the staple industry is pottery and terra-cotta ware. in N. CAL`UMET. CTSTI.com Revolution he provoked. daughter of the consul Piso. among the American Indians a pipe for smoking. CALOTYPE. CALVADOS (428). CALORIUS. a maritime dep. CALTAGIRONE (28). of France.ramakalai@gmail. with a fertile soil and a moist climate. ABRAHAM. where he died in embarrassed circumstances (1734-1802). the name given by physicists to the presumed subtle element which causes heat. CALPE. a bitter enemy of George Calixtus (1612-1686). Computer Lecturer. skirted by dangerous rocks of the same name. a declaration of war. a process of photography invented by Fox Talbot in 1840. the last wife of Julius Caesar. Chennai 6.). by means of the action of light on nitrate of silver. and if rejected. was an emblem of peace. one of the PILLARS OF HERCULES (q. urged Caesar to stay at home the day he was assassinated. of Catania. which if accepted when offered. a fiery Lutheran polemic. SW. was permitted by Napoleon to return to France. v. Page 496 of 2772 . CALORIC. CALPURNIA. Gibraltar.

the place of the crucifixion. where he studied Hebrew and wrote his great epoch-making book. after having mastered Latin as a boy at Paris. making after this for Strassburg. as witness the burning of Servetus for denying the doctrine of the Trinity. also name given to effigies of the crucifixion in Catholic countries. settled at Bologna. his masterpiece. father and son. GEORGE and CECIL. CALVIN. professed the Protestant faith. erected for devotion. JOHN. and Albani. looked down upon from the city. Page 497 of 2772 . in Picardy. he chanced to pass through Geneva. was arrested as by the hand of God to stay and help on God's work in the place. identified with a hill on the N. with a cliff on which criminals were cast down prior to being stoned. under charter from James I. DENIS. devoted for a time to the law.S. CTSTI.. Lords Baltimore. proceeded to Paris. and acquired a permanently theological bent. born at Noyon. U. Domenichino. was sent to study at the university of Orleans. but proceeded with such rigour that he was expelled. CALVERLEY. had to flee for his life from France. his parodies among the most amusing of the century. Chennai 6. among others Guidi Reni. Peter's. "St. wrote "Fly-Leaves" and "Verses and Translations". a clever English parodist. the great Reformer. founders. Oxford. became acquainted with the Scriptures.ramakalai@gmail. for twenty years he held sway in Geneva. born at Antwerp. retired to Basel. CALVARY. Michael" in St. CHARLES STUART. where he founded a school. or CAUVIN. of Maryland. Fellow of Christ's Church. became the centre of a dangerous religious excitement. which allowed of no license in faith any more than conduct. a painter. flavoured by the author's scholarship (1831-1884). though recalled after three years. Bologna (1555-1619). the "Institutes of the Christian Religion". Computer Lecturer. CALVERT.com CALVAERT. on his return he proposed and established his system of Church government. of Jerusalem. from whence issued many eminent artists. and for so long he was regarded as the head of the Reformed Churches in Scotland.

"it is beyond all question the first serious work of great literary merit not historical in the history of French prose. was a man of masculine intellect and single-hearted devotion to duty. Page 498 of 2772 . JEAN JACQUES REGIS DE.. Duke of Parma. CAMARILLA. CAMBACERES. she died of grief on his departure. it is perhaps the most remarkable work of its particular kind to be anywhere found. His greatest work was his "Institutes. CALVINISM." CALYPSO. born at Buenos Ayres in 1824. Saintsbury. an Argentine publicist.. and four years after translated by himself into French. after the Revolution of the 18th Computer Lecturer. born at Montpellier. queen of the island of Ogygia.. bred to the legal profession. Besides his "Institutes.ramakalai@gmail. as ever in the "Great Taskmaster's" eye." published in Basel in 1535-36. the theological system of Calvin. Considering that the whole of it was written before the author of it was seven-and-twenty. who interpose between the legitimate ministers and the crown. CALVO. in the Greek mythology a nymph. daughter of Atlas.com Switzerland. CTSTI. Theoretical and Practical. a name of recent origin in Spain for a clique of private counsellors at court. the chief characteristic of which is that it assigns all in salvation to the sovereign action and persistent operation of Divine grace. the merits of it being those of full maturity and elaborate preparation rather than of youthful exuberance" (1509-1564). Chennai 6." says Prof. took a prominent part as a lawyer in the national Convention. CHARLES." he found time to write Commentaries on nearly all the books of the Bible. It was written in Latin. and France. author of "International Law. who by her fascinating charms detained Ulysses beside her for 7 of the 10 years of his wanderings home from Troy. Holland. "In the translated form.

famous for its fine linen fabrics. there are iron-works at Kompong Soai. in the cathedral of which is a monument to his memory. and maize are grown in the tracts thus irrigated. remarkable ruins of ancient grandeur are numerous. spices. was sincerely attached to Napoleon. foreign trade is done through the port Kampot. in consequence of which the place. and timber are also produced. a small kingdom in Indo-China. Chennai 6. Annam. NE. Page 499 of 2772 . in France. country of the Kymry.ramakalai@gmail. 28 m. and French Cochin-China.500). his "Projet de Code" formed the basis of the _Code Napoleon_ (1753-1824). are stretches of forest and hills in which iron and copper are wrought. to which the Welsh belong. with interesting archaeological remains. a city in the dep. an ancient city. of Bombay. Holy Sepulchre. tobacco. Fenelon was archbishop here. hence called _cambrics_. the ancient name of Wales. was chosen second consul. CAMBRAI (17). of London. founded in the 12th Computer Lecturer. once a flourishing port. on the Cam. and a Roman Catholic church. there are some fine buildings. CAMBRIDGE (44). which is fast silting up. on the Scheldt. The coast-line is washed by the Gulf of Siam. most of the country is inundated in the rainy season. The glory of the city is the University. the oldest round church in England. gutta-percha. of Nord. county town of Cambridgeshire. a town and seaport N. the landward boundaries touch Siam. on the Mekong. CTSTI. in the N. was made by him High Chancellor of the Empire as well as Duke of Parma. CAMBO`DIA (1. cotton. a Celtic race.com Brumaire. The capital is Pnom-Penh (35). occupying an area as large as Scotland in the plains of the Lower Mekong. has fallen into decay. it has been under French protection since 1863. The kingdom was formerly much more extensive. a branch of the Mekong flows backward and forms the Great Lake. on a gulf of the same name. CAMBRIA. CAMBAY (31). stands in flat country. and rice.

CAMBRIDGESHIRE (188). the centre of the book-making trade. Trinity.. 1546. It lays emphasis on mathematical. became commander-in-chief in 1856 on the resignation of Viscount Hardinge. and carried a marshal's baton. 1326.. 1448. Pembroke. an inland agricultural county. one of the oldest towns in New England. Emmanuel. CAMBRIDGE (70).S. the Gog-Magog in the S. Spenser. Catherine's. was made viceroy of Hanover. 1473. son of the preceding and cousin to the Queen. is rich in Roman remains. Gonville and Caius. retired in 1895. Computer Lecturer.. Wordsworth. Magdalene. Each college is a corporation by itself. 1441. 1352. 1496. St. famed for its butter and cheese. FIRST DUKE OF. Page 500 of 2772 . with a range of chalk-hills. 1819. seat of Harvard University. Corpus Christi. here Longfellow resided for many years. very flat.ramakalai@gmail. St John's. Newton. Cromwell. Milton. Among its eminent men have been Bacon. as Oxford on classical. 1350. and was succeeded by Lord Wolseley. born in Hanover. King's. chapels. 1519. served in the army. Queens'. in 1837. the crown fell to the Duke of Cumberland (1774-1850). Christ's. Trinity Hall. U. 1505. Pitt. museums. Jesus. culture. Dryden.. served as volunteer under the Duke of York. 1347. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY contains 17 colleges: Peterhouse. CTSTI. founded 1257. Chennai 6.. 1511. which shares with Oxford the academic prestige of England. SECOND DUKE OF. libraries. CAMBRIDGE. 1598. with its colleges housed in stately buildings. a suburb of Boston. _b_. and Tennyson. Sidney Sussex. marshy in the N. nine-tenths of its surface under cultivation. 1584. 1348. &c. Clare College. 1800. Thackeray.com century. CAMBRIDGE. and Downing. governed by statutes sanctioned by the crown. seventh and youngest son of George III. and capable of holding landed or other property. which he continued to be till.

though surrounded by the enemy and summoned to surrender. _d_. succeeded his father. but the members of his own family. but does not surrender" (1770-1842). CAMBUS`CAN. "The Guard dies.. Chennai 6. Page 501 of 2772 . and in the end gave himself up to dissipation and vindictive acts of cruelty. from which not only his subjects suffered. referred to by Falstaff in I Henry IV.com CAMBRONNE. FIRST EARL OF. 4. a ranting character in a play called "The Lamentable Tragedy". together with a magical mirror. is credited with the saying. Computer Lecturer. but afterwards suffered serious reverses. king of Tartary.C. a distinguished British lawyer and statesman. the great Cyrus. CTSTI. served under the Republic and the Empire.'s reign. CHARLES PRATT. the terminus of six railways. a busy town in New Jersey. commanded a division of the Old Guard at Waterloo. U. invaded and subdued Egypt. identified with Genghis Khan.S. _La Garde meurt. as judge in the case. fought to the last. accompanied Napoleon to Elba in 1814. magically obedient to the wish of the rider. CAMDEN. opposed. CAMBY`SES. CAMBYSES. chief-justice of the King's Bench in George I. et ne se rend pas_. who had a wonderful steed of brass. the prosecution of Wilkes as illegal. king of Persia. on the left bank of the Delaware.. refused. KING. and ultimately Lord Chancellor of England. sword. French general.ramakalai@gmail. opposite Philadelphia. 54 B. and was taken prisoner. and as a statesman the policy and action of the government towards the American colonies. born at Nantes. Act ii. and ring. he was created earl in 1786 (1713-1794). sc. CAMDEN (58).

CAMELOT. consists generally of two or three different colours.ramakalai@gmail. and where entrenchments of an old town are still to be seen. Page 502 of 2772 . a place in Somerset. by means of which the image of an object may be made to appear on a light or white surface. CAMERA OBSCURA. WILLIAM. played a prominent part in the religious struggles of his time. an optical contrivance. the upper cut in relief and the under forming the ground. King Arthur held his court. CAMERARIUS. second master. it is presumed." a historical and topographical account of the British Isles. CAMEO. he has been surnamed the Strabo and the Pausanias of England (1551-1623). collaborated with him in drawing up the Augsburg Confession (1500-1574)." both. active as a German Reformer. and "Annals of Elizabeth's Reign. CTSTI. during which time he gave proof of his antiquarian knowledge. a distinguished scholar. his most widely known work. CAMENAE.com CAMDEN. which led to his appointment as Clarencieux king-at-arms. born at Bamberg. a learned English antiquary. an optical instrument or contrivance. where. CAMERA LUCIDA. Chennai 6. author of "Britannia. Computer Lecturer. in the Roman mythology a set of nymphs endowed with semi-prophetic powers. friend and biographer of Melanchthon. the first and most famous born in London. written in Latin. by means of which the images of external objects are exhibited distinctly on a surface in the focus of the lens. as all the rest of his works. and eventually head-master in Westminster School. and sometimes identified with the Muses. a precious stone cut in relief.

who held several professorial appointments on the Continent. his head and hands cut off. Page 503 of 2772 . now the Scottish Rifles.). CAMERON. (3) also a German colony. a learned divine. traversed Africa all the way from east to west (1873-75).. a Presbyterian body in Scotland who derived their name from Richard Cameron. (1) a river in W. he was on the track of important discoveries. Edinburgh. took to arms along with sixty others in defence of his rights. a volcanic group. Africa. and after a brave fight slain. along the coast. from the quantities of palm-oil exported. wrote "Across Africa" (1844-1894). born in Glasgow. was for a time Principal of Glasgow University. extending 199 m. and fixed on the Netherbow Port. born near Weymouth. African explorer. JOHN. (2) a mountain range. CTSTI. originally raised in defence of Scottish religious rights. Chennai 6. the highest peak nearly 14. a Scotch Covenanter of the 17th century. of the estuary. v. VERNEY LOVETT. CAMEROON. (2) Also a British regiment. and his successors. and he died of a wound inflicted by an opponent of his views (1579-1625). and even declined to take the oath of allegiance to sovereigns such as William III. NW. his knowledge was so extensive that he was styled a "walking library. falling by a wide estuary into the Bight of Biafra. CAMERON. Computer Lecturer. known as the oil river." but he fell in disfavour with the people for his doctrine of passive obedience. born in Falkland. who did not explicitly concede to the nation this right.000 ft. in 1680. was surprised by a body of dragoons at AIRDS MOSS (q. but his explorations were cut short by the natives. CAMERONIANS (1). a ringleader of the persecuted Presbyterians. RICHARD.ramakalai@gmail. contended like him for the faith to which the nation by covenant had bound itself. Fife.com CAMERON. at the head of the Canongate. for long the 26th Regiment of the British line.

joined the army. the poet of Portugal. CAMILLUS. born at Lisbon. called. e. fell in passionate love with a lady of high rank in Lisbon. in 365 B. and is their national epic. as she with him. were partly persuaded and partly compelled into submission by Marshal Villars in 1704. saved Rome from destruction by the Gauls under Brennus. left Lisbon. and in consequence of. after. a blouse over their armour. coming home he lost everything but his poem. and her grace. whom the Horatii slew. and into English alone no fewer than six times (1524-1580). (2) also a sister of the HORATII (q.. the Portuguese. but whom he was not allowed to marry.." or the Lusitanians. killed by her brother because she wept at the death of her affiance. died neglected and in poverty. and got into trouble with the Portuguese authorities.). took Veii. who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV. one of the heroines in the "AEneid. under Jean Cavalier their chief. was five times elected dictator. a _chemise_). lamented by the whole nation. CAMISARDS. Computer Lecturer. a rival town. the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). MARCUS FURIUS. i. the "Epos of Commerce"." noted for her preternatural fleetness on the racecourse. v. retired into voluntary exile at Ardea on account of the envy of his enemies in Rome.). and fought against the Moors. v. CTSTI. the title of the poem is properly "The Lusiads. Huguenots of the Cevennes.com CAMILLA. arrived at Goa. volunteered service in India. Page 504 of 2772 . was banished to Macao. a famous patrician of early Rome. (1) a virgin queen of the Volsci. after a ten years' siege. studied at Coimbra. recalled from exile. and remembered for generations after as one of the noblest heroic figures in Roman history. it has been translated into most European languages.C. and gained a succession of victories over rival Italian tribes. in which others joined. not inaptly. CAMOENS. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. died at eighty of the plague. one of the CURIATII (q. and consoled himself by writing his "Lusiad". so called because they wore a _camiso_ (Fr.

born at Paris. which at one time had by sheer terrorism considerable political influence in the country. TOMMASO. MME. and fruit. Germain. Salerno. and spent 27 years of his life in a Neapolitan dungeon. infested with malaria. to suppress it.com CAMORRA. Page 505 of 2772 . when steps were taken by Francis II. like him. CAMPAIGN. contemporary of Bacon. oil. originally a Dominican monk. faithful friend and confidante of Marie Antoinette. it was a Computer Lecturer. a secret society in Naples with wide ramifications. the members of it joined the revolutionary party. with a cathedral. became under Napoleon matron of an institution for daughters of officers of the Legion of Honour. and oil in great abundance. poem by Addison in celebration of Marlborough's victory at Blenheim. in Salerno. Chennai 6. and yields corn. in the W. (2) a town in Italy. (1) an unhealthy flat district round Rome. at the reform of philosophy. he retired to France. after the Revolution opened a boarding-school at St. CAMPANELLA. and devoted himself to the study of nature. opposed scholasticism. was persecuted all along by the Church. an Italian philosopher of the transition period.ramakalai@gmail. of great fertility. co-extensive with ancient Latium. of Italy. and had their revenge in the expulsion eventually of the Bourbons from Italy. wrote the "Private Life of Marie Antoinette" (1752-1822). CAMPAGNA. aimed. CTSTI. an ancient prov. fell back upon the ancient systems. and a trade in wine. he was the author of sonnets as well as philosophical works (1568-1639). and Gaeta. CAMPAN. and enjoyed the protection of Richelieu. born in Calabria. THE. wine. CAMPANIA. Capua was the capital. released. DE. the chief towns of which now are Naples.

JOHN. ALEXANDER. CAMPBELL. SIR COLIN. LORD CLYDE. and that of Florence one of the most famous." and an able reply to Hume's argument against miracles. Lord Chancellor of England. born in Antrim. the leaning tower of Pisa being one. but not attached to it. and rose rapidly. a Scotch divine. born in Glasgow. CAMPBELL. entered the army. and owned no authority in religion but the Bible. CAMPBELL. Chennai 6. in which he employed the words "immercer" and "immersion" for "baptist" and "baptism" (1788-1866). the sect has upwards of 5000 meeting-houses in America. the members of which have played an important role in English and Scottish history. was a Whig in Computer Lecturer.com favourite resort of the wealthy families of ancient Rome. a son of the manse. CAMPANILE. and quelled the rebellion. CAMPBELL. son of a carpenter named Macliver. CTSTI. was made field-marshal. commanded the Highland Brigade in the Crimea. Principal of Aberdeen University. wrote "Philosophy of Rhetoric.ramakalai@gmail. GEORGE. disowned creeds. Campbell executed a translation of the New Testament. destined for the Church. relieved Lucknow. emigrated to America in 1807. a celebrated Scottish Highland clan. won the day at Alma and Balaclava. did journalistic work and law reports. commanded in India during the Mutiny. with a pension of L2000. but took the study of law. born at Cupar-Fife. very common in Italian cities. Page 506 of 2772 . served in China and the Punjab. an Anti-Calvinistic Baptist. was called to the bar. and created Lord Clyde. he was one of the bravest soldiers of England (1792-1863). a tower for bells constructed beside a church. entitled "Dissertation on Miracles" (1709-1796). and founded a sect called the "Disciples of Christ". CAMPBELL. and over half a million members.

Page 507 of 2772 . CAMPBELL. orally collected. the Fatherhood of God. with a fine harbour." "Hohenlinden.com politics. CTSTI. a town in Kintyre. while the doctrine for which he was deposed. poet. deposed from the ministry of the Scotch Church in 1831 for his liberal theological sentiments. enabled him to travel on the Continent. CAMPBELTOWN. Computer Lecturer. CAMPBELL. "Ye Mariners of England. married. lecturing. born in Argyll. when a student of law in Edinburgh wrote "The Pleasures of Hope". and before his death a testimonial and address in recognition of his worth was presented to him by representatives of nearly every religious community in Scotland (1801-1872). a Scotch clergyman. author of. and settled in London. studied with distinction at the University. JOHN FRANCIS." and "The Exile of Erin". a saintly man." a collection all his own. after settling in London a pension of L200 was awarded him through the influence of Fox. JOHN MACLEOD. where he wrote the well-known lines. born in Glasgow. his favourite theme was the self-evidencing character of revelation. and again in the following year: buried in Westminster (1777-1844). Chennai 6. and has over 20 whisky distilleries. born at Islay. the success of the work. among other works. where he did writing. and some more poetry. which was great. is a great fishing centre. wrote the "Lives of the Chancellors" and the "Lives of the Chief Justices" (1779-1861). CAMPBELL. and a remarkable one for the enthusiasm and the patriotic devotion it displays (1822-1885). whose character alone should have protected him from such an indignity. he continued afterwards to ply his vocation as a minister of Christ in a quiet way to some quiet people like himself. THOMAS.ramakalai@gmail. he wrote in prose as well as verse. Argyllshire. in particular "The Last Man". he was elected Rector of Glasgow University in 1827. "Popular Tales of the West Highlands. is being now adopted as the central principle of Scotch theology. held a succession of offices both on the Bench and in the Cabinet.

disciple of Basedow. LORENZO. a Mexican seaport on a bay of the same name. CAMPINE. JOACHIM HEINRICH. manufactures cigars.ramakalai@gmail. a vast moor of swamp and peat to the E. CAMPI. Page 508 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer.com CAMPE. a family of painters. and a patron of art (1722-1789). a tract of sandy hills on the coast of N. made a special study of the facial angle in connection with intelligence. PETER. born at Leyden. held sundry professorships. and Catherine. near which Admiral Duncan defeated the Dutch fleet under Van Winter in 1797. with the effect of mortally offending the former and being of no real benefit to the latter. CTSTI. CAMPHUYSEN. of Antwerp. CAMPEACHY (12). Holland. he was an artist as well as a scientist. a Dutch anatomist. Chennai 6. being now rendered fertile by irrigation. twice visited England as legate. cardinal. a Dutch landscape painter of the 17th century. famous for his moonlight pieces. distinguished in the annals of Italian art at Cremona in the 16th century. CAMPERDOWN. the last time in connection with the divorce between Henry VIII. and author of educational works (1746-1818). CAMPER. his mission served only to embitter the relations of Henry with the see of Rome (1474-1539). whom he would fain have befriended. German educationist. CAMPEGGIO.

CAMPOS (13). of Computer Lecturer. in the prov. had a Scotch factory under Scotch law. CAMUS.ramakalai@gmail. by which the Belgian provinces and part of Lombardy were ceded to France. and did good service in preserving them (1740-1804). Italian and Spanish name for a burial-place. born in London. Page 509 of 2772 . of which he was innocent. on the NE. and certain Venetian States to Austria in return. where a treaty was concluded between France and Austria in 1797. of the island of Walcheren. (1540-1581). a Jesuit. was conservator of the national records. a renegade from the Church of England. CAMPO-FORMIO. Chennai 6. a learned French jurisconsult. but eventually the whole. bishop of Belley. CTSTI. was arrested for sedition. CAMPVERE. a determined enemy of the Court party in France. CAMPO SANTO (_Holy Ground_). EDMUND. a village near Udine. and executed. originally the coast land. a violent enemy of the mendicant monks (1582-1663). CANAAN. was in 1886 beatified by Pope Leo XIII.com CAMPION. a trading city of Brazil. became a keen Catholic propagandist in England. now called VERE. of Rio Janeiro. born at Paris. civil and ecclesiastical. CAMUS. in Venetia. voted for the execution of the king as a traitor and conspirator. member of the National Convention.

Athabasca. Quebec. of the Rocky Mountains. Winnipeg. Keewatin. the Governor-General is the Viceroy of the Queen. fisheries. but there are several gorges.000). coal. with rivers and lakes innumerable. iron. year after year. Manitoba. nearly every Computer Lecturer. a civilised race with towns for defence. and between these a vast extent of prairie and undulating land. the forests yield maple. the peninsulas of Labrador and Nova Scotia.. both on the coasts and inland. Superior. are united under the Dominion Government. Manitoba. from which they were never wholly rooted out. cold. and Ontario are the largest lakes. and E.com Palestine W. Alberta. elsewhere drier than in Europe. the climate is varied. dependent on agriculture. the corn-growing land is practically inexhaustible. which with Newfoundland forms British North America. very wet west of the Rockies. gold. Lawrence. through one of which the Canadian Pacific railroad runs. occupies the northern third of the continent. CTSTI. the chief rivers are the Fraser. with hot summers. and poplar in immense quantities. the chief trade is done with England and the United States. agriculture and forestry are the most important industries. British Columbia. stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Great Bear. oak.000 ft. from the United States to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. Saskatchewan. the Rocky Mountains rise to 16. pine. CANAANITES. Nova Scotia. and St. the twelve provinces. but bracing and exhilarating winters.ramakalai@gmail. and steps are taken to prevent the wealth of timber ever being exhausted. each with its own Parliament. it comprises a lofty and a lower tableland W. of the Jordan. Huron. the Dominion Parliament meets at Ottawa. New Brunswick. Prince Edward Island. Chennai 6. and the western prairie. are of great value. Ontario. Assiniboia. Great Slave. and copper are widely distributed. and Athabasca. Athabasca. but as yet not much wrought. Mackenzie. and the original inhabitants of Palestine. constituting the finest system of inland waterways in the world. many of them of enormous size and navigable. long. Page 510 of 2772 . Erie. CANADA (5. in the rich soil of Manitoba. ash. Saskatchewan. nearly as large as Europe. worshippers of the fertilising powers of nature. very cold in the north. the federal capital. elm. the finest wheat is grown without manure.

by the treaty of Utrecht. CANARIS. the rainfall is low. CANCAN. and dates grow. the rest of French territory was ceded to England in 1763. CANARY ISLANDS (288). Hamilton. were finally confederated in 1871. coast. sugar. constituted at different times. Hudson Bay. and Newfoundland passed to England. on the lower levels the climate is delightful. CTSTI. famous for his pictures of Venice and handling of light and shade (1697-1768). CANDIA (12). 1703. a group of mountainous islands in the Atlantic. and wild. in the centre of the N. Chennai 6. a Greek statesman. farther up there are zones where wheat and cereals are cultivated. the largest town is Montreal. CANALETTO. now the name of the capital. ANTONIO.com province has its university. African coast. and sugar. did much to free and consolidate Greece. more than any other statesman (1790-1877). belonging to Spain. Toronto. a Venetian painter. that of Toronto being the most important. wine. the ancient name of Crete. off the NW. taken possession of by France in 1534. CANALETTO. and water often scarce. and Halifax are all larger than the capital. the name of an ungraceful and indecent dance practised in the Paris dancing saloons. the islands are a health resort of growing favour. bananas. Computer Lecturer. distinguished for his perspective and light and shade (1720-1780). nephew and pupil of preceding. CONSTANTINE. Page 511 of 2772 . except Newfoundland. BERNARDO BELLOTTO.ramakalai@gmail. settlement began at Quebec in 1608. with rocky coasts. Nova Scotia. picturesque scenery. Quebec. the various provinces. and tobacco are exported.

coast. Etruria. for his services in organising the Free Church of Scotland. on NW.. born in Edinburgh. CANNAE. a festival in commemoration of the purification of the Virgin. and written in ridicule of the famous maxim of Leibnitz. was an able debater and an eloquent preacher (1806-1873)." CANDLEMAS. chief commercial town in Crete. ROBERT SMITH.ramakalai@gmail. "You know how to conquer. CTSTI. political government. trades in wax. oil. Italian architect. celebrated with lighted candles. Chennai 6. CANDOLLE. wrote on the antiquities of Rome. and silk. national manners. a philosophic romance by Voltaire. CANINA.. but failing to follow up his success by a march on Rome. CANDOUR. where Hannibal." CANEA (12)." Computer Lecturer. loyalty. and "religion. &c. one of his officers. defeated the Romans in 216 B. but not how to profit by your victory. CANDLISH. a slanderess in Sheridan's "Rivals. (1795-1856). a Scottish ecclesiastic. who addressing him said. human weakness. fruit. in a great battle. held on February 2. Hannibal. all come in for a sneer. it is a sweeping satire.C.com CANDIDE. distinguished. love. ancient town in Apulia. an old Roman custom in honour of the goddess Februa. MRS. LUIGI. ambition. wool. See DE CANDOLLE. "All for the best in the best of all possible worlds". near the mouth of the Aufidus. next to Chalmers. Page 512 of 2772 . was twitted by Maherbal.

Computer Lecturer. CANO. died in London without issue. CANO. in the SE. Chennai 6. a French watering-place and health resort on the Mediterranean. SEBASTIAN DEL. CANNING. firmness. surnamed the Michael Angelo of Spain. satirised the Whigs by his pen in his "Anti-Jacobin".com CANNES (15). CHARLES JOHN. in succession to Lord Dalhousie. and after a period of unpopularity became popular by adopting. was not equal to the opposition he provoked. of France. GEORGE. on the death of Liverpool was made Prime Minister. CANNING. where Napoleon landed on his return from Elba. entered Parliament as a protege of Pitt. perished on his second voyage to India (1460-1526). Page 513 of 2772 . a distinguished British statesman and orator. born in London. distinguished himself during this trying crisis by his discretion. was rewarded by an under-secretaryship. and the title became extinct (1812-1862). with a fortune. studied for the bar. EARL. to the disgust of his old colleagues. sculptor. and architect (1601-1667).ramakalai@gmail. having been painter. became viceroy on the transfer of the government to the crown in 1858. was made Governor-General of India. ALONZO. held this post at the time of the Mutiny in 1857. a celebrated artist. under Portland distinguished himself by defeating the schemes of Napoleon. 1856. on the death of Pitt became minister of Foreign Affairs. a Spanish navigator. CTSTI. became a member of the Liverpool ministry. and once more minister of Foreign Affairs. and moderation. grandson of the succeeding. after service in cabinet offices. a liberal policy. born at Granada. and died at the age of 57 (1770-1827). married a lady of high rank. the first to sail round the world. whom he strenuously supported.

waiting for Pope Gregory VII. and costly process. CANOPUS. the blue vault of heaven with its stars. revered and worshipped by the son of the sandy desert as a friend and guide to him. CTSTI." distinguished by a Computer Lecturer. in January 1077. CANONISATION. long. tedious. a great Italian sculptor. a gorge in Arizona through which the Colorado River flows. stood three days in the cold.com CANON. in the Romish Church. Chennai 6. his first great work. bareheaded and barefooted. CANON OF COLORADO. is the solemn declaration by the Pope that a servant of God. of Bologna. the name given to the body of Scripture accepted by the Church as of divine authority. on the site of ancient Canusium. a town NW. and which established his fame. born in Venetia. much resembling a suit at law." which was by-and-by succeeded by his "Cupid and Psyche. a town in Apulia. ANTONIO. being 300 m. A preparatory stage is beatification. to remove from him the sentence of excommunication. and honoured by a special festival. gave early proof of his genius. was the group of "Theseus and the Minotaur. CANOVA. abounding in Roman remains. renowned for his virtue and for miracles he has wrought. as he wanders over the waste at night alone. termed Saint. the largest and deepest in the world. CANOSA (18). and the beatification and canonisation of a saint are promoted by a long. in the courtyard of the castle of which the Emperor Henry IV. is to be publicly venerated by the whole Church. CANOSSA.ramakalai@gmail. in perpendicular height. Page 514 of 2772 . with a wall from 3000 to 6000 ft.

died in 1411. was shut up in Metz with Bazaine. and sincere when one cants without knowing it. and feeling what one in his heart and reality does not. of Spain. Computer Lecturer. and then in succession to St. JOHN. the latter being of the darker and deeper dye. a Scotch Presbyterian minister. and erelong by "Perseus with the Head of Medusa. had himself crowned king. and brought him a large fortune. Page 515 of 2772 . and made prisoner. Arnaud. born at Pesaro. became a member of the senate under the Republic (1809-1895). but only an imitator from afar (1612-1648). CANT.ramakalai@gmail. believing. 100 years old. FRANCOIS. marshal of France. which he made a generous use of (1757-1822). retired to a monastery on Mount Athos. CANTABRI. insincere and sincere. an able statesman. presumed to be the ancestors of the Basques. CTSTI. ANDREW. A son of his was Principal of Edinburgh University from 1675 to 1685. insincere when one cants knowing it. commanded in the Crimea. CANTACUZE`NUS. served for some 20 years in Algeria. CANT. SIMONE. his works were numerous. of which there are two degrees. CANROBERT. who had an equal zeal for the Scotch covenant and the cause of Charles Stuart (1610-1664). the original inhabitants of the N.. where he wrote a history of his time. affectation of thinking. fought in Italy against Austria. and a tool. was a supporter of Napoleon III. who acting as regent for the heir. CANTARINI. but was driven to resign at length.com tenderness and grace quite peculiar to him. Chennai 6. first under." perhaps the triumph of his art. a pupil of Guido and a rival. emperor of the East. an Italian painter.

D. the aim of the author presumed by some to present a contrast between the morals of the south and those of the north. dating as far back as the 11th century. is the ecclesiastical capital of England. the cloisters. CANTERBURY (128). murdered in the north transept. on the Stour. It was for long. Page 516 of 2772 . CANTERBURY TALES. and other buildings occupy the site of the old monastic houses. as regards the latter. CTSTI. recent criticism inclines. Kit Marlowe was a native. the present building belongs to various epochs. They started from the Tabard Inn at Southwark. Chennai 6. 597 by St. among the latter that of Thomas a Becket. SE. trade is chiefly in hops and grain. of London. there is an art gallery. in E. Kent. if there is any unity in it at all. a great pasture-land for sheep of over three million acres. in the centre of the South Island. conceived of as related by a small company of pilgrims from London to the shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. a body of tales by Chaucer. chapter-house. who cannot be persuaded to transfer to the king the affection she has for a shepherd in the northern hills of Galilee. in justification possibly of the secession. and tombs. about the canonicity and interpretation of which there has been much debate. it contains many interesting monuments. and agreed to tell each a tale going and each another coming back. the city is rich in old churches and ecclesiastical monuments. her sole beloved. the author of the best tale to be treated with a supper. and is by some still. 1170. CANTICLES. by rail 62 m. believed to be an allegory in which the Bridegroom represents Christ and the Bride His Church. the cathedral was founded A.ramakalai@gmail. Augustin. though. statues. Computer Lecturer. None of the tales on the homeward journey are given. on the east side of which are the Canterbury Plains or Downs. and called in Hebrew the Song of Songs. a book in the Bible erroneously ascribed to Solomon. a district in New Zealand.com CANTERBURY (23). to the conclusion that it represents a young maiden seduced into the harem of Solomon.

stands on a river almost on the seaboard. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. though London held out for a time. great part of the population live in boats on the river.800). an Italian historian. returned in 1015. the fancy goods. the claim was repudiated by the Saxons. Chennai 6. has narrow crooked streets. born in Lombardy. of Nova Scotia at its eastern extremity. and metal work are famous. and well. it is surrounded by walls. &c. sugar. CAPE BRETON (92). THE DANE. and ruled it as an Englishman born. chief commercial city and port of Southern China. literary as well as historical. silk. invaded England. the insular portion of the prov. porcelain. is covered with forests of pine. CANUTE. JOHN. tea. Page 517 of 2772 . 125 temples. or CNUT. born at Stroud. mostly Buddhist. wrote. and particularly in electricity. and he had to flee. and exports timber and fish. and was buried in Winchester Minster. CTSTI. silk. son of Sweyn. its river communication with the interior has fostered an extensive commerce. cassia. of Hong-Kong. but at length liberated. a "Universal History" in 35 vols. and is a healthy town. long and 85 broad. wisely.. and two pagodas. equitably. NW. among a number of other works. died in England. an ingenious experimentalist in physics. king of Denmark. (1807-1895). CAESARE. &c. discovered the means of making artificial magnets and the compressibility of water (1718-1772). carried all before him. but with a heavy rainfall.com CANTON (1. oak. on the death of his sole rival became undisputed king of England. CANTON. imprisoned by the Austrian government for his bold advocacy of liberal views. though the care of governing Denmark and Norway lay on his shoulders as well. 100 m. 10 and 13 centuries old respectively. CANTU. exports. and after a success or two was elected king by his fleet. and next year. 90 m. called the Great. every one is familiar with the story of the rebuke he administered to the courtiers by showing how regardless the waves of the sea were of the authority of a king (994-1035). ivory.

called at first "Cape of Storms. Chennai 6. CTSTI. goats' hair. steep. two-thirds of the country is arid plain.. and German origin. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. and W. the prevalent vegetation is heath and bulbous plants. CAPE HORN. French. much dreaded at one time by sailors. In recent years great tracts to the N. education is well cared for. the Nieuwveld Berge. a black.527). hides. the university of the Cape of Good Hope was founded in 1873. Cape Town is the capital. The government is in the hands of a governor. and the policy of extending British sway from the Cape to Cairo is explicitly avowed. ostrich feathers. assisted by an executive council of five and a parliament of two houses. divides the country into two slopes. however. which. two-thirds of the people are of African race. local government is in vogue all over the country. running E. Kimberley and Port Elizabeth the only other large towns. roads are good. English.com CAPE COAST CASTLE (11). the climate is dry and healthy. Sheep and ostrich farming are the chief industries. Page 518 of 2772 . the southern shorter and terraced to the sea. discovered by Diaz in 1486. the northern slope long and gradual to the Orange River. have been formally taken under British protection. the Cape was taken possession of by the Dutch in 1652. capital of the Gold Coast colony. railway and telegraph communication is rapidly developing. the remainder are of Dutch. but hot in summer. from whom it was captured by Great Britain in 1805. frowning rock at the SE.ramakalai@gmail. but there are many small towns. comprises the extremity of the African continent south of the Orange River and Natal. CAPE COLONY (1. a cape in South Africa. appointed by the crown. who flourish under British rule. chiefly Kaffirs. and is nearly twice the size of the United Kingdom." from the experience of the first Computer Lecturer. diamonds from Kimberley and copper from Namaqualand are the chief exports. extremity of the Fuegean Islands. Various steps towards self-government culminated in 1872. wool. Discovered by the Portuguese Diaz in 1486. only requires irrigation to render it very fertile.

Chennai 6. oftenest visited. CAPE TOWN (84). the wood-grouse. The Government buildings and law courts.ramakalai@gmail. and with a good water supply. on the W.. volcanic islands. and is a port of call for vessels of all nations. of which 10 are inhabited. a reddish star of the first magnitude in the northern constellation of Auriga. belonging to Portugal. a large game-bird found in fir woods in mountainous districts. an encyclopaedist. Vincent. with an excellent harbour. with notes and various readings (1713-1781). of Africa. and cattle-breeding is the chief industry. with Table Mountain rising behind it. bank and exchange. well drained. is a regularly built. CTSTI. born in North Africa in the 5th century. EDWARD. museum and art gallery. It has docks. with handsome buildings and extensive Government gardens. in three vols. and highly esteemed for table. Page 519 of 2772 . CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (110). Computer Lecturer. CAPERCAILZIE. flat-roofed. an inspector of plays. and a graving dock. 350 m. coast. with a thriving commerce. CAPELLA. on the SW. situated at the head of Table Bay. spent 20 years in editing the text of Shakespeare. These islands are unhealthy. a group of mountainous. and lit. from Cape Verde.com navigators. Edmunds." a strange medley of curious learning. imposing town. the largest and most productive Santiago and St. author of a work called the "Satiricon. are its chief architectural features. altered in consideration of the promised land reached beyond. capital of Cape Colony. born at Bury St. CAPELLA. paved. CAPELL.

with sanction of the nobles. GIOVANNI DA. entered the Russian diplomatic service.com CAPERNAUM. in 987. Augustine friar. CAPET. terminated at its southern extremity by Tarpeian Rock. though the name is applied both to the Valois dynasty. and the Bourbon. hence the saying. CAPGRAVE. Louis. and under that name sentenced to the guillotine. the exact site of which is uncertain. Louis XVI. the centre of Christ's labours. Page 520 of 2772 . born in Corfu. the surname of Hugh." and voluminously both in French and English (1393-1464). which continued to rule France till 1328. the founder. of the third dynasty of French kings. wrote "Chronicle of England." to denote the close connection between glory and disgrace. aided John Hunniades in 1456 in defending Belgrade against the Turks (1385-1456). CTSTI. having been officially designated as a Capet at his trial. side of the Sea of Galilee. a rabid adversary of the Hussites. a town on the N. which ruled till 1589. CAPITOL. as distinct from the laws for the separate peoples comprising it. for the whole Frankish empire. played a prominent part in the insurrection of the Computer Lecturer. and where victors who were voted a triumph were crowned. "The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitol. collections of royal edicts issued by the Frankish kings of the Carlovingian dynasty. which ruled till 1848. an Italian Franciscan. CAPISTRANO. from which criminals guilty of treason were precipitated. one of the seven hills of Rome. CAPO D'ISTRIA. the most famous being those issued or begun by Charlemagne and St.ramakalai@gmail. a temple and citadel erected by Tarquin on the Capitoline Hill. CAPITULARIES. JOHN. COUNT OF. Chennai 6.

CARDINAL. CAPPADOCIA. a favourite retreat of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius. assassinated at Nauplia from distrust of his fidelity (1776-1831). Computer Lecturer. concluded the "Concordat" of 1801 (1733-1810). COUNT. entered the army in 1849. at the invitation of the citizens. retired with his army to spend the winter after the battle of Cannae. legate of Pius VII. CAPO D'ISTRIA. CAPRIVI. in France. coast of Sardinia. CAPUA (11). held chief posts in the Austrian and Franco-German wars. 27 m. a plateau with pastures for immense flocks. or rather near which. born in Berlin. his soldiers were enervated. where. 216 B. in a place of the same name. with a capital of the same name on the eastern side. of Naples. and his burial-place. Chennai 6. destroyed by the Saracens in 840.ramakalai@gmail. an ancient country in the heart of Asia Minor. a fortified city in Campania. a small island at the entrance from the S. and where.. of varied political fortune. made President of the Greek Republic. in 1890 succeeded Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor. Page 521 of 2772 .com Greeks against Turkey. on the Volturno. CTSTI. N. connected with the mainland by a causeway half a mile in length. CAPRARA. CAPRE`RA. born at Bologna. barren island off the N. the home of Garibaldi. where he died. of the bay of Naples. a port of a small island in the government of Trieste. from the luxurious life they led.C. CAPRI. and the modern city built in its stead. Hannibal. resigned in 1894 (1831-1899). and noted for its fine air and picturesque scenery. after which it was taken by the Romans. a small.

above the level of the sea. a celebrated Ghibelline family of Verona at mortal feud with that of the Montagues. in one of which (1812) 12. Chennai 6. cousin and pupil. subject to earthquakes. and great part of the city was destroyed. CARACAS or CARRACAS (72). ANNIBALE.com CAPUCHINS. so called from a cowl they wear. they were a mendicant order. a Roman emperor. and extravagances. or imitation of the styles of the best masters (1555-1619). born at Lyons. and was assassinated himself by one of his guards. and were twice over suppressed by the Pope. CAPULETS. founded in 1526.000 persons. brother of above. follies. among others the jurist Papinianus. the water-hog. a family of painters. the largest rodent extant. Page 522 of 2772 . he put to death 20. went to Rome and painted the celebrated Farnese gallery. though they exist still in Austria and Switzerland. CAPYBA`RA. son of Septimius Severus. stands at an altitude 3000 ft. it contains the tomb of Bolivar. did "St. the founder of a new school of painting. in appearance like a small pig. born at Bologna: LUDOVICO. CARACALLA. in consequence of which it is known as the Eclectic School. Jerome" his greatest work Computer Lecturer. monks of the Franciscan Order. the principle of which was eclecticism. assisted him in the frescoes of the gallery. familiar to us through Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet. CTSTI." and his chief. of Venezuela. a work which occupied him four years (1560-1609). AGOSTINO. his reign (211-217) was a series of crimes.000 perished.ramakalai@gmail. the "Communion of St. Roche distributing Alms. "Three Marys weeping over Christ". the cap." Romeo being of the latter and Juliet of the former. CARACCI or CARRACCI.

and led in triumphal procession through Rome. engraved on gems and medals as well as copper-plate. hydrogen. which hastened his end. a knight of the Round Table. and oxygen. Paul IV. a man of a violent temper. one of them. that he set him and all his companions at liberty. with a court in the middle for the accommodation of caravans and other travellers at night in the East. CARADOC. maintained a gallant struggle against the Romans for nine years. a painting by him of "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" is in the National Gallery. a class of substances such as the sugars. Computer Lecturer.com (1557-1602).. a British chief. king of the Silures. the latter in the proportion in which they exist in water.D. CARACTACUS. often in its grossest forms. taken captive. after the works of the great masters (1500-1570). 50 A. an eminent Italian engraver. consisting of carbon. CARBOHYDRATES.. CARAVANSERAI. born at Verona. CARAVAGGIO. an Italian painter. but was overthrown by Ostorius. Page 523 of 2772 . and kept generally to crass reality. which gave birth to a number of distinguished ecclesiastics. starch. when the Emperor Claudius was so struck with his dignified demeanour. a distinguished Neapolitan family. CTSTI. Chennai 6. London (1569-1609). &c. disdained the ideal and the ideal style of art. famous for his valour and the chastity and constancy of his wife.ramakalai@gmail. a large unfurnished inn. CARAFFA. CARAGLIO.

low-lying on the coast. S.com CARBONARI (lit. he is said to have starved himself to death so as to fulfil a prophecy he had made as to the term of his life (1501-1576). Italian physician and mathematician. and absorbed by the Young Italy party. and mountainous in the interior. few of them belonging to the Church of England. Silvio Pellico. level towards the coast. county town of Glamorganshire. on the river Taff. it has a university. the sea outlet for the mineral wealth and products of the district. commanded the Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimean war. his favourite regiment. but with fertile valleys. Page 524 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. studied and wrote on all manner of known subjects. the object of which was the overthrow of despotic governments. and has also three daily papers. which he led. CARDIGANSHIRE (62). CARDIGAN. in the beginning of the 19th century. Computer Lecturer. the 11th Hussars. on the equipment of which he lavished large sums of money (1797-1868). they were broken up by Austria. was far-famed as a physician. born at Pavia. included Lord Byron. a number of churches. and Mazzini among them. made discoveries in algebra. believed in astrology. was the author of "Cardan's Formula" a formula for the solution of cubic equations. and distinguished himself in the famous charge of the Six Hundred. CARDIFF (129). Wales. originated in Italy and extended itself into France. a town that has risen more rapidly than any other in the kingdom. a county in S. a secret society that. numbering hundreds of thousands. Wales. CTSTI. CARDAN. Chennai 6. a British officer. JEROME. EARL OF. having had at the beginning of the century only 2000 inhabitants. _charcoal burners_). left a candid account of himself entitled "De Vita Propria".

composed "Sally in Our Alley". his poems. English courtier poet." &c. author of "Hymn to Satan. warden of the Border Marches under Elizabeth. excelled in ballads. CARDUCCI. SIR ROBERT. these have been "arranged by the wisest men of all time. Chennai 6. CAREW. but are the chief guards or sources of the material means of life. THOMAS. brothers. an Italian poet and critic. _b_. and the governing powers and princes of economy.ramakalai@gmail. These cardinal and sentinel virtues. 1837. CAREY." he adds. did their chief work in Spain. present at her deathbed rode off post-haste on the occurrence of the death with the news to Edinburgh to announce it to King James (1560-1639)." "Commentaries on Petrarch. Florentine artists. and Temperance (the spirit which stops and refuses rightly). 1743. CARDUCCI.com CARDINAL VIRTUES." CARDINALISTS. CAREY.. name given to the partisans in France of Richelieu and Mazarin. Page 525 of 2772 . "are not only the means of protecting and prolonging life itself. Fortitude (the spirit that persists and endures rightly). Computer Lecturer. of the 17th century. English poet and musician. CTSTI. HENRY. _d_. Justice (the spirit which rules and divides rightly). under four general heads. GIOSUE." "Odi Barbari. chiefly masks and lyrics (1589-1639)." and are defined by Ruskin as "Prudence or Discretion (the spirit which discerns and adopts rightly).

was minister of the Barony Parish. a SW. Computer Lecturer. they give name to the Caribbean Sea. CARIBBEAN SEA. died with the faith and courage of a martyr (1619-1681). DONALD.ramakalai@gmail. in the castle of which. of which the Maeander is the chief river. CARIBS. it corresponds to the Mediterranean in Europe. tall. as well as preparing grammars and dictionaries. capital. and is the turning-point of the Gulf Stream. founded the mission at Serampore and directed its operations. Calcutta (1761-1834). now confined to the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea. manufactures hardware and textile fabrics. is a mountainous and a mineral country. as far as the mouth of the Amazon. but have lost their distinctive physique by amalgamation with other tribes. CARIA. celebrated Baptist missionary. CTSTI. rears cattle and horses. Page 526 of 2772 . suffered at the Cross of Edinburgh for daring to excommunicate the king. the principal river is the Drave. WILLIAM. born in Perthshire. CARINTHIA (361). a Scotch Covenanter. originally inhabiting the West Indies.com CAREY. near Italy. bordering on the Archipelago. fought at Bothwell Brig. subject to hurricanes. a race of American Indians. Klagenfurt. CARGILL. founder of the Baptist Missionary Society. since 1849 crownland of Austria. lying between the Great Antilles and South America. they are a fine race. Glasgow. and of ruddy-brown complexion. distributing Bibles and tracts by thousands in native languages. Chennai 6. and its first missionary. CARISBROOKE. was 29 years Oriental professor in the College of Fort William. born in Northamptonshire. country in Asia Minor. an inland sea of the Atlantic. a village in the Isle of Wight.

and in that interest did not suffer in vain (1790-1843). English Radical and Freethinker. Charles I. as well as those who associated themselves with him. it was at one time a Roman station. a disciple of Tom Paine's. GEORGE FREDERICK WILLIAM HOWARD. although he time after time suffered imprisonment for it. and economist. CARLISLE. county town of Cumberland. treat of the everyday life of the lower and middle classes (1807-1883). some 30 in number. and became eventually Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Palmerston (1802-1864)." the first twelve volumes of which are dated from his prison. CARLEN. RICHARD. EMILIA. Chennai 6. a Whig in politics. "Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry. EARL OF. Italian archaeologist. his principal organ was "The Republican. on the Eden. Computer Lecturer. Swedish novelist. his wife included. WILLIAM. CARLI. numismatist. CARLILE. CTSTI. with an old castle of historical interest. was imprisoned 13 months before his trial. Page 527 of 2772 . supported the successive Whig administrations of his time. and the foundation of his reputation." followed by others of a like class (1794-1860). he was a martyr for the freedom of the press. wrote as his chief work on political economy. born in Devonshire. Irish novelist. born at Capo d'Istria. and a cathedral founded by William Rufus and dedicated to Henry I. and propagandist of his views with a zeal which no prosecution could subdue. CARLISLE (39).com now in ruins. his first work.ramakalai@gmail. CARLETON. president of the Council of Commerce at Milan (1720-1795). a great railway centre. her novels.

his cause was taken up by a large party. and the struggle kept up for years. CARLOS. abdicated. and abdicated in favour of his son (1785-1855). especially one by Schiller. died shortly after. excluded by his father from all share in the government. 771. son of Philip II. CARLOMAN. and Provence in 768.ramakalai@gmail. son of Pepin le Bref. confessed to a priest a design to assassinate some one. was seized. grandson of the preceding. _d_. no right to the throne. 884. born at Valladolid. Ferdinand's daughter who by the Salic law. defeated at length he retired from the contest. but from incapacity. had. where he died. and those of his grandson (1873-1874). of Spain. on whose death he laid claim to the crown as heir. (1830). and convicted. tried. and retired into a monastery. king of France conjointly with his brother Louis III. Page 528 of 2772 . though sentence against him was never pronounced. CARLOS. king of Austrasia from 741 to 747. though set aside in her favour by her father. Computer Lecturer. Burgundy. and especially in Spain to those of Don Carlos (1833). he urged. the German poet (1545-1568). DON.com CARLISTS. DON. and brother of Charlemagne. king of Austrasia. of Spain. DON. against Isabella. CARLOS. and heir to the throne. or worse. believed to be his father. CARLOMAN. the brother of Ferdinand VII. Chennai 6. CARLOMAN. son of Charles Martel. and brother of Pepin le Bref. the story of Don Carlos has formed the subject of tragedies. and heir to his rights. _d_. CTSTI. a name given in France to the partisans of Charles X..

CARLOVINGIANS. built in the form of a fan. 1848. Charlemagne was the greatest of the race. a great railway centre. _b_. took refuge in London. but Computer Lecturer. the inhabitants are engaged in industries which minister to the tastes of the visitors and their own profit. 32 in number. the capital of the Grand-Duchy of Baden. its streets. in succession to the Merovingian. Chennai 6. a Swedish town. but fared no better than his grandfather. CALLOW (40). the name of the second dynasty of Frankish kings. very much to the curtailment of the territories of the former. of Belgrade. 30 m. on the Baltic. bore sway from 762 to 987. radiating so from the duke's palace in the centre. it is built on five rocky islands united by dykes and bridges. CTSTI. CARLSBAD (10). the last. the springs being the hottest in Europe. an inland county in Leinster. CARLSTADT. NW. and gave name to the dynasty.ramakalai@gmail. Page 529 of 2772 . or KARLINGS. Ireland. and arsenal.com revived the struggle in 1870. CARLSRUHE (73). associated for a time with Luther. to 165 deg. a town on the Danube. which had become _faineant_.. also the county town. the water varying from 117 deg. and Louis V. a German Reformer. where a treaty was concluded in 1699 between Turkey and other European powers. CARLSCRONA (21). Pepin le Bref the first. of aristocratic resort. CARLOWITZ. with a spacious harbour. population nearly trebled in the season. strongly fortified. naval station. a celebrated watering-place in Bohemia.

as erected on the site of Carlton House. ALEXANDER. removed to Edinburgh. Musselburgh. entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14. the Conservative club in London. educated at the parish school and Annan Academy. married Jane Welsh. and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews. and a symbolical. threw up both school-mastering and the church." written in 1831. and of Margaret Aitken.ramakalai@gmail. which shows its author to have been a man who took things as he found them." which was not published till 1860. penetration. demolished in 1828. Annandale. wrote a "Life of Schiller". enrolled as a student in the theological department. formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving. a descendant of John Knox. friend of David Hume. then at Kirkcaldy. CARLYLE. and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia. so called. a leader of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland. removed to London in 1834. and afterwards a small farmer. son of James Carlyle. and occupied by George IV." proved "epoch-making" in British literature. became a teacher first in Annan Academy. the author of "Douglas". Dumfriesshire. distinguished himself early in mathematics. removed to Craigenputtock." where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus. from his noble head and imposing person. "the loneliest nook in Britain. and integrity of character. in Dumfriesshire. though all too exclusively treated as a speculative. succeeded Zwingli as professor at Basel (1483-1541). minister of Inveresk.com parted from him both on practical and dogmatical grounds. a radically spiritual book. a man of great force. and Home. CARLYLE. THOMAS. a stone-mason. and an autobiographical. CTSTI. in the Arts classes. CARLTON CLUB. born in Dumfriesshire. and enjoyed them to the full as any easy-going. born in the village of Ecclefechan. where he wrote his "French Computer Lecturer. cultured pagan (1722-1805). Adam Smith. Page 530 of 2772 . left an "Autobiography. when he was Prince of Wales. surnamed Jupiter Carlyle. a woman of deep piety and warm affection. Chennai 6. the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies. from 1747 to his death.

John Sterling. his greatest disciple. seeing. the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship.." says Emerson. for its moral verdict on men and nations. Chennai 6. as a subject of the realm. in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell. has written. and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century. the last. in 1840 appeared "Chartism. prosecuted from first to last. all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question. a river which traverses the county. in Palestine. capital Carmarthen. CARMARTHENSHIRE (30)." in 1843 "Past and Present. as he all along taught and felt. contains part of the coal-fields in the district. without thought of himself. the Plain of Esdraelon. "The man." "the last and grandest of his works. delivered three courses of lectures to the _elite_ of London Society (1837-1840). lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born.com Revolution" (1837). of Prussia." and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend. in "sore travail" of body and soul. and the largest in the Principality. as would seem. "a book. Page 531 of 2772 . Wales. "who alone of all our masters of literature. a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures. as he had left instructions to be." according to Ruskin. CARMAGNOLE. the social life affects the individual life to the very core. concluded (1858-1865) his life's task. if the will to hear had been in them . the most serious question of the time." says Froude. with "The History of Friedrich II. a county in S. called Frederick the Great. CARMEL. "that is a Judgment Day.ramakalai@gmail. and just for the love of God" (1795-1881)." which to the last he regarded." afterwards printed in 1840. and at present. CTSTI. extension of the limestone ridge that bounds on the S.. a NW. the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man. a Red-republican song and dance. on the right bank of the Towy. what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear. and the manners of modern times". and terminates in a rocky Computer Lecturer." and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets".

many of them undecipherable by the antiquary. in the Madras Presidency of India that extended along the Coromandel coast from Cape Comorin. with interesting historical records. and a capital of the same name on the Menai Strait. in the dep. CARNARVON. 600 m. author of little pieces under the name of "Proverbes" (1717-1806). CARNATIC. Wales. in which Edward II. _b_. with the noble ruins of a castle. CARMONTEL. above the sea-level. CARMEN SYLVA. was a good classical scholar. called the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. e. HENRY HOWARD. originally an association of hermits on Mount Carmel. a French dramatist. in 1156. an old prov. Page 532 of 2772 . at length mendicant. was born. has taken an active interest in the elevation and welfare of her sex. a maritime county in N. CARNAC. wrote the "Druses of Mount Lebanon" (1831-1890). a monastic order. forms the southern boundary of the Bay of Acre. Earl of. and took to literature for consolation. particularly Celtic. held office under Lord Derby and Disraeli. Chennai 6.com promontory 500 ft. its highest point is 1742 ft. high. Conservative statesman. a seaside fishing-village in the Bay of Quiberon. Computer Lecturer. CARNARVON. a Calabrian. the _nom-de-plume_ of Elizabeth. N..ramakalai@gmail. with the highest mountains and grandest scenery in the Principality. of Morbihan. queen of Roumania. in consecration to whom it was founded by a pilgrim of the name Berthold. the Virgin. France. 1843. lost an only child. CARMELITES. i. The Order is said to have existed from the days of Elijah. the first Prince of Wales. CTSTI.

Chennai 6.S. both in America and his native country.. of Austria. his whole philosophy a polemic against the dogmatism of the Stoics. the son of a weaver. a crownland of the Austrian empire. in his "Reflexions sur la Puissance du Feu" enunciates the principle of Reversibility. in Roman Catholic countries the name given to a season of feasting and revelry immediately preceding Lent. S. CARNEGIE. a Greek philosopher. and the soil is not grain productive. SW. ironmaster. in Spain. Page 533 of 2772 . of Carinthia. second only to those of Almaden. upon which Cato moved he should be expelled from the senate-house and sent back to Athens. on the alleged ground of the absence of any criterion of certainty in matters of either science or morality. out of which he has liberally endowed institutions and libraries. on the Adriatic. conceded that truth and virtue were admirable qualities. considered the most important contribution to physical science since the time of Newton (1796-1832). CARNOT. akin to the Saturnalia of the Romans. born at Computer Lecturer. U. civil engineer and statesman. the surface is mountainous. born at Cyrene.com CARNEADES. made a large fortune by his iron and steel works at Pittsburg. but he denied the reality of them. founder of thermo-dynamics. son of Nicolas. 1835. he propounded this doctrine in the ears of the Conscript Fathers. _b_. ANDREW. KNOTT'S "PHYSICS." CARNOT. CTSTI.C. born in Dunfermline. MARIE FRANCOIS.). See DR.ramakalai@gmail. where he came from (213-129 B. sent once on an embassy to Rome. LEONARD SADI. contains quicksilver mines. CARNIVAL. though in some parts it yields wine and fine fruit. CARNIOLA (500).

the soil of the western is fertile. to W. to W. of New Guinea and E. has a fertile.. surnamed _le philosophe des dames_. 2000 m. from N. America. NORTH.. a popular lecturer on philosophy. CAROLINE ISLANDS (36). Carolina. was assassinated at Lyons by an anarchist in 1894. a French philosopher. a member of the National Convention. defender of Antwerp in 1814. became member of the Committee of Public Safety. materialism. of Virginia. French mathematician and engineer. and there is plenty of fish and turtle in the Computer Lecturer. voted for the death of the king. and the manufactures are numerous. the mountains are covered with forests. and 180 m. 100 m. MARIE. is well watered. well-watered subsoil in the high lands. SOUTH. on the Atlantic. inland from the coast. CARO. NICOLAS.ramakalai@gmail. N. whence his name. from E. S. Chennai 6. one of the original 13 States of N. and pessimism (1826-1887).com Limoges. of N. born at Poitiers. of the Philippine Islands. produces rice and cotton in large quantities and of a fine quality. born at Nolay. in Burgundy. S. is alluvial with swamps. CAROLINA. and organiser of the armies of the Republic. nephew of the preceding. a stretch of lagoon islands. wrote on mysticism. 480 m. Finance Minister in 1879 and 1887. belonging to Spain. western. and afterwards Minister of the Interior (1753-1823). CTSTI. is rich in minerals and natural products. once divided into eastern. an Italian author and poet. CARNOT. and central. ANNIBALE. CARO. Minister of War under Napoleon. became President in 1887. about the size of England. notable for his classic style (1507-1566). from E. Page 534 of 2772 . to S. CAROLINA. the "organiser of victory".

but almost immediately after her husband abandoned her. but the door was shut against her. and their sides clothed with forests. CARON. Computer Lecturer. CARPATHIANS. 8517 ft. CARPEAUX. several of the public monuments of Paris. adorned by his art. particularly in his early pieces. they are rich in minerals. head of the Belford conspiracy in 1820 under the Restoration. CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK. and the facade of the Opera House (1827-1875). long. particularly the whole of the N. a range of wooded mountains in Central Europe. she died a fortnight after (1768-1821). executed 1822. on the day of the coronation sought admission to Westminster Abbey. reckoned highly imaginative. in 1795. CTSTI. gave birth to the Princess Charlotte the year following. extend from Presburg to Orsova. Page 535 of 2772 . 880 m. JEAN BAPTISTE. an Italian critic says of him. VITTORE.. was allowed to go abroad after a time. under the first Empire. the highest of them Negoi. in two great masses. his works are numerous. a Venetian painter of great celebrity. for his truth of delineation. "He had truth in his heart" (1450-1522).com lagoons. his fertile imagination. both on the Danube. and his rich colouring. in a semicircle round the greater part of Hungary. but after a long trial acquitted. born at Valenciennes. CARPACCIO.000 if she stayed out of the country. was charged with adultery. which.. married George. she retired to a mansion at Blackheath. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. principally of beech and pine. and E. queen of George IV. sculptor. and have nearly all of them sacred subjects. Chennai 6. then Prince of Wales. on the accession of her husband she was offered a pension of L50. and daughter of the Duke of Brunswick. but rejected it and claimed her rights as queen.ramakalai@gmail.

of Australia. was a corpulent man of 60. contains several islands. and advocated the theory of a vertical circulation in the ocean (1813-1877). CARPI. a legendary hero of the Moors of Spain.com CARPENTARIA. CARPIO.ramakalai@gmail. travelled from Lyons to beyond Lake Baikal and back. inaugurated deep-sea soundings. deep gulf in the N. Italian painter and wood engraver. author. daughter of Dr. took an active part in the establishment of reformatory and ragged schools. and receives several rivers. CARPENTER. a philanthropist. Page 536 of 2772 . headed an embassy from Pope Innocent IV. she visited four times. GULF OF. among other numerous works. of the "Principles of General and Comparative Physiology" (1838). in her zeal. which. CTSTI. Chennai 6. WILLIAM BENJAMIN. biologist. her philanthropic efforts extended to India. and she was the founder of the National Indian Association (1807-1877). a Franciscan monk. born at Exeter. born at Ferrara. is said to have slain Roland at Roncesvalles. CARPI. GIROLAMO DA. held several high professional appointments in London. which had a quieting effect on the panic in Europe (1182-1252). successful imitator of Correggio (1501-1556). a broad. and a chief promoter of the Industrial Schools Act. wrote a report of his journey in Latin. CARPINI. Unitarian minister. Lant Carpenter. Computer Lecturer. brother of the preceding. is said to have invented engraving in chiaroscuro (1486-1530). CARPENTER. Italian painter and architect. UGO DA. born in Umbria. MARY. to the Emperor of the Mogul Tartars to persuade him out of Europe. contributed to mental physiology. which he threatened.

CARRICKFERGUS (9). See AYRSHIRE. CARRIERE. a town and seaport N. a German philosopher and man of letters. famous for its quarries of white statuary marble. born in Hesse. with a picturesque castle. CARRARA (11). from Belfast. NW. See NOYADES. born near Aurillac. a Gnostic of Alexandria of the 2nd century. Italy. and employ as quarrymen alone regularly over 3000 men. was guillotined himself after trial by a Revolutionary tribunal (1756-1794). sent on a mission to La Vendee. was the founder of a sect called after his name. by means of concentrated meditation on the divine unity. French publicist. of Leghorn. editor of the _National_. born at Rouen. 30 m. which he conducted with great ability. Chennai 6. and a life in conformity therewith. CTSTI. and courage. Page 537 of 2772 . and highly esteemed.com CARPOC`RATES. JEAN BAPTISTE. author of works on aesthetics and art in its relation to culture and the ideal. beheaded. 91/2 m. the southern division of Ayrshire. died of a wound in a duel with Emile de Girardin (1800-1836). CARRICK. caused thousands of victims to be drowned. one of the most blood-thirsty of the French Revolutionists. advocated the compatibility of the pantheistic with the Computer Lecturer. the working of which is its staple industry. MORITZ. are 400 in number. CARRIER. a town in N.ramakalai@gmail. a man of high character. these quarries have been worked for 2000 years. an attorney by profession. CARREL. or shot. of Belfast Lough. who believed in the transmigration of the soul and its final emancipation from all external bonds and obligations. ARMAND.

ASMUS JAKOB. one of the oldest towns in it. brought back to Germany a taste for art. pseudonym of C.ramakalai@gmail. Danish artist. CARSTENS. was the means of reviving it. Page 538 of 2772 ." with its sequel. sent to Utrecht to study theology. was a most sagacious man (1649-1715). born at Cathcart. CARSTAIRS. v. treated classical subjects. near Glasgow. founded by the Computer Lecturer. recommended himself to the regard of the Prince of Orange. died in poverty at Rome (1754-1798). controlled Church affairs in Scotland. LEWIS. and had no small share in bringing about the Revolution. the author of "Alice in Wonderland. WILLIAM.com deistic view of the world (1817-1893). quarrelled the Academy. afterwards studied the masters at Rome. accompanied him to England as chaplain in 1688. "Through the Looking-Glass. was admitted to the Berlin Academy." CARSE. was made Principal of Edinburgh University. on the appearance of his great picture. born in Sleswig." rose at once into fame. DODGSON (q. a naval port of Spain. "The Fall of the Angels. CARTAGENA (86). on the Mediterranean. L. born in Kentucky. and became his political adviser. a Scotch ecclesiastic. was held in high esteem by his countrymen for his personal character as well as his public services. was chief promoter of the Treaty of Union. CARSON. the name given in Scotland to alluvial lands bordering on a river. CTSTI. with a capacious harbour. was of service to the States in expeditions in Indian territories from his knowledge of the habits of the Indians (1809-1878).). CARROL. KIT. Chennai 6. American trapper.

Computer Lecturer. CARTERET. a devoted Jacobite. in Parliament was head of the party opposed to Sir Robert Walpole and of the subsequent administration. a blank paper with a signature to be filled up with such terms of an agreement as the holder is authorised to accept in name of the person whose signature it bears. eminent British statesman. and proved a successful viceroy. some of her papers appear in the _Rambler_ (1717-1806). the elder Pitt installed in office before he retired. 1796. CARTERET. was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. was once the largest naval arsenal in Europe. Also capital (12) of the Bolivar State in Colombia. was a "fiery. and others. emphatic man" (1690-1763)." which has proved a rich quarry of facts for subsequent historians (1686-1754). an accomplished lady. Sir Joshua Reynolds. which he was instrumental in securing. friend of Dr. born at Deal. ELIZABETH. his first speech was in favour of the Protestant succession. historian. entered Parliament in the Whig interest. translated Epictetus and Algarotti's exposition of Newton's philosophy. born near Rugby. Page 539 of 2772 . in which capacity he was brought into contact with Swift. and diplomatist. CTSTI. English sailor and explorer. CARTE.com Carthaginians. orator. Pitcairn's Island among the number. Chennai 6. THOMAS. and discovered several islands. his foreign policy has been in general approved of.ramakalai@gmail. had the satisfaction of seeing. JOHN. CARTER. PHILIP. explored in the Southern Seas. wrote a "History of England. after service as diplomatist abroad. Johnson. CARTE-BLANCHE. _d_. a great Greek and Italian scholar. first as an enemy but at length as a friend. EARL GRANVILLE.

drawings or designs made on stiff paper for a fresco or other paintings. and at one time threatened.. though it rose again as a Roman city under the Caesars. by planting the French flag on the soil (1494-1554). all of them opening into one corridor. who was broken on the wheel alive in the Place de Greve (1698-1721). America in quest of a North-West passage. to overthrow. CARTOUCHE. of Africa. made three voyages to N. near the site of Tunis. took possession of Canada in the name of France. on a peninsula in the N. after a siege of two years. and spent their time in study and contemplation. and founded by Phoenicians in 850 B. born in Paris. it became the capital of a wide-spread trading community. transferred by tracing or pouncing to the surface to be painted. each member of which had originally a single cell. in a series of protracted struggles known as the Punic Wars. Chennai 6. Page 540 of 2772 . the Arab. under Hannibal. they amassed considerable wealth. Computer Lecturer. the struggle during the early part of its history was virtually a struggle for the ascendency of the Semitic people over the Aryan race in Europe. originally the centre of a colony. CARTIER. but were given to deeds of benefaction. 698 by Hassan. founded by St. Malo. an ancient maritime city. born at St. Bruno in 1086. in consequence of which they figure not so much in the outside world as many other orders do. a French navigator.. a monastic order of a very severe type.C.com CARTHAGE. which even ventured to compete with.D. CARTOONS. eventually one consisting of two or three rooms with a garden. a notorious captain of a band of thieves.C. the power of Rome.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. CARTHUSIANS.. the most famous of which are those of Raphael. and became a place of great importance till burned in A. in the last of which it was taken and destroyed by Publius Cornelius Scipio in 146 B. at the instance of Francis I.

who would not leave him (1755-1798).com CARTWRIGHT. after securing the safety of his crew.. CARUS. HENRY FRANCIS. born at Gibraltar. JOHN. but left both services for political reasons. born in Corsica. inventor of the powerloom and the carding machine. a celebrated German physiologist. he had a turn for versifying as well as mechanical invention (1743-1823). draped female figures surmounting columns and supporting entablatures. CARTWRIGHT. CARYATIDES. a French naval officer. Computer Lecturer. Italian statesman. CASABIANCA. and the advocacy of radical political reform much in advance of his time (1740-1824). is now universally adopted. served in the navy and the militia. the corresponding male figures are called Atlantes. Chennai 6. CTSTI. advocate of the theory that health of body and mind depends on the equipoise of antagonistic principles (1789-1869). CARY. or. EDMUND. at the battle of Aboukir. Page 541 of 2772 . a grant of L10. LOUIS. the Art of Living in the World" (1503-1556). who. his translation is admired for its fidelity as well as for its force and felicity (1772-1844). blew up his ship and perished along with his son. at first violently opposed.000 was made him by Parliament in consideration of his services and in compensation for his losses. brother of the preceding. took to the study of agriculture. KARL GUSTAV. his invention. Secretary of State under Pope Paul IV. wrote "Galateo. born in Nottinghamshire. CASA. bred for the Church. a many-sided man. to his ruin for the time being. translator of Dante.ramakalai@gmail. born at Leipzig.

they are nearly parallel with the coast. gave him two prebends. of which the Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary. held a church living under the Charleses. died in Bohemia after endless roamings and wrigglings. CASCADE MOUNTAINS. became professor of Theology at Oxford. CASANOVA DE SEINGALT. CASAUBON. distinguished for his exertions in behalf of the Christianisation and civilisation of the Indians of S. CASAUBON. of the Cagliostro type. Computer Lecturer. invited thither by Henry IV. including even Frederick the Great. has been ranked with Lepsius and Scaliger as a scholar (1559-1614). who pensioned him. who insinuated himself into the good graces for a time of all the distinguished people of the period. a town on the Po. manufactures silk twist. CTSTI. son of preceding. America (1474-1566). born in Geneva. born in London. professor of Greek at Geneva and Montpellier. a range in Columbia that slopes down toward the Pacific from the Western Plateau. BARTOLOMEO DE LAS. a clever Venetian adventurer and scandalous impostor. inland. and others. Voltaire. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. accompanied his father to England. painter. wrote a long detailed. being a Protestant he removed to London on Henry's death. a Spanish prelate. where James I. CASAS. and edited his father's works (1599-1671). and afterwards of belles-lettres at Paris. leaving. brazen-faced account of his career of scoundrelism (1725-1798). an eminent classical scholar and commentator. as Carlyle would say. Page 542 of 2772 .com CASA`LE (17). ISAAC. of Venetian origin. painted landscapes and battle-pieces (1727-1806). CASANOVA. MERIC.. and above 100 m. "the smell of brimstone behind him".

which spreads out here and there near it into lovely lakes. of Cork. Peter's at Rome. with a "Rock" 300 ft. _b_.. a native Indian State. Computer Lecturer. was elected king in 1333. from Naples. NE. forming the basin of the Upper Indus.ramakalai@gmail. and watered by the Jhelum. it was formerly the seat of the kings of Munster. shawl weaving and lacquer-work are the chief occupations of the inhabitants. CTSTI. in a valley of the Himalayas. CASIMIR-PERIER. the name of five kings of Poland. CASIMIR. the office had become irksome to him. Page 543 of 2772 . billiards. president of the French Republic. music. formed a code of laws. CASHEL. high. built after plans supplied by Vanvitelli. one of the architects of St. 1847. defeated the Tartars on the Vistula. Chennai 6. noted for a magnificent palace. resigned 1895. 120 m. limiting both the royal authority and that of the nobles (1309-1370).543). Casimir III. the most eminent. bordering upon Tibet. Ireland. 49 m. recovered Silesia from Bohemia in two victories. CASINO. a bishop's see. with beautiful scenery and a delicious climate. was premier in 1893. dancing. and annexed part of Lithuania. occupied by interesting ruins. long and 80 m. wide. a man of moderate views and firm character. succeeded Carnot in 1894. born in Paris. 20 m. CASHMERE or KASHMIR (2. owing to misrepresentation. &c. a town in Tipperary. hemmed in by deep-gorged woods and snow-peaked mountains. called the Great. a town in Italy. after distinguishing himself in wars against the Teutonic Knights. because. a club-house or public building in Continental towns provided with rooms for social gatherings.com CASERTA (35).

the largest in the world. invaded Macedonia and ascended the throne. CASS. PAUL. born at Dessau. Chennai 6. KARL PAUL. is the fragment of a larger sea which extended to the Arctic Ocean. from N. a semi-official organ. passed over in the succession by his father Antipater. CASPARI. wrote a "History of the U. GRANIER DE.. editor of _Le Pays_ and the journal _L'Autorite_. an inland sea. a friend of Union. and from 270 to 130 m. allied himself with the Greek cities. CTSTI. but put Alexander's mother to death. CASPIAN SEA. deep in the S. CASSAGNAC. and openly hostile to Great Britain. which are not so salt as the ocean. German theologian. king of Macedonia. 1843. the waters.. to S. being 600 m. on the W. professor at Christiania (1814-1892). Page 544 of 2772 . edited _Le Pays_. started several journals. CASSAGNAC. especially salmon and sturgeon. son of preceding. _b_.. Indians" (1782-1867). married Thessalonica. an obstinate Imperialist. which all died a natural death. and the Elburz on the S. shallow in the N. abound in fish. an eminent American statesman. embroiled himself in duels and lawsuits without number (1806-1880). partly in Europe and partly in Asia.S. in breadth. at first an Orleanist. the sister of Alexander the Great. a Syro-Maronite religious. and a learned Orientalist (1710-1791). with the Caucasus Mts.com CASIRI. CASSANDER. left his son Philip as successor Computer Lecturer. a member of the Democratic party.ramakalai@gmail. though in favour of slave-holding. thus securing himself against all rival claimants. a French journalist. became a supporter of the Empire. LEWIS.

a court of highest and last appeal in France.). a self-made man. an interesting town. scene of a French victory under Vendome in 1705. who ordained him. and a French defeat under Moreau in 1799. and six advocates-general. one to decide in civil cases. and third. CASSANO. a public prosecutor called the _procureur-general_. 120 m. Page 545 of 2772 . born in Manchester. it consists of three sections: first.ramakalai@gmail. COURT OF. one to decide in criminal cases. it consists of a president and vice-president. which were treated by her countrymen as the ravings of a lunatic. as she had rejected his suit. her name is applied to any one who entertains gloomy forebodings. and became a pupil of Chrysostom. one to determine if the appeal should be received. Chennai 6. founded two monasteries in Marseilles. CASSANDRA.C. adopted SEMI-PELAGIANISM. CASSELL. 49 judges. opposed the extreme views of Augustine in regard to grace and free-will. v. from Frankfort-on-Main. second. and not being able to go the length of Pelaganism. came to Constantinople. and human depravity. JOANNUS. CTSTI. but. a town in the S. capital of Hesse-Cassel. CASSIANUS. daughter of Priam and Hecuba. whom Apollo endowed with the gift of prophecy. CASSEL (72). of Italy. JOHN. also a town near Milan. as happened with her warnings of the fate and the fall of Troy. the publisher. appointed in the case of appeal to revise the forms of a procedure in an inferior court. doomed to utter prophecies which no one would believe. who knew the value of knowledge and did much to extend it (1817-1865). a beautiful Trojan princess. CASSATION. Computer Lecturer. it is the birthplace of Bunsen.com (354-297 B. an Eastern ascetic. q. (360-448).

Chennai 6. made himself master of it.com CASSINI. a remarkable river in Venezuela. mother of Andromeda. the planets. CASSIOPE`IA. CASSIODO`RUS. and became in succession directors of the observatory of Paris. called him the "last of the Romans". an affluent of the Amazon. placed after death among the constellations. like a canal. which the Phoenician sailors visited to procure tin. CASSITER`IDES. CASSIQUIA`RI. which they adjoin. CTSTI. queen of Ethiopia. _d_. a constellation well north in the northern sky of five stars in the figure of a W. prime minister of Theodoric the Great and his successor. of Italian origin. and lived there nearly 30 years. CAIUS. CASSIUS. soon after the deed was done fled to Syria. father and son and grandson. after completing in 1793 a great topographical map of France begun by his father. born in Calabria. and the moon. Page 546 of 2772 . which. joined his forces with those of Brutus at Philippi. 42 B.ramakalai@gmail. and called his freedmen to kill him. thought all was lost. a Latin statesman and historian. won over Brutus to join in the foul plot. the last of whom died in 1864. they settled. connects the Rio Negro.C. name of a family of astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries. Brutus. retired into a monastery about 70. chief conspirator against Caesar. Computer Lecturer. withdrew into his tent. islands in the Atlantic. wrote a history of the Goths. and left letters of great historical value (468-568). repulsed on the right. distinguished for their observations and discoveries affecting the comets. in Paris. with the Orinoco. in his lamentation over him. presumed to have been the Scilly Islands or Cornwall.

CASTALIA. CASSIVELLAUNUS. surrendered after defeat. a British warlike chief. from the feet of Brahma. named after a nymph. a Roman. Page 547 of 2772 .com CASSIUS. and those who have not.C. and Vaisyas. bishop of Albi. or the soldier caste. distinguished for his victory over the French under Dupont. the twice-born and the once-born. after this he served under Wellington in several engagements. Among them there are originally two great classes. of the former there are three grades. procured the canonisation of St. from the mouth of Brahma. or the agricultural caste. who unsuccessfully opposed Caesar on his second invasion of Britain. Computer Lecturer. whom he compelled to surrender and sign the capitulation of Baylen. 52 B. in 1808. if required. while the latter are of one rank and are menial to the other. _i. made a league with the Latins. and members of the lowest rise socially to the highest. such as prevails among the Hindus especially. Chennai 6. notwithstanding which distinction often members of the highest class sink socially to the lowest level. the first passed. CASTANOS. Kshatriyas. e_. to invade France in 1815 (1758-1852). SPURIUS. ready. earth-born all. subdued the Sabines. CASTE. and became tributary to Rome. a fountain at the foot of Parnassus sacred to the Muses. first time 502 B. thrice chosen consul. those who have passed through a second birth. CTSTI. and was commander of the Spanish army. Louis (1256-1317). who drowned herself in it to escape Apollo. called Sudras. Brahmans. from the hands of Brahma. which conceded to the plebs a share in the public lands.. promoted an agrarian law. or the priestly caste. rank in society of an exclusive nature due to birth or origin.C. CASTANET. a Spanish general..ramakalai@gmail.

and manufactures. RENE-RICHARD. French poet and naturalist (1758-1832). but not being equal to the exigency in the affairs of the State. he ventured to pronounce the Song of Solomon a mere erotic poem (1515-1563). which led to a rupture. CASTIGLIONE. COUNT.." a manual for courtiers. a Spanish republican. _b_. as well as Rome. 1832. author of "II Cortegiano. of Messina. bounded by Computer Lecturer. 115 m. 79. born in Mantua. appointed dictator of Spain in 1873. a protege of Calvin's for a time. famed for hazel nuts. an accomplished Italian. had spent much of his time in courts in England and Spain. though under protest. has a cathedral. EMILIO. wrote a history of the "Republican Movement in Europe" among other works of political interest. It takes its name from a castle built on it by the Emperor Frederick II. arsenal. CASTELLAMARE (15). Page 548 of 2772 .500) in the S. CASTIGLIONE.: the former consisting of a high bare plateau. a central district of Spain. CASTILE.D. 35 m. CASTELAR. CTSTI. SW. called by the Italians in admiration of it "The Golden Book". and New Castile (3. a port on the coast of Italy. an eloquent man and a literary. of Naples. Chennai 6. divided by the mountains of Castile into Old Castile (1. CASTELLIO. and was a courtly man (1478-1529). the scene of Pliny's death from the eruption of Vesuvius in A. till he gave expression to some heretical views.ramakalai@gmail.com CASTEL. born in Cadiz. and made way for the return of monarchy. on N. resigned.800) in the N. Protestant theologian. SE. slope of Etna. a town of Sicily..

CASTLEFORD (14). to the enervation of soul and body. Chennai 6. 11 m. of Leeds. LORD. a poem of Thomson's. has a richer soil. his name has been unduly defamed. especially bottles. became War Minister (1805). a seaport in the Isle of Man. and on the S. and were created into a kingdom in the 11th century. SW. breeds horses and cattle. and yields richer produce. a place in which the dwellers live amid luxurious delights. CTSTI. represented the country in a congress after Napoleon's fall. of Douglas. also tableland. and his services to the country as a diplomatist have been entirely overlooked (1769-1822).. Both were at one time occupied by the Moors. visionary projects. succeeded his father as Marquis of Londonderry in 1821. CASTLES IN SPAIN. yields wheat and good pasturage.com mountains on the N. the immigration depot of New York where immigrants land. the latter. Page 549 of 2772 . became Foreign Secretary in 1812. and committed suicide the year following. CASTLE GARDEN. SE. till the ill-fated Walcheren expedition and a duel with Canning obliged him to resign. report themselves. co-operated with Pitt in securing the Union. and Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. and is rich in minerals. after which he entered the Imperial Parliament. entered political life as a member of the Irish Parliament. and united to the crown of Spain in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. CASTLEREAGH. and contains besides the quicksilver mines of Almaden. with extensive glass-works. CASTLETOWN. and are advised where to settle or find work. CASTLE OF INDOLENCE. a town 10 m. with a variable climate. and the soul of the coalition against Napoleon.

a town in the dep. were raised eventually to become stars in the sky. and left accounts of the races he visited and their languages. CASTLEWOOD. great.). travelled all over Northern Europe and Asia. he began life as a soldier. famed for their mutual affection. CTSTI. heir of the Portuguese throne. CASTREN. the Gemini. so that when the former was slain the latter begged to be allowed to die with him. E. author of the play of "The Cid. the Dioscuri. MATHIAS ALEXANDER. but on his Computer Lecturer. a royal heiress of the Spanish throne in the 14th century." CASTOR AND POLLUX. Page 550 of 2772 . CASTRES (22). GUILLEN DE. professor of the Finnish Language and Literature in Helsingfors. a Spanish dramatist. put to death out of jealousy of Spain by the latter's father.) the epic of the Finns. 46 m. and took to dramatic composition (1569-1631). whereupon it was agreed they should spend a day in Hades time about. born in Finland. twin signs in the zodiac. rising and setting together. was a Roman station. got acquainted with Lope de Vega. Chennai 6. ELMO'S FIRE (q. died prematurely. worn out with his labours (1813-1852). and one of the first places in France to embrace Calvinism. INEZ DE. the former in horsemanship." which gained him European fame. the beloved wife of Don Pedro. of Tarn.ramakalai@gmail. v. v. CASTRO. translated the "KALEVALA" (q. this name is also given to the electric phenomenon called ST. the twin sons of Zeus by Leda. the heroine in Thackeray's "Esmond. CASTRO. and the latter in boxing. an eminent philologist. of Toulouse.com the former capital.

accession dug out of her grave, arrayed in her royal robes, and crowned along with him, after which she was entombed again, and a magnificent monument erected over her remains.

CASTRO, JUAN DE, a Portuguese soldier, born at Lisbon, distinguished for his exploits in behalf of Portugal; made viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, but died soon after in the arms of Francis Xavier (1500-1548).

CASTRO, VACA DE, a Spaniard, sent out by Charles V. as governor of Peru, but addressing himself to the welfare of the natives rather than the enrichment of Spain, was recalled, to pine and die in prison in 1558.

CASTROGIOVANNI (18), a town in a strong position in the heart of Sicily, 3270 ft. above the sea-level; at one time a centre of the worship of Ceres, and with a temple to her.

CASTRUCCIO-CASTRACANI, Duke of Lucca, and chief of the Ghibelline party in that town, the greatest war-captain in Europe in his day; lord of hundreds of strongholds; wore on a high occasion across his breast a scroll, inscribed, "He is what God made him," and across his back another, inscribed, "He shall be what God will make"; _d_. 1328, "crushed before the moth."

CATACOMBS, originally underground quarries, afterwards used as burial-places for the dead, found beneath Paris and in the neighbourhood of Rome, as well as elsewhere; those around Rome, some 40 in number, are the most famous, as having been used by the early Christians, not merely for burial but for purposes of worship, and are rich In monuments of art and memorials of history.

CATALANI, ANGELICA, a celebrated Italian singer and prima donna, born near Ancona; began her career in Rome with such success that it led

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to engagements over all the chief cities of Europe, the enthusiasm which followed her reaching its climax when she came to England, where, on her first visit, she stayed eight years; by the failure of an enterprise in Paris she lost her fortune, but soon repaired it by revisiting the capitals of Europe; died of cholera in Paris (1779-1840).

CATALONIA (1,900), old prov. of Spain, on the NE.; has a most fertile soil, which yields a luxuriant vegetation; chief seat of manufacture in the country, called hence the "Lancashire of Spain"; the people are specially distinguished from other Spaniards for their intelligence and energy.

CATAMAR`CA (ISO), NW. prov. of the Argentine Republic; rich in minerals, especially copper.

CATA`NIA (123), an ancient city at the foot of Etna, to the S., on a plain called the Granary of Sicily; has been several times devastated by the eruptions of Etna, particularly in 1169, 1669, and 1693; manufactures silk, linen, and articles of amber, &c., and exports sulphur, grain, and fruits.

CATANZA`RO (20), a city in Calabria, 6 m. from the Gulf of Squillace, with an old castle of Robert Guiscard.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, Kant's name for the self-derived moral law, "universal and binding on every rational will, a commandment of the autonomous, one and universal reason."

CATEGORIES are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant. The Logical, so derived, that group

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our notions, are ten in number: Substance or Being, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Position, Possession, Action, Passion. The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: (1) as regards _quantity_, Totality, Plurality, Unity; (2) as regards _quality_, Reality, Negation, Limitation; (3) as regards _relation_, Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; (4) as regards _modality_, Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. John Stuart Mill resolves the categories into five, Existence, Co-existence, Succession, Causation, and Resemblance.

CATESBY, MARK, an English naturalist and traveller, wrote a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas (1680-1750).

CATESBY, ROBERT, born in Northamptonshire, a Catholic of good birth; concerned in the famous Gunpowder Plot; shot dead three days after its discovery by officers sent to arrest him (1573-1605).

CATH`ARI, OR CATHARISTS, i. e. purists or puritans, a sect of presumably Gnostic derivation, scattered here and there under different names over the S. and W. of Europe during the Middle Ages, who held the Manichaean doctrine of the radically sinful nature of the flesh, and the necessity of mortifying all its desires and affections to attain purity of soul.

CATHARINE, ST., OF ALEXANDRIA, a virgin who, in 307, suffered martyrdom after torture on the wheel, which has since borne her name; is represented in art as in a vision presented to Christ by His Mother as her sole husband, who gives her a ring. Festival, Nov. 25.

CATHARINE I., wife of Peter the Great and empress of Russia, daughter of a Livonian peasant; "a little stumpy body, very brown,... strangely chased about from the bottom to the top of the world,... had

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once been a kitchen wench"; married first to a Swedish dragoon, became afterwards the mistress of Prince Menschikoff, and then of Peter the Great, who eventually married her; succeeded him as empress, with Menschikoff as minister; for a time ruled well, but in the end gave herself up to dissipation, and died (1682-1727).

CATHARINE II. THE GREAT, empress of Russia, born at Stettin, daughter of Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst; "a most-clever, clear-eyed, stout-hearted woman"; became the wife of Peter III., a scandalous mortal, who was dethroned and then murdered, leaving her empress; ruled well for the country, and though her character was immoral and her reign despotic and often cruel, her efforts at reform, the patronage she accorded to literature, science, and philosophy, and her diplomatic successes, entitle her to a high rank among the sovereigns of Russia; she reigned from 1763 to 1796, and it was during the course of her reign, and under the sanction of it, that Europe witnessed the three partitions of Poland (1729-1796).

CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, wife of Henry II. of France, and mother of his three successors; on the accession of her second son, Charles IX.--for the reign of her first, Francis II., was very brief--acted as regent during his minority; joined heart and soul with the Catholics in persecuting the Huguenots, and persuaded her son to issue the order which resulted in the massacre of St. Bartholomew; on his death, which occurred soon after, she acted as regent during the minority of her third son, Henry III., and lived to see both herself and him detested by the whole French people, and this although she was during her ascendency the patroness of the arts and of literature (1519-1589).

CATHARINE OF ARAGON, fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and wife of Henry VIII., her brother-in-law as widow of Arthur, from whom, and at whose instance, after 18 years of married life, and after giving birth to five children, she was divorced on the plea that, as she had been his brother's wife before, it was not lawful for him to have her; after her divorce she remained in the country, led an austere

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religious life, and died broken-hearted. The refusal of the Pope to sanction this divorce led to the final rupture of the English Church from the Church of Rome, and the emancipation of the nation from priestly tyranny (1483-1536).

CATHARINE OF BRAGANZA, the wife of Charles II. of England, of the royal house of Portugal; was unpopular in the country as a Catholic and neglected by her husband, on whose death, however, she returned to Portugal, and did the duties ably of regent for her brother Don Pedro (1638-1705).

CATHARINE OF SIENNA, born at Sienna, a sister of the Order of St. Dominic, and patron saint of the Order; celebrated for her ecstasies and visions, and the marks which by favour of Christ she bore on her body of His sufferings on the Cross (1347-1380). Festival, April 30. Besides her, are other saints of the same name.

CATHARINE OF VALOIS, daughter of Charles VI. of France, and wife of Henry V. of England, who, on his marriage to her, was declared heir to the throne of France, with the result that their son was afterwards, while but an infant, crowned king of both countries; becoming a widow, she married Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, whereby a grandson of his succeeded to the English throne as Henry VII., and the first of the Tudors (1401-1438).

CATHARINE PARR, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. and the daughter of a Westmoreland knight; was of the Protestant faith and obnoxious to the Catholic faction, who trumped up a charge against her of heresy and treason, from which, however, she cleared herself to the satisfaction of the king, over whom she retained her ascendency till his death; _d_. 1548.

CATHARINE THEOT, a religious fanatic, born in Avranches; gave

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herself out as the Mother of God; appeared in Paris in 1794, and declared Robespierre a second John the Baptist and forerunner of the Word; the Committee of Public Safety had her arrested and guillotined.

CATHAY, the name given to China by mediaeval writers, which it still bears in Central Asia.

CATHCART, EARL, a British general and diplomatist, born in Renfrewshire; saw service in America and Flanders; distinguished himself at the bombardment of Copenhagen; represented England at the court of Russia and the Congress of Vienna (1755-1843).

CATHCART, SIR GEORGE, a lieutenant-general, son of the preceding; enlisted in the army; served in the later Napoleonic wars; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; was governor of the Cape; brought the Kaffir war to a successful conclusion; served in the Crimea, and fell at Inkerman (1794-1854).

CATHEDRAL, the principal church in a diocese, and which contains the throne of the bishop as his seat of authority; is of a rank corresponding to the dignity of the bishop; the governing body consists of the dean and chapter.

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES, a famous leader of the Vendeans in their revolt against the French Republic on account of a conscription in its behalf; a peasant by birth; mortally wounded in attacking Nantes; he is remembered by the peasants of La Vendee as the "Saint of Anjou" (1759-1793).

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, the name given to the emancipation in 1829 of the Roman Catholics of the United Kingdom from disabilities which precluded their election to office in the State, so that they are

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eligible now to any save the Lord Chancellorship of England and offices representative of royalty.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES, the name, equivalent to encyclical, given to certain epistles in the New Testament not addressed to any community in particular, but to several, and given eventually to all not written by St. Paul.

CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a title given by the Pope to several Spanish monarchs for their zeal in the defence of the Catholic faith.

CATILINE, or LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA, a Roman patrician, an able man, but unscrupulously ambitious; frustrated in his ambitious designs, he formed a conspiracy against the State, which was discovered and exposed by Cicero, a discovery which obliged him to leave the city; he tried to stir up hostility outside; this too being discovered by Cicero, an army was sent against him, when an engagement ensued, in which, fighting desperately, he was slain, 62 B.C.

CATINAT, NICOLAS, a marshal of France, born in Paris; one of the greatest military captains under Louis XIV.; defeated the Duke of Savoy twice over, though defeated by Prince Eugene and compelled to retreat; was an able diplomatist as well as military strategist (1637-1712).

CATLIN, GEORGE, a traveller among the North American Indians, and author of an illustrated work on their life and manners; spent eight years among them (1796-1872).

CATO DIONYSIUS, name of a book of maxims in verse, held in high favour during the Middle Ages; of unknown authorship.

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CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO MAJOR, surnamed Censor, Priscus, and Sapiens, born at Tusculum, of a good old family, and trained to rustic, frugal life; after serving occasionally in the army, removed to Rome; became in succession censor, aedile, praetor, and consul; served in the second Punic war, towards the end of it, and subjugated Spain; was a Roman of the old school; disliked and denounced all innovations, as censor dealt sharply with them; sent on an embassy to Africa, was so struck with the increasing power and the threateningly evil ascendency of Carthage, that on his return he urged its demolition, and in every speech which he delivered afterwards he ended with the words, _Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam_, "But, be that as it may, my opinion is Carthage must be destroyed" (234-149 B.C.).

CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO THE YOUNGER, or UTICENSIS, great-grandson of the former, and a somewhat pedantic second edition of him; fortified himself by study of the Stoic philosophy; conceived a distrust of the public men of the day, Caesar among the number; preferred Pompey to him, and sided with him; after Pompey's defeat retired to Utica, whence his surname, and stabbed himself to death rather than fall into the hands of Caesar (95-46 B.C.).

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, an insignificant, abortive plot, headed by one Thistlewood, to assassinate Castlereagh and other ministers of the crown in 1820; so called from their place of meeting off the Edgeware Road, London.

CATRAIL, an old Roman earthwork, 50 m. long, passing S. from near Galashiels, through Selkirk and Roxburgh, or from the Cheviots; it is known by the name of the "Devil's Dyke."

CATS, JACOB, a Dutch poet and statesman, venerated in Holland as "Father Cats"; his works are written in a simple, natural style, and abound in wise maxims; he did service as a statesman; twice visited England as an envoy, and was knighted by Charles I. (1577-1660).

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CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a group of mountains, of steep ascent, and with rocky summits, in New York State, W. of the Hudson, none of them exceeding 4000 feet; celebrated as the scene of Rip Van Winkle's long slumber; belong to the Appalachians.

CATTEGAT, an arm of the sea, 150 m. in length and 84 of greatest width, between Sweden and Jutland; a highway into the Baltic, all but blocked up with islands; is dangerous to shipping on account of the storms that infest it at times.

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, artist, born in Norfolk; illustrated Britton's "English Cathedrals," "Waverley Novels," and the "Historical Annual" by his brother; painted mostly in water-colour; his subjects chiefly from English history (1800-1868).

CATTLE PLAGUE, or RINDERPEST, a disease which affects ruminants, but especially bovine cattle; indigenous to the East, Russia, Persia, India, and China, and imported into Britain only by contagion of some kind; the most serious outbreaks were in 1865 and 1872.

CATULLUS, CAIUS VALERIUS, the great Latin lyric poet, born at Verona, a man of wealth and good standing, being, it would seem, of the equestrian order; associated with the best wits in Rome; fell in love with Clodia, a patrician lady, who was the inspiration, both in peace and war, of many of his effusions, and whom he addresses as Lesbia; the death of a brother affected him deeply, and was the occasion of the production of one of the most pathetic elegies ever penned; in the civic strife of the time he sided with the senate, and opposed Caesar to the length of directing against him a coarse lampoon (84-54 B.C.).

CAUCA, a river in Colombia, S. America, which falls into the

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Magdalena after a northward course of 600 m.

CAUCASIA, a prov. of Russia, geographically divided into Cis-Caucasia on the European side, and Trans-Caucasia on the Asiatic side of the Caucasus, with an area about four times as large as England.

CAUCASIAN RACE, a name adopted by Blumenbach to denote the Indo-European race, from the fine type of a skull of one of the race found in Georgia.

CAUCASUS, an enormous mountain range, 750 m. in length, extending from the Black Sea ESE. to the Caspian, in two parallel chains, with tablelands between, bounded on the S. by the valley of the Kur, which separates it from the tableland of Armenia; snow-line higher than that of the Alps; has fewer and smaller glaciers; has no active volcanoes, though abundant evidence of volcanic action.

CAUCHON, bishop of Beauvais, infamous for the iniquitous part he played in the trial and condemnation of Joan of Arc; _d_. 1443.

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, mathematician, born in Paris; wrote largely on physical subjects; his "Memoir" on the theory of the waves suggested the undulatory theory of light; professor of Astronomy at Paris; declined to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III., and retired (1789-1857).

CAUCUS, a preliminary private meeting to arrange and agree on some measure or course to propose at a general meeting of a political party.

CAUDINE FORKS, a narrow mountain gorge in Samnium, in which, during the second Samnite war, a Roman army was entrapped and caught by the Samnites, who obliged them to pass under the yoke in token of

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subjugation, 321 B.C.

CAUDLE, MRS., an imaginary dame, a conception of Douglas Jerrold, famous for her "Curtain Lectures" all through the night for 30 years to her husband Mr. Job Caudle.

CAUL, a membrane covering the head of some children at birth, to which a magical virtue was at one time ascribed, and which, on that account, was rated high and sold often at a high price.

CAULAINCOURT, ARMAND DE, a French general and statesman of the Empire, a faithful supporter of Napoleon, who conferred on him a peerage, with the title of Duke of Vicenza, of which he was deprived at the Restoration; represented Napoleon at the Congress of Chatillon (1772-1827).

CAUS, SALOMON DE, a French engineer, born at Dieppe; discovered the properties of steam as a motive force towards 1638; claimed by Arago as the inventor of the steam-engine in consequence.

CAUSALITY, the philosophic name for the nature of the relation between cause and effect, in regard to which there has been much diversity of opinion among philosophers.

CAUTERETS, a fashionable watering-place in the dep. of the Hautes-Pyrenees, 3250 ft. above the sea, with sulphurous springs of very ancient repute, 25 in number, and of varying temperature.

CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGENE, a distinguished French general, born in Paris; appointed governor of Algeria in 1849, but recalled to be head of the executive power in Paris same year; appointed dictator, suppressed

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the insurrection in June, after the most obstinate and bloody struggle the streets of Paris had witnessed since the first Revolution; stood candidate for the Presidency, to which Louis Napoleon was elected; was arrested after the _coup d'etat_, but soon released; never gave in his adherence to the Empire (1802-1857).

CAVALCASELLE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian writer on art; joint-author with J. A. Crowe of works on the "Early Flemish Painters" and the "History of Painting in Italy"; chief of the art department under the Minister of Public Instruction in Rome; _b_. 1820.

CAVALIER, JEAN, leader of the CAMISARDS (q. v.), born at Ribaute, in the dep. of Gard; bred a baker; held his own against Montreval and Villars; in 1704 concluded peace with the latter on honourable terms; haughtily received by Louis XIV., passed over to England; served against France, and died governor of Jersey (1679-1740).

CAVALIERS, the royalist partisans of Charles I. in England in opposition to the parliamentary party, or the Roundheads, as they were called.

CAVALLO, a distinguished Italian physicist, born at Naples (1749-1809).

CAVAN (111), inland county S. of Ulster, Ireland, with a poor soil; has minerals and mineral springs.

CAVE, EDWARD, a London bookseller, born in Warwickshire; projected the Gentleman's Magazine, to which Dr. Johnson contributed; was the first to give Johnson literary work, employing him as parliamentary reporter, and Johnson was much attached to him; he died with his hand in Johnson's (1691-1754).

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CAVE, WILLIAM, an English divine; author of works on the Fathers of the Church and on primitive Christianity, of high repute at one time (1637-1713).

CAVENDISH, the surname of the Devonshire ducal family, traceable back to the 14th century.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey; never left him while he lived, and never forgot him or the lesson of his life after he was dead; this appears from the vivid picture he gives of him, though written 30 years after his death (1500-1561).

CAVENDISH, LORD FREDERICK, brother of the ninth Duke of Devonshire, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Liberal; was made Chief-Secretary for Ireland in 1882, but chancing to walk home one evening through the Phoenix Park, he fell a victim, stabbed to the heart, of a conspiracy that was aimed at Mr. Burke, an unpopular subordinate, who was walking along with him, and came to the same fate. Eight months after, 20 men were arrested as concerned in the murder, when one of the 20 informed; five of them were hanged; the informer Carey was afterwards murdered, and his murderer, O'Donnel, hanged (1836-1882).

CAVENDISH, HENRY, natural philosopher and chemist, born at Nice, of the Devonshire family; devoted his entire life to scientific investigations; the first to analyse the air of the atmosphere, determine the mean density of the earth, discover the composition of water, and ascertain the properties of hydrogen; was an extremely shy, retiring man; born rich and died rich, leaving over a million sterling (1731-1810).

CAVENDISH, SPENCER COMPTON, ninth Duke of Devonshire, for long known in public life as Marquis of Hartington; also educated at Trinity

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College, and a leader of the Liberal party; served under Gladstone till he adopted Home Rule for Ireland, but joined Lord Salisbury in the interest of Union, and one of the leaders of what is called the Liberal-Unionist party; _b_. 1833.

CAVENDISH, THOMAS, an English navigator, fitted out three vessels to cruise against the Spaniards; extended his cruise into the Pacific; succeeded in taking valuable prizes, with which he landed in England, after circumnavigating the globe; he set out on a second cruise, which ended in disaster, and he died in the island of Ascension broken-hearted (1555-1592).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, English courtier and cavalier in the reigns of James I. and Charles I.; joined Charles II. in exile; returned at the Restoration; was made Duke of Newcastle; wrote on horsemanship (1592-1676).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, first Duke of Devonshire; friend and protector of Lord William Russell; became a great favourite at court, and was raised to the dukedom (1640-1707).

CAVIARE, the roe (the immature ovaries) of the common sturgeon and other kindred fishes, caught chiefly in the Black and Caspian Seas, and prepared and salted; deemed a great luxury by those who have acquired the taste for it; largely imported from Astrakhan.

CAVOUR, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DE, one of the greatest of modern statesmen, born the younger son of a Piedmontese family at Turin; entered the army, but was precluded from a military career by his liberal opinions; retired, and for 16 years laboured as a private gentleman to improve the social and economic condition of Piedmont; in 1847 he threw himself into the great movement which resulted in the independence and unification of Italy; for the next 14 years, as editor of _Il

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Risorgimento_, member of the chamber of deputies, holder of various portfolios in the government, and ultimately as prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, he obtained a constitution and representative government for his country, improved its fiscal and financial condition, and raised it to a place of influence in Europe; he co-operated with the allies in the Crimean war; negotiated with Napoleon III. for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, and so precipitated the successful war of 1859; he encouraged Garibaldi in the expedition of 1860, which liberated Sicily and Southern Italy, and saw the parliament of 1861 summoned, and Victor Emmanuel declared king of Italy; but the strain of his labours broke his health, and he died a few months later (1810-1861).

CAWNPORE (188), a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. SW. of Lucknow, and 628 NW. of Calcutta; the scene of one of the most fearful atrocities, perpetrated by Nana Sahib, in the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

CAXTON, WILLIAM, the first English printer, born in Kent, bred a mercer, settled for a time in Bruges, learned the art of printing there, where he printed a translation of the "Recuyell of the Historyes of Troyes," and "The Game and Playe of Chesse"; returning to England, set up a press in Westminster Abbey, and in 1477 issued "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," the first book printed in England, which was soon followed by many others; he was a good linguist, as well as a devoted workman (1422-1491).

CAYENNE (10), cap. and port of French Guiana, a swampy, unhealthy place, rank with tropical vegetation; a French penal settlement since 1852.

CAYLA, COUNTESS OF, friend and confidante of Louis XVIII. (1784-1850).

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CAYLEY, ARTHUR, an eminent English mathematician, professor at Cambridge, and president of the British Association in 1883 (1821-1895).

CAYLEY, CHARLES BAGOT, a linguist, translated Dante into the metre of the original, with annotations, besides metrical versions of the "Iliad," the "Prometheus" of AEschylus, the "Canzoniere" of Petrarch, &c. (1823-1883).

CAYLUS, COUNT, a distinguished archaeologist, born in Paris; author of a "Collection of Antiquities of Egypt, Etruria," &c., with excellent engravings (1692-1765).

CAYLUS, MARQUISE DE, born in Poitou, related to Mme. de Maintenon; left piquant souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV. and the house of St. Cyr (1672-1729).

CAZALES, a member of French Constituent Assembly, a dragoon captain, a fervid, eloquent orator of royalism, who "earned thereby," says Carlyle, "the shadow of a name" (1758-1805).

CAZOTTE, author of the "Diable Amoureux"; victim as an enemy of the French Revolution; spared for his daughter's sake for a time, but guillotined at last; left her a "lock of his old grey hair" (1720-1792).

CEAN-BERMUDEZ, a Spanish writer on art; author of a biographical dictionary of the principal artists of Spain (1749-1834).

CEARA (35), cap. of the prov. (900) of the name, in N. of Brazil.

CE`BES, a Greek philosopher, disciple and friend of Socrates,

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reputed author of the "Pinax" or Tablet, a once popular book on the secret of life, being an allegorical representation of the temptations that beset it.

CECIL, ROBERT, EARL OF SALISBURY, succeeded his father, Lord Burleigh, as first Minister under Elizabeth, and continued in office under James I., whose friendship he sedulously cultivated before his accession, and who created him earl (1565-1612). See BURLEIGH, LORD.

CECILIA, ST., a Roman virgin and martyr, A.D. 230, patron saint of music, especially church music, and reputed inventor of the organ; sometimes represented as holding a small organ, with her head turned heavenwards as if listening to the music of the spheres, and sometimes as playing on an organ and with a heavenly expression of face. Festival, Nov. 22.

CECROPS, the mythical first king and civiliser of Attica and founder of Athens with its citadel, dedicated by him to Athena, whence the name of the city.

CEDAR RAPIDS (25), a manufacturing town in Iowa, U.S.; a great railway centre.

CELADON, poetical name for a languid swain, all sighs and longings.

CELAENO, name of one of the HARPIES (q. v.).

CELEBES (1,000), an island in the centre of the Eastern Archipelago, third in size, in the shape of a body with four long limbs, traversed by mountain chains, and the greater part of it a Dutch possession, though it

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contains a number of small native states; it yields among its mineral products gold, copper, tin, &c.; and among its vegetable, tea, coffee, rice, sugar, pepper, &c.; capital. Macassar.

CELESTE, MME., a dancer, born in Paris; made her _debut_ in New York; in great repute in England, and particularly in the States, where she in her second visit realised L40,000 (1814-1882).

CELESTIAL EMPIRE, China, as ruled over by a dynasty appointed by Heaven.

CELESTINE, the name of five Popes: C. I., Pope from 422 to 432; C. II., Pope from 1143 to 1144; C. III., Pope from 1191 to 1198; C. IV., Pope for 18 days in 1241; C. V., Pope in 1294, a hermit for 60 years; nearly 80 when elected against his wish; abdicated in five months; imprisoned by order of Boniface VIII.; _d_. 1296; canonised 1313.

CELESTINES, an order of monks founded by Celestine V. before he was elected Pope in 1354; they followed the rule of the Benedictine Order, and led a contemplative life.

CELLINI, BENVENUTO, a celebrated engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith, a most versatile and erratic genius, born at Florence; had to leave Florence for a bloody fray he was involved in, and went to Rome; wrought as a goldsmith there for 20 years, patronised by the nobles; killed the Constable de Bourbon at the sack of the city, and for this received plenary indulgence from the Pope; Francis I. attracted him to his court and kept him in his service five years, after which he returned to Florence and executed his famous bronze "Perseus with the Head of Medusa," which occupied him four years; was a man of a quarrelsome temper, which involved him in no end of scrapes with sword as well as tongue; left an autobiography, from its self-dissection of the deepest interest to all students of human nature (1500-1571).

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CELSIUS, a distinguished Swedish astronomer, born at Upsala, and professor of Astronomy there; inventor of the Centigrade thermometer (1701-1744).

CELSUS, a celebrated Roman physician of the age of Augustus, and perhaps later; famed as the author of "De Medicina," a work often referred to, and valuable as one of the sources of our knowledge of the medicine of the ancients.

CELSUS, a philosopher of the 2nd century, and notable as the first assailant on philosophic grounds of the Christian religion, particularly as regards the power it claims to deliver from the evil that is inherent in human nature, inseparable from it, and implanted in it not by God, but some inferior being remote from Him; the book in which he attacked Christianity is no longer extant, only quotations from it scattered over the pages of the defence of Origen in reply.

CELTIBE`RI, an ancient Spanish race occupying the centre of the peninsula, sprung from a blending of the aborigines and the Celts, who invaded the country; a brave race, divided into four tribes; distinguished in war both as cavalry and infantry, and whom the Romans had much trouble in subduing.

CELTS. The W. of Europe was in prehistoric times subjected to two invasions of Aryan tribes, all of whom are now referred to as Celts. The earlier invaders were Goidels or Gaels; they conquered the Ivernian and Iberian peoples of ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland; their successors, the Brythons or Britons pouring from the E., drove them to the westernmost borders of these countries, and there compelled them to make common cause with the surviving Iberians in resistance; in the eastern parts of the conquered territories they formed the bulk of the population, in the W. they were in a dominant minority; study of

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languages in the British Isles leads to the conclusion that the Irish, Manx, and Scottish Celts belonged chiefly to the earlier immigration, while the Welsh and Cornish represent the latter; the true Celtic type is tall, red or fair, and blue-eyed, while the short, swarthy type, so long considered Celtic, is now held to represent the original Iberian races.

CENCI, THE, a Roman family celebrated for their crimes and misfortunes as well as their wealth. FRANCESCO CENCI was twice married, had had twelve children by his first wife, whom he treated cruelly; after his second marriage cruelly treated the children of his first wife, but conceived a criminal passion for the youngest of them, a beautiful girl named BEATRICE, whom he outraged, upon which, being unable to bring him to justice, she, along with her stepmother and a brother, hired two assassins to murder him; the crime was found out, and all three were beheaded (1599); this is the story on which Shelley founded his tragedy, but it is now discredited.

CENIS, MONT, one of the Cottian Alps, over which Napoleon constructed a pass 6884 ft. high in 1802-10, through which a tunnel 71/2 m. long passes from Modane to Bardonneche, connecting France with Italy; the construction of this tunnel cost L3,000,000, and Napoleon's pass a tenth of the sum.

CENSORS, two magistrates of ancient Rome, who held office at first for five years and then eighteen months, whose duty it was to keep a register of the citizens, guard the public morals, collect the public revenue, and superintend the public property.

CEN`TAURS, a savage race living between Pelion and Ossa, in Thessaly, and conceived of at length by Pindar as half men and half horses, treated as embodying the relation between the spiritual and the animal in man and nature, in all of whom the animal prevails over the spiritual except in Chiron, who therefore figures as the trainer of the heroes of Greece; in the mythology they figure as the progeny of

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Centaurus, son of IXION (q. v.) and the cloud, their mothers being mares.

CENTRAL AMERICA (3,000), territory of fertile tableland sloping gradually to both oceans, occupied chiefly by a number of small republics, lying between Tehuantepec and Panama in N. America; it includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, St. Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and a few adjoining fractions of territory.

CENTRAL INDIA (10,000), includes a group of feudatory States lying between Rajputana in the N. and Central Provinces in the S.

CENTRAL PROVINCES (12,944), States partly British and partly native, occupying the N. of the Deccan, and lying between the Nerbudda and the Godavary.

CEOS, one of the Cyclades, a small island 13 m. by 8 m., yields fruits; was the birthplace of Simonides and Bacchylides.

CEPHALONIA (80), the largest of the Ionian Islands, 30 m. long, the ancient Samos; yields grapes and olive oil.

CEPHALUS, king of Thessaly, who having involuntarily killed his wife Procris, in despair put himself to death with the same weapon.

CERAM` (195), the largest of S. Moluccas; yields sago, which is chiefly cultivated and largely exported.

CERBERUS, the three-headed or three-throated monster that guarded the entrance to the nether world of Pluto, could be soothed by music, and

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tempted by honey, only Hercules overcame him by sheer strength, dragging him by neck and crop to the upper world.

CERES, the Latin name for DEMETER (q. v.); also the name of one of the asteroids, the first discovered, by Piazzi, in 1801.

CERI`GO (14), an Ionian island, the southernmost, the ancient Cythera; yields wine and fruits.

CERINTHUS, a heresiarch of the first century, whom, according to tradition, St. John held in special detestation, presumably as denying the Father and the Son.

CERRO DE PASCO, a town in Peru, 14,200 ft. above the sea-level, with the richest silver mine in S. America.

CERUTTI, a Jesuit, born at Turin; became a Revolutionary in France; pronounced the funeral oration at the grave of Mirabeau in 1789.

CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE, the author of "Don Quixote," born at Alcala de Henares; was distinguished in arms before he became distinguished in letters; fought in the battle of Lepanto like a very hero, and bore away with him as a "maimed soldier" marks of his share in the struggle; sent on a risky embassy, was captured by pirates and remained in their hands five years; was ransomed by his family at a cost which beggared them, and it was only when his career as a soldier closed that he took himself to literature; began as a dramatist before he devoted himself to prose romance; wrote no fewer than 30 dramas; the first part of the work which has immortalised his name appeared in 1605, and the second in 1615; it took the world by storm, was translated into all the languages of Europe, but the fortune which was extended to his book did not extend to himself, for he died poor, some ten days before

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his great contemporary, William Shakespeare; though carelessly written, "Don Quixote" is one of the few books of all time, and is as fresh to-day as when it was first written (1547-1616).

CERVIN, MONT, the French name for the Matterhorn, 705 ft., the summit of the Pennine Alps, between Valais and Piedmont.

CESAREWITCH, the eldest son and heir of the Czar of Russia.

CE`SARI, GIUSEPPE, sometimes called ARPINO, an eminent Italian painter; painted a series of frescoes in the Conservatorio of the Capitol, illustrative of events in the history of Rome (1568-1640).

CESAROTTI, an Italian poet, translator of the "Iliad" and "Ossian" into Italian (1730-1808).

CESTUS, a girdle worn by Greek and Roman women, specially the girdle of Aphrodite, so emblazoned with symbols of the joys of love that no susceptible soul could resist the power of it; it was borrowed by Hera to captivate Zeus.

CETINJE, the capital of Montenegro, in a valley 2000 ft. high; smallest of capital cities, with a population under 2000.

CETTE (36), a seaport, trading, and manufacturing town, on a tongue of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 m. SW. of Montpellier, with a large safe harbourage.

CE`UTA (12), a port opposite Gibraltar belonging to Spain, on the coast of Morocco, guarded by a fort on one of the Pillars of Hercules,

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overlooking it; of importance as a military and convict station.

CEVENNES, a range of low mountains on the eastern edge of the central plateau of France, separating the basin of the Rhone from those of the Loire and Garonne; average height from 3000 to 4000 ft.; the chief scene of the dragonnades against the Huguenots under Louis XIV.

CEYLON (3,008), a pear-shaped island about the size of Scotland, separated from India, to which it geographically belongs, and SE. of which it lies, by Palk Strait, 32 m. broad; comprises a lofty, central tableland with numerous peaks, the highest Tallagalla, 8000 ft., and a broad border of well-watered plains. It was an ancient centre of civilisation; the soil is everywhere fertile; the climate is hot, but more equitable than on the mainland; the chief products are tea, cinnamon, and tobacco; the forests yield satin-wood, ebony, &c.; the cocoa-nut palm abounds; there are extensive deposits of iron, anthracite, and plumbago; precious stones, sapphires, rubies, amethysts, &c., are in considerable quantities; the pearl fisheries are a valuable government monopoly. The chief exports are tea, rice, cotton goods, and coals. Two-thirds of the people are Singhalese and Buddhists, there are 6000 Europeans. The island is a crown colony, the largest in the British Empire, administered by a governor with executive and legislative councils; the capital and chief port is Colombo (127).

CHABAS, FRANCOIS, a French Egyptologist, born in Briancon; his works have contributed much to elucidate the history of the invasion and repulsion of the Hyksos in Egypt (1817-1882).

CHABOT, a member of the National Convention of France, a "disfrocked Capuchin," adjured "Heaven," amid enthusiasm, "that at least they may have done with kings"; guillotined (1759-1794).


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CHAD, LAKE, a shallow lake in the Sahara, of varied extent, according as the season is dry or rainy, at its largest covering an area as large as England, and abounding in hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, &c., as well as waterfowl and fish.

CHADBAND, REV. MR., a character in "Bleak House."

CHADWICK, SIR EDWIN, an English social reformer, born in Manchester, associated with measures bearing upon sanitation and the improvement of the poor-laws, and connected with the administration of them (1801-1890).

CHAERONEA, a town in Boeotia, where Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians, and extinguished the liberties of Greece.

CHALAIS, COUNT DE, a favourite of Louis XIII., accused of conspiracy against Richelieu, arrested at Nantes, and beheaded (1599-1626).

CHALAZA, one of the two filaments attached to the ends of the yoke of an egg to steady it in the albumen.

CHALCEDON, a city of Bithynia, at the entrance of the Thracian Bosphorus, where the fourth Council of the Church was held in 451, which defined the orthodox conception of Christ as God-man.

CHALCIDICE, the 3-fingered peninsula of the Balkan territory stretching into the AEgean Sea.

CHALCIS, the ancient capital of Euboea or Negropont.

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CHALDEA, ancient name for Babylonia.

CHALIER, a Piedmontese, head of the party of the Mountain at Lyons; his execution the signal for an insurrection at Lyons against the Convention (1747-1793).

CHALLENGER EXPEDITION, a scientific expedition sent out by the British Government in the _Challenger_ in 1872 in the interest of science, and under the management of scientific experts, to various stations over the globe, to explore the ocean, and ascertain all manner of facts regarding it open to observation, an expedition which concluded its operations in 1876, of which as many as 50 volumes of reports have been compiled.

CHALLIS, JAMES, an astronomer, born in Essex, noted the position of the planet Neptune before its actual discovery (1803-1882).

CHALLONER, RICHARD, a Roman Catholic bishop, born at Lewes; a zealous Catholic, author of "Garden of the Soul," a popular devotional book, as well as several controversial books (1691-1781).

CHALMERS, ALEXANDER, a miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; settled in London; edited the "British Essayists" in 45 vols., and author of "A General Biographical Dictionary."

CHALMERS, GEORGE, an English publicist, born at Fochabers, author of "An Account, Historical and Topographical, of North Britain" (1742-1825).

CHALMERS, THOMAS, a celebrated Scotch ecclesiastic and pulpit

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orator, born at Anstruther, Fife; studied for the Church, and entered the ministry; after he did so was for some years more engrossed with physical studies and material interests than spiritual, but he by-and-by woke up to see and feel that the spiritual interest was the sovereign one, and to the promotion of that he henceforth devoted himself body and soul; it was for the sake of the spiritual he took the interest he did in the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, and that the Church might have scope and freedom to discharge its spiritual functions was one chief ruling passion of his life, and it is no wonder he bent all his energies on a movement in the Church to secure this object; he was not much of a scholar or even a theologian, but a great man, and a great force in the religious life of his country; though the first pulpit-orator of his day, and though he wrote largely, as well as eloquently, he left no writings worthy of him except the "Astronomical Discourses" perhaps, to perpetuate his memory; he was distinguished for his practical sagacity, and was an expert at organisation; in his old age he was a most benignant, venerable-looking man: "It is a long time," wrote Carlyle to his mother, just after a visit he had paid him a few days before he died--"it is a long time since I have spoken to so _good_ and really pious-hearted and beautiful old man" (1780-1847).

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (25), capital of the French dep. of Marne, 100 m. E. of Paris, where Attila was defeated by the Romans and Goths in 451; Napoleon III. formed a camp near it for the training of troops.

CHALONS-SUR-SAONE (24), a trading centre some 80 m. N. of Lyons; manufactures machinery, glass, paper, and chemicals.

CHAINS, chief town of the French dep. of Haute Vienne, where Richard Coeur de Lion was mortally wounded in 1199 by a shot with an arrow.

CHAM, the pseudonym of the French caricaturist Amedee de Noe, famous for his humorous delineations of Parisian life (1819-1884).

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CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, an association of merchants to promote and protect the interests of trade, particularly of the town or the district to which they belong.

CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES, a French legislative assembly, elected now by universal suffrage.

CHAMBERLAIN, RIGHT HON. JOSEPH, born in London, connected as a business man with Birmingham; after serving the latter city in a municipal capacity, was elected the parliamentary representative in 1876; became President of the Board of Trade under Mr. Gladstone in 1880, and chief promoter of the Bankruptcy Bill; broke with Mr. Gladstone on his Home Rule measure for Ireland, and joined the Liberal-Unionists; distinguished himself under Lord Salisbury as Colonial Secretary; _b_. 1836.

CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM, an English writer, born in Kendal, author of a cyclopaedia which bears his name, and which formed the basis of subsequent ones, as Johnson confessed it did of his Dictionary (1680-1750).

CHAMBERS, GEORGE, an English marine painter, born at Whitby; _d_. 1840.

CHAMBERS, ROBERT, brother of the succeeding and in the same line of life, but of superior accomplishments, especially literary and scientific, which served him well in editing the publications issued by the firm; was the author of a great many works of a historical, biographical, and scientific, as well as literary interest; wrote the "Vestiges of Creation," a book on evolutionary lines, which made no small stir at the time of publication, 1844, and for a time afterwards, the authorship of which he was slow to own (1802-1871).

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CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, born at Peebles; apprenticed to a bookseller in Edinburgh, and commenced business on his own account in a small way; edited with his brother the "Gazetteer of Scotland"; started, in 1832, _Chambers's Edinburgh Journal_ to meet a demand of the time for popular instruction in company with his brother founded a great printing and publishing establishment, from which there has issued a number of valuable works in the interest especially of the propagation of useful knowledge of all kinds; was a distinguished Edinburgh citizen, and did much for the expansion and improvement of the city (1800-1883)

CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, architect, born at Stockholm, of Scotch origin; architect of Somerset House; was of the Johnson circle of wits (1726-1796)

CHAMBERY (19), chief town of dep. of Savoy, in a beautiful district; is the ancient capital, and contains the castle, of the dukes of Savoy; manufactures cloth, wines, soap, and textile fabrics; is also a summer resort.

CHAMBEZE, a head-stream of the Congo, N. of lake Nyassa.

CHAMBORD, spacious chateau in the dep. of Loire-et-Cher, France, built by Francis I.; after being long a residence for royalty and people of distinction, was presented in 1821 to the Duc de Bordeaux, the Comte de Chambord.

CHAMBORD, COMTE DE, Duc de Bordeaux, son of the Duc de Berri and grandson of Charles X., born at Paris; exiled in 1830, he retired to the chateau of Frohsdorf, in Austria, where he died without issue; his father and grandfather being dead, the monarchical party resolved to attempt a restoration in his behalf in 1872, but he refused to adopt the tricolor flag of the Revolution, and the scheme was abandoned, a like opportunity

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offering itself twice before being let slip (1820-1883).

CHAMBRE ARDENTE, a name given to certain courts of justice established to try certain cases that required to be sharply dealt with; they were held at night, and even when held in the daytime with lighted torches; a court of the kind was instituted for trial of the Huguenots in 1530, and again in 1680 and 1716.

CHAMFORT, a French wit and litterateur, born in Auvergne; took to the Revolution, but offended the leaders, and being threatened with arrest committed suicide, "cutting and slashing with frantic, uncertain hand, gaining, not without difficulty, the refuge of death"; he was a born cynic, and was famous for his keen insight into human nature and his sharp criticisms of it, summed up in a collection of maxims he left, as well as for his anecdotes in incisive portraiture of character. "He was a man," says Professor Saintsbury, "soured by his want of birth, health, and position, and spoilt by hanging on to the great persons of his time. But for a kind of tragi-comic satire, a _soeva indignatio_, taking the form of contempt for all that is exalted and noble, he has no equal in literature except Swift" (1741-1794).

CHAMILLARD, Minister of Finance and of War under Louis XIV.; "distinguished himself by his incapacity" (1651-1721).

CHAMISSO, ADALBERT VON, a German naturalist and litterateur born in France, but educated in Berlin; is famous for his poetical productions, but especially as the author of "Peter Schlemihl," the man who lost his shadow, which has been translated into nearly every European language; he wrote several works on natural history (1781-1838).

CHAMOUNI, OR CHAMONIX, a village in the dep. of Haute-Savoie, 33 m. SE. of Geneva, in a valley forming the upper basin of the Arve, famous for its beauty and for its glaciers; it is from this point that the

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ascent of Mont Blanc is usually made.

CHAMOUSSET, a French philanthropist, born in Paris; the originator of mutual benefit societies (1717-1773).

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province of France, 180 m. long by 150 broad, annexed to the Crown 1286, and including the deps. of Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne, and Ardennes; the province where the wine of the name is principally manufactured.

CHAMP-DE-MARS, a large space, of ground in Paris, between the front of the Ecole Militaire and the left bank of the Seine; the site of recent Expositions, and the scene of the Federation Fete, 14th July 1790.

CHAMPLAIN`, a beautiful lake between the States of New York and Vermont; it is 100 m. in length, and from 1 m. at its S. end to 14 m. at its N. end broad.

CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE, a French navigator, born at Brouage, in Saintonge, was founder of Quebec, and French Governor of Canada; wrote an account of his voyages (1570-1635).

CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANCOIS, a celebrated French Egyptologist, born in Figeac, dep. of Lot; early gave himself to the study of Coptic and Egyptian antiquities; was the first to decipher the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt, a great discovery; conducted a scientific expedition to Egypt in 1828, and returned in 1830 with the fruits of his researches; a chair of Egyptology was in consequence instituted in the College of France, and he was installed as the first professor; his writings on the science, of which he laid the foundation, are numerous (1790-1832).

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CHAMPS-ELYSEES, a Parisian promenade between the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de Triomphe.

CHANCELLOR, RICHARD, an English seaman, voyaging in northern parts, arrived in the White Sea, and travelled to Moscow, where he concluded a commercial treaty with Russia on behalf of an English company; wrote an interesting account of his visit; after a second visit, in which he visited Moscow, was wrecked on the coast of Aberdeenshire in 1556.

CHANDERNAGORE (25), a small town and territory on the Hooghly, 22 m. N. of Calcutta, belonging to France.

CHANDLER, RICHARD, a learned Hellenistic archaeologist, born in Hants; travelled in Asia Minor and Greece, along with two artists, to examine and describe the antiquities; the materials collected were published in his "Ionian Antiquities," "Travels in Asia Minor," &c. (1738-1810).

CHANDOS, an English title inherited by the Grenville family, of Norman origin.

CHANDOS, JOHN, a celebrated English general in the 14th century; was present at Crecy, governor of English provinces in France ceded by treaty of Bretigny; defeated and took prisoner Du Guesclin of Auray; served under the Black Prince, and was killed near Poitiers, 1369.

CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS, French general, born at Autun; distinguished himself in Algeria, was exiled after the _coup-d'etat_, returned in 1870, served in the Franco-German war; surrendered at Metz, at the close of the war came back, and assisted in reorganising the army (1793-1877).

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CHANNEL, THE ENGLISH, an arm of the Atlantic between France and England, 280 m. long and 100 m. wide at the mouth; the French call it _La Manche_ (the sleeve) from its shape.

CHANNEL ISLANDS (92), a group of small islands off the NW. coast of France, of which the largest are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark; formerly part of the Duchy of Normandy, and now all that remains to Britain of her French dominions, being subject to it since 1066; have a delightful climate mild and bright, and varied and beautiful scenery; the soil is fertile; flowers and fruit are grown for export to Britain, also early potatoes for the London market; Guernsey pears and Jersey cows are famous; valuable quarries of granite are wrought; the language is Norman-French.

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, a Unitarian preacher and miscellaneous writer, born at Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.; a man of the most liberal sentiments, who shrank from being classed with any sect; ranked high in point of moral character; was a vigorous thinker, and eloquent with the pen; "a man of faithful, long-continued striving towards what is Best" (1780-1842).

CHANSON DE GESTES (i. e. Songs of Deeds), poems of a narrative kind much in favour in the Middle Ages, relating in a legendary style the history and exploits of some famous hero, such as the "Chanson de Roland," ascribed to Theroulde, a trouvere of the 9th century.

CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS, an English sculptor, born in Derbyshire; was apprenticed to a carver and gilder in Sheffield; displayed a talent for drawing and modelling; received a commission to execute a marble bust for the parish, church, which was so successful as to procure him further and further commissions; executed four colossal busts of admirals for Greenwich Hospital; being expert at portraiture, his busts were likenesses; executed busts of many of the most illustrious men of the time, among them of Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and

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Wellington, as well as of royal heads; made a large fortune, and left it for the encouragement of art (1781-1841).

CHANZY, a French general, born at Nouart, Ardennes; served in Algeria; commanded the army of the Loire in 1870-71; distinguished himself by his brilliant retreat from Mans to Laval; was afterwards Governor-General in Algeria; died suddenly, to the regret of his country (1823-1883).

CHAOS, a name in the ancient cosmogomy for the formless void out of which everything at first sprang into existence, or the wide-spread confusion that prevailed before it shaped itself into order under the breath of the spirit of life.

CHAPELAIN, a French poet, protege of Richelieu, born at Paris; composed a pretentious poem on Joan of Arc, entitled "Pucelle," which was laughed out of existence on the appearance of the first half, consisting of only 12 of the 24 books promised, the rest having never passed beyond the MS. stage (1595-1674).

CHAPMAN, GEORGE, English dramatic poet, born at Hitchin, Hertfordshire; wrote numerous plays, both in tragedy and comedy, as well as poems, of unequal merit, but his great achievement, and the one on which his fame rests, is his translation into verse of the works of Homer, which, though not always true to the letter, is instinct with somewhat of the freshness and fire of the original; his translation is reckoned the best yet done into English verse, and the best rendering into verse of any classic, ancient or modern (1559-1634).

CHAPPELL, musical amateur, collector and editor of old English airs, and contributor to the history of English national music; was one of the founders of the Musical Hungarian Society, and the Percy Society (1809-1888).

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CHAPTAL, a distinguished French chemist and statesman, born at Nogaret, Lozere; author of inventions in connection with the manufacture of alum and saltpetre, the bleaching and the dyeing of cotton; held office under Napoleon, and rendered great service to the arts and manufactures of his country (1756-1832).

CHARCOT, JEAN MARTIN, a French pathologist; made a special study of nervous diseases, including hypnotism, and was eminent for his works in connection therewith (1823-1893).

CHARDIN, SIR JOHN, traveller, born in Paris; author of "Travels in India and Persia," valuable for their accuracy (1643-1713).

CHARENTE (360), a dep. of France, W. of the Gironde, capital Angouleme; with vast chestnut forests; produces wines, mostly distilled into brandy.

CHARENTE-INFERIEURE (456), a maritime dep. of France, W. of the former; includes the islands of Rhe, Oleron, Aix, and Madame; capital, La Rochelle.

CHARIVA`RI, a satirical journal, such as the English _Punch_; originally a discordant mock serenade.

CHARLEMAGNE i. e. Charles or Karl the Great, the first Carlovingian king of the Franks, son and successor of Pepin le Bref (the Short); became sole ruler on the death of his brother Carloman in 771; he subjugated by his arms the southern Gauls, the Lombards, the Saxons, and the Avares, and conducted a successful expedition against the Moors in Spain, with the result that his kingdom extended from the Ebro to the

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Elbe; having passed over into Italy in support of the Pope, he was on Christmas Day 800 crowned Emperor of the West, after which he devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and proved himself as great in legislation as in arms; enacted laws for the empire called capitularies, reformed the judicial administration, patronised letters, and established schools; kept himself in touch and _au courant_ with everything over his vast domain; he died and was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle (742-814).

CHARLEROI (21), a manufacturing town in Hainault, Belgium, 35 m. SE. of Brussels.

CHARLES II., surnamed THE BALD, son of Louis "le Debonnaire"; after conquering his brother Lothaire at Fontenoy in 841, became by the treaty of Verdun king of France, 843; was unable to defend his kingdom against the Normans; went to Italy, and had himself crowned emperor at Rome: _d_. 877.

CHARLES III., surnamed THE SIMPLE, became king of France in 893; his reign one long struggle against the Normans, which ended by conceding Normandy to Rollo; was conquered by Hugh Capet, a rival for the crown, at Soissons, and dethroned in 922; died in captivity, 929.

CHARLES IV., THE FAIR, third son of Philip the Fair, king of France from 1322 to 1328; lost to France Guienne, which was taken from him by the English; was the last of the Capetians; _d_. 1328.

CHARLES V., THE WISE, son of John II., king of France from 1361 to 1380; recovered from the English almost all the provinces they had conquered, successes due to his own prudent policy, and especially the heroism of Du Guesclin, De Clisson, and De Boucicaut; France owed to him important financial reforms, the extension of privileges to the universities, and the establishment of the first national library, into which were gathered together thousands of MSS.; the Bastille was founded

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in his reign.

CHARLES VI., THE WELL-BELOVED, king of France from 1380 to 1422, was son and successor of Charles V.; began his reign under the guardianship of his uncles, who rifled the public treasury and provoked rebellion by their exactions; gained a victory at Rossbach over the Flemings, then in revolt, and a little after dismissed his uncles and installed in their stead the wise councillors of his father, whose sage, upright, and beneficent administration procured for him the title of "Well-Beloved," a state of things, however, which did not last long, for the harassments he had been subjected to drove him insane, and his kingdom, torn in pieces by rival factions, was given over to anarchy, and fell by treaty of Troyes almost entirely into the hands of the English conquerors at Agincourt (1368-1422).

CHARLES VII., THE VICTORIOUS, son of Charles VI., became king of France in 1422; at his accession the English held possession of almost the whole country, and he indolently made no attempt to expel them, but gave himself up to effeminate indulgences; was about to lose his whole patrimony when the patriotism of the nation woke up at the enthusiastic summons of Joan of Arc; her triumphs and those of her associates weakened the English domination, and even after her death the impulse she gave continued to work, till at the end of 20 years the English were driven out of France, and lost all they held in it except the town of Calais, along with Havre, and Guines Castle (1403-1461).

CHARLES VIII., king of France, son and successor of Louis XI.; during his minority the kingdom suffered from the turbulence and revolts of the nobles; married Anne of Brittany, heiress of the rich duchy of that name, by which it was added to the crown of France; sacrificed the interests of his kingdom by war with Italy to support the claims of French princes to the throne of Naples, which, though successful in a military point of view, proved politically unfruitful (1470-1498).

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CHARLES IX., second son of Henry II. and Catharine de' Medici, became king of France in 1560; the civil wars of the Huguenots and Catholics fill up this reign; the first war concluded by the peace of Amboise, during which Francis of Guise was assassinated; the second concluded by the peace of Longjumeau, during which Montmorency fell; the third concluded by the peace of St. Germain, in which Conde and Moncontour fell, which peace was broken by the massacre of St. Bartholomew, into the perpetration of which Charles was inveigled by his mother and the Guises; incensed at this outrage the Huguenots commenced a fourth war, and were undertaking a fifth when Charles died, haunted by remorse and in dread of the infinite terror (1550-1574).

CHARLES X., brother of Louis XVI. and Louis XVIII., the latter of whom he succeeded on the throne of France in 1824; was unpopular in France as Duc d'Artois in the time of the Revolution, and had to flee the country at the outbreak of it, and stayed for some time as an exile in Holyrood, Edinburgh; on his accession he became no less unpopular from his adherence to the old regime; at an evil hour in 1830 he issued ordinances in defiance of all freedom, and after an insurrection of three days in the July of that year had again to flee; abdicating in favour of his son, found refuge for a time again in Holyrood, and died at Goertz in his eightieth year (1757-1837).

CHARLES V., (I. of Spain), emperor of Germany, son of Philip, Archduke of Austria, born at Ghent; became king of Spain in 1516, on the death of his maternal grandfather Ferdinand, and emperor of Germany in 1519 on the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I., being crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520; reigned during one of the most important periods in the history of Europe; the events of the reign are too numerous to detail; enough to mention his rivalry with Francis I. of France, his contention as a Catholic with the Protestants of Germany, the inroads of the Turks, revolts in Spain, and expeditions against the pirates of the Mediterranean; the ambition of his life was the suppression of the Protestant Reformation and the succession of his son Philip to the Imperial crown; he failed in both; resigned in favour of his son, and retired into the monastery of St. Yuste, in Estremadura,

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near which he built a magnificent retreat, where, it is understood, notwithstanding his apparent retirement, he continued to take interest in political affairs, and to advise in the management of them (1500-1558).

CHARLES VI., emperor of Germany from 1711 to 1740, as well as king of Spain from 1703, was son of the Emperor Leopold I., and father of Maria Theresa.

CHARLES XII., king of Sweden, son of Charles XI., a warlike prince; ascended the throne at the age of 15; had to cope with Denmark, Russia, and Poland combined against him; foiled the Danes at Copenhagen, the Russians at Narva, and Augustus II. of Poland at Riga; trapped in Russia, and cooped up to spend a winter there, he was, in spring 1709, attacked by Peter the Great at Pultowa and defeated, so that he had to take refuge with the Turks at Bender; here he was attacked, captured, and conveyed to Demotica, but escaping, he found his way miraculously back to Sweden, and making peace with the Czar, commenced an attack on Norway, but was killed by a musket-shot at the siege of Friedrickshall; "the last of the Swedish kings"; "his appearance, among the luxurious kings and knights of the North" at the time, Carlyle compares to "the bursting of a cataract of bombshells in a dull ballroom" (1697-1718).

CHARLES I., king of England, third son of James I., born at Dunfermline; failing in his suit for the Infanta of Spain, married Henrietta Maria, a French princess, a devoted Catholic, who had great influence over him, but not for good; had for public advisers Strafford and Laud, who cherished in him ideas of absolute power adverse to the liberty of the subject; acting on these ideas brought him into collision with the Parliament, and provoked a civil war; himself the first to throw down the gauntlet by raising the royal standard at Nottingham; in the end of which he surrendered himself to the Scots army at Newark, who delivered him to the Parliament; was tried as a traitor to his country, condemned to death, and beheaded, 30th January, at Whitehall (1600-1649).

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CHARLES II., king of England, son of Charles I., horn at St. James's Palace, London; was at The Hague, in Holland, when his father was beheaded; assumed the royal title; was proclaimed King by the Scots; landed in Scotland, and was crowned at Scone; marching into England, was defeated by Cromwell at Worcester, 3rd September 1651; fled to France; by the policy of General Monk, after Cromwell's death, was restored to his crown and kingdom in 1660, an event known as the Restoration; he was an easy-going man, and is known in history as the "Merry Monarch"; his reign was an inglorious one for England, though it is distinguished by the passing of the Habeas Corpus Act, one of the great bulwarks of English liberty next to the Magna Charta (1630-1685).

CHARLES, a French physicist, born at Beaugency; was the first to apply hydrogen to the inflation of balloons (1746-1823).

CHARLES, ARCHDUKE, of Austria, son of the Emperor Leopold II. and younger brother of Francis II., one of the ablest generals of Austria in the wars against the French Republic and the Empire; lost the battle of Wagram, after which, being wounded, he retired into private life (1771-1847).

CHARLES ALBERT, king of Sardinia, succeeded Charles Felix in 1831; conceived a design to emancipate and unite Italy; in the pursuit of this object he declared war against Austria; though at first successful, was defeated at Novara, and to save his kingdom was compelled to resign in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel; retired to Oporto, and died of a broken heart (1798-1849).

CHARLES EDWARD, the Young Pretender, grandson of James II. of England, born at Rome, landed in Scotland (1745); issued a manifesto in assertion of his father's claims; had his father proclaimed king at Edinburgh; attacked and defeated General Cope at Prestonpans; marched at the head of his adherents into England as far as Derby; returned, and defeated the king's force at Falkirk, but retired before the Duke of

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Cumberland, who dispersed his army at Culloden; wandered about thereafter in disguise; escaped to France, and died at Florence (1721-1789).

CHARLES MARTEL (i. e. "Charles the Hammer"), son of Pepin d'Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne; became mayor of the Palace, and as such ruler of the Franks; notable chiefly for his signal victory over the Saracens at Poitiers in 732, whereby the tide of Mussulman invasion was once for all rolled back and the Christianisation of Europe assured; no greater service was ever rendered to Europe by any other fighting man (689-741).

CHARLES OF ANJOU, brother of St. Louis, king of Naples; lost Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers (1220-1285).

CHARLES OF VALOIS, third son of Philip the Bold, one of the greatest captains of his age (1270-1324).

CHARLES THE RASH, last Duke of Burgundy, son of Philip the Good, born at Dijon; enemy of Louis XI. of France, his feudal superior; was ambitious to free the duchy from dependence on France, and to restore it as a kingdom, and by daring enterprises tried hard to achieve this; on the failure of the last effort was found lying dead on the field (1433-1477).

CHARLES'S WAIN, the constellation of Ursa Major, a wagon without a wagoner.

CHARLESTON (56), the largest city in S. Carolina, and the chief commercial city; also a town in Western Virginia, U.S., with a spacious land-locked harbour; is the chief outlet for the cotton and rice of the district, and has a large coasting trade.

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CHARLET, NICOLAS TOUSSAINT, a designer and painter, born in Paris; famous for his sketches of military subjects and country life, in which he displayed not a little humour (1792-1845).

CHARLEVILLE (17), a manufacturing and trading town in the dep. of Ardennes, France; exports iron, coal, wines, and manufactures hardware and beer.

CHARLEVOIX, a Jesuit and traveller, born at St. Quentin, explored the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi (1682-1761).

CHARLOTTE, PRINCESS, daughter and only child of George IV. of England, married to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, afterwards king of Belgium; died after giving birth to a still-born boy, to the great grief of the whole nation (1796-1817).

CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH OF BAVARIA, second wife of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., called the Princess Palatine (1652-1722).

CHARLOTTENBURG (76), a town on the Spree, 3 m. W. of Berlin, with a palace, the favourite residence of Sophie Charlotte, the grandmother of Frederick the Great, and so named by her husband Frederick I. after her death; contains the burial-place of William I., emperor of Germany.

CHARLOTTETOWN (13), the capital of Prince Edward Island.

CHARMETTES, a picturesque hamlet near Chambery, a favourite retreat of Rousseau's.

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CHARNAY, a French traveller; a writer on the ancient civilisation of Mexico, which he has made a special study; _b_. 1828.

CHARON, in the Greek mythology the ferryman of the ghosts of the dead over the Styx into Hades, a grim old figure with a mean dress and a dirty beard, peremptory in exacting from the ghosts he ferried over the obolus allowed him for passage-money.

CHARONDAS, a Sicilian law-giver, disciple of Pythagoras; is said to have killed himself when he found he had involuntarily broken one of his own laws (600 B.C.).

CHARRON, PIERRE, a French moralist and theologian, as well as pulpit orator, born in Paris; author of "Les Trois Verites," the unity of God, Christianity the sole religion, and Catholicism the only Christianity; and of a sceptical treatise "De la Sagesse"; a friend and disciple of Montaigne, but bolder as more dogmatic, with less _bonhommie_ and originality, and much of a cynic withal (1541-1603).

CHARTERHOUSE, a large London school, originally a Carthusian monastery, and for a time a residence of the dukes of Norfolk.

CHARTIER, ALAIN, an early scholarly French poet and prose writer of note, born at Bayeux; secretary to Charleses V., VI., and VII. of France, whom Margaret, daughter of James I. of Scotland and wife of Louis XI., herself a poetess, once kissed as he lay asleep for the pleasure his poems gave her; was a patriot, and wrote as one (1390-1458).

CHARTISM, a movement of the working-classes of Great Britain for greater political power than was conceded to them by the Reform Bill of 1832, and which found expression in a document called the "People's Charter," drawn up in 1838, embracing six "points," as they were called,

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viz., Manhood Suffrage, Equal Electoral Districts, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Abolition of a Property Qualification in the Parliamentary Representation, and Payment of Members of Parliament, all which took the form of a petition presented to the House of Commons in 1839, and signed by 1,380,000 persons. The refusal of the petition gave rise to great agitation over the country, which gradually died out in 1848.

CHARTRES (23), the capital of the French dep. of Eure-et-Lois, 55 m. SW. of Paris; gave title of Duke to the eldest of the Orleanist Bourbons.

CHARTREUSE, LA GRANDE, a monastery founded by St. Bruno in 1084 in the dep. of Isere, 14 m. NE. of Grenoble; famous as the original place of the manufacture of the Chartreuse liqueur, held in much repute; it was honoured by a visit of Queen Victoria in 1887; Ruskin was disappointed with both monks and monastery.


CHASE, SALMON PORTLAND, Chief-Justice of the United States; a great anti-slavery advocate and leader of the Free-Soil party; aimed at the Presidency, but failed (1773-1808).

CHASI`DIM, a party among the Jews identified with the Pharisees, their supreme concern the observance of their religion in its purity.

CHASLES, MICHEL, an eminent French mathematician, and held one of the first in the century; on the faith of certain autographs, which were afterwards proved to be forgeries, he in 1867 astonished the world by ascribing to Pascal the great discoveries of Newton, but had to admit he was deceived (1793-1880).

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CHASLES, PHILARETE, a French litterateur, born near Chartres, a disciple of Rousseau; lived several years in England, and wrote extensively on English subjects, Shakespeare, Mary Stuart, Charles I., and Cromwell among the chief (1799-1873).

CHASSE, DAVID HENDRIK, BARON, a Dutch soldier; served France under Napoleon, who called him "General Baionnette," from his zealous use of the bayonet; fought at Waterloo on the opposite side; as governor of Antwerp, gallantly defended its citadel in 1832 against a French and Belgian force twelve times larger than his own (1765-1849).

CHASSEPOT, a French breech-loading rifle named from the inventor.

CHASSEURS, picked bodies of light cavalry and infantry in the French service, called respectively _Chasseurs-a-cheval_ and _Chasseurs-a-pied_.

CHASTELARD, PIERRE DE BOSCOSEL DE, grandson of Bayard; conceived an insane passion for Queen Mary, whom he accompanied to Scotland; was surprised in her bedchamber, under her bed, and condemned to death, it being his second offence (1540-1562).

CHAT MOSS, a large bog in Lancashire, 7 m. W. of Manchester, which is partly reclaimed and partly, through the ingenuity of George Stephenson, traversed by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANCOIS RENE DE, eminent French litterateur, born in St. Malo, younger son of a noble family of Brittany; travelled to N. America in 1791; returned to France on the arrest of Louis XVI., and joined the EMIGRANTS (q. v.) at Coblenz; was wounded at the siege of Thionville, and escaped to England; wrote an "Essay on Revolutions Ancient and Modern," conceived on liberal lines; was tempted back again to France in 1800; wrote "Atala," a story of life in the wilds

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of America, which was in 1802 followed by his most famous work, "Genie du Christianisme"; entered the service of Napoleon, but withdrew on the murder of the Duc d'Enghien; though not obliged to leave France, made a journey to the East, the fruit of which was his "Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem"; hailed with enthusiasm the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814; supported the Bourbon dynasty all through, though he wavered sometimes in the interest of liberty; withdrew from public life on the elevation of Louis Philippe to the throne; he was no thinker, but he was a fascinating writer, and as such exercised no small influence on the French literature of his day; he lived in a transition period, and hovered between legitimism and liberty, the revolution and reaction, and belonged to the Romantic school of literature--was perhaps the father of it in France (1766-1848).

CHATEAUX EN ESPAGNE, castles in Spain, visionary projects.

CHATELET, MARQUISE DE, a learned Frenchwoman, born at Paris, with whom Voltaire kept up an intimate acquaintanceship (1706-1749).

CHATELLERAULT (18), a town in the dep. of Vienne, 24 m. NE. of Poitiers; gave title to the Scottish regent, the Earl of Arran; manufactures cutlery and small-arms for the Government.

CHATHAM (59), a town in Kent, on the estuary of the Medway, a fortified naval arsenal; is connected with Rochester.

CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, EARL OF, a great British statesman and orator, born in Cornwall; determined opponent of Sir Robert Walpole; succeeded in driving him from power, and at length installing himself in his place; had an eye to the greatness and glory of England, summoned the English nation to look to its laurels; saw the French, the rivals of England, beaten back in the four quarters of the globe; driven at length from power himself, he still maintained a single regard for the honour of

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his country, and the last time his voice was heard in the Parliament of England was to protest against her degradation by an ignoble alliance with savages in the war with America; on this occasion he fell back in a faint into the arms of his friends around, and died little more than a month after; "for four years" (of his life), says Carlyle, "king of England; never again he; never again one resembling him, nor indeed can ever be." See SMELFUNGUS on his character and position in Carlyle's "Frederick," Book xxi. chap. i. (1708-1775).

CHATHAM ISLANDS, a group of islands 360 m. E. of New Zealand, and politically connected with it; the chief industry is the rearing of cattle.

CHATSWORTH, the palatial seat of the Duke of Devonshire, in Derbyshire, 8 m. W. of Chesterfield, enclosed in a park, with gardens, 10 m. in circumference.

CHATTERTON, THOMAS, a poet of great promise, had a tragic fate, born at Bristol, passed off while but a boy as copies of ancient MSS., and particularly of poems which he ascribed to one Rowley, a monk of the 17th century, what were compositions of his own, exhibiting a genius of no small literary, not to say lyric, power; having vainly endeavoured to persuade any one of their genuineness, though he had hopes of the patronage of Sir Robert Walpole, he left Bristol for London, and made vehement efforts with his pen to bespeak regard, but failed; grew desperate, and committed suicide at the early age of 18 (1752-1770).

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY, the great early English poet, and father of English poetry, the son of a vintner and taverner, born probably in London, where he lived almost all his days; when a lad, served as page in the royal household; won the favour and patronage of the king, Edward III. and his son, John of Gaunt, who pensioned him; served in an expedition to France; was made prisoner, but ransomed by the king; was often employed on royal embassies, in particular to Italy; held

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responsible posts at home; was thus a man of the world as well as a man of letters; he comes first before us as a poet in 1369; his poetic powers developed gradually, and his best and ripest work, which occupied him at intervals from 1373 to 1400, is his "CANTERBURY TALES" (q. v.), characterised by Stopford Brooke as "the best example of English story-telling we possess"; besides which he wrote, among other compositions, "The Life of St. Cecilia," "Troilus and Cressida," the "House of Fame," and the "Legend of Good Women"; his influence on English literature has been compared to that of Dante on Italian, and his literary life has been divided into three periods--the French, the Italian, and the English, according as the spirit of it was derived from a foreign or a native source (1340-1400).

CHAUMETTE, PIERRE GASPARD, a violent member of the extreme party in the French Revolution, could "recognise the suspect from the very face of them"; provoked the disgust of even Robespierre, and was arrested amid jeers and guillotined (1763-1794).

CHAUTAUQUA, a summer resort on a lake of the name in the W. of New York State, centre of a novel institution, which prescribes a four years' course of private readings, and grants diplomas to those who anywhere achieve it.

CHAUVINISM, a name among the French for what is known as Jingoism among the English, i. e. an extravagant zeal for the glory of one's country or party, from one _Chauvin_, who made threatening displays of his devotion to Napoleon after his fall in 1815.

CHEDDAR, a village in Somersetshire, on the Mendip Hills, famous for its cheese.

CHEKE, SIR JOHN, a zealous Greek scholar, born at Cambridge, and first regius professor of Greek there; did much to revive in England an

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interest in Greek and Greek literature; was tutor to Edward VI., who granted him landed estates; favouring the cause of Lady Jane Grey on the accession of Mary, left the country, was seized, and sent back; for fear of the stake abjured Protestantism, but never forgave himself, and died soon after; he introduced the mode of pronouncing Greek prevalent in England (1514-1557).

CHELMSFORD (11), the county town of Essex, on the Chelmer.

CHELSEA (96), a western suburb of London, on the N. of the Thames; famous for its hospital for old and disabled soldiers, and the place of residence of sundry literary celebrities, among others Sir Thomas More, Swift, Steele, and Carlyle.

CHELTENHAM (49), a healthy watering-place and educational centre in Gloucestershire; first brought into repute as a place of fashionable resort by the visits of George III. to it; contains a well-equipped college, where a number of eminent men have been educated.

CHELYUSKIN, CAPE, in Siberia, the most northerly point in the Eastern hemisphere.

CHEMICAL AFFINITY, the tendency elementary bodies have to combine and remain in combination.

CHEMISM, in the Hegelian philosophy "the mutual attraction, interpenetration, and neutralisation of independent individuals which unite to form a whole."

CHEMISTRY, the science that treats of elementary bodies and their combinations: _inorganic_, relating to physical compounds; _organic_,

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relating to vegetable and animal compounds.

CHEMNITZ (160), a manufacturing town in Saxony, called the "Saxon Manchester," at the foot of the Erzgebirge, in a rich mineral district; manufactures cottons, woollens, silks, machinery, &c.

CHEMNITZ, MARTIN, an eminent Lutheran theologian, born in Brandenburg, a disciple of Melanchthon; author of "Loci Theologici," a system of theology; took a leading part in procuring the adoption of the "Formula of Concord"; his chief work "Examen Concilii Tridentini" (1522-1586).

CHEMOSH, the national god of the Moabites, akin to Moloch, and their stay in battle, but an abomination to the children of Jehovah.

CHEMULPO, a town on the W. coast of Corea; a thriving town sin