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The Comprehensive Dictionary THE NUTTALL ENCYCLOPAEDIA A

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A'ALI PASHA, an eminent reforming Turkish statesman (1815-1871).


AALBORG (19), a trading town on the Liimfiord, in the N. of Jutland.

AAR, a large Swiss river about 200 m. long, which falls into the Rhine as it leaves Switzerland.

AARGAU, a fertile Swiss canton bordering on the Rhine.

AARHUUS (33), a port on the E. of Jutland, with a considerable export and import trade, and a fine old Gothic cathedral.

AARON, the elder brother of Moses, and the first high-priest of the Jews, an office he held for forty years.

ABACA, Manila hemp, or the plant, native to the Philippines, which yield it in quantities.

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ABACUS, a tablet crowning a column and its capital.

ABADDON, the bottomless pit, or the angel thereof.

ABARIM, a mountain chain in Palestine, NE. of the Dead Sea, the highest point being Mount Nebo.

ABATEMENT, a mark of disgrace in a coat of arms.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a French Protestant theologian and a mathematician, a friend of Newton, and much esteemed for his learning by Rousseau and Voltaire (1679-1767).

ABBADIE, two brothers of French descent, Abyssinian travellers in the years 1837-1848; also a French Protestant divine (1658-1727).

ABBAS, uncle of Mahomet, founder of the dynasty of the Abbasides (566-652).

ABBAS PASHA, the khedive of Egypt, studied five years in Vienna, ascended the throne at eighteen, accession hailed with enthusiasm; shows at times an equivocal attitude to Britain; _b_. 1874.

ABBAS THE GREAT, shah of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sophis, great alike in conquest and administration (1557-1628).

ABBAS-MIRZA, a Persian prince, a reformer of the Persian army, and a

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leader of it, unsuccessfully, however, against Russia (1783-1833).

ABBASIDES, a dynasty of 37 caliphs who ruled as such at Bagdad from 750 to 1258.

AB`BATI, NICCOLO DELL', an Italian fresco-painter (1512-1571).

ABBE, name of a class of men who in France prior to the Revolution prepared themselves by study of theology for preferment in the Church, and who, failing, gave themselves up to letters or science.

ABBEVILLE (19), a thriving old town on the Somme, 12 m. up, with an interesting house architecture, and a cathedral, unfinished, in the Flamboyant style.

ABBOT, head of an abbey. There were two classes of abbots: Abbots Regular, as being such in fact, and Abbots Commendatory, as guardians and drawing the revenues.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., and one of the translators of King James's Bible; an enemy of Laud's, who succeeded him (1562-1633).

ABBOT OF MISRULE, a person elected to superintend the Christmas revelries.

ABBOTSFORD, the residence of Sir Walter Scott, on the Tweed, near Melrose, built by him on the site of a farm called Clarty Hole.

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ABBOTT, EDWIN, a learned Broad Church theologian and man of letters; wrote, besides other works, a volume of sermons "Through Nature to Christ"; esteemed insistence on miracles injurious to faith; _b_. 1838.

ABDAL`LAH, the father of Mahomet, famed for his beauty (545-570); also a caliph of Mecca (622-692).

ABDALRAH`MAN, the Moorish governor of Spain, defeated by Charles Martel at Tours in 732.

ABDALS (lit. servants of Allah), a set of Moslem fanatics in Persia.

ABD-EL-KA`DIR, an Arab emir, who for fifteen years waged war against the French in N. Africa, but at length surrendered prisoner to them in 1847. On his release in 1852 he became a faithful friend of France (1807-1883).

ABDE`RA, a town in ancient Thrace, proverbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants.

ABDICATIONS, of which the most celebrated are those of the Roman Dictator Sylla, who in 70 B.C. retired to Puteoli; of Diocletian, who in A.D. 305 retired to Salone; of Charles V., who in 1556 retired to the monastery St. Yuste; of Christina of Sweden, who in 1654 retired to Rome, after passing some time in France; of Napoleon, who in 1814 and 1815 retired first to Elba and then died at St. Helena; of Charles X. in 1830, who died at Goritz, in Austria; and of Louis Philippe, who in 1848 retired to end his days in England.

ABDIEL, one of the seraphim, who withstood Satan in his revolt

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against the Most High.

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Turkey from 1861, in succession to Abdul-Medjid (1830-1876).

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Morocco, was only fourteen at his accession; _b_. 1880.

ABDUL-HA`MID II., sultan of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz, and his successor; under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment, and the Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred; _b_. 1842.

ABD-UL-MED`JID, sultan, father of the two preceding, in whose defence against Russia England and France undertook the Crimean war (1823-1861).

ABDUR-RAH`MAN, the ameer of Afghanistan, subsidised by the English; _b_. 1830.

A'BECKET, GILBERT, an English humourist, who contributed to _Punch_ and other organs; wrote the "Comic Blackstone" and comic histories of England and Rome (1811-1856).

A'BECKET, A. W., son of the preceding, a litterateur and journalist; _b_. 1844.

ABEL, the second son of Adam and Eve; slain by his brother. The death of Abel is the subject of a poem by Gessner and a tragedy by Legouve.

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ABEL, SIR F. A., a chemist who has made a special study of explosives; _b_. 1827.

ABEL, HENRY, an able Norwegian mathematician, who died young (1802-1828).

AB`ELARD, PETER, a theologian and scholastic philosopher of French birth, renowned for his dialectic ability, his learning, his passion for Heloise, and his misfortunes; made conceivability the test of credibility, and was a great teacher in his day (1079-1142).

ABELLI, a Dominican monk, the confessor of Catharine de Medici (1603-1691).

ABENCERRA`GES, a powerful Moorish tribe in Grenada, whose fate in the 15th century has been the subject of interesting romance.

ABEN-EZ`RA, a learned Spanish Jew and commentator on the Hebrew scriptures (1090-1168).

ABERA`VON (6), a town and seaport in Glamorganshire, with copper and iron works.

ABERCROMBIE, SIR RALPH, a distinguished British general of Scottish birth, who fell in Egypt after defeating the French at Aboukir Bay (1731-1801).

ABERDEEN (124), the fourth city in Scotland, on the E. coast,

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between the mouths of the Dee and Don; built of grey granite, with many fine public edifices, a flourishing university, a large trade, and thriving manufactures. Old Aberdeen, on the Don, now incorporated in the municipality, is the seat of a cathedral church, and of King's College, founded in 1404, united with the university in the new town.

ABERDEEN, EARL OF, a shrewd English statesman, Prime Minister of England during the Crimean war (1784-1860).--Grandson of the preceding, Gov.-Gen. of Canada; _b_. 1847.

ABERDEENSHIRE (281), a large county in NE. of Scotland; mountainous in SW., lowland N. and E.; famed for its granite quarries, its fisheries, and its breed of cattle.

ABERNETHY, a small burgh in S. Perthshire, with a Pictish round tower, and once the capital of the Pictish kingdom.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT, an apparent motion in a star due to the earth's motion and the progressive motion of light.

ABERYST`WITH (16), a town and seaport in Cardiganshire, Wales, with a university.

AB`GAR XIV., a king of Edessa, one of a dynasty of the name, a contemporary of Jesus Christ, and said to have corresponded with Him.

ABHORRERS, the Royalist and High Church party in England under Charles II., so called from their abhorrence of the principles of their opponents.

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ABIGAIL, the widow of Nabal, espoused by David.

ABICH, W. H., a German mineralogist and traveller (1806-1886).

ABINGDON (6), a borough in Berks, 6 m. S. of Oxford.

ABIOGENESIS, the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

ABIPONES, a once powerful warlike race in La Plata, now nearly all absorbed.

ABLE MAN, man with "a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute" (Gibbon).

ABNER, a Hebrew general under Saul; assassinated by Joab.

ABO, the old capital of Finland and seat of the government, on the Gulf of Bothnia.

AB`OMEY, the capital of Dahomey, in W. Africa.

ABOU`KIR, village near Alexandria, in Egypt, on the bay near which Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1799; where Napoleon beat the Turks, 1799; and where Abercrombie fell, 1801.

ABOUT, EDMOND, spirited French litterateur and journalist (1828-1885).

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ABRAHAM, the Hebrew patriarch, ancestor of the Jews, the very type of an Eastern pastoral chief at once by his dignified character and simple faith.

ABRAHAM, THE PLAINS OF, a plain near Quebec.

ABRAHAM-MEN, a class of lunatics allowed out of restraint, at one time, to roam about and beg; a set of impostors who wandered about the country affecting lunacy.

ABRAN`TES, a town in Portugal, on the Tagus; taken by Marshal Junot, 1807, and giving the title of Duke to him.

ABRAXAS STONES, stones with cabalistic figures on them used as talismans.

ABRUZ`ZI, a highland district in the Apennines, with a pop. of 100,000.

ABSALOM, a son of David, who rebelled against his father, and at whose death David gave vent to a bitter wail of grief. A name given by Dryden to the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II.

ABSOLUTE, THE, the philosophical name for the uncreated Creator, or creating cause of all things, dependent on nothing external to itself.

ABSYRTUS, a brother of Medea, whom she cut in pieces as she fled with Jason, pursued by her father, throwing his bones behind her to detain her father in his pursuit of her by stopping to pick them up.

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ABT, FRANZ, a German composer of song-music (1819-1885).

ABU, a mountain (6000 ft.) in Rajputana, with a footprint of Vishnu on the top, and two marble temples half-way up, held sacred by the Jains.

AB`UBEKR, as the father of Ayesha, the father-in-law of Mahomet, the first of the caliphs and the founder of the Sunnites; _d_. 634.

AB`U-KLEA, in the Soudan, where the Mahdi's forces were defeated by Sir H. Stewart in 1885.

A`BUL-FARAJ, a learned Armenian Jew, who became bishop of Aleppo, and wrote a history of the world from Adam onwards (1226-1286).

ABUL-FAZEL, the vizier of the great Mogul emperor Akbar, and who wrote an account of his reign and of the Mogul empire; he was assassinated in 1604.

ABUL-FEDA, a Moslem prince of Hamat in Syria, who in his youth took part against the Crusaders, and wrote historical works in Arabic (1273-1331).

ABU-THA`LEB, uncle of Mahomet, and his protector against the plots of his enemies the Koreish.

ABY`DOS, a town on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, famous as the home of Leander, who swam the Hellespont every night to visit Hero in Sestos, and as the spot where Xerxes built his bridge of boats to cross

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into Europe in 480 B.C.; also a place of note in Upper Egypt.

ABYSSIN`IA, a mountainous country SE. of Nubia, with an area of 200,000 sq. m., made up of independent states, and a mixed population of some four millions, the Abyssinians proper being of the Semite stock. It is practically under the protectorate of Italy.

ACACIA, a large group of trees with astringent and gum-yielding properties, natives of tropical Africa and Australia.

ACADEMY, a public shady park or place of groves near Athens, where Plato taught his philosophy and whence his school derived its name, of which there are three branches, the _Old_, the _Middle_, and the _New_, represented respectively by Plato himself, Arcesilaos, and Carneades. The _French Academy_, of forty members, was founded by Richelieu in 1635, and is charged with the interests of the French language and literature, and in particular with the duty of compiling an authoritative dictionary of the French language. Besides these, there are in France other four with a like limited membership in the interest of other departments of science and art, all now associated in the _Institute of France_, which consists in all of 229 members. There are similar institutions in other states of Europe, all of greater or less note.

ACADIA, the French name for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

ACANTHUS, a leaf-like ornament on the capitals of the columns of certain orders of architecture.

ACAPUL`CO, a Mexican port in the Pacific, harbour commodious, but climate unhealthy.

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ACARNA`NIA, a province of Greece N. of Gulf of Corinth; its pop. once addicted to piracy.

ACCA`DIANS, a dark, thick-lipped, short-statured Mongol race in Central Asia, displaced by the Babylonians and Assyrians, who were Semitic.

ACCA-LAURENTIA, the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who saved the lives of Romulus and Remus.

ACCIAIOLI, a Florentine family of 15th century, illustrious in scholarship and war.

ACCOLADE, a gentle blow with a sword on the shoulder in conferring knighthood.

ACCOL`TI, a Tuscan family, of 15th century, famous for their learning.

ACCOR`SO, the name of a Florentine family, of 12th and 13th centuries, great in jurisprudence.

ACCRA (16), capital and chief port in British Gold Coast colony.

ACCRINGTON (39), a manufacturing town 22 m. N. of Manchester.

ACCUM, FRIEDRICH, a German chemist, the first promoter of gas-lighting (1769-1838).

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ACCUMULATOR, a hydraulic press for storing up water at a high pressure; also a device for storing up electric energy.

ACERRA (14), an ancient city 9 m. NE. of Naples; is in an unhealthy district.

ACETIC ACID, the pure acid of vinegar; the salts are called _acetates_.

ACETONE, a highly inflammable liquid obtained generally by the dry distillation of acetates.

ACET`YLENE, a malodorous gaseous substance from the incomplete combustion of hydro-carbons.

ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of 12 towns in the Peloponnesus, formed especially against the influence of the Macedonians.

ACHAE`ANS, the common name of the Greeks in the heroic or Homeric period.

ACHAI`A, the N. district of the Peloponnesus, eventually the whole of it.

ACHARD, a Prussian chemist, one of the first to manufacture sugar from beetroot (1753-1821).

ACHARD`, LOUIS AMEDEE, a prolific French novelist (1814-1876).

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ACHA`TES, the attendant of AEneas in his wandering after the fall of Troy, remarkable for, and a perennial type of, fidelity.

ACHELO`UeS, a river in Greece, which rises in Mt. Pindus, and falls into the Ionian Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of Oceanus, and the father of the Sirens.

ACHEN, an eminent German painter (1556-1621).

ACHENWALL, a German economist, the founder of statistic science (1719-1772).

ACH`ERON, a river in the underworld; the name of several rivers in Greece more or less suggestive of it.

ACH`ERY, a learned French Benedictine of St. Maur (1609-1685).

ACH`ILL, a rocky, boggy island, sparsely inhabited, off W. coast of Ireland, co. Mayo, with a bold headland 2222 ft. high.

ACHILLE`ID, an unfinished poem of Statius.

ACHIL`LES, the son of Peleus and Thetis, king of the Myrmidons, the most famous of the Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and whose wrath with the consequences of it forms the subject of the Iliad of Homer. He was invulnerable except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him as she dipt his body in the Styx to render him invulnerable.

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ACHILLES OF GERMANY, Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery, tough old gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very blazing, far-seen character," says Carlyle (1414-1486).

ACHILLES TENDON, the great tendon of the heel, where Achilles was vulnerable.

ACHMED PASHA, a French adventurer, served in French army, condemned to death, fled, and served Austria; condemned to death a second time, pardoned, served under the sultan, was banished to the shores of the Black Sea (1675-1747).

ACH`MET I., sultan of Turkey from 1603 to 1617; A. II., from 1691 to 1695; A. III., from 1703 to 1730, who gave asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden after his defeat by the Czar at Pultowa.

ACHIT`OPHEL, name given by Dryden to the Earl of Shaftesbury of his time.

ACHROMATISM, transmission of light, undecomposed and free from colour, by means of a combination of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint glass, or by a single glass carefully prepared.

ACIERAGE, coating a copper-plate with steel by voltaic electricity.

A`CI-REA`LE (38), a seaport town in Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, in NE. of Catania, with mineral waters.

A`CIS, a Sicilian shepherd enamoured of Galatea, whom the Cyclops

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Polyphemus, out of jealousy, overwhelmed under a rock, from under which his blood has since flowed as a river.

ACK`ERMANN, R., an enterprising publisher of illustrated works in the Strand, a native of Saxony (1764-1834).

ACLAND, SIR HENRY, regius professor of medicine in Oxford, accompanied the Prince of Wales to America in 1860, the author of several works on medicine and educational subjects, one of Ruskin's old and tried friends (1815).

ACLINIC LINE, the magnetic equator, along which the needle always remains horizontal.

ACNE, a skin disease showing hard reddish pimples; ACNE ROSACEA, a congestion of the skin of the nose and parts adjoining.

ACOEMETAE, an order of monks in the 5th century who by turns kept up a divine service day and night.

ACONCA`GUA, the highest peak of the Andes, about 100 m. NE. of Valparaiso, 22,867 ft. high; recently ascended by a Swiss and a Scotchman, attendants of Fitzgerald's party.

ACONITE, monk's-hood, a poisonous plant of the ranunculus order with a tapering root.

ACONITINE, a most virulent poison from aconite, and owing to the very small quantity sufficient to cause death, is very difficult of detection when employed in taking away life.

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ACORN-SHELLS, a crustacean attached to rocks on the sea-shore, described by Huxley as "fixed by its head," and "kicking its food into its mouth with its legs."

ACOUSTICS, the science of sound as it affects the ear, specially of the laws to be observed in the construction of halls so that people may distinctly hear in them.

ACRASIA, an impersonation in Spenser's "Faerie Queen," of intemperance in the guise of a beautiful sorceress.

ACRE, ST. JEAN D' (7), a strong place and seaport in Syria, at the foot of Mount Carmel, taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, held out against Bonaparte in 1799; its ancient name Ptolemais.

ACRES, BOB, a coward in the "Rivals" whose "courage always oozed out at his finger ends."

ACROAMATICS, esoteric lectures, i. e. lectures to the initiated.

ACROLEIN, a light volatile limpid liquid obtained by the destructive distillation of fats.

ACROLITHS, statues of which only the extremities are of stone.

ACROP`OLIS, a fortified citadel commanding a city, and generally the nucleus of it, specially the rocky eminence dominating Athens.

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ACROTE`RIA, pedestals placed at the middle and the extremities of a pediment to support a statue or other ornament, or the statue or ornament itself.

ACTA DIURNA, a kind of gazette recording in a summary way daily events, established at Rome in 131 B.C., and rendered official by Caesar in 50 B.C.

ACTA SANCTORUM, the lives of the saints in 62 vols. folio, begun in the 17th century by the Jesuits, and carried on by the Bollandists.

ACTAEON, a hunter changed into a stag for surprising Diana when bathing, and afterwards devoured by his own dogs.

ACTINIC RAYS, "non-luminous rays of higher frequency than the luminous rays."

ACTINISM, the chemical action of sunlight.

ACTINOMYCOSIS, a disease of a fungous nature on the mouth and lower jaw of cows.

ACTIUM, a town and promontory at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf (Arta), in Greece, where Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra, Sept. 2, 31 B.C.

ACTON, an adventurer of English birth, who became prime minister of Naples, but was driven from the helm of affairs on account of his

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inveterate antipathy to the French (1737-1808).

ACTON, LORD, a descendant of the former, who became a leader of the Liberal Catholics in England, M.P. for Carlow, and made a peer in 1869; a man of wide learning, and the projector of a universal history by experts in different departments of the field; _b_. 1834.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, a narrative account in the New Testament of the founding of the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of Peter and Paul, written by Luke, commencing with the year 33, and concluding with the imprisonment of Paul in Rome in 62.

ACUN`HA, TRISTRAM D', a Portuguese navigator, companion of Albuquerque; NUNA D', his son, viceroy of the Indies from 1528 to 1539; RODRIQUE D', archbishop of Lisbon, who in 1640 freed Portugal from the Spanish domination, and established the house of Braganza on the throne.

ACUPRESSURE, checking hemorrhage in arteries during an operation by compressing their orifices with a needle.

ACUPUNCTURE, the operation of pricking an affected part with a needle, and leaving it for a short time in it, sometimes for as long as an hour.

ADAIR, SIR ROBERT, a distinguished English diplomatist, and frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions (1763-1855).

ADAL, a flat barren region between Abyssinia and the Red Sea.

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ADALBE`RON, the archbishop of Rheims, chancellor of Lothaire and Louis V.; consecrated Hugh Capet; _d_. 998.

ADALBERT, a German ecclesiastic, who did much to extend Christianity over the North (1000-1072).

ADALBERT, ST., bishop of Prague, who, driven from Bohemia, essayed to preach the gospel in heathen Prussia, where the priests fell upon him, and "struck him with a death-stroke on the head," April 27, 997, on the anniversary of which day a festival is held in his honour.

ADA`LIA (30), a seaport on the coast of Asia Minor, on a bay of the same name.

ADAM (i. e. man), the first father, according to the Bible, of the human race.

ADAM, ALEX., a distinguished Latin scholar, rector for 40 years of the Edinburgh High School, Scott having been one of his pupils (1741-1809).

ADAM, LAMBERT, a distinguished French sculptor (1700-1759).

ADAM, ROBERT, a distinguished architect, born at Kirkcaldy, architect of the Register House and the University, Edinburgh (1728-1792).

ADAM BEDE, George Eliot's first novel, published anonymously in 1859, took at once with both critic and public.

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ADAM KADMON, primeval man as he at first emanated from the Creator, or man in his primeval rudimentary potentiality.

ADAM OF BROMEN, distinguished as a Christian missionary in the 11th century; author of a celebrated Church history of N. Europe from 788 to 1072, entitled _Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum_.

ADAMAS`TOR, the giant spirit of storms, which Camoens, in his "Luciad," represents as rising up before Vasco de Gama to warn him off from the Cape of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the resultant success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope.

ADAMAWA, a region in the Lower Soudan with a healthy climate and a fertile soil, rich in all tropical products.

ADAMITES, visionaries in Africa in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia in the 14th and 15th, who affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went naked.

ADAMNAN, ST., abbot of Iona, of Irish birth, who wrote a life of St. Columba and a work on the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written (625-704).

ADAMS, DR. F., a zealous student and translator of Greek medical works (1797-1861).

ADAMS, JOHN, the second president of the United States, and a chief promoter of their independence (1739-1826).

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ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, his eldest son, the sixth president (1767-1848).

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH, an English astronomer, the discoverer simultaneously with Leverrier of the planet Neptune (1819-1892).

ADAMS, PARSON, a country curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with a head full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but in absolute ignorance of the world, which in his simplicity he takes for what it professes to be.

ADAMS, SAMUEL, a zealous promoter of American independence, who lived and died poor (1722-1803).

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a chain of coral reefs and sandbanks connecting Ceylon with India.

ADAM'S PEAK, a conical peak in the centre of Ceylon 7420 ft. high, with a foot-like depression 5 ft. long and 21/2 broad atop, ascribed to Adam by the Mohammedans, and to Buddha by the Buddhists; it was here, the Arabs say, that Adam alighted on his expulsion from Eden and stood doing penance on one foot till God forgave him.

ADA`NA (40), a town SE. corner of Asia Minor, 30 m. from the sea.

ADANSON, MICHEL, a French botanist, born in AIX, the first to attempt a natural classification of plants (1727-1806).

AD`DA, an affluent of the Po, near Cremona; it flows through Lake Como; on its banks Bonaparte gained several of his famous victories over

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ADDINGTON, HENRY, Lord Sidmouth, an English statesman was for a short time Prime Minister, throughout a supporter of Pitt (1757-1844).

ADDISON, JOSEPH, a celebrated English essayist, studied at Oxford, became Fellow of Magdalen, was a Whig in politics, held a succession of Government appointments, resigned the last for a large pension; was pre-eminent among English writers for the purity and elegance of his style, had an abiding, refining, and elevating influence on the literature of the country; his name is associated with the _Tatler, Spectator_, and _Guardian_, as well as with a number of beautiful hymns (1672-1749).

A`DELAAR, the name of honour given to Cort Sivertsen, a famous Norse seaman, who rendered distinguished naval services to Denmark and to Venice against the Turks (1622-1675).

ADELAIDE (133), the capital of S. Australia, on the river Torrens, which flows through it into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. SE. of Port Adelaide; a handsome city, with a cathedral, fine public buildings, a university, and an extensive botanical garden; it is the great emporium for S. Australia; exports wool, wine, wheat, and copper ore.

ADELAIDE, eldest daughter of Louis XV. of France (1732-1806).

ADELAIDE, PORT, the haven of Adelaide, a port of call, with a commodious harbour.

ADELAIDE, QUEEN, consort of William IV. of England (1792-1849).

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ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS, sister of Louis Philippe, his Egeria (1771-1841).

ADELBERG, a town of Carniola, 22 m. from Trieste, with a large stalactite cavern, besides numerous caves near it.

ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a distinguished German philologist and lexicographer, born in Pomerania (1732-1806).

A`DEN (42), a fortified town on a peninsula in British territory S. of Arabia, 105 m. E. of Bab-el-Mandeb; a coaling and military station, in a climate hot, but healthy.

AD`HERBAL, son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, killed by Jugurtha, 249 B.C.

ADI GRANTH, the sacred book of the Sikhs.

ADIAPH`ORISTS, Lutherans who in 16th century maintained that certain practices of the Romish Church, obnoxious to others of them, were matters of indifference, such as having pictures, lighting candles, wearing surplices, and singing certain hymns in worship.

AD`IGE, a river of Italy, which rises in the Rhetian Alps and falls into the Adriatic after a course of 250 m.; subject to sudden swellings and overflowings.

ADIPOCERE, a fatty, spermaceti-like substance, produced by the decomposition of animal matter in moist places.

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ADIPOSE TISSUE, a tissue of small vesicles filled with oily matter, in which there is no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin and gives smoothness and warmth to the body.

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in the State of New York; source of the Hudson.

ADJUTANT, a gigantic Indian stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft. in height, which feeds on carrion and offal, and is useful in this way, as storks are.

ADLER, HERMANN, son and successor of the following, born in Hanover; a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred Scriptures; was elected Chief Rabbi in 1891; _b_. 1839.

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS, chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover (1803-1890).

ADLERCREUTZ, a Swedish general, the chief promoter of the revolution of 1808, who told Gustavus IV. to his face that he ought to retire (1759-1815).

ADME`TUS, king of Pherae in Thessaly, one of the Argonauts, under whom Apollo served for a time as neat-herd. _See_ ALCESTIS.

ADMIRABLE DOCTOR, a name given to Roger Bacon.

ADMIRAL, the chief commander of a fleet, of which there are in

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Britain three grades--admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the first displaying his flag on the main mast, the second on the fore, and the third on the mizzen.

ADMIRALTY, BOARD OF, board of commissioners appointed for the management of naval affairs.

ADMIRALTY ISLAND, an island off the coast of Alaska.

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group NE. of New Guinea, in the Pacific, which belong to Germany.

ADOLF, FRIEDRICH, king of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles divided themselves into the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party, and the Hats, or the war-party (1710-1771).

ADOLPH, ST., a Spanish martyr: festival, Sept. 27.

ADOLPH OF NASSAU, Kaiser from 1291 to 1298, "a stalwart but necessitous Herr" Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of Edward Longshanks.

ADOLPHUS, JOHN, an able London barrister in criminal cases, and a voluminous historical writer (1766-1845).

ADONA`I, the name used by the Jews for God instead of Jehovah, too sacred to be pronounced.

ADONA`IS, Shelley's name for Keats.

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ADO`NIS, a beautiful youth beloved by Aphrodite (Venus), but mortally wounded by a boar and changed by her into a flower the colour of his blood, by sprinkling nectar on his body.

ADOPTIONISTS, heretics who in the 8th century maintained that Christ was the son of God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with Him in character and will.

ADOR`NO, an illustrious plebeian family in Genoa, of the Ghibelline party, several of whom were Doges of the republic.

ADOUR, a river of France, rising in the Pyrenees and falling into the Bay of Biscay.

ADOWA`, a highland town in Abyssinia, and chief entrepot of trade.

ADRAS`TUS, a king of Argos, the one survivor of the first expedition of the Seven against Thebes, who died of grief when his son fell in the second.

ADRETS, BARON DES, a Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty; died a Catholic (1513-1587).

A`DRIA, an ancient town between the Po and the Adige; a flourishing seaport at one time, but now 14 m. from the sea.

A`DRIAN, name of six popes: A. I., from 772 to 795, did much to embellish Rome; A. II., from 867 to 872, zealous to subject the

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sovereigns of Europe to the Popehood; A. III., from 884 to 885; A. V., from 1054 to 1059, the only Englishman who attained to the Papal dignity; A. V., in 1276; A. VI., from 1222 to 1223. See BREAKSPEARE.

ADRIAN, ST., the chief military saint of N. Europe for many ages, second only to St. George; regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and protector against the plague.

ADRIANO`PLE (60), a city in European Turkey, the third in importance, on the high-road between Belgrade and Constantinople.

ADRIA`TIC, THE, a sea 450 m. long separating Italy from Illyria, Dalmatia, and Albania.

ADULLAM, David's hiding-place (1 Sam. xxii. 1), a royal Canaanitish city 10 m. NW. of Hebron.

ADULLAMITES, an English political party who in 1866 deserted the Liberal side in protest against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced. John Bright gave them this name. See 1 Sam. xxii.

ADUMBLA, a cow, in old Norse mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost, "licking the rime from the rocks--a Hindu cow transported north," surmises Carlyle.

ADVOCATE, LORD, chief counsel for the Crown in Scotland, public prosecutor of crimes, and a member of the administration in power.

ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF, body of lawyers qualified to plead at the

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Scottish bar.

ADVOCATES' LIBRARY, a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, founded in 1632; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds the privilege of receiving a copy of every book entered at Stationers' Hall.

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI, the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman Catholic Church appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization.

AEACUS, a Greek king renowned as an administrator of distributive justice, after death appointed one of the three judges in Hades. _See_ MINOS and RHADAMANTHUS.

AEDILES, magistrates of ancient Rome who had charge of the public buildings and public structures generally.

AEE`TIS, king of Colchis and father of Medea.

AEGE`AN SEA, the Archipelago.

AEGEUS, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into the AEgean Sea, so called after him, in the mistaken belief that his son, who had been to slay the Minotaur, had been slain by him.

AEGI`NA, an island 20 m. SW. of Athens, in a gulf of the same name.

AEGIR, the god of the sea in the Norse mythology.

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AEGIS (lit. a goat's skin), the shield of Zeus, made of the hide of the goat AMALTHEA (q. v.), representing originally the storm-cloud in which the god invested himself when he was angry; it was also the attribute of Athena, bearing in her case the Gorgon's head.


AEL`FRIC, a Saxon writer of the end of the 10th century known as the "Grammarian."

AELIA`NUS, CLAUDIUS, an Italian rhetorician who wrote in Greek, and whose extant works are valuable for the passages from prior authors which they have preserved for us.

AEMI`LIUS PAULUS, the Roman Consul who fell at Cannae, 216 B.C.; also his son, surnamed Macedonicus, so called as having defeated Perseus at Pydna, in Macedonia.

AENE`AS, a Trojan, the hero of Virgil's "AEneid," who in his various wanderings after the fall of Troy settled in Italy, and became, tradition alleges, the forefather of the Julian Gens in Rome.


AE`NEID, an epic poem by Virgil, of which AEneas is the hero.

AENESIDEMUS, a sceptical philosopher, born in Crete, who flourished shortly after Cicero, and summed up under ten arguments the contention against dogmatism in philosophy. See "SCHWEGLER," translated by

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Dr. Hutchison Stirling.

AEOLIAN ACTION, action of the wind as causing geologic changes.


AEO`LIANS, one of the Greek races who, originating in Thessaly, spread north and south, and emigrated into Asia Minor, giving rise to the AEolic dialect of the Greek language.

AEOLOTROPY, a change in the physical properties of bodies due to a change of position.

AE`OLUS, the Greek god of the winds.

AEON, among the Gnostics, one of a succession of powers conceived as emanating from God and presiding over successive creations and transformations of being.

AEPYOR`NIS, a gigantic fossil bird of Madagascar, of which the egg is six times larger than that of an ostrich.

AE`QUI, a tribe on NE. of Latium, troublesome to the Romans until subdued in 302 B.C.

AERATED BREAD, bread of flour dough charged with carbonic acid gas.

AERATED WATERS, waters aerated with carbonic acid gas.

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AES`CHINES, a celebrated Athenian orator, rival of Demosthenes, who in the end prevailed over him by persuading the citizens to believe he was betraying them to Philip of Macedon, so that he left Athens and settled in Rhodes, where he founded a school as a rhetorician (389-314 B.C.).

AES`CHYLUS, the father of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished himself as a soldier both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a poet; wrote, it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are extant--the "Suppliants," the "Persae," the "Seven against Thebes," the "Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon," the "Choephori," and the "Eumenides," his plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in Sicily (525-456 B.C.).

AESCULA`PIUS, a son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, whom, for restoring Hippolytus to life, Zeus, at the prayer of Pluto, destroyed with a thunderbolt, but afterwards admitted among the gods as god of medicine and the healing art; the cock, the emblem of vigilance, and the serpent, of prudence, were sacred to him.

AESON, the father of Jason, was restored to youth by Medea.

AE`SOP, a celebrated Greek fabulist of the 6th century B.C., of whose history little is known except that he was originally a slave, manumitted by Iadmon of Samos, and put to death by the Delphians, probably for some witticism at their expense.

AESO`PUS, a celebrated Roman actor, a friend of Pompey and Cicero.

AESTHETICS, the science of the beautiful in nature and the fine arts.

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AE`TIUS, a Roman general, who withstood the aggressions of the Barbarians for twenty years, and defeated Attila at Chalons, 451; assassinated out of jealousy by the Emperor Valentinian III., 454.

AETO`LIA, a country of ancient Greece N. of the Gulf of Corinth.

AFFRE, archbishop of Paris, suffered death on the barricades, as, with a green bough in his hand, he bore a message of peace to the insurgents (1793-1848).

AFGHAN`ISTAN` (5,000), a country in the centre of Asia, between India on the east and Persia on the west, its length about 600 m. and its breadth about 500 m., a plateau of immense mountain masses, and high, almost inaccessible, valleys, occupying 278,000 sq. m., with extremes of climate, and a mixed turbulent population, majority Afghans. The country, though long a bone of contention between England and Russia, is now wholly under the sphere of British influence.

AF`GHANS, THE, a fine and noble but hot-tempered race of the Mohammedan faith inhabiting Afghanistan. The Afghans proper are called PATHANS in India, and call themselves Beni Israel (sons of Israel), tracing their descent from King Saul.

AFRA`NIUS, a Latin comic poet who flourished 100 B.C.; also a Roman Consul who played a prominent part in the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey, 60 B.C.

AFRICA, one of the five great divisions of the globe, three times larger than Europe, seven-tenths of it within the torrid zone, and containing over 200,000,000 inhabitants of more or less dark-skinned

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races. It was long a _terra incognita_, but it is now being explored in all directions, and attempts are everywhere made to bring it within the circuit of civilisation. It is being parcelled out by European nations, chiefly Britain, France, and Germany, and with more zeal and appliance of resource by Britain than any other.

AFRICA`NUS, JULIUS, a Christian historian and chronologist of the 3rd century.

AFRIDIS, a treacherous tribe of eight clans, often at war with each other, in a mountainous region on the North-Western frontier of India W. of Peshawar.

AFRIKAN`DER, one born in S. Africa of European parents.

AFRIT`, a powerful evil spirit in the Mohammedan mythology.

AGA`DES, a once important depot of trade in the S. of the Sahara, much decayed.

AGAG, a king of the Amalekites, conquered by Saul, and hewn in pieces by order of Samuel.

AGAMEM`NON, a son of Atreus, king of Mycenae and general-in-chief of the Greeks in the Trojan war, represented as a man of stately presence and a proud spirit. On the advice of the soothsayer Calchas sacrificed his daughter IPHIGENIA (q. v.) for the success of the enterprise he conducted. He was assassinated by AEgisthus and Clytaemnestra, his wife, on his return from the war. His fate and that of his house is the subject of AEschylus' trilogy "Oresteia."

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AGAMOGENESIS, name given to reproduction without sex, by fission, budding, &c.

AGANIPPE, a fountain in Boeotia, near Helicon, dedicated to the Muses as a source of poetic inspiration.

AG`APE, love-feasts among the primitive Christians in commemoration of the Last Supper, and in which they gave each other the kiss of peace as token of Christian brotherhood.

AGAR-AGAR, a gum extracted from a sea-weed, used in bacteriological investigations.

AGA`SIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, famous for his statue of the "Gladiator."

AGASS`IZ, a celebrated Swiss naturalist, in the department especially of ichthyology, and in connection with the glaciers; settled as a professor of zoology and geology in the United States in 1846 (1807-1873).

AG`ATHE, ST., a Sicilian virgin who suffered martyrdom at Palermo under Decius in 251; represented in art as crowned with a long veil and bearing a pair of shears, the instruments with which her breast were cut off. Festival, Feb. 5.

AGA`THIAS, a Byzantine poet and historian (536-582).

AGATH`OCLES, the tyrant of Syracuse, by the massacre of thousands of

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the inhabitants, was an enemy of the Carthaginians, and fought against them; was poisoned in the end (361-289 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, an Athenian tragic poet, a rival of Euripides (447-400 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, ST., pope from 676 to 682.

AG`DE (6), a French seaport on the Herault, 3 m. from the Mediterranean.

A`GEN (21), a town on the Garonne, 84 m. above Bordeaux.

AGES, in the Greek mythology four--the Golden, self-sufficient; the Silver, self-indulgent; the Brazen, warlike; and the Iron, violent; together with the Heroic, nobly aspirant, between the third and fourth. In archeology, three--the Stone Age, the Bronze, and the Iron. In history, the Middle and Dark, between the Ancient and the Modern. In Fichte, five--of Instinct, of Law, of Rebellion, of Rationality, of Conformity to Reason. In Shakespeare, seven--Infancy, Childhood, Boyhood, Adolescence, Manhood, Age, Old Age.

AGESAN`DER, a sculptor of Rhodes of the first century, who wrought at the famous group of the Laocoon.

AGESILA`US, a Spartan king, victorious over the Persians in Asia and over the allied Thebans and Athenians at Coronea, but defeated by Epaminondas at Mantinea after a campaign in Egypt; _d_. 360 B.C., aged 84.

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AGGAS, RALPH, a surveyor and engraver of the 16th century, who first drew a plan of London as well as of Oxford and Cambridge.

AGGLUTINATE LANGUAGES, languages composed of parts which are words glued together, so to speak, as cowherd.

AGINCOURT`, a small village in Pas-de-Calais, where Henry V. in a bloody battle defeated the French, Oct. 25, 1415.

A`GIS, the name of several Spartan kings, of whom the most famous were Agis III. and IV., the former famous for his resistance to the Macedonian domination, _d_. 330 B.C.; and the latter for his attempts to carry a law for the equal division of land, _d_. 240 B.C.


AG`NADEL, a Lombard village, near which Louis XII. defeated the Venetians in 1509, and Vendome, Prince Eugene in 1705.

AGNA`NO, LAKE OF, a lake near Naples, now drained; occupied the crater of an extinct volcano, its waters in a state of constant ebullition.

AGNELLO, COL D', passage by the S. of Monte Viso between France and Italy.

AGNES, an unsophisticated maiden in Moliere's _L'Ecole des Femmes_, so unsophisticated that she does not know what love means.

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AGNES, ST., a virgin who suffered martyrdom, was beheaded because the flames would not touch her body, under Diocletian in 303; represented in art as holding a palm-branch in her hand and a lamb at her feet or in her arms. Festival, Jan. 21.

AGNES DE MERANIE, the second wife of Philip Augustus by a marriage in 1193, declared null by the Church, who, being dismissed in consequence, died broken-hearted in 1201.

AGNES SOREL, surnamed _Dame de beaute_, mistress of Charles VII. of France (1409-1450).

AGNE`SI, MARIA GAETANA, a native of Milan, a woman of extraordinary ability and attainments, prelected for her father in mathematics in the University of Bologna under sanction of the Pope; died a nun at her birthplace (1718-1799).

AG`NI, the god of fire in the Vedic mythology, begets the gods, organises the world, produces and preserves universal life, and throughout never ceases to be fire. One of the three terms of the Vedic trinity, Soma and Indra being the other two.

AGNOLO, a Florentine artist, friend of Michael Angelo and Raphael, distinguished for his carvings in wood (1460-1543).

AGNOSTICISM, the doctrine which disclaims all knowledge of the supersensuous, or denies that we know or can know the absolute, the infinite, or God.

AGNUS DEI, the figure of a lamb bearing a cross as a symbol of Christ, or a medal with this device; also a prayer in the Mass beginning

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with the words, "Lamb of God."

AGONIC LINE, line along which the needle points due north and south.

AGORA, the forum of a Grecian town.

AGOS`TA, a city on east coast of Sicily.

AGOULT, COUNTESS OF, a French authoress under the pseudonym of Daniel Stern (1805-1876).

AGOUST, CAPT. DE, a "cast-iron" captain of the Swiss Guards, who on May 4, 1788, by order of the Court of Versailles, marched the Parliament of Paris out of the Palais de Justice and carried off the key. See CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION," BK. I. CHAP. VIII.

AGOU`TI, a rodent, native of Brazil, Paraguay, and Guiana; very destructive to roots and sugar-canes.

A`GRA (168), a handsome city on the Jumna, in NW. Province of India, famous for, among other monuments, the Taj Mahal, a magnificent mausoleum erected near it by the Emperor Shah Jehan for himself and his favourite wife; it is a centre of trade, and seat of manufactures of Indian wares.

AG`RAM, (37), a Hungarian town, the capital of Croatia, with a fine Gothic cathedral and a university; is subject to earthquakes.

AGRARIAN LAWS, laws among the Romans regulating the division of lands.

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AGRIC`OLA, a Roman general, father-in-law of Tacitus, who conquered Great Britain in 80, recalled by the Emperor Domitian in 87, and retired into private life (37-93).

AGRICOLA, JOHANN, a follower and friend of Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians (1492-1566).

AGRICOLA, RUDOLPHUS, a learned and accomplished Dutchman, much esteemed by Erasmus, and much in advance of his time; his most important work, "Dialectics," being an attack on the scholastic system (1442-1485).

AGRIGEN`TUM, an ancient considerable city, now Girgenti, on the S. of Sicily, of various fortune, and still showing traces of its ancient grandeur.

AGRIPPA, H. CORNELIUS, a native of Cologne, of noble birth, for some time in the service of Maximilian, but devoted mainly to the study of the occult sciences, which exposed him to various persecutions through life (1486-1535).


AGRIP`PA, M. VIPSANIUS, a Roman general, the son-in-law and favourite of Augustus, who distinguished himself at the battle of Actium, and built the Pantheon of Rome (63-12 B.C.).

AGRIPPI`NA, the daughter of Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and thus the granddaughter of Augustus; married Germanicus, accompanied him in his

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campaigns, and brought his ashes to Rome on his death, but was banished from Rome by Tiberius, and _d_. in 33.

AGRIPPINA, the daughter of Germanicus and the former, born at Cologne, and the mother of Nero. Her third husband was her uncle, the Emperor Claudian, whom she got to adopt her son, and then poisoned him, in order to place her son on the throne; but the latter, resenting her intolerable ascendancy, had her put to death in 59.

AGTELEK, a village NE. of Pesth, in Hungary with vast stalactite caverns, some of them of great height.

AGUA`DO, A. M., an enormously wealthy banker of Spanish-Jewish descent, born in Seville, and naturalised in France (1784-1842).

AGUAS CALIENTES (31), a high-lying inland trading town in Mexico.

AGUE-CHEEK, SIR ANDREW, a silly squire in "Twelfth Night."

AGUESSEAU`, D', a French magistrate under Louis XIV. and Louis XV., of unimpeachable integrity and unselfish devotion, a learned jurist and law reformer, and held high posts in the administration of justice (1668-1751).

AGUILAR, GRACE, a Jewess, born at Hackney; authoress of "Magic Wreath," "Home Influence," "Vale of Cedars"; of a delicate constitution, died young (1816-1847).

A`GULHAS, CAPE (i. e. the Needles), the most southerly point of Africa, 100 m. ESE. of the Cape, and along with the bank of the whole

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south coast, dangerous to shipping.

A`HAB, a king of Israel fond of splendour, and partial to the worship of Baal (918-896 B.C.).

AHASUE`RUS, a traditionary figure known as the Wandering Jew; also the name of several kings of Persia.

AHAZ, a king of Judah who first brought Judea under tribute to Assyria.

AHLDEN, CASTLE OF, a castle in Lueneburg Heath, the nearly lifelong prison-house of the wife of George I. and the mother of George II. and of Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.

AHMADABAD (148), a chief town of Guzerat, in the Bombay Presidency, a populous city and of great splendour in the last century, of which gorgeous relics remain.

AHMED, a prince in the "Arabian Nights," noted for a magic tent which would expand so as to shelter an army, and contract so that it could go into one's pocket.

AH`MED SHAH, the founder of the Afghan dynasty and the Afghan power (1724-1773).

AHMEDNUG`AR (41), a considerable Hindu town 122 m. E. of Bombay.

AHOLIBAH, prostitution personified. See EZEK. XXIII.

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AHOLIBAMAH, a grand daughter of Cain, beloved by a seraph, who at the Flood bore her away to another planet.

AH`RIMAN, the Zoroastrian impersonation of the evil principle, to whom all the evils of the world are ascribed.

AIDAN, ST., the archbishop of Lindisfarne, founder of the monastery, and the apostle of Northumbria, sent thither from Iona on the invitation of King Oswald in 635.

AIGNAN, St., the bishop of Orleans, defended it against Attila and his Huns in 451.

AIGUILLON, DUKE D', corrupt minister of France, previously under trial for official plunder of money, which was quashed, at the corrupt court of Louis XV., and the tool of Mme. Du Barry, with whom he rose and fell (1720-1782).

AIKIN, DR. JOHN, a popular writer, and author, with Mrs. Barbauld, his sister, of "Evenings at Home" (1747-1822).

AIKMAN, W., an eminent Scotch portrait-painter (1682-1731).

AILLY, PIERRE D', a cardinal of the Romish Church, and eminent as a theologian, presided at the council of Constance which condemned Huss (1350-1420).

AILSA CRAIG, a rocky islet of Ayrshire, 10 m. NW. of Girvan, 2 m. in

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circumference, which rises abruptly out of the sea at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde to a height of 1114 ft.

AIMARD, GUSTAVE, a French novelist, born in Paris; died insane (1818-1883).

AIME, ST., archbishop of Sens, in France; _d_. 690; festival, 13th Sept.

AIN, a French river, has its source in the Jura Mts., and falls into the Rhone; also a department of France between the Rhone and Savoy.

AINMILLER, a native of Muenich, the reviver of glass-painting in Germany (1807-1870).

AI`NOS, a primitive thick-set, hairy race, now confined to Yezo and the islands N. of Japan, aboriginal to that quarter of the globe, and fast dying out.

AINSWORTH, R., an English Latin lexicographer (1660-1743).

AINSWORTH, W. H., a popular English novelist, the author of "Rookwood" and "Jack Sheppard," as well as novels of an antiquarian and historical character (1805-1882).

AIN-TAB (20), a Syrian garrison town 60 m. NE. of Aleppo; trade in hides, leather, and cotton.

AIRD, THOMAS, a Scottish poet, author of the "Devil's Dream," the

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"Old Bachelor," and the "Old Scotch Village"; for nearly 30 years editor of the _Dumfries Herald_ (1802-1876).

AIRDRIE (19), a town in Lanarkshire, 11 m. E. of Glasgow, in a district rich in iron and coal; is of rapid growth; has cotton-mills, foundries, etc.

AIRDS MOSS, a moor in Ayrshire, between the rivers Ayr and Lugar.

AIRE, a Yorkshire river which flows into the Ouse; also a French river, affluent of the Aisne.

AIRY, SIR G. B., an eminent English astronomer, mathematician, and man of science, astronomer-royal from 1836 to 1881, retired on a pension; was the first to enunciate the complete theory of the rainbow.

AISNE, a French river which, after a course of 150 m., falls into the Oise near Compiegne; also a department in the N. of France.

AISSE, MLLE., a Circassienne brought to France about 1700; left letters on French society in the eighteenth century, sparkling with wit and full of interest.

AITON, WM., a botanist, born in Lanarkshire, the first director of the Royal Gardens at Kew (1731-1793).

AITZEMA, LEO, historian of Friesland (1600-1669).

AIX (22), a town, the ancient capital of Provence, 20 m. N. of

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Marseilles, the seat of an archbishop and a university; founded by the Romans 123 B.C.; near it Marius defeated the Teutons.

AIX, ISLE OF, island in the Atlantic, at the mouth of the Charente.

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE` (103), in Rhenish Prussia, one of the oldest cities in Germany, made capital of the German empire by Charlemagne; derives its name from its mineral springs; is a centre of manufacturing industries and an important trade; is celebrated for its octagonal cathedral (in the middle of which is a stone marking the burial-place of Charlemagne), for treaties of peace in 1668 and 1748, and for a European congress in 1818.

AIX-LES-BAINS`, a small town near Chambery, in the dep. of Savoy, and much frequented by invalids for its waters and baths.

AJAC`CIO (18), the capital of Corsica, the birthplace of the Bonaparte family, of Cardinal Fesch, and Bacciochi.

AJALON, VALLEY OF, in Palestine, scene of a battle between Joshua and five Canaanitish kings, during which the sun and moon stood still at the prayer of Joshua, to enable him to finish his victory.

A`JAN COAST, a district on the E. coast of Africa, from Cape Guardafui to the mouth of the Juba, under the protectorate of Germany.

A`JAX the name of two Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and the synonym of a fiery and impetuous warrior: AJAX, the son of Telamon of Sparta, one of the bravest of the Greeks, who, on the death of Achilles, contended with Ulysses for his arms, but was defeated, in consequence of which he lost his reason and put an end to his life; and AJAX, the son of Oileus, swift of foot, like Achilles, who suffered

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shipwreck on his homeward voyage, as a judgment for an outrage he perpetrated on the person of Cassandra in the temple of Athena in Troy.

AJMERE` (68), a city in a small territory in the heart of Rajputana, under the rule of the Viceroy; well built, and contains some famous edifices.

AJODHYA, an ancient city of Oudh, 77 m. E. of Lucknow, once, on religious grounds, one of the largest and most magnificent cities of India, now in ruins; the modern town is an insignificant place, but has an annual fair, attended by often 600,000 pilgrims.

AK`ABA, a gulf forming the NE. inlet of the Red Sea.

AKAKIA, DOCTOR, a satire of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which so excited the anger of Frederick the Great, the patron of the Academy, that he ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman, after 30,000 copies of it had been sold in Paris!

AKAKIA, MARTIN, physician of Francis I., born at Chalons-sur-Marne, his real name being Sans-Malice; _d_. 1551.

AK`BAR, the great Mogul emperor of India, who, after a minority of a few years, assumed the reins of government at the age of eighteen, and in ten or twelve years, such was his power of conquest, had the whole of India north of the Vindhya Mts. subject to his rule. He was wise in government as well as powerful in war, and one of the most large-minded and largest-hearted rulers recorded in history. He reigned half a century (1542-1605).

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AKENSIDE, MARK, an English physician, who wrote, among other productions and pieces, the "Hymn to the Naiads," especially a poem entitled the "Pleasures of Imagination," much quoted from at one time, and suggested by the study of Addison on the Imagination in the _Spectator_ (1721-1770).

AKERS, B. P., an able American sculptor (1825-1861).

AKERMAN` (55), a fortified town in Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Dniester.

AKIBA, BEN JOSEPH, a famous Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, a great authority in the matter of Jewish tradition, flayed alive by the Romans for being concerned in a revolt in 135.

AKKAS, a wandering race of negro dwarfs in Central Africa, with large heads and slender necks, who live by hunting.

AKRON (27), a town in Ohio, U.S., seat of manufactures and centre of traffic.

AKSAKOF`, a Russian litterateur and advocate of Panslavism (1823-1886).

AKSU (20), a trading town in E. Turkestan, 250 m. NE. of Yarkand.

AK`YAB (37), the capital of Aracan, in British Burmah, 90 m. SE. of Calcutta.

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AL RAKIM, the dog that guarded the SEVEN SLEEPERS (q. v.), and that stood by them all through their long sleep.

ALABA`MA (1,513), one of the United States of N. America, traversed by a river of the name, a little larger than England, highly fertile and a great cotton-growing country, and abounding in iron, coal, and marble, bounded on the W. by the Mississippi, on the N. by Tennessee, and the E. by Georgia.

ALABAMA, THE, a vessel built in Birkenhead for the Confederates in the late American Civil War, for the devastation done by which, according to the decision of a court of arbitration, the English Government had to pay heavy damages of three millions of money.

ALACOQUE, MARIE, a French nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the Sacred Heart (1647-1690).

ALAD`DIN, one of the chiefs of the Assassins in the 13th century, better known by the name of the Old Man of the Mountain.

ALADDIN, a character in the "Arabian Nights," who became possessed of a wonderful lamp and a wonderful ring, by rubbing which together he could call two evil genii to do his bidding.

ALADINISTS, free-thinkers among the Mohammedans.

ALAGO`AS (397), a maritime province of Brazil, N. of Pernambuco, with tropical products as well as fine timber and dye-woods.

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ALAIN DE L'ISLE, a professor of theology in the University of Paris, surnamed the _Doctor universel_ (1114-1203).


ALAIS` (18), a town at the foot of the Cevennes, in the centre of a mining district; once the stronghold of French Protestantism.

ALAMAN`NI, LUIGI, an Italian poet and diplomatist, born at Florence (1495-1556).

ALAND ISLES, a group of 300 small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, of which 80 are inhabited; fortified by Russia.

ALANS, a barbarous horde from the East, who invaded W. Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, but were partly exterminated and partly ousted by the Visigoths.

ALAR`CON Y MENDO`ZA, JUAN RUIZ DE, a Spanish dramatist born in Mexico, who, though depreciated by his contemporaries, ranks after 200 years of neglect among the foremost dramatic geniuses of Spain, next even to Cervantes and Lope de Vega; he was a humpback, had an offensive air of conceit, and was very unpopular; he wrote at least twenty dramas, some of which have been translated into French; _d_. in 1639.

AL`ARIC I., the king of the Visigoths, a man of noble birth, who, at the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th century, ravaged Greece, invaded Italy, and took and pillaged Rome; died at Cosenza, in Calabria, in 412, at the early age of thirty-four.

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ALARIC II., king of the Visigoths, whose dominions included all Gaul and most of Spain; defeated by the Franks at Poitiers, and killed by the hand of Clovis, their king, in 567.

ALARIC COTIN, Voltaire's nickname for Frederick the Great, the former in recognition of him as a warrior, the latter as a would-be litterateur, after an indifferent French poet of the name of Cotin.

ALAS`CO, JOHN, the uncle of Sigismund, king of Poland, and a zealous promoter in Poland of the Reformation, the friend of Erasmus and Zwinglius (1499-1560).

ALAS`KA (32), an immense territory belonging to the U.S. by purchase from Russia, extending from British N. America to Behring Strait; it is poor in resources, and the inhabitants, who are chiefly Indians and Eskimos, live by hunting and fishing, and by the export of salmon; seal fishery valuable, however.

ALASNAM, a hero related of in the "Arabian Nights" as having erected eight statues of gold, and in quest of a statue for a ninth unoccupied pedestal, finding what he wanted in the person of a beautiful woman for a wife.

ALAS`TOR, an avenging spirit, given to torment families whose history has been stained by some crime.

A`LAVA (97), the southernmost of the three Basque provinces of Spain, largest, but least populous; rich in minerals, and fertile in soil.

ALAVA, RICARDO DE, a Spanish general, born in Vittoria, joined the

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national party, and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and became eventually ambassador to London and Paris (1771-1843).

ALBA LONGA, a city of Latium older than Rome.

ALBACETE (229), a province in Spain, with a capital (30) of same name, 173 m. SE. of Madrid.

ALBAN LAKE, near Alban Mount, 6 m. in circuit, occupying the basin of an extinct volcano, its surface 961 ft. above the sea-level.

ALBAN MOUNT, a small mountain overlooking Alba Longa.

ALBAN, ST., the first martyr in Britain to the Christian faith in 303; represented in art as carrying his head between his hands, having been beheaded.

ALBA`NI, an Italian painter, a disciple of Caracci, born at Bologna; surnamed the Anacreon of painting; his pictures more distinguished for grace than vigour.

ALBA`NI, an illustrious Roman family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the Church, one, Clement XI., having been Pope.

ALBANI, MME., _nee_ Emma la Jeunesse, a well-known and highly popular operatic singer of French-Canadian descent; _b_. 1847.

ALBA`NIA, a region in Balkan peninsula, on the Adriatic, extending from Servia to Greece.

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ALBANO, LAKE OF, a small crater-like lake 15 m. SE. of Rome, near which rises the Castel Gandolfo, where the Pope has a villa.

ALBANY, the old Celtic name for the Scottish highlands.

ALBANY, a town in W. Australia, on King George Sound, 261 m. SE. of Perth, a port of call for Australian liners; also the capital (94) of the State of New York, on the Hudson River, a well-appointed city; seat of justice for the State, with a large trade and numerous manufactures.

ALBANY, COUNTESS OF, wife of English pretender, Prince Charles Stuart, a dissolute woman (1753-1824).

ALBANY, THE DUKE OF, a title formerly given to a member of the royal family, and revived in the present reign.

ALBANY, DUCHESS OF, daughter of Prince Waldeck Pyrmont and widow of Prince Leopold of England; _b_. 1861, widow since 1884.

ALBATEGNI, a distinguished Arabian astronomer, born in Mesopotamia in the 9th or 10th century of our era; his observations extended over 50 years; he so improved the methods and instruments of observation as to earn the title of the Ptolemy of the Arabs.

ALBATROSS, the largest and strongest of sea-birds, that ranges over the southern seas, often seen far from land; it is a superstition among sailors that it is disastrous to shoot one.

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ALBERO`NI, an Italian of humble birth, became a Cardinal of the Church and Prime Minister to Philip V. of Spain, wrought hard to restore Spain to its ancient grandeur, was defeated in his project by the quadruple alliance of England, France, Austria, and Holland, and obliged to retire (1664-1752).

ALBERT, archbishop of Mainz, a dignity granted him by Pope Leo X. at the ransom of L15,000, which he was unable to pay, and which, as the Pope needed it for building St. Peter's, he borrowed, the Pope granting him the power to sell indulgences in order to repay the loan, in which traffic Tetzel was his chief salesman, a trade which roused the wrath of Luther, and provoked the German Reformation (1450-1545).

ALBERT, the last Grandmaster of the Teutonic knights, who being "religious in an eminent degree and shaken in his belief" took zealously to Protestantism and came under the influence of Luther, who advised him to declare himself Duke of Prussia, under the wing of Sigismund of Poland, in defiance of the Teutonic order as no longer worthy of bed and board on the earth, and so doing, became founder of the Prussian State (1490-1568).

ALBERT, markgrave of Brandenburg, defined by Carlyle "a failure of a Fritz," with "features" of a Frederick the Great in him, "but who burnt away his splendid qualities as a mere temporary shine for the able editors, and never came to anything, full of fire, too much of it wildfire, not in the least like an Alcibiades except in the change of fortune he underwent" (1522-1557).

ALBERT, PRINCE, second son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819, an accomplished man with a handsome presence, who became the consort of Queen Victoria in 1840, and from his prudence and tact was held in the highest honour by the whole community, but died at Windsor of typhoid fever, Dec. 14, 1861, to the unspeakable sorrow of both Queen and country.

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ALBERT, ST., bishop of Liege, was assassinated by the emissaries of the Emperor Henry VI. in 1195. Festival, Nov. 21.


ALBERT I., emperor of Germany from 1298 to 1308, eldest son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, "a most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, tough, and unbeautiful man, whom his nephew at last had to assassinate, and did assassinate, as he crossed the river Reuss with him in a boat, May 1, 1308."

ALBERT II., a successor, "who got three crowns--Hungary, Bohemia, and the Imperial--in one year, and we hope a fourth," says the old historian, "which was a heavenly and eternal one," for he died the next year, 1439.

ALBERT III., elector of Brandenburg. See ACHILLES OF GERMANY.

ALBERT MEDAL, a medal of gold and of bronze, instituted in 1866, awarded to civilians for acts of heroism by sea or land.

ALBERT THE BEAR, markgrave of Brandenburg, called the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong hand, and could pick what way was straightest among crooked things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg for one there, a conspicuous country ever since," says Carlyle, "and which grows more so in our late times" (1100-1175).

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in the Nile basin. persons or animals with preternaturally pale skin and fair hair. an illustrious Florentine family. also with pupils of a red or pink colour. ALBERTI. to their utter annihilation. 22 m. in the 12th century. teacher of Thomas Aquinas. one of the greatest of the scholastic philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages. of Toulouse. on the E. an able professor of anatomy and therapeutics at Leyden Computer Lecturer. slope of the Rocky Mountains. discovered by Sir Samuel Baker in 1864.com ALBERT NYAN`ZA. the south abounding in cattle ranches. of France. a fertile region with large forests in British America. CTSTI. rivals of the Medicis and the Albrizzi. ALBI. long by 40 broad. ALBER`TUS MAGNUS. supreme in knowledge of the arts and sciences of the time.ramakalai@gmail. which sprung up about Albi. of France. NE. odious. against which Pope Innocent III. and eyes too weak to bear full light. as heretical. 150 m. ALBINUS. which was carried on by Simon de Montfort in the 13th century. proclaimed a crusade. a religious sect. and by the Inquisition afterwards. to the Church. and 2500 feet above sea-level. and regarded by his contemporaries in consequence as a sorcerer (1190-1280). ALBINOS. in the S. ALBIGEN`SES. Chennai 6. ALBER`TA (26). and the mountainous districts in minerals. a town of some antiquity and note in S. a lake in Equatorial Africa. Page 56 of 2772 .

CTSTI. a Spanish village 12 m. invaded Italy as far as the Tiber. of Valencia. who had him assassinated for forcing her to drink wine out of the skull of her father. of Badajoz. a lake on the coast of Spain. ALBUFE`RA. 7 m. rivals of the Medicis and the Alberti. ALBRIZZI. a white cliff. Chennai 6. ALBRECHT.ramakalai@gmail. 1811) of General Beresford over Marshal Soult. and set up his capital in Pavia. See ALBERT. scene of a victory (May 16. S. archbishop of Toledo. ALBION. king of the Lombards in the 6th century. Computer Lecturer. ALBOR`NOZ. incurred the resentment of his wife. the ancient name of Great Britain. AL`BULA. from 561 to 573. ALBORAK.com (1696-1770). near which Marshal Suchet gained a victory over the English in 1811. 7595 ft. Swiss mountain pass in the canton of Grisons. SE. high. ALBUE`RA. a bold defender of the faith against the Moor and a plain-spoken man in the interest of Christianity (1310-1367). a Spanish statesman. a powerful Florentine family. an impersonation of the lightning as his steed. Page 57 of 2772 . ALBOIN. a wonderful horse of Mahomet.

was established in 1176 here. with a bridge of six arches. ancient Celtic name of Scotland. where his recall at the instance of jealous rivals at home gave him such a shock that he died of a broken heart just as he was leaving. a town of Spain. who. Computer Lecturer. after securing a footing in India for Portugal that he sought for. ALCESTE. and used to visit his tomb to pray him to deliver them from the oppression of his successors (1453-1513).C. ALBUQUERQUE`. Chennai 6. CTSTI. for defence against the Moors. settled in Goa. 670 ft. the founder of the Portuguese power in India. flourished about 600 B. a contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho. ALCAN`TARA.ramakalai@gmail. and was suppressed in 1835. and found nearly pure in the white of an egg or in the serum of the blood. a Greek lyric poet. Page 58 of 2772 . The Indians long remembered his benign rule. on the Tagus. high. long the seat of a famous university founded by Cardinal Ximenes. a religious and military order. ALCAE`US OF MITYLENE. near Portugal. ALBYN. a town in Spain. the birthplace of Cervantes.com ALBUMEN. long and 210 ft. built in honour of Trajan in 104. E. a glairy substance a constituent of plants and animals. 21 m. and much admired by Horace. a celebrated Portuguese patriot and navigator. The Order of Alcantara. an aristocrat by birth. of Madrid. ALFONSO D'. ALCA`LA DE HENA`RES (14). the chief character in Moliere's _Misanthrope_.

He involved his country in a rash expedition against Sicily. and of the elixir of life. and its end in poverty. whom Socrates tried hard to win over to virtue.ramakalai@gmail. a patronymic of Hercules.C. who gave herself up to death to save her husband. and related to Pericles. born at Sardis. which has its beginning in falsehood. Chennai 6. who had been shipwrecked on his shore. the grandson of Alcaeus. the father of Nausicaa. Hercules descended to the lower world and brought her back. SW. ALCMAN. it has been defined to be "an art without art. served and betrayed it by turns in the Peloponnesian war. She is the subject of one of the tragedies of Euripides. ALCIN`OUS.). brilliant abilities. an Athenian of high birth. the early analysis of substances which has in modern times developed into chemistry.com ALCES`TIS. on an island 22 m. a king of the Phaeacians. who figures in the Odyssey as the host of Ulysses. the wife of Amphitryon and the mother of Hercules. and died by assassination in exile (450-404 B. of a universal solvent. and great wealth. but was of a wayward temper and depraved. and which aimed chiefly at the discovery of the philosopher's stone. its middle in toil. Computer Lecturer. ALCI`RA (18). an early Greek lyric poet." ALCIBI`ADES. ALCME`NE. ALCHEMY. ALCI`DES. a walled town in Spain. CTSTI. possessed of a handsome person. but failed. of Valencia. the wife of Admetus. Page 59 of 2772 .

ALCOY (30). who acted as a nurse to the wounded during the Civil War. ALCOHOLISM. ALCOHOL. 1500. LOUISA MARY. ALCORAN`. Page 60 of 2772 . of Alicanti. AL`CUIN. her works mostly addressed to the young (1832-1888). was one of those men whose work lies more in what they influence others to do than in what they do themselves (735-804). of which Pericles and Alcibiades were members. an eminent ecclesiastic of the reign of Edward IV. and the intoxicating principle of all spirituous liquors. invited by Charlemagne to introduce scholarly culture into the empire and establish libraries and schools of learning. paper.. a town in Spain.ramakalai@gmail. acute or chronic. See KORAN. a learned Englishman. ALCOCK. _d_. JOHN. Chennai 6. the grandson of Nestor. a disciple of Bede. staple manufacture. Computer Lecturer. distinguished for his love of learning and learned men. ALCOTT. of the deleterious action of alcohol on the human system. pure or highly rectified spirit obtained from fermented saccharine solutions by distillation. who professed to be descended from Alcmaeon.com ALCMEONIDAE. a powerful Athenian family. CTSTI. the results. N. a popular American authoress.

Chennai 6. issued from the press of Aldus Manutius in Venice in the 16th century. a permanent camp. editions. became archbishop of York. who accused her of infidelity. wife of Henry II. a Florentine jurisconsult (1500-1558). ALDINE EDITIONS. when an angel in the form of a child appeared and certified her innocence. ALDINGAR. made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. for instruction in military manoeuvres. and remarkable for the correctness of the text and the beauty and clearness of the printing. ALDOBRANDINI. and was changed into the kingfisher. celebrated for its breed of cows.com ALCY`ONE. chiefly of the classics. bishop of Worcester in the reign of Edward the Confessor. the steward of Eleanor. SW. on a moorland 35 m. daughter of AEolus. of a suffocating odour. the bull's-eye. CTSTI. and offered to substantiate the charge by combat. obtained from the oxidation of alcohol. AL`DERNEY (2). who threw herself into the sea after her husband. who had perished in shipwreck.. established in 1855. very volatile liquid. of London. Page 61 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. AL`DRED. legendary character. AL`DERSHOT. ALDE`BARAN. a star of the first magnitude in the eye of the constellation Taurus. 3 or 4 m. separated from Cape de la Hogue by the dangerous Race of Alderney. and crowned Computer Lecturer. SIR. a limpid. one of the Channel Islands. it is the sun in the Arabian mythology. long by 2 broad. ALDEHYDE.

than to him (1447-1515). who collected an immense body of interesting facts in natural history. soil fertile to Computer Lecturer. ULYSSES. AL`DRICH. Franciso de Bologna. though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder. Page 62 of 2772 . ALEMAN`. 1063. Chennai 6. ALDROVAN`DI. and for long gave no small trouble to Rome.ramakalai@gmail. ALEC`TO. for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent. established a printing-office in Venice in 1488. was translated several times into French. wrote a system of logic. born at Bassano. and invented the italic type. was a skilful musician. first by Maximinus. dean of Oxford. an Italian printer. a famous Italian naturalist of Bologna. published partly in his lifetime and partly after his death (1522-1607). issued the celebrated Aldine Editions of the classics. and composed many services for the Church. long in use in Oxford University (1647-1710). ALEMTE`JO (369). but whose incursions were arrested. hence the modern names in French for Germany and the Germans. an accomplished ecclesiastic. a Spanish novelist. one of the three Eumenides or Furies. a confederacy of tribes which appeared on the banks of the Rhine in the 3rd cent. ALDUS MANUTIUS. a southern province of Portugal.. or ALDO MANUZIO. CTSTI. ALEMAN`NI.com the last of the Saxon and the first of the Norman kings of England. _d_. who made them subject to the Franks. which in 6 years ran through 26 editions. died in Mexico in 1610. author of the celebrated romance _Guzman de Alfarache_. and finally by Clovis in 496.

CTSTI. which descends round the south of the Jungfrau into the valley of the Upper Rhone. architect.com the east. who fell at Agincourt (1415). W. SE. ALENCON (17). of Turin. of Paris. architect of the monastery and church of the ESCURIAL. ALEP`PO (130). THE. and took an active part in the Reformation there (1500-1563). was driven first from Scotland and then from England. 55 m. v. a noted Reformer. 105 m. ALESIUS. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. COUNTS AND DUKES OF. ALESSANDRIA (78). q. which. ALETSCH GLACIER. a town in the dep. born at Perugia. or ALANE.000 Gauls. g. one of the finest in the East. ALE`SIA.ramakalai@gmail.. till he settled as a theological professor in Germany. the largest of the glaciers of the Alps. JEAN IV. who fell at Crecy (1346). as situated on a hill and garrisoned by 80. ALESSI. converted to Protestantism by Patrick Hamilton. a strongly fortified and stirring town on the Tenaro. ALENCON. the centre of 8 railways. CHARLES OF VALOIS. once one of the greatest trading centres in the world. born in Edinburgh. Page 63 of 2772 . a strong place in the E. cost Caesar no small trouble to take. of Orne. (1500-1572). a title borne by several members of the house of Valois--e. in Northern Italy. of Gaul. once famous for its lace. a city in Northern Syria.

. and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris. Page 64 of 2772 . ALEXANDER. with these conquered the army of Darius the Persian at Granicus in 334 and at Issus in 333. he swept everything before him. routed the Persians at Arbela. Feb 26. ST. took the Computer Lecturer. festival. first Protestant bishop of Jerusalem. SOLOMON. whose election Barbarossa at first opposed. cut off during a journey to Cairo (1799-1845). and in eleven days died at the early age of 32. but finally assented to. son of Philip by Olympias. and in 2 years after his accession crossed the Hellespont. 150 in number. stretching over the N. in Asia. America. and the inspiring idea of his life. had the philosopher Aristotle for tutor.com ALEU`TIAN ISLANDS (2) a chain of volcanic islands. successor to Adrian IV. daughter of Neoptolemus. and being instructed by him in all kinds of serviceable knowledge. ALEXANDER III. is defined to have been the right of Greek intelligence to override and rule the merely glittering barbarity of the East. ascended the throne on the death of his father. king of Epirus.ramakalai@gmail. to Kamchatka.. an able man.C.000 foot and 5000 horse. CTSTI. all unconsciously to himself belike. after subduing Greece. Chennai 6. born at Pella.. 356 B. when he suddenly fell ill of fever. Pacific from Alaska in N. the king of Macedonia. subdued the principal cities of Syria. ALEXANDER THE GREAT. contributed to bring about the condemnation of Arius at the Council of Nice. had himself proclaimed generalissimo of the Greeks against the Persians. of Jewish birth. He is said to have slept every night with his Homer and his sword under his pillow. he returned to Babylon. pope. at the age of 20. followed by 30. till the Macedonians refusing to advance. patriarch of Alexandria from 311 to 326. hurrying on farther. overran Egypt. ALEXANDER..

fought the French at Pultusk and Computer Lecturer. married a daughter of Henry III. after a career of crime. and VI.. six of the name were popes: Alexander I. pope from 1653 to 1667.. the sister of Henry III. Alexander IV. obtained the popehood by bribery in 1492 in succession to Innocent VIII. pope from 108 to 117. aided the English barons against John. successor of William the Lion. _d_. pope from 1409 to 1410. son of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret. 1124. lived a licentious life and had several children. his father. surnamed on that account _The Fierce_. as also St. called Borgia from his mother.. _d_. in 1503. son and successor of Paul I. a just and wise ruler. ALEXANDER I. not without suspicion of poison.. who was forced to kiss his hand to Louis XIV. and married Joan. and stood stoutly in defence of the independent rights of both Crown and Church against the claim of supremacy over both on the part of England. sister of Edgar Atheling.ramakalai@gmail.. ALEXANDER II. of Scotland. successfully resisted the invasion of Haco. Page 65 of 2772 .com part of Thomas a Becket against Henry II. a Spaniard by birth.. pope from 1689 to 1691. Alexander II. pope from 1061 to 1073... accidentally killed by falling over a cliff near Kinghorn when hunting in 1285. and canonised him. subdued a rising in the North. Bernard.. and on the conclusion of peace gave his daughter in marriage to Haco's successor Eric. ALEXANDER III. ALEXANDER VI.. was present at the battle of Austerlitz. king of Scotland.. Alexander VIII. king of Norway.. Chennai 6. ALEXANDER I.... pope from 1254 to 1261. a vigorous prince.. Pope from 1159 to 1181. _d_. In addition to Alexanders III. took part in the European strife against the encroachments of Napoleon. sided with him against the barons. Alexander V. 1249. son of the preceding. Alexander VII. among others the celebrated Lucretia and the infamous Caesar Borgia. emperor of Russia. CTSTI..

conquered the Swedes. The present Czar is his son and successor (1845-1894). had an interview with Napoleon at Tilsit in 1813. was defeated at Friedland.ramakalai@gmail. and the Teutonic Knights on the banks of the Neva. Chennai 6. entered into a coalition with the other Powers against France. and by the war with Turkey in the interest of the Slavs in 1877-78. owing to the spread of Nihilism. ALEXANDER III. by severe rigour of Aristotelian logic. fell heir to the throne while the siege of Sebastopol was going on. CTSTI. grand-duke of Russia. His later years were clouded with great anxiety. Computer Lecturer. 1876.com Eylau. ALEXANDER II. Page 66 of 2772 . freed Russia from tribute to the Mongols. is one of the saints of the Russian Church. ALEXANDER NEVSKY. the Danes. an English ecclesiastic. emperor of Russia. and he was killed by a bomb thrown at him by a Nihilist (1818-1881). king of Servia. emperor of Russia. Under his reign Russia rose into political importance in Europe (1777-1825). His reign is distinguished by a ukase decreeing in 1861 the emancipation of the serfs numbering 23 millions. revised by the treaty of Berlin. and showed a marked disposition to live on terms of peace with the other Powers.. who in his "Summa Universae Theologiae" formulated. his reign not distinguished by any very remarkable event. on the conclusion of a peace applied himself to reforms in the state and the consolidation and extension of the empire.. son of the preceding. by the extension of the empire in the Caucasus and Central Asia.. which ended in the capture of Paris and the abdication of Napoleon in 1814. ALEXANDER I. the _Doctor irrefragabilis_ of the Schools. which was ended by the peace of San Stephano.. _b_. son and successor of Nicholas I. a member of the Franciscan order. ALEXANDER OF HALES. followed in the footsteps of his father.

along with his mother. from its intimate connection with both East and West. an MS. which was burned by the Caliph Omar in 640. a wise. who wrote a poem on Alexander the Great in twelve-syllabled lines. fell a victim. in an expedition against him. which belonged to the library of the Computer Lecturer. virtuous. also a thriving town (7) on the river Leven. conquered Artaxerxes. Charles XII. Page 67 of 2772 . accessible to vessels of the largest size.C. founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B.ramakalai@gmail. gave birth in early times to a speculative philosophy which drew its principles from eastern as well as western sources. to an insurrection among his troops not far from Mainz (205-235). but setting out against the Germans. of Dumbarton. at one time a great centre of learning. which was at its height on the first encounter of these elements. ALEXANDRIA (14).. a Norman poet of the 16th century. Chennai 6. 3 m. and pious prince. _d_. a world-famous city. a town on the Potomac. 7 m. S. ALEXANDER SEVE`RUS. Alexandria. ALEXANDER OF THE NORTH. called after him Alexandrines.com the theological principles and ecclesiastical rites of the Romish Church. who were causing trouble on the frontiers of the empire. a Roman emperor. but that has very materially decayed since the opening of the Suez Canal. in 1222. king of Persia. CTSTI. ALEXAN`DRIA (230). on parchment of the Septuagint Scriptures in Greek in uncial letters. and in possession of the largest library of antique literature in the world. of Washington. of Sweden. at one time a place of great commerce. ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. N. the chief port of Egypt. ALEXANDER OF PARIS.

ALEXANDRINES. ALEXIS MICHAELOVITCH. ALEXAN`DROPOL (22). conspired against his father as he had broken the heart of his mother.000 volumes. represented in art with a staff and in a pilgrim's habit. ALEXANDRI`NA LAKE. Page 68 of 2772 . was Computer Lecturer. ALEXIS. after his trial by secret judges he was found dead in prison (1695-1718). Chennai 6. said to have contained 700. a Gnostic philosophy. and a fortress of great strength. ST.ramakalai@gmail. dying. CTSTI. ALEXIUS COMNE`NUS. was condemned to death. the largest town in the Erivan district of Russian Armenia. with a letter in his hand. ALEXANDRINE PHILOSOPHY. czar of Russia. the library burned by the Caliph Omar in 642. sometimes lying on a mat. emperor of the East. See ALEXANDER OF PARIS. ALEXIS PETROVITCH. combining eastern with western forms of thought. a lake in Australia into which the river Murray flows.. ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY. began life as a soldier.com patriarchs of Alexandra. the father of Peter the Great. son of Peter the Great. the patron saint of beggars and pilgrims. the first czar who acted on the policy of cultivating friendly relations with other European states (1630-1677).

had Avicenna for a disciple. Page 69 of 2772 . when the empire was infested by Turks on the one hand and Normans on the other. who. AL`FADUR. in 1252 to correct the anomalies in the Ptolemaic tables.. while the crusaders who passed through his territory proved more troublesome than either.ramakalai@gmail. He managed to hold the empire together in spite of these troubles. and defeating them had himself proclaimed king on the field of battle. the wife of Charles Edward Stuart. in that capacity took up arms against the Moors. spent his youth in dissipation before he devoted himself to the dramatic art. and to stave off the doom that impended all through his reign of thirty-seven years (1048-1118)." founder of the kingdom of Portugal. Chennai 6. 49 minutes. raised him to the throne at the period of the first crusade. was at Paris when the Revolution broke out. astronomical tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X. an Arabian philosopher of the 10th century. an Italian dramatist. originally only count. 5 hours. ALFA. ALFIE`RI. CTSTI.com a great favourite with the soldiers. as his father before him." met at Florence with the Countess of Albany. a title confirmed to him by the Computer Lecturer. wrote on various subjects. the "Conqueror. Tragedy was his _forte_ as a dramatist (1749-1803). the All-Father or uncreated supreme in the Norse mythology. on whose death he married her. they divided the year into 365 days. 16 seconds. an esparto grass valuable for making paper. ALFARA`BI. in a period of anarchy. and returned to Florence. where he died and was buried. ALFONSO I. on the success of his first drama "Cleopatra. and was the first to attempt an encyclopedic work. was the first king. ALFONSINE TABLES.

king of Castile and Leon. MICHAEL. with notes. surnamed the Great. left two great works. king of the West Saxons. old books to read. his works and writings were numerous. and included poems and hymns.com Pope and made good by his practically subjecting all Portugal to his sway (1110-1185). Chennai 6. various readings. "old wood to burn. died of chagrin at Seville two years later. ALFONSO X. and old friends to converse with" (1226-1284). a learned English Jesuit.. and the remark that "the universe seemed a crank machine. 1844. HENRY. _b_. after various successes over the Moors.. ALFRED THE GREAT. the members of his family rose against him and compelled him to abdicate. died in Zamora. CTSTI. or the Astronomer.ramakalai@gmail. ascended the throne in 866. was an edition of the Greek New Testament. and comments (1810-1871). fought against and gained numerous victories over the Moors. but on a fresh incursion of the Moors he came forth from his retreat and triumphantly beat them back. Page 70 of 2772 . first one son and then another rose against him and drove him from the throne. however. old wine to drink. and the most celebrated Computer Lecturer. "Britannia Illustrata" and "Annales Ecclesiastici et Civiles Britannorum. son of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. DUKE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA. vicar of Wymeswold and afterwards Dean of Canterbury. His fame connects itself with the preparation of the Alfonsine Tables. king of Asturias. celebrated as an astronomer and a philosopher. the Wise. ALFORD. ALFORD. and it was a pity the Creator had not taken advice. His great work." ALFRED." It was a saying of his. 910. ALFONSO III.

the "Ecclesiastical History" of Bede. the administration of government. oranges. &c. Frederick the Great was attached to and patronised. "one of the first _beaux esprits_ of the age. stemless. and cellular throughout. and driven to seek refuge on the island of Athelney. sea-weeds and plants of the same order under fresh water as well as salt. with these he fought nine battles with varied success. His troubles were with the Danes. His literary works were translations of the "General History" of Orosius. ALGAE. vines." according to Wilhelmina. After this Alfred devoted himself to legislation. Except his wit." and the "Cura Pastoralis" of Pope Gregory. for the want of the due practical faculty. till after a lull of some years he was surprised by Gunthrum.ramakalai@gmail. for his wit. Frederick's sister. Not long after this he left his retreat and engaged Gunthrum at Edington. and the encouragement of learning. which yield olives. the southernmost province of Portugal.com and greatest of all the Saxon kings. they are flowerless. an Italian sculptor of note. then king. CTSTI. whom. England owes much to him both as a man and a ruler. Boethius's "Consolations of Philosophy. his greatest work is an alto-relievo. a clever Italian author. and after defeating him formed a treaty with him. Computer Lecturer. all executed for the edification of his subjects (849-901). ALGAR`VE (240). all the faculty he had having evaporated in talk (1712-1764). born at Venice. ALGARO`TTI. FRANCESCO. and it was he who in the creation of a fleet laid the first foundation of her greatness as monarch of the deep. in 878. ALGAR`DI. of Pope Leo restraining Attila from marching on Rome (1602-1654). Chennai 6. which he never showed any disposition to break. born at Bologna. who at the time of his accession infested the whole country north of the Thames. hilly. Page 71 of 2772 . the largest existing. it does not appear Frederick got much good out of him. but traversed with rich valleys. being a man of letters himself.

its extent nearly equal in area to that of France. of Africa. CTSTI." from the glistening white of its buildings as seen sloping up from the sea. the Atlas Highlands overlooking it on the S. for centuries a stronghold of the Moors. but taken from them by Alfonso IX. on the southern slopes of which are marshy lakes called "shotts. It has been successively under the sway of the Carthaginians. of which Algiers. across the bay. after a siege of twenty months. a town and port in Spain on the Bay of Gibraltar.. 5 m. which only began to cease when Lord Exmouth bombarded the town and destroyed the fleet in the harbour. and its neighbourhood has become a frequent resort of Computer Lecturer..com ALGEBRA. the country being divided into the Tell along the sea-coast. in the N. At the end of this period it became a nest of pirates. which is fertile." on which alfa grows wild. and the Sahara beyond. the Arabs. Oran. called the "silver city. ALGIERS` (75). Since it fell into the hands of the French the city has been greatly improved. presenting a striking appearance. which last were in the 16th century supplanted by the Turks. and the population numbers about four millions. the Romans. a universal arithmetic of Arabian origin or Arabian transmission. rendered habitable here and there by the creation of artesian wells. was for centuries under its Bey the head-quarters of piracy in the Mediterranean. the Byzantines. in which symbols are employed to denote operations. stretches between Morocco on the W. of which only a quarter of a million is French. ALGESI`RAS (12). founded by the Arabs in 935. and letters to represent number and quantity. and the Berbers. belongs to France.ramakalai@gmail. against whom a succession of expeditions were sent from several countries of Europe. and Tripoli and Tunis on the E. but it was only with the conquest of it by the French in 1830 that this state of things was brought to an end. the capital of Algeria. Page 72 of 2772 . Chennai 6. ALGE`RIA. and Constantine are the respective capitals. the fortifications strengthened. The country is divided into Departments. the Vandals.

the Sheiks yearly commemorate his death.com English people in winter. in 1213. founded by Muhammed II. wide. ALI. See BABA. an ancient palace and stronghold of the Moorish kings of Granada. brave as a lion. an inlet at the E. to Newfoundland. "a noble-minded creature. on which Port Elizabeth stands. of Cape Colony. a viscous gum obtained from certain sea-weeds. used as size for textile fabrics." ALI BABA. and for thickening soups and jellies. of changing brightness. (1345). a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. ALGO`A BAY. and earthquake. bad usage. full of affection and fiery daring. one of the three aboriginal races of N. Chennai 6. Page 73 of 2772 . Something chivalrous in him. American Indians. Computer Lecturer. 20 m. decorated with gorgeous arabesques by Usuf I. of the Rocky Mts. died by assassination in the Mosque at Bagdad. Carolina. E. A`LI. yet with a grace. CTSTI. See Carlyle's "Heroes. erected on the crest of a hill which overlooks Granada.ramakalai@gmail." Became Caliph in 656. ALGINE. has suffered from neglect. of the Cape of Good Hope. ALHAM`BRA (Red Castle). 425 m. the cousin of Mahomet. originally occupying nearly the whole region from the Churchill and Hudson Bay southward to N. a double star in the constellation Perseus. the language they speak has been divided into five dialects. AL`GOL. and from the E. and one of his first followers at the age of sixteen. ALGONQUINS.

ALICAN`TE (40). ARCHIBALD. Computer Lecturer. until the Sultan sentenced him to deposition. CTSTI. Chennai 6. stomach. pasha of Janina. ALIGHIE`RI. lined throughout with mucous membrane. and notorious for his cruelty as well as craft. with a spacious harbour and strongly fortified. best known for his "Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste" (1757-1839). fauces.com A`LI PASHA. a bold and crafty Albanian. ALIMENTARY CANAL. and sent Hassan Pasha to demand his head. the third seaport-town in Spain. of which he was a native. extends from the mouth to the anus. pharynx. a town with a fort between Agra and Delhi. an Episcopal clergyman in Edinburgh. the garrison of which mutinied in 1857. and includes mouth. oesophagus. Page 74 of 2772 . a passage 5 or 6 times the length of the body. ALISON. in a province of the same name on the Mediterranean. able man. AL`IMA. when his head was severed from his body and sent to Constantinople (1741-1822). he offered violent resistance but being overpowered at length surrendered. the family name of Dante. in French territory. alternately gained the favour of the Porte and lost it by the alliances he formed with hostile powers.ramakalai@gmail. and small and large intestines. ALIGARH` (61). an affluent on the right bank of the Congo.

bodies of vegetable origin. ALKMAAR` (14). and a philanthropist (1790-1859). hydrogen. the presumed universal solvent of the alchemists. son of the preceding. of Amsterdam. the capital of N. bodies which. brother of the preceding. earths not soluble in water. and ammonia. lime. ALKALINE EARTHS. potash. strontia. CTSTI. viz. many of them are poisonous and invaluable in medicine. Page 75 of 2772 . ALKALIES. Computer Lecturer. and nitrogen. W. similar in their properties.com ALISON. and baryta. ALKALOIDS. magnesia. where Sir Harry Smith gained a brilliant victory over the Sikhs. on the Sutlej. oxygen. lithia.. a village in the Punjab. PULTENEY.ramakalai@gmail. ALIWAL`. and cheese. in 1846. viz. Holland. professor of medicine in Edinburgh University.. to alkalies. who were provided with forces in superior numbers. with a large trade in cattle. ALISON. combining with acids form salts. contain as a rule carbon. are soluble in water. AL`KAHEST. soda. 25 m. grain. Chennai 6. SIR ARCHIBALD. a lawyer who held several prominent legal appointments. as well as toxicologically. and properly four in number. and a historian. NW. his great work being a "Modern History of Europe from the French Revolution to the Fall of Napoleon." afterwards extended to the "Accession of Louis Napoleon" (1792-1867).

ALLARD`. a French general. died at Peshawar (1785-1839). the reputed author of the first German version of "Reynard the Fox. he was a friend of Scott. a distinguished Scottish historical painter. AL`LAH. from Calcutta. adopted by the Mohammedans as the name of the one God. his greatest work is the "Origin of Painting. president of the Royal Scottish Academy. ADMINISTRATION OF.ramakalai@gmail. a Scottish portrait and historical painter. birds. and in succession to Wilkie. and reptiles.com ALKMER. the Adorable. SIR WILLIAM. born at Edinburgh. ALLAHABAD` (175). and served him against the Afghans." ALL THE TALENTS. the City of God. CTSTI." now in the National Gallery at Edinburgh (1744-1796). ALLAN. born at Alloa. a central city of British India. trained his troops in European war tactics. DAVID. on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna. HENRIK VAN. and on the railway between that city and Bombay. who patronised his work. the Arab name for God. many of his paintings being on national subjects. 550 m. illustrated Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd". a membrane enveloping the foetus in mammals. Computer Lecturer. entered the service of Runjeet Singh at Lahore. painted "Circassian Captives" and "Slave-Market at Constantinople" (1782-1850). ALLANTOIS. Page 76 of 2772 . a ministry formed by Lord Grenville on the death of Pitt in 1806. ALLAN. Chennai 6.

of which it is a kind of suburb. and to some extent still. ALLEGHA`NY MOUNTAINS.ramakalai@gmail. in which a subject of a higher spiritual order is described in terms of that of a lower which resembles it in properties and circumstances. JOSEPH. the family name of Correggio. LOUGH OF. a dreary expanse of bogs of peat E. run parallel with the Atlantic coast. and Kildare. Page 77 of 2772 . author of a book once. BOG OF. on the Ohio.com ALLEGHA`NY (105). a manufacturing city in Pennsylvania. much in favour among religious people. a range in the Appalachian system in U. assigning a higher than a literal interpretation to the Scripture record of things. Chennai 6. the name of an Italian composer.S. entitled "Alarm to the Unconverted" (1632-1674). a Puritan writer. ALLEGRI. ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION. born at Rome.. Ireland. the principal subject being so kept out of view that we are left to construe the drift of it from the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject. of the Shannon. extending from Pennsylvania to N. AL`LEINE. Carolina. an expansion of the waters of the Shannon. Computer Lecturer. opposite Pittsburg. ALLEN. in height. a figurative mode of representation. in King's Co. and form the watershed between the Atlantic rivers and the Mississippi. CTSTI. the author of a still celebrated _Miserere_ (1580-1652). in particular the Old Testament story. ALLEGORY. do not exceed 2400 ft.

ramakalai@gmail. 387 B.D. an able upholder of the evolution doctrine and an expounder of Darwinism..com ALLEN. JOHN. 1848. son of a Spitalfields weaver. and a contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_ (1771-1843). taken prisoner in a raid into Canada. a member of the Society of Friends. between England. wrote a defence of deism and rational belief (1738-1789). in 1668. EDWARD. a stream flowing into the Tiber 11 m. ALLENTOWN (34).S. born in Kingston. a distinguished chemist and philanthropist. of Philadelphia. ALLE`RION. and a prolific writer. where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus. Chennai 6. WM. and a devoted promoter of its principles (1770-1843). one of the early champions of American independence. ALLEN. a town on the Lehigh River. from Rome. an M. and without beak or feet. and was voluntarily along with his wife one of its first beneficiaries and inmates. ALLIANCE. CTSTI. in heraldry. the great centre of the iron trade in the U.C. Holland. NW. 50 m. a celebrated actor in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. ALLEN. ETHAN. Page 78 of 2772 . of Scotch birth. ALLEYN. man of letters. an eagle with expanded wings. and Sweden Computer Lecturer. GRANT. ALLEN. was a contemporary of Shakespeare (1566-1626).. the founder of Dulwich College. Canada. the points turned downwards. THE TRIPLE. AL`LIA.

when Italy stepped into her place. ALLIES. England. and though timid. ALLMAN. GEORGE J. in 1718. in defence of the step.ramakalai@gmail. in 1872. at the instigation of Bismarck. among others. near Nevers. Austria. the Rock of the Church. Emeritus Professor of Natural History in Edinburgh.com against Louis XIV. the TRIPLE. M. and its attacks can be easily evaded. his most celebrated works are "Day and Night Songs" and "Lawerence Bloomfield in Ireland".D. is dangerous when attacked. THOMAS WILLIAM. a poet and journalist. of English origin. and Prussia against Liberal ideas. was for a time editor of _Fraser's Magazine_ (1824-1889). the HOLY. CTSTI. an English clergyman who turned Roman Catholic. Austria. Holland. Under it the signatories in 1887 guarantee the integrity of their respective territories. the QUADRUPLE. Computer Lecturer... between Russia. Peter. in 1815. ALLINGHAM.. and wrote. between Germany. between France. and the Empire to maintain the treaty of Utrecht. WILLIAM. is slow in turning. ALLIER. the name generally given to the confederate Powers who in 1814 and 1815 entered France and restored the Bourbons. numerous in the Mississippi and the lakes and rivers of Louisiana and Carolina. Chennai 6. American fresh-water crocodile. an eminent naturalist. in France." ALLIGATOR. ALLIES. a N. the "See of St. and Russia. born in Ireland (1812-1898). subsists on fish. a confluent of the river Loire. however. also the department through which it flows. from which Russia withdrew in 1886. Page 79 of 2772 . born in Ireland.

from Ayr.com ALLOA (12). 2 m. the treatment of disease by producing a condition of the system different from or opposite to the condition essential to the disease to be cured. on the Doon. Chennai 6. Page 80 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. the birthplace of Burns. ALLOPATHY. who occupied the country between the Rhone and the Lake of Geneva. a ruin S. or Jamaica pepper. the assumed scene of Tam o' Shanter's adventure. 6 m. a feast dedicated to all the Saints. of Ayr. the 1st of November. famous for its ale. the berry of the pimento. a Celtic race troublesome to the Romans. ALLOB`ROGES. CTSTI. ALLSPICE.ramakalai@gmail. ALLOTROPY. a thriving seaport on north bank of the Forth. the capability which certain compounds show of assuming different properties and qualities. celebrated as the scene of the witches' dance in "Tam o' Shanter. such as may be presumed to be still suffering in Purgatory. corresponding to Dauphine and Savoy. ALLOWAY. ALL-SOULS' DAY. below Stirling. although composed of identical elements. in opposition to homoeopathy. ALLOWAY KIRK. in Clackmannan. a festival on the 2nd November to pray for the souls of the faithful deceased." ALL-SAINTS' DAY.

led to his imprisonment and death (1475-1538). CTSTI. WASHINGTON.ramakalai@gmail. DIEGO D'. was himself put to death (1520-1542). the son of HAROUN-EL-RASCHID. 1854. a confederate of Pizzaro in the conquest of Peru. of late years extended so as to include statesmen and military people. with rich mines of quicksilver. a great promoter of science and learning. published annually by Perthes at Gotha. a suite of assembly rooms. ALMA`GRO. ALMANACH DE GOTHA. AL-MAMOUN. a kind of European peerage. whose genius was much admired by Coleridge (1779-1843). Chennai 6.com ALLSTON. but being conquered by Vaca de Castro. _b_. the 2nd Abbaside caliph and the first of the caliphs to patronise learning. ALMADEN (9). 833. Page 81 of 2772 . founded Bagdad. ALMA.--DIEGO D'. 20. where select balls used to be given. ABU GIAFAR. the capital of Chile. admission to which was a certificate of high social standing. where the allied English. and made it the seat of Computer Lecturer. his son. in Spain. a river in the Crimea. ALMACK'S. Sept. who avenged his death by killing Pizzaro. afterwards known as Willis's Rooms. French. a town on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena. ALMANSUR. but a quarrel with the brothers of Pizzaro about the division of the spoil on the capture of Cuzco. an American painter and poet. as well as statistical information. half-way between Eupatoria and Sebastopol. the 7th Abbaside caliph. and Turkish armies defeated the Russians under Prince Menschikoff.

AL`MA-TAD`EMA. on the Spanish frontier of Portugal.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. settled in London. a firm and wise governor. _d_. Page 82 of 2772 . had overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain. recalling all their manners and vices. by Washington Irving. ABU MOHAMMED. CTSTI. 1836. representative of one of the old noblesse of France. a personification of wit. his son. distinguished himself in the Indian seas. next to Granada. FRANCESCO. and intrigue. first applied to them.com the caliphate. and killed on his way home by the Kaffirs at the Cape in 1510. and at one time a nest of pirates more formidable than those of Algiers. the Almighty whom the Americans are charged with worshipping. ALMEIDA. ALMEIDA. ALMANSUR. Computer Lecturer. a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century. 775. LAURENCE. Chennai 6. a distinguished artist of Dutch descent. the first Portuguese viceroy of India. a character in Beaumarchais' _Marriage de Figaro_. acting under him. it would seem. ALMIGHTY DOLLAR. who is duped by his valet Figaro. ALMAVIVA. talent. famous for his highly-finished treatment of classic subjects. and made Ceylon tributary to Portugal. a strong fortress in the province of Beira. a chief town and seaport in the S. when he was repulsed and totally defeated by the kings of Leon and Navarre in 948.--LORENZO. ALMERIA (37). of Spain. superseded by Albuquerque. an important and flourishing place. under the Moors.

valuable in medicine. one of the grandest in Belgium. 19 m. of Bareilly. Chennai 6. a Moslem dynasty which ruled in N. ALOST (25). which contains a famous painting by Rubens. on the Aln. from 1055 to 1147. at the north entrance is Alnwick Castle. the heart of certain tropical trees. which yields a fragrant resinous substance and admits of high polish. 85 m. ALOES WOOD. ALOE." ALOYSIUS. N. ST. the majority natives of S. a Belgian town on the Dender. Roche beseeching Christ to arrest the Plague at Alost. Africa and Spain from 1129 to 1273. the county town of Northumberland. ALMORAVIDES. ALMO`RA. Computer Lecturer. from Brussels. Spain. NW. ALNWICK.com ALMOHADES. a high-lying town at the foot of the Himalayas. and then S.ramakalai@gmail. one of the most magnificent structures of the kind in England. "St. and during the Border wars a place of great strength. in particular a purgative from the juice of the leaves of several species. with a cathedral. CTSTI.. Page 83 of 2772 . Africa. See GONZAGA. a Moslem dynasty which subdued first Fez and Morocco. a genus of succulent plants embracing 200 species. the seat of the Duke of Northumberland.

is covered with a long soft silky wool. bordering on Italy and the Mediterranean. June 21. cap. Chennai 6. made up of the territory of Nice. canonised for his devotion to the sick during the plague in Rome. also the name of the river-god enamoured of the nymph Arethusa. traversed by the Cottian Alps. ALPINE CLUB.. E. and particularly the tablelands of Chile and Peru. part of Provence. Computer Lecturer. in appearance resembles a sheep. CTSTI. Nice. with its source in Arcadia. ST.. A. forming part of Dauphine. ALPHE`US. a club of English gentlemen devoted to mountaineering.ramakalai@gmail. Digne. and Var on the S. members of which have successfully addressed themselves to attempts of the kind on loftier mountains. ALPES.com ALOYSIUS. of the Basses-A. of which textile fabrics are woven. and who pursued her under the sea as far as Sicily. sterile in the N.. ALPACA. to which he himself fell a victim. flowing west. ALPINE PLANTS. France: the BASSES-A. cap.. where he overtook her and was wedded to her. who joined the Society of Jesus. a native of the Andes. and of Monaco and Var. plants whose natural habitat approaches the line of perpetual snow. 1591.. three departments in SE. an Italian nobleman.. MARITIMES. a river in the Peloponnesus. Page 84 of 2772 . HAUTES-A. and has a long erect neck with a handsome head. bounded by Hautes-Alpes on the N. a sultan of the Seljuk dynasty in Persia. in NE. a gregarious ruminant of the camel family. first of all in the Alps. cap. Gap. added Armenia and Georgia to his dominions (1030-1072). ALP-ARSLAN (Brave Lion). fertile in the S. climate severe. ceded by Italy. but is larger in size.

the highest being Mont Blanc. Whitefriars. the vastest mountain system in Europe. a rich and lovely valley which stretches S. become a haunt of all kinds of nefarious characters. which at one time enjoyed the privilege of a debtors' sanctuary. ALSA`TIA. the Julian. and the Eastern. is under a governor general bearing the title of "Statthalter". and the Graian. and _Eastern:_ the Western. including the Dolomite. Page 85 of 2772 . form the boundary between France. and _High:_ the Fore rising to the limit of trees. Germany. and extend from the 44th to the 48th parallel of latitude.640). within the frontiers of France. and Switzerland on the N. and the High. the household goddess of a German family. ALPUJAR`RAS. London.ramakalai@gmail. by the peace of Westphalia in 1648. but restored to Germany after the Franco-German war in 1870-71.com ALPS.. ceded to Louis XIV. to the line of perpetual snow. including the Pennine and Bernese. its cotton manufacture the most important in Germany. CTSTI. extend from the Brenner and Hungarian plain to the Danube. In respect of range or extent. the Cottian. extend from the Mediterranean to Mont Blanc. These giant masses occupy an area of 90. Computer Lecturer. by the peace of Frankfort. and the Dinaric. the Dauphine. above the snow-line. and had.000 sq. m. a territory originally of the German empire. is a great wine-producing country. they have been distributed into _Western. Chennai 6.. ALRUNA-WIFE. the Middle. According to height. extend from Mont Blanc to the Brenner Pass. from the Sierra Nevada in Spain. Middle_. yields cereals and tobacco. their peaks mostly covered with perpetual snow. Middle_. and W. ALSACE-LORRAINE` (1. including the Maritime. they have been distributed into _Fore.. till abolished in 1697. THE. and Italy on the S. the Middle.

of Leipsic. S. AL-SIRAT. ALBRECHT. a German painter and engraver. was chief of a division. a distinguished pupil of Albert Duerer. which every Mohammedan must pass to enter Paradise. to the profit of Russia. and forming the S. the hair-narrow hell-bridge of the Moslem. and closed his military career at the battle of Waterloo (1763-1840). in the Peninsular war. native of Hanover. as well as other metals. Chennai 6. a distinguished officer. Computer Lecturer. ALTAI` MOUNTAINS. from the Desert of Gobi. now ceded to Germany. Norway. a Persian refugee. which became one of the most important products of the S. and as a painter.). Page 86 of 2772 . capital of Saxe-Altenburg. who introduced into France the cultivation of madder. with seven snow-capped hills. called the Seven Sisters.com ALSEN (25). his "Battle of Arbela" adorns the Muenich Picture Gallery (1488-1538).ramakalai@gmail. abounding. bore arms under Sir John Moore. who entered the British service. KARL AUGUST. a Danish island adjacent to Sleswig. AL`TEN." ALTHEN. v. inspired with his spirit. in silver and copper. CTSTI. related by Carlyle in his "Miscellanies. under Wellington. ALSTEN. in Central Asia. stretching W. boundary of Asiatic Russia. one of the finest in the Baltic. and 4 m. an island off the coast of Northland. its castle is the scene of the famous "PRINZENRAUB" (q. ALTDOR`FER. AL`TENBURG (33). of France.

"very busy cutting off high heads in Brabant. an old town in the canton Uri. a novel. a general of the armies of Charles V. and as good as forming one city with it. a member of a Spanish sect that laid claim to perfect enlightenment. ALTO`NA (148). Saxons. an English chronicler of the 12th century. written in sympathy with the Chartist movement. and stirring up the Dutch to such fury as was needful for exploding Spain and Computer Lecturer. his career as a general was uniformly successful. ALURED OF BEVERLEY. end of the Lake of Lucerne. but as a governor his cruelty was merciless. and healthier. a place of transit trade. ALTO-RELIEVO. especially as the viceroy of Philip in the Low Countries. CTSTI. ALVA. ALTRUISM. figures carved out of a tablet so as to project at least one half from its surface. Page 87 of 2772 . close to Hamburg. and Normans up to his own time. by Charles Kingsley. AL`TORF.com ALTON LOCKE. a town and seaport of Sleswig-Holstein. his annals comprise the history of the Britons. _d_. now belonging to Germany. in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages. DUKE OF. associated with the story of William Tell. 1129.ramakalai@gmail. and Philip of Spain. a Comtist doctrine which inculcates sacrifice of self for the good of others as the rule of human action. ALUMBRA`DO. at the S. Chennai 6. on the right bank of the Elbe.

. ALVAREZ.. PEDRO DE. an eminent Venetian general. distinguished himself in the defence of the republic against the Emperor Maximilian (1455-1515). a lake in the centre of Australia. but abdicated in 1873 (1845-1890). AMADE`US V. ALVAREZ. surnamed the Great from his wisdom and success as a ruler (1249-1323). elected king of Spain in 1870. DON JOSE. FRANCESCO. AMADEUS. who presented him with a gold medal. a Portuguese who.. for his treatment of his country. increased his dominions. as a reward for his valiant services in the interest of Spain. Computer Lecturer. was appointed Governor of Guatemala by Charles V. Page 88 of 2772 . LAKE. ALVARA`DO. he conceived so great an aversion. the most distinguished of Spanish sculptors. AMADEUS VIII. Chennai 6. 1st duke of Savoy. but to whom. and patronised by Napoleon. that he would never model a bust of him (1768-1827). subject to an almost total drying-up at times. AMADEUS I. count of Savoy. but was not acknowledged by the Church (1383-1451). in the 15th century.. he was elected Pope as Felix V. 2nd son of Victor Emmanuel of Italy. and retired into a monastery on the death of his wife.com him" (1508-1582). and comrade of Cortez. ALVIANO. CTSTI. born near Cordova. was a generous man as well as a brave. visited Abyssinia and wrote an account of it.ramakalai@gmail. of Spain. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico.

as well as a model knight-errant. a port on the N. of Naples. a code of maritime law compiled at Amalfi. the mother of the grand-duke. the Duchess of Weimar. consisting of slices of certain fungi beaten together. AMADOU. AMALEKITES. AMALFIAN LAWS. stands for a type of a constant and deferential lover. AMA`LIA. a spongy substance. Page 89 of 2772 . the first four books were regarded by Cervantes as a masterpiece. used as a styptic. 581. 24 m.com AM`ADIS DE GAUL. ANNA. were as good as annihilated by King David. and. married a daughter of Clovis. The hero of the book. which gave much trouble to the Israelites in the wilderness. AMAIMON. collected about her court the most illustrious literary men of the time. used as tinder. of great importance in the Middle Ages. SE. a warlike race of the Sinaitic peninsula. of whom Don Quixote is the caricature. king of the Visigoths. AMALARIC. after being steeped in saltpetre. AMAL`FI. CTSTI. surnamed the Knight of the Lion. Amadis. Chennai 6. and governed by Doges of its own.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated romance in prose. a devil who could he restrained from working evil from the third hour till noon and from the ninth till evening. Computer Lecturer. of the Gulf of Salerno. _d_. written partly in Spanish and partly in French by different romancers of the 15th century.

reigned from 570 to 546 B. AMA`SIA (25). one of whose horns became the cornucopia--horn of plenty. Page 90 of 2772 . AMA`RI. any young rustic maiden. a town in Asia Minor. God will know His own. AMALTHE`A. who. he is famous for throwing light on the true character of the Sicilian Vespers (1806-1889).C." _d_. was an Orientalist as well. proved an able ruler. a celebrated family of violin-makers. who was much attached to her (1739-1807). originally a simple soldier. an Italian patriot. AMALRIC. left a valuable thesaurus of Sanskrit words. AMA`RA SINHA. one of the leaders in the crusade against the Albigenses. Andrea and Niccolo. Chennai 6. devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily. answered. 1225. a shepherdess in one of Virgil's pastorals. and cultivated alliances with Greece.ramakalai@gmail. MICHELE. king of Egypt.com headed by Goethe. a Hindu Buddhist. and took part in its emancipation. once the capital of the kings of Pontus. AMA`SIS. took part in an insurrection. AMARYL`LIS. Computer Lecturer. "Kill them all. the goat that suckled Zeus. dethroned the reigning monarch and assumed the crown. when his followers asked him how they were to distinguish heretics from Catholics. AMA`TI. born at Palermo. CTSTI.

CTSTI. a fossil resin. the inhabitants of which are mainly engaged in the preparation of cochineal. its waters increased by an immense number of tributaries. from certain extinct coniferous trees. its current affects the ocean 150 m. Page 91 of 2772 . who had a queen of their own. the Greek word for it being _electron_. that they might be able to wield the bow in war. they cohabited with men of the neighbouring nations. wide. AMBASSADOR. slew all the male children they gave birth to. America and the largest on the globe. and gives name to electricity. out. AMBER.. and after a course of 4000 m. in length. AMATITLAN (10). to perpetuate the race. becomes electric by friction. AMAZONS. derived. rises in the Andes about 50 m. or sent them to their fathers. Computer Lecturer. generally yellow and semi-transparent. a town in Guatemala. from the Pacific. it is presumed. AMAZON.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. one 2000 m. "an honest man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth" (_Wotton_). and by steamers as far as the foot of the Andes. a river in S. a weakness or loss of vision. 20 of which are above 1000 m. is navigable 3000 m. burnt off the right breasts of the females. has been fished up for centuries in the Baltic. and excluded all men from their community. its basin nearly equal in extent to the whole of Europe. AMAUROSIS. falls by a delta into the Atlantic. at Cremona. in the 16th and 17th centuries. and is now used in varnishes and for tobacco pipes. a fabulous race of female warriors. traverses the continent at its greatest breadth.com brothers. up. the cause of which was at one time unknown. its mouth 200 m.

his principal work being the history of Joseph in twelve pictures. a town on the Loire. LORD. as merely sceptical. E. a painter of Nuernberg in the 16th century. CTSTI. and as the Pope's legate in France effected a great reform among the religious orders. being often found floating on the ocean which it frequents. Chennai 6. 14 m. wrote an "Analysis of Religious Belief. AMBOISE (5). an ashy-coloured odorous substance used in perfumery. Page 92 of 2772 . once the residence of the French kings. U. and the Guises. who. (1563) conceded the free exercise of their worship to the Protestants.. in the Wordsworth or so-called Lake District.S. CARDINAL. Catharine de Medici. of Tours. GEORGE DE. reduced the Public burdens." which. the conspiracy of Conde and the Huguenots in 1560 against Francis II. AMBLYOPSIS. son of Lord John Russell. Computer Lecturer. The Conspiracy of A. is said to have died immensely rich (1460-1510). as such...ramakalai@gmail. AMBLESIDE. a disciple of Holbein. the popular Prime Minister of Louis XII. with a castle. presumed to be a morbid fragment of the intestines of the spermaceti whale. AMBERGRIS. a small market-town near the head of Lake Windermere. AMBERLEY. found in the Mammoth Cave.com AMBERGER. a small fish without eyes. without success. his father took steps to secure the suppression of. AMBOISE. The Edict of A.

AM`BROSE. in the Malay Archipelago. with a chief city of the name. _d_. He is the Patron saint of Milan. 1515. his writings fill two vols. AMERBACH. and only admitted him to Church privilege after a severe penance of eight months. it belongs to the Dutch. as a stern puritan refused to allow Theodosius to enter his church. Dec. which are reckoned his most valuable legacy to the Church. and a zealous opponent of the Arian heresy. CTSTI. JOHANN.ramakalai@gmail. to beg pardon on his knees of his God. from his severity. born at Treves. taking. and his country. the fragrant food of the gods of Olympus.. his attributes are a _scourge_. and rich before all in spices. bishop of Milan. the most important of the Moluccas. Page 93 of 2772 . wrote several hymns. and a _beehive_. spared no expense in his art. Computer Lecturer. and led into court with a rope round his neck held by the public executioner.com AMBOYNA (238). folio. AMELIA. from the tradition that a swarm of bees settled on his mouth when an Infant without hurting him (340-397). AMBRO`SIA. the first who used the Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian. he improved the Church service. ST. Festival. Chennai 6. his king. a character in one of Fielding's novels. covered as his hands were with the blood of an infamous massacre. fabled to preserve in them and confer on others immortal youth and beauty. distinguished for her conjugal affection. who have diligently fostered its capabilities. a celebrated printer in Basel in the 15th century. stripped to his shirt. originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender. 7. AMENDE HONORABLE. like a true workman. one of the Fathers of the Latin Church. now used to denote a satisfactory apology or reparation. a pride in it.

aborigines. and a lower range. and the Pacific on the W. the divisions are British North America. on the E. in length. extends from Mexico on the north to Panama on the south. 9000 m. and comprises the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. bays. Chennai 6. of which a fourth are negroes.ramakalai@gmail. NORTH. is a plateau with terraces descending to the sea on each side.. consists of a plain in the centre throughout its length. Honduras. Page 94 of 2772 . parallel with the coast. in length. by the Pacific. and seas. and is about six times as large as Ireland. the Appalachian. and has now a population of 80 millions. and Costa Rica. on the W. was discovered by Columbus in 1492. large lakes. Central American Republics. by the United States. belongs by purchase to the United States. a high range of mountains. the West Indian Republics. contains over 81/2 millions sq. AMERICA. British. on the E. varies from 3400 m. and half-caste. consists of seven political divisions: Guatemala. is larger than Europe and Africa together. is less than half the size of Asia. which is largely indented with gulfs. has a magnificent system of rivers. m. British Honduras. CTSTI. occupies one-third of the continent. the largest in the world. is bounded on the N. in breadth. Nicaragua.com AMERICA. and rich in all kinds of tropical vegetation. a rich fauna and flora. San Salvador. RUSSIAN. m. by the Arctic Ocean... United States. by the Atlantic. including both North and South. and an exhaustless wealth of minerals. and on the W. the Rocky.. bounded throughout by the Atlantic on the E. now called Alaska. British Honduras. and Dutch West Indies.. is 4560 m. contains 161/2 millions of sq. French. Computer Lecturer. AMERICA. Mosquitia. and the Spanish. BRITISH N. AMERICA. AMERICA. Mexico. to 28 m. CENTRAL. on the S. but is a good deal smaller than Asia.

a Florentine navigator. CTSTI. was in 1492 (1451-1512). AMERICAN INDIANS. Chennai 6. who. four times visited the New World. the coast is but little indented. SPANISH. and Pampas. high cheek-bones. AMERICAN FABIUS. till lately belonging to Spain. Selvas. in a work which must have involved him in much labour (1689-1759). which the first cartographers called America.com AMERICA. the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. and a long plain with minor ranges extending therefrom eastward. a race with a red or copper-coloured skin. abounds in extensive plains. America where Spanish is the spoken language. limited to America. AMERI`GO-VESPUC`CI. historian of early British typography. which go under the names of Llanos. the Patagonians being of the race. and tall erect figure. and afterwards of Portugal. SOUTH. though the designation is often applied to all the countries in N. and it can match the world for the rich plumage of its birds and the number and splendour of its insect tribes. black deep-set eyes. but the Amazon and the Plate Rivers make up for the defect of seaboard. AMERICA. after his name. to be found still as far south as Patagonia. as is known. coarse black straight hair.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. Page 95 of 2772 . under the auspices first of Spain. and consists of a high mountain range on the west. lies in great part within the Tropics. just discovered by Columbus. while the river system is the vastest and most serviceable in the globe. JOSEPH. these visits were made between 1499 and 1505. George Washington. AMES. and seems for most part fast dying out. the vegetable and mineral wealth of the continent is great. while Columbus's discovery.

and executed several works in Rome. Page 96 of 2772 . of Madagascar. described as the "Parthenon of Gothic architecture. was an admirer of Michael Angelo. a Florentine architect and sculptor of note. possesses other buildings of interest. also a strip of linen cloth worn over the shoulder of a priest when officiating at mass. which teems with suggestive thoughts bearing on the great vital issues of the day. AM`IEL. CTSTI. was the birthplace of Peter the Hermit. unsurpassable. belonging to Britain.com AMHA`RA. the central and largest division of Abyssinia. a British officer who distinguished himself both on the Continent and America." and by Ruskin as "Gothic. the old capital of Picardy. on the Somme. who is known to the outside world solely by the publication of selections from his Journal in 1882-84. a flowing cloak formerly worn by pilgrims. AMHERST. AMIENS` (88). LORD. and which has been translated into English by Mrs. with a cathedral begun in 1220. are 11 in number. clear of Roman tradition and of Arabian taint. Chennai 6. and unaccusable". and afterwards of ethics at Geneva. authoritative. and Padua (1511-1592). Venice. AMIRAN`TES. Computer Lecturer. Humphrey Ward. and is celebrated for a treaty of peace between France and England concluded in 1802.ramakalai@gmail. a group of small coral islands NE. and only a few feet above the sea-level. Gothic pure. are wooded. and particularly along with General Wolfe in securing for England the superiority in Canada (1717-1797). a professor of aesthetics. AMICE. AMMANA`TI. BARTOLOMEO.

who had a temple at Thebes and in the Lybian Desert. AMMONIA. Page 97 of 2772 . obtained from sal-ammonia. a Latin poet born in Lucca. Longinus. 390.ramakalai@gmail. represented with the head of a ram. at continual feud with the Jews. _d_. specially valuable as a record of contemporary events. a Greek who served as a soldier in the Roman army. and wrote a history of the Roman Empire. AMMONITES. author of a history of Florence (1531-1601). 243. AM`MON. _d_. an Egyptian deity. and in Rome with Jupiter. was much resorted to as an oracle of fate. an Italian historian. of nitrogen and hydrogen. a Semitic race living E. AMMONITES. and Plotinus were among his pupils. a pungent volatile gas. of the Jordan. CTSTI. AMMONIO. 1517. a genus of fossil shells curved into a spiral form like the ram-horn on the head of the image of Ammon. held in high esteem by Erasmus. Chennai 6. a philosopher of Alexandria. and founder of Neo-Platonism. AMMO`NIUS SACCAS.com AMMIA`NUS MARCELLI`NUS. AMMIRATO. ANDREA. identified in Greece with Zeus. Computer Lecturer. sent to England by the Pope. _d_. at a great age. till subdued by Judas Maccabaeus. Origen. and a continual trouble to them. he became Latin secretary to Henry and a prebendary of Salisbury.

THOMAS. a poor shepherd of Tekoa. being a mere mass of protoplasm.C. a French mathematician and physicist. subdued by Joshua at Gibeon. a genus of plants. such as the cardamom and grains of paradise. and a large export and import trade. absorbs its food at every point all over its body by means of processes protruded therefrom at will. AMOY` (96). a powerful Canaanitish tribe. sugar. Esq. author of the "Life of John Buncle. a minute animalcule of the simplest structure. paper. Page 98 of 2772 . Chennai 6. AMPERE`. one of the open ports of China. raised his voice in solitary protest against the iniquity of the northern kingdom of Israel. has one of the finest harbours in the world.com AMNION. seemingly of tall stature. the chief exports are tea.ramakalai@gmail. AMOEBA. an eccentric writer of Irish descent. AMORITES. CTSTI. and denounced the judgment of God as Lord of Hosts upon one and all for their idolatry. of the Jordan. &c. gold-leaf. which nothing could avert. who in the 8th century B. NE. with the effect that it is constantly changing its shape. in Judah. born at Computer Lecturer. near Bethlehem. on a small island in the Strait of Fukien. name given to the innermost membrane investing the foetus in the womb." and other semi-insane productions. AMOS. AMOMUM. remarkable for their pungency and aromatic properties.. ANDRE MARIE. AMORY. he was a fanatical Unitarian (1691-1789).

a genus of limbless lizards. who became by him the mother of Iphicles. a feat often alluded to as an instance of the miraculous power of music. AMPHIC`TYONIC COUNCIL. the wife of Neptune. distinguished for his discoveries in electro-dynamics and magnetism. Page 99 of 2772 . and the influence of these on electro-telegraphy and the general extension of science (1775-1836). the decisions of which were several times enforced by arms. AMPHIT`RYON. the man who provides the feast. Chennai 6. who is said to have invented the lyre. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. sitting alternately at Thermopylae and Delphi. that met twice a year. AM`PHITRITE. attained to the rank of a member of the French Academy (1800-1864). twelve in number at length. to settle any differences that might arise between them. eminent as a litterateur. and built the walls of Thebes by the sound of it. mother of Triton. AMPHI`ON. AMPERE. and husband of Alcmene. AMPHITRYON THE TRUE. and gave rise to what were called _sacred wars_.com Lyons. of which there were three. the real host. a daughter of Oceanus or Nereus. and goddess of the sea. JEAN JACQUES. it was originally instituted for the conservation of religious interests. the king of Tiryns. a son of Zeus and Antiope. and by Zeus the mother of Hercules. a council consisting of representatives from several confederate States of ancient Greece. and a historian and critic of literature. son of the preceding. as Zeus proved himself to the household to be when he visited Alcmene. a serpent fabled to have two heads and to be able to move backward or forward. AMPHISBAENA. two from each.

a great trading city and port at the mouth of the Amsel. which. of Lahore. and a great centre of trade. after a course of 3060 m. 663. is second to Delhi in Northern India. a sacred city of the Sikhs in the Punjab. one special industry being the cutting of diamonds and jewels. a large eastward-flowing river.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer.. he is said to have executed the order of the Caliph Omar for burning the library of Alexandria. among other works. pronounced the "scientific frontier" of India towards Afghanistan. the houses built on piles of wood driven into the marshy ground. falls into the Sea of Okhotsk. is a largely manufacturing place. AMURNATH. resting on 90 islands connected by 300 bridges. AMRIT`SAR (136). was of humble birth. _d_. the capital of Holland. AMYOT. was tutor of Charles. grand-almoner of France and bishop of Auxerre. conquered Egypt among other military achievements. AMSTERDAM (456). partly in Siberia and partly in China. which remains to-day one of the finest monuments of the old literature of France. JACQUES. Page 100 of 2772 . on the Zuyder Zee. on account of a cave believed to be the dwelling-place of Siva. birthplace of Spinoza. it was much esteemed by Montaigne (1513-1593). AMUR`. a Mohammedan general under the Caliph Omar. of Plutarch into French. E. who appointed him grand-almoner. Chennai 6. CTSTI. manufactures cashmere shawls. as well as an emporium of trade. AM`RU.com AM`RAN RANGE. he was the translator. 32 m. a place of pilgrimage in Cashmere.

arrived at Athens. ANACREON OF PAINTERS. ANAB`ASIS. ANACHARSIS. ANAC`REON. he stands for a Scythian savant living among a civilised people. Page 101 of 2772 . came at length to grief by the excesses of its adherents in Muenster. after the battle of Cunaxa in 401 B. in his roamings in quest of wisdom. lived chiefly at Samos and Athens. OF THE GUILLOTINE. ANABAPTISTS. a celebrated Greek lyric poet. A.ramakalai@gmail. a gigantic serpent of tropical America. JOSEPH. not many fragments of them are preserved (560-418 B. and a learned Orientalist (1713-1794). a Scythian philosopher of the 6th century B. who. but was put to death on his return home by his brother. and though it spread in various parts of Germany.C.000 Greeks under Xenophon who accompanied him. Chennai 6.. See CLOOTZ. See BAPTISTS. A. as well as for a wise man living among fools.C. Computer Lecturer. Francesco Albani. a fanatical sect which arose in Saxony at the time of the Reformation. a French Jesuit missionary to China. Barere. CTSTI.com AMYOT. his songs are in praise of love and wine.C. and of the retreat of the 10. ANACHARSIS CLOOTZ. ANACON`DA.). and became the friend and disciple of Solon. in Asia Minor. a native of Teos. Haefiz. an account by Xenophon of the ill-fated expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes. OF PERSIA.

the highest point in the Anamalah Mts. ANAG`NI. ANAM`ALAH MOUNTAINS. and in possession. and of the training of the individual so as to become a law to himself. SE. the project definable as an insane attempt to realise a social system on the basis of absolute individual freedom. of Palestine. of mean elevation. ANAMU`DI. a range of the W. of Rome. the name of a famous painting of Apelles so representing her. the professed aim of which is that of the emancipation of the individual from the present system of government which makes him the slave of others. Chennai 6. ANASTA`SIUS." given to her in allusion to her arising out of the sea. Aphrodite. Ghats in Travancore. a projected social revolution. a race of giants that lived in the S. therefore.. a name meaning "emerging. a river in Siberia. one of the names of Mexico prior to the conquest of it by the Spaniards. ANARCHISM.com ANADYOM`ENE. called also sons of Anak. a plateau in Central Mexico. Computer Lecturer. ANAHUAC`. which flows into Behring Sea. 7000 ft. a small town 40 m. the name of four popes: A. Page 102 of 2772 . CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. of the right to the control of all his vital interests. I. 7580 ft. ANADYR. the birthplace of several Popes. the most eminent.. AN`AKIM.

a Greek philosopher of the school of Democritus and friend of Alexander the Great.ramakalai@gmail. Page 103 of 2772 . festival.. removed to Athens and took philosophy along with him.. the Greek name for Asia Minor." ANAXAG`ORAS. pope from 496 to 498. a Greek philosopher of Miletus.).. a "mosaic" work by Burton. a martyr under Nero. i. ST. ANAXAR`CHUS. ANASTASIUS..C. ANASTASIUS I. A. _d_. e. through all employments. April 15. pope from 1153 to 1154. and finding them barren except for study. ANAXIMANDER. pope from 911 to 913. in Ionia.C. of which in turn the _taedium_ is not obscurely hinted. ANAXIM`ENES. was the first to assign to the _nous_. A. made air the first principle of Computer Lecturer. ANATO`LIA. also of Miletus. desires. II. described by Professor Saintsbury as "a wandering of the soul from Dan to Beersheba. A. ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. and the first sovereign to be so treated by the Pope (430-515).. but being banished thence for impiety to the gods. a Greek philosopher of Clazomenae. settled in Lampsacus. emperor of the East.com pope from 398 to 401. indeterminate and eternal (611-547 B. pleasures. conceived of "as a purely immaterial principle. III. excommunicated for his severities to the Christians. transplanted it there. Chennai 6. derived the universe from a material basis. 425 B. CTSTI. IV. a formative power in the origin and organisation of things".

the father of AEneas. his wife also a distinguished writer (1792-1875). distinguished both in tragedy and comedy. who. _d_. of Nantes. ANCENIS (4). a son of Neptune.com things. ANCHOVY PEAR. the presumed original of the horse. of Lampsacus. v. was killed by it. a French dramatic poet. ANCHITHERIUM. preceptor and biographer of Alexander the Great. ANCHI`SES. called the Apostle of the New World (1538-1597). ANCHIETA.ramakalai@gmail.). a Portuguese Jesuit. ANCELOT. was buried in Sicily.C.. CTSTI.. ANCESTOR-WORSHIP. Indian plant. ANCAEUS. due to a belief in ANIMISM (q. the worship of ancestors that prevails in primitive nations. NE. Computer Lecturer. of the taste of the mango. Chennai 6. Page 104 of 2772 . ANCHOVY. 500 B. born at Teneriffe. 23 m. a small fish captured for the flavour of its flesh and made into sauce. a town on the Loire. a fossil animal with three hoofs. fruit of a W. whom his son bore out of the flames of Troy on his shoulders to the ships. having left a flagon of wine to pursue a boar. A.

Chennai 6. philosophic man of letters. extended the city and founded Ostia.ramakalai@gmail. when he reaches land. a port of Italy in the Adriatic. FREDERICK. ANCRE. a region in the S. ANDERSEN. and feels compelled to relate the tale of them as a warning to others. MARSHAL. a central Swiss village in Uri.com ANCIENT MARINER. CTSTI. fruits. 18 m. surrounded by coral reefs. grandson of Numa. ANCILLON. volcanic islands in the Bay of Bengal. second to that of Venice. since 1858 used as a penal settlement.370). ANDERMATT. NE. and rich in minerals. ANCO`NA (56). 4th king of Rome. and of French descent (1766-1837). a mariner doomed to suffer dreadful penalties for having shot an albatross. of Altorf. a small town on the Seine. 20 m. LES. of Spain watered by the Guadalquivir. a world-famous story-teller of Danish Computer Lecturer. of Evreux. ANDAMANS. a profligate minister of France during the minority of Louis XIII. and vines. ANDELYS. fertile in grains. the hero of a poem by Coleridge. divided into Great and Little. founded by Syracusans. ANCUS MARCIUS. is haunted by the recollection of them. S. HANS CHRISTIAN. a Prussian statesman. ANDALUSIA (3. Page 105 of 2772 . and who.

Queen of Scots. Chennai 6. ANDERSON. a Scotch lawyer. in 1890 married M. son of a poor shoemaker. divided into the Southern or Chilian as far as 231/2 deg. one of the chief reformers of religion in Sweden (1480-1552). MARY. and by a national festival on his seventieth birthday (1805-1875).com birth. S. a distance of 4500 m. Anderson's Reports is still a book of authority. a celebrated actress. which extend. 1859. sat as judge at the trial of Mary. 150 of them actively volcanic. born at Odense. _b_. often in double and triple chains. and the Northern to their termination. a native of Roseneath. JAMES. was some time before he made his mark.. 1605. ANDERSON. an unbroken range of high mountains. SIR EDMUND. Computer Lecturer. native of California.ramakalai@gmail. along the west of South America from Cape Horn to Panama. ANDERSON. _d_.. Page 106 of 2772 . CTSTI. near Edinburgh. ANDES. native of Hermiston. professor of physics in Glasgow University. ANDERSON. ANDERSON.. S. Navarro de Viano of New York. Lord Chief-Justice of Common Pleas under Elizabeth. ANDERSON. the Central as far as 10 deg. a writer on agriculture and promoter of it in Scotland (1739-1808). LAWRENCE. JOHN. famous for his learning and his antiquarian knowledge (1662-1728). JAMES. and the founder of the Andersonian College in Glasgow (1726-1796). was honoured at length by the esteem and friendship of the royal family.

cattle-rearing is the chief occupation of the inhabitants. played a prominent part in diplomatic affairs on the Continent to the advantage of Austria (1823-1890). ANDOVER. ANDOR`RA (6). ANDREA DEL SARTO. Chennai 6.com ANDOCIDES. founded in 1807. COUNT. took part in the fifth crusade. a monument is erected to him in Westminster Abbey.S. who are a primitive people and of simple habits. famous for its theological seminary. a Hungarian statesman. 66 m. a small republic in the E.. Pyrenees. ANDRE II. was exiled from 1848 to 1851. an orator and leader of the oligarchical faction in Athens. JOHN. of London. tried and hanged as a spy in the American war in 1780. U. See SARTO. SW. AN`DRASSY. under the protection of France and the Bishop of Urgel. a brave British officer. ANDRAL.. an old municipal borough and market-town in Hampshire. became Prime Minister in 1867.C. GABRIEL. king of Hungary from 1205 to 1235. a distinguished French pathologist. enclosed by mountains. ANDRE. also a town 23 m. in Catalonia. professor in Paris University (1797-1876). Page 107 of 2772 . CTSTI. Computer Lecturer.). the first time for profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries (467-393 B. from Boston. was four times exiled.ramakalai@gmail.

and zealous High Churchman in the reign of Elizabeth and James I. ST. an eminent French engineer and mathematician (1633-1688). it is said. JOSEPH. RUSSIAN ORDER OF. a novel by Fielding. but of his sermons the criticism of a Scotch nobleman. an English prelate.. eminent as a scholar. ANDREWES. FRANCOIS. ANDREW. in succession bishop of Ely. born at Pisa. and Constantinople. suffered martyrdom by crucifixion. a sculptor and architect. ST. ambassador at London. one of the Apostles. the highest Order in Russia. COUNT. an eminent French general and statesman. Page 108 of 2772 . ANDREWS. born in Essex. ANDREW. ST. a theologian.com ANDREA PISANO. became patron saint of Scotland. and leaning on a transverse cross.. when he preached at Holyrood once. cross like a X. ANDREW. Chichester. served under Napoleon.ramakalai@gmail. was one of the Hampton Court Conference. ANDREOSSY. ANDREOSSY. holding the Gospel in his right hand. LANCELOT. Andrew suffered. and a preacher. and the name of the hero. THE CROSS OF. and of the translators of the Authorised Version of the Bible. contributed greatly to free modern art from Byzantine influence (1270-1345). advocated the recall of the Bourbons on the fall of Napoleon. represented in art as an old man with long white hair and a beard. Vienna. such having.. and Winchester. Chennai 6. who Computer Lecturer. he was fervent in devotion.. CTSTI. been the form of the cross on which St. was not inappropriate: "He rather plays with his subject than preaches on it" (1555-1626).

fell to Pyrrhus. the name of four Byzantine emperors: A. I. killed his ward. ANDREWS. III. CTSTI. grandson of the preceding. A. ST. ANDRO`CLUS. lived to see the empire devastated by the Turks (1282-1328). COMNENUS. ANDRONI`CUS. sent into the arena to attack him. she had been demanded by Neptune as a sacrifice to appease the Nereids for an insult offered them by her mother. and the brother of Richardson's Pamela. ANDROM`ACHE.com is a footman. dethroned him. ANDRIEUX. a Roman slave condemned to the wild beasts.. II. A. and who recognised him as his benefactor. a beautiful Ethiopian princess exposed to a sea monster. THOMAS. Achilles' son. but was given up by him to Hector's brother... famous for her conjugal devotion. an eminent physicist. and was immediately stripped of his possessions himself (1377-1378). a French litterateur and dramatist. A. ANDROM`EDA. Soter V. and permanent secretary to the Academy (1759-1822). 1183. born at Strassburg. is the subject of tragedies by Euripides and Racine respectively. the wife of Hector and the mother of Astyanax. born and professor in Belfast (1813-1885). which Perseus slew. receiving as his reward the hand of the maiden. Alexis II. professor in the College of France.. fought stoutly against the Turks without staying their advances (1328-1341). Computer Lecturer. usurped the throne. IV. and was put to death. dethroned his father.. Page 109 of 2772 .. Chennai 6. at the fall of Troy.ramakalai@gmail. but saved by a lion. out of whose foot he had long before sucked a thorn that pained him.

ANGARA. CTSTI. ANDROUET DU CERCEAU`. noted for the manufacture of porous clay water-cooling vessels. Chennai 6. ANDUJAR (11). the most northern of the Cyclades. and made it the subject of a poem. the oldest dramatic poet in the Latin language (240 B. which passes through Lake Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. an eminent French architect who designed the Pont Neuf at Paris (1530-1600). ANEU`RIN. Page 110 of 2772 . fertile soil and productive of wine and silk. air-tight. containing blood. ANDRONICUS OF RHODES. affected by the pressure of the air on plates exposed to its action. LIVIUS. ANEURISM. with internal spring-work and an index. and to whom we owe the preservation of many of Aristotle's works. and velocity of the wind. a British bard at the beginning of the 7th century. ANEROID. a town of Andalusia. on the coat of an artery. consisting of a small watch-shaped. course.). an instrument for measuring the force. a tributary of the Yenisei. a disciple of Aristotle in the time of Cicero. on the Guadalquivir. a tumour. ANDROS (22).C. a barometer. ANEMOMETER.com ANDRONICUS. who took part in the battle of Cattraeth. air-exhausted metallic box.

something which completely changes the affection. and finish. Petersburg. beauty. JOHN. became a Dominican monk at Fiesole. bought by the British Computer Lecturer. born in St. a distinguished patron of the fine arts. ANGEL-FISH. devoted his life to religious subjects. born at Mugello. birthplace of David the sculptor. ANGEL.ramakalai@gmail. with the archangel Michael piercing the dragon on the obverse of it. Page 111 of 2772 . which he treated with great delicacy. whence he removed to Florence. where he died. ANGERS` (77). a devotional service in honour of the Incarnation. ANGELICO. the ancient capital of Anjou. an Italian painter. FRA. with a fine cathedral. a faithless lady of romance. CTSTI. AN`GELUS. ANGEL`ICA. voracious fish of the shark family.com Baikal. a theological seminary. in Tuscany. ANGELIC DOCTOR. and finally to Rome. on the Maine. 160 m. his work in the form of fresco-painting is to be found all over Italy (1387-1455). ANGERSTEIN. and conceived in virgin purity and child-like simplicity of soul. a hideous. of Paris. whose collection of paintings. Thomas Aquinas. SW. ANGELICA DRAUGHT. Chennai 6. for whose sake Orlando lost his heart and his senses. an old English coin. and a medical school.

ANGI`NA PEC`TORIS. where he was very popular (1768-1854). Island of the Angles. e. sprung from the Church of England. the body of Episcopal churches all over the British Empire and Colonies. the term _Anglo-Catholic_ being applied to the High Church section. formed the nucleus of the National Gallery (1735-1822). both covered with appendages having glittering tips. though not subject to her jurisdiction. the pain of which at times extends to the left shoulder and down the left arm. and rich in minerals. it allures other fishes into its maw. was some time viceroy in Ireland. ANGLES. CTSTI. fertile. AN`GLESEA (50). MARQUIS OF. at which he lost a leg.com Government. EAST territory in England occupied in the 6th century by the Angles. an affection of the heart of an intensely excruciating nature. i. Computer Lecturer. by which. ANGLIA.ramakalai@gmail. a German tribe from Sleswig who invaded Britain in the 5th century and gave name to England. ANG`LICAN CHURCH. Chennai 6. flat. the Peninsula. as well as America. corresponding to counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. a fish with a broad. an island forming a county in Wales. separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait. as it burrows in the sand. Holland. big-mouthed head and a tapering body. famous as a cavalry officer in Flanders. and for his services at which he received his title. Page 112 of 2772 . ANGLESEY. ANGLER. and especially at Waterloo. eldest son of the first Earl of Uxbridge.

the eldest son of Charles X. daughter of Louis XVI. gained great reputation as a military commander. 83 m. the name usually assigned to the early inflected form of the English language. natural son of Charles IX. Paul de Loando. after the Revolution of 1830 gave up his rights to the throne and retired to Goritz (1778-1844). in a district noted for its silky.ramakalai@gmail.com ANGLO-SAXON. the capital of which is St. ANGOULEME. a city in the centre of Anatolia. Page 113 of 2772 . up the Orinoco. DUC D'. between the Congo and Benguela. subject to Portugal.. left Memoirs of his life (1575-1650). the birthplace of Marguerite de Valois and Balzac. a Computer Lecturer. capital of the province of Guayana. ANGO`RA (20). DUC D'.. and wife of the preceding (1778-1851). AN`GRA. of Bordeaux. cats and dogs as well as goats. Chennai 6. coast of Africa. NE. CTSTI. in Venezuela. a district on the W. ANGOULEME. with a fine cathedral. long-haired animals. ANGOULEME` (31). DUCHESSE D'. the capital of the Azores. ANGO`LA (2. 240 m. ANGOSTU`RA. on the island of Terceira. CHARLES DE VALOIS.400). an old French city on the Charente. ANGOULEME. also a medicinal bark exported thence.

ANGUIER. belonging to Britain. one of the Lesser Antilles. at the Isle of Ruegen. a duchy of Central Germany. Computer Lecturer. executed a medal representing the interview of Alexander the Great with the High Priest of the Jews. Page 114 of 2772 . ANGUIL`LA (2). obtained chiefly from coal-tar. distinguished for his studies on the solar spectrum. a port in SW. ANILINE. and extensively used in the production of dyes. surrounded and split up by Prussian Saxony. _b_. of Porto Rico. 1814. and the Saxons and Austrians at Kesseldorf (1676-1747). served and distinguished himself in the war of the Spanish Succession and in Italy. AN`GRA PEQUE`NA. a Prussian field-marshal. defeated Charles XII. a Swedish physicist and professor at Upsala.com fortified place. the name of two famous French sculptors in the 17th century.ramakalai@gmail. was wounded at Cassano. PRINCE OF. and watered by the Elbe and Saale. ANG`STROM. Africa. N. and the nucleus of the territory belonging to Germany. which Michael Angelo pronounced the perfection of the art. CTSTI. of the Orange River. LEOPOLD. ANICHINI. or Snake Island. a colourless transparent oily liquid. an Italian medallist of the 16th century. Chennai 6. E. rich in minerals. ANHALT-DESSAU. AN`HALT (293).

March 15. the seed of which is used as a carminative and in the preparation of liqueurs. correspondent with it in attributes. a belief that there is a psychical body within the physical body of a living being. the heat produced by the chemical changes which go on in the animal system. of certain presumed magnetic influences acting upon it. ANKARSTROeM. annexed to the crown of France under Louis XI. in other words. the assassin of Gustavus III. and that when the connection between them is dissolved by death the former lives on in a ghostly form. an affluent of the Tiber. connected by railway with Stettin. ANIMISM. ANIMAL MAGNETISM. 1792. of France. ANJOU`. CTSTI. Page 115 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. AN`IO.ramakalai@gmail. in certain passive states.com ANIMAL HEAT. belonged to England till wrested from King John by Philip Augustus in 1203. at a masked ball. in 1480. above Rome. an old Hanse town in Pomerania. Chennai 6. its physical counterpart. a name given to the alleged effects on the animal system. ANISE. a belief of a ghost-soul existing conjointly with and subsisting apart from the body. the intensity depending on the activity of the process. an umbelliferous plant. 4 m. an ancient province in the N. for which he was executed after being publicly flogged on three successive days. ancient Rome was supplied with water from it by means of aqueducts. ANKLAM (12). of Sweden.

E. under a French protectorate since 1885. "which. capital of Shoa. a city of Michigan. CTSTI. of Washington. with an observatory and a flourishing university.ramakalai@gmail. ANNAP`OLIS (3). retired into a convent and wrote the life of her father. from 1730 to 1740. Alexius I. which yields tropical products. along the east coast of Indo-China. AN`NAN (3)." Carlyle says. U. on river Annan. AN`NA IVANOV`NA. birthplace of Edward Irving. AN`NAM (6. of the size of Sweden. which led to the perpetration of great cruelties. Computer Lecturer. on the Huron. in Abyssinia. on the Bay of Fundy. having failed in a political conspiracy. who. a burgh in Dumfries..000). and is rich in minerals. "was comparable to a Westphalian ham" (1693-1740). it has a rich well-watered soil.S. niece of Peter the Great. empress of Russia in succession to Peter II. also the capital (7) of Maryland. was famed for her big cheek. above the sea-level.com ANKOBAR. Chennai 6. 28 m. her reign was marred by the evil influence of her paramour Biren over her. seaport of Nova Scotia. ANNA COMNE`NA. ANN ARBOR (10). as shown in her portraits. Page 116 of 2772 . an empire. and where Carlyle was a schoolboy. and at length mathematical schoolmaster. stands 8200 ft. under the title of the "Alexiad" (1083-1148).. a Byzantine princess.

at which the Counts of Geneva had their residence. though without any patronage on the part of the Queen (1665-1714). ANNECY (11). Duke of Brittany. ANNE OF CLEVES.ramakalai@gmail. who fell in love with the portrait of her by Holbein. by the union of Scotland with England during her reign in 1707 became the first sovereign of the United Kingdom. of Spain. during the minority of her son. of Geneva.com ANNE. 22 m. Page 117 of 2772 . the capital of Haute-Savoie. Joachim. Chennai 6. retired to a convent on the death of Mazarin (1610-1666). soon divorced her.. mother of the Virgin Mary. and where Francis of Sales was bishop. on a lake of the name. paper the chief Computer Lecturer. and mother of Louis XIV. QUEEN.. in France. a town in Ardeche. daughter of Duke of Cleves. festival.. 1577.. a wife of Henry VIII. by her marriage. ST. the daughter of Philip III. daughter of James II. her reign distinguished by the part England played in the war of the Spanish succession and the number of notabilities. first to Charles VIII. France. triumphed over the Fronde. the duchy was added to the crown of France (1476-1514). then to Louis XII. ANNE OF BRITTANY. July 26. and the patron saint of carpentry. ANNONAY (14). ANNOBON. _d_. became regent on the death of her husband.. wife of Louis XIII. ANNE.. but being disappointed. CTSTI. that flourished under it. wife of St. a Spanish isle in the Gulf of Guinea. S. with Cardinal Mazarin for minister.. literary and scientific. the daughter of Francis II. ANNE OF AUSTRIA.

a French historian in holy orders. who appointed him to succeed Lanfranc. and which influenced his own system so much (1731-1805). ANSBACH (14). and a calmly resolute upholder of the teaching and authority of the Church (1033-1109).. ANSCHAR or ANSGAR. ANSELM. ANQUETIL`-DUPERRON. a quarrel with whom about investiture ended in a compromise. and the margraves of which were HOHENZOLLERNS (q. gained the favour of King Rufus." Computer Lecturer. but returned at the request of Henry I.). v. an able. a festival on the 25th of March in commemoration of the salutation of the angel to the Virgin Mary on the Incarnation of Christ. SW. to whom we owe the discovery and first translation of the Zend-Avesta and Schopenhauer his knowledge of Hindu philosophy. high-principled. monk and abbot. See CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. the first to preach Christianity to the pagans of Scandinavia. a native of Aosta.. of Nuernberg. Chennai 6. 25 m.com manufacture. LOUIS PIERRE.. CTSTI. God-fearing man. in Piedmont. ANQUETIL`. quarrelled with Rufus and left the country. visited England frequently. wrote "Precis de l'Histoire Universelle" and a "Histoire de France" in 14 vols. a manufacturing town in Bavaria. was by appointment of the Pope the first archbishop of Hamburg (801-864). ST.ramakalai@gmail. brother of the preceding. ST. the capital of the old margraviate of the name. archbishop of Canterbury. a Frenchman born. Page 118 of 2772 . an enthusiastic Orientalist. ANNUNCIATION DAY.. continued by Bouillet in 6 more (1723-1806).

who was strong only when his foot was on the earth. but with L500. Thomas Chalmers. a _terrae filius_ or son of the earth. LORD. a Spartan general." witnesses Carlyle. on a voyage of adventure with a fleet of three ships. on a well-nigh inaccessible rocky height 5000 ft. perspicuous terms. during war on the part of England with Spain.). ANTANANARI`VO (100). sailed round the world. and after three years and nine months returned to England. The fable has been used as a symbol of the spiritual strength which accrues when one rests his faith on the immediate fact of things. above the sea-level. and John Goodsir the anatomist. ANTAR.com ANSON. a celebrated British naval commander. Chennai 6. Anson's "Voyage Round the World" contains a highly interesting account of this. in the centre of the island. the capital of Madagascar. an Arab chief of the 6th century. his fleet reduced to one vessel. lifted in air he became weak as water. to the loss of the fruit of all the victories gained over them by Athens (387 B. "written in brief. ANTAEUS. celebrated for a treaty which he concluded with Persia whereby the majority of the cities of Asia Minor passed under the sway of the Persians. EAST AND WEST. the former the birthplace of Tennant the poet.ramakalai@gmail.C.000 of Spanish treasure on board. a weakness which Hercules discovered to his discomfiture when wrestling with him. two contiguous royal burghs on the Fife coast. Computer Lecturer. a mythical giant. one of the pleasantest little books in the world's library at this time" (1697-1762). a subject of romance. and distinguished as a poet. "a real poem in its kind. ANTAL`CIDAS. CTSTI. Page 119 of 2772 . ANSTRUTHER. or romance all fact.

Chennai 6. especially in cattle. slender. very like the latter in appearance. and a long tongue covered with a viscid secretion. which they thrust into the ant-hills and then withdraw covered with ants. small cloven hoofs. have a tubular mouth with a small aperture. called also splenic fever. chimpanzee. _d_. ANTHON. without tails. with a light and elegant figure. a stronghold of the Moors from 712 to 1410. a town in Andalusia. a well-known American classical scholar and editor of the Classics (1797-1867). CTSTI. due to the invasion of a living organism which. ANTEQUE`RA (27). Computer Lecturer. with semi-erect figures and long arms. 22 m. including the gorilla. under certain conditions. a family of edentate mammals.com ANT-EATERS. of Malaga. seen round the shadow of one's head in a fog or cloud opposite the sun. Sophia in Constantinople. graceful limbs. ANTHRAX. orang-outang. a disease. ANTELOPE. and generally a very short tail. an animal closely allied to the sheep and the goat. breeds rapidly. and gibbon. 534. CHARLES. ANTHE`MIUS. ANTHE`LIA.ramakalai@gmail. ANTHROPOID APES. Page 120 of 2772 . the architect of the church of St. a class of apes. luminous rings witnessed in Alpine and Polar regions. N.

led about her father when he was blind and in exile. ANTIG`ONE`. but is by St. of France. 301 Computer Lecturer. killed himself on the spot where she was buried. made himself master of all Asia Minor. daughter of Louis XV. one of the generals of Alexander the Great." ANTIG`ONUS. was defeated and slain at Ipsus. the science of man as he exists or has existed under different physical and social conditions. surnamed the Cyclops or One-eyed. the ascription of human attributes to the unseen author of things. and with hardly a permanent inhabitant. ANTICOSTI. returned to Thebes on his death. the Duchess of Angouleme. was condemned to be buried alive for covering her brother's exposed body with earth in defiance of the prohibition of Creon. CTSTI. See THE PARTING SCENE IN CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. the daughter of Oedipus. frequented by fishermen. Page 121 of 2772 . ANTIGONE. excited the jealousy of his rivals. John defined to involve that form of opposition which denies the doctrine of the Incarnation. who had usurped the throne.ramakalai@gmail. a name given in the New Testament to various incarnations of opposition to Christ in usurpation of His authority. out of love for her. Chennai 6.com ANTHROPOLOGY. ANTHROPOMORPHISM. THE MODERN. a barren rocky island in the estuary of St Lawrence. ANTICHRIST. in Phrygia. king of Thebes. or that Christ has come in the flesh. ANTI`BES (5) a seaport and place of ancient date on a peninsula in the S. Creon's son. near Cannes and opposite Nice. She has been immortalised in one of the grandest tragedies of Sophocles.

all-emancipating free spirit of Christ. and the Venezuelan along the coast of S. and the LESSER A. of value both in the arts and medicine. being Cuba. of the sea. but recovered it. twice deprived of his kingdom.C. in the transcendental philosophy the contradiction which arises when we carry the categories of the understanding above experience and apply them to the sphere of that which transcends it. Hayti. the most productive of them belongs to Britain. the GREATER A. forming the Leeward Islands. a Bithynian youth of extraordinary beauty. Page 122 of 2772 . the Windward Islands. and Porto Rico. on the N. the Windward as far as Trinidad. Jamaica. king of Macedonia. ANTIMONY.com B. ANTILLES. CTSTI. put to death in 77 B.. America to S.C. on the E. ANTIGUA.C. and embracing the Caribbean Sea. one of the Leeward Islands. ANTIGONUS. ANTIN`OUS. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. America. the seat of the government. and the Venezuelan Islands--the Leeward as far as Dominica. a brittle white metal. ANTINOMY. America.. an archipelago curving round from N.). attempted to prevent the formation of the Achaean League (275-240 B. the doctrine that the law is superseded in some sense or other by the all-sufficing. grandson of the preceding. ANTINOMIANISM. a slave of the Computer Lecturer. ANTIGONUS GONATAS. the last king of the Jews of the Asmonean dynasty..

A. defeated the confederate Greek Computer Lecturer. _chef-d'oeuvre_ of Correggio in the Louvre. son of one of Alexander's generals. IV. Page 123 of 2772 . W. i. ANTIP`AROS (2).. a Macedonian general. failed against Egypt.C. and famous in the early history of the Church as the seat of several ecclesiastical councils and the birthplace of Chrysostom. and accordingly a busy centre of trade. killed in attempting to pillage the temple at Elymais. tyrannised over the Jews. THEOS. king from 261 to 246. extended and consolidated the empire. _The Sleep of Antiope_. once a city of great splendour and extent. i. A. III. being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. II. e. one of the Cyclades. gave harbour to Hannibal. became a great favourite of his and accompanied him on all his journeys. Chennai 6.. CTSTI. ANTIP`ATER. king from 281 to 261 B. on the Orontes. EPIPHANES. There was an Antioch in Pisidia. and the grief of the emperor knew no bounds. AN`TIOCH (23). erected a temple and founded a city in his honour... lying on the high-road between the E. A. afterwards called Caesarea. was defeated at Thermopylae and by Scipio at Magnesia. e. and the W. the Great. king from 164 to 162. of Paros. an ancient capital of Syria. SOTER. queen of the Amazons and mother of Hippolytus. king from 223 to 187. ANTI`OCHUS.ramakalai@gmail. governed Macedonia with great ability during the absence of Alexander. with a stalactite cavern. declared war against Rome. EUPATOR. name of three Syrian kings of the dynasty of the Seleucidae: A. He was drowned in the Nile. e. i. he enrolled him among the gods.. provoked the Maccabaean revolt.. Saviour. I. ANTI`OPE.com Emperor Hadrian. God. fell heir of all Syria. A. Illustrious. and died delirious. called the Queen of the East. while artists vied with each other in immortalising his beauty. king from 175 to 104. V.

ANTIPYRIN. medicines to reduce the temperature in fever.200 ft. and used as a substitute for quinine.000 ft.C. contemporary and rival of Apelles. also a village on its flanks. a pope elected by a civil power in opposition to one elected by the cardinals. particularly in surgery.C. preceptor of Thucydides. Page 124 of 2772 . there were some 26 of such. or one self-elected and usurped.ramakalai@gmail. who speaks of him in terms of honour. ANTIPYRETICS. ANTISE`MITES. a Greek painter. Chennai 6. a volcano of the N. a febrifuge prepared from coal-tar.com states at Cranon. to prevent or arrest putrefaction. was the first to formulate rules of oratory (479-411 B. ANTISEPTICS. CTSTI. ANTISA`NA. 13. ANTIPOPE. AN`TIPHON. Computer Lecturer. a party in Russia and the E. first and last. high. in Ecuador. substances used.).). Andes. reigned supreme on the death of Perdiccas (397-317 B. 19. the highest village in the world. of which the chief are quinine and salicylate of soda. of Germany opposed to the Jews on account of the undue influence they exercise in national affairs to the alleged detriment of the natives. high. an Athenian orator and politician. ANTIPH`ILUS.

the master of Diogenes. came back with him to Rome. a disciple of Socrates. ANTONEL`LO. "I see your pride looking out through the rent of your cloak. ANTOMMAR`CHI. the chief adviser and Prime Minister of Pope Pius IX. and founder of the Cynic school. the beaks of its ships. Computer Lecturer. wrote "The Last Moments of Napoleon" (1780-1838).com ANTIS`THENES. long antagonistic to Rome.. ANTOFAGAS`TA (7). of Messina. affected to disdain the pride and pomp of the world. a fortified seaport lately ceded to Montenegro. and was the first to carry staff and wallet as the badge of philosophy. Italian painter of the 15th century. exports silver ores and nitrate of soda. acting as his foreign minister there. and offered a determined opposition to the Revolution.ramakalai@gmail. accompanied the Pope to Gaeta. Napoleon's attached physician at St. ANTIVA`RI. CARDINAL. left immense wealth (1806-1876). CTSTI. ANTIUM. taken from Bolivia after the war of 1879. a town of Latium on a promontory jutting into the sea. it was the birthplace of Caligula and Nero. but so ostentatiously as to draw from Socrates the rebuke. ANTONELLI. introduced from Holland oil-painting into Italy (1414-1493). O Antisthenes. captured in a naval engagement.. Page 125 of 2772 . from the Taurus Mts. Chennai 6." ANTI-TAURUS. Helena. subdued in 333 B. a Greek philosopher.C. a rising port in Chile. a mountain range running NE. were taken to form a rostrum in the Forum at Home.

MARCUS. left his retreat for a while to institute monasteries. during which time the Empire enjoyed unbroken peace. ST.ramakalai@gmail. ANTONI`NUS. a famous anchorite of the Thebaid." and has left in his "Meditations" a record of his religious and moral principles (121-180). AN`TONY. CTSTI.). ANTONI`NUS.C. slain in the civil war between Marius and Sulla. erected in the year 140 A. ANTO`NIUS. formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus.D. Roman emperor. resisting devils without number. and who surpassed him in virtue. WALL OF. where from the age of thirty he spent 20 years of his life.C. in length. Marcus Aurelius. ANTONI`NUS PIUS. who reigned with justice and moderation from 138 to 161. in Scotland. but Computer Lecturer. was defeated by Octavius in the naval battle of Actium. a Roman emperor. fell in love with the famous Cleopatra. and afterwards killed himself (83-30 B. a valuable geographical work supposed of date 44 B. of Stoic principles.. successor to the following.C. in a lonely ruin by himself. ITINERARY OF. was surnamed the "philosopher. Page 126 of 2772 . being also of the Stoic school and one of its most exemplary disciples. having sided with the latter (143-87 B. Chennai 6.). and so became the founder of monachism. an earthen rampart about 36 m. MARCUS (Mark Antony). grandson of the preceding and warm partisan of Caesar.com ANTONI`NUS. ANTO`NIUS. from the Forth to the Clyde. a famous Roman orator and consul. after the murder of the latter defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. as a barrier against invasion from the north.

AN`YTUS. after Socrates' death. in Ireland. festival. 50 m. on quitting the body. Chennai 6. the burial-place of Rubens. festival. Computer Lecturer. preached to the fishes. linen the chief manufacture. which he at length intrigued on behalf of--to death by the stiletto (1765-1812). 17 (251-351). a Minorite missionary to the Moors in Africa. ANTWERP (240). has a large picture-gallery full of the works of the Dutch and Flemish artists. ANT`RIM (471). with a beautiful Gothic cathedral. on the Scheldt." but veered round to royalism. inhabitants mostly Protestant. like that of Hermes.ramakalai@gmail. the spire 402 ft. a maritime county in the NE. exports butter. the fishes came in myriads to listen. Page 127 of 2772 . banished in consequence from Athens. and shamed the pagans into conversion. ANWARI. one of the firebrands of the French Revolution. CTSTI. of Ulster. ANU`BIS. high. it was to see to the disposal of the souls of the dead in the nether world.com returned to die. soil two-thirds arable. whose office. who listened to him when no one else would. says the fable. "rose into furor almost Pythic. COUNT D'. a Persian lyric poet who flourished in the 12th century. ANTONY OF PADUA. the most vehement accuser of Socrates. from the sea. a large fortified trading city in Belgium. an Egyptian deity with the body of a man and the head of a jackal. highest where many were high. June 13 (1195-1234) ANTRAIGUES. Jan.

according to the Moslem tradition. Chennai 6. at Ephesus. lived at the court of Alexander the Great. in a fertile Alpine level valley. the birthplace of Anselm. a town of Italy. v. of the United States. of mastery in his art. his great work "APHRODITE ANADYOMENE" (q. forming about the middle of the peninsula a double chain which supports the tableland of Abruzzi. DEAD SEA. N. Page 128 of 2772 . of many in modern time to whom the universe." AP`ENNINES. by means of her magic girdle. if not born. on others. and W. long a source of trouble to the republic. APH`IDES. wife of Hephaestos and mother of Cupid. nearly through the whole length of Italy.ramakalai@gmail. the most celebrated painter of antiquity. III. bred. APEL`LES. a family of insects very destructive to plants by feeding on them in countless numbers.com AOS`TA (5). thinks Carlyle. with spurs at right angles. with all its serious voices. APHRODI`TE. a man conscious. CHAP. the cestus. III. were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's message to them by the lips of Moses. seems to have become a weariness and a humbug See "PAST AND PRESENT.). dwellers by the Dead Sea who. APES. as comes out in his advice to the criticising shoemaker to "stick to his last. Computer Lecturer. but where goitre and cretinism prevail to a great extent. as queen of beauty had the golden apple awarded her by Paris. the Greek goddess of love and beauty. CTSTI. a fierce tribe of American Indians on the S. fit symbol. like Duerer. of Turin. APA`CHES. and possessed the power of conferring beauty. sprung from sea-foam." BK. a branch of the Alps extending.

and under the tongue the image of a scarabaeus. a town in Saxe-Weimar with extensive hosiery manufactures. The word Apocrypha means hidden writing. CTSTI. APOL`DA (20).com API`CIUS. the name of three famous Roman epicures. must be black all over the body. Chennai 6.. A`PION. APOCALYPTIC WRITINGS. a literature of sixteen books composed by Jews. was at the end of 25 years drowned in a sacred fountain. writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B. for most part. the sacred live bull of the Egyptians. the first of whom was contemporary with Sulla. APOLLINA`RIS. denied the proper humanity of Computer Lecturer. had his body embalmed. the second with Augustus. and his mummy regarded as an object of worship. an Alexandrian grammarian of the 1st century. have a white triangular spot on the forehead. and ascribed to one and another of the early prophets of Israel. after the close of the Hebrew canon. and it was given to it by the Jews to distinguish it from the books which they accepted as canonical. are instinct. has mineral springs. A`PIS. forecasting the judgments ordained of God to overtake the nation. bishop of Laodicea. and an enemy of the Jews. which though without the unction of the prophetic books of the canon. and predicting its final deliverance at the hands of the Messiah. the figure of an eagle on the back. THE. with the wisdom which rests on the fear of God and loyalty to His law. and the third with Trajan.ramakalai@gmail. and hostile to the privileges conceded them in Alexandria. Page 129 of 2772 .C. the incarnation of Osiris. APOCRYPHA.

by affirming that the Logos in Him took the place of the human soul. and medicine. having become acquainted with some sort of Brahminism. _d_. 97. 408 B." a rather prosaic account of the adventures of the Argonauts.C. an Athenian who wrote a well-arranged account of the mythology and heroic age of Greece. APOLOGETICS. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. born in the island of DELOS (q.com Christ.D. as well as by maintaining that His body was not composed of ordinary flesh and blood. A.. twin brother of Artemis. the Greek name for the Hebrew Abaddon. Chennai 6. art. identified with the sun and all that we owe to it in the shape of inspiration. poetry. an Athenian painter.C. his favourite oracle at Delphi. Page 130 of 2772 . v. Paul. _d_. who became an eloquent preacher of Christ. APOLLYON. and on account of his eloquence rated above St. APOLLO. whither Leto had fled from the jealous Hera.. APOLLONIUS OF RHODES. 129. _d_. flourished in the 3rd century B. and has been compared to Christ. a grammarian and poet. a Pythagorean philosopher. the destroying angel. APOLLONIUS OF TYANA. a Jew of Alexandria. the god _par excellence_ of the Greeks. the first to paint figures in light and shade. APPLLODO`RUS (1). author of the "Argonautica. APOL`LOS. it is said. a power to work miracles. and.). (2) a celebrated architect of Damascus. a defence of the historical verity of the Christian Computer Lecturer. who. professed to have a divine mission. son of Zeus and Leto. and (3). 390. was worshipped after his death.

St. of Switzerland. from his having. Mark. St. Paul. from the tablelands of Alabama to the St. painted by Albert Duerer. Page 131 of 2772 . St. enclosed by St. also the name of Computer Lecturer. Patrick.com religion in opposition to the rationalist and mythical theories. APOSTLE OF GERMANY. OF THE GOTHS. John. St. an epithet applied to the Emperor Julian. THE FOUR. under 7000 feet. Ninian. APOSTATE. APPENZELL` (67). in the museum at Muenich. Ulfilas. Ignatius. and St. OF THE PICTS. Paul. Denis. OF THE INDIES. APPALA`CHIANS. which is manufacturing and Protestant. conscientiously however. St.ramakalai@gmail. abjured the Christian religion established by Constantine. OF THE INDIAN. Augustine. OF THE GENTILES. Father Mathew. Barnabas Polycarp. St. Lawrence. Boniface. OF THE NORTH. OF THE GAULS. a qualification believed by High Churchmen to be essential to the discharge of episcopal functions and the transmission of promised divine grace. America that stretches NE. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. do not reach the snow-line. A. OF THE SCOTS. a canton in the NE. APOSTOLIC FATHERS. and Inner Rhoden. Fathers of the Church who lived the same time as the Apostles: Clemens. St. Columba. John Eliot. in favour of paganism. CTSTI. Irenaeus. their utmost height. Ansgar. picture of St. abound in coal and iron. and Hermas. Chennai 6. Francis Xavier. OF THE ENGLISH. OF TEMPERANCE. which is agricultural and Catholic. OF IRELAND. and includes the Alleghanies and the Blue Mountains. OF THE FRENCH. the derivation of episcopal power in an unbroken line from the Apostles. Peter. Gall. APOSTLES. a mountainous system of N. divided into Outer Rhoden. St.

of which 11 remain. a city of Wisconsin. a golden apple inscribed with the words. on promise that he would have the most beautiful woman of the world for wife.com the capital. an Alexandrian Greek. AP`PIAN WAY.S.. Chennai 6. contended for by Hera. on the Fox River. APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE. and Aphrodite. as referee. U. is a health resort. to Aphrodite. APPLEGATH. APPLE OF DISCORD. Lee surrendered to Gen. U. inventor of the vertical printing-press (1788-1871). AP`PIAN. wrote in 2nd century a history of Rome in 24 books." thrown in among the gods of Olympus on a particular occasion. APRAXEN. APPLETON (11). where Gen. COUNT.. and finished by Augustus. Grant in 1865. Page 132 of 2772 . APPLETON. 312 B. CTSTI. AUGUSTUS. a village in Virginia. a magnificent highway begun by Appius Claudius. "To the most Beautiful. a celebrated naval commander under Peter the Great Computer Lecturer. from Rome to Brundusium.S.ramakalai@gmail.C. Athena. and awarded by Paris of Troy. CH. APPLEBY. the county town of Westmorland. on the Eden. EDWARD. founder and editor of the _Academy_ (1841-1879)..

his most celebrated work was the "Golden Ass. and the scene of the last stages in the second Punic war. 11th sign of the Zodiac. Tofana's poison. v. and of the life of the leaves. a student of Plato. 21. the month of "opening of the light in the days. of N. and of the voices of the birds. CTSTI. African birth." AP`TERYX.). of Italy. and of the hearts of men. it is alleged. APU`RE. Chennai 6. the fourth month of the year. which extends as far N. into which it falls by six branches. 600 people.com and his right-hand man in many enterprises (1671-1728). was charged at one time with sorcery. among other stories. AQUA`RIUS. in 17th century. APRIL. a general of the Jesuits of high authority (1543-1615). a curious New Zealand bird with rudimentary wings. Page 133 of 2772 . APULE`IUS. AQUA TOFA`NA. and no tail. as Monte Gargano.797). plumage like hair. poisoned.ramakalai@gmail. AQUAVIVA." which contains. an ancient province in SE. the exquisite apologue or romance of PSYCHE and CUPID (q. Computer Lecturer. lived in the 2nd century. having captivated a rich widow. which the sun enters Jan. chief tributary of the Orinoco. some solution of arsenic with which a Sicilian woman called Tofana. the Water-bearer. a river in Venezuela. APU`LIA (1.

ramakalai@gmail. an Italian village. 22 m. CTSTI. of Trieste. which fill 17 folio vols. Computer Lecturer. His "Summa Theologiae. along with those of Duns Scotus. A`QUILA. v. or Doctor of the Schools. fell sick and died. a Judaised Greek of Sinope. AQUILEIA.D. in Pontus. sat at the feet of Albertus Magnus. AQUI`NAS. W. is a masterly production. an Italian of noble birth.. (1226-1274). founded by Barbarossa. Chennai 6. q. a busy place.com A`QUILA (20). AQUITAINE`. A`QUILA. executed a literal translation of the Old Testament into Greek in the interest of Judaism versus Christianity in the first half of the 2nd century A." the greatest of his many works. once a place of great importance. and to this day of standard authority in the Romish Church. and went with him to Paris. on the Alterno. constitute the high-water mark of scholastic philosophy and the watershed of its divergence into the PHILOSOPHICO-SPECULATIVE THOUGHT on the one hand. his rival. and the ETHICO-PRACTICAL OR REALISM OF MODERN TIMES on the other." from his stubborn silence at study. His writings. a division of ancient Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees. Page 134 of 2772 . GASPAR. a friend of Luther who aided him in the translation of the Bible. was from the time of Henry II. where several councils of the Church were held. studied at Naples. THOMAS. the Angelic Doctor. and being invited to assist the Council at Lyons. prelected at his Alma Mater and elsewhere with distinguished success. was known among his pupils as the "Dumb Ox. capital of the province of Abruzzo Ulteriora. till 1453 an appanage of the English crown. became a Dominican monk despite the opposition of his parents.

but exclusive of the forms of men and animals. generally fertile on the W. 1839. _b_. a trading country with no roads or railways. CTSTI. an ornamentation introduced by the Moors.. See ARABIA. the W. deep. only wadies. suspected of aspiring to the crown on the death of Queen Elizabeth. where she died bereft of reason in 1615 at the age of 38. and fertile valleys. ARABESQUE. Computer Lecturer. yet the birthland of a race that threatened at one time to sweep the globe. v. and therefore few wild animals.).. the Nefud in the N. the Great Arabian. AHMED PASHA. consisting of imaginary. he claimed descent from the Prophet.com ARABELLA STUART. and S. oftenest dry. ARABIA FELIX. contains YEMEN and EL HEJAZ (q. ARABIAN DESERT. a perfect Sahara. the victim all her days of jealousy and state policy. banished to Ceylon. and the Dahna between. consisting of (_a_) a central plateau with pastures for cattle. leader of an insurrectionary movement in Egypt in 1882. mathematical or vegetable forms. has no forests. in the S. was shut up in the Tower of London. has no lakes or rivers. often fantastic. said sometimes to be 600 ft. the most westerly peninsula of Asia and the largest in the world. being one-third the size of the whole of Europe. coast of Arabia. a cousin of King James I. sandy. and is subject to Turkey.. only caravan routes. and (_c_) stretches of coast land. is divided into eight territories.ramakalai@gmail. stony. and of a religion that has been a life-guidance to wide-scattered millions of human beings for over twelve centuries of time. Page 135 of 2772 . ARA`BI. (_b_) a ring of deserts. the climate being hot and arid.000).. ARABIA (12. Chennai 6.

and previously hanged herself in her despair. "a noble-gifted people. an earnest. or the Thousand and One Nights. who excelled in weaving. ARACH`NE. brilliant. active. the vizier's daughter obtained permission to be the first bride. deep-hearted. gifted when they do speak. In words too. as given in his "Heroes. not a loquacious people. at the end of which term the king. THE. Computer Lecturer. she had failed in the competition. CTSTI. and whom Athena changed into a spider because she had proudly challenged her ability to weave as artistic a work. See ARAKAN. traceable in their present form to the middle of the 15th century. manufactures tobacco. seat of a bishop. swift-handed. something most agile. as in action. it is said.com ARABIAN NIGHTS. Page 136 of 2772 . and first translated into French by Galland in 1704." ARACAN. ARABS. truthful kind of men. ARAD (42). strong feelings. taciturn rather. trades in cattle and corn. which is not Jewish. a fortified town in Hungary. on the right bank of the Maros. but eloquent. yet most meditative. and iron restraint over these." Such is Carlyle's opinion of the race from whom Mahomet sprang. but with that deadly terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something graceful. a people of wild.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. enthusiastic in their character. and began a story which broke off at an interesting part evening after evening for a thousand and one nights. a Lydian maiden. a collection of tales of various origin and date. The thread on which they are strung is this: A Persian monarch having made a vow that he would marry a fresh bride every night and sacrifice her in the morning. of Jewish kindred indeed. released her and spared her life.

author of a "Voyage Round the World" (1790-1855). was member of the Provisional Government in 1848. ARAGUAY.ramakalai@gmail. Saragossa. AR`AGO. ARAKAN (671). was a kingdom till 1469. Chennai 6. a place of pilgrimage as the spot where Adam received his wife after 200 years separation from her on account of their disobedience to the Lord in deference to the suggestion of Satan. a territory in the NE. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris when seventeen. 400 m. the Mohammedan sheol or borderland between heaven and hell for those who are from incapacity either not morally bad or morally good. broad. CTSTI. ARAFAT`. as well as sugar and hemp. of Mecca. born in the S. on the E. would rather resign his post at the Observatory. a low. a strip of land in British Burmah. an eminent physicist and astronomer. a brother of the preceding. Page 137 of 2772 . and divided as you proceed southward into the provinces of Huesca. marshy country.. in Brazil. and at his death received a public funeral (1786-1853). ARAGO. mountainous in the N. JACQUES. refused to take the oath to Louis Napoleon after the _coup d'etat_. elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at the early age of twenty-three. The natives belong to the Burman stock. an affluent of the Tocantins. long and from 90 to 15 m. traversed by the Ebro. which it joins after a course of 1000 m. augmented by subsidiary streams. AR`AGON (925). and are of the Buddhist Computer Lecturer. but was retained.. with beautiful fertile valleys. and Teruel. a granite hill E. in the S. a litterateur and a traveller. of the Bay of Bengal.com ARAF. of France. rather barren. FRANCOIS. produces and exports large quantities of rice. nominated Director of the Observatory in 1830. of Spain.

ARAMA`IC. an English school-usher of scholarly attainments. 265 m. a lake in Turkestan. ARAL. 150 m. also to those that dwelt at the mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris. a Semitic dialect that has now almost entirely died out. ARAN. COUNT OF.ramakalai@gmail. to whose fate a novel of Bulwer Lytton's and a poem of Hood's have lent a romantic and somewhat fictitious interest. long and 145 broad. the language of Palestine in the days of Christ. banished the Jesuits. though there is a sprinkling of Mohammedans among them. the territories lying to NE. Page 138 of 2772 . to which they form a breakwater. was Prime Minister of Charles IV. THE SEA OF. a generic name given to the Semitic tribes that dwelt in the NE. an eminent Spanish statesman. ARAN ISLANDS. EUGENE. suppressed brigandage. source of the Garonne.. and is said to be drying up. Chennai 6. ARANDA. ARAMAE`ANS. a Pyrenean valley. of the Caspian. three islands with antique relics across the mouth of Galway Bay. the inhabitants of which spoke a Semitic dialect called Aramaic. CTSTI. ARAM. VAL D'. has no outlet. and curtailed the power of the Inquisition. of Palestine. and improperly Chaldee. E. of Palestine.com faith. ARAMAEA. and one of the highest of the Pyrenees. convicted of murder years after the act and executed 1759. shallow. and was succeeded by Computer Lecturer. larger than the Irish Sea.

natives of and confined to the southern hemisphere. a mountain in Armenia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. JANOS. tall conifer trees. of Madrid.com Godoy (1719-1798). it is said. a popular Hungarian poet of peasant origin. ARA`TUS. is within Russian territory. 17. in which he was thwarted by Philip of Macedon. of Valdivia.ramakalai@gmail. and interesting as the only one that has proved itself able to govern itself and hold its own in the presence of the white man. native of Sicyon. a town 28 m. Chennai 6. ARANJU`EZ (8). CTSTI. the country of the Araucos. AR`ANY.C. a town near Mosul. high. by his order (271-213 B. a thriving seaport and manufacturing town on the Computer Lecturer. author of two didactic poems. ARAUCA`RIA. also a Greek poet. where Alexander the Great finally defeated Darius.).000 ft. ARBE`LA. was poisoned. attained to eminence as a man of letters (1819-1882). of Concepcion and N. SE. 331 B. in Chile. ARAUCA`NIA (88). Page 139 of 2772 . the Araucos being an Indian race long resistant but now subject to Chilian authority.C. and borders on both Turkey and Persia. in Greece. long the spring resort of the Spanish Court. AR`ARAT. quoted by St Paul in Acts xvii. S. ARBROATH (22). 28. born in Cilicia. promoter of the Achaean League.

born in Kincardineshire. much esteemed by them for his wit and kind-heartedness. N. 34 m. as distinct from palaeontology. Page 140 of 2772 . of Dundee. a physician and eminent literary man of the age of Queen Anne and her two successors. and denounced all dogmatism in opinion. with the picturesque ruins of an extensive old abbey. a member of the Platonic School and founder of the New Academy. ARCHAEOLOGY. a mountain-girt pastoral tableland in the heart of the Morea. the first emperor of the East. a weak.com Forfarshire coast. the study or the science of the monuments of antiquity. conceived by the poets as a land of shepherds and shepherdesses. It is the "Fairport" of the "Antiquary. 50 m. who held in opposition to the Stoics that perception was not knowledge. long by 40 broad. a Greek philosopher. leaving the government in other hands (377-405)." ARBUTHNOT. CTSTI. ARCA`DIUS. SW. JOHN. born in Spain. the friend of Swift and Pope and other lights of the time. a popular watering-place.ramakalai@gmail. joint-author with Swift. AR`CACHON (7). with a fine beach and a mild climate. Computer Lecturer. 17 m. it is thought. of the "Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus" and the "History of John Bull" (1667-1735). which has to do with extinct organisms or fossil remains. and rustic simplicity and bliss. and was the seat of the worship of Artemis and Pan. Chennai 6. denied that we had any accurate criterion of truth. ARCA`DIA. ARCESILA`US. luxurious prince. favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints. of Bordeaux. of which Cardinal Beaton was the last abbot.

. ARCHIL`OCHUS. the angel of the resurrection.C. and has a large trade in flax. died at Vienne. is connected with the interior by river and canal.ramakalai@gmail. with whom Euripides found refuge in his exile.. also the Ethnarch of Judea. Chennai 6. _d_. and by the help of Duessa or Deceit. ARCHER.C. dramatic critic. ARCHELA`US. tallow. ARCHIMA`GO. and patron of art and literature. an ecclesiastical court of appeal connected with the archbishopric of Canterbury. Michael. of these. Computer Lecturer. conquered by Sulla twice over. COURT OF. king of Macedonia. AR`CHIL. the oldest seaport of Russia. deposed by Augustus. born in Perth. according to the Koran. Page 141 of 2772 ." who in the disguise of a reverend hermit. ARCHANGELS. Azrael. and tar. a general of Mithridates. AR`CHES. a celebrated lyric poet of Greece. the angel who fights. a purple dye obtained from lichens. near its mouth. the inventor of iambic verse (714-676 B. a sorcerer in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. 1856. the angel who reveals. the judge of which is called the dean. there are four: Gabriel. the angel of death. JAMES. 400 B. of a satiric and often bitter vein. son of Herod. timber.). on the Dvina. is accessible to navigation from July to October. born in Edinburgh. WM. 1824.com ARCHANGEL (19). on the White Sea. Azrafil. portrait-painter. seduces the Red-Cross Knight from Una or Truth. ARCHER. CTSTI.

and was so excited over the discovery that. famous as a statesman. and finally for one. in its original form a hollow spiral placed slantingly to raise water by revolving it. by a Roman soldier. ARCHITRAVE. a Pythagorean in philosophy. each over a separate department. he darted off stark naked on the instant through the streets. while busy on some problem. originally the AEgean Sea. of which there were nine at a time. otherwise he would have had to wander on this side the Styx Computer Lecturer.). He is credited with the boast: "Give me a fulcrum. notwithstanding the order of the Roman general that his life should be spared. well skilled in all the mechanical arts and sciences of the day. the lowest part of an entablature. and influential in that capacity over the minds of Plato. a chief magistrate of Athens. resting immediately on the capital. Page 142 of 2772 . the greatest mathematician of antiquity. the tenure of office was first for life. now the name of any similar sea interspersed with islands. and a man. and slain. ARCHY`TAS OF TARENTUM. 4th century B." He discovered how to determine the specific weight of bodies while he was taking a bath. CTSTI. then for ten years. his body lay unburied on the shore till a sailor humanely cast a handful of sand on it. a philosopher.. his contemporary.ramakalai@gmail. it is said. Chennai 6. a soldier. or the group of islands included in it. shouting "_Eureka! Eureka!_ I have found it! I have found it!" (287-212 B.C. ARCHIPEL`AGO. When Syracuse was taken by the Romans. a man of superlative inventive power. was drowned in the Adriatic Sea. ARCHIMED`ES SCREW. he was unconscious of the fact. a geometrician. and Aristotle.com ARCHIME`DES OF SYRACUSE. and I will move the world. AR`CHON.C.

ARDEN. its diameter 40 deg. a circular ocean round the N. source in the Cevennes. captured by Clive in 1787. Chennai 6. his wife. on his return from the sea. does not disclose himself. Pole. on the borders of Computer Lecturer. ARDEN. such the virtue of a little dust. _munera pulveris_. constellation Booetes. ARCTU`RUS. of Madras. an affluent of the Rhone. ARCTIC OCEAN. of the Severn. March 1814. flat shores. ARDENNES. star of the first magnitude and the chief in the N. including numerous islands. a tract of rugged woodland on the confines of France and Belgium. ARDECHE. SW. E. as Horace calls it. scene of a defeat of Napoleon. a forest. the Gulf Stream penetrates it. in France. in the Presidency of Madras. hero of a poem by Tennyson. Page 143 of 2772 . N... who finds. ENOCH. gives name to a department traversed by the Cevennes Mountains. and S. once the capital of the Carnatic. ARCIS`-SUR-AUBE (3). covered with ice-fields. AR`COT. birthplace of Danton. of Troyes. the name of two districts. 65 m.ramakalai@gmail. also chief town (11) in the district. after long absence. CTSTI. N. also department of France (325).com for a hundred years. with low. married happily to another. a town 17 m. and dies broken-hearted. a large forest at one time in England. who believed him dead. and a current flows out of it into the Atlantic.

founded by Pizarro in 1536. LEOPOLD. Page 144 of 2772 . and cures. still extant. in a fruitful valley of the Andes. identified by the Romans with Mars. and whose sentences were uniformly the awards of strictest justice. was the son of Zeus and Hera. ARETAE`US. 7 m. AREQUI`PA (35). in Greece. a place in Perthshire. inventor of a system of stenography extensively used on the Continent (1817-1882). Chennai 6. Saintsbury as "a magnificent search for the Dead Truth. the hill of Ares in Athens. the Greek god of war in its sanguinary aspects. ARETHU`SA. symptoms. is much subject to earthquakes. A`RES. AR`DOCH. a Greek physician of 1st century. was fond of war for its own sake. from Crieff. which gave name to the celebrated council held there. CTSTI. and had for sister Eris. a Russian of literary ability. charged with judgment in criminal offences. a celebrated fountain in the island of Ortygia. near Syracuse. wrote a treatise on diseases. the goddess of strife. 30 m. their causes. a city in Peru. AREOPAGITICA.com Belgium. the most complete in Britain. Computer Lecturer. a prose work of Milton's. and was almost destroyed by one in 1868. described by Prof. 8000 ft. above the sea. who used to pander to his passion. with the remains of a Roman camp. inland. transformed from a Nereid pursued thither from Elis.ramakalai@gmail. ARENDS." AREOP`AGUS. a tribunal of 31 members.

where he died after an uncontrollable fit of laughter which seized him at the story of the adventure of a sister (1492-1557). and recorded observations to prove that the solar system was moving through space (1799-1874). the hypochondriac rich patient in Moliere's "Le Malade Imaginaire. of Florence. a French soldier who turned to letters. moved from one centre of attraction to another. author of sceptical writings. a sheep of Siberia. a distinguished astronomer. PIETRO. born at Geneva.ramakalai@gmail. which. he fixed the position of 22. as invented by him. ARGELAN`DER. in Tuscany. as large as a moderately-sized ox." ARGAND. and Vasari. so that the waters of the river henceforth mingled with those of the fountain. and eventually subject to it. settled in Venice. born at Arezzo. Michael Angelo. Petrarch. the birthplace of Maecenas. AREZZO (44). ARGAN`. CTSTI. born at Memel. AR`GENS. professor at Bonn. Chennai 6. inventor of the argand lamp. AR`GALI." a licentious satirical writer. SE. with enormous grooved curving horns. MARQUIS D'. called the "Scourge of Princes. sure-footed. and swift.000 stars. introduced a circular wick (1755-1803).com by the river-god Alphaeus. Guido. a Swiss physician and chemist. of which the best known is entitled "Lettres Juives" (1704-1771). an ancient Tuscan city. Computer Lecturer. 38 m. ARETI`NO. strong-limbed. alternately attached to people and repelled from them by his wit. Page 145 of 2772 .

Page 146 of 2772 . English. the fifty-oared ship of the ARGONAUTS (q. ARGONAUTICA. and one of the 13 provinces of Greece.'s reign (1694-1757).000). a confederation like that of the United States of 14 states and 9 territories. French statesman. long by 5 m. occupying the eastern slopes of the Andes and the vast level plain extending from them to the Atlantic. Jason in the end brought away with him to be his wife. the title of a poem on the Argonautic expedition by Apollonius of Rhodes. AR`GONAUTS. but it proved successful with the assistance of Medea. the Greek heroes. CTSTI. a perilous venture. sailors in the _Argo_. with the fleece. Chennai 6. Italians. AR`GON. RENE-LOUIS.ramakalai@gmail. Spaniards. under the command of Jason.000 foreigners. and Germans. the daughter of the king. AR`GO. AR`GOLIS. v. its area ten times that of Great Britain and Ireland. whom. a new element lately discovered to exist in a gaseous form in the nitrogen of the air. MARQUIS D'. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.). or ARGENTINA (4. is 12 m. which was guarded by a dragon that never slept. who left "Memoirs" of value as affecting the early and middle part of Louis XV. bounded on the N. sailed for Colchis in quest of the golden fleece.com ARGENSON. French. while the population includes 600. who. broad. the north-eastern peninsula of the Morea of Greece. by Bolivia and Paraguay. Computer Lecturer.

FOREST OF. of Scotland. ARGUS. after the Restoration committed Computer Lecturer. "a long strip of rocky mountain and wild wood" in the NE. he was the only creature that recognised Ulysses under his rags on his return to Ithaca after twenty years' absence. and abounding in mountains. but Hermes killed him after lulling him to sleep by the sound of his flute. at Scone. and lochs. with scenery often picturesque as well as wild and savage. ARGYLL (74). immortalised by Homer.com ARGONNE`." a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes. 1ST MARQUIS OF. that immediately after he dropped down dead. crowned Charles II. whereupon Hera transferred his eyes to the tail of the peacock. moorlands. and Duke. a large county in the W.. Marquis. of which one half was always awake. Page 147 of 2772 . and their earldom from 1453. fought against Montrose. the members of which have held successively the title of Earl. consisting of deeply indented mainland and islands. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. a pheasant. a noble family or clan of the name of Campbell. AR`GUS. of France. so called from the eye-like markings on its plumage. their first patent of nobility dating from 1445. CTSTI. ARGYLL. surnamed the "All-seeing. appointed by Hera to watch over Io. a beautiful Oriental game-bird. under such excitement. sided with the Covenanters. but paled before the power of Sparta. played for long a prominent part in the history of Greece. disgusted with the execution of Charles I. within the borders of which the Duke of Brunswick was outwitted by Dumouriez in 1792. ARGYLL. AR`GOS (9). Chennai 6. the capital of Argolis. however. her favourite bird.ramakalai@gmail. Also the dog of Ulysses.

ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. ruled Scotland under Walpole (1678-1743). met death nobly (1598-1661). was captured and executed in 1685. was taken prisoner. 8TH DUKE OF. as Marquis of Lorne took a great interest in the movement which led to the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843. ARGYLL. a Whig in politics. 1824. defeated Mar at Sheriffmuir. was created an English peer. proved rebellious at last. _b_. 2ND DUKE OF. and hanging her wedding wreath as a constellation in the sky.. where. Palmerston. gave to Theseus a clue by which to escape out of the labyrinth after he had slain the Minotaur. wrote. 9TH EARL OF. favoured the Union. was tried and condemned. Artemis killed her.ramakalai@gmail.). among other works. fought for Charles II. ARGYLL. released at the Restoration and restored to his estates. ARIANISM. takes a deep interest in the scientific theories and questions of the time. daughter of Minos. for which Theseus promised to marry her. CTSTI. took her with him to Naxos and left her there. placing her at her death among the gods. fought under Marlborough. Page 148 of 2772 . and according to another. escaped to Holland. opposed the return of the Stuarts. and Gladstone. the heresy of ARIUS (q. ARIAD`NE. Chennai 6. made a descent on Scotland.com to the Tower. JOHN CAMPBELL. v. according to one tradition. Computer Lecturer. ARGYLL." in vindication of Theism. GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL. of late has shown more Conservative tendencies. son of the preceding. king of Crete. and was condemned to death. was a member of the Cabinets of Aberdeen. and another in the same interest in 1884 entitled "The Unity of Nature". Dionysos found her and married her. a book in 1866 entitled "The Reign of Law.

NE.com ARIA`NO (12). an illustrious Italian poet. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. on their landing. a lyrist of Lesbos. has a trade in wine and butter. which she willingly engages to do. and was almost destroyed in 1832. born at Reggio. is no longer within the limits of the sign. dolphins crowded round the ship. ARIEL. a seaport connected with Tacna. ARI`ON. mostly in poverty. which being conceded. LUDOVICO. S. ARIES. ARIOS`TO. which the sun enters on March 21. of Naples. in Lombardy. were apprehended and punished. his great Computer Lecturer. and does. whereupon he leapt over the bulwarks. ARIEGE. in Shakespeare's "Tempest. Corinth. the Ram. at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pyrenees. an outcast angel." a spirit of the air whom Prospero finds imprisoned by Sycorax in the cleft of a pine-tree. 1500 ft. of Peru. though the constellation itself. CTSTI. an idol of the Moabites. who. and liberates on condition of her serving him for a season. ARI`CA. arriving there before the sailors. above the sea-level. Page 149 of 2772 . the sailors plotted to kill him. was received on the back of one of them. returning in a ship from a musical contest in Sicily laden with prizes. lived chiefly at the court of Periander. and carried to Corinth. when he begged permission to play one strain on his lute. suffers again and again from earthquakes. owing to the precession of the equinoxes. the first of the signs of the Zodiac. a city with a fine cathedral. spent his life chiefly in Ferrara. A`RIEL. the chief outlet for the produce of Bolivia. a department of France. has extensive forests and is rich in minerals.

). set upon his bees and destroyed them. ARISTAR`CHUS OF SAMOS. in promulgating which idea he was accused of impiously disturbing the serenity of the gods (280 B. companions of Orpheus. first taught the management of bees. of hunters and herdsmen. a son of Apollo. ARIOVISTUS. ARISTAE`US. Chennai 6. in 1516. the work is so called from the chief subject of it. and especially Homer (158-88 B. whereupon the nymphs. some of which stung Eurydice to death. a celebrated Greek grammarian and critic. ARISTARCHUS OF SAMOTHRACE. CTSTI. surnamed The Just. ARISTE`AS. which reconciled him to the loss of the first ones. the guardian divinity of the vine and olive. invaded Gaul.C. who turns up here and there in Greek tradition.C. a German chief. and threatened to overrun it. in 40 cantos. an Athenian general and statesman. there issued from the carcasses of the victims a swarm of bees. her husband. who advised him to sacrifice four bullocks to appease the manes of Eurydice.). a sort of Wandering Jew of Greek fable. Page 150 of 2772 . covered himself with glory at the battle of Marathon. the madness of Roland induced by the loss of his lady-love through her marriage to another (1474-1532).ramakalai@gmail. a Greek astronomer. In this extremity Aristaeus applied to Proteus. ARISTI`DES. and was thought to be endowed with a soul that could at will leave and enter the body. this done. in 1532. who first conceived the idea of the rotundity of the earth and its revolution both on its own axis and round the sun. published the first edition. but was forced back over the Rhine by Caesar. who devoted his life to the elucidation and correct transmission of the text of the Greek poets.). and the third in 46 cantos. was made archon Computer Lecturer.com work "ORLANDO FURIOSO" (q. v.

managed the finances of the State with such probity that he died poor. ARISTION. Themistocles.. which at length fell to the enemy. whom he had sacrificed to ensure the fulfilment of an oracle to the advantage of his house. founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. son of John Hyrcanus. fought bravely at Salamis. 4th century B.C. which he did from 104-102 B. III. recalled three years after the invasion of Xerxes. celebrated for his struggle with the Spartans. died at Rhodes. in his teaching laid too much emphasis on one principle of Socrates.C. was reconciled to Themistocles.C. in the discharge of the duties of which office he received his surname. twice carried captive to Rome. in insisting too exclusively upon pleasure as the supreme good and ultimate aim of life. drowned by Herod in the Jordan. till at length finding resistance hopeless he put an end to his life on the tomb of his daughter. apart from the rest. and left the State to provide for his children.. tyrant of Athens. Also a Greek sculptor. assassinated 50 B. ARISTOBU`LUS I. A. Page 151 of 2772 . 34 B.C. 86 B. and distinguished himself at Plataea.ramakalai@gmail. first of the Asmonaean dynasty in Judea to assume the name of king. put to death by order of Sylla. was banished by ostracism at the instance of his rival.. while he escaped and was snatched up by the gods. Chennai 6.. ARISTIP`PUS OF CYRENE. king of Messenia.com next year. last of Asmonaean dynasty. A. was buried at the public charges. ARISTODE`MUS. CTSTI.C. _d_. ARISTOM`ENES. a pronounced Helleniser. a philosopher. a mythical king of Messenia.. a disciple of Socrates. and his resistance to them on Mount Ira for 11 years.C. II. 724 B. Computer Lecturer. carried on for 20 years a war with Sparta.

and founder of Arianism. as it was presumed. _d_. of which the progress of modern science goes to establish the value. of these the "Clouds" aim at Socrates. is the author of a great number of writings which covered a vast field of speculation. at the request of Philip. is often referred to as the incarnation of the philosophic spirit (385-322 B. of which 11 have come down to us. deprived of his parents while yet a youth. returned to Athens and began to teach in the Lyceum.C. who held him in high honour. which were very keen. came in his 17th year to Athens. king of Macedon. then only 13 years old. CTSTI. and the "Knights" at Cleon. on Alexander's expedition into Asia. became the preceptor of Alexander the Great. social. political. against all of whatever rank who sought in any way to alter. after 13 years he left the city and went to Chalcis. a doctrine which hovered for a time between acceptance and rejection throughout the Catholic Church. Chennai 6. and. contemporary of Aristotle. AR`ISTOTLE.ramakalai@gmail.C.com ARISTOPHANES.C. ARISTOX`ENUS OF TARENTUM. or literary creed and practice of the country. amend. a Greek philosopher. after the death of Plato. the religious. and then by a Computer Lecturer. in Euboea." the only one of his many works extant.). remained in Plato's society there for 20 years. a native of Stagira. and held up to ridicule such men as Socrates and Euripides. which denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father in the so-called Trinity. lived in the 5th century B. as well as Cleon the tanner. the "Acharnians" and the "Frogs" at Euripides. where he died. where it was his habit to walk up and down as he taught. directed the shafts of his wit. was condemned first by a local synod which met at Alexandria in 321. He was the oracle of the scholastic philosophers and theologians in the Middle Ages. a presbyter of Alexandria in the 4th century. 384 B. A`RIUS. in Thrace. author of the "Elements of Harmony. and one of the oldest writers on music. from which circumstance his school got the name of Peripatetic. philosophical. wrote 54 plays. Page 152 of 2772 . the great comic dramatist of Athens.. and hence named the Stagirite.

and it was this man. the lid supported the mercy-seat. and the shekinah radiance between. 21/2 cubits long and 11/2 in breadth. Page 153 of 2772 . rich in mines of gold. to resist the same in any way. one of the Southern States of America. bred to the trade of a barber. CTSTI. prospered in business and died worth half a million.128). silver. the author was banished to Illyricum. ARK OF THE COVENANT. Imperial Caesars were impotent without the cotton and cloth of England. Lancashire. and had to flee. through which the canon of the Colorado passes. of Mexico and W. of the Mississippi. born at Preston. Computer Lecturer. high.ramakalai@gmail. and Aaron's rod. who ordered him to be restored. by poison. the gold pot with the manna.000 ft. and copper.com General Council at Nice in 325. See CANON. contained the two tables of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments. of Louisiana and W. who entered into partnership with him. alleged his friends--by the judgment of God. Strutt of Derby. which the Emperor Constantine attended in person. SIR RICHARD." says Carlyle. grows cotton and corn. much of the surface a barren plateau 11. said his enemies (280-336). was about to be readmitted into the Church when he died suddenly. N. ARIZO`NA (59). and the possession of them voted to be a crime. his writings burned. with the help of a clockmaker. nearly four times as large as Scotland. ARKANS`AS (1. after three years he was recalled by Constantine. a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold. "that had to give to England the power of cotton" (1732-1792). a little larger than England. fertile in the lowlands. invented the spinning frame. ARKWRIGHT. fell in with Mr. took interest in the machinery of cotton-spinning. Chennai 6. with a cherub at each end. a territory of the United States N. "French Revolutions were a-brewing. was mobbed for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages. of New Mexico. rich in metals.

. a French romancer. AR`LINGTON. ARMA`DA. was defeated in the Channel on July 20 by Admiral Howard. capital of Luxemburg. Page 154 of 2772 . an armament fitted out in 1588 by Philip II. of the whole fleet only 53 ships found their way back to Spain.com ARLBERG. mounted with 2430 cannon. and these nearly all _hors de combat_. named the Invincible. CTSTI. of Spain against England.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. served under Charles I. and nearly four miles in length.000 soldiers. the English losing only one ship. AR`LON (8). of Marseilles. a city. born near Versailles (1789-1856). ARLES (14). Hawkins. AR`LINCOURT. and Frobisher. Computer Lecturer. one of the oldest in France. seconded by Drake. lost favour and retired into private life (1618-1685). consisting of 130 war-vessels. 46 m. one of the three that penetrate the Alps. EARL OF. or Christ and Antichrist. a prominent member of the famous Cabal. the seat of several Church Councils. on the Rhone. a mountain mass between the Austrian provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol. pierced by a tunnel. and accompanied Charles II. ARMAGEDDON. where Constantine built a palace. completely dispersed and shattered by a storm in retreat on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. N. HENRY BENNET. VISCOUNT D'. a prosperous town in Belgium. with ruins of an amphitheatre and other Roman works. being impeached when in office. in his exile. a name given in Apocalypse to the final battlefield between the powers of good and evil. and manned by 20.

the chief manufacture linen-weaving. and even remote. celebrated for its wine and brandy. broad. N. in France. W. Chennai 6. from early times have emigrated into adjoining. Computer Lecturer. of Lille. played a prominent part in the War of Independence in 1820. part of Gascony. countries. ARMENIANS. ARMAGNAC. early converted to Christianity of the Eutychian type. in which the Euphrates and Tigris have their sources. and a town (18) in it. of Gers. a people of the Aryan race occupying Armenia. like the Jews. SW. a faction in France in time of Charles VI. ARMAGNACS. 33 m.ramakalai@gmail. 32 m. anciently independent. as it is the ecclesiastical still. a country in Western Asia. from the 5th to the 9th century the capital of Ireland. long by 20 m. of Kurdistan Mts. ARMATO`LES. a county in Ulster. a district. the wealthier of them especially in banking. at mortal feud with the Bourguignons.. ARMENTIERES (27). Ireland. occupying a plateau interspersed with fertile valleys. CTSTI.com ARMAGH (143). Napoleon Bonaparte. and are. Page 155 of 2772 . a manufacturing and trading town in France. ARME`NIA. 12 m. of the Caspian Sea and N. which culminates in Mt. and Persia. now divided between Turkey. ARMED SOLDIER OF DEMOCRACY. now in dep. Russia. mainly engaged in commercial pursuits. of Belfast. warlike marauding tribes in the mountainous districts of Northern Greece. Ararat.

knighted in 1858. the Deliverer of Germany from the Romans by the defeat of Varus. invented the Armstrong gun. Page 156 of 2772 . ARMINIUS. _The Almida Palace_. an assertion of the free-will of man in the matter of salvation against the necessitarianism of Calvin (1560-1609). See ARMINIUS. a learned Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism. as Circe did Ulysses. or HERMANN. near Detmold (where a colossal statue has been erected to his memory). by her charms. a Scotch doctor and poet. ARMIN`IUS. born in Roxburghshire.com ARMI`DA. practised medicine in London. ARMSTRONG. Chennai 6. killed in some family quarrel in his 37th year. overpowered her by his love and persuaded her to become a Christian. one of the Crusaders. and who in turn.. JACOBUS. the Roman general. and author of "The Art of Preserving Health" (1709-1779). born at Newcastle. as well as of Wilkes and Smollett. which he got the Government to adopt. produced the hydraulic accumulator and the hydraulic crane.ramakalai@gmail. devoted his attention to the improvement of heavy ordnance." who bewitched Rinaldo.D. CTSTI. ARMSTRONG. a beautiful enchantress in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered. WILLIAM GEORGE. friend of poet Thomson. in which she enchanted Rinaldo. ARMINIANISM. established the Elswick engine works in the suburbs of his native city. a district of Gaul from the Loire to the Seine. has become a synonym for any merely visionary but enchanting palace of pleasure. JOHN. when the spell was broken. in 9 A. LORD. and in 1887 raised to the Computer Lecturer. ARMOR`ICA.

and acted pastor to them till his death (1641-1721). Computer Lecturer. became religious director of the nuns of Port Royal des Champs. ARNAULD. he accompanied them in their exile to Schomberg. a Lutheran theologian. defended Jansenism against the Bull of the Pope. the author of "True Christianity. among others Pascal. has contributed to infuse a new spirit of life into the profession of the Christian religion. CTSTI. but when the Vaudois were exiled a second time. AR`NAUD. ANTOINE.com peerage. _La Mere Angelique_ as she was called. Page 157 of 2772 . his co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution of the Count of Savoy. an inveterate enemy of the Jesuits. sister of the preceding and abbess of the Port Royal. doctor of the Sorbonne. MARIE ANGE`LIQUE. associated here with a circle of kindred spirits. the "great Arnauld. ARNAULD. ARNDT. 1810." a work which. ARNDT. which seemed withering away under the influence of a lifeless dogmatism (1553-1621). whose memory is much revered by the whole German people. in Germany and elsewhere. one of the first to rouse his countrymen to shake off the tyranny of Napoleon. his "Geist der Zeit" made him flee the country after the battle of Jena. ERNST MORITZ. and his "Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?" strikes a chord in the breast of every German all the world over (1710-1860). HENRI. turned soldier to rescue. expelled from the Sorbonne and banished the country.ramakalai@gmail. and did rescue. a pastor of the Vaudois. a victim of the persecutions of the Jesuits to very death (1624-1684). his songs and eloquent appeals went straight to the heart of the nation and contributed powerfully to its liberation. died at Brussels (1612-1694). _b_. JOHN. a German poet and patriot." a French theologian. Chennai 6.

THOMAS AUGUSTINE. COUNT. embraced Christianity. a German poet and novelist (1781-1831). visited him at Weimar. accused in the latter capacity of purloining State documents. ARNOBIUS. entered the ranks of Computer Lecturer. ARN`HEIM (51). ambassador of Germany. produced. and has a large transit trade. died in exile at Nice (1824-1881). a succession of pieces in every style from songs to sonatas and oratorios. Chennai 6. subject to destructive inundations. the capital of Guelderland. ARNIM. CTSTI. Mrs. a musical composer of versatile genius. entitled "Disputations against the Heathen. ARNIM. then in his 60th year." ARNOLD. an American military general. a river of Italy. and sentenced to imprisonment. a native of Frankfort. ARNIM. rises in the Apennines. BENEDICT. and of great value. flows westward past Florence and Pisa into the Mediterranean. during over 40 years.ramakalai@gmail. sister of Clemens Brentano.com ARNE. among others the world-famous chorus "Rule Britannia". and corresponded with him afterwards. first at Rome and then at Paris. and wrote a book in its defence. an African rhetorician who. ARNO. wife of Ludwig Arnim. Cibber was his sister (1719-1778). part of which correspondence appeared subsequently under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child" (1785-1859). in the beginning of the 4th century. LUDWIG ACHIM VON. at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe. still extant. Page 158 of 2772 . BETTINE VON. is situated on the right bank of the Rhine.

SIR EDWIN..com the colonists under Washington during the War of Independence. head-master of Rugby." "St. in England in 1801. MATTHEW. ARNOLD. and professor of Modern History at Oxford. and especially literary culture. wrote two separate reports thereon of great value. and disciple of Abelard." "Literature and Dogma. declaimed against the temporal power of the Pope. He was more eminent as a poet than a critic. of which he is reckoned the apostle. _d_. and the avarice of the clergy. ARNOLD. professor of Poetry in Oxford from 1857 to 1867. and Holland. negotiated with the English general Clinton to surrender an important post entrusted to him. THOMAS. a man of culture. inspector of schools for 35 years from 1851. to inquire into educational matters there. author of "Poems. poet and journalist. and served in them against his country. distinguished himself in several engagements. promoted to the rank of general. the corruptions of the Church." and is being now judged (1822-1888). 1832. CTSTI. he wrote a "History of Rome" based on Niebuhr. "by his verse and not his prose he must be judged. and edited Thucydides." &c. his "Life and Correspondence" was edited by Dean Stanley (1795-1842). ARNOLD. "Essays on Criticism. Paul and Protestantism. at Gravesend." "Culture and Anarchy." "Light of the World." and other works in prose and verse. poet and critic." says Swinburne. by his moral character and governing faculty effected immense reforms in Rugby School. author of the "Light of Asia. headed an insurrection against the Computer Lecturer. was liberal in his principles and of a philanthropic spirit. familiar with Indian literature. "It is. ARNOLD OF BRESCIA. died suddenly at Liverpool. Chennai 6. Germany. Page 159 of 2772 . influential as he was in that regard.ramakalai@gmail. commissioned twice over to visit France. an Italian monk. _b_." of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift. eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby. escaped to the English ranks on the discovery of the plot.

famous for its defence by a handful of English and Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny. Arouet l. at last was burned alive in 1156. his name formed by an ingenious transposition he made of the letters of his name. SW. Page 160 of 2772 . which collapsed under the Pope's interdict. AR`PAD. a spirituous liquor. who. (jeune). by the voluntary sacrifice of his life. a peasant of the canton of Unterwald. NEIL. DR. especially that distilled from the juice of the cocoa-nut tree and from fermented rice. 907. a village 12 m. AROU`ET. ARNOTT. CTSTI. of Padua. Chennai 6. the national hero of Hungary. 36 m. S. was founder of the Arpad dynasty.com Pope in Rome. ARRACK. where Petrarch died and was buried. ARQUA. an ancient town in Latium. j. which became extinct in 1301. and his ashes thrown into the Tiber. a town in Bengal. ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED. author of the "Elements of Physics" and of several hygienic inventions (1788-1874). the Decius of Switzerland. AR`RAH. of Rome. from Patna. Computer Lecturer. ARPI`NO (ARPINIUM). the family name of Voltaire. established for the Magyars a firm footing in the country. broke the lines of the Austrians at Sempach in 1386 and decided the fate of the battle.ramakalai@gmail. _d_. a native of Arbroath. birthplace of Cicero and Marius.

250 B. a Roman matron. ARRAS (20). with a margin of lowland round the coast. in Buteshire. the last of the Seleucidae. edited his "Enchiridion". of Pas-de-Calais.. thrust a poniard into her own breast. by a revolt which proved successful against the Seleucidae. to encourage her husband in meeting death. Chennai 6. 250 B. export mother-of-pearl. whose seat is Brodick Castle. W. a French town in the dep. of New Guinea. the same as the CUNEIFORM (q.ramakalai@gmail. largest island in the Firth of Clyde. CTSTI. FLAVIUS. Computer Lecturer. ARROW-HEADED CHARACTERS. and died at an advanced age. Page 161 of 2772 . 100. nearly all the property of the Duke of Hamilton. ARSACIDAE. ARRU ISLANDS (15). tortoise-shell. AR`RIA. pearls." and "Periplus. AR`SACES I.com ARRAN (4). a group of 80 coralline islands. saying.C. AR`RIAN. "It is not painful. the birthplace of Damiens and Robespierre. highest summit Goatfell. who wrested the throne from Antiochus II. a dynasty of 31 Parthian kings." an account of voyages round the Euxine and round the Red Sea. a friend of Epictetus the Stoic." whereupon he followed her example. to which he had been sentenced. a Bithynian. belonging to Holland.). &c. _b_.C. 2866 ft. the founder of the dynasty of the Arsacidae. who.. long celebrated for its tapestry. wrote a "History of Alexander the Great. v. and then handed it to him. a mountainous island.

A. CTSTI. III. GULF OF.ramakalai@gmail. restored the old religion of the Magi.D. the Liberal. also a prude in Moliere's "Misanthrope." ARTA. implying the possession of a soul. ARTE`DI. entitling the holder to append M. grandson of Sassan... "Ichthyologia. slew all his kindred on ascending the throne. A.com ARSIN`OE. concluded a peace with Greece after a war of 52 years. Chennai 6. son of the preceding. and promoted education. Page 162 of 2772 .C. implying skill. and the Fine.. and the Mechanical: the Liberal. frontier of Greece. assisted Linnaeus in his "Systema Naturae". the Fine. THE. a Swedish naturalist.. called the "Long-handed. king from 465 to 424 B. his own great work. graduation in which is granted by universities. entertained Themistocles at his court.). to his name. implying scholarship. gulf forming the NW. vanquished and killed his brother Cyrus at Cunaxa in 401. as holding of the entire. for which his eunuch Bagsas poisoned him. amended the laws." from his right hand being longer than his left. ARTAXER`XES. son of Xerxes I. king from A. the name of several Egyptian princesses of antiquity.A. who had revolted against him. Computer Lecturer. MNEMON. in Egypt slew the sacred bull Apis and gave the flesh to his soldiers.C. king from 359 to 338 B. discriminated from the mechanical by the word spiritual. king from 405 to 359 B.C. There are three classes of these. II.. heart as well as brain. A. imposed in 387 on the Spartans the shameful treaty of ANTALCIDAS (q. 223 to 232. the name of several Persian monarchs: A. IV. v. the Mechanical. undivided man. I. ARTS." published by Linnaeus after his death (1703-1735). founder of the dynasty Sassanidae. OCHUS.

ARTEMI`SIA. also queen. A. so as to obtain a constant supply of it. in the Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and Leto. AR`TEVELDE. and fought with valour at Salamis. JACOB VAN.com AR`TEGAL. II. 440 B." AR`TEMIS. twin sister of Apollo. and became king. expelled him. defeated Louis II. PHILIP VAN.C. presided over the birth of animals. the impersonation and champion of Justice in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. born in the Isle of Delos. wells made by boring for water where it is lower than its source.. was guardian of flocks. ARTEMUS WARD.C. 480 B. Chennai 6.C. 355 B. ARTEMI`SIUM. raised a tomb over the grave of her husband Mausolus. queen of Halicarnassus. CTSTI. a promontory N. a wealthy brewer of Ghent. the moon the type of her and the laurel her sacred tree. was the Diana of the Romans. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. ARTESIAN WELLS. of Euboea. joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. made a treaty with Edward III.ramakalai@gmail. Page 163 of 2772 . a virgin goddess. but with the help of France Louis retaliated and defeated Computer Lecturer. and got mixed up with deities in other mythologies. ARTEVELDE. F. chosen chief in a revolt against Count Louis of Flanders. and one of the great divinities of the Greeks. son of the preceding. represented as a huntress armed with bow and arrows. BROWNE. See C. near which Xerxes lost part of his fleet. was massacred in a popular tumult (1300-1345). as lord-superior of Flanders.

a young thief. from the top of which the prospect is unrivalled. ARTFUL DODGER. a British prince of wide-spread fame. whatever it may be now. supplanted by King John. clustering proudly over her rugged foundations.. ARTHUR. ARTICLES. CTSTI. who is supposed to have lived at the time of the Saxon invasion in the 6th century. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. everlasting ocean.. a creed framed in 1562. ARTHUR SEAT. a lawyer by profession. and show like a city of fairyland"--such the view Carlyle had in a clear atmosphere of 1826. ARTHUR. PRINCE. with Edinburgh at their base. an expert in the profession in Dickens' "Oliver Twist. to the rendering of which Tennyson devoted so much of his genius.. THE THIRTY-NINE. and slew him in 1382. venerable masses of stone-work. whose exploits and those of his court have given birth to the tradition of the Round Table. a lion-shaped hill 822 ft. rough crags and rude precipices at our feet ('where not a hillock rears its head unsung'). heir to the throne of England by the death of his uncle Richard I. twenty-first president of the United States. with the Fife hills swelling gradually into the Grampians behind it on the N. that stretch far and wide. close to Edinburgh on the E. originally Forty-Two.com the Flemings." AR`THUR. Page 164 of 2772 . as the accepted faith of the Church. CHESTER ALAN. which every clergyman of the Church of England is bound by law to subscribe to at his ordination. and covering with a vapoury mantle the jagged. and a prominent member of the Republican party (1830-1886). "the blue.. black. majestic. Chennai 6. DUKE OF BRITTANY.

ancient Grecian marbles collected at Smyrna and elsewhere by the Earl of Arundel in 1624. but a munificent benefactor of the Church (1353-1414). a municipal town in Sussex. Lord Chancellor. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. v. ARUNDEL MARBLES. brother of Louis XVI. who fell in single combat with Brutus. son of Tarquinus Superbus. and archbishop of Canterbury. THOMAS. AR`UNDEL (2). united to the crown in 1659. Page 165 of 2772 . AR`TOIS. and afterwards CHARLES X. famed. which he prints in small caps. according to a definition of Ruskin. ARUNS." for "breeches of a new kind in this world". MONSEIGNEUR D'. with a castle of great magnificence. and parts of the Somme and the Nord. (q. a persecutor of the Wickliffites.. successively bishop of Ely.. an ancient province of France.com ARTIST. E. the seat of the Earls of Arundel.).C. PRINCE OF. of Chichester.ramakalai@gmail. now in the possession of the University of Oxford.C. comprising the dep." ARTISTS. ARUNDEL. the date of the marbles themselves is 263 B. the most important of which is one from Paros inscribed with a chronology of events in Grecian history from 1582 to 264 B. 9 m. on the Arun. "a person who has submitted to a law which it was painful to obey. of Pas-de-Calais.. archbishop of York. ARTOIS. that he may bestow a delight which it is gracious to bestow. Chennai 6. as described in Carlyle's "French Revolution. Albert Duerer. so called by his countrymen.

ASAFOE`TIDA. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. exports grain and salt. Slavs. Teutons. a fetid inspissated sap from an Indian umbelliferous tree. used in medicine. an affluent of the Congo on the right bank below the Stanley Falls. a seaport in Algeria.ramakalai@gmail. of the Caspian Sea and N. Celts. AR`ZEW.com ARUWI`MI. ASAPH. and southward into Persia and the valley of the Ganges. and to have branched off at different periods north-westward and westward into Europe. 22 m. on the one hand. with Roman remains. from Oran. or Indo-Europeans. AR`YANS. a river that flows through the valley of Chamouni and falls into the Rhone below Geneva. a college of twelve priests in ancient Rome whose duty it was to make annual offerings to the Lares for the increase of the fruits of the field. ARVA`TES. Page 166 of 2772 . ARVEYRON. an affluent of the Arve from the Mer de Glace. from which sprung the Greeks. a community of origin that is attested by the comparative study of their respective languages. a race that is presumed to have had its primitive seat in Central Asia. of the Hindu-Kush. FRATRES. Latins. ARVE. E. CTSTI. a musician of the temple at Jerusalem. and the Persians and Hindus on the other.

who trotted _non passibus aequis_ ("with unequal steps") by the side of his father as he escaped from burning Troy. ST. lamp-wick.. distinguished as a naturalist. NW. sent to America. 500 m. though so huge as to carry Bevis. seat of a bishopric. a bare volcanic island in the Atlantic. Computer Lecturer. from Chester.com ASAPH. AS`BURY. and 900 m. Page 167 of 2772 .. steam-pipes. a town in Flintshire. ASCENSION. a Dane. a giant conquered by Bevis of Southampton. &c. and particularly as a collector of folk-lore. and horse under his arm. of St. rising to nearly 3000 ft. 20 m. a coaling and victualling station for the navy. ASBES`TOS.ramakalai@gmail. was consecrated the first bishop of the newly organised Methodist Church there (1745-1816). was founder of Alba Longa. ASBJOeRN`SEN. as well as an author of children's stories (1812-1885). an incombustible mineral of a flax-like fibrous texture. his wife. FRANCIS. ASCA`NIUS. Helena. a zealous. AS`CAPART. the son of AEneas. Chennai 6. assiduous Methodist preacher and missionary. one of the five cities of the Philistines. CTSTI. which has been manufactured into cloth. gas-stoves. much contested for during the Crusades. paper. AS`CALON. belonging to Britain. from the coast of Africa.

" for which Henry VIII. an ancient town of Bavaria. JOHN. AS`COT. and end his days in the debtors' prison. wrote a book to prove that death was due to want of faith. apparently quite happily. and much esteemed by her. a good classical. the sum of which is _docendo discas_. entitled "Toxophilus. and to express his belief that he would be translated.com ASCHAF`FENBURG (14). SW. AS`GARD. and was great in hygiene. scholar. 6 m. deemed a classic. a Bithynian who practised medicine with repute at Rome in Cicero's time. ASCLEPI`ADES. his chief work. Chennai 6. 20 m." an admirable treatise on education. on the Main. ASGILL. Fellow of Cambridge. Johnson. and who held intercourse with the other spheres of existence by the bridge Bifroest. held in high regard by Dr. writing pamphlets. an eccentric Englishman. of Windsor. instituted by Queen Anne. "learn by teaching" (1515-1560). a Yorkshireman. the races at which. the "Schoolmaster. from Frankfort. take place a fortnight after the Derby. a dissenting divine. a manufacturing town in the Magdeburg district of Prussia. Computer Lecturer. ASCHAM. Page 168 of 2772 . JOHN. settled a pension on him. and particularly Greek. author of an English dictionary. the garden or heaven of the Asen or gods in the Norse mythology. CTSTI. a racecourse in Berks. was tutor and Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth. ASCHERSLE`BEN (22). and translated he was. wrote a book on archery. with an old castle and cathedral. ASH.ramakalai@gmail. in which each had a separate dwelling. i. the rainbow. e. ROGER. to spend 30 years.

JOHN. ASHBURNHAM. a member of the Long Parliament. Computer Lecturer. and his wife. a small market-town 17 m. Page 169 of 2772 .com valuable for the number of obsolete and provincial words contained in it (1724-1779). sent special ambassador to the United States in 1842. or ASHANTEE. still more. and skilful. ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH. ALEXANDER BARING. ASH`ANTI." an admirer. LORD.. ASHBURNHAM. WILLIAM BINGHAM BARING. figures in "Ivanhoe. _d_." with the ruins of a castle in which Queen Mary was immured. W. CTSTI. and finally the despatch of a military expedition. of Leicester. a Liberal politician. and well cultivated. wooded. in his retirement "a really good. warlike. of Gold Coast territory. simple-hearted old man" (1774-1848). and rare books known as the Ashburnham Collection. solid. second son of Sir Francis Baring.ramakalai@gmail. collected a number of valuable MSS. Chennai 6. and assistant to him in his troubles (1603-1671). Lady Harriet. "a very worthy man. most cheery. a faithful adherent and attendant of Charles I. ASHBURTON. natives intelligent. member of Peel's administration in 1834-35. twice over provoked a war with Great Britain. concluded the boundary treaty of Washington. of Thomas Carlyle (1797-1844). son of the preceding. which led to the submission of the king and the appointment of a British Resident. N. a negro inland kingdom in the Upper Soudan. 5TH EARL OF. 1878. ASHBURTON. sagacious. well watered. known as the Ashburton Treaty. turned Conservative.

being the half of that of the globe. of Jaffa. protected by groups of islands. Page 170 of 2772 . coast of Africa (1794-1828). CTSTI. an American philanthropist. ASHE`RA. also the largest in the world. ELIAS. strikingly stand at a higher level as we go E. with rivers the largest in the whole world. v.com ASHDOD. of which four flow N. ASHMUN. the largest of the four quarters of the globe. S. an image of ASTARTE (q. JEHUDI.). ASH`TAROTH. extensive plains. with a population of 840. presented to the University of Oxford a collection of rarities bequeathed to him. stretches southward into three large peninsulas separated by three immense arms of the sea.. two SE. which. and with lakes which though they do not match those of America and Africa. ASIA. with every variety of climate.000.. and eight S. of Computer Lecturer. with a richly varied flora and fauna.ramakalai@gmail. a maritime Philistine city 20 m. Chennai 6. and as good as in touch with the other three. on the W. a cotton-manufacturing town near Manchester. which laid the foundation of the Ashmolean Collection there (1617-1692). and eastward into three bulging masses and three pronounced peninsulas forming seas. from a centre of high elevations. contains one-third of all the land. ASH`MOLE. seat of the Dagon worship... See ASTARTE. ASH`TON-UNDER-LYNE (47). founder of the Negro Republic of Liberia.000. a celebrated antiquary and authority on heraldry. with a large continental basin. and associated with the worship of that goddess. and deep depressions.

at different stages of civilisation. as Constantine did Christianity. ASO`KA. Mahomet. a collector of rare and curious books (1722-1774). convened the third great council of the Church of that creed at Patna. ANTONY. by the Levant. Caucasian. ANNE. and on the S. CTSTI. or Christ." as lifting off the roofs of the houses of Madrid and exposing their inmost interiors and the secret doings of the inhabitants.com chiefly three races. Mongolian.000. Buddha. ASIA MINOR. indented all round.C. ASMODE`US. a king of Behar. is as large as France. Chennai 6. tortured on the rack and burnt at the stake. has a population of over 28. a lady of good birth. ASMONAE`ANS. a peninsular extension westward of the Armenian and Kurdistan highlands in Asia. by the Archipelago. called also ANATOLE`. after his accession in 264 B. from Asmon. a physician and classical scholar. into a State religion. with bays and harbours. organised Buddhism. and Malay. 1546. became an ardent disciple of Buddha. bounded on the N." or the "Devil on Two Sticks. by the Black Sea. made a proclamation of this faith Computer Lecturer. on the W. and as regards religion. and figures in Le Sage's "Le Diable Boiteux. Page 171 of 2772 . the place of their origin. ASKEW. a mischievous demon or goblin of the Jewish demonology. who gloats on the vices and follies of mankind. a name given to the Maccabees. a victim of persecution in the time of Henry VIII. and consists of a plateau with slopes all round to the coasts. for denying transubstantiation. by far the majority professing the faith of Brahma. all more or less busy centres of trade. in India.000. mainland as well as adjoining islands.ramakalai@gmail. ASKEW.

being attracted to Athens.). and with which they. also a limestone impregnated with bitumen. a mineral pitch of a black or brownish-black colour. a native of Miletus. suspended respiration in the physical life. 4 m. ASPHALTIC LAKE. _d_. Chennai 6. of Vienna. NE.ramakalai@gmail.C. but a no less real. AS`PHODEL. evidence of which is still extant in pillars and rocks inscribed with his edicts in wide districts of Northern India. a poisonous Egyptian viper of uncertain species. ASPHYX`IA. and Marshal Lannes killed. and more or less in every quarter of the globe. corresponding phenomenon in the spiritual life. a term frequently employed by Carlyle to denote a much more recondite.com as far as his influence extended. her character was often both justly and unjustly assailed. Socrates included. ASPA`SIA. consisting chiefly of carbon. where a charge of the Austrians under the Archduke Charles was defeated by Napoleon. 1809. beauty. a lily plant appraised by the Greeks for its almost perennial flowering. called hence the Asphodel Meadow. Page 172 of 2772 . on the Danube. v. the DEAD SEA (q. a village in Austria. and her home the rendezvous of all the intellectual and wise people of the city. became the wife of Pericles. ASPHALT. Computer Lecturer. 223 B. covered the Elysian fields. and culture. ASP. so called from the asphalt on its surface and banks. AS`PERN. came and settled in it. May 21. CTSTI. a woman remarkable for her wit. in their imagination.

a coaling-station belonging to Italy. a rural economist who did much to promote silk culture in Italy (1726-1818). an Italian philanthropist. Auvergne!" he exclaimed. and devoted zealously his fortune and time to the task (1753-1821). 450 m. the first to open a school for deaf-mutes in Italy. a province E. whose celebrity depends on a single act of defiance: having entered a wood to reconnoitre it the night before the battle of Kloster Kampen. overlooking the Strait of Messina. and fell dead on the instant. ASQUINI. ASSAB BAY. near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862. if not still. the low lands extremely fertile and productive. on the W. being an alluvial plain. long and 50 broad. NICOLAS. COUNT. Page 173 of 2772 . at the Atlantic extremity of the Panama railway. ASSAROTTI.com ASPINWALL. Chennai 6. captain of the French regiment of Auvergne. born at Genoa. was suddenly surrounded by the enemy's (the English) soldiers. ceded to Britain after the Burmese war in 1826. with ranges of hills along the Brahmapootra. ASPROMON`TE. "Ho. coast of the Red Sea. named Colon.500). ASSAM` (5. a town founded by an American of the name in 1800. CTSTI. pierced with bayonets. since the Empress Eugenie presented it with a statue of Columbus. AS`SAS. Computer Lecturer. three-fourths of the tea raised in India. yielding at one time. a mountain close by Reggio. to the saving of his countrymen. and the hills covered with tea plantations. of Bengal. and defied with bayonets at his breast to utter a cry of alarm.ramakalai@gmail.

of Aurungabad. ASSAYE`. A Tartar force burst upon the horde in their stronghold in 1256. Chennai 6. under a chief called the Old Man of the Mountain. devoted to the assassination of all enemies of the Moslem faith. a spear or javelin of wood tipped with iron. a small town 46 m. NE. the chief court of the Presbyterian Church. ASSEMBLY. Computer Lecturer. African tribes with deadly effect in war. WESTMINSTER. ASSEGAI. the Commons section of the States-General of France which met on May 5. where Sir Arthur Wellesley gained a victory over the Mahrattas in 1803. NATIONAL. 1789. from July 1. disposes of the general business of the Church. and determines appeals. half clergymen and half laymen. and which held its sittings. 1649. GENERAL. a representative body. to Feb. 1643. 22. at the time of the Crusades. worship. over 1100 of them. which sits in Edinburgh for ten days in May. whose stronghold was a rock fortress at Alamut. a body composed of 140 members. of which 117 were clergymen. and put them wholesale to the sword. and discipline in the National Church. with the result that the members of it were unanimous in regard to doctrine. used by certain S. Page 174 of 2772 . a fanatical Moslem sect organised in the 11th century.com ASSASSINS. and gave a new constitution to the country. CTSTI. constituted itself into a legislative assembly. convened at Westminster to determine questions of doctrine. ASSEMBLY. and so called because they braced their nerves for their deeds of blood by draughts of an intoxicating liquor distilled from hashish (the hemp-plant). but were divided in the matter of government. ASSEMBLY.ramakalai@gmail. in Persia.

a province in Canada between Saskatchewan and the United States. a town in Central Italy. wrote an account of Syrian writers (1687-1768). and biographer of Alfred the Great.ramakalai@gmail. the English. to the number of 45 thousand million. and finally the South Sea Company. a French company. ASSER. and the birthplace of Metastasio. Computer Lecturer. 12 m. Francis. JOHN. Page 175 of 2772 . to the ruin of millions. the Genoese. STEPHANO. librarian of the Vatican. nephew. AS`SIGNATS. _d_. ASSINIBOINES. monk of St. the few of whom that remain do farming on the banks of the Saskatchewan. 909. who sometimes came in great numbers. in Wales. wrote "Acta Sanctorum Martyrum" (1707-1782). ASSIEN`TO. certain aborigines of Canada. friend. GIUSEPPE. ASSI`SI (3). ASSINIBOI`A. SE. David's.com ASSEMANI. the birthplace and burial-place of St. of Perugia. a treaty with Spain to supply negroes for her colonies. a learned Syrian Maronite. and which in course of time sunk in value. bills or notes. is said to have suggested the founding of Oxford University. held the same office. CTSTI. Chennai 6. tutor. issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France in 1790. who relinquished their rights in 1750 on compensation by Spain. it was a celebrated place of resort of pilgrims. concluded in succession with the Flemings. and based on the security of Church and other lands appropriated by it.

mythical name of the founder of Assyria. CTSTI. ASSOUCY. festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to heaven. between the Niphates Mountains of Armenia on the N. and afterwards a satrapy of the Persian empire. the southernmost city of Egypt. by the sun. with a fertile soil and a population at a high stage of civilisation. the female divinity of the Phoenicians. D'. which lay to the E. an ancient kingdom.ramakalai@gmail.C. and has been under the Turks since 1638. on the right bank of the Nile. FEAST OF THE. and the former.com ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS. long and 150 broad. like Computer Lecturer. the latter. ASTAR`TE. the ancient Syene. ASSUMPTION. as Baal was the male. such that the consciousness of one tends to recall the other... the origin and early history of which is uncertain. or IST`AR. Page 176 of 2772 . and symbolised. ASSYRIOLOGY. in whose hands it is now a desert. ASSOUAN`. ASSUR. and Babylonia on the S. ASSYR`IA.. a connection in the mind between two ideas. like Apollo. near the last cataract. these two being representative respectively of the conceptive and generative powers of nature. the study of the monuments of Assyria. in 606 B. or ASHTORETH. celebrated on the 15th of August. a French burlesque poet ridiculed by Boileau (1604-1679). Chennai 6. chiefly in a Biblical interest. the alleged day of the event. 280 m. a fact employed to explain certain recondite psychological phenomena. became a province of Media.

Aster. 1. is noted for its wine. championed the rights of women. in "Orlando Furioso" he brings back Orlando's lost wits in a phial from the moon. surmised in 1596. ASTER. AS`TEROIDS. along with Franconi established the Cirque Olympique in Paris (1742-1814). Chennai 6. small planets in orbits between those of Mars and Jupiter. ASTLEY. LUISE. by the moon. sometimes identified with Urania and sometimes with Venus. gradually found to number more than 200. to be revenged.com Artemis or Diana.ramakalai@gmail. AS`TI (33). a knight-errant in mediaeval legend who generous-heartedly is always to do greater feats than he can perform. Page 177 of 2772 . _b_. and named Ceres. German authoress. ASTOLFO. PHILIP. on the Tanaro. whereupon Philip sped back another with the words. or Planetoids. the first on Jan. an archer who offered his services to Philip of Macedon. Aster will hang for it." and he was true to his word. "When Philip takes the town. 26 m. from Turin. ASTON. a famous equestrian and circus manager. of Amphipolis. Computer Lecturer. an ancient city in Piedmont. CTSTI. birthplace of Alfieri. all discovered in the present century. SE. boasting of his skill in bringing down birds on the wing. with a Gothic cathedral. and possesses a horn that with a blast can discomfit armies. inscribed. 1801. the rites connected with her worship were of a lascivious nature. and went about in male attire. sped an arrow from the wall of a town Philip was besieging." which took effect. "To the right eye of Philip. and to whom Philip had replied he would accept them when he made war on the birds. 1820.

and her sister Pudicitia along with her. AS`TRAKHAN (43). v. the daughter of Zeus and Themis. a millionaire. an ethereal body believed by the theosophists to invest the animal. ASTOR. a Russian trading town on the Volga. a suburb of Birmingham. the name given to an era which piques itself on the return of the reign of justice to the earth. came to London. but left the earth on its decline. 1891. known as the "landlord of New York" (1792-1875). now placed among the stars under the name of Virgo. who made a fortune of four millions in America by trading in furs (1763-1848). ASTRAEA REDUX. dwelt among men during the Golden Age. the goddess of justice. 1848. WILLIAM WALDORF. ASTRAL BODY. JOHN JACOB. son of a German peasant. ASTO`RIA.ramakalai@gmail. to correspond to it. the withdrawal explained to mean the vanishing of the ideal from the life of man on the earth. 40 m. with numerous salmon-tinning establishments. in Oregon. devoted to politics. His son doubled his fortune.) Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. and to be capable of BILOCATION (q. a fur-trading station. ASTOR. of which it is the chief port. became proprietor of the _Pall Mall Gazette_ and _Budget_ in 1893.com ASTON MANOR (54). ASTRAE`A. son of the preceding. _b_. Page 178 of 2772 . CTSTI. from its mouth in the Caspian Sea.

JEAN. now noted as having discovered that the book of Genesis consists of Elohistic and Jehovistic portions.C.ramakalai@gmail. ASTROLOGY. ASTU`RIAS (579). so called from having been founded by the Spaniards on the Feast of the Assumption in 1535. 549 B. and to hover unembodied through space exercising demonic influence on embodied spirits. ASURAS. and who by this discovery founded the modern school called of the Higher Criticism (1681-1766). ASTY`AGES. and with good fisheries. a French physician and professor of medicine in Paris. from the principal town. last king of the Medes. spirits believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies. lest he should live and restore the city. of Spain. THE. and few great families at one time but had an astrologer attached to them to read the horoscope of any new member of the house. the son of Hector and Andromache. Chennai 6. a science founded on a presumed connection between the heavenly bodies and human destiny as more or less affected by them. was cast down by the Greeks from the ramparts after the fall of Troy. a science at one time believed in by men of such intelligence as Tacitus and Kepler. dethroned by Cyrus.com ASTRAL SPIRITS. ASTY`ANAX. to whom worship was paid. rich in minerals. CTSTI. now named Oviedo. an ancient province in the N. the capital of Paraguay. gives title to the heir to the crown. in the Hindu mythology the demons of the darkness of night. or ASSUMPTION (18). Page 179 of 2772 . ASUN`CION. ASTRUC. in overcoming whom the gods asserted their sovereignty in the Computer Lecturer. on the left bank of the Paraguay.

kept dropping first one golden apple.ramakalai@gmail. was banished by her father Zeus. accepted the risk and started along with her. an all but rainless desert in the N. and was strangled by his orders in 1533. ATBA`RA. a line always approaching some curve but never meeting it. Hippomenes his name. ATAHUALPA. little short of a year after the Spaniards landed in Peru. from the Highlands of Abyssinia. America. but as he neared the goal. then another. or Black River. also of vengeance. name given to the reappearance in progeny of the features. a river. the last of the Incas of Peru. which it joins near Berber. the prize of any suitor who could outstrip her on the racecourse. and a lake in British N. whereupon Hippomenes claimed the prize. the lowest tributary of the Nile. of ancestors dead generations before. a beautiful Grecian princess celebrated for her agility. Computer Lecturer. that is. and even diseases. of Chile. provided him by Venus. for the annoyance she gave him. from heaven to earth. ATACA`MA.com universe. ATE`. where she has not been idle since. ASYMPTOTE. as well as gold in considerable quantities. ATALAN`TA. stooping to lift which lost her the race. at last one suitor. a province. Page 180 of 2772 . in the Greek mythology the goddess of strife and mischief. abounding in silver and copper mines. AT`AVISM. who fell into Pizarro's hands through perfidy. ATHABA`SCA. failure being death. CTSTI. Chennai 6.

and damnatory of every article of the heresy severally. daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. and in employing young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not know. which may be either theoretical. 9th century B. and the Holy Ghost in the Trinity. though embracing his theology in affirmation of the absolute co-equal divinity of the Father. ATHEISM. a statement. ascribed by Ruskin to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy in teaching children what they cannot understand. ascribed to Athanasius at one time. took a prominent part against Arius in the Council at Nice. and in vindication of the doctrine of the Trinity viewed in the most absolute sense (296-373). the queen of Judah.ramakalai@gmail. spent the last 10 years of his life as bishop at Alexandria. Christian theologian. in the form of a confession. in the intellect. the Son. or practical. ISLE OF. of the orthodox creed of the Church as against the Arians. for which she was in the end massacred by her subjects. was chosen bishop of Alexandria.com ATHALIA. where he died. driven forth again and again from his bishopric under persecution of the Arians. MODERN. disbelief in the existence of God. ATHANASIAN CREED.C. a native of Alexandria. ATHANASIUS. and a deacon of the Church. and was his most uncompromising antagonist. in the life. but now believed to be of later date. his works consist of treatises and orations bearing on the Arian controversy. ATHEISM. an island in a marsh near the confluence of the Computer Lecturer." ATHELNEY. CTSTI. the latter the more common and the more fatal form of it. Page 181 of 2772 . retired into the Thebaid for a time. celebrated for her crimes and impiety. Chennai 6.

at once the brain and the heart of it. and a treatise on the resurrection of the dead. are the Computer Lecturer. and bears on her left arm the aegis with the Medusa's head. of war as of peace. a school of learning established in Rome about 133 by Hadrian. ATHENAEUM. the Greek virgin goddess of wisdom. The two chief monuments of the architecture of ancient Athens. the olive among trees. and is the name of over twenty places in the United States. wrote a curious miscellany of a book entitled "Deipnosophistae. and the chief city of ancient Greece." extant only in an imperfect state. that have been considered to rival it in this respect. a Greek writer of the 3rd century. Chennai 6. while the monuments of temple and statue that still adorn it give evidence of a culture among the citizens such as the inhabitants of no other city of the world have had the genius to surpass. Somerset. an able Christian apologist of the 2nd century. particularly in the domain of literature and art. or the Suppers of the Learned. wears a helmet. is said to have been the conception of Metis. Alfred's place of refuge from the Danes. Edinburgh in particular. and in this way the child of both wisdom and power. to have issued full-armed from the brain of Zeus. Page 182 of 2772 . the capital of Attica. ATHENAG`ORAS. in the earth. ATH`ENS. CTSTI. were sacred to her. and the owl among animals. ATHE`NA. though the name Athens has been adopted by or applied to several cities.com Tone and Parret. wrote an apology in its defence. particularly in the arts. but being converted to Christianity. was Athenian and a pagan by birth. ATHENAEUS. the resort in ancient times of all the able and wise men.ramakalai@gmail. from all parts of the country and lands beyond. both erected on the Acropolis. happily called by Ruskin the "'Queen of the Air.' in the heavens. and in the heart".

ATHOLE.ramakalai@gmail. Page 183 of 2772 . ATHOLE. a district in the N. ATHLONE (7). of Perthshire. and a chief military station.. ATHOLE-BROSE.S. ATLANTA (65). in Turkey. U. the monks devote themselves to gardening. a market-town on the Shannon. which gives name to a branch of the Murray family. is the capital (100) of modern Greece. the finest building on the finest site in the world. a large manufacturing and railway centre. and rich in curious manuscripts. honey.). which divides it. CTSTI. _b_.com PARTHENON (q. oatmeal. 7TH DUKE OF. Chennai 6. figures of men used in architecture instead of pillars. and the Erechtheum. MOUNT. the largest city in Georgia. the more devout among them at one time celebrated for the edification they derived from the study of their own navels. inhabited exclusively by monks of the Greek Church. a mountain 6780 ft. v. or MONTE SANTO (6). ATLANTES. covered with monasteries. Computer Lecturer. 1840 A`THOS. the seat of the government. honourably distinguished for having devoted years of his life to editing the records of the family and the related history. and whisky mixed. bee-culture. high at the southern extremity of the most northerly peninsula of Salonica. dedicated to Athena. and other rural occupations. a temple dedicated to Poseidon close by. SIR JOHN JAMES HUGH STEWART-MURRAY. and the residence of the king.

connecting. a Titan who.. THE NEW. Africa. a range in N. ATLAN`TIS. which Lord Bacon began to outline but never finished. rather than separating. CTSTI. and is the same there as in the heart of man. and an account of its fabulous history. a Utopia figured as existing somewhere in the Atlantic. changed into a mountain by exposing to view the head of the Medusa. ATMAN. most traversed and best provided for traffic of all the oceans on the globe. Plato has given a beautiful picture of this island. Chennai 6. ATLAS MOUNTAINS. the most important. where it may be felt stirring. or from 3 to 5 m. with waves in consequence of greater height and volume than those of any other sea. for his audacity in attempting to dethrone Zeus. THE. for his want of hospitality.ramakalai@gmail.. the divine spirit in man. travelling whence along the arteries it peers out as a small image in the eye. conceived of as a small being having its seat in the heart. in Morocco. the GREATER in Morocco. in the Hindu philosophy.000 feet. Computer Lecturer. its average breadth 2700 m. it is centred in the heart of the universe.com ATLANTIC. an island alleged by tradition to have existed in the ocean W. to Cape Bon. the highest 11. although another account makes him a king of Mauritania whom Perseus. AT`LAS. was doomed to bear the heavens on his shoulders. the Old World and the New. covers nearly one-fifth of the surface of the earth. in Tunis. the heart and eye of the world. the pupil. best known. Page 184 of 2772 . of the Pillars of Hercules..000 ft. THE. and the whole system extending from Cape Nun.. and appears with dazzling effect in the sun. its average depth 15. the LESSER extending besides through Algeria and Tunis. length 9000 m.

a Polynesian one. II. I. ATOMIC THEORY. is navigable for 200 m. to direct it. the weight of an atom of any body compared with that of hydrogen. the name... a son of Pelops and king of Mycenae. to be converted. Lachesis. founded the library of Pergamos and joined the Romans against Philip and the Achaeans (241-197 B. Chennai 6. appointed to spin the thread. ATRI`DES. III.. AT`TALUS. the theory that all compound bodies are made up of elementary in fixed proportions. ATOMIC WEIGHT. into the Gulf of Darien. into a canal to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. one of her sisters.com AT`OLL. the unit. to avenge a wrong done him by his brother Thyestes. the one who cut asunder the thread of life. a family frequently referred to as capable of and doomed to perpetrating the most atrocious crimes. ATRA`TO. particularly Agamemnon and Menelaus. kept up the league with Rome (157-137). AT`ROPOS. descendants of Atreus. Page 185 of 2772 . A. A`TREUS. since the failure of the Panama scheme. proposed. CTSTI. his descendants had to pay heavy penalties.. Clotho. and served them up in a banquet to him. along with San Juan River. bequeathed his wealth to the Roman people Computer Lecturer. A.ramakalai@gmail. the name of three kings of Pergamos: A. given to a coral island consisting of a ring of coral enclosing a lagoon. and the other. a river in Colombia which flows N. killed his two sons. who. as tradition shows.). for which act.C. one of the three Fates.

ramakalai@gmail. and wrote an eloquent style (1662-1731). Page 186 of 2772 . an eloquent preacher. AT`TICA. a zealous Churchman and Jacobite. a pure. bishop of Rochester. and dean of Westminster. of the Peloponnesus. an English prelate. He was a scholarly man. opposed to Punic. a country in ancient Greece. ATTIC FAITH. died in Paris. classical. a pure and refined style of expression in any language. pointed and delicate wit. originally the purest and most refined style of the ancient literature of Greece. ATTIC STYLE. from the sweetness and beauty of his productions. which has nevertheless had a history of world-wide fame and importance. within an area not larger than that of Lanarkshire. a wealthy Roman and a great friend of Cicero's. Xenophon. which last brought him into trouble on the accession of the House of Hanover and led to his banishment. and elegant style. in succession dean of Christ Church. ATTICISM. ATTIC MUSE. Sophocles. ATTIC BEE. ATTERBURY.com (137-132). TITUS P. inviolable faith. on the NE.. Chennai 6. from the simplicity and elegance of his style. Computer Lecturer. FRANCIS. CTSTI. ATTIC SALT. ATTICUS.

the king of the Huns. of Italy. Page 187 of 2772 . ATTWOOD. took no part in politics. wrote a few anthems (1767-1836). AT`TILA. GEORGE." from the terror he everywhere inspired. died of hemorrhage. after she had. the slaves who dug the grave having. a beautiful Phrygian youth. a town and fortress in the Punjab. Computer Lecturer.). lest they should reveal the spot. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. invented a machine for illustrating the law of uniformly accelerated motion. an eminent English musician and composer. extorting heavy tribute. been killed. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. vanquished the emperors of both East and West. driven him mad. beloved by Cybele. on the Indus where the Kabul joins it--a river beyond which no Hindu must pass. and was buried in a gold coffin containing immense treasures in 453. died of voluntary starvation rather than endure the torture of a painful and incurable disease (110-33 B. who turned him into a pine.com devoted to study and the society of friends. was defeated in a great battle near Chalons-sur-Marne by the combined armies of the Romans under Aetius and the Goths under Theodoric. on the day of his marriage. AT`TOCK (4). surnamed "the Scourge of God. retreated across the Alps and ravaged the N. overran the Roman Empire at the time of its decline. ATTWOOD. or Etzel. Chennai 6. A`TYS.C. it was built by Akbar in 1581. THOMAS. as in falling bodies (1745-1807). led his forces into Germany and Gaul. the name given the first law officer and legal adviser of the Crown in England and Ireland. a mathematician. by her apparition at his marriage to forbid the banns. it is said. it is alleged.

JOHN. v.ramakalai@gmail. formed of Champagne and a small part of Burgundy. AU`BERT. with Troyes for capital. but released by a mob. THE ABBE. all of which he lost by lawsuits and bad management. and Wales. a French town on the Creuse. PIERRE D'." &c. born at Caen. AUBUSSON. AUB`RIOT. CTSTI. John of Jerusalem. a French fabulist. French knight murdered by ROBERT MACAIRE (q. a dep. a friend of Anthony Wood's. Chennai 6. who in 1480 gallantly defended Rhodes when Computer Lecturer. born at Paris (1731-1814). his operas included "La Muette de Portici. inherited estates in Wilts.com AUBE (255). (1782-1871). was imprisoned in it for heresy. AU`BER. of French descent. was intimate with all the literary men of the day. a popular French composer of operas." "Le Domino Noir." "Fra Diavolo. 1382. an eminent antiquary. manufactures carpets and tapestry." being a collection of popular superstitions. born at Dijon. provost of Paris under Charles V. in France. Page 188 of 2772 . published one work. "Miscellanies.: built the famous Bastille. a French statesman. Hereford. AUBUSSON. died at Dijon. AUBRY DE MONTDIDIER. grand-master of the Knights of St. preserved a good deal of the gossip of the period (1624-1697).). AUB`REY. the sole witness of the crime and the avenger of it being his dog. left a vast number of MSS..

14 m.. BISHOP (11). First Lord of the Admiralty. of Ayr. AUCKLAND. 400 m. was the capital of New Zealand till the seat of government was transferred to Wellington.com besieged by Mahomet II. and the creation of the Free Church in 1843. capital of the dep. returned afterwards to his post in the Admiralty (1784-1849). AUCHTERAR`DER. and drove the assailants back. son of the following. with a fertile soil and a fine climate. and accessible only by a flight of 200 steps. rich in natural products of all kinds. CTSTI. where the forcing of a presentee by a patron on an unwilling congregation awoke a large section in the Established Church to a sense of the wrong. gave name to Auckland. long. LORD. with an excellent harbour in the Gulf of Hauraki. has a trade in wine and brandy. 10 m. AUCHINLECK. island. a town on the Wear. GEORGE EDEN. Computer Lecturer. with the palace of the bishop. with the mansion of the Boswell family. of Toulouse. in the N. and 200 m. Governor-General of India. a village in Perthshire. a Whig in politics. SW. amounting to no fewer than 100. France.ramakalai@gmail. W. Chennai 6. and the capital of a district of the name. a village 15 m. the largest town in New Zealand. E. broad.000 men (1423-1503). with a splendid cathedral perched on a hill. AUCH (12). Page 189 of 2772 . AUCK`LAND (60). AUCKLAND. of Durham and in the county of Durham. of Gers. and the assertion of the rights of the people and led to the disruption of the community.

AUDHUMBLA. engraved the works of Lebrun. and the insects that destroy the vines (1797-1841). the most eminent of a family of artists. JEAN BAPTISTE. of France. AUCKLAND ISLANDS. all exquisitely done (1759-1800). with some good harbours. CTSTI. a French artist and naturalist. born in Essex. in the Norse mythology. such especially as monkeys and humming-birds. JEAN VICTOR. LORD. AUDRAN. GERARD. &c. that nourished Hymir. unscrupulous tool of Henry VIII. devoted himself to the illustration in coloured plates of objects of natural history. son of a yeoman. wine. a group of small islands 180 m.. became Speaker of the House of Commons and Lord Chancellor of England. WILLIAM EDEN. an engraver. AUDLEY.com AUCKLAND. and lived herself by licking the hoar-frost off the rocks. he did some fine illustrations of the battles of Alexander the Great (1640-1703). and is rich in minerals. being a portion of Languedoc. in the S. and rich in vegetation. yields cereals. of New Zealand. Mignard. born at Lyons. AUDE (317). (1488-1554). Chennai 6. and an authority on criminal law (1744-1814). the cow. Page 190 of 2772 . SIR THOMAS. Computer Lecturer. an eminent French entomologist. AUDEBERT. LORD. S. and Poussin. a maritime dep. diplomatist. AU`DOUIN. was employed by the French Government to inquire into and report on the diseases of the silkworm. the selfish.ramakalai@gmail.

an Austrian physician. Stirling defines it. the "Birds of America" and the "Quadrupeds of America. born in Silesia. and having begun his literary career as editor of his works. his novels. Page 191 of 2772 . if they could only persuade men to forego reason. was professor of Sanskrit in Edinburgh University. 1822." Computer Lecturer. and a pronounced enemy of the absolutist party headed by Metternich (1806-1876). common-sense. AUFKLAeRUNG. AUF`RECHT. his "Village Tales of the Black Forest" were widely popular (1812-1882). AU`ERBACH. and who profess to settle all questions of reason." drawn and illustrated by himself. THE. a movement.com AU`DUBON. an Austrian lyrical and satirical poet. and under the guidance of so-called rationalism. COUNT VON. as the only test of truth. born in the Black Forest. author of two great works. AU`ERSPERG. are in the main of a somewhat philosophical bent. or as Dr. eminent Sanskrit scholar. THEODOR. or Illuminationism. at the hands of the modern party of unbelief. BERTHOLO. of liberal politics. CTSTI. a German poet and novelist of Jewish birth. AU`ENBRUGGER. the former characterised by Cuvier as "the most magnificent monument that Art up to that time had raised to Nature" (1780-1851). conspicuously of the present time.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated American ornithologist of French Huguenot origin. by appeal to private judgment and majorities. the members of which pique themselves on ability to disperse the darkness of the world. returning to Germany. discoverer of the method of investigating diseases of the chest by percussion (1722-1809). he having been early led to the study of Spinoza. Chennai 6. _b_. that is. of faith. became professor at Bonn. which have been widely translated. JOHN JAMES. "that stripping of us naked of all things in heaven and upon earth. and accept sense.

AUGS`BURG (75). executed the _coup d'etat_ of the 4th Sept. 1797. renowned as a critic (1772-1829). a French litterateur. but was cleansed by Hercules turning the rivers Peneus and Alpheus through it. a busy manufacturing and trading town on the Lech. PIERRE FRANCOIS CHARLES. a legendary king of Elis. AU`GIER. in Greece.ramakalai@gmail. all distinctly on the side of virtue. born at Paris. in Bavaria. and of the doctrines of the Church of Rome. produced brilliant comedies for the French stage through a period of 40 years. against Computer Lecturer. AUGSBURG CONFESSION. ensuring religious freedom. his services were rejected by Napoleon on his return from Elba. and where the peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555. that had not been cleaned out for 30 years. able French dramatist.. He was simply a soldier. a document drawn up by Melanchthon in name of the Lutheran reformers. AU`GEREAU. marshal of France and duke of Castiglione. born at Paris. Page 192 of 2772 .com AUGE`AS. the act a symbol of the worthless lumber a reformer must sweep away before his work can begin. headed by the Elector of Saxony in statement of their own doctrines. AUGER. on account of his having supported the Bourbons during his absence. EMILE. His only rivals were Dumas _fils_ and M. Chennai 6. and one of the Argonauts. and with no great brains for anything else but military discipline (1757-1816). the work of reformation proper. Sardou (1820-1889). distinguished in the campaigns of the Republic and Napoleon. rude and rough-mannered. where in 1531 the Protestants presented their Confession to Charles V. CTSTI. once a city of great importance. had a stable with 3000 oxen.

as on suggestion of a friend he took up the epistle to read it in answer to an appeal he had made to him to explain a voice that was ever whispering in his ears. was converted to Christ by a text of St. which began in March. AUGUST. the bishop of Hippo and the greatest of the Latin Fathers of the Church. the apostle of England. CTSTI. became Computer Lecturer. began his labours in Kent. and which were sometimes carried about in a coop to consult on emergencies.. Paul (Rom. a German rationalist theologian of note. U. from its mouth. the time in the history of a nation when its literature is at its best. U. xiii. _d_. 14). Page 193 of 2772 . AUGURS. on the Savannah. or rather archbishopric. a native of Tagaste. originally called Sextilis. a college of priests in Rome appointed to forecast the future by the behaviour or flight of birds kept for the purpose. and named August in honour of Augustus. 605. founded the see. sent thither with a few monks by Pope Gregory in 596 to convert the country to Christianity. 231 m. which his eyes first lit upon. son of a pagan father and a Christian mother. AU`GUSTINE. in Numidia.. a prosperous town in Georgia.ramakalai@gmail. 13. "Take and read".S. also a town (10) the capital of Maine. born near Gotha (1771-1841). ST. AUGUSTI.com which they protested. as being the month identified with remarkable events in his career. Chennai 6. after a youth of dissipation. or AUSTIN. ST. AUGUSTA (33). AUGUSTAN AGE. AUGUSTIN. of Canterbury.. St. as the sixth month of the Roman year.S. Monica.

He was especially imbued with the theology of St. called also Black Cenobites. became consul. and his heir. joined the Republican party at Caesar's death. the Donatists. his principal works are his "Confessions. defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. a portion of them barefooted. AUGUSTUS. It is safe to say. the first of the Roman Emperors or Caesars. his reign forming a distinguished epoch in the history of the ancient literature of Rome (63 B. no Churchman has ever exercised such influence as he has done in moulding the creed as well as directing the destiny of the Christian Church. along with Antony overthrew the Republican party under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi.C. proved a wise and beneficent ruler. was voted the title of "Augustus" by the Senate in 27 B. opposing especially the Manichaeans. CTSTI. (_c_) Nuns. a monarch surnamed the "pious" and the "Justinian of Saxony" (1526-1586). formed one of a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus. (_b_) Friars. and took an active part in the Church controversies of his age. and became master of the Roman world. mendicant. Page 194 of 2772 . whose reign was peaceful comparatively. Computer Lecturer..-A.D. Paul (354-430).ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. AUGUSTINIANS." his "City of God. and he was himself both a good man and a good ruler." and his treatises on Grace and Free-Will. a Lutheran prince.com bishop in 396. AUGUSTUS. nurses of the sick. AUGUSTUS I. ultimately CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS.C. 14). grand-nephew of Julius Caesar. had 200 houses in England and Wales at the Reformation. and the Pelagians. and patronised the arts and letters. the name of several princes of Saxony and Poland in the 16th and 17th centuries. (_a_) Canons. under a less severe discipline than monks. devoted himself to pastoral duties. Elector of Saxony. called at first CAIUS OCTAVIUS..

and was governor of Algeria. was convicted of treason. one of the chiefs of the League.. dealt with judicial matters. Page 195 of 2772 . CTSTI." He was.. and left his estate and valuables to the French nation Computer Lecturer. baked the biggest bannock on record. and where Iphigeneia. which he resigned when his father abdicated. AUGUSTUS III.--of physical strength. died an exile at Brussels (1556-1631). AUMALE. from which there was no appeal. and lived and died with the emperor. AULIC COUNCIL. fourth son of Louis Philippe. son of the preceding. acknowledged the Republic. half-crowns with finger and thumb. and of bastards. had twice to retire. lived in England for twenty years after. is known to history as "The Strong". Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. distinguished himself in Algiers. "attained the maximum. no man of his means so regardless of expense. a port in Boeotia. AUMALE.com AUGUSTUS II. of sumptuosity. it had no constitution. forced himself on Poland. "in several things. nay. a patron of the fine arts." says Carlyle. leagued with the Spaniards. DUC D'. proved an incompetent king (1696-1763).. could break horse-shoes. AULIS. DUC D'. to procure a favourable wind. a cake with 5000 eggs and a tun of butter. became governor of Paris. like many a monarch of the like loose character. was sacrificed by her father Agamemnon. an event commemorated in the "Iphigeneia in Aulis" of Euripides. three hundred and fifty-four of them (Marshal Saxe one of the lot). supreme council in the old German Empire. but was reinstated. Chennai 6. beat Stanislaus Leszcynski in the struggle for the crown of Poland. and founded the Dresden Picture Gallery (1670-1733). of date from 1495 to 1654. was burned in effigy.ramakalai@gmail. where the fleet of the Greeks assembled before taking sail for Troy. which he held against Henry IV. and having escaped.

Geraud. a wreath of light represented as encircling the brows of the saints and martyrs. AURE`LIUS. AUREOLA. and left a curious work called "Philobiblon" (1281-1345). affluent of the Dordogne. distinguished as a skilful and successful general. sent on embassies to various courts. or RICHARD DE BURY. Page 196 of 2772 . on the Jourdanne. and while on his way to crush a rebellion in Persia was assassinated by his troops (212-275).com (1822-1897). carrying her captive to Rome. CTSTI. MARCUS. son of a peasant of Pannonia. and an able Roman emperor. subdued a usurper in Gaul. AURE`LIUS. built round the famous abbey of St. vanquished Zenobia. AURILLAC (14). queen of Palmyra. now extinct. tutor to Edward III. 270. AUNOY. COMTESSE D'. a German wild ox. See ANTONI`NUS. RICHARD. a French authoress.ramakalai@gmail. AUNGERVILLE. drove the barbarians out of Italy. a Roman consul and a Latin historian of the 4th century. VICTOR SEXTUS. bishop of Durham. known and appreciated for her fairy tales (1650-1705). powerful in physique. AU`ROCHS. LUCIUS DOMITIUS. was a lover and collector of books. Computer Lecturer. now in ruins. Chennai 6. was elected emperor. of Cantal. AURELIA`NUS. capital of the dep..

See EOS. extended his empire by subduing Golconda. but as yet only expectant of employment in it. and Bengal. AUSCULTATION. a city in Illinois. his rule was far-shining. CTSTI. the Carnatic. of Chicago. understood to be an electric discharge through the atmosphere connected with magnetic disturbance. once the capital. 35 m. he governed with skill and courage. and rode in a rosy chariot drawn by four white horses. and though fanatical and intolerant. Mogul emperor of Hindustan. U. now much decayed. AUSCULTATOR. AU`RUNGZEBE. charged with opening for the sun the gates of the East. among whom he beforehand divided it (1615-1707). with the ruins of a palace of Aurungzebe. was a patron of letters. Computer Lecturer. and when he died it crumbled to pieces in the hands of his sons. Page 197 of 2772 .. ascended the throne by the deposition of his father. the murder of two brothers and of the son of one of these. SW. the Roman goddess of the dawn. third son of Shah Jehan. in the Nizam's dominions. AURORA (19). name in "Sartor Resartus. discerning by the sound whether there is or is not disease in the interior organs of the body.S. but the empire was rotten at the core.com AURO`RA. or Northern Lights. AURORA BOREALIS." the hero as a man qualified for a profession. a city in Hyderabad. said to have been the first town to light the streets with electricity. AURUN`GABAD` (50). had a star on her forehead. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail.

AUSTIN (14). one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories. and the delineation of it. made him prefect of Latium and of Gaul. AUSTIN. Hampshire. a native of Gaul. near Bruenn. and thought so by himself. born near Leeds. where Napoleon defeated the emperors of Russia and of Austria. if sufficiently observed and selected. to furnish forth prose fiction not merely that would pass." and others. who.ramakalai@gmail. and only in mature womanhood thought of writing for the press. as Scott is the father of it" (1775-1816). and consul of Rome. which she achieved in an inimitably charming manner. a town in Moravia. a gifted English novelist. but that should be of the absolutely first quality as literature. on the Colorado River. the capital of Texas.com AUSONIA. but no poet (300-394). Computer Lecturer. on coming to the throne. occupied herself in writing without eye to publication." Dec. "She showed once for all. tutor to the Emperor Gratian. born in Bordeaux. a Roman poet. "Persuasion." her masterpiece. 2. Chennai 6. "the capabilities of the very commonest and most ordinary life. Her first novel. CTSTI. member of a quiet family circle. DECIMUS MAGNUS. an ancient name of Italy. AUSTEN." says Professor Saintsbury. poet-laureate in succession to Tennyson. JANE. He was a good versifier and stylist. her interest being throughout in ordinary quiet cultured life. at "the battle of the three emperors. ALFRED. She is the mother of the English 19th-century novel." was published in 1811. but devoted to literature as journalist. named after Stephen Austin. writer. bred for the bar. daughter of a clergyman in N. 1805. who was chiefly instrumental in annexing Texas to the States. and was followed by "Pride and Prejudice. AUSONIUS. AUS`TERLITZ (3). "Sense and Sensibility. and combined with due art. Page 198 of 2772 .

depressed in the centre. though many and spacious harbours. of any consequence. See AUGUSTINIANS. the Murray. professor of Jurisprudence in London University. wife of the preceding. _b_. was unsuccessful as professor." "English Lyrics. MRS. and extends more or less parallel all the way with the E. a continent entirely within the Southern Hemisphere. New Zealand. (_nee_ Sarah Taylor). long. J. Chennai 6. CTSTI. "The Province of Jurisprudence Determined.com and poet. AUSTIN." and his Lectures. about one-fourth smaller than Europe.. bordered with ranges of various elevation. the coast has singularly few inlets. "Falk's Characteristics of Goethe" for one.ramakalai@gmail. 2345 m... has written "The Golden Age. were published by his widow after his death (1790-1859). AUSTRALIA. AUSTIN." "Savonarola.. Carpentaria. the Great Australian Bight. and either in flood or dried up. a distinguished English jurist.. its utmost length from E. Southern Asia). but being too profound in his philosophy. and one bight. only one river. 1835. coast. was. being 2400 m. executed translations from the German. for the climate is very parching. and breadth 1971. on the N. and the islands adjoining. Page 199 of 2772 . the interior consists of a low desert plateau. the rivers are few. JOHN. he wrote to his wife of her. it will be with her" (1793-1867) AUSTIN FRIARS. a Satire. of the utilitarian school." and several works in prose. to W. the chief mountain range is in the E. e. between which and the sea is a varying breadth of coast-land. a name given to Australia. AUSTRALASIA (i. mastered the science of law by the study of it in Germany. was introduced to Carlyle when he first went up to London. Computer Lecturer. his great work. "If I 'swear eternal friendship' with any woman here. only one great gulf. on the S. like her husband.

and Trans-Leithan on the E. 5 of them kingdoms. fruits. the natives are disappearing. which are numerous.. is inhabited by peoples of different races and nationalities. which with Tasmania federated in 1900 and became the Commonwealth. the kangaroo. or the East Kingdom.000. New South Wales.ramakalai@gmail. grains. and the territory divided into Victoria. minerals abound. it was celebrated for its rivalry with the kingdom of Neustria. including. a thick under-lip characteristic of the House of Hapsburg. into Cis-Leithan on the W. or the Western Kingdom. Australia. is divided by the Leitha. speaking different languages.000. AUSTRIAN LIP. the fauna is no less peculiar. as many as 20. are shallow and nearly all salt. has three zones of climate with corresponding zones of vegetation. yet has free communication with the seas on all sides of it.com while the lakes. and smaller ones of great beauty. a kingdom on the E. Australia. Chennai 6. all of which have their mouths in other countries. of the possessions of the Franks in Gaul. and edible roots being all imported. of birds. CTSTI. a tributary of the Danube. manufacturing chiefly in the W. its chief seaport. is largely pastoral and agricultural.000. AUSTRIA. the useful animals being likewise all imported. is rich in minerals. the eucalyptus and the acacia the most characteristic. capital of which was Metz. is watered by rivers. or AUSTRO-HUNGARY. and the population over 40. and W. AUSTRASIA. the capital Vienna.. but songless. the dingo.000. both the precious and the useful. the cassowary and the emu. and composed of 50 different states. in the absence of many animals of other countries. Trieste. that existed from 511 to 843. Page 200 of 2772 . occupies the centre of Europe. the colonists in 1904 numbering close upon 4. has next to no coast-line. S. the Danube in chief. Queensland. Computer Lecturer. is the third country for size in it. the flora is peculiar. is a country of every variety of surface and scenery. and the duck-bill.

and received thirty pounds each. preliminary to the execution of a heretic. who held their sittings for three years severally at Westminster. v. CTSTI.. and that has since woven itself into the affectionate regard of the whole English-speaking people.ramakalai@gmail. called the San Benito. the whole being thereafter revised by a committee of six. and a pointed cap. divided into three groups of two sections each. and maternal grandfather of Ulysses by his daughter Anticlea. of the Seine. Chennai 6. the rest being done for nothing. AUTO-DA-FE.). and Oxford. now included in Paris. dressed in a hideously fantastic robe. a ceremony held by the court of the Inquisition in Spain. grace. its very style has had a nobly educative effect on the national literature. synonym for thief. followed by carts containing coffins with malefactors' bones. so that it is not undeservedly called King James's Bible. Cambridge. famed for his cunning and robberies. London. AUTHORISED VERSION OF THE BIBLE was executed between the years 1604 and 1610 at the instance of James I. to hear a sermon on the true faith. the most famous auto-da-fe took place in Madrid in 1680. Computer Lecturer. prior to being burned alive. who met for nine months in Stationers' Hall. and melody of the English language. The men who executed it evidently felt something of the inspiration that breathes in the original. The result was a translation that at length superseded every other. Page 201 of 2772 . Greek for aborigines. AUTOCHTHONS. in the Greek mythology a son of HERMES (q. or Act of Faith. and was the work of 47 men selected with marked fairness and discretion. a village in the dep. walked in a procession of monks. dignity.com AUTEUIL. AUTOL`YCUS. and has contributed more than anything else to prevent it from degenerating into the merely frivolous and formal. and they have produced a version that will remain to all time a monument of the simplicity. in which the condemned.

of Yonne. an ancient province of France. Self-law). born at Marseilles. 28 m. AUTRAN`. AUVERGNE`. Page 202 of 2772 . Chennai 6. embracing the deps. Cantal. AV`ALON. and supply all the water-carriers and street-sweepers of Paris. the highlands of which separate the basin of the Loire from that of the Garonne.com AUTOM`EDON. of Puy-de-Dome. from Chalons. where Talleyrand was bishop. an ancient city in the dep. on the Arroux. &c. CTSTI. they speak a strange dialect. a French poet and dramatist. manufactures serges.ramakalai@gmail. in the Celtic mythology an island of faerie in the region Computer Lecturer. drives a large trade in wine. AUTUN` (15). united to the crown under Louis XIII. capital of the Burmese empire from 1364 to 1740 and from 1822 to 1835. velvet. an ancient city. he was of the school of Lamartine. has a fine cathedral in the Flamboyant style. the charioteer of Achilles. AVA. carpets. JOSEPH. in the Kantian metaphysics denotes the sovereign right of the pure reason to be a law to itself. AUXERRE` (15). and attained distinction by the production of the tragedy "La Fille d'Eschyle" (1813-1877). with a fine cathedral and rich in antiquities. of Paris. and contain a hardy and industrious race of people descended from the original inhabitants of Gaul. capital of the dep. e. AUTONOMY (i. SE. and part of Haute-Loire. 90 m. of Saone-et-Loire. in 1610. NW. now in ruins from an earthquake in 1839.

has been subject to earthquakes. surmised to have been erected and arranged in memory of some great victory. in the middle of a so-called Druidical structure consisting of 100 monoliths. of Marlborough. a tribe of Huns who. or Descent. and from which they were enticed back by Menenius Agrippa by the well-known fable of the members of the body and the stomach. AVENTI`NUS. macaroni. a Bavarian historian. Page 203 of 2772 . chief town in a province of the name in Campania. AVELLI`NO (26). by the Chinese. &c. Chennai 6. CTSTI. of Naples. 6 m. 59 m. one of the seven hills of Rome. famous for its trade in hazel-nuts and chestnuts. and committed ravages in it for about three centuries. or ABERY.ramakalai@gmail. the mount to which the plebs sullenly retired on their refusal to submit to the patrician oligarchy. the incarnation and incarnated manifestation of a Hindu deity.. till they were subdued by Charlemagne. invaded the E. 28. AVENTINE HILL. author of the "Chronicon Bavariae" Computer Lecturer. AVATAR`. paper. AVEBURY. E. manufactures woollens. so called as forming the first two words of the salutation of the angel in Luke i. and all but exterminated in 827. AVARS. a village in Wiltshire. driven from their home in the Altai Mts. a theory both characteristic of Vishnuism and marking a new epoch in the religious development of India. and the final home of the heroes of chivalry when their day's work was ended on earth.com where the sun sinks to rest at eventide. of Europe about 553. W. an invocation to the Virgin. AVE MARIA.

in circumference. AVERNUS.com (Annals of Bavaria). or versifier Computer Lecturer. AVIE`NUS. of authority in philosophy as well as in medicine. of France. a deep lake in Italy. AVENZO`AR. an Arabian physician. a valuable record of the early history of Germany (1477-1534). RUFUS FESTUS. Chennai 6. at one time surrounded by a dark wood. AVICEN`NA. 11/2 m. to be the entrance to the infernal world. near Naples. with excellent pastures. his "Canon of Medicine. a man of immense learning and extensive practice in his art. where the Roquefort cheese is produced. an Italian town 8 m." though he appears to have coupled with the philosophy of Aristotle the Oriental pantheistic doctrine of emanations (1126-1198). a mountainous dep. AVERSA (24)." being the supreme in medical science for centuries (980-1037). earning for himself the title of the "Commentator. in the S. from Naples. and identified with it. a geographer and Latin poet. an illustrious Arabian physician. the teacher of Averroes (1073-1103). Page 204 of 2772 . from its gloomy appearance. as well as from the mephitic vapours it exhaled. and conceived. surnamed the prince of physicians. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. AVER`ROES. devoted himself to the study and the exposition of Aristotle. his philosophy being of the school of Aristotle with a mixture of Neoplatonism. an Arabian physician and philosopher. much resorted to by the Neapolitans. a Moor by birth and a native of Cordova. occupying the crater of an extinct volcano. amid vineyards and orange groves. AVEYRON`.

a Spanish priest. AVLO`NA (6). an ancient city beautifully situated on the left bank of the Rhone. birthplace of St. or VALONA. A`VON. surnamed the Apostle of Andalusia.. it contains a number of interesting buildings. 3000 ft. for his zeal in planting the Gospel in its mountains. A`VILA (10). France. with a Gothic cathedral and a Moorish castle. of Salisbury in Wiltshire. such as Shakespeare's in Warwickshire. and of Bristol.com rather. coast of Sicily. of Old Castile. and belonged to the Papacy from that time till 1797. rebuilt since. Page 205 of 2772 . was the seat of the Papacy from 1305 to 1377. ruined by an earthquake in 1693. AVILA.ramakalai@gmail. the name of several English rivers. AVIGN`ON (37). a seaport on the E. CTSTI. a port of Albania. grows and manufactures silk in large quantities. and historian under Charles V. a town in Spain. when it was appropriated to France. Theresa. in a province of the name. a soldier. on an inlet of the Adriatic. _d_. of Vaucluse. of the 4th century. diplomatist. oil. JUAN D'. of various fortune from its foundation by the Phocaeans in 539 B. place of export of the Hybla honey. above the sea-level. purchased by Pope Clement VI. and fruits. near the confluence of the Durance. and carries on a large trade in wine. Computer Lecturer.C. capital of the dep. Chennai 6. rising in Wiltshire. 1569. at that period. in S. AV`OLA (12). AVILA Y ZINUGA.

of Manche. and now fertile.com AVRANCHES` (7). AX`OLOTL. a tract of land in NW. CTSTI. its surface is 100 ft. capital of an Ethiopian kingdom in Abyssinia. AX`UM. LOCH. the second in size of Scottish lakes. where Christianity was introduced in the 4th century. belonged to Holland till 1871. a trading settlement on the Gold Coast. where Henry II. and which as the outpost of Christendom fell early before the Mohammedan power. a thriving town in Peru. belonging to Britain. &c. the place. one with the ruin of a castle. subdued tribes of Wends. AXHOLME. the spot marked by a stone. above the sea-level. Normandy. AXEL. archbishop of Lund. believed to be in its preliminary or tadpole state of existence. born in Zealand. then a marsh. broad. and trade in agricultural products. AXIM. long and 5 m. in the centre of Argyllshire. ISLE OF. AYACU`CHO. 17 m. a batrachian. where the Peruvians and Colombians achieved their independence of Spain Computer Lecturer. Africa. AWE. the scenery gloomily picturesque. a Danish patriot with Norse blood. numerous in Mexico and the Western States.ramakalai@gmail. received absolution for the murder of Thomas a Becket. lace-making the staple industry. 25 m. drained in 1632. a town in dep. founded by Pizarro in 1539. in length. Page 206 of 2772 . rape. flax. once a forest. Lincolnshire. studded with islands. now in ruins. overshadowed by mountains. Chennai 6. producing hemp. and compelled them to adopt Christianity.

" which was more than a chronicle of wars. AYMA`RAS. NW. AYE-AYE. for he died in her arms. a highly arbitrary man. the dominant people of Peru at the Computer Lecturer. American continent. the only wife of Mahomet that remained a virgin. She was. who defeated her and took her prisoner.ramakalai@gmail. but released her on condition that she should not again interfere in State matters (610-677). "A woman who distinguished herself by all manner of qualities among the Moslems. the daughter of Abubekr. it is said. a lemur found in the woods of Madagascar. English antiquary. PEDRO LOPEZ D'. and diplomatist. from which it would appear sprang the Quinchuas. AYESHA. AYLOFFE. Chennai 6. and ended the rule of Spain in the S. 40 m. On Mahomet's death she opposed the accession of Ali. and a friend to neither Papist nor Puritan. statesman. he is satirised by Spenser in the "Shepherd's Calendar" (1521-1594). SIR JOSEPH. whom he married soon after the death of Kadijah. and favourite wife of Mahomet. supplies the London market with ducks. AYLES`BURY (9).com in 1824. born in Murcia. a borough and market-town in Buckinghamshire. wrote a "History of the Kings of Castile. CTSTI. AYA`LA. AYLMER. tutor to Lady Jane Grey. a Spanish soldier. of London." who is styled by them the "Mother of the Faithful" (see KADIJAH). Page 207 of 2772 . the chief native race of Peru and Bolivia. bishop of London. and a book of poems entitled the "Rhymes of the Court" (1332-1407). being also a review of them. JOHN. as much devoted to Mahomet as he was to her. in an agricultural district. born in Sussex (1708-1781).

with a large coal-field and thriving manufactures. Carrick for a coo. and number to-day 500. to the S. and Cunningham. on his accession.ramakalai@gmail. ancient town. by the Firth of Clyde. granted by William the Lion. Carrick. and doubly so among Scottish towns as the birthplace near it of Robert Burns.. a poet of considerable merit. its charter. attained a high degree of civilisation. Page 208 of 2772 .com time of the Spanish conquest. JACOB. the father of four sons. AYRSHIRE (226). Guiscard. Cunningham for butter and cheese. AYR`ER. AYR (23). and Richard. a clean. CTSTI. the county town of Ayrshire.). AY`MAR-VER`NAY. its divisions. AYMON. Renaud. THE COUNT OF DORDOGNE. with elegant villas in the suburbs. was on friendly terms with the eminent literary men Computer Lecturer. who made his fortune by a Latin panegyric to King James I." AYTON. on the N. dating from 1200. v. bordered on the W. Kyle. Chennai 6. of Scotland. famous in early Scottish history. who in the 17th century professed to discover springs and treasures hid in the earth by means of a divining rod.000. of the style of HANS SACHS (q. a native of Fife. and particularly as paladins of Charlemagne. a peasant of Dauphine. born at Kinaldie. renowned in the legends of chivalry. of the Doon. a German dramatist in the 16th century. Galloway for 'oo. well built. agricultural and pastoral. concerning which there is an old rhyme: "Kyle for a man. SIR ROBERT. Alard. a good harbour and docks for shipping. at the mouth of a river of the same name. a large and wealthy county in the W. between the Doon and the Irvine.

MARCHESE D'. and 900 m. AZEGLIO. AZ`RAEL. an opening from the Black Sea. poet and critic. and gradually silting up with mud from the Don. professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University." an admirable collection of light verse (1813-1865). W. the angel of death according to Rabbinical tradition.ramakalai@gmail. WILLIAM EDMONDSTOUNE. they were known to the Carthaginian mariners. a native of Edinburgh. the climate is mild. W. but fell out of the map of Europe till rediscovered in 1431. are in general mountainous. Chennai 6. native of Turin. along with Sir Theodore Martin. Ben Jonson in particular. AZORES. he was also editor. with fertile plains. Hawk Islands (250). of the river Aras. of Armenian Persia. Page 209 of 2772 . some in Latin. of Portugal. AYTOUN. he was not altogether engrossed with politics. and forming a province of it. 800 m. i. his poems are written in pure and even elegant English. Michael's and Fayal. fighting for Italian independence. of the "Gaultier Ballads.000). prov. e. SEA OF. and good for pulmonary complaints. S.com of his time. a group of nine volcanic islands in the Atlantic. wounded at Vicenza in 1848. of which the chief are St. of it. AZOV. AZERBIJAN (2. Computer Lecturer. was Victor Emanuel's right-hand man. an Italian patriot and statesman. in the latitude of Lisbon. author of the "Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers". and rich in minerals. entered the Piedmontese Parliament. covered with orange groves. CTSTI. cattle-breeding. being an amateur in art (1798-1866). and have only recently been collected together (1571-1638). retired in favour of Cavour. very shallow.

an Italian jurist. revolting alike from the materialism of Hume. and God even in life. identified himself with the liberal movement in politics. and broad featured. as incomprehensible realities. DOMINICO ALBERTO. president of the Court of Appeal at Genoa. B BAADER. a German philosopher. the principal male divinity of the Canaanites and Phoenicians.com AZ`TECS. who. and were overthrown by the Spaniards in 1520. CTSTI. AZYMITES.ramakalai@gmail. He. and became professor in Muenich. Chennai 6. and in the latter leavened. BAALIM. made a special study of maritime law. FRANZ XAVIER VON. which he studied in England. born in Sardinia. with its self-sufficiency of the reason. Page 210 of 2772 . or after. AZUNI. the name given to a party in the Church who insisted that only unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist. _PL_. a civilised race of small stature. as in the former case the bread must have been unleavened. what might rather be called a theosophy than a philosophy. which regarded God in Himself. and the controversy hinged on the question whether the Lord's Supper was instituted before the Passover season was finished. of reddish-brown skin. however. and the transcendentalism of Kant. which occupied the Mexican plateau for some centuries before the Spaniards visited it. identified with the sun as the great Computer Lecturer. BA`AL (meaning Lord). was patronised by the king of Bavaria. lean. born at Muenich. fell back upon the mysticism of Jacob Boehme. and taught in 16 vols. and offended the king (1765-1841). author of "Droit Maritime de l'Europe" (1729-1827).

BABBINGTON. being that of the Canaanites. ANTONY. in Anatolia. spent much time and money over the invention of a calculating machine. BAALISM. studied at Cambridge. and professor there. BABBAGE. BAAL`BEK (i. v. the name given to the worship of natural causes. NW. covering an area of four acres. with a town of the name. was for a time mixed up with the worship of Jehovah in Israel. BABA. Chennai 6. ALI. the god who presided over the labours of the husbandman and granted the increase. one of the most magnificent ruins of the East. worshipped on hill-tops with sacrifices. tending to the obscuration and denial of the worship of God as Spirit. strength. wrote on "The Economy of Manufactures and Machinery. conspired against Computer Lecturer. the most western point in Asia. Baal-worship. called by the Greeks. an ancient city of Syria. and at one time threatened to swamp it. CHARLES.com quickening and life-sustaining power in nature. his crowning attribute. an English Catholic gentleman. or the Sun). City of Baal." and an autobiography entitled "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher". 35 m. BABA. the character in the "Arabian Nights" who discovers and enters the den of the Forty Thieves by the magic password "SESAME" (q. once a place of great size. e.). CAPE. in Asia Minor. Page 211 of 2772 . the most conspicuous of which is the Great Temple to Baal. a mathematician. a word which he accidentally overheard. of Damascus. and dancing. in his later years was famous for his hostility to street organ-grinders (1791-1871). wealth. CTSTI. born in Devonshire. but under the zealous preaching of the prophets it was eventually stamped out. and splendour.ramakalai@gmail. now in ruins. Heliopolis. incense.

confessed his guilt. insisted on the emancipation of women. a strait between Asia and Africa forming the entrance to the Red Sea. was guillotined. BABOON.ramakalai@gmail. Queen of Scots. BABIS. and became at length master of it in 1526. CTSTI. convicted of conspiracy. but are increasing in numbers. BABES IN THE WOOD. stifled by the soldiery". a violent revolutionary in France. a descendant of Tamerlane. a modern Persian sect founded in 1843. Chennai 6. name applied to a native Hindu gentleman who has some knowledge of English. Irish banditti who infested the Wicklow Mountains in the 18th century. headed an insurrection against the Directory. LEWIS. the name Arbuthnot gives to Louis XIV. and was executed at Tyburn in 1586. and were guilty of the greatest atrocities. and often cause wreckage to vessels attempting to pass it. thrice invaded India. BABOO. FRANCOIS NOEL. "which died in the birth. left memoirs. or BABU. the Gate of Tears). the founder of the Mogul empire in Hindustan. adverse to polygamy. in his Computer Lecturer. his dynasty lasted for three centuries. BABOEUF. See CHILDREN.com Elizabeth on behalf of Mary. have suffered from persecution. BABER. and divorce. so called from the strong currents which rush through it. concubinage. after attempting to commit suicide (1764-1797). Page 212 of 2772 . self-styled Gracchus. e. their doctrines a mixture of pantheistic with Gnostic and Buddhist beliefs. BAB-EL-MANDEB (i.

the capital city of Babylonia.com "History of John Bull.C. BABY-FARMING. which flowed through it and by Darius in 519 B. The 8th century B. asserted his independence. was marked by a fierce struggle with the northern empire of Assyria. one of the richest and most magnificent cities of the East. in which Babylonia eventually succumbed and became an Assyrian province. BABYLON. and "the land of the Chaldees". Semitic tribes subsequently settled among the Accadians and impressed their characteristics on the language and institutions of the country. such as London. Page 213 of 2772 . a system of nursing new-born infants whose parents may wish them out of sight. From very early times it was the seat of a highly developed civilisation introduced by the Sumero-Accadians. fertile plain through which the lower waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris flow. Chennai 6. or GABRIUS. BABYLO`NIA. In that year Cyrus conquered it for Persia. through the self-sacrifice of Zophyrus. by Cyrus in 538 B. with alterations. Judah was captive in the country from 599 to 538 B.. turned the fables of AEsop and of others into verse. a Greek poet of uncertain date. Babylonia rose to the zenith of its power.. now the Turkish province of Irak-Arabi or Bagdad.C.C. Shinar. Babel. by diverting out of their channel the waters of the Euphrates. are conceived to have a corrupting effect on the religion and morals of the inhabitants. the accumulation of material wealth. the gigantic walls and hanging gardens of which were classed among the seven wonders of the world. it occupied the rich. and under his son Nebuchadnezzar. according to tradition.C.C. who descended on the plain from the mountains in the NW. But Nabopolassar in 625 B. and is to-day to great centres of population. The name was often metaphorically applied to Rome by the early Christians. and the so-called refinements of civilisation. was taken." BA`BRIUS.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. where the overcrowding. the name given by the Greeks to that country called in the Old Testament. Computer Lecturer.

the god of the vine. and which continued for 70 years. BACCHANALIA. Page 214 of 2772 .com and its history became merged in that of Persia. a Corsican officer. and had loose flowing garments. son of Zeus and Semele. those who took part in the festival of Bacchus. a rival of Pindar. and carrying a THYRSUS (q. originally of a loose and riotous character.. he rendered signal service to Zeus in the war of the gods with the GIANTS (q. v. who had conquered Babylon. v. such as Maenads. those who returned were solely of the tribes of Judah. BABYLONISH CAPTIVITY.C. BACCHYL`IDES. BAC`CHUS. only a few fragments of his poems extant. FRA.). who married Maria Bonaparte. they wore their hair dishevelled and thrown back. and Levi. and promoter of its culture as well as the civilisation which accompanied it. Chennai 6. 5th century B. Computer Lecturer. till they were allowed to return to their own land by Cyrus. See BARTOLOMEO. Thyads. and were called by a number of names.ramakalai@gmail.). Benjamin. in honour of Bacchus. &c. BACCIO`CHI. a Greek lyric poet. confined originally to women.. and was created by Napoleon Prince of Lucca (1762-1841). CTSTI. nephew of Simonides and uncle of Eschylus. the name given to the deportation of Jews from Judea to Babylon after the capture of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon. represented as riding in a car drawn by tame tigers. See DIONYSUS. BACCIO DELLA PORTO. BACCHANTES. a festival.

was knighted in 1837. SIR GEORGE. born at Philadelphia. was an etcher as well as painter (1631-1708). of a family of Hungarian origin. LUDOLPH. BACHE. BACKHUY`SEN. a Dutch painter. though she did not originate. A. a little rod). BACIL`LUS (lit. an American physicist. BACON. JOHANN SEBASTIAN. an American authoress. difficult of execution (1685-1750).ramakalai@gmail. one of the greatest of musical composers. his works. entered the navy. an organist. discovered instead and traced the Great Fish River in 1839. who first broached. and in 1857 made admiral (1796-1878). noted--sixty of them--for musical genius. CTSTI. associated with Franklin in three polar expeditions. DELIA. Thomas. from their originality and scientific rigour. superintended the coast survey (1806-1867). a theory in favour of which she has received small support (1811-1859). was a French captive for five years. Chennai 6. was in succession a chorister. BACHELOR. and finally director of music at the School of St. a devoted Arctic explorer. a director of concerts. DALLAS. Leipzig. See BACTERIA. a bacterium. Computer Lecturer. distinguished as being twice as long as it is broad. a name given to one who has achieved the first grade in any discipline. others being more or less rounded. born at Stockport. BACK. went in search of Sir John Ross.com BACH. famous for his sea-pieces and skill in depicting sea-waves. Page 215 of 2772 . born in Eisenach. the theory of the Baconian authorship of Shakespeare's works.

ROGER. but pardoned and released. Computer Lecturer. LORD VERULAM. the air-pump. the father of Francis. JANOS.com BACON. accused of magic. from which he was released only to die. attached himself to Essex. fined and imprisoned. and wrote some eighty treatises (1214-1294). called to the bar when 21. like many of his countrymen (1763-1845). but witnessed against him at his trial. his great works were his "Advancement of Learning. CTSTI. educated at Cambridge. represented successively Taunton. son of Sir Nicholas Bacon. deposed. became at last in succession Attorney-General. Lord Bacon. indeed." "Novum Organum. Lord Keeper. the diving-bell. born in the Strand. BACSANYI. a Hungarian poet. these show such shrewdness of wit as to embolden some (see _SUPRA_) to maintain that the plays named of Shakespeare were written by him (1561-1626). born at Ilchester." but is seen to best advantage by the generality in his "Essays. the father of the inductive method of scientific inquiry. was convicted of venality as a judge. such as the telescope. after study at Gray's Inn. suggested several scientific inventions. SIR NICHOLAS. and gunpowder. Somerset. BACON. a Franciscan monk. convicted and condemned to imprisonment. Chennai 6. and much honoured and trusted by the queen (1510-1579). BACON. a fearless truth-seeker of great scientific attainments. he suffered from his liberal political opinions. spent his retirement in his favourite studies. FRANCIS. Privy Councillor and Keeper of the Great Seal under Queen Elizabeth. exceedingly minute organisms of the simplest structure. London. a prudent and honourable man and minister. BACTE`RIA. and Ipswich in Parliament. and Lord Chancellor.ramakalai@gmail. Page 216 of 2772 . Privy Councillor. was a favourite with the queen." and "De Augmentis Scientiarum. the camera obscura. Liverpool." which are full of practical wisdom and keen observation of life. which served him little.

living on the Nilghiri Mountains. now BALKH (q. capital of a Spanish province of the name. CTSTI. with life or death to the higher forms of being. of Afghanistan.com being merely cells of varied forms. near the frontier of Portugal. a Dravidian people of small stature. the presumed fatherland of the Aryans and the birthplace of the Zoroastrian religion.. a picturesque hill country. in the shape of spheres. BADAJOZ` (28). and 150 from N. a name given to Zoroaster as a native of Bactria. on the Guadiana. so much has been contributed by the labours of M. BACUP (23). to S. in S. Chennai 6. BADAKHSHAN` (100). about 20 m. Computer Lecturer. v. the inhabitants. as happens. and multiply by fission with great rapidity. of Manchester. and to the knowledge of which.). conspicuous by the part they play in the process of fermentation and in the origin and progress of disease. it has been often visited by travellers. from E. Page 217 of 2772 . BADAKANS. a place of great strength. rods. are of the Aryan family and speak Persian. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. and taken after a violent and bloody struggle by Wellington in 1812. to W. and the purpose they serve in nature. BACTRIAN SAGE. surrendered to Soult in 1811. or intermediate shapes. from Marco Polo onwards. a province of ancient Persia. Pasteur. fraught. called Badakhshans. BAC`TRIA. it is 200 m. rich in minerals. the scene of fearful outrages after its capture. India. a Mohammedan territory NE.ramakalai@gmail. NE. which develop in infusions of organic matter.

was bestowed by Bruce on his nephew. mountain. wood-carving. Switzerland. also a town near Vienna.W. a town in the canton of Aargau. BADI`A-Y-LABLICH.ramakalai@gmail. is rich in timber. BADEN-BADEN (13). and is a popular summer resort. disguised himself as a Mohammedan under the name of Ali-Bei. his disguise was so complete that he passed for a Mussulman. BADRINATH. a German duchy. high. but was forfeited by them. long by 19 broad. long a fashionable resort for its mineral springs. from Carlsruhe and 22 from Strassburg. minerals. India. Heidelberg and Freiburg. there are two university seats. 14 m. of Zurich. even in Mecca itself. after a time settled in Paris. which were known to the Romans. belonged originally to the Comyns. of Barcelona. 18 m. NW. travelled in the East. in N. cotton fabrics. BA`DEN (4).000 ft. a Spaniard. a shrine of Vishnu. and mineral springs. traversed by the Spey. Page 218 of 2772 . Chennai 6. includes the Black Forest. consists of valley. became finally the property of the Earl of Huntly. 45 m.725). 10. noted for its hot mineral springs. is believed to be the first Christian admitted to the shrine of Mecca. BAD`ENOCH. a forest-covered district of the Highlands of Scotland. of Inverness-shire. having acquired a knowledge of Arabic and Arab customs. CTSTI. much Computer Lecturer.com BADALO`NA (15). and wrote an account of his travels (1766-1818). a seaport 5 m. born at Barcelona. extends along the left bank of the Rhine from Constance to Mannheim. NE. BAD`EN. THE GRAND-DUCHY OF (1. and jewellery employ a great proportion of the inhabitants. a town in the duchy of Baden. and plain. in the SE.

com frequented by pilgrims for the sacred waters near it. Page 219 of 2772 . discovered Baffin Bay (1584-1622). It is a station on the Anglo-Indian telegraph route. WALTER. born in Somerset. cotton. BAER. the discoverer of the law. BAFFIN BAY. and the transit trade. Petersburg. a German printer in Coblenz. famed for the guide-books to almost every country of Europe that he published (1801-1859). a Computer Lecturer. grain. CTSTI. a strait stretching northward between N. BAGDAD (185). that the embryo when developing resembles those of successively higher types (1792-1876). it suffers from visitations of cholera and famine. is the capital of a province. KARL. discovered in 1615 by William Baffin. styled the "father of comparative embryology".ramakalai@gmail. An imposing city to look at. an early English Arctic explorer. Formerly a centre of Arabic culture. is still considerable. it has belonged to Turkey since 1638. and silk are manufactured. open four months in summer to whale and seal fishing. Chennai 6. known by his name. the greatest of modern embryologists. which are believed to be potent to cleanse from all pollution. when acting as pilot to an expedition in quest of the N. and one of the most flourishing cities of Asiatic Turkey. first in Koenigsberg and then in St. on the Tigris. a native of Esthonia. though less than formerly. 500 m. from its mouth. wool. BAFFIN. BAGEHOT. and connected with the Euphrates by canal. red and yellow leather. and horses are exported. who. WILLIAM. KARL ERNST VON. America and Greenland. professor of zoology. dates. Passage. BAEDEKER. an English political economist.W. and is served by a British-owned fleet of river steamers plying to Basra.

BAGHELKAND. well-known watering-places. his chief works.ramakalai@gmail. BAGHE`RIA. and 150 m. a Danish poet. though from his egotism and irritability he was personally unpopular (1764-1826). to S. 8 m. "Parthenais oder die Alpenreise. 240 m. which traced all diseases to alterations in the solid parts of the body (1667-1706). JENS EMMANUEL. travelled a good deal.com banker by profession. from Palermo. SE. a disciple of Ricardo. was editor of the _Economist_. BAGLIO`NI. Chennai 6. CTSTI. as it is called. from N. where citizens of the latter have more or less stylish villas. his minor pieces are numerous and popular. Rewah the most prosperous. an important work. BAGGE`SEN. besides other publications. an illustrious Italian physician. a pastoral epic. wrote "De Fibra Motrice" in defence of the "solidist" theory. a Mohammedan kingdom in Central Africa. of Lake Tehad. wrote in a vigorous style (1826-1877). wrote. BAGLI`VI. in which he was quite at home. Page 220 of 2772 . GIORGIO. BAGNERES. "Adam and Eve". a town in Sicily. "The English Constitution". BAGIR`MI. wrote mostly in German. Computer Lecturer. to W. name of five native states in Central India." and a mock epic. from E. two French towns on the Pyrenees. and an authority on banking and finance. an Italian fresco-painter of note (1573-1641).

JOE.com BAGNES. in the Bay of All Saints. a group of over 500 low. with a capital of the name. Page 221 of 2772 . sponges. Eylau. 34 m. and originally the capital in a province of the name stretching along the middle of the coast. Indies. name given to convict prisons in France since the abolition of the galleys. BAGRA`TION. of Patna. of which 20 are inhabited. and on one of which Columbus landed when he discovered America. and thousands of rocks. turtle. a fine city. BAHR. flat coral islands in the W. BAHAWALPUR (650). &c. BAGSTOCK.. BAeHR. a feudatory state in the NW. and in 1812. is again rising in importance. or San Salvador (200). and Friedland. belonging to Britain. burn at Darmstadt." prefixed to the name of many places occupied by Arabs. Nassau the capital. yield tropical fruits. CTSTI. THE (47). Chennai 6. of India. one of the chief seaports of Brazil. against Napoleon." BAHA`MAS. achieved a brilliant success at Smolensk. distinguished in many engagements. PRINCE. a town on the Ganges. wrote a "History Computer Lecturer. after falling into decay. fell at Borodino (1765-1812). commanded the vanguard at Austerlitz. BAHAR (263). is connected administratively with the Punjab. BAHI`A. SE. an Arabic word meaning "river. classical scholar.ramakalai@gmail. Russian general. FELIX. a "self-absorbed" talking character in "Dombey & Son.

a district of French Congo lies W. surgeon in the Royal Navy. long and from 13 to 54 wide. on which sledges ply for six or eight months in winter. BAIAE. under the protection of Britain. of it. Computer Lecturer. born at Kirkwall. Chennai 6. BAHREIN` ISLANDS (70). Manamah (20). was attached to the Niger Expedition in 1854. BAIKIE. the richest in the world. long famous for their pearl-fisheries. it abounds in fish. in S. in some parts 4500 ft.ramakalai@gmail. deep. and it was through it Marchand made his way to Fashoda. the largest 27 m. 1884." in high repute (1798-1872). including the district watered by the tributaries of the Bahr-el-Arab and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. of Siberia. died at Sierra Leone (1825-1864). it was wrested from Egypt by the Mahdi. Page 222 of 2772 . a small town near Naples. cap. now in ruins and nearly all submerged. the largest Olkhin. belonging to Muscat. especially sturgeon and salmon. and ultimately commanded it. a French poet one of a group of seven known in French literature as the "Pleiade. 397 m. BAHR-EL-GHAZAL. and steamboats in summer. a clear fresh-water lake.com of Roman Literature. BAIKAL. W. above the sea-level. a group of islands in the Persian Gulf." whose aim was to accommodate the French language and literature to the models of Greek and Latin. and at its surface 1560 ft. BAIF. it contains several islands. 32 m. BALFOUR. famous as a resort of the old Roman nobility. an Orcadian. an old Egyptian prov. long and 10 broad. opening the region up and letting light in upon it at the sacrifice of his life. by 10 m. for its climate and its baths. the third largest in Asia. CTSTI.

BAILLIE. born in Nottingham. and became a zealous advocate of the national cause. a liberal-minded man." was acted in the Theatre Royal. BAILEY." besides many others. MATTHEW. ROBERT. stayed afterwards with a sister at Hampstead. a Scotch Presbyterian divine. born in Sheffield. Page 223 of 2772 . born in Glasgow. BAILLIE.com BAILEY. physician. whose dictionary." and "The Age". an heroic Scotch lady. LADY GRIZEL." "The Mystic.ramakalai@gmail. to his native town (1787-1870). PHILIP JAMES. brother of Joanna. produced a series of dramas entitled "Plays of the Passions. child of the Presbyterian manse there. she does not stand high either as a dramatist or a writer (1762-1851). under the auspices of Sir Walter Scott. a utilitarian in philosophy. the "Family Legend. and left a fortune. BAILEY." "The Universal Hymn. Chennai 6. NATHAN. 1742. one of which." a work that on its appearance in 1839 was received with enthusiasm. an English author. resisted Laud's attempt to thrust Episcopacy on the Scotch nation. SAMUEL. was succeeded by "The Angel World. very popular in its day. "And werena my heart licht I wad dee" is well known (1665-1740). who wrote on psychology. 1816. and political economy. which he was delegated Computer Lecturer. was the basis of Johnson's. English poet. BAILLIE. Edinburgh. famous for her songs. joined a brother in London. BAILLIE. author of "Festus. CTSTI. passed through 11 editions in England and 30 in America. JOANNA. both comedies and tragedies. wrote on Morbid Anatomy (1761-1823). _d_. an early English lexicographer. _b_. he has been rated by some extravagantly high. ethics. acquired in business. a poetess. born at Bothwell.

was based on empiricism and the inductive method. BAIN. as they do. elected president of the National Assembly. Exposed beforehand "for hours long. studied under Flaxman. the subject of one of his critical essays (1599-1662). Ancient and Modern. H. Page 224 of 2772 . born at Aberdeen. was distracted from further study of the science by the occurrence of the Revolution. which he connected with physiology. E. Computer Lecturer. and was made principal of Glasgow University. 'it is for cold. who endorsed his philosophy." forming." and the "Graces Seated" (1788-1867). "Eve Listening to the Voice. his chief works. "His Letters and Journals" were published by the Bannatyne Club." says Carlyle. a zealous Scotch Presbyterian. "had no mortal. tried for complicity in the Rye House Plot." in five volumes. CTSTI. ROBERT. he is of the school of John Stuart Mill.' said he meekly. born in Bristol. his most popular works were. and twice Lord Rector. has written on composition in a very uninteresting style." "The Sleeping Girl.. to the utter exclusion of all _a priori_ or transcendental speculation. JEAN SYLVAIN. ALEXANDER. thou tremblest. and are commended by Carlyle as "veracious." BAILY.' said one." "The Emotions and the Will. Chennai 6. "The Senses and the Intellect. amid curses and bitter frost-rain.ramakalai@gmail. and unfairly condemned to death. he was a royalist all the same. professor of Logic in the university. 'Bailly. and barbarously executed the same day (in 1683) for fear he should die afterwards and cheat the gallows of its victim. born at Paris." and "Mental and Moral Science". where he was much esteemed by and exercised a great influence over his pupils.' Crueller end. was imprisoned as an enemy of the popular cause and cruelly guillotined. an astronomer. his psychology. such as hails from Kant and his school. BAILLY. wrote the "History of Astronomy. a sculptor.com to represent twice over in London. BAILLIE. 'Mon ami. lost favour with the people. _b_. installed mayor of Paris.

. _i. e_. BAJAZET` I. BAIRD. FULLERTON.ramakalai@gmail. and with a monument. left "Memoirs" of her time (1709-1758). founder of the Baird Lectureship. on the birds and mammals of N. simple but massive. followed by another of four days. ironmaster. along with others. Page 225 of 2772 . in vindication of Scotch orthodoxy. a distinguished English general of Scotch descent. with a large theatre erected by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions. Chennai 6. as was fit. Egypt. seventy days later. who died there. a Mohammedan festival of three days at the conclusion of the Ramadan. he afterwards retired (1757-1829). BAIRD. in command when the Cape of Good Hope was wrested from the Dutch. to the memory of Jean Paul. WILHELMINA. BAIREUTH. in commemoration of the offering up of Isaac. sultan of the Ottoman Turks. wounded. and the siege of Pondicherry.com 1818. Computer Lecturer. served in India. sister of Frederick the Great. BAIRAM. S. and at the Cape. BAIRD. MARGRAVINE OF. wrote. an American naturalist. BAI`REUTH (24). JAMES. was present at the taking of Seringapatam. and accompanied with sacrifices. bequeathed L500. called the Second Bairam. CTSTI. and on the fall of Sir John Moore at Corunna. SIR DAVID. in Bavaria. America. surnamed ILDERIM. as well as contributed to fish-culture and fisheries (1823-1887). the capital of Upper Franconia. born at Newbyth.000 to support churches (1802-1876). Aberdeenshire. entered the army at 15.

still subject to eruptions. BAKER. reckoned by hundreds. pushed everything before him in his advance on Europe. Chennai 6. visited Cyprus and travelled over India. often referred to by Sir Roger de Coverley. a man of enterprise and travel. deputy from the University of Louvain to the Council of Trent. in some cases so gushing as to overflow in streams. where he died (1603-1645). MOUNT. from the energy and rapidity of his movements. commanded an expedition under the Khedive into the Soudan. who is said to have shut him in a cage and carried him about with him in his train till the day of his death (1347-1403). born in Kent. SIR SAMUEL WHITE. are connected by pipes with Computer Lecturer.000 ft.com Lightning. which wells. BAKER. a Russian port on the Caspian Sea. CTSTI. born in London. author of "The Chronicle of the Kings of England. BA`JUS.. discovered the Albert Nyanza. Page 226 of 2772 . BAKU (107).ramakalai@gmail. BAKSHISH. where he incurred much obloquy at the hands of the Jesuits by his insistence of the doctrines of Augustine. as the Jansenists did after him (1513-1580). BAKER. "Ismailia". wrote an account of it in a book. 11. a volcano in the Cascade range." which he wrote in the Fleet prison. aimed at Constantinople. SIR RICHARD. left a record of his travels in five volumes with different titles (1821-1893). a country gentleman. in a district so impregnated and saturated in parts with petroleum that by digging in the soil wells are formed. a word used all over the East to denote a small fee for some small service rendered. but was met and defeated on the plain of Angora by Tamerlane. MICHAEL.

for the "Charge of the Six Hundred. CTSTI. regarded by the zoologist as a possible connecting link between invertebrates and vertebrates. a Midianitish soothsayer. was long ago a centre of attraction to the Parsees or fire-worshippers of the East. in Wales. with a large land-locked basin. the largest lake in Wales. a small port 6 m. and their probable fate. for long an important consideration with European statesmen. xxii.com refineries in the town. an extreme and violent anarchist. a district which. Chennai 6. BALA. from the spontaneous ignition of the petroleum. a worm-like marine animal. long. the county town of Merioneth. MICHAEL. the difference in value between the exports and the imports of a country.. but escaped. BALANOGLOS`SUS. but was expelled (1814-1876). and with a depth of 100 ft. BALANCE OF TRADE. and resorted to by them as holy ground. preservation of the equilibrium existing among the States of Europe as a security of peace. SE.ramakalai@gmail. and Carlyle's essay on the "Corn-Law Rhymes" for its application to modern State councillors of the same time-serving type. Bala Lake. native of Moscow. Page 227 of 2772 . BAKU`NIN.-xxiv. 4 m. the head-quarters of the British during the Crimean war. among other events. and said to be in favour of the country whose exports exceed in value the imports in that respect. for the account of him see Num. BALACLA`VA. of Sebastopol. BA`LAAM. was banished to Siberia. joined the International. and famous in the war. Computer Lecturer." BALANCE OF POWER. and a leader of the movement.

56 m. and to the grief of. BAL`ATON. and abounds in fish. and 10 m. works in advocacy of Italian independence (1789-1853). discovered the Pacific. born at Turin. born at Venice. 48 m. and dies. the benignant.ramakalai@gmail. an Italian statesmen and publicist. ADRIANO. established a settlement at Darien. being at once ductile and elastic. a tent-like covering or canopy over portals. broad. BALBO. LAKE. a pathetic symbol conceived in the Norse imagination of how all things in heaven. the faithful old domestic in Scott's "Bride of Computer Lecturer.com BALATA. took possession of territory in the name of Spain. in spite of. long. the largest lake in Hungary. the sun-god of the Norse mythology. as on earth. of Pesth. who composed in French a number of works bearing on geography (1782-1848). BALBI. devoted his later years to literature. from jealousy of the glory he had acquired and the consequent influence in the State (1475-1517). slightly saline. all the gods of the pantheon. CTSTI. BALDACHINO. goes under the name of bully. BALD`ER. suspended from the roof. are subject in the long-run to mortality. wrote a life of Dante. or projecting from the wall. put to death by a new governor. CAESARE." who is fated to die. Chennai 6. Page 228 of 2772 . VASCO NUNEZ DE. a geographer of Italian descent. BALBO`A. BALDERSTONE. "the beautiful. a Castilian noble. or thrones. SW. CALEB. a vegetable gum used as a substitute for gutta-percha. either supported on columns. altars. the wise.

made himself master of most of the towns on the coast of Syria. BALDWIN I.. nephew of Baldwin I. died at Acre in 1191. HANS. the name of several counts of Flanders. in Ireland. bishop of Ossory. the last of whom. a German artist. a masterpiece. dagger. king of Jerusalem. and was buried on Mount Calvary." the family he serves his pride. his greatest work. born in Suffolk. BALE. or HANS GRUeN. persecuted out of the country as an apostate from Popery. BALDRICK. Page 229 of 2772 . a child of some eight years old.. Chennai 6. led the van in the capture of Constantinople. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Bulgarians (1171-1206). returned to Jerusalem. author of a Computer Lecturer. born in Suabia. the first Latin emperor of Constantinople. an ornamental belt worn hanging over the shoulder. and supported by Cromwell. JOHN. across the body diagonally. or horn suspended from it. CTSTI. crowned Richard Coeur de Lion. a painting of the "Crucifixion. BALDWIN. died in 1186 (1058-1118). B. a friend of Duerer's. and was made emperor. BALDUNG. BALDWIN I. by birth. eight in all. succeeded his brother Godfrey de Bouillon. archbishop of Canterbury. BALDWIN.. count of Hainault and Flanders. a convert from Popery. II. contracted a disease in Egypt. there were five of this name and title. which lasted only 57 years (1217-1273).com Lammermoor. last king of the Latin dynasty.ramakalai@gmail.." now in Freiburg Cathedral (1300-1347). with a sword. joined the fourth crusade. accompanied him on the crusade. assuming said title. was made bishop by Edward VI..

A. SIR JAMES. East Lothian. inhabitants in ancient times famous as expert slingers. Chennai 6. native of Fife. Lord President of the Court of Session. a promising biologist. to his own advantage. BALFOUR. an unprincipled man. BALFE. author of a "Defence of Philosophic Doubt" and a volume of "Essays and Addresses". in Spain. Page 230 of 2772 . _d_. and world-famous (1808-1870). BALFOUR. cap. long by 40 m. BALFOUR OF BURLEY. nephew of Lord Salisbury. CTSTI. educated at Eton and Cambridge. J. BALEARIC ISLES (312)." his masterpiece. _b_. leader of the Covenanters in Scott's "Old Mortality. produces cotton. sided now with this party. 75 m. and First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the House of Commons in Lord Salisbury's ministry. and that at the most critical period in Scottish history. Palma (58). 1848. having been one and all systematically trained to the use of the sling from early childhood. a group of five islands off the coast of Valencia. coffee. broad. 1583.ramakalai@gmail. of Irish birth. one of the Samoa Islands. now with the opposite. Computer Lecturer. author of "The Bohemian Girl. BALFOUR. Majorca the largest..com valuable account of early British writers (1495-1563). MICHAEL WILLIAM. a musical composer." BALI. FRANCIS MAITLAND. career was cut short by death in attempting to ascend the Wetterhorn (1851-1882). and tobacco. brother of the preceding. of Whittinghame. born near Wexford.

properly the range dividing Bulgaria from Roumania. son of the following. &c. i. EDWARD. a mountain range extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea. above sea-level. BALIOL. in Central America. mean height. Oxford. Page 231 of 2772 . rosewood. son of the following. the waters clear. died in 1314 in Normandy. BALKANS. 6500 ft. founder of Baliol College. 780 ft.com BALIOL. a guardian to the heir to the Scottish crown on the death of Alexander III. laid claim to the Scottish crown on the death of the Maid of Norway in 1290. LAKE. broad. as King Toom Tabard. or BELIZE.ramakalai@gmail. 150 m. 1269. by the Save and the Lower Danube. invaded Scotland. CTSTI. the territory between the Adriatic and the AEgean Sea. supported by Edward III. satirised by the Scotch. and on the S. the capital of British Honduras. but rebelled. by Greece. was supported by Edward I. BALKASH. a lake in Siberia. trade in mahogany. BALIOL. BALIZE.. Empty King Cloak. but intensely salt. BALKAN PENINSULA.. THE. Computer Lecturer. e. and was forced publicly to resign the crown. Chennai 6. after spending some three years in the Tower. was driven from the kingdom. was crowned king at Scone. died at Doncaster. of Norman descent. _d_.. long and 73 m. SIR JOHN DE. on receipt of a pension. and did homage to him for his kingdom. JOHN DE. in their stinging humorous style. and obliged to renounce all claim to the crown. bounded on the N. 1369.

composed with spirit. PIERRE SIMON.. his chief work "la Palingenesie Sociale. 1840. born in Edinburgh (1808-1877). generally of patriotic interest. 250 m. anciently called Bactria. failed in business. CTSTI. BALL`ANTYNE. birthplace of Zoroaster. distinguished counsel in celebrated criminal cases (1812-1887). a story in verse. glass-stainer and poet. a district of Afghan Turkestan lying between the Oxus and the Hindu-Kush. BALLAD. a native of Kelso." his aim being the regeneration of society (1814-1847). the best known of a popular kind on the former science being "The Story of the Heavens". became a printer in Edinburgh. a ringleader in the Wat Tyler rebellion. BALL. JOHN. BALLANTINE.com BALKH. captured and executed. printed all Sir Walter Scott's works. a mystic writer. JAMES. author of works on astronomy and mechanics. a priest who had been excommunicated for denouncing the abuses of the Church. _b_. Computer Lecturer. a failure in which Scott was seriously implicated (1772-1833). born in Dublin. BALL. JAMES. with a capital of the same name. BALLANTINE.ramakalai@gmail. long and 120 m. SERJEANT. reduced now to a village. mathematician and astronomer. Astronomer-Royal for Ireland. BALLANCHE. born at Lyons. Chennai 6. broad. and sung originally to the harp. SIR R. Page 232 of 2772 . S.

from Ballater. a celebrated Alpine guide (1796-1834). 9 m. at the foot of Braemar. of Melbourne. Page 233 of 2772 . BALLARAT` (40). BALL`ATER. 521/2 m. CTSTI. and since 1851 the second city in the province. the precious metal being at first washed out of the soil. above sea-level.ramakalai@gmail. it is the seat of both a Roman Catholic and a Church of England bishopric. Chennai 6. stands 668 ft. on a site which took the fancy of both the Queen and the Prince Consort on their first visit to the Highlands. a castle on the upper valley of the Dee. JACQUES. author of "Protestantism and Catholicism compared in their Effects on the Civilisation of Europe" (1810-1848).com BALLANTYNE. NW. Computer Lecturer. and now crushed out of the quartz rocks and dug out of deep mines. about 100 m. a confidant of Sir Walter's in the matter of the anonymity of the Waverley Novels. a prejudiced Scotch clergyman in "Waverley. a town in Victoria." BAL`MEZ. a favourite summer resort. an inimitable story-teller and mimic. JOHN. of Chamounix. BALMOR`AL. BALMAWHAPPLE. an able Spanish Journalist. BALMAT. the Highland residence of Queen Victoria. from Aberdeen. the centre of the chief gold-fields in the colony. very much to the delight of Sir Walter (1774-1821). a clean Aberdeenshire village on the Dee. brother of preceding.

flour. waters fresher than those of the ocean. the navigation of it is practically closed from the middle of December to April. _d_. and a fellow-sufferer with him in imprisonment and exile. so sharp that a smith cut in two by it did not know he was so cut till he began to move. afterwards contributed towards formulating the creed of the Scotch Church. BALSALL. comparatively shallow. an inland sea in the N. It is the seat of the John Hopkins University. Chennai 6. 250 m. and tobacco. iron. Russian provinces bordering on the Baltic.com BALMUNG. 900 m. a thriving suburb of Birmingham. the metropolis of Maryland. grain. about the size of England and Wales. coadjutor of John Knox in the Scottish Reformation. but noted for its fine architecture and its public monuments. of Europe. not quite so regular in design as most American cities. and steel. CTSTI. The staple trade is in bread-stuffs. the exports. has no tides. BALNAVES. BALTIC SEA. from the Atlantic. the sharp-cutting sword of Siegfried. The industries are varied and extensive. long and from 100 to 200 m. BALTIC PROVINCES. flour. 1579. BALUE. and educated in Germany. born at Kirkcaldy. including textiles. minister of Louis XI. on an arm of Chesapeake Bay. when he fell in pieces. engaged in hardware manufacture. Page 234 of 2772 . owing to the inlets being blocked with ice. owing to the number of rivers that flow into it and the slight evaporation that goes on at the latitude. BALTIMORE (550)..ramakalai@gmail. CARDINAL. tobacco. broad. by Louis in an iron cage for eleven Computer Lecturer. is picturesquely situated. HENRY. for having conspired with Charles the Rash. imprisoned.

000).ramakalai@gmail. containing the tomb of its founder. BALZAC. the Emperor Henry II. CTSTI. who devoted his life to the refinement of the French language. BALZAC. BALUCHISTAN. a manufacturing town in Upper Franconia. once the centre of an independent bishopric. See Beluchistan. a figure of the infant Christ wrapped in swaddling bands. warmth and fertility of imagination.." says Prof. of Afghanistan and extending to the Persian Gulf. dates. BAMBAR`RA (2. "he deliberately wrote. cotton. his design in producing them being to make them form part of one great work. and palm-oil. BAMBINO." the whole being a minute dissection of the different classes of society (1799-1850). born at Angouleme. Page 235 of 2772 . BAMBERG (35). opened up to trade. and are good husbandmen. the soil fertile. 1685. Bavaria. they show power of observation. a French litterateur and gentleman of rank. and contributed by his "Letters" to the classic form it assumed under Louis XIV. "for the sake of writing. with a cathedral. the infant in pictures surrounded by a halo and angels. Saintsbury. Chennai 6. _d_. a magnificent edifice. native of Tours.com years (1421-1491). a country lying to the S. one of the most brilliant as well as prolific novelwriters of modern times. yields grain. in France. the "Comedie Humaine. his productions remarkable for their sense of reality. a Soudan state on the banks of the Upper Niger. Computer Lecturer. HONORE DE. and subtle and profound delineation of human passion. JEAN LOUIS GUEZ DE." but in this way did much to improve the language. the natives are negroes of the Mohammedan faith. and not because he had anything particular to say.

CTSTI. a fertile but unhealthy negro territory. author of a "History of the Pacific States of N. BAMIAN`. a high-lying valley in Afghanistan. BANBURY. belonging to the Dutch. full of caves. RICHARD. above sea-level. high. diplomatist.com BAMBOROUGH CASTLE. GEORGE. BANCROFT. a market-town in Oxfordshire. BANCROFT. now an alms-house.ramakalai@gmail. an American statesman. W. canon of Salisbury. rich in tin. BAMBOUK (800). worked by Chinese. and historian. a zealous Churchman and an enemy of the Puritans. and a faithful account (1800-1891). an island in the Eastern Archipelago. America". eight in number. born in Massachusetts. HUBERT.. for the endowment of which John Bampton. side. 8500 ft. on the coast of Northumberland. with mineral wealth and deposits of gold. are hewn huge figures of Buddha. an ancient fortress E. of Belford. Page 236 of 2772 . 1832. celebrated for its cross and its cakes. represented the Church at the Hampton Court Computer Lecturer. _b_. BANCROFT. all of ancient date. left property which yields a revenue worth L200 a year. annual lectures on Christian subjects." issued finally in six vols. BAMPTON LECTURES. one of them 173 ft. with an unhealthy climate. out of the rocks on its N. of Bambarra. an American historian. BANCA (80). archbishop of Canterbury. his chief work "The History of the United States. Chennai 6.

did a "Descent from the Cross" in bas-relief. at the mouth of the Deveron. CTSTI. BANDIE`RA. though mountainous on the S. Computer Lecturer. some twelve in number. fishing and agriculture the great industries. and was chief overseer of the Authorised Version of the Bible (1554-1610). BANDA ORIENTAL.ramakalai@gmail. Massinger. and SE. Page 237 of 2772 . his work "Hercules and Cacus" is the most ambitious of his productions. and have appeared since only occasionally. SIR SQUIRE. English actor. yield nutmegs and mace. in 1844. county town of Banffshire. belonging to Holland. BANCROFT. the county itself (64) stretches level along the coast. BANDA ISLES. are subject to earthquakes.com Conference. BANFF (7). a writer of tales. tried hard to rival Michael Angelo and Cellini. in Milan Cathedral (1487-1559). born in London. martyrs.. to the cause of Italian independence. Wilton. BANDINELLI. retired in 1885. a Florentine sculptor. on the Moray Firth. brothers. See URUGUAY. an actress. born in Venice. some of which furnished themes and incidents for Shakespeare. at which time both retired. BANDELLO. married Mrs. a group of the Moluccas. an Italian Dominican monk. opened with her the Haymarket Theatre in 1880. and other dramatists of their time (1480-1562). made his first appearance in Birmingham in 1861. Chennai 6.

150 m. Wales. BANGOR (9). above sea-level. from the sea. Premier of Hungary.com BANFFY. _b_. a very striking city. the "Venice of the East". BAN`GALORE (180). CTSTI. in 1717. carried on by Europeans and Chinese. the Hindu name for the Delta of the Ganges. on the Menam. Page 238 of 2772 . an episcopal city in Carnarvon. from the canals which intersect it. was elected a peer on the formation of the Upper Hungarian Chamber. a controversy in the Church of England provoked by a sermon which Hoadley. 3690 ft. a place of summer resort. BANGWEO`LO. 1841. with the royal palace standing on an island. bishop of Bangor. BANGK`OK (500). and the capital. preached before George I. discovered by Livingstone. the centre of the foreign trade. Chennai 6. 20 m. from the beauty of its surroundings. he is a strong Liberal. a lake in Equatorial Africa. BANGA. the capital of Siam. which offended the sticklers for ecclesiastical authority. N. a low-caste people in the Ganges valley. long. BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY. Computer Lecturer. born at Klausenburg. and on the shore of which he died. became in 1874 provincial prefect of Transylvania. BARON. stands high. in the courtyard of which several white elephants are kept. and half as wide. is manufacturing and trading. BANGHIS. and was made Premier in 1893. the largest town in Mysore. styled.ramakalai@gmail. with large slate quarries.

it manufactures carpets and tartans. BANIM.ramakalai@gmail. days when no meat is served out to ships' crews. JOHN. of which it printed 116. a manufacturing village 3 m. left his collection and a valuable library and herbarium to the British Museum. on June 24. he excelled in imaginative art (1735-1805). 1314. his health giving way. wrote 24 vols. who. of Stirling. first appreciated by the Empress Catharine. the carriers and caravan-conductors of the region. a club founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish interest. THOMAS. SIR JOSEPH. "Psyche" and "Achilles Enraged. in lands far and wide. a zealous naturalist. BANKS. but was rescued by a public subscription and a pension. a non-Aryan race in Central India. SE. the scene of the victory. he fell into poverty. a collector.com BANIAN DAYS. novelist of Irish peasant life on its dark side. &c. born at Lambeth. of Irish stories. Chennai 6. Irish author. of specimens in natural history. along with his brother Michael.. whether in history. dissolved in 1861. Page 239 of 2772 . CTSTI. a native of Kilkenny. BAN`NOCKBURN (2). particularly in botany. which reasserted and secured Scottish independence. his finest works. BANKS. a complete set having been sold for L235. Computer Lecturer. or general literature. Michael survived him 32 years (1798-1842). of Robert the Bruce over Edward II. BANNATYNE CLUB. all deemed of value.. poetry." now in the entrance-hall of Burlington House. BANJARI. an eminent English sculptor. president of the Royal Society for 41 years (1744-1820).

among the Irish. Computer Lecturer. and in some parts of the Highlands and Brittany. he recommended lean meat. the name of most of the races. a French poet. BANTU. BANTRY BAY. BANTAM.ramakalai@gmail. BANVILLE. N. BANYAN. Page 240 of 2772 . not final. a dietary for keeping down fat. till they cover a large area and become a forest. though. recommended by a Mr. CTSTI. with their languages. a London merchant. S. who gave warnings by wailings of an approaching death in it. a tree whose branches. the Indian fig.com BAN`SHEE. lat. however. for one thing. abandoned as unhealthy by the Dutch." for with him form was everything. whence the Bantam fowl is thought to have come. in a "Letter on Corpulence" in 1863. believed to be attached to a family. a place of shelter for ships. and the avoidance of sugar and starchy foods. born at Moulins. BANTING SYSTEM. and kept guard over it. Chennai 6. the language differing radically from all other known forms of speech--the inflection. that occupy Africa from 6 deg.. the name. a fairy. bending to the ground. suggests rather a linguistic than an ethnological distinction. chiefly initial. to 20 deg. there are touches here and there of both fine feeling and sharp wit (1823-1891). Banting. well characterised as "_Roi des Rimes_. a chief town in Java. being in several respects superior. take root and form new stocks. are negroid rather than negro. coast of Ireland. a deep inlet on the SW. and the matter comparatively insignificant. THEODORE DE.

Carlyle refers to this cult in "Sartor. a name given to the French Canadians. BAPTISTS. they are a numerous body. the thickness of its branches. 4) with that No to the world which precedes or rather accompanies Yea to God. vi. identified by St. a mysterious image. Paul (Rom. BAPTISMAL REGENERATION. sometimes detached from a church. which the Templars were accused of worshipping. and their expansion. particularly in America. the Christian rite of initiation into the membership of the Church. under which all the spectres that haunted him withered up. presumed represent Mahomet. Page 241 of 2772 . BAPTISTRY. and more so in England than in Scotland. in which the rite of baptism is administered. Chennai 6. a circular building.ramakalai@gmail. the most remarkable. debate. a large African tropical tree. CTSTI. chapter vii. but which they may rather be surmised to have invoked to curse them if they failed in their vow. a denomination of Christians. the High Church doctrine that the power of Computer Lecturer. its leaves and seeds are used in medicine. JEAN. sometimes called Anabaptists to distinguish them from Paedobaptists.com BA`OBAB. BAPTISTE." end of Bk. that of Pisa. where he speaks of the "Baphometic fire-baptism" of his hero. BAPHOMET. remarkable for the girth of its trunk. who. but a misunderstanding of the nature of which has led to endless diversity. BAPTISM. and to those who are of age to make an intelligent profession of faith. insist that the rite of initiation is duly administered only by immersion.. and alienation all over the Churches of Christendom. however they may and do differ on other matters. and have included in their membership a number of eminent men. II.

who was immediately after the act struck dead by lightning. and aloes. almost encircled by coral reefs. her attributes are a tower. generally at the end of the drawbridge in front of the gate. beheaded by her own father. one of the Windward Islands.. distinguished himself under Louis Philippe in Algeria. ginger. and where in most comical situations he learned how imaginary is the authority of a king. this is the sense in which Matthew Arnold uses it. Dec. BARBARIANS. rather larger than the Isle of Wight. Page 242 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. is bestowed on the soul in the sacrament of baptism duly administered. healthy and well cultivated. instead of governing his subjects. BARBACAN.com spiritual life. a Christian martyr of the 3rd century. a sword. his subjects govern him. BARBARA. a fanatical heathen. how. a French marshal who fought under Napoleon at Quatre-Bras. a fortification to a castle outside the walls. subject to hurricanes. and ultimately synonymous with the uncivilised and people without culture. forfeited by the Fall.ramakalai@gmail. 4. originally those who could not speak Greek. Chennai 6. as well as under Louis Napoleon. BARBA`DOES (182). presided at the trial of Marshal Bazaine (1795-1878). arrowroot. it yields sugar. or BARBICAN. and a crown. particularly literary. ACHILLE. Festival. BARATARIA. the imaginary island of which Sancho Panza was formally installed governor. ST. BARAGUAY D'HILLIERS`. CTSTI. she is the patron saint of those who might otherwise die impenitent. and of Mantua. is the most densely peopled of the Windward Islands.

Red-beard). when he will reappear. BARBARY APE.ramakalai@gmail. of whom there is this tradition. Chennai 6. HORUK. but only sleeping. advocate. had to flee. He looked at the peasant one moment. CTSTI. became sovereign of Algiers by the murder of Selim the emir. was captured and guillotined (1767-1794).'" BARBAROSSA (i. asked something about the time it was. emperor of Germany. Page 243 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. died at Constantinople in 1546. e. a native of Mitylene." and became chief of the Girondins in the French Revolution. then drooped his eyelids again: 'Not yet time. became viceroy of the Porte. that "he is not yet dead. but will be soon. till the bad world reach its worst. KHAIR-EDDIN.com BARBAROSSA. BARBAROUX. and streamed out on the floor. BARBAROSSA. was defeated twice by the Spanish general Gomarez and slain (1473-1518). of which he became town-clerk. CHARLES. sent "fire-eyed" message to Marseilles for six hundred men "who knew how to die". opposed Andrea Doria. native of the mountainous parts of Barbary. as a peasant once tumbling into the interior saw him. joined the Rolands. held out against Marat and Robespierre. and of which there is a colony on the Rock of Gibraltar. who had adopted him as an ally against Spain. represented Marseilles in the Constituent Assembly and the Convention. born at Marseilles. beard had grown through the table. the surname of Frederick I. declared an enemy of the people.. mistook a company approaching for Jacobins. leaning on his elbow. made admiral under the sultan. drew his pistol and shot himself. brother and successor of the preceding. ravaged the coast of Italy. and joined the French against Spain. but the shot miscarried. only half-asleep. at a marble table. He sits within a cavern near Saltzburg. the only one in Europe. a tailless monkey of gregarious habits. turned corsair. winking. came to Paris "a young Spartan.

the four states of Morocco. of Pretoria. a mining town and important centre in the Transvaal. ARMAND.. BARBAULD. a French general under Charles VI. who deservedly earned for himself the name of the Irreproachable Knight. Chennai 6. BARBERTON. and VII. ANTOINE ALEX. _nee_ Aiken. BARBES. expatriated himself voluntarily.ramakalai@gmail. BARBAZAN. BAR`BECUE. BARBERI`NI. (1743-1825). a French politician. _d_. at which the animals are roasted and dressed whole. Computer Lecturer. a French bibliographer. BARBIER. 180 m. author of a "Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works" (1765-1825). liberated in 1854. died at the Hague (1809-1870). Algeria. surnamed the Bayard of Democracy. Tunis. and Tripoli. an illustrious and influential Florentine family.com BARBARY STATES." "Evenings at Home." in which she was assisted by a brother. E. America. &c. a feast in the open air on a large scale. CTSTI. and one made pope in 1623 under the name Urban VIII. Page 244 of 2772 . several of the members of which were cardinals.. ANNA LAETITIA. 1432. an English popular and accomplished authoress. formerly common in the SW. so called from the Berbers who inhabit the region. imprisoned in 1848. States of N. wrote "Hymns in Prose for Children.

BARCA (500). and the national spirit in it full grown into life." being a long history in rhyme of the life and achievements of Robert the Bruce. bred a monk in England. "represents. jurisconsult of the parliament. on the Mediterranean. between Tripoli and Egypt. and its chief port. and olives. and Hannibal belonged. author of a journal.000 octosyllabic lines. Page 245 of 2772 . of the time of Louis XV. a poet and prose-writer.com BARBIER. is the seat of a bishopric and a university. of Scotch birth. convents. author of "Iambics" (1805-1882). name of a Carthaginian family to which Hamilcar. BARBIER. called the "Spanish Manchester. a French satirical poet. a Scotch poet and chronicler. figs." says Stopford Brooke. and its largest manufacturing town. ED." the staple manufacture being cotton. Chennai 6. FR. of Africa. HENRY." partly a translation and partly Computer Lecturer. BARCLAY." _d_. wrote vigorous political verses. produces maize. a work consisting of 13. JOHN. ALEX. historical and anecdotical. wrote "The Ship of Fools. his only extant work a poem entitled "The Bruce. which closed at Bannockburn.ramakalai@gmail. a Turkish province in the N. (1689-1771). born in Paris. Hasdrubal. the largest town in Spain next to Madrid. born in Paris. BARBOUR. dates. "the whole of the eager struggle for Scottish freedom against the English. and theatres. archdeacon of Aberdeen. 1195. and possessing both historical and literary merit.. has numerous churches. CTSTI. a man of learning and sagacity. which he ceased to be on the dissolution of the monasteries. known as the Barcine faction. BARCA. and determinedly opposed to the ascendency of Rome. with a naval arsenal. BARCELO`NA (280)..

the celebrated apologist of Quakerism. his greatest work. as his father had done before him. Chennai 6. leader of the sect of the Bereans (1734-1798)." a Latin romance. JOHN. BARCLAY. wrote the "Argenis. _d_. and its sole interest to us is in its pictures of familiar manners and popular customs" (1475-1552). and patent to the understanding of every truth-loving soul (1645-1690)." says Stopford Brooke. educated by the Jesuits. his promotion rapid. as the same is held forth and preached by the People called in scorn Quakers. Petersburg. tempted hard to become a Catholic. distinguished in successive Russian wars. and dedicated to Charles II. the leading thesis of which is that Divine Truth is not matter of reasoning. "An Apology for the True Christian Divinity. a stanch Catholic. ROBERT. father of John (1). BARCLAY. and of the same family as Robert Barclay the Quaker. born in France. and superseded in command by Kutusow.com an imitation of the German "Narrerschiff" of Brandt. on Napoleon's invasion of Russia his tactic was to retreat till forced to fight at Smolensk. translated more than once into English (1582-1621). JOHN. born in Morayshire. and elevated to the rank of prince (1761-1818).ramakalai@gmail. BARCLAY. he was afterwards Minister of War at St. BARCLAY DE TOLLY. WILLIAM. "It has no value." a great work. in spite of his unpopularity as German born. All these Barclays were of Scottish descent. much thought of by Cowper. joined the Society of Friends. written in Latin as well as in English. Computer Lecturer.. Page 246 of 2772 . "but it was popular because it attacked the follies and questions of the time. commanded the Russians at Dresden and Leipzig. and led them into France in 1815. an eminent citizen and professor of Law at Angers. of Scottish descent. on the latter's death was made commander-in-chief. CTSTI. a Russian general and field-marshal. BARCLAY. but intuition. 1605. he was defeated.

a village on the Hautes-Pyrenees.. OF RYDAL MOUNT. BARDELL`. Cowper. the business being no less than introducing of the Christian religion into real practice in the social affairs of this nation. yet the Assembly for the remarkablest purpose. MRS.." who sues Pickwick for breach of promise. Computer Lecturer. OF TWICKENHAM. "If not the remarkablest Assembly. OF IMAGINATION. OF HOPE. and the Little Parliament had to go its ways again. BAREGES. Rogers. BARDON HILL. OF MEMORY. Pope... resorted to for its mineral waters. met 4th July 1653.com BARD OF AVON. Burns. CTSTI. Shakespeare. Cromwell's Little Parliament. Page 247 of 2772 . from which one can see right across England. from one Praise-God Barebone. a widow in the "Pickwick Papers. derisively called Barebone's Parliament. the collective name of a number of Afghan tribes between the Hindu-Kush and the Soliman Mountains. swaggering." says Carlyle. a drunken. Campbell. In this it failed. worthless follower of Falstaff's. Chennai 6. Wordsworth. OF OLNEY. Akenside. OF AYRSHIRE. a hill in Leicestershire. "that ever met in the modern world." 12th December in the same year. a member of it. above the sea-level. could not but fail. BAR-DURANI. at 4000 ft.ramakalai@gmail. with what we call the Devil and all his angels against it. BARDOLPH. BAREBONE'S PARLIAMENT.

" of the "Sinking of the _Vengeur_. E. and by Mercier.com BAREILLY (121). 153 m. BARETTI. a small negro nation on the banks of the White Nile. and doubled the NE. a member of the States-General. became secretary of the Royal Academy (1719-1789). from his flowery oratory. notable as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first broke out. patronised by Johnson. E. BAR`GUEST. taught Italian in London. born in Turin. where William the Conqueror set out with his fleet to invade England. Computer Lecturer. of Delhi. in 1596. of England. a city in NW. Page 248 of 2772 . of Cherbourg. "the greatest liar in France. discovered Spitzbergen. an Italian lexicographer. BARFLEUR. the Anacreon of the Guillotine. GIUSEPPE. a seaport 15 m. BARI. by any man or nation. a goblin long an object of terror in the N. famous for its bazaar. BARFRUeSH (603). BARERE. born in Friesland. CTSTI." escaped the fate of his associates. THE. became a spy under Napoleon. Chennai 6. French revolutionary. extremity of Nova Zembla. most inspiring piece of _blaque_ manufactured. uttering the oft-quoted words. an Arctic explorer. and died the same year. of the Caspian." died in beggary (1755-1841). the chief town in Rohilkhand. See VENGEUR.ramakalai@gmail. and the Convention. "The tree of Liberty thrives only when watered by the blood of tyrants. a town S. BARENTZ. India." he was inventor of the famous fable "his masterpiece." "the largest. for some centuries. the National Assembly of France. was called by Burke. voted in the Convention for the execution of the king.

his literary name Thomas Ingoldsby. "Barkis is willin'. founder of the great banking firm of Baring Brothers & Co. minor canon of St. friend of Sidney Smith. Chennai 6. BARHAM.. celebrated in various departments of literature." an arduous work." published originally as a series of papers in _Bentley's Miscellany_ (1788-1879). Page 249 of 2772 . BARKING. of London. and a man of wide reading.ramakalai@gmail. value of it said to have been nearly seven millions (1740-1810). especially the latter. E." BARKER. theology. BARING-GOULD. history. a carrier-lad in "David Copperfield. Devonshire. a voluminous writer on all manner of subjects. died in poverty (1788-1839). _b_. NE. born in Yorkshire. BARLEYCORN. with the remains of an ancient Benedictine convent. being a Christianised version of an earlier legend relating to Buddha. rector of Lew-Trenchard. and romance. HENRY." in love with Peggotty. author of "Ingoldsby Legends. SABINE. born at Canterbury. BARKIS. a classical scholar. edited Stephens' "Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. 7 m. SIR FRANCIS. JOHN. in which Josaphat. a market-town in Essex.com BARING. is converted by Barlaam to a like ascetic life. CTSTI. RICHARD HARRIS. 1834. BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT. a mediaeval legend. amassed property. a prince like Buddha. Paul's. the exhilarating spirit distilled from barley Computer Lecturer.

and child of them massacred at midnight in cold blood. a Computer Lecturer. consisting of a series of hamlets. and it is the centre of that industry on the Continent. wrote a poem "The Vision of Columbus" (1755-1812). BARMACIDE FEAST. _d_. the population consists chiefly of Protestants. 1690. BAR`MACIDES. a Persian family celebrated for their magnificence. and every man. which proved a long succession of merely empty dishes. for his Republican zeal. 6 m. so called from a story in the "Arabian Nights" of a hungry beggar invited by a Barmacide prince to a banquet. the manufacture of ribbons. eminent for ability and virtue. The caliph. ST. and that in the end met with the cruellest fate.. a member of the first Christian brotherhood. Yahya. Page 250 of 2772 . BAR`MEN (116). a French watchmaker. a long town. and was visited with a gnawing remorse to the end of his days. an imaginary feast. in Rhenish Prussia. and which he enjoyed with such seeming gusto and such good-humour as to earn for himself a sumptuous real one. and his four sons rose along with him to such influence in the government. JOEL. BARNABAS. one of them.ramakalai@gmail. was chosen by the world-famous Haroun-Al-Raschid on his accession to the caliphate to be his vizier. it is gratifying to learn. the staple industry. and it had fatal issues to his kingdom as well as himself. Chennai 6. was in 1792 accorded the rights of citizenship in France. in extent.com personified. an American poet and diplomatist. BARLOWE. never forgave himself for this cruelty. inventor of the repeating watch. BARLOW. as to excite the jealousy of the caliph so much. woman. that he had the whole family invited to a banquet. CTSTI.

" BARNAVE. the 5th Earl of Balcarres. Paul's. with the Gospel of St. 1811. in 1530. of Darlington. by the three monastic vows. in Durham. Dupont thinks it. in London (1750-1825). born in Fife. BARNARD CASTLE. BARNARD. and the scene of Scott's "Rokeby. an epistle extant bears his name. American educationist." a defender of the monarchy from the day he gained the favour of the queen by his gallant Computer Lecturer. daughter of Lindsay. Matthew in his hand. Lameth does it. the Epistle to the Hebrews has by some been ascribed to him. one of the trio in the Assembly of whom it was said. "Whatsoever those three have on hand. as the rest are. published in 1841. born at Grenoble. he is usually represented in art as a venerable man of majestic mien. where Barnabas was reported to have been bishop. Barnave speaks it. Festival. where he was born. born in Connecticut." named after a Balcarres herd. but is not believed to be his work. stoned to death at Cyprus. and by a vow in addition. JOSEPH MARIE. not to sue for preferment in the Church. bound. BARNABY RUDGE. June 11.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. a proselytising order of monks founded at Milan. LADY ANNE. BARNARD. HENRY. BARNABITES. president of the French Constitutional Assembly in 1780. Chennai 6. birthplace of John Baliol. one of Dickens' novels. where her husband held an appointment. an old tower W." BAR`NARDINE. Page 251 of 2772 . lived several years at the Cape. authoress of "Auld Robin Gray.com companion of St. and after his death. a reckless character in "Measure for Measure. and characterised in the Acts as "a good man". French lawyer.

name formerly given to an extreme radical party in the United States. fought for the independence of his country against Spain. BARNES. studied law at the Hague.ramakalai@gmail.. in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice. as imitating the Dutchman who. editor of the _Times_. the king-maker. burned his barns. a local philologist. to which Maurice belonged. and condemned to death as a traitor and heretic. JOHN. Chennai 6. BARN-BURNERS. author of operas and a number of fugitive pieces (1802-1891). at which Warwick. Computer Lecturer. was slain. with sanction. and died on the scaffold at 71 years of age. composer. THOMAS. being an Arminian. CTSTI. too. under whom the paper first rose to the pre-eminent place it came to occupy among the journals of the day (1786-1841). in 1619. tried. author of "Poems of Rural Life in Dorset. to get rid of the rats. of the Synod of Dort. whose ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed. Page 252 of 2772 . JOHANN VAN OLDEN. BARNES. was arrested. and practised as an advocate there." in three vols. convicted by documentary evidence of conspiring with the court against the nation. took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party. a town in Hertfordshire.com conduct to her on her way back to Paris from her flight with the king to Varennes. scene of a battle in 1471. WILLIAM. of a distinguished family. a favourite resort of Londoners. has a large annual horse and cattle fair. born at Bedford. BARNEVELDT. almost a suburb of London. wrote on subjects of philological interest (1830-1886). BARNET (5). concluded a truce with Spain. Grand Pensionary of Holland. was guillotined (1761-1793). native of Dorsetshire. BARNETT.

cardinal and librarian of the Vatican. with Hindu temples and a considerable trade. Page 253 of 2772 . the third city in the presidency. BARNUM.com BARNSLEY (35). a work of immense research that occupied him 30 years. 18 m. started in 1871 with his huge travelling show. engaged Jenny Lind for 100 concerts in 1849.. which he lost. BARO`DA (2. "Annales Ecclesiastici. born near Naples. BARO`NIUS. CAESAR. failed of the popehood from the intrigues of the Spaniards. a celebrated Italian painter. CTSTI. a French statesman." being a history of the first 12 centuries of the Church. and ultimately Superior. began with the exhibition of George Washington's reputed nurse in 1834. a native state of Gujerat. dying worth five million dollars (1810-1891). a great Catholic ecclesiastic. priest of the Congregation of the Oratory under its founder. minister of Napoleon III. and realised a fortune.415). picked up Tom Thumb in 1844. written to prove that the Church of Rome was identical with the Church of the 1st century. in the prov. of Sheffield. a war in England of the barons against Henry III. Yorkshire. and realised another fortune. a manufacturing town in W. whose political schemes he had frustrated (1538-1607). N. BAROCHE. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. of Bombay. the sovereign of which is called the Guicowar. his great work. (1802-1870). manufactures textile fabrics and glass. BARONS' WAR. PIERRE-JULES. an American showman. imitator of the style of Correggio (1528-1612). Computer Lecturer. with a capital (101) of the same name. BAROCCI.

a small island. and which lasted from 1258 to 1265. above Calcutta. ISAAC.ramakalai@gmail. a member of the Jacobin Club. Uist. put an end to the career of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror. BAROQUE. PAUL FRANCOIS." voted in the National Convention for the execution of the king. BARRE. with a fine martial strain. BARRA. 15 m. of S. supported Pitt. soldier and statesman.. Page 254 of 2772 . BARRAS. served under Wolfe in Canada. and handsome to the eye. born in Dublin. Chennai 6. much in vogue from the 16th to the 18th centuries. "he the commandant's cloak. this artillery officer the commandant. BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS.. "a man of heat and haste. a healthy resort of the Europeans. named general-in-chief to oppose the reactionaries. 5 m.com headed by Simon de Montfort. CTSTI. ornamentation of a florid and incongruous character. tall. SW. employed Bonaparte to command the artillery. the offence of inciting and stirring up riots and quarrels among the Queen's subjects. BAR`RATRY. charged with Computer Lecturer. also a fraud by a ship captain on the owners of a ship. a town on the Hooghly. entered Parliament. one of the Hebrides. ballads by Rudyard Kipling." was a member of the Directory till Bonaparte swept it away (1755-1829). born in Provence.. more lavish and showy rather than true and tasteful. took part in the siege of Toulon. where the lieutenant-governor of Bengal has a residence. BAR`RACKPUR (18). the inhabitants of which are engaged in fisheries.

" in 1889.. _b_. and "A Window in Thrums. and recently "Margaret Ogilvie. a slightly interrupted succession of coral reefs off the coast of Queensland. began his literary career as a contributor to journals. _b_. Leeds. would-be assassin of Henry IV. BARRIE. 1846. "Auld Licht Idylls" in 1888. of France. Page 255 of 2772 .com authorship of "Junius' Letters". brother of the great tribune of the name. JEAN FRANCOIS." deemed by some likely to prove the most enduring thing he has yet written. made his _debut_ at Halifax. born in Essex. and 100 m. so called from his bulk and the liquor he held. French historian of the Revolution (1786-1868). London. extent. and protect the intermediate channel from the storms of the Pacific. and of the Court and the Princess's Theatres. among other works. BARRIERE. _d_. produced his Hamlet in 1884. off the coast. Viscount de Mirabeau. BARRERE. JAMES MATTHEW. BARRIER REEF. Chennai 6.. WILSON. BARRETT. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. BARREL MIRABEAU. and growing narrower as they go N. in Forfarshire. Computer Lecturer. born at Kirriemuir ("Thrums"). a writer with a rich vein of humour and pathos. 1860. broken on the wheel in 1593. English actor. of 1200 m. 1802. BARRIERE. lessee of the Grand Theatre. wide at the S. See BARERE. produced. are from 70 to 20 m. PIERRE. THE GREAT.

for his "Dissuasive from Jacobitism". in a pure and simple style. JOAO DE. the fourth. Chennai 6. JOHN SHUTE." relates. ODILON." and a body of sermons remarkable for their vigour of thought and nervousness of Computer Lecturer. BARRINGTON. to return to office in 1872 (1791-1873). born in London. a man of great intellectual ability and force of character. contributed to the Revolutions of both 1830 and 1848. 1st Viscount. a river in Ireland rising in the Slievebloom Mts. left a "Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy. a graduate of Cambridge.com BARRIERS. left six sons. BARROS. particularly Daines. BARROW. and soon after Gresham professor of Geometry. 1st Lord of the name. falls into Waterford harbour. Page 256 of 2772 . mathematician. assisted under Lord Howe at the relief of Gibraltar. distinguished in the naval service. after a course of 114 m.ramakalai@gmail. all more or less distinguished. a distinguished Portuguese historian. ISAAC." and an Irish peerage from George I. famous as an advocate. born at Villefort. a battle fought within the walls of Paris in 1814 between Napoleon and the Allies. and master of Trinity. CTSTI. distinguished in law (1727-1800). and became an admiral in 1787 (1678-1764). he did not live to complete it (1493-1570). subsequently Lucasian professor of Mathematics (in which he had Newton for successor). and divine. retired after the _coup d'etat_. BATTLE OF THE. BARROW. accepted office under Louis Napoleon. English scholar.. and Samuel. the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in the Indies. "Asia Portugueza. gained the favour of the Nonconformists by his "Rights of Dissenters. and fellow of Trinity College. besides mathematical works. his great work. which ended in the capitulation of the city and the abdication of Napoleon. the fifth. BARROT. appointed professor of Greek at Cambridge. and founder of the library.

defeated the Dutch admiral. SIR JOHN. became professor of Painting at the Royal Academy. architect. See PROCTER. JEAN. served under De Ruyter. born at Westminster. De Vries. besides other public buildings (1795-1860). captured his squadron laden with corn. but was deposed. which has led to the establishment of smelting works and the largest manufacture of steel in the kingdom. made numerous prizes. was subsidised as a privateer.. born at Dunkirk. Page 257 of 2772 .com expression (1630-1677). a town and seaport in N. wrote the Lives of Macartney. purchased a ship of two guns. BARRY. and much esteemed in that department. JAMES. secretary to the Admiralty for 40 years. distinguished also as a man of letters. SIR CHARLES. Lancashire. was captured by the English. entered the French service at 20. of recent rapid growth. died in poverty. BARROW. architect of the new Palace of Westminster. or BARTH. for which he was ennobled by Louis XIV. son of a fisherman.ramakalai@gmail. born in Cork. and Peter the Great (1764-1848). Computer Lecturer. he was one of the bravest of men and the most independent. Howe. Chennai 6. owing to the discovery of extensive deposits of iron in the neighbourhood. Anson. a distinguished French seaman. but escaped. unhampered by red-tapism of every kind (1651-1702). BARROW-IN-FURNESS (51). BARRY. BARRY CORNWALL. the principal landowners in the district being the Dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch. BART. having had other ships placed under his command. painter. his masterpiece is the "Victors at Olympia" (1741-1806). CTSTI. painted the "Death of General Wolfe".

manners. physiologist. JULES. author of "Nemesis. "Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grece." in verse." long treated as an authority in the history. a celebrated physician. a French historian and antiquary. an enemy of the Bourbons. his principal works. born at Montpellier. an associate of Odilon Barrot in the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848. is celebrated among physiologists as the advocate of what he called the Vital Principle as a physiological force in the functions of the human organism. in Provence.com BARTH. born at Paris. JEAN JACQUES. and subsequently a zealous supporter of M. born at Hamburg. educated by the Jesuits. his work "Nouveaux Elements de la Science de l'Homme" has been translated into all the languages of Europe (1734-1806). BARTHEZ." and the best French translation of the "AEneid. and Mahomet. born at Colmar. Chennai 6. _b_. AUGUSTE-MARSEILLE. as well as wrote on the Vedas. PAUL JOSEPH. suffered greatly during the Revolution. a poet and politician. BARTHELEMY. and warm supporter of Louis Napoleon (1796-1867). wrote several archaeological works. for a time professor of Greek and Roman Philosophy in the College of France. born at Marseilles. had great skill in numismatics. his greatest achievement. translated the works of Aristotle. Computer Lecturer. Page 258 of 2772 . BARTHOLDI. THE ABBE. and Encyclopaedist. an ardent Imperialist. HEINRICH. and the "Iliad" into verse. a French baron and politician. born at Cassis. a French sculptor. was much esteemed and honoured by Napoleon. in chief. BARTHELEMY SAINT-HILAIRE. CTSTI. and customs of Greece (1716-1795). Buddhism. an Oriental as well as Greek scholar. BARTHELEMY. a great African explorer. where he founded a medical school. author of "Travels in the East and Discoveries in Central Africa.ramakalai@gmail. Thiers." in five volumes (1821-1865). 1805.

Page 259 of 2772 . to be kept on the saint's day. born at Rhode Island. 24.. an event. BARTIZAN. _b_. Chennai 6.S. author of "Dictionary of Americanisms. has a medical school attached to it. U.. JOHN H.. till Charles was coerced to grant liberty of conscience throughout the realm. Computer Lecturer. an annual market held at Smithfield. BARTLETT. and martyr. when it ceased to be a market and became an occasion for mere dissipation and riot. day in 1572 memorable for the wholesale massacre of the Protestants in France at the instance of Catharine de Medici. high.. and instituted in 1133 by Henry I. cruelly gloried in by the Pope and the Spanish Court. Festival." among other works particularly on ethnology (1805-1886). which kindled a fire in the nation that was not quenched. 24th August.. BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. then regent of the kingdom for her son. with which the names of a number of eminent physicians are associated. also as headless. BARTHOLOMEW HOSPITAL." and "Liberte eclairant le Monde. an hospital in Smithfield. but abolished in 1853. being 150 ft.ramakalai@gmail. Charles IX." the largest bronze statue in the world. founded in 1123. although it extinguished Protestantism proper in France. an overhanging wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of ancient fortifications. an apostle of Christ. 1834. represented in art with a knife in one hand and his skin in the other. ST.com "Lion le Belfort. sometimes been painted as being flayed alive.. an American ethnologist and philologist. ST. BARTHOLOMEW. erected at the entrance of New York harbour. London. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY. Aug. London. CTSTI.

Page 260 of 2772 . FRANCESCO. born at Florence. BARTON." after Carlo Dolci. a Florentine sculptor. BARTOLOMME`O. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail." born in London. a clerk nearly all his days in a bank. his chief works. a learned Italian Jesuit. and "Virgin and Child. PIETRO. but instinct with poetic feeling and fancy. LORENZO. Italian engraver. wrought at his art both in England and in Portugal. DANIELE. the "Prometheus. born in Kent. FRA. as well as more substantial patronage in the shape of a government pension (1784-1849). mostly on homely subjects. born at Florence. engraved a great number of ancient works of art (1635-1700).com BARTOLI. in which she gave utterances ascribed by Archbishop Warham to divine inspiration. born at Ferrara (1635-1685). produced a great number of busts (1777-1850). BARTON. ELIZABETH. BARTOLI. an adherent of Savonarola. patronised by Napoleon. the "Quaker poet. where he died. "the Maid of Kent. he was the father of Madame Vestris (1725-1815). subject from nervous debility to trances. till her communications were taken advantage of by designing people. for Computer Lecturer. and she was led by them to pronounce sentence against the divorce of Catharine of Aragon. a celebrated Florentine painter of sacred subjects. an eminent engraver. his poems. "St." after Michael Angelo. BERNARD. BARTOLINI." after Annibale Caracci. which involved her and her abettors in a charge of treason. Chennai 6. gained him the friendship of Southey and Charles Lamb." a poor country servant-girl. Sebastian" among his best productions (1469-1517). "Clytie. Mark" and "St. BARTOLOZ`ZI. friend of Raphael.

established a normal school on this method at Dessau. but was hampered at every step by the opposition of Pope Eugenius IV. BARYE. BASEL (74).ramakalai@gmail. BASAITI. just before it enters Germany. a rival of Bellini. who was cast with him into prison. (1) the friend of the prophet Jeremiah. which. instinct with the spirit of Hebrew prophecy. It effected some compromise with the Hussites. a French sculptor. distinguished for his groups of statues of wild animals (1795-1875). and laboured for 12 years to effect the reformation of the Church from within. a zealous educational reformer. and museum. Peter and St. which led to a rupture with his colleagues (1723-1790). a Venetian painter of the 15th and 16th centuries. JOHANN BERNARD. has a cathedral. BASEL. and the home for several years of Erasmus. and has manufactures of silks and chemicals. CTSTI. and his scribe. met in 1431. BARUCH. Asserting the authority of a general council over the Pope himself. however. ascribed to him. but obviously written after the event. it is now a great money market. Andrew.com which they were all executed at Tyburn (1506-1534). COUNCIL OF. (3) also a book entitled the Apocalypse of Baruch. library. born at Hamburg. the people are Protestant and German-speaking. university. Page 261 of 2772 . Chennai 6. on the Rhine." BASEDOW. "Christ in the Garden" and the "Calling of St. (2) a book in the Apocrypha. on his Computer Lecturer. his best works. it cited him on two occasions to appear at its bar. was a centre of influence in Reformation times. and accompanied him into Egypt. failed from his irritability of temper. affecting to predict the fall of Jerusalem. in the NW. of Switzerland. his method modelled according to the principles of Rousseau.

a native hill state in the Punjab. irregular. noted her impressions. undisciplined troops in the pay of the Sultan. when published after her death. but of delicate constitution. supported Eugenius. Failing to effect its purpose. but scantily recognised. they number some 500. and the council gradually melted away.com refusal declared him contumacious. and left a journal of her life. and dealt with the election of popes and the procedure of the College of Cardinals. which created. BASHI-BAZOUKS`. but are not recognised by modern Roman canonists. CTSTI. owing to the secession of his supporters. the indecorousness of certain festivals. Computer Lecturer.000. was recognised by the whole Church.. more or less. who travelled a good deal with her mother. Palestine of considerable extent. They were all confirmed by Nicholas V. BASHKIRS. At length. Chennai 6. BA`SHAN. rendered themselves odious by their brutality in the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876. The Emperor Frederick III. a precocious Russian young lady of good family. Felix resigned. the papal prerogatives and exactions. Russia. however. Page 262 of 2772 . and Nicholas V.ramakalai@gmail. in 1449. Felix V. and ultimately endeavoured to suspend him.. and at one time densely peopled. the men of it were remarkable for their stature. who was. BASHKIRTSEFF. it elected a rival pope. The decrees of the council were directed against the immorality of the clergy. as well as. a fertile and pastoral district in NE. originally a Finnish nomad race (and still so to some extent) of E. traversed by the Sutlej. MARIE. tributary to the British Government. in the time of the Crimean war. professing Mohammedanism. the pope died. BASHAHR. an immense sensation from the confessions it contains (1860-1884).

. the code of laws. fought successfully against the Saracens. and defender of the Nicene Creed. had Julian the Apostate for a fellow-student. ST. a work written by James I. e. Basil. they were converted into churches. who flourished in the 4th century. in 60 books. for the instruction of his son. Royal Gift). the lifelong friend of Gregory Nazianzen. Prince Henry. though he had raised himself to the throne by a succession of crimes. his son and successor. Page 263 of 2772 . founded a monastic body. the Macedonian. on the adoption of Christianity. bareheaded.. 886. the altar being in the apse. the friend of St. but eventually covered in. in Cappadocia. studied at Athens. Ambrose. There were several Basils of eminence in the history of the Church: Basil. a conspicuous opponent of the Arian heresy. afterwards. compiled.. and Basil. They were first erected by the Romans.com BASIL. and with the judge's bench at the end opposite the entrance. a code of laws that were in force till the fall of the empire.. emperor of the East. and named after the former.ramakalai@gmail. originally open to the sky. tried in vain to unite the Churches of the East and West. 180 B. BASIL I. his birthplace. before the union of the crowns. and with an emaciated appearance (326-380). compiled by Basil I. Chennai 6. THE GREAT. Computer Lecturer. _d_. in a circular apse added to it. BASILICON DORON (i. in 1599. bishop of Caesarea. BASILICA. containing a defence of the royal prerogative. the mystic. whose rules are followed by different monastic communities. for public business and the administration of justice. surnamed the Philosopher. bishop of Ancyra. is represented in Christian art in Greek pontificals.C. twice as long as broad. along with his son Leo. CTSTI. a spacious hall. BASILICA. first published in 887. and Leo. governed wisely.

BASILI`DES, a Gnostic of Alexandria, flourished at the commencement of the 2nd century; appears to have taught the Oriental theory of emanations, to have construed the universe as made up of a series of worlds, some 365 it is alleged, each a degree lower than the preceding, till we come to our own world, the lowest and farthest off from the parent source of the series, of which the God of the Jews was the ruler, and to have regarded Jesus as sent into it direct from the parent source to redeem it from the materialism to which the God of the Jews, as Creator and Lord of the material universe, had subjected it; which teaching a sect called after his name accepted and propagated in both the East and the West for more than two centuries afterwards.

BAS`ILISK, an animal fabled to have been hatched by a toad from the egg of an old cock, before whose breath every living thing withered and died, and the glance of whose eye so bewitched one to his ruin that the bravest could confront and overcome it only by looking at the reflection of it in a mirror, as PERSEUS (q. v.) was advised to do, and did, when he cut off the head of the Medusa; seeing itself in a mirror, it burst, it as said, at the sight.

BASKERVILLE, JOHN, a printer and typefounder, originally a writing-master in Birmingham; native of Sion Hill, Worcestershire; produced editions of classical works prized for their pre-eminent beauty by connoisseurs in the art of the printer, and all the more for their rarity (1706-1756).

BASNAGES, JACQUES, a celebrated Protestant divine, born at Rouen; distinguished as a linguist and man of affairs; wrote a "History of the Reformed Churches" and on "Jewish Antiquities" (1653-1723).

BASOCHE, a corporation of lawyers' clerks in Paris. See BAZOCHE.

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BASQUE PROVINCES, a fertile and mineral district in N. of Spain, embracing the three provinces of Biscaya, Guipuzcoa, and Alava, of which the chief towns are respectively Bilbao, St. Sebastian, and Vittoria; the natives differ considerably from the rest of the Spaniards in race, language, and customs. See BASQUES.

BASQUE ROADS, an anchorage between the Isle of Oleron and the mainland; famous for a naval victory gained in 1809 over a French fleet under Vice-Admiral Allemand.

BASQUES, a people of the Western Pyrenees, partly in France and partly in Spain; distinguished from their neighbours only by their speech, which is non-Aryan; a superstitious people, conservative, irascible, ardent, proud, serious in their religious convictions, and pure in their moral conduct.

BAS-RELIEF (i. e. low relief) a term applied to figures very slightly projected from the ground.

BASS ROCK, a steep basaltic rock at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, 350 ft. high, tenanted by solan geese; once used as a prison, specially in Covenanting times.

BASS STRAIT, strait between Australia and Tasmania, about 150 m. broad.

BASSANIO, the lover of Portia in the "Merchant of Venice."

BASSANO, a town in Italy, on the Brenta, 30 m. NW. of Padua; printing the chief industry.

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BASSANO, DUC DE, an intriguing French diplomatist in the interest of Bonaparte, and his steadfast auxiliary to the last (1763-1839).

BASSANO, JACOPO DA PONTE, an eminent Italian painter, chiefly of country scenes, though the "Nativity" at his native town, Bassano, shows his ability in the treatment of higher themes (1510-1592).

BASSOMPIERRE, FRANCOIS DE, a marshal of France, born in Lorraine; entered military life under Henry IV., was a gallant soldier, and one of the most brilliant wits of his time; took part in the siege of Rochelle; incurred the displeasure of Richelieu; was imprisoned by his order twelve years in the Bastille; wrote his Memoirs there; was liberated on the death of Richelieu; his Memoirs contain a lively description of his contemporaries, the manners of the time, his own intrigues, no less than those of his friends and enemies (1579-1646).

BASSORAH (40), a port in Asiatic Turkey, on the Shatt-el-Arab; a place of great commercial importance when Bagdad was the seat of the caliphate; for a time sank into insignificance, but has of late revived.

BASTI`A (22), a town in NE. Corsica, the most commercial in the island, and once the capital; was founded by the Genoese in 1383, and taken by the French in 1553; exports wine, oil, fruits, &c.

BASTIAN, ADOLF, an eminent ethnologist, born at Bremen; travelled over and surveyed, in the interest of his science, all quarters of the globe, and recorded the fruits of his survey in his numerous works, no fewer than thirty in number, beginning with "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," in three vols.; conducts, along with Virchow and R. Hartman, the _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_; _b_. 1826.

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BASTIAN, DR. H. C., a physiologist, born at Truro; a materialist in his theory of life; a zealous advocate of the doctrine of spontaneous generation; _b_. 1837.

BASTIAT, FREDERIC, an eminent political economist, born at Bayonne; a disciple of Cobden's; a great advocate of Free Trade; wrote on behalf of it and against Protection, "Sophismes Economiques"; a zealous Anti-Socialist, and wrote against Socialism (1801-1850).

BASTIDE, JULES, French Radical writer, born in Paris; took part in the Revolution of 1848, and became Minister of Foreign Affairs (1800-1879).

BASTILLE (lit. the Building), a State prison in Paris, built originally as a fortress of defence to the city, by order of Charles V., between 1369 and 1382, but used as a place of imprisonment from the first; a square structure, with towers and dungeons for the incarceration of the prisoners, the whole surrounded by a moat, and accessible only by drawbridges; "tyranny's stronghold"; attacked by a mob on 14th July 1789; taken chiefly by noise; overturned, as "the city of Jericho, by miraculous sound"; demolished, and the key of it sent to Washington; the taking of it was the first event in the Revolution. See Carlyle's "French Revolution" for the description of the fall of it.

BASUTOLAND (250), a fertile, healthy, grain-growing territory in S. Africa, SE. of the Orange Free State, under protection of the British crown, of the size of Belgium; yields large quantities of maize; the natives keep large herds of cattle.

BASUTOS, a S. African race of the same stock as the Kaffirs, but superior to them in intelligence and industry.

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BATANGAS, a port in the island of Luzon, one of the Philippine Islands, which has a considerable trade.

BATAVIA (105), the capital of Java, on the N. coast, and of the Dutch possessions in the Eastern Archipelago; the emporium, with a large trade, of the Far East; with a very mixed population. Also the ancient name of Holland; _insula Batavorum_ it was called--that is, island of the Batavi, the name of the native tribes inhabiting it.

BATES, HENRY WALTER, a naturalist and traveller, born at Leicester; friend of, and a fellow-labourer with, Alfred R. Wallace; author of "The Naturalist on the Amazons"; an advocate of the Darwinian theory, and author of contributions in defence of it (1825-1892).

BATH (54), the largest town in Somerset, on the Avon; a cathedral city; a place of fashionable resort from the time of the Romans, on account of its hot baths and mineral waters, of which there are six springs; it was from 1704 to 1750 the scene of Beau Nash's triumphs; has a number of educational and other institutions, and a fine public park.

BATH, MAJOR, a gentleman in Fielding's "Amelia," who stoops from his dignity to the most menial duties when affection prompts him.

BATH, ORDER OF THE, an English order of knighthood, traceable to the reign of Henry IV., consisting of three classes: the first, Knights Grand Cross; the second, Knights Commanders, and the third, Knights Companions, abbreviated respectively into G.C.B., K.C.B., and C.B.; initiation into the order originally preceded by immersion in a bath, whence the name, in token of the purity required of the members by the laws of chivalry. It was originally a military order, and it is only since 1847 that civil Knights, Knights Commanders, and Companions have been admitted as Knights. The first class, exclusive of royal personages and

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foreigners, is limited to 102 military and 28 civil; the second, to 102 military and 50 civil; and the third, to 525 military and 200 civil. The motto of the order is _Tria juncta in uno_ (Three united in one); and Henry VI.'s chapel at Westminster is the chapel of the order, with the plates of the Knights on their stalls, and their banners suspended over them.

BATHGATE (5), largest town in Linlithgowshire; a mining centre; the birthplace of Sir J. Simpson, who was the son of a baker in the place.

BATHILDA, ST., queen of France, wife of Clovis II., who governed France during the minority of her sons, Clovis III., Childeric II., and Thierry; died 680, in the monastery of Chelles.

BATH`ORI, ELIZABETH, a Polish princess, a woman of infamous memory, caused some 650 young girls to be put to death, in order, by bathing in their blood, to renew her beauty; immersed in a fortress for life on the discovery of the crime, while her accomplices were burnt alive; _d_. 1614.

BATHOS, an anti-climax, being a sudden descent from the sublime to the commonplace.

BATH`URST (8), the capital of British Gambia, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western Africa; inhabited chiefly by negroes; exports palm-oil, ivory, gold dust, &c.

BATHURST (10), the principal town on the western slopes of New South Wales, second to Sydney, with gold mines in the neighbourhood, and in a fertile wheat-growing district.

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BATHURST, a district in Upper Canada, on the Ottawa, a thriving place and an agricultural centre.

BATHYB`IUS, (i. e. living matter in the deep), substance of a slimy nature found at great sea depth, over-hastily presumed to be organic, proved by recent investigation to be inorganic, and of no avail to the evolutionist.

BATLEY (28), a manufacturing town in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; a busy place.

BATN-EL-HAJAR, a stony tract in the Nubian Desert, near the third cataract of the Nile.

BATON-ROUGE (10), a city on the E. bank of the Mississippi, 130 m. above New Orleans, and capital of the state of Louisiana; originally a French settlement.

BATON-SINISTER, a bend-sinister like a marshal's baton, an indication of illegitimacy.

BATOUM` (10), a town in Transcaucasia, on the E. of the Black Sea; a place of some antiquity; recently ceded by Turkey to Russia, but only as a mere trading port; has an excellent harbour, and has improved under Russian rule.

BATRACHOMYOMACHIA, a mock-heroic poem, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice," falsely ascribed to Homer.

BATTAS, a Malay race, native to Sumatra, now much reduced in

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numbers, and driven into the interior.

BATTERSEA, a suburb of London, on the Surrey side of the Thames, opposite Chelsea, and connected with it by a bridge; with a park 185 acres in extent; of plain and recent growth; till lately a quite rural spot.

BATTHYA`NI, COUNT, an Hungarian patriot, who fought hard to see his country reinstated in its ancient administrative independence, but failed in his efforts; was arrested, tried for high treason by court-martial, and sentenced to be shot, to the horror, at the time, of the civilised world (1809-1849).

BATTLE, a market-town in Sussex, near Hastings, so called from the battle of Senlac, in which William the Conqueror defeated Harold in 1066.

BATTLE OF THE SPURS, (_a_) an engagement at Courtrai in 1302 where the burghers of the town beat the knighthood of France, and the spurs of 4000 knights were collected after the battle; (_b_) an engagement at Guinegate, 1513, in which Henry VIII. made the French forces take to their spurs; OF THE BARRIERS (see BARRIERS); OF THE BOOKS, a satire by Swift on a literary controversy of the time; OF THE STANDARD, a battle in 1138, in which the English, with a high-mounted crucifix for a standard, beat the Scots at Northallerton.

BATTUE, method of killing game after crowding them by cries and beating them towards the sportsmen.


BAUDELAIRE, CHARLES, French poet of the romantic school, born in

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Paris; distinguished among his contemporaries for his originality, and his influence on others of his class; was a charming writer of prose as well as verse, as his "Petits Poemes" in prose bear witness. Victor Hugo once congratulated him on having "created a new shudder"; and as has been said, "this side of his genius attracted most popular attention, which, however, is but one side, and not really the most remarkable, of a singular combination of morbid but delicate analysis and reproduction of the remotest phases and moods of human thought and passion" (1821-1867).

BAUDRICOURT, a French courtier whom Joan of Arc pressed to conduct her into the presence of Charles VII.

BAUDRY, PAUL, French painter, decorated the _foyer_ of the Grand Opera in Paris; is best known as the author of the "Punishment of a Vestal Virgin" and the "Assassination of Marat" (1828-1886).

BAUER, BRUNO, a daring Biblical critic, and violent polemic on political as well as theological subjects; born at Saxe-Altenburg; regarded the Christian religion as overlaid and obscured by accretions foreign to it; denied the historical truth of the Gospels, and, like a true disciple of Hegel, ascribed the troubles of the 19th century to the overmastering influence of the "ENLIGHTENMENT" or the "AUFKLAeRUNG" (q. v.) that characterised the 18th. His last work was entitled "Disraeli's Romantic and Bismarck's Socialistic Imperialism" (1809-1882).

BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, professor of Philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder; disciple of Wolf; born at Berlin; the founder of AEsthetics as a department of philosophy, and inventor of the name (1714-1762).

BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, a German theologian of the school of Schleiermacher; professor of Theology at Jena; born at Merseburg; an authority on the history of dogma, on which he wrote (1788-1843).

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BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN, head of the Tuebingen school of rationalist divines, born near Stuttgart; distinguished by his scholarship and his labours in Biblical criticism and dogmatic theology; his dogmatic treatises were on the Christian Gnosis, the Atonement, the Trinity, and the Incarnation, while his Biblical were on certain epistles of Paul and the canonical Gospels, which he regarded as the product of the 2nd century; regarded Christianity of the Church as Judaic in its origin, and Paul as distinctively the first apostle of pure Christianity (1792-1861).

BAUSSET, cardinal, born at Pondicherry, who wrote the Lives of Bossuet and Fenelon (1748-1824).

BAUTZEN, a town of Saxony, an old town on the Spree, where Napoleon defeated the Prussians and Russians in 1813; manufactures cotton, linen, wool, tobacco, paper, etc.

BAVARIA (5,590), next to Prussia the largest of the German States, about the size of Scotland; is separated by mountain ranges from Bohemia on the E. and the Tyrol on the S.; Wuertemburg lies on the W., Prussia, Meiningen, and Saxony on the N. The country is a tableland crossed by mountains and lies chiefly in the basin of the Danube. It is a busy agricultural state: half the soil is tilled; the other half is under grass, planted with vineyards and forests. Salt, coal, and iron are widely distributed and wrought. The chief manufactures are of beer, coarse linen, and woollen fabrics. There are universities at Muenich, Wuerzburg, and Erlangen. Muenich, on the Isar, is the capital; Nueremberg, where watches were invented, and Angsburg, a banking centre, the other chief towns. Formerly a dukedom, the palatinate, on the banks of the Rhine, was added to it in 1216. Napoleon I. raised the duke to the title of king in 1805. Bavaria fought on the side of Austria in 1866, but joined Prussia in 1870-71.

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BAVIE`CA, the famous steed of the Cid, held sacred after the hero's death.

BAVOU, ST., a soldier monk, the patron saint of Ghent.

BAXTER, RICHARD, an eminent Nonconformist divine, native of Shropshire, at first a conformist, and parish minister of Kidderminster for 19 years; sympathised with the Puritans, yet stopped short of going the full length with them; acted as chaplain to one of their regiments, and returned to Kidderminster; became, at the Restoration one of the king's chaplains; driven out of the Church by the Act of Uniformity, was thrown into prison at 70, let out, spent the rest of his days in peace; his popular works, "The Saint's Everlasting Rest," and his "Call to the Unconverted" (1615-1691).

BAY CITY (27), place of trade, and of importance as a great railway centre in Michigan, U.S.; the third city in it.

BAYADERE, a dancing-girl in India, dressed in loose Eastern costume.

BAYARD, a horse of remarkable swiftness belonging to the four sons of Aymon, and which they sometimes rode all at once; also a horse of Amadis de Gaul.

BAYARD, CHEVALIER DE, an illustrious French knight, born in the Chateau Bayard, near Grenoble; covered himself with glory in the wars of Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I.; his bravery and generosity commanded the admiration of his enemies, and procured for him the thrice-honourable cognomen of "The Knight _sans peur et sans reproche_"; one of his most brilliant feats was his defence, single-handed, of the bridge over the Garigliano, in the face of a large body of Spaniards; was

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mortally wounded defending a pass at Abblategrasso; fell with his face to the foe, who carried off his body, but restored it straightway afterwards for due burial by his friends (1476-1524).

BAYEUX (7), an ancient Norman city in the dep. of Calvados, France; manufactures lace, hosiery, &c.; is a bishop's seat; has a very old Gothic cathedral.

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, representations in tapestry of events connected with the Norman invasion of England, commencing with Harold's visit to the Norman court, and ending with his death at the battle of Hastings; still preserved in the public library of Bayeux; is so called because originally found there; it is 214 ft. long by 20 in. wide, divided into 72 scenes, and contains a variety of figures. It is a question whose work it was.

BAYLE, PIERRE, a native of Languedoc; first Protestant (as the son of a Calvinist minister), then Catholic, then sceptic; Professor of Philosophy at Padua, then at Rotterdam, and finally retired to the Boompjes in the latter city; known chiefly as the author of the famous _Dictionnaire Historique et Critique_, to the composition of which he consecrated his energies with a zeal worthy of a religious devotee, and which became the fountain-head of the sceptical philosophy that flooded France on the eve of the Revolution; pronounced by a competent judge in these matters, a mere "imbroglio of historical, philosophical, and anti-theological marine stores" (1647-1700).

BAYLEN, a town in the province of Jaen, Spain, where General Castanos defeated Dupont, and compelled him to sign a capitulation, in 1808.

BAYLEY, SIR JOHN, a learned English judge; author of a standard work "On the Law of Bills of Exchange"; _d_. 1841.

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BAYONNE (24), a fortified French town, trading and manufacturing, in the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, at the confluence of the Adour and Nive, 4 m. from the Bay of Biscay; noted for its strong citadel, constructed by Vauban, and one of his _chef-d'oeuvres_, and its 12th-century cathedral church; it belonged to the English from 1152 to 1451.

BAZAINE, FRANCOIS ACHILLE, a marshal of France, born at Versailles; distinguished himself in Algiers, the Crimea, and Mexico; did good service, as commander of the army of the Rhine, in the Franco-German war, but after the surrender at Sedan was shut up in Metz, surrounded by the Germans, and obliged to surrender, with all his generals, officers, and men; was tried by court-martial, and condemned to death, but was imprisoned instead; made good his escape one evening to Madrid, where he lived to write a justification of his conduct, the sale of the book being prohibited in France (1811-1888).

BAZARD, SAINT-AMAND, a French socialist, founder of the _Charbonnerie Francaise_; a zealous but unsuccessful propagator of St. Simonianism, in association with ENFANTIN (q. v.), from whom he at last separated (1791-1832).

BAZOCHE, a guild of clerks of the parliament of Paris, under a mock king, with the privilege of performing religious plays, which they abused.

BEACHES, RAISED, elevated lands, formerly sea beaches, the result of upheaval, or left high by the recession of the sea, evidenced to be such by the shells found in them and the nature of the debris.

BEACHY HEAD, a chalk cliff in Sussex, 575 ft. high, projecting into the English Channel; famous for a naval engagement between the allied

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English and Dutch fleets and those of France, in which the latter were successful.

BEACONSFIELD, capital of the gold-mining district in Tasmania; also a town in Buckinghamshire, 10 m. N. of Windsor, from which Benjamin Disraeli took his title on his elevation to the peerage.

BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF, English novelist and politician, born in London; son of Isaac D'Israeli, litterateur, and thus of Jewish parentage; was baptized at the age of 12; educated under a Unitarian minister; studied law, but did not qualify for practice. His first novel, "Vivian Grey," appeared in 1826, and thereafter, whenever the business of politics left him leisure, he devoted it to fiction. "Contarini Fleming," "Coningsby," "Tancred," "Lothair," and "Endymion" are the most important of a brilliant and witty series, in which many prominent personages are represented and satirised under thin disguises. His endeavours to enter Parliament as a Radical failed twice in 1832; in 1835 he was unsuccessful again as a Tory. His first seat was for Maidstone in 1837; thereafter he represented Shrewsbury and Buckinghamshire. For 9 years he was a free-lance in the House, hating the Whigs, and after 1842 leading the Young England party; his onslaught on the Corn Law repeal policy of 1846 made him leader of the Tory Protectionists. He was for a short time Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Derby in 1852, and coolly abandoned Protection. Returning to power with his chief six years later, he introduced a Franchise Bill, the defeat of which threw out the Government. In office a third time in 1866, he carried a democratic Reform Bill, giving household suffrage in boroughs and extending the county franchise. Succeeding Lord Derby in 1868, he was forced to resign soon afterwards. In 1874 he entered his second premiership. Two years were devoted to home measures, among which were Plimsoll's Shipping Act and the abolition of Scottish Church patronage. Then followed a showy foreign policy. The securing of the half of the Suez Canal shares for Britain; the proclamation of the Queen as Empress of India; the support of Constantinople against Russia, afterwards stultified by the Berlin Congress, which he himself attended; the annexation of Cyprus; the Afghan and Zulu wars, were its salient

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features. Defeated at the polls in 1880 he resigned, and died next year. A master of epigram and a brilliant debater, he really led his party. He was the opposite in all respects of his protagonist, Mr. Gladstone. Lacking in zeal, he was yet loyal to England, and a warm personal friend of the Queen (1804-1881).

BEAR, name given in the Stock Exchange to one who contracts to deliver stock at a fixed price on a certain day, in contradistinction from the _bull_, or he who contracts to take it, the interest of the former being that, in the intervening time, the stocks should fall, and that of the latter that they should rise.


BEAM, an ancient prov. of France, fell to the crown with the accession of Henry IV. in 1589; formed a great part of the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, capital Pau.

BEATIFICATION, religious honour allowed by the pope to certain who are not so eminent in sainthood as to entitle them to canonisation.

BEATON, or BETHUNE, DAVID, cardinal, archbishop of St. Andrews, and primate of the kingdom, born in Fife; an adviser of James V., twice over ambassador to France; on the death of James secured to himself the chief power in Church and State as Lord High Chancellor and Papal Legate; opposed alliance with England; persecuted the Reformers; condemned George Wishart to the stake, witnessed his sufferings from a window of his castle in St. Andrews, and was assassinated within its walls shortly after; with his death ecclesiastical tyranny of that type came to an end in Scotland (1494-1546).

BEATON, JAMES, archbishop of Glasgow and St. Andrews, uncle of the

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preceding, a prominent figure in the reign of James V.; was partial to affiliation with France, and a persecutor of the Reformers; _d_. 1539.

BEATTIE, JAMES, a poet and essayist, born at Laurencekirk; became professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen; wrote an "Essay on Truth" against Hume; his most admired poem, "The Minstrel," a didactic piece, traces the progress of poetic genius, admitted him to the Johnsonian circle in London, obtained for him the degree of LL.D. from Oxford, and brought him a pension of L200 per annum from the king; died at Aberdeen (1735-1803).

BEATRICE, a beautiful Florentine maiden, Portinari, her family name, for whom Dante conceived an undying affection, and whose image abode with him to the end of his days. She is his guide through Paradise.

BEAU NASH, a swell notability at Bath; died in beggary (1674-1761).

BEAU TIBBS, a character in Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," noted for his finery, vanity, and poverty.

BEAUCAIRE (8), a French town near Avignon, on the Rhone, which it spans with a magnificent bridge; once a great centre of trade, and famous, as it still is, for its annual fair, frequented by merchants from all parts of Europe.

BEAUCHAMP, ALPHONSE DE, a historian, born at Monaco; wrote the "Conquest of Peru," "History of Brazil," &c. (1769-1832).

BEAUCLERK, Henry I. of England, so called from his superior learning.

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BEAUCLERK, TOPHAM, a young English nobleman, the only son of Lord Sydney Beauclerk, a special favourite of Johnson's, who, when he died, lamented over him, as one whose like the world might seldom see again (1759-1780).

BEAUFORT, DUKE OF, grandson of Henry IV. of France; one of the chiefs of the Fronde; was surnamed Roi des Halles (King of the Market-folk); appointed admiral of France; did good execution against the pirates; passed into the service of Venice; was killed at the siege of Candia in 1669.

BEAUFORT, HENRY, cardinal, bishop of Winchester, son of John of Gaunt, learned in canon law, was several times chancellor; took a prominent part in all the political movements of the time, exerted an influence for good on the nation, lent immense sums to Henry V. and Henry VI., also left bequests for charitable uses, and founded the hospital of St. Cross at Winchester (1377-1447).

BEAUHAR`NAIS, ALEXANDRE, VICOMTE DE, born at Martinique, where he married a lady who, afterwards as wife of Napoleon, became the Empress Josephine; accepted and took part in the Revolution; was secretary of the National Assembly; coolly remarked, on the news of the flight of the king, "The king's gone off; let us pass to the next business of the House"; was convicted of treachery to the cause of the Revolution and put to death; as the father of Hortense, who married Louis, Napoleon's brother, he became grandfather of Napoleon III. (1760-1794).

BEAUHARNAIS, EUGENE DE, son of the preceding and of Josephine, born at Paris, step-son of Napoleon, therefore was made viceroy of Italy; took an active part in the wars of the empire; died at Muenich, whither he retired after the fall of Napoleon (1781-1824).

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BEAUHARNAIS, HORTENSE EUGENIE, sister of the preceding, ex-queen of Holland; wife of Louis Bonaparte, an ill-starred union; mother of Napoleon III., the youngest of three sons (1783-1837).

BEAUMAR`CHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE, a dramatist and pleader of the most versatile, brilliant gifts, and French to the core, born in Paris, son of a watchmaker at Caen; ranks as a comic dramatist next to Moliere; author of "Le Barbier de Seville" (1775), and "Le Mariage de Figaro" (1784), his masterpiece; astonished the world by his conduct of a lawsuit he had, for which "he fought against reporters, parliaments, and principalities, with light banter, clear logic, adroitly, with an inexhaustible toughness of resource, like the skilfullest fencer." He was a zealous supporter of the Revolution, and made sacrifices on its behalf, but narrowly escaped the guillotine; died in distress and poverty. Of the two plays he wrote, Saintsbury says, "The wit is indisputable, but his chansons contain as much wit as the Figaro plays." He made a fortune by speculations in the American war, and lost by others, one of them being the preparation of a sumptuous edition of Voltaire. For the culmination and decline, as well as appreciation, of him, see the "French Revolution," by Carlyle (1732-1799).

BAUMA`RIS, principal town in Anglesea, Wales, on the Menai Strait, near Bangor, a favourite watering-place, with remains of a castle erected by Edward I.

BEAUMONT, CHRISTOPHE DE, archbishop of Paris, born at Perigord, "spent his life in persecuting hysterical Jansenists and incredulous non-confessors"; but scrupled to grant, though he fain would have granted, absolution on his deathbed to the dissolute monarch of France, Louis XV.; issued a charge condemnatory of Rousseau's "Emile," which provoked a celebrated letter from Rousseau in reply (1703-1781).

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, dramatic poet, born in Leicestershire, of a family of good standing; bred for the bar, but devoted to literature; was

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a friend of Ben Jonson; in conjunction with his friend Fletcher, the composer of a number of plays, about the separate authorship of which there has been much discussion, the dramatic power of which comes far short of that so conspicuous in the plays of their great contemporary Shakespeare, though it is said contemporary criticism gave them the preference (1585-1615).

BEAUMONT, JEAN BAPTISTE ELIE DE, French geologist, born in Calvados; became secretary to the Academy of Sciences; was joint-editor of a geological map of France. He had a theory of his own of the formation of the crust of the earth (1798-1874).

BEAUREGARD, PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT, American Confederate general, born at New Orleans; adopted the cause of the South, and fought in its behalf (1818-1893).

BEAUREPAIRE, a French officer, noted for his noble defence of Verdun against the Prussians; preferred death by suicide to the dishonour of surrender (1748-1792).

BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC, a Huguenot divine, born at Poitou; fled to Holland on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled in Berlin, and became a notability in high quarters there; attracted the notice of the young Frederick, the Great that was to be, who sought introduction to him, and the young Frederick "got good conversation out of him"; author of a "History of Manichaeism," praised by Gibbon, and of other books famous in their day, a translation of the New Testament for one (1659-1738).


BEAUTY AND THE BEAST, the hero and heroine of a famous fairy tale. Beauty falls in love with a being like a monster, who has, however, the

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heart of a man, and she marries him, upon which he is instantly transformed into a prince of handsome presence and noble mien.

BEAUVAIS (19), capital of the dep. of Oise, in France, 34 in. SW. of Amiens, an ancient town, noted for its cathedral, its tapestry weaving, and the feat of Jeanne-Hachette and her female following when the town was besieged by Charles the Bold.

BEAUVAIS, a French prelate, born at Cherbourg, Bishop of Senez, celebrated as a pulpit orator (1731-1790).

BEAUVILLIER, a statesman, patron of letters, to whom Louis XIV. committed the governorship of his sons; died of a broken heart due to the shock the death of the dauphin gave him (1607-1687).

BEBEK BAY, a fashionable resort on the Bosphorus, near Constantinople, and with a palace of the sultan.

BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO, one of the best painters of the Sienese school, distinguished also as a sculptor and a worker in mosaic (1486-1550).

BECCA`RIA, CAESARE BONESANA, MARQUIS OF, an Italian publicist, author of a celebrated "Treatise on Crimes and Punishments," which has been widely translated, and contributed much to lessen the severity of sentences in criminal cases. He was a utilitarian in philosophy and a disciple of Rousseau in politics.

BECHE-DE-MER, a slug, called also the trepang, procured on the coral reefs of the Pacific, which is dried and eaten as a dainty by the Chinese.

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BECHER, JOHANN JOACHIM, chemist, born at Spires; distinguished as a pioneer in the scientific study of chemistry (1635-1682).

BECHSTEIN, a German naturalist, wrote "Natural History of Cage Birds" (1757-1822).

BECHUANA-LAND, an inland tract in S. Africa, extends from the Orange River to the Zambesi; has German territory on the W., the Transvaal and Matabele-land on the E. The whole country is under British protection; that part which is S. of the river Molopo was made a crown colony in 1885. On a plateau 4000 ft. above sea-level, the climate is suited for British emigrants. The soil is fertile; extensive tracts are suitable for corn; sheep and cattle thrive; rains fall in summer; in winter there are frosts, sometimes snow. The Kalahari Desert in the W. will be habitable when sufficient wells are dug. Gold is found near Sitlagoli, and diamonds at Vryburg. The Bechuanas are the most advanced of the black races of S. Africa.

BECHUA`NAS, a wide-spread S. African race, totemists, rearers of cattle, and growers of maize; are among the most intelligent of the Bantu peoples, and show considerable capacity for self-government.

BECKER, KARL, German philologist; bred to medicine; author of a German grammar (1775-1842).

BECKER, NICOLAUS, author of the "Wacht am Rhein," was an obscure lawyer's clerk, and unnoted for anything else (1810-1845).

BECKER, WILLIAM ADOLPHE, an archaeologist, born at Dresden; was professor at Leipzig; wrote books in reproductive representation of ancient Greek and Roman life; author of "Manual of Roman Antiquities"

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BECKET, THOMAS A, archbishop of Canterbury, born in London, of Norman parentage; studied at Oxford and Bologna; entered the Church; was made Lord Chancellor; had a large and splendid retinue, but on becoming archbishop, cast all pomp aside and became an ascetic, and devoted himself to the vigorous discharge of the duties of his high office; declared for the independence of the Church, and refused to sign the CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON (q. v.); King Henry II. grew restive under his assumption of authority, and got rid of him by the hands of four knights who, to please the king, shed his blood on the steps of the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, for which outrage the king did penance four years afterwards at his tomb. The struggle was one affecting the relative rights of Church and king, and the chief combatants in the fray were both high-minded men, each inflexible in the assertion of his claims (1119-1170).

BECKFORD, WILLIAM, author of "Vathek," son of a rich alderman of London, who bequeathed him property to the value of L100,000 per annum; kept spending his fortune on extravagancies and vagaries; wrote "Vathek," an Arabian tale, when a youth of twenty-two, at a sitting of three days and two nights, a work which established his reputation as one of the first of the imaginative writers of his country. He wrote two volumes of travels in Italy, but his fame rests on his "Vathek" alone (1759-1844).

BECKMANN, a professor at Goettingen; wrote "History of Discoveries and Inventions" (1738-1811).

BECKX, PETER JOHN, general of the Jesuits, born in Belgium (1790-1887).

BECQUEREL, ANTOINE CAESAR, a French physicist; served as engineer in the French army in 1808-14, but retired in 1815, devoting himself to

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science, and obtained high distinction in electro-chemistry, working with Ampere, Biot, and other eminent scientists (1788-1878).

BED OF JUSTICE, a formal session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts, the last session being in 1787, under Louis XVI., at Versailles, whither the whole body, now "refractory, rolled out, in wheeled vehicles, to receive the order of the king."

BEDCHAMBER, LORDS or LADIES OF, officers or ladies of the royal household whose duty it is to wait upon the sovereign--the chief of the former called Groom of the Stole, and of the latter, Mistress of the Robes.

BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL, born at Clifton, son of Thomas Beddoes; an enthusiastic student of science; a dramatic poet, author of "Bride's Tragedy"; got into trouble for his Radical opinions; his principal work, "Death's Jest-Book, or the Fool's Tragedy," highly esteemed by Barry Cornwall (1803-1849).

BEDE, or BEDA, surnamed "The Venerable," an English monk and ecclesiastical historian, born at Monkwearmouth, in the abbey of which, together with that of Jarrow, he spent his life, devoted to quiet study and learning; his writings numerous, in the shape of commentaries, biographies, and philosophical treatises; his most important work, the "Ecclesiastical History" of England, written in Latin, and translated by Alfred the Great; completed a translation of John's Gospel the day he died. An old monk, it is said, wrote this epitaph over his grave, _Hac sunt in fossa Bedae ... ossa_, "In this pit are the bones ... of Beda," and then fell asleep; but when he awoke he found some invisible hand had inserted _venerabilis_ in the blank which he had failed to fill up, whence Bede's epinomen it is alleged.

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BEDELL, bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; superintended the translation of the Old Testament into Irish; though his virtues saved him and his family for a time from outrage by the rebels in 1641, he was imprisoned at the age of 70, and though released, died soon after (1571-1642).

BEDFORD (160), a midland agricultural county of England, generally level, with some flat fen-land; also the county town (28), on the Great Ouse, clean and well paved, with excellent educational institutions, famous in connection with the life of John Bunyan, where relics of him are preserved, and where a bronze statue of him by Boehm has been erected to his memory by the Duke of Bedford in 1871; manufactures agricultural implements, lace, and straw plaiting; Elstow, Bunyan's birthplace, is not far off.

BEDFORD, JOHN, DUKE OF, brother of Henry V., protector of the kingdom and regent of France during the minority of Henry VI., whom, on the death of the French king, he proclaimed King of France, taking up arms thereafter and fighting for a time victoriously on his behalf, till the enthusiasm created by Joan of Arc turned the tide against him and hastened his death, previous to which, however, though he prevailed over the dauphin, and burnt Joan at the stake, his power had gone (1389-1435).

BEDFORD LEVEL, a flat marshy district, comprising part of six counties, to the S. and W. of the Wash, about 40 m. in extent each way, caused originally by incursions of the sea and the overflowing of rivers; received its name from the Earl of Bedford, who, in the 17th century, undertook to drain it.

BEDLAM, originally a lunatic asylum in London, so named from the priory "Bethlehem" in Bishopsgate, first appropriated to the purpose, Bedlam being a corruption of the name Bethlehem.

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BEDMAR, MARQUIS DE, cardinal and bishop of Oviedo, and a Spanish diplomatist, notorious for a part he played in a daring conspiracy in 1618 aimed at the destruction of Venice, but which, being betrayed, was defeated, for concern in which several people were executed, though the arch-delinquent got off; he is the subject of Otway's "Venice Preserved"; it was after this he was made cardinal, and governor of the Netherlands, where he was detested and obliged to retire (1572-1655).

BEDOUINS, Arabs who lead a nomadic life in the desert and subsist by the pasture of cattle and the rearing of horses, the one element that binds them into a unity being community of language, the Arabic namely, which they all speak with great purity and without variation of dialect; they are generally of small stature, of wiry constitution, and dark complexion, and are divided into tribes, each under an independent chief.

BEE, THE, a periodical started by Goldsmith, in which some of his best essays appeared, and his "Citizen of the World."

BEECHER, HENRY WARD, a celebrated American preacher, born at Litchfield, Connecticut; pastor of a large Congregational church, Brooklyn; a vigorous thinker and eloquent orator, a liberal man both in theology and politics; wrote "Life Thoughts"; denied the eternity of punishment, considered a great heresy by some then, and which led to his secession from the Congregational body (1813-1887).

BEECHER-STOWE, HARRIET ELIZABETH, sister of the above, authoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," of which probably over a million copies have been sold. Born at Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., in 1812; _d_. 1896.

BEECHY, REAR-ADMIRAL, born in London, son of the following; accompanied Franklin in 1818 and Parry in 1819 to the Arctic regions; commanded the _Blossom_ in the third expedition of 1825-1828 to the same regions; published "Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole"

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BEECHY, SIR WILLIAM, portrait-painter, born in Oxfordshire; among his portraits were those of Lord Nelson, John Kemble, and Mrs. Siddons (1753-1839).

BEEF-EATERS, yeomen of the royal guard, whose institution dates from the reign of Henry VII., and whose office it is to wait upon royalty on high occasions; the name is also given to the warders of the Tower, though they are a separate body and of more recent origin; the name simply means (royal) dependant, a corruption of the French word _buffetier_, one who attends the sideboard.

BEEHIVE HOUSES, small stone structures, of ancient date, remains of which are found (sometimes in clusters) in Ireland and the W. of Scotland, with a conical roof formed of stones overlapping one another, undressed and without mortar; some of them appear to have been monks' cells.

BEEL`ZEBUB, the god of flies, protector against them, worshipped by the Phoenicians; as being a heathen deity, transformed by the Jews into a chief of the devils; sometimes identified with Satan, and sometimes his aide-de-camp.

BEERBOHM TREE, HERBERT, actor, born in London, son of a grain merchant; his first appearance was as the timid curate in the "Private Secretary," and then as the spy Macari in "Called Back"; is lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London, and has had many notable successes; he is accompanied by his wife, who is a refined actress; _b_. 1852.

BEER`SHEBA, a village in the S. of Canaan, and the most southerly, 27 m. from Hebron; associated with Dan, in the N., to denote the limit of

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the land and what lies between; lies in a pastoral country abounding in wells, and is frequently mentioned in patriarchal history; means "the Well of the Oath."

BEESWING, a gauze-like film which forms on the sides of a bottle of good port.

BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VON, one of the greatest musical composers, born in Bonn, of Dutch extraction; the author of symphonies and sonatas that are known over all the world; showed early a most precocious genius for music, commenced his education at five as a musician; trained at first by a companion named Pfeiffer, to whom he confessed he owed more than all his teachers; trained at length under the tuition of the most illustrious of his predecessors, Bach and Haendel; revealed the most wonderful musical talent; quitted Bonn and settled in Vienna; attracted the attention of Mozart; at the age of 40 was attacked with deafness that became total and lasted for life; continued to compose all the same, to the admiration of thousands; during his last days was a prey to melancholy; during a thunderstorm he died. Goethe pronounced him at his best "an utterly untamed character, not indeed wrong in finding the world detestable, though his finding it so did not," he added, "make it more enjoyable to himself or to others" (1770-1827).

BEETS, NICOLAS, a Dutch theologian and poet, born at Haarlem; came, as a poet, under the influence of Byronism; _b_. 1814.

BEFA`NA, an Italian female Santa Claus, who on Twelfth Night fills the stockings of good children with good things, and those of bad with ashes.

BEGG, JAMES, Scotch ecclesiastic, born at New Monkland, Lanark; was a stalwart champion of old Scottish orthodoxy, and the last (1808-1883).

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BEGHARDS, a religious order that arose in Belgium in the 13th century, connected with the Beguins, a mystic and socialistic sect.

BEGUINS, a sisterhood confined now to France and Germany, who, without taking any monastic vow, devote themselves to works of piety and benevolence.

BEGUM, name given in the E. Indies to a princess, mother, sister, or wife of a native ruler.

BEHAIM, MARTIN, a geographer and chartographer, born in Nueremberg; accompanied Diego Cam on a voyage of discovery along W. coast of Africa; constructed and left behind him a famous terrestrial globe; some would make him out to be the discoverer of America (1459-1507).

BEHAR (24,393), a province of Bengal, in the valley of the Ganges, which divides it into two; densely peopled; cradle of Buddhism.

BEHE`MOTH, a large animal mentioned in Job, understood to be the hippopotamus.

BEHIS`TUN, a mountain in Irak-Ajemi, a prov. of Persia, on which there are rocks covered with inscriptions, the principal relating to Darius Hystaspes, of date about 515 B.C., bearing on his genealogy, domains, and victories.

BEHM, ERNST, a German geographer, born in Gotha (1830-1884).

BEHN, AFRA, a licentious writer, born in Kent, for whom, for her

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free and easy ways, Charles II. took a liking; sent by him as a spy to Holland, and through her discovered the intention of the Dutch to burn the shipping in the Thames. She wrote plays and novels (1640-1689).

BEHRING STRAIT, a strait about 50 m. wide between Asia and N. America, which connects the Arctic Ocean with the Pacific; discovered by the Danish navigator Vitus Behring in 1728, sent out on a voyage of discovery by Peter the Great.

BEIRA (1,377), a central province of Portugal, mountainous and pastoral; gives title to the heir-apparent to the Portuguese throne.

BEKE, DR., traveller, born in London; travelled in Abyssinia and Palestine; author of "Origines Biblicae," or researches into primeval history as shown not to be in keeping with the orthodox belief.

BEKKER, IMMANUEL, philologist, born in Berlin, and professor in Halle; classical textual critic; issued recensions of the Greek and Latin classics (1780-1871).

BEL AND THE DRAGON, HISTORY OF, one of the books of the Apocrypha, a spurious addition to the book of Daniel, relates how Daniel persuaded Cyrus of the vanity of idol-worship, and is intended to show its absurdity.

BELA I., king of Hungary from 1061 to 1063; an able ruler; introduced a great many measures for the permanent benefit of the country, affecting both religion and social organisation.

BELA IV., king of Hungary, son of Andreas II., who had in 1222 been compelled to sign the Golden Bull, the _Magna Charta_ of Hungarian

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liberty; faithfully respected the provisions of this charter, and incurred the enmity of the nobles by his strenuous efforts to subdue them to the royal power.

BELCH, SIR TOBY, a reckless, jolly, swaggering character in "Twelfth Night."

BELCHER, SIR EDWARD, admiral, was engaged in several exploring and surveying expeditions; sailed round the world, and took part in the operations in China (1812-1877).

BELFAST (256), county town of Antrim, and largest and most flourishing city in the N. of Ireland; stands on the Lagan, at the head of Belfast Lough, 100 m. N. of Dublin; is a bright and pleasant city, with some fine streets and handsome buildings, Presbyterian, Catholic, and Methodist colleges. It is the centre of the Irish linen and cotton manufactures, the most important shipbuilding centre, and has also rope-making, whisky, and aerated-water industries. Its foreign trade is larger than even Dublin's. It is the capital of Ulster, and head-quarters of Presbyterianism in Ireland.

BELFORT (83), a fortified town in dep. of Haut-Rhin, and is its capital, 35 m. W. by N. of Basel; capitulated to the Germans in 1870; restored to France; its fortifications now greatly strengthened. The citadel was by Vauban.

BELGAE, Caesar's name for the tribes of the Celtic family in Gaul N. of the Seine and Marne; mistakenly rated as Germans by Caesar.

BELGIUM (6,136), a small European State bordering on the North Sea, with Holland to the N., France to the S., and Rhenish Prussia and Luxemburg on the E.; is less than a third the size of Ireland, but it is

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the most densely populated country on the Continent. The people are of mixed stock, comprising Flemings, of Teutonic origin; Walloons, of Celtic origin; Germans, Dutch, and French. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Education is excellent; there are universities at Ghent, Liege, Brussels, and Louvain. French is the language of educated circles and of the State; but the prevalence of dialects hinders the growth of a national literature. The land is low and level and fertile in the N. and W., undulating in the middle, rocky and hilly in the S. and E. The Meuse and Scheldt are the chief rivers, the basin of the latter embracing most of the country. Climate is similar to the English, with greater extremes. Rye, wheat, oats, beet, and flax are the principal crops. Agriculture is the most painstaking and productive of the world. The hilly country is rich in coal, iron, zinc, and lead. After mining, the chief industries are textile manufactures and making of machinery: the former at Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels, and Liege; the latter at Liege, Mons, and Charleroi. The trade is enormous; France, Germany, and Britain are the best customers. Exports are coal to France; farm products, eggs, &c., to England; and raw material imported from across seas, to France and the basin of the Rhine. It is a small country of large cities. The capital is Brussels (480), in the centre of the kingdom, but communicating with the ocean by a ship canal. The railways, canals, and river navigation are very highly developed. The government is a limited monarchy; the king, senate, and house of representatives form the constitution. There is a conscript army of 50,000 men, but no navy. Transferred from Spain to Austria in 1713. Belgium was under French sway from 1794 till 1814, when it was united with Holland, but established its independence in 1830.

BELGRADE (54), the capital of Servia, on the confluence of the Save and Danube; a fortified city in an important strategical position, and the centre of many conflicts; a commercial centre; once Turkish in appearance, now European more and more.

BELGRA`VIA, a fashionable quarter in the southern part of the West End of London.

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BELIAL, properly a good-for-nothing, a child of worthlessness; an incarnation of iniquity and son of perdition, and the name in the Bible for the children of such.

BELIEF, a word of various application, but properly definable as that which lies at the heart of a man or a nation's convictions, or is the heart and soul of all their thoughts and actions, "the thing a man does practically lay to heart, and know for certain concerning his vital relations to this mysterious universe, and his duty and destiny there."

BELINDA, ARABELLA FERMOR, the heroine in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."

BELISA`RIUS, a general under the Emperor Justinian, born in Illyria; defeated the Persians, the Vandals, and the Ostrogoths; was falsely accused of conspiracy, but acquitted, and restored to his dignities by the emperor; though another tradition, now discredited, alleges that for the crimes charged against him he had his eyes put out, and was reduced to beggary (505-565).

BELIZE, British Honduras, a fertile district, and its capital (6); exports mahogany, rosewood, sugar, india-rubber, &c.


BELL, ANDREW, LL.D., educationist, born at St. Andrews; founder of the Monitorial system of education, which he had adopted, for want of qualified assistants, when in India as superintendent of an orphanage in Madras, so that his system was called "the Madras system"; returned from India with a large fortune, added to it by lucrative preferments, and bequeathed a large portion of it, some L120,000, for the endowment of education in Scotland, and the establishment of schools, such as the Madras College in his native city (1753-1832).

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BELL, BESSY, and MARY GRAY, the "twa bonnie lassies" of a Scotch ballad, daughters of two Perthshire gentlemen, who in 1666 built themselves a bower in a spot retired from a plague then raging; supplied with food by a lad in love with both of them, who caught the plague and gave it to them, of which they all sickened and died.

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE, a ceremony at one time attending the greater excommunication in the Romish Church, when after sentence was read from the "book," a "bell" was rung, and the "candle" extinguished.



BELL, GEORGE JOSEPH, a brother of Sir Charles, distinguished in law; author of "Principles of the Law of Scotland" (1770-1843).

BELL, HENRY, bred a millwright, born in Linlithgowshire; the first who applied steam to navigation in Europe, applying it in a small steamboat called the _Comet_, driven by a three horse-power engine (1767-1830).

BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD, born in Glasgow, a lawyer and literary man, sheriff of Lanarkshire; wrote a vindication of Mary, Queen of Scots, and some volumes of poetry (1803-1874).

BELL, JOHN, of Antermony, a physician, born at Campsie; accompanied Russian embassies to Persia and China; wrote "Travels in Asia," which were much appreciated for their excellency of style (1690-1780).

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BELL, PETER, Wordsworth's simple rustic, to whom the primrose was but a yellow flower and nothing more.

BELL, ROBERT, journalist and miscellaneous writer, born at Cork; edited "British Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper," his best-known work, which he annotated, and accompanied with careful memoirs of each (1800-1867).

BELL, SIR CHARLES, an eminent surgeon and anatomist, born in Edinburgh, where he became professor of Surgery; distinguished chiefly for his discoveries in connection with the nervous system, which he published in his "Anatomy of the Brain" and his "Nervous System," and which gained him European fame; edited, along with Lord Brougham, Paley's "Evidences of Natural Religion" (1774-1842).

BELL, THOMAS, a naturalist, born at Poole; professor of Zoology in King's College, London; author of "British Quadrupeds" and "British Reptiles," "British Stalk-eyed Crustacea," and editor of "White's Natural History of Selborne" (1792-1880).

BELL ROCK, or INCHCAPE ROCK, a dangerous reef of sandstone rocks in the German Ocean, 12 m. SE. of Arbroath, on which a lighthouse 120 ft. high was erected in 1807-10; so called from a bell rung by the sway of the waves, which the abbot of Arbroath erected on it at one time as a warning to seamen.

BELL-THE-CAT, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Arran, so called from his offer to dispose by main force of an obnoxious favourite of the king, James III.

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BELLA, STEPHANO DELLA, a Florentine engraver of great merit, engraved over 1000 plates; was patronised by Richelieu in France, and the Medici in Florence (1610-1664).

BELL`AMY, JACOB, a Dutch poet, born at Flushing; his poems highly esteemed by his countrymen (1752-1821).

BELLANGE, a celebrated painter of battle-pieces, born at Paris (1800-1866).

BELLAR`MINE, ROBERT, cardinal, born in Tuscany; a learned Jesuit, controversial theologian, and in his writings, which are numerous, a valiant defender at all points of Roman Catholic dogma; the greatest champion of the Church in his time, and regarded as such by the Protestant theologians; he was at once a learned man and a doughty polemic (1542-1621).

BELLAY, JOACHIM DU, French poet; author of sonnets entitled "Regrets," full of vigour and poetry; wrote the "Antiquites de Rome"; was called the Apollo of the Pleiade, the best poet and the best prose-writer among them (1524-1560).

BELLE FRANCE, (i. e. Beautiful France), a name of endearment applied to France, like that of "Merry" applied to England.

BELLE-ISLE (60), a fortified island on the W. coast of France, near which Sir Edward Hawke gained a brilliant naval victory over the French, under M. de Conflans, in 1759.

BELLEISLE, CHARLES LOUIS AUGUSTE FOUQUET, COUNT OF, marshal of France; distinguished in the war of the Spanish Succession; an ambitious

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man, mainly to blame for the Austrian Succession war; had grand schemes in his head, no less than the supremacy in Europe and the world of France, warranting the risk; expounded them to Frederick the Great; concluded a fast and loose treaty with him, which could bind no one; found himself blocked up in Prague with his forces; had to force his way out and retreat, but it was a retreat the French boast comparable only to the retreat of the Ten Thousand; was made War Minister after, and wrought important reforms in the army (1684-1761). See CARLYLE'S "FREDERICK" for a graphic account of him and his schemes, specially in Bk. xii. chap. ix.

BELLENDEN, JOHN, of Moray, a Scottish writer in the 16th century; translated, at the request of James V., Hector Boece's "History of Scotland," and the first five books of Livy, which remain the earliest extant specimens of Scottish prose, and remarkable specimens they are, for the execution of which he was well rewarded, being made archdeacon of Moray for one thing, though he died in exile; _d_. 1550.

BELLENDEN, WILLIAM, a Scottish writer, distinguished for diplomatic services to Queen Mary, and for the purity of his Latin composition; a professor of belles-lettres in Paris University (1550-1613).

BELLER`OPHON, a mythical hero, son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus; having unwittingly caused the death of his brother, withdrew from his country and sought retreat with Proetus, king of Argos, who, becoming jealous of his guest, but not willing to violate the laws of hospitality, had him sent to Iobates, his son-in-law, king of Lycia, with instructions to put him to death. Iobates, in consequence, imposed upon him the task of slaying the Chimaera, persuaded that this monster would be the death of him. Bellerophon, mounted on Pegasus, the winged horse given him by Pallas, slew the monster, and on his return received the daughter of Iobates to wife.

BELLEROPHON, LETTERS OF, name given to letters fraught with mischief

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to the bearer. See SUPRA.

BELLES-LETTRES, that department of literature which implies literary culture and belongs to the domain of art, whatever the subject may be or the special form; it includes poetry, the drama, fiction, and criticism.

BELLEVILLE, a low suburb of Paris, included in it since 1860; the scene of one of the outrages of the Communists.

BELLIARD, COMTE DE, a French general and diplomatist; fought in most of the Napoleonic wars, but served under the Bourbons on Napoleon's abdication; was serviceable to Louis Philippe in Belgium by his diplomacy (1769-1832).

BELLI`NI, the name of an illustrious family of Venetian painters.

BELLINI, GENTILE, the son of Jacopo Bellini, was distinguished as a portrait-painter; decorated along with his brother the council-chamber of the ducal palace; his finest picture the "Preaching of St. Mark" (1421-1508).

BELLINI, GIOVANNI, brother of the preceding, produced a great many works; the subjects religious, all nobly treated; had Giorgione and Titian for pupils; among his best works, the "Circumcision," "Feast of the Gods," "Blood of the Redeemer"; did much to promote painting in oil (1426-1516).

BELLINI, JACOPO, a painter from Florence who settled in Venice, the father and founder of the family; _d_. 1470.

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BELLINI, VINCENZO, a musical composer, born at Catania, Sicily; his works operas, more distinguished for their melody than their dramatic power; the best are "Il Pirati," "La Somnambula," "Norma," and "Il Puritani" (1802-1835).

BELLMANN, the poet of Sweden, a man of true genius, called the "Anacreon of Sweden," patronised by Gustavus Adolphus (1741-1795).

BELLO`NA, the goddess of fury in war among the Romans, related by the poets to Mars as sister, wife, or daughter; inspirer of the war-spirit, and represented as armed with a bloody scourge in one hand and a torch in the other.

BELLOT, JOSEPH RENE, a naval officer, born in Paris, distinguished in the expedition of 1845 to Madagascar, and one of those who went in quest of Sir John Franklin; drowned while crossing the ice (1826-1853).

BELLOY, a French poet, born at St. Flour; author of "Le Siege du Calais" and numerous other dramatic works (1727-1775).

BELON, PIERRE, a French naturalist, one of the founders of natural history, and one of the precursors of Cuvier; wrote in different departments of natural history, the chief, "Natural History of Birds"; murdered by robbers while gathering plants in the Bois de Boulogne (1518-1564).

BEL`PHEGOR, a Moabite divinity.

BELPHOEBE (i. e. Beautiful Diana), a huntress in the "Faerie Queene," the impersonation of Queen Elizabeth, conceived of, however, as a pure, high-spirited maiden, rather than a queen.

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BELSHAM, THOMAS, a Unitarian divine, originally Calvinist, born at Bedford; successor to the celebrated Priestley at Hackney, London; wrote an elementary work on psychology (1750-1829).

BELSHAZZAR, the last Chaldean king of Babylon, slain, according to the Scripture account, at the capture of the city by Cyrus in 538 B.C.

BELT, GREAT and LITTLE, gateways of the Baltic: the Great between Zealand and Fuenen, 15 m. broad; the Little, between Fuenen and Jutland, half as broad; both 70 m. long, the former of great depth.

BELT OF CALMS, the region in the Atlantic and Pacific, 4 deg. or 5 deg. latitude broad, where the trade-winds meet and neutralise each other, in which, however, torrents of rain and thunder-storms occur almost daily.

BELTANE, or BELTEIN, an ancient Celtic festival connected with the sun-worship, observed about the 1st of May and the 1st of November, during which fires were kindled on the tops of hills, and various ceremonies gone through.

BELTED WILL, name given to Lord William Howard, warden in the 16th and 17th centuries of the Western Marches of England.

BELU`CHISTAN (200 to 400), a desert plateau lying between Persia and India, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea; is crossed by many mountain ranges, the Suliman, in the N., rising to 12,000 ft. Rivers in the NE. are subject to great floods. The centre and W. is a sandy desert exposed to bitter winds in winter and sand-storms in summer. Fierce extremes of temperature prevail. There are few cattle, but sheep are numerous; the camel is the draught animal. Where there is water the soil is fertile,

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and crops of rice, cotton, indigo, sugar, and tobacco are raised; in the higher parts, wheat, maize, and pulse. Both precious and useful metals are found; petroleum wells were discovered in the N. in 1887. The population comprises Beluchis, robber nomads of Aryan stock, in the E. and W., and Mongolian Brahuis in the centre. All are Mohammedan. Kelat is the capital; its position commands all the caravan routes. Quetta, in the N., is a British stronghold and health resort. The Khan of Kelat is the ruler of the country and a vassal of the Queen.

BE`LUS, another name for BAAL (q. v.), or the legendary god of Assyria and Chaldea.

BEL`VEDERE, name given a gallery of the Vatican at Rome, especially that containing the famous statue of Apollo, and applied to picture-galleries elsewhere.

BELZO`NI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a famous traveller and explorer in Egypt, born at Padua, of poor parents; a man of great stature; figured as an athlete in Astley's Circus, London, and elsewhere, first of all in London streets; applied himself to the study of mechanics; visited Egypt as a mechanician and engineer at the instance of Mehemet Ali; commenced explorations among its antiquities, sent to the British Museum trophies of his achievements; published a narrative of his operations; opened an exhibition of his collection of antiquities in London and Paris; undertook a journey to Timbuctoo, was attacked with dysentery, and died at Gato (1778-1823).

BEM, JOSEPH, a Polish general, born in Galicia; served in the French army against Russia in 1812; took part in the insurrection of 1830; joined the Hungarians in 1848; gained several successes against Austria and Russia, but was defeated at Temesvar; turned Mussulman, and was made pasha; died at Aleppo, where he had gone to suppress an Arab insurrection; he was a good soldier and a brave man (1791-1850).

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BEMBA, a lake in Africa, the highest feeder of the Congo, of an oval shape, 150 m. long and over 70 m. broad, 3000 ft. above the sea-level.

BEMBO, PIETRO, cardinal, an erudite man of letters and patron of literature and the arts, born at Venice; secretary to Pope Leo X.; historiographer of Venice, and librarian of St. Mark's; made cardinal by Paul III., and bishop of Bergamo; a fastidious stylist and a stickler for purity in language (1470-1547).

BEN LAWERS, a mountain in Perthshire, 3984 ft. high, on the W. of Loch Tay.

BEN LEDI, a mountain in Perthshire, 2873 ft. high, 41/2 m. NW. of Callander.

BEN LOMOND, a mountain in Stirlingshire, 3192 ft. high, on the E. of Loch Lomond.

BEN NEVIS, the highest mountain in Great Britain, in SW. Inverness-shire, 4406 ft. high, and a sheer precipice on the NE. 1500 ft. high, and with an observatory on the summit supported by the Scottish Meteorological Society.

BEN RHYDDING, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 15 m. NW. of Leeds, with a thoroughly equipped hydropathic establishment, much resorted to.

BENARES (219), the most sacred city of the Hindus, and an important town in the NW. Provinces; is on the Ganges, 420 m. by rail NW. of Calcutta. It presents an amazing array of 1700 temples and mosques with

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towers and domes and minarets innumerable. The bank of the river is laid with continuous flights of steps whence the pilgrims bathe; but the city itself is narrow, crocked, crowded, and dirty. Many thousand pilgrims visit it annually. It is a seat of Hindu learning; there is also a government college. The river is spanned here by a magnificent railway bridge. There is a large trade in country produce, English goods, jewellery, and gems; while its brass-work, "Benares ware," is famous.

BENBOW, JOHN, admiral, born at Shrewsbury; distinguished himself in an action with a Barbary pirate; rose rapidly to the highest post in the navy; distinguished himself well in an engagement with a French fleet in the W. Indies; he lost a leg, and at this crisis some of his captains proved refractory, so that the enemy escaped, were tried by court-martial, and two of them shot; the wound he received and his vexation caused his death. He was a British tar to the backbone, and of a class extinct now (1653-1702).

BENCOOLEN, a town and a Dutch residency in SW. of Sumatra; exports pepper and camphor.

BENDER, a town in Bessarabia, remarkable for the siege which Charles XII. of Sweden sustained there after his defeat at Pultowa.

BENEDEK, LUDWIG VON, an Austrian general, born in Hungary; distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1848-1849; was defeated by the Prussians at Sadowa; superseded and tried, but got off; retired to Graetz, where he died (1804-1871).

BENEDETTI, COUNT VINCENT, French diplomatist, born at Bastia, in Corsica; is remembered for his draft of a treaty between France and Prussia, published in 1870, and for his repudiation of all responsibility for the Franco-German war; _b_. 1817.

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BENEDICT, the name of fourteen popes: B. I., from 574 to 575; B. II., from 684 to 685; B. III., from 855 to 858; B. IV., from 900 to 907; B. V., FROM 964 TO 965; B. VI., from 972 to 974; B. VII., from 975 to 984; B. VIII., from 1012 to 1024; extended the territory of the Church by conquest, and effected certain clerical reforms; B. IX., from 1033 to 1048, a licentious man, and deposed; B. X., from 1058 to 1059; B. XI., from 1303 to 1304; B. XII., from 1334 to 1342; B. XIII., from 1724 to 1730; B. XIV., from 1740 to 1758. Of all the popes of this name it would seem there is only one worthy of special mention.

BENEDICT XIV., a native of Bologna, a man of marked scholarship and ability; a patron of science and literature, who did much to purify the morals and elevate the character of the clergy, and reform abuses in the Church.

BENEDICT, BISCOP, an Anglo-Saxon monk, born in Northumbria; made two pilgrimages to Rome; assumed the tonsure as a Benedictine monk in Provence; returned to England and founded two monasteries on the Tyne, one at Wearmouth and another at Jarrow, making them seats of learning; _b_. 628.

BENEDICT, ST., the founder of Western monachism, born near Spoleto; left home at 14; passed three years as a hermit, in a cavern near Subiaco, to prepare himself for God's service; attracted many to his retreat; appointed to an abbey, but left it; founded 12 monasteries of his own; though possessed of no scholarship, composed his "Regula Monachorum," which formed the rule of his order; represented in art as accompanied by a raven with sometimes a loaf in his bill, or surrounded by thorns or by howling demons (480-543). See BENEDICTINES.

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS, musician and composer, native of Stuttgart; removed to London in 1835; author of, among other pieces, the "Gipsy's

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Warning," the "Brides of Venice," and the "Crusaders"; conducted the performance of "Elijah" in which Jenny Lind made her first appearance before a London audience, and accompanied her as pianist to America in 1850 (1806-1885).

BENEDICTINES, the order of monks founded by St. Benedict and following his rule, the cradle of which was the celebrated monastery of Monte Casino, near Naples, an institution which reckoned among its members a large body of eminent men, who in their day rendered immense service to both literature and science, and were, in fact, the only learned class of the Middle Ages; spent their time in diligently transcribing manuscripts, and thus preserving for posterity the classic literature of Greece and Rome.

BENEDICTUS, part of the musical service at Mass in the Roman Catholic Church; has been introduced into the morning service of the English Church.

BENEFIT OF CLERGY, exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before a secular judge.

BE`NEKE, FRIEDRICH EDUARD, a German philosopher and professor in Berlin of the so-called empirical school, that is, the Baconian; an opponent of the methods and systems of Kant and Hegel; confined his studies to psychology and the phenomena of consciousness; was more a British thinker than a German (1798-1854).

BENENGE`LI, an imaginary Moorish author, whom Cervantes credits with the story of "Don Quixote."

BENETIER, the vessel for holding the holy water in Roman Catholic churches.

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BENEVENTO (20), a town 33 m. NE. of Naples, built out of and amid the ruins of an ancient one; also the province, of which Talleyrand was made prince by Napoleon.

BENEVOLENCE, the name of a forced tax exacted from the people by certain kings of England, and which, under Charles I., became so obnoxious as to occasion the demand of the PETITION OF RIGHTS (q. v.), that no tax should be levied without consent of Parliament; first enforced in 1473, declared illegal in 1689.

BENFEY, THEODOR, Orientalist, born near Goettingen, of Jewish birth; a great Sanskrit scholar, and professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at his native place; author of "Lexicon of Greek Roots," "Sanskrit Grammar," &c. (1809-1881).

BENGAL (76,643), one of the three Indian presidencies, but more particularly a province lying in the plain of the Lower Ganges and the delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra, with the Himalayas on the N. At the base of the mountains are great forests; along the seaboard dense jungles. The climate is hot and humid, drier at Behar, and passing through every gradation up to the snow-line. The people are engaged in agriculture, raising indigo, jute, opium, rice, tea, cotton, sugar, &c. Coal, iron, and copper mines are worked in Burdwan. The manufactures are of cotton and jute. The population is mixed in blood and speech, but Hindus speaking Bengali predominate. Education is further advanced than elsewhere; there are fine colleges affiliated to Calcutta University, and many other scholastic institutions. The capital, Calcutta, is the capital of India; the next town in size is Patna (165).

BENGA`ZI (7), the capital of Barca, on the Gulf of Sidra, in N. Africa, and has a considerable trade.

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BENGEL, JOHANN ALBRECHT, a distinguished Biblical scholar and critic, born at Wuertemberg; best known by his "Gnomon Novi Testamenti," being an invaluable body of short notes on the New Testament; devoted himself to the critical study of the text of the Greek Testament (1687-1752).

BENGUE`LA, a fertile Portuguese territory in W. Africa, S. of Angola, with considerable mineral wealth; has sunk in importance since the suppression of the slave-trade.

BENICIA, the former capital of California, 30 m. NE. of San Francisco; has a commodious harbour and a U.S. arsenal.

BENI-HASSAN, a village in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, above Minieh, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated.

BENI-ISRAEL (i. e. Sons of Israel), a remarkable people, few in number, of Jewish type and customs, in the Bombay Presidency, and that have existed there quite isolatedly for at least 1000 years, with a language of their own, and even some literature; they do not mingle with the Jews, but they practise similar religious observances.

BENIN`, a densely populated and fertile country in W. Africa, between the Niger and Dahomey, with a city and river of the name; forms part of what was once a powerful kingdom; yields palm-oil, rice, maize, sugar, cotton, and tobacco.

BENI-SOUEF`, a town in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 70 m. above Cairo; a centre of trade, with cotton-mills and quarries of alabaster.

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BENJAMIN, Jacob's youngest son, by Rachel, the head of one of the twelve tribes, who were settled in a small fertile territory between Ephraim and Judah; the tribe to which St. Paul belonged.

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, an American journalist, born at Keith, Scotland; trained for the Catholic priesthood; emigrated, a poor lad of 19, to America, got employment in a printing-office in Boston as proof-reader; started the _New York Herald_ in 1835 at a low price as both proprietor and editor, an enterprise which brought him great wealth and the success he aimed at (1795-1872).

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, son of preceding, conductor of the _Herald_; sent Stanley out to Africa, and supplied the funds.

BENNETT, SIR STERNDALE, an English musical composer and pianist, born at Sheffield, whose musical genius recommended him to Mendelssohn and Schumann; became professor of Music in Cambridge, and conductor of the Philharmonic Concerts; was president of the Royal Academy of Music (1816-1873).

BENNETT, WM., a High-Churchman, celebrated for having provoked the decision that the doctrine of the Real Presence is a dogma not inconsistent with the creed of the Church of England (1804-1886).

BEN`NINGSEN, COUNT, a Russian general, born at Brunswick; entered the Russian service under Catherine II.; was commander-in-chief at Eylau, fought at Borodino, and victoriously at Leipzig; he died at Hanover, whither he had retired on failure of his health (1745-1826).

BENTHAM, GEORGE, botanist, born near Plymouth, nephew of Jeremy and editor of his works, besides a writer on botany (1800-1884).

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BENTHAM, JEREMY, a writer on jurisprudence and ethics, born in London; bred to the legal profession, but never practised it; spent his life in the study of the theory of law and government, his leading principle on both these subjects being utilitarianism, or what is called the greatest happiness principle, as the advocate of which he is chiefly remembered; a principle against which Carlyle never ceased to protest as a philosophy of man's life, but which he hailed as a sign that the crisis which must precede the regeneration of the world was come; a lower estimate, he thought, man could not form of his soul than as "a dead balance for weighing hay and thistles, pains and pleasures, &c.," an estimate of man's soul which he thinks mankind will, when it wakes up again to a sense of itself, be sure to resent and repudiate (1748-1832).

BENTINCK, LORD GEORGE, statesman and sportsman, a member of the Portland family; entered Parliament as a Whig, turned Conservative on the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832; served under Sir Robert Peel; assumed the leadership of the party as a Protectionist when Sir Robert Peel became a Free-trader, towards whom he conceived a strong personal animosity; died suddenly; the memory of him owes something to the memoir of his life by Lord Beaconsfield (1802-1848).

BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM HENRY CAVENDISH, Indian statesman, governor of Madras in 1806, but recalled for an error which led to the mutiny at Vellore; but was in 1827 appointed governor-general of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms. Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in 1835, became member for Glasgow in 1837, and died before he made any mark on home politics (1774-1839).

BENTINCK, WILLIAM, a distinguished statesman, first Earl of Portland, born in Holland; a favourite, friend, and adviser of William III., whom he accompanied to England, and who bestowed on him for his services great honours and large domains, which provoked ill-will against

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him; retired to Holland, after the king died in his arms, but returned afterwards (1648-1709).

BENTIVOGLIO, an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B., Guido, cardinal, though a disciple of Galileo, was one of the Inquisitors-General who signed his condemnation (1579-1641).

BENTLEY, RICHARD, scholar and philologist, born in Yorkshire; from the first devoted to ancient, especially classical, learning; rose to eminence as an authority on literary criticism, his "Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris," which he proved to be a forgery, commending him to the regard and esteem of all the scholars of Europe, a work which may be said to have inaugurated a new era in literary historical criticism (1662-1742).

BENUE, an affluent of the Niger, 300 m. long, falling into it 230 m. up, described by Dr. Barth and explored by Dr. Baikic, and offers great facilities for the prosecution of commerce.

BENVOLIO, a cantankerous, disputatious gentleman in "Romeo and Juliet."

BENYOW`SKY, COUNT, a Hungarian, fought with the Poles against Russia; taken prisoner; was exiled to Kamchatka; escaped with the governor's daughter; came to France; sent out to Madagascar; was elected king by the natives over them; fell in battle against the French (1741-1786).

BENZENE, a substance compounded of carbon and hydrogen, obtained by destructive distillation from coal-tar and other organic bodies, used as a substitute for turpentine and for dissolving grease.

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BENZOIN, a fragrant concrete resinous juice flowing from a styrax-tree of Sumatra, used as a cosmetic, and burned as incense.

BEOWULF, a very old Anglo-Saxon romance consisting of 6356 short alliterative lines, and the oldest extant in the language, recording the exploits of a mythical hero of the name, who wrestled Hercules-wise, at the cost of his life, with first a formidable monster, and then a dragon that had to be exterminated or tamed into submission before the race he belonged to could live with safety on the soil.

BERANGER, PIERRE JEAN DE, a celebrated French song-writer, born at Paris, of the lower section of the middle class, and the first of his countrymen who in that department rose to the high level of a true lyric poet; his first struggles with fortune were a failure, but Lucien Bonaparte took him up, and under his patronage a career was opened up for him; in 1815 appeared as an author, and the sensation created was immense, for the songs were not mere personal effusions, but in stirring accord with, and contributed to influence, the great passion of the nation at the time; was, as a Republican--which brought him into trouble with the Bourbons--a great admirer of Napoleon as an incarnation of the national spirit, and contributed not a little to the elevation of his nephew to the throne, though he declined all patronage at his hands, refusing all honours and appointments; has been compared to Burns, but he lacked both the fire and the humour of the Scottish poet. "His poetical works," says Professor Saintsbury, "consist entirely of chansons political, amatory, bacchanalian, satirical, philosophical after a fashion, and of almost every other complexion that the song can possibly take" (1780-1859).

BERAR` (896), one of the central provinces of India, E. of Bombay; it occupies a fertile, well-watered valley, and yields large quantities of grain, and especially cotton.

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BERAT, FREDERIC, a French poet and composer, author of a great number of popular songs (1800-1853).

BERBER, native language spoken in the mountainous parts of Barbary.

BERBER (8), a town in Nubia, on the Nile, occupied by the English; starting-point of caravans for the Red Sea; railway was begun to Suakim, but abandoned.

BER`BERAH, the seaport of Somaliland, under Britain, with an annual fair that brings together at times as many as 30,000 people.

BERBERS (3,000), a race aboriginal to Barbary and N. Africa, of a proud and unruly temper; though different from the Arab race, are of the same religion.

BERBICE, the eastern division of British Guiana; produces sugar, cocoa, and timber.

BERBRUGGER, a French archaeologist and philologist; wrote on Algiers, its history and monuments (1801-1869).

BERCHTA, a German Hulda, but of severer type. See BERTHA.

BERCY, a commune on the right bank of the Seine, outside Paris, included in it since 1860; is the great mart for wines and brandies.

BERE`ANS, a sect formed by John Barclay in 1778, who regard the Bible as the one exclusive revelation of God.

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BERENGER, or BERENGA`RIUS, OF TOURS, a distinguished theologian, born at Tours; held an ecclesiastical office there, and was made afterwards archdeacon of Angers; ventured to deny the doctrine of transubstantiation, a denial for which he was condemned by successive councils of the Church, and which he was compelled more than once publicly to retract, though he so often and openly recalled his retractation that the pope, notwithstanding the opposition of the orthodox, deemed it prudent at length to let him alone. After this he ceased to trouble the Church, and retired to an island on the Loire, where he gave himself up to quiet meditation and prayer (998-1088).

BERENGER I., king of Italy, grandson of Louis the Debonnaire, an able general; provoked the jealousy of the nobles, who dreaded the abridgment of their rights, which led to his assassination at their hands in 934. B. II., king of Italy, grandson of the preceding, was dethroned twice by the Emperor Otho, who sent him a prisoner to Bamberg, where he died, 966.

BERENGER, THOMAS, a French criminalist and magistrate (1785-1866).

BERENI`CE, a Jewish widow, daughter of Herod Agrippa, with whom Titus was fascinated, and whom he would have taken to wife, had not the Roman populace protested, from their Anti-Jewish prejudice, against it. The name was a common one among Egyptian as well as Jewish princesses.

BERESFORD, WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT, an English general, natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford; distinguished himself in many a military enterprise, and particularly in the Peninsular war, for which he was made a peer; he was a member of the Wellington administration, and master-general of the ordnance (1770-1854).

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BERESI`NA, a Russian river, affluent of the Dnieper, into which it falls after a course of 350 m.; it is serviceable as a water conveyance for large rafts of timber to the open sea, and is memorable for the disastrous passage of the French in their retreat from Moscow in 1812.

BEREZOV`, a town in Siberia, in the government of Tobolsk; a place of banishment.

BERG, DUCHY OF, on right bank of the Rhine, between Duesseldorf and Cologne, now part of Prussia; Murat was grand-duke of it by Napoleon's appointment.

BER`GAMO (42), a Lombard town, in a province of the same name, and 34 m. NE. of Milan, with a large annual fair in August, the largest in Italy; has grindstone quarries in the neighbourhood.

BERGASSE, French jurisconsult, born at Lyons; celebrated for his quarrel with Beaumarchais; author of an "Essay on Property" (1750-1832).

BERGEN (52), the old capital of Norway, on a fjord of the name, open to the Gulf Stream, and never frozen; the town, consisting of wooden houses, is built on a slope on which the streets reach down to the sea, and has a picturesque appearance; the trade, which is considerable, is in fish and fish products; manufactures gloves, porcelain, leather, etc.; the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral.

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM (11), a town in N. Brabant, once a strong place, and much coveted and frequently contested for by reason of its commanding situation; has a large trade in anchovies.

BER`GENROTH, GUSTAV ADOLPH, historian, born in Prussia; held a State

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office, but was dismissed and exiled because of his sympathy with the revolutionary movement of 1848; came to England to collect materials for a history of the Tudors; examined in Simancas, in Spain, under great privations, papers on the period in the public archives; made of these a collection and published it in 1862-68, under the title of "Calendar of Letters, Despatches, &c., relating to Negotiations between England and Spain" (1813-1869).

BERGERAC (11), a manufacturing town in France, 60 m. E. of Bordeaux, celebrated for its wines; it was a Huguenot centre, and suffered greatly in consequence.

BERGERAC, SAVINIEN CYRANO DE, an eccentric man with comic power, a Gascon by birth; wrote a tragedy and a comedy; his best work a fiction entitled "Histoire Comique des Etats et Empires de la Lune et du Soleil"; fought no end of duels in vindication, it is said, of his preposterously large nose (1619-1655).

BERGHAUS, HEINRICH, a geographer of note, born at Cleves; served in both the French and Prussian armies as an engineer, and was professor of mathematics at Berlin; his "Physical Atlas" is well known (1797-1884).

BERGHEM, a celebrated landscape-painter of the Dutch school, born at Haarlem (1624-1683).

BERGMAN, TORBERN OLOF, a Swedish chemist, studied under Linnaeus, and became professor of Chemistry at Upsala; discovered oxalic acid; was the first to arrange and classify minerals on a chemical basis (1735-1784).

BERI, a town in the Punjab, 40 m. NW. of Delhi, in a trading centre.

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BERKELEY, a town in Gloucestershire, famous for its cattle.

BERKELEY, GEORGE, bishop of Cloyne, born in Kilkenny; a philanthropic man, who conducted in a self-sacrificing spirit practical schemes for the good of humanity, which failed, but the interest in whom has for long centred, and still centres, in his philosophic teaching, his own interest in which was that it contributed to clear up our idea of God and consolidate our faith in Him, and it is known in philosophy as Idealism; only it must be understood, his idealism is not, as it was absurdly conceived to be, a denial of the existence of matter, but is an assertion of the doctrine that the universe, with every particular in it, _as man sees it and knows it_, is not the creation of matter but the creation of mind, and a reflex of the Eternal Reason that creates and dwells in both it and him; for as Dr. Stirling says, "the object can only be known in the subject, and therefore is subjective, and if subjective, ideal." The outer, as regards our knowledge of it, is within; such is Berkeley's fundamental philosophical principle, and it is a principle radical to the whole recent philosophy of Europe (1684-1753).

BERKSHIRE (238), a midland county of England, with a fertile, well-cultivated soil on a chalk bottom, in the upper valley of the Thames, one of the smallest but most beautiful counties in the country. In the E. part of it is Windsor Forest, and in the SE. Bagshot Heath. It is famous for its breed of pigs.

BERLICHINGEN, GOETZ VON, surnamed "The Iron Hand," a brave but turbulent noble of Germany, of the 15th and 16th centuries, the story of whose life was dramatised by Goethe, "to save," as he said, "the memory of a brave man from darkness," and which was translated from the German by Sir Walter Scott.

BERLIN` (1,579), capital of Prussia and of the German empire; stands on the Spree, in a flat sandy plain, 177 m. by rail SE. of Hamburg. The royal and imperial palaces, the great library, the university, national

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BERMU`DAS (15). the Spree. Paganini was so struck that he presented him with 20. 677 m. BERLIN DECREE. a cathedral and some old churches. cattle. machinery. SE." "Romeo and Juliet. France. render it a most important commercial centre. BERMOO`THES. a group of 400 coral islands (five inhabited) in mid-Atlantic. They are held by Britain as a valuable naval station. zoological and botanical gardens. BER`MONDSEY. declaring Britain in a state of blockade.000 francs (1803-1869). They produce a fine arrowroot. HECTOR. Chennai 6. the chief are woollens. CTSTI. have a delightful. its staple trade is in grain. technical and military academies. bank of the Thames. and beer. a busy SE. temperate climate. a decree of Napoleon of Nov. Computer Lecturer. drapery goods. Page 319 of 2772 . abandoned it for music." and the "Damnation of Faust". of Isere. His best known works are the "Symphonie Fantastique. in the dep. There are schools of science. on the S. and mining. agriculture. Its position between the Baltic and North Seas. to which he devoted his life. sent to study medicine in Paris. and export onions. and are provided with docks and fortifications.ramakalai@gmail. 21. the numerous canals and railways which converge on it. suburb of London. 1806. Manufactures are extensive and very varied. spirits. and wool." which he produced while he was yet but a student at the Conservatoire in Paris.com gallery and museums. bronze ware. and vessels trading with it liable to capture. the Bermudas. born near Grenoble. of New York. BERLIOZ. a celebrated musical composer and critic. and are a popular health resort for Americans. art. with the "Symphonie. and the arsenal are all near the centre of the city.

adopted by Charles XIII. was Majendie's assistant and successor in the College of France. and declined all honours to himself. dealt death-blows all round to no end of heretics. born at Fontaines. BERNARD.. rose from the ranks. Computer Lecturer. distinguished as such in the service of Napoleon. entered the monastery of Citeaux. and for vast engineering works executed in the United States. SIMON. born at St. that of the liver the transformation into sugar of certain elements in the blood. born at Dole. founded 160 monasteries.. Aug. pronounced one of the grandest figures in the church militant. Chennai 6. studied in Paris. awoke Europe to a second crusade. to the material welfare. a distinguished French physiologist. Julien. content if he could only awake some divine passion in other men. BERNARD. CTSTI. BERNARD. born at Pau. he studied at Paris. 20. of his adopted country (1764-1844). in Champagne. and that there are nervous centres in the body which act independently of the great cerebro-spinal centre (1813-1878). abbot of Clairvaux. distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. or as contemplating an apparition of the Virgin and the Child. prepared the statutes for the Knights-Templar. became king of Sweden himself under the title of Charles XIV. though between him and Napoleon there was constant distrust. Festival. discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion of ingested fats. defeated Abelard in public debate.ramakalai@gmail. or as bearing the implements of Christ's passion (1091-1174). Page 320 of 2772 . founded in 1115 a monastery at Clairvaux. and procured his condemnation. drew around him disciples who rose to eminence as soldiers of the cross. a marshal of France. as it proved.com BERNADOTTE. king of Sweden. ST. a French engineer. in Burgundy. JEAN BAPTISTE JULES.. in the construction of canals and forts (1779-1839). CLAUDE. joined the Allies as a naturalised Swede in the war against France in alliance with Russia. represented in art as accompanied by a white dog.

founder of the monasteries of the Great and the Little St. commonly called Saint-Pierre simply. born at Havre. in a populous canton of the same name." (1739-1814). commands a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated French writer. a busy trading and manufacturing city. Bernard. in the passage of the Alps (923-1008). was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1516. and governor of Calais from 1520. ST." translated by Dr. JOHN BOUCHIER.com BERNARD OF MENTHON. which almost surrounds it. of noble family. Festival. had convicted of sorcery and drowned in the Danube. writer or translator of romance." &c. BERNERS. BERNE (47)." written on the eve of the Revolution. born at Massa Carrara. BERNARDINE. in Italy. a branch. written in a mystical vein. OF SIENA. including "Jerusalem the Golden. Page 321 of 2772 . a fine Swiss town on the Aar. founder of the Observantines. (1380-1444). his works. CTSTI." BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE. displeased at the marriage. AGNES. BERNAUER. translated Froissart's "Huon of Bordeaux. called by Carlyle "the swan-song of old dying France. a monk of Cluny. whom his father. since 1848 the capital of the Swiss Confederation. established 300 monasteries of the said branch. BERNARD OF MORLAIX. June 15. of the 11th century. Computer Lecturer.. and restoration on strict lines. of the Franciscan order. fill five folio vols. Neale. author of "Paul and Virginia. wife of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria. LORD. an ecclesiastic. wrote a poem entitled "De Contemptu Mundi. Chennai 6.

1844. fought under the standard of Gustavus Adolphus. died at Neuburg. born in Tuscany. BERNI. promoted afterwards to be Bishop of Orleans (1762-1806). a French physician and traveller. of which she has given proof. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. form the watershed between the Aar and the Rhone. said to have been prioress of a nunnery. FRANCESCO. distinguished himself on the Protestant side in the Thirty Years' war. published "Travels. as alleged. JULIANA. France. BERNHARDT. of Jewish descent. and completed the victory after the fall of Gustavus. one of the principal authors of the Concordat. to whom the Italian as a literary language owes much. physician for 12 years to Aurungzebe. SARAH. BERNIER. lived in the 14th century.ramakalai@gmail. without sufficient proof. a great German general. of which the eastern half is called the Bernese Oberland. but baptized as a Christian. writer on hunting and hawking. Chennai 6. of abilities qualifying her to shine in other departments of the profession and of art." a work full of interest. BERNIER. the Great Mogul. DUKE OF WEIMAR. a chain in the Middle Alps. _b_. who excelled in the burlesque. BERNESE ALPS. born in Mayenne. BERNHARD.com BERNERS. Page 322 of 2772 . a dramatic artiste. held command of the left wing at the battle of Luetzen. by poison (1604-1639). born in Paris. and a model of exactitude (1625-1688). born at Angers. remodelled Boiardo's "Orlando Innamorato" in a style surpassing that of the original. an Italian poet. THE ABBE. distinguished specially as a tragedienne.

these have been collected and published by W. was professor first at St. high. BERNINI. and designed the colonnade of St. BERNOUIL`LI. Richter. COUNT. PIERRE. an Italian painter. GIOVANNI LORENZO. who. and philanthropist of Denmark. JOHN.ramakalai@gmail. 3rd century B. and obtained the emancipation of the serfs (1711-1772). of whom John is the most celebrated. as well as the line of swiftest descent (1667-1748). discovered the exponential calculus and the method of integrating rational fractions. called the Danish Oracle by Frederick the Great. 13.com BERNI`NA. and architect. his masterpiece. BERNSTORFF. a priest of the temple of Belus in Babylon. was architect to the Pope.290 ft. sculptor.. BERNSTORFF. a nephew of the preceding. translated into Greek certain records of Babylonish history. in Computer Lecturer.C. BERNSTORFF. Peter's. Chennai 6. a guardian of civil and political liberty (1735-1797). son of the preceding. Page 323 of 2772 . though of Dutch origin--JAMES. COUNT. a mountain in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Petersburg and then at Basel. he died wealthy (1598-1680). diplomatist. born at Naples. name of a Swiss family of mathematicians. BERO`SUS. and DANIEL. remarkable for its extensive glaciers. founded an Agricultural Society and an hospital at Copenhagen. also statesman and diplomatist (1712-1772). valuable fragments of which are preserved by Josephus and Eusebius. Danish minister. born at Basel. a celebrated statesman. produced his "Apollo and Daphne" at eighteen. CTSTI.

PAUL. BERT.. an ancient province of France. distinguished herself by her futile efforts to restore the Bourbon dynasty in the reign of Louis Philippe (1798-1890). second son of Charles X. Chennai 6. whence his name (which means bare of sark or shirt of mail). BER`SERKER. sent governor to Tonquin. inimical to the Second Empire. a benevolent man. took to politics after the fall of the Empire. CTSTI. and openly protested against the _coup d'etat_ (1790-1868). born at Paris. as he was leaving the Opera House (1778-1820). of Indre and Cher. forms dep. assassinated by a fanatic. and is said to have been inspired with such fury as to render him invulnerable and irresistible. an eminent French barrister. and a duchy in 1630. a red-hot Legitimist. of the spinning-wheel Computer Lecturer. BERRYER. BERTHA. Louvel. PIERRE ANTOINE.com Germany. giving title to a succession of French princes. born at Auxerre. dowager of preceding.ramakalai@gmail. and father of Count de Chambord. BERRI. Minister of Public Instruction under Gambetta. was professor of Physiology at Paris. DUC DE. BERRI. was member of the National Assembly of 1848. which brought him into trouble. died of fever soon after. goddess in the S. German mythology. BERRI. a French physiologist and statesman. which became crown property in 1100 under Philippe I. wrote a science primer for children entitled "La Premiere Annee d'Enseignement Scientifique" (1833-1886). a Norse warrior who went into battle unharnessed. DUCHESSE DE. Page 324 of 2772 .

professor in the College of France. born at Paris. the dyeing trade owes much to his discoveries in the extraction of dyes from coal-tar. CTSTI. so called from her club foot. a French chemist. threw himself from a window. e.ramakalai@gmail. in behalf of which and its economical management she is often harsh to idle spinners. the employment of carbon in purifying water. distinguished for his researches in organic chemistry. ST. became a senator and officer of the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. BERTHA. and his companion in all his expeditions. and his attempt to produce organic compounds.. prince of Wagram and marshal of France. Page 325 of 2772 . and was Computer Lecturer. converted him to Christianity. BERTHOLLET. 1827. became head of Napoleon's staff. native of Savoy. BERTHIER. attached himself to the Bourbons on their return. &c. Chennai 6. _b_. a famous chemist. at her festival thrift is the rule. and many improvements in the manufactures. COUNT. wife of Pepin the Short. Long Foot). an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition to lord it over Geneva. served with Lafayette in the American war. on Napoleon's return retired with his family to Bamberg. PIERRE EUGENE. ALEXANDRE. maddened at the sight of Russian troops marching past to the French frontier (1753-1815).. swore fealty to the Bourbons at the restoration of 1814. and rose to distinction in the Revolution. born at Versailles. a British princess. BERTHE "au Grand Pied" (i. BERTHELIER.com principally. king of Kent. he laid the foundation of thermo-chemistry. to whom we owe the discovery of the bleaching properties of chlorine. and of the household as dependent on it. a Swiss patriot. and mother of Charlemagne. BERTHELOT. wife of Ethelbert.

as well as in his exile at St. introduced stenography into France. BERTRAND and RATON. invented the marine chronometer to determine the longitude at sea (1727-1807). BERTRAND DE MOLLEVILLE. BERTIN. born at Turin. cracks the nut and B. a fiery partisan of royalty.. long a favourite in Paris (1710-1788). eats it. and faithful adherent of Napoleon. Page 326 of 2772 ." or the Elder. BERTIN "l'Aine. Chennai 6. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. invented by Taylor in England (1751-1819). Minister of Marine under Louis XVI. conducted his remains back to France in 1840 (1770-1844). settled in Paris. BERTINAZZI. COMTE. PIERRE. born at Paris. of whom R. milliner to Marie Antoinette. which he started in 1799. friend of Chateaubriand (1766-1841). BER`TRAND. a celebrated actor.ramakalai@gmail.com created a peer (1744-1822). famed for her devotion to her. to and from Elba. BERTIN. ROSE. a celebrated clockmaker. surnamed the _enfant terrible_ of the monarchy (1744-1818). HENRI GRATIEN. two personages in La Fontaine's fable of the Monkey and the Cat. BERTHOUD. a French journalist. founder and editor of the _Journal des Debats_. native of Switzerland. a French general. accompanied him in all his campaigns. Helena.

founder of the order of Carmelites. composed operas. inclusive. the Lammermoors. a summer resort. Chennai 6. specially for the golfing links. left "Memoirs" (1670-1734). dividing the Merse from Mid and East Lothian. JOHAN JAKOB. where he gained the victory of Almanza. CARDINAL. a richly fertile plain in the S.com BERTON. reckoned since 1835 in Northumberland. Page 327 of 2772 . was made marshal of France. BERZE`LIUS. during which it frequently changed hands. of hill and dale. determined the equivalents of Computer Lecturer. is divided into the Merse. born at Troyes. in Haddingtonshire. PIERRE. BERWICK-ON-TWEED (13). one of the creators of modern chemistry. a naturalised Frenchman. Henri. and the Tweed. a natural son of James II.. along the banks of the Leader. a place on the S. though at one time treated as a separate county. of interest from its connection with the Border wars. DUKE OF. hilly and pastoral. distinguished himself in Spain. BERWICK. French composer of operas (1726-1780). BERULLE. his son.ramakalai@gmail. defended the rights of his father. Greenlaw the county town. shore of the Forth. fell at the siege of Philippsburg. wrote a treatise on harmony (1761-1844). BERWICK.. was present with him at the battle of the Boyne. and of the Congregation of the Oratory (1576-1629). Baron. NORTH. instituted the chemical notation by symbols based on the notion of equivalents. at its mouth. and Lauderdale. a fertile Scottish county between the Lammermoors. CTSTI. till in 1482 the English became masters of it. a town on the Scotch side of the Tweed. JAMES FITZ-JAMES. a celebrated Swedish chemist. BERWICKSHIRE (32).

BESME.ramakalai@gmail. MRS. BESIKA BAY. champion of the cause of Authors _versus_ Publishers. employing some 15. _b_. CTSTI.000 of the inhabitants. could do nothing in the face of it but run for his life (1722-1791).. he ranks next to Linnaeus as a man of science in Sweden (1779-1848). BESENVAL. a Swiss. is an interesting woman. a Bohemian in the pay of the Duke of Guise. ANNIE. BESANT. BARON. _nee_ WOOD. abounds in relics of Roman and mediaeval times. and has an interesting address as a lecturer. near the mouth of the Dardanelles. of Doubs. married to an English clergyman. and is chairman of the committee. from whom she was legally separated. fortified by Vauban. capital of the dep. and shared with Davy the honour of propounding the electro-chemical theory. in France. and is the author of "French Humourists. commandant of Paris under Louis XVI. eminent chiefly as a novelist of a healthily realistic type. 1847. Page 328 of 2772 . assassinated Computer Lecturer. watchmaking a staple industry. manufactures also porcelain and carpets. wrote a number of novels jointly with James Rice. BESANCON (57). a bay on the Asiatic coast. _b_.com a great number of simple bodies. born at Portsmouth. born in London." as well as short stories. drifted into theosophy. of Irish descent. Chennai 6. discovered silenium. a very strong place. took a keen interest in social questions and secularism. 1838. a royalist stunned into a state of helpless dismay at the first outbreak of the Revolution in Paris. BESANT. SIR WALTER. a man of letters. of which she is now an active propagandist. such as cerium and silenium.

688).ramakalai@gmail. to which he was twice over nearly elevated (1395-1472). and tallow. born at Minden. Chennai 6. Page 329 of 2772 . JOHN. BESSEMER. of Russia. of patient toil and painstaking accuracy (1784-1846). named after him. wool. "Fundamenta Astronomiae. BESSAR`ION. a government in the SW. FRIEDRICH WILHELM. contributed by his zeal in Greek literature to the fall of scholasticism and the revival of letters. in 1571. cardinal. as has been calculated." on which he spent 10 years. SIR HENRY. a familiar name of Queen Elizabeth. a marvel. like all he did. and was himself killed by Berteauville. of converting pig-iron into steel at once by blowing a blast of air through the iron while in fusion till everything extraneous is expelled. discovered--what was a great achievement--the parallax of the fixed star 61 Cygne. BESSARA`BIA (1. a Prussian astronomer of prominent ability. CTSTI. civil engineer and inventor. a process which has revolutionised the iron and steel trade all over the world. and only a definite quantity of carbon is left in combination. and was made cardinal. exports cattle. joined the latter. Computer Lecturer. his greatest work.com Coligny. BESSEL. born at Charlton. Herts. tried hard to unite the Churches of the East and the West. native of Trebizond. leading. to the production of thirty times as much steel as before and at one-fifth of the cost per ton (1813-1898). of his many inventions the chief is the process. too much of a Grecian to recommend himself to the popehood. and director of the Observatory. GOOD QUEEN. a cattle-breeding province. BESS. between the Dniester and the Pruth. a Protestant gentleman. professor of Mathematics at Koenigsberg.

Page 330 of 2772 . rose from the ranks. N. a place 11 m. BETHANY. BESSUS. See BESSEMER. a village 6 m. the birthplace of Jesus Christ and King David. of the Mount of Olives. who assassinated his master after the battle of Arbela. marshal of France.ramakalai@gmail. and much esteemed by him. in Egypt. village on E. born at Languedoc. viewed allegorically. a satrap of Bactria under Darius. abode of Lazarus and his sisters. BETHLEN-GABOR. and at Marengo. BETHLEHEM (3).com BESSEMER PROCESS. with a convent containing the Church of the Nativity. and famous in the history of the patriarchs. S. 328 B. of humble parentage. a Norman baron. prince of Transylvania. BETHEL (i. DUKE OF ISTRIA. a name given to a class of books treating of animals. was shot at Luetzen the day before the battle (1768-1813). BESTIARY. but was delivered over by Alexander to Darius's brother. near it is the grotto where St. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. by whom he was put to death. Chennai 6.C. house of God). BETHENCOURT. e. a friend and one of the ablest officers of Napoleon. CTSTI. BESSIERES. scene of Jacob's dream. of Jerusalem. of Jerusalem. and held them as a fief of the crown of Castile. in 1425 discovered and conquered the Canaries. assumed the title of king of Computer Lecturer. distinguished himself in the Italian campaign. JEAN BAPTISTE.

a tragic actor. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. Computer Lecturer. BEUTHEN (36). HENRY. with a Gothic minster. THOMAS. BETTINA. 8 m. left "Memoirs" (1809-1886). lived afterwards retired (1791-1874). sympathised with France in the Franco-German war. known as the Infant Roscius. a poor district. Chennai 6.com Hungary. a boy actor. BETTERTON. became Chancellor of the Austro-Hungarian empire. a German statesman. assisted Bohemia in the Thirty Years' war (1580-1629). which contains the tombs of the Percys.ramakalai@gmail. BEULE. Page 331 of 2772 . a passionate admirer of Goethe. the traditional lines. adopted a liberal policy. NW. an eastern suburb of London. it is believed. resigned office in 1871. BEVERLEY (12). held office under Macmahon (1826-1874). BEUST. W. born at Westminster. CTSTI. friendly to Austria. in the centre of a mining district. born at Dresden. and scene of benevolent enterprises. a parliamentary borough. a French statesman and archaeologist. amassed a fortune. and as such an interpreter of Shakespeare on. a manufacturing town in Prussian Silesia. BETHNAL GREEN (129). Minister for Foreign Affairs in Saxony. of Hull. the Countess of Arnim. COUNT VON. BETTY. superintended excavations on the Acropolis of Athens. of strong conservative leanings.

born in Northumberland.. born in Burgundy. a distinguished wood-engraver. a learned man. with coal and iron in the neighbourhood. a railway terminus." in which he established his reputation both as a naturalist." born at Grenoble. MARIE HENRI. did a cartoon from the Elgin Marbles for Goethe (1795-1866). Chennai 6. CTSTI. _d_.com BEVERLEY. and the port of Damascus. BEWICK. French critic and novelist. was one of the most learned men of his time. wrote in criticism "De l'Amour." and in fiction "La Chartreuse de Parme" and "Le Rouge et le Noir". of Computer Lecturer. BEYPUR. a French Protestant theologian. a great wood-engraver." the success of which led to the publication of his "History of British Birds." BEWICK. a famous knight of English mediaeval romance. THEODORE. and an artist (1753-1828). an ambitious writer and a cynical (1788-1842). a very ancient place. BEYLE. SIR. THOMAS. a man of gigantic stature. and founder of a college for secular priests at Beverley. the most nourishing commercial city on the coast of Syria. in the truest sense. apprenticed to the trade in Newcastle. whose marvellous feats are recorded in Drayton's "Polyolbion. WILLIAM. tutor to the Venerable Bede. archbishop of York. BEVIS OF SOUTHAMPTON. usually known by his pseudonym "De Stendal.ramakalai@gmail. from which it is distant 55 m. BEYROUT (200). JOHN. showed his art first in woodcuts for his "History of Quadrupeds. Page 332 of 2772 . a port in the Madras presidency. or HAMPTON. 721. BEZA.

introduced by the Crusaders into England. a town in Rajputana. a manufacturing town in the dep. BHARTPUR` (68). professor of Greek at Lausanne.ramakalai@gmail. on the right bank of the Ganges. of Herault. manufactures silk fabrics and confectionary. persuaded the king of Navarre to favour the Protestants. became the friend and successor of Calvin. Song of Krishna). settled in Geneva. where they were current till the time of Edward III. calculated to allay the scruples of Arjuna. of Calcutta. cotton. yielding wheat. and a military station. BEZIERS (42). Page 333 of 2772 . wrote a book. a town in Bengal. a town in Burmah. of Montpellier. deputed from Germany to intercede for the Huguenots in France. BHAMO` (6). maize. a poem introduced into the Mahabharata. CTSTI. and each section into six chapters. e. divided into three sections. NW. died at 86 (1519-1605). SW. BEZANTS. the chief centre of trade with China. the whole conceived from the point of view or belief. from the Chinese frontier. Chennai 6. 49 m. BHAGAVAD GITA. (i. sugar. in a native state of the name. and a "History of the Reformed Churches" in France. conducted mainly by Chinese. as it was with his own kindred. 265 m. being a series of mystical lectures addressed by Krishna to his royal pupil Arjuna on the eve of a battle." in which he justified the burning of Servetus. which regards the extinction of existence as absorption in the Deity. called Upanishads. Byzantine gold coins of varying weight and value. with quarries of building stone. BHAGALPUR` (69). from which he shrunk. only 40 m. "De Hereticis a Civili Magistratu Puniendis.com good birth. 30 Computer Lecturer.

of Agra. BHILS. and applied by the Hindus to all the Thibetan peoples. a well-governed native state in Central India. musk.com m.C. an independent state in the Eastern Himalayas. BHARTRIHARI.000. still untrained to settled life. with magnificent scenery. BIAF`RA. BIGHT OF. Indian author of apothegms.. includes several islands. sketching by the way. BIARD. BIARRITZ. French _genre_ painter. of Bayonne. SW. and salt. a bathing-place on the Bay of Biscay. and to have been of royal rank. journeyed round the world. Africa. Chennai 6. carries on an industry in the manufacture of chowries. and receives into it the waters of the Calabar rivers. who appears to have lived in the 11th century B. BHUTAN (20). born at Lyons. 6 m.ramakalai@gmail. religion the same. was successful in rendering burlesque groups (1800-1882). became a place of fashionable resort by the visits of the Empress Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. though the people are at a low stage of civilisation. under a government that has been always friendly to Britain. name given to the aborigines of Thibet. a large bay in the Gulf of Guinea. number 750. subsidised by Britain. AUGUSTE FRANCOIS. the country exports horses. BHOD-PA. has a government like that of Thibet. Page 334 of 2772 . in W. with a capital city (70) of the same name. BHOPAL` (952). a rude pro-Aryan race of Central India. W. under British protection.

C. not in a speculative or a scientific. e.. and not so much a book as a library of books).com Eugenie. both equally divine. BIBLE. 385-404. and is known as the Septuagint. the history. comprehending the Four Gospels. and explanatory inscriptions. Computer Lecturer. and thieves break through and steal. but a spiritual interest. which moth and rust can corrupt.ramakalai@gmail. and the Hagiographa. with pictures of scenes in the Life of Christ. The spirit in which it is composed is the spirit of conviction. A. was distinguished for his indifference to possessions. many wise sayings are ascribed to him. Bible of the Poor). after which the two came to be regarded by the Church as of equal divine authority and as sections of one book. Jerome. the Book _par excellence_. and the manners of the Jews. bearing on the religion. It may be permitted to note that the Bible is written throughout. Chennai 6. THE (i. the Old Testament and the New. both in the root of it and the fruit of it. Page 335 of 2772 . The one principle of the book is that loyalty to the divine commands is the one foundation of all well-being. and is known as the Vulgate. the Acts of the Apostles. and before the invention of printing by movable types.D. 280 B. individual and social. a book consisting of some 50 leaves. its essence. written in Hebrew. BIBLIA PAUPERUM (i. and ultimately a moral principle within. BIAS. from wooden blocks. written in Greek. CTSTI. and the New. and the Epistles.C. The Old Testament was translated into Greek at Alexandria by 72 Jews. is faith. Old and New. one of the seven wise men of Greece. in the 15th century. born at Priene. the Old. and that primarily in a moral power above. in Ionia. e. and the whole book. was translated into Latin in a grotto near Bethlehem by St. printed. a collection of sacred writings divided into two parts. the institutions. the Prophets.. and that its final aim is to guide men in the way of life. the Pentateuch. lived in the 6th century B. comprehending three groups of books.

CTSTI. Paris.ramakalai@gmail. and one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance (1786-1850). a hospital. BICKERTON. BIDDERY WARE. a mere cipher. Page 336 of 2772 . ISAAC. ware of tin. MARIE FRANCOIS XAVIER. in India. lead. "cellular. one of the first to resolve the structure of the human body into. BIDDING PRAYER. BICHAT. BICKERSTAFF. an exhortation to prayer in some special reference. in the S. SIR RICHARD. and the Computer Lecturer. an eminent French anatomist and physiologist. whose name was adopted as a _nom de plume_ by Swift and Steele. English clergyman. BICETRE. author of several evangelical works. since used for old soldiers. side of Paris. EDWARD. followed by the Lord's Prayer. originally a Carthusian monastery. physician to the Hotel-Dieu. vascular. a colleague of Julius Caesar. served in several naval engagements. as "Sartor" has it. in which the congregation joins. Chennai 6. a _faineant_. with a commanding view of the Seine and the city. made at Bidar. and zinc. and muscular tissues. an Irish dramatist of 18th century." his great work "Anatomie Generale appliquee a la Physiologie et a la Medecine". copper. and died commander-in-chief at Plymouth in 1792.com BIBULUS. vice-admiral. and now for confirmed lunatics. a Socinian writer in the time of Charles I. BIDDLE. died at 31 (1771-1802). BICKERSTETH. JOHN.

BIELA'S COMET. sometimes unobserved. and an island in it. of which the colours are the reflections of the precious stones. of firm solidity and exquisite workmanship. on the shores of it are remains of lake-dwellings.100 ft. with its twin peaks. BIELEFELD (39). and was imprisoned. appears. American inventor of weaving machines. regarded as the founder of English Unitarianism. BIDPAI. BIELU`KA. St. BIFROeST. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. Chennai 6. highest of the Altai Mountains. the retreat of Rousseau in 1765. or PILPAI. but released by Cromwell.com Commonwealth. born in Massachusetts (1814-1879). LAKE OF. in the Swiss canton of Berne. and the centre of the trade. every six years. Page 337 of 2772 . with a large trade in linen. so as to prevent inundation below. represented in the rainbow. a bridge in the Norse mythology stretching from heaven to earth. in extensive circulation over the East. ERASTUS BRIGHAM.ramakalai@gmail. much persecuted for his belief. the presumed author of a collection of Hindu fables of ancient date. 11. a comet discovered by Biela. an Austrian officer. BIENNE. a manufacturing town in Westphalia. Pierre. in 1826. BIGELOW. the Aar is led into it when in flood. author of a "Confession of Faith concerning the Holy Trinity" (1615-1662). and widely translated.

when a rapier was called a "bilbo. BIJAPUR`. egged on the mob during the September massacres in the name of liberty. Dutch poet. BIGGAR. of Biscay. was president of the Convention. the secretion of which is most active after food. CTSTI. imaginary author of poems in the Yankee dialect. a town in Lanarkshire. famous at one time for its steel. Computer Lecturer. a fluid secreted from the blood by the liver to aid in digestion. written by James Russell Lowell. BILE. of which the former are regarded as heretics by the latter because they break their eggs at the big end. born at Amsterdam (1756-1831). JEAN NICOLAS. but could not avert his own.com BIG-ENDIANS. was deported to Surinam. BILLAUD-VARENNES. as Little-endians is the name given to the Protestants. capital of the Basque prov. Page 338 of 2772 . now deserted. John Brown and of the Gladstone ancestry. WILLEM. and content to die there rather than return to France. resolute. in the imaginary kingdom of Lilliput. city in the presidency of Bombay.ramakalai@gmail. in Spain. BIGLOW. BILBA`O (50). died at Port-au-Prince (1756-1819). once the capital of an extensive kingdom. which Bonaparte made him free to do. "a grim. unrepentant" member of the Jacobin Club. specially in Queen Elizabeth's time. a name given to the Catholics. but with remains of its former greatness. birthplace of Dr. assisted at the fall of Robespierre. Chennai 6." BILDERDIJK. a commercial city of ancient date.

BILLINGTON. _nee_ WEICHSEL. the employment of two metals (gold and silver) in the currency of a country as legal tender at a fixed relative value. and was at last burned as a heretic in 1531. BILNEY. was twice arraigned. a priest who adopted the reformed doctrine. BIMETALLISM. _d_. also a name given to low. called "Maitre Adam. BILOCATION. BIMINI. THOMAS. 1662." richly illustrated. the carpenter poet." born at Nevers. born in London. born in London. delineator of old historical buildings. the ratio usually proposed being 1 to 151/2. a celebrated singer. martyr. ascribed to certain of the saints. Chennai 6. his great work "Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland. below London Bridge. the power or state. kept up her celebrity to the last. but could not refrain.com BILLAUT. a fish-market in London. died at Venice in 1817. and designated "Virgile au Rabot" (a carpenter's plane). as well as delineating them (1813-1874). coarse language indulged in there. ELIZABETH. and released on promise not to preach. a fabulous island with a fountain possessed of the virtue of Computer Lecturer. born in Norfolk. CTSTI. ADAM. of appearing in two places at the same time. Page 339 of 2772 . BILLINGS. of German descent. ROBERT WILLIAM. architect. was engaged in the restoration of old buildings.ramakalai@gmail. BILLINGSGATE.

a French litterateur. little of his poetry survives. in Grand-Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt. lost his all in the South-Sea Scheme and died (1668-1723). by a rival. JEAN BAPTISTE." a laborious and learned work. CTSTI. it is said.com restoring youth. a Greek pastoral poet of 3rd century B. the science of animal life in a purely physical reference. BIOLOGY. BINGHAM. translator of Horace and Virgil (1732-1812). BIOGENESIS.C.). BINET. made observations on the polarisation of light. settled in Sicily. a contemporary of Theocritus. JOSEPH. name of the theory that derives life from life. Page 340 of 2772 . including that of plants. professor of Physics in the College of France. or of life in organised bodies generally. BINGEN. and contributed numerous memoirs to scientific journals. v. a manufacturing and trading town on the left bank of the Rhine. an English divine. author of "Origines Ecclesiasticae. opposite which is the tower associated with the myth of Bishop Hatto. born at Wakefield. and opposed to ABIOGENESIS (q. BION. in its varied forms and through its successive stages. BIOT.ramakalai@gmail. and physicist. born at Paris. an eminent French mathematician. wrote works on astronomy (1774-1862).. Computer Lecturer. was poisoned. born at Smyrna. astronomer. Chennai 6. took part in measuring an arc of the meridian along with Arago.

"Non Nobis. Bartholomew Massacre (1507-1583). the nest of a species of swift. actress." is ascribed to him (1563-1623). a musician in the time of Elizabeth. archaeologist and Egyptologist.ramakalai@gmail. GOLDING. among his works are the "Choristers Rehearsing. SAMUEL. BIRD." pronounced his masterpiece (1772-1819). a great authority in kidney disease. Computer Lecturer. WILLIAM." and the "Day after the Battle. wrote largely. EDWARD. BIRD. composed madrigals. settled in Bristol.com BIRAGUE. born in Wolverhampton. had an extensive knowledge of Egyptology. CTSTI. keeper of Oriental antiquities in the British Museum. especially by contemporary historians. BIRD.. cardinal and chancellor of France. BIRD'S NEST. wrote a history of the Royal Society (1705-1765). as the chief instigator of the St. BIRCH. wrote dramas (1800-1868). BIRCH.D. born at Milan. born in London. formed from a marine plant that has been first digested by a bird. Page 341 of 2772 ." the "Field of Chevy Chase. and esteemed a great luxury by the Chinese. and contributed articles on that and kindred archaeological subjects (1813-1885). born in London. THOMAS. Domine. antiquary. acted in Berlin. an English _genre_ painter. charged. Chennai 6. BIRCH-PFEIFFER. of which he himself died (1815-1854). M. RENE DE. CHARLOTTE. born in Stuttgart.

of Warwickshire.D. DUKE OF COURLAND. in the NW. M. a cathedral. a town of rapid growth. where the triennial musical festival is held. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. BIRKENHEAD. All kinds of engines and machinery. BIRNAM. held the reins of government even after her death. BIRMINGHAM (478). George Dawson. Page 342 of 2772 . a political writer. steel pens. favourite of the Russian Empress Anne. silver. is the chief town of the Midlands. was banished to Siberia. due to the vicinity of Liverpool. NW. 112 m. Of this town Burne-Jones was a native.. in consociation with Brougham and others interested in the diffusion of useful knowledge (1776-1841). which in six years after he relinquished in favour of his eldest son (1687-1772). son of a peasant. a Yorkshireman. buttons. art gallery and museums. and celebrated all over the world for its metal ware. GEORGE. opposite Liverpool and a suburb of it. and screws are specialties. CTSTI.com BIREN. a zealous promoter all over the country of mechanics' institutes. and Dale were dissenting ministers." Computer Lecturer. fine gold. and brass ware. BIRKENHEAD (100). ruled with great cruelty. cutlery and ammunition are made here. It is a picturesque town with many fine buildings. SIR JOHN. nails. BIRKBECK. contains part of a forest mentioned in "Macbeth. in Cheshire. and Priestley. in Perthshire. and a great town-hall. copper. was founder of the London Institute. libraries. a hill near Dunkeld. on the Mersey. educational institutions. of London by rail. but recalled. has large shipbuilding-yards and docks. several times imprisoned during the Commonwealth for his obtrusive royalism (1615-1679). and had his honours restored to him.

narrowly escaped at the Massacre of St. "You will find it in Biron's note-book" (1524-1592).com BIRON.ramakalai@gmail. KARL GUSTAV. Page 343 of 2772 . son of the preceding. and 400 m. and so observant was he that it passed into proverb. but being a man of no principle and discontented with the reward he got for his services. Bartholomew. in France. BISCHOFF. under SW." BIRON. though a Catholic. a bay in the Atlantic. born at Perigord. carried a note-book with him everywhere. in Spain. BISHOP. extending from Cape Ortegal. DUC DE. served also bravely under Henry IV. originally an overseer of souls. served bravely under Henry IV. distinguished biologist. marshal of France. and conceived of by High-Churchmen as representing the apostles and deriving his powers by transmission from them. intrigued with the Duke of Savoy and with Spain against Henry. where. BARON DE. born at Hanover. after trial. BAY OF. and. especially of a district. BISCHOF. Chennai 6. professor at Bonn. Computer Lecturer. of depth varying from 20 to 200 fathoms. experimented on the inflammable power of gas (1792-1870). favoured the Huguenots. he was beheaded (1562-1602).. was arrested and sent to the Bastille. and of both at Muenich (1807-1882). born at Nueremberg. CTSTI. was killed at the siege of Epernay. BIRON. was professor of Anatomy at Heidelberg. eventually an overseer of churches. THEODOR LUDWIG WILHELM. a madcap lord in "Love's Labour's Lost. to Cape Finisterre.. winds particularly. BISCAY. chemist. made a special study of embryology. of Physiology at Giessen. broad. one of the stormiest of seas.

an archipelago formerly called New Britain. his influence was at first distrusted. To the surprise of nearly all Europe. woke up into civil life by the events of 1848. a palatial structure. that still threatened. St. Count Bismarck had the satisfaction of seeing the power of France. SW. Augustine. of which "Guy Mannering. was for a brief space professor of Music in Edinburgh University. as well as that of Austria. manufactures machinery and cotton goods. BISHOP-AUCKLAND (10). BISHOP OF HIPPO. and welding them into one under the crown of Prussia. and the consequent erection of a German Confederation. marshalled as army never was before. Page 344 of 2772 ." "The Miller and his Men. it has coal-mines close by. BISMARCK-SCHOeNHAUSEN. EDUARD LEOPOLD.ramakalai@gmail. an English composer. composer and director of music in Covent Garden Theatre for 14 years. under the protectorate of Germany. conceived the idea of freeing the several States of Germany from foreign control. His treatment of Napoleon III. of New Guinea. but the annexation of Sleswig-Holstein by force of arms in 1863 raised him into general favour. took a bold stand against revolutionary ideas and measures. Summoned in 1862 by King William to be his political adviser. PRINCE VON. of Durham. the German empire restored under a Computer Lecturer. His next feat. the humiliation of Austria at Koeniggraetz in 1866." are still in favour. born at Schoenhausen. Chennai 6. where the bishop of Durham has his residence. with Prussia at its head. produced 60 pieces. a market-town 9 m. provoked the latter into a declaration of war. made him the idol of the nation. helpless at his feet. NE. and beat the French ignominiously back from the Rhine. CTSTI. the Germans proved to be a nation of soldiers. as once in office there.com BISHOP. born in London. SIR HENRY ROWLEY. BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO (188). and eventually held a similar chair in Oxford (1786-1855). and to an advance on the part of the French against Berlin.

BITHYNIA. a country in the NW. BITHUR. and belong now to Portugal. the sea-level. Chennai 6. If he ceased to be chancellor of Germany on the accession of William II. with a population of Mohammedans and Armenians. BITLIS (25). established protection. codified the law. where Nana Sahib lived. Maltha when viscid.com Hohenzollern king. and for this a grateful nation must ever honour his name. Petroleum when less fluid and darker. an inflammable mineral substance. yield tropical products. Page 345 of 2772 . a pupil of Thorwaldsen. above. W. intrusted by him to finish a statue he left unfinished at his death. a Danish sculptor. 62 m. of Asia Minor. a town on the right bank of the Ganges. called Naphtha when liquid and light-coloured. presumably of vegetable origin. and concocted the conspiracy which developed into the mutiny of 1857. the people of it were of Thracian origin. it was because the young king felt he would have a freer hand with a minister more likely to be under his control (1815-1898). CTSTI. of Van.. stands in a valley 8470 ft. born in Sleswig. BISSEN. and himself installed as chancellor of the monarch he had served so well. a group of some 20 volcanic islands off the coast of Senegambia. above Cawnpore. and Asphalt when solid. and repressed Socialism--equalled this great feat. 12 m.ramakalai@gmail. but his best known are his "Cupid Sharpening his Arrow" and "Atalanta Hunting" (1798-1868). he produced some fine works. anciently so called. Nothing he did after this--though he reformed the coinage. a high-lying town in Asiatic Turkey. increased the army. Computer Lecturer. with a large negro population. BISSA`GOS. BITUMEN.

he is much admired by Ruskin. his writings are numerous. his discoveries in chemistry were fruitful in results (1728-1799). fascinating from their charming simplicity and truth. of the capital. about the West Highlands of Scotland. GEORGES. BIZET. _b_. composed stories of Swiss life under the _nom de plume_ of Jeremias Gotthelf." "The Strange Adventures of Computer Lecturer. NW. his greatest work "Carmen". northernmost town in Africa. the best known and most admired. BIZERTA (10). born in Glasgow. and lyrics. a Swiss author. with an excellent harbour. 1832. CTSTI. sometimes extreme. has written several novels.com BITZIUS. the discoverer of what has been called latent heat. died of heart-disease shortly after its appearance (1838-1875). where his lectures were very popular. over 30 in number. a seaport of Tunis. JOSEPH. the duties of which he continued to discharge till his death (1797-1854). BJOeRNSEN. his songs being highly appreciated by his countrymen. BLACK. and they rank high. was by profession a Protestant pastor." "Macleod of Dare. novelist. all of distinguished merit and imbued with a patriotic spirit. rich in picturesque description. BLACK. "A Daughter of Heth. Chennai 6. first in Glasgow. his best play "Sigurd the Bastard". then in Edinburgh." the "Madcap Violet. an operatic composer. but what is really transformed energy. both in religion and politics. of Scotch parents. an active and zealous promoter of liberalism. born at Kvikne. born at Bordeaux. 38 m. Page 346 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. a Norwegian author. started life as a journalist in connection with the _Morning Star_. composed tales. a celebrated chemist. born at Paris. professor of Chemistry. WILLIAM. dramas.

monks of the Dominican order. BLACK FRIARS. where are mineral springs. and E. such as wooden clocks. of it. Mr. the most serious was that of 1348. BLACK ASSIZE." "But when are you going to write a book. BLACK FOREST (488). Black?" said Carlyle to him one day (1841-1898). it possesses many health resorts. a wooded mountain chain 4000 ft. stripped England alone of one-third of its inhabitants. their sufferings were excruciating. &c. which. and only 23 survived till morning. which runs parallel with the Rhine. cobalt. square. Page 347 of 2772 . as Baden-Baden and Wildbad." and "A Princess of Thule. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. silver. though attended with peculiar symptoms. lead. as is reckoned. name given to the presumed power of evoking evil spirits. and iron are wrought in many places. believed to be the same as the Oriental plague. name of a district in London where they had a monastery. BLACK HOLE OF CALCUTTA. a plague at Oxford in 1557. copper. through Wuertemberg and Baden. a name given to a succession of fatal epidemics that devastated the world from China to Ireland in the 14th century. high (so called from the black pines that cover it). BLACK DEATH. BLACK ART. the women and children of the region make articles of woodwork. a confined apartment 13 ft. Computer Lecturer. which carried off 300 victims. Chennai 6. into which 146 English prisoners were crammed by the orders of Surajah Dowia on the 19th June 1756. from the Swiss frontier to Carlsruhe.com a Phaeton. is remarkable for its picturesque scenery and its mineral wealth. caught at the assize from the prisoners under trial.

son of Edward III. and the Dardanelles. GENTLEMAN USHER OF. Dneister. Chennai 6. BLACK ROD. communicates in the N. constituting one-third of the soil. whose badge of office is a black rod surmounted by a gold lion. Russia. but involved his country in further hostilities with France. regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy. guards the privileges of the House. gained the battle of Poitiers. twice the size of Britain. and an intense cold. lands in the heart of Russia. to die (1330-1376). Rumelia. an official of the House of Lords. it is said. with the Mediterranean. Prince of Wales. with the Sea of Azov. from its exhaustless fertility. under which many died. lying between Europe and Asia. &c. distinguished himself at Crecy. and the Kizil-Irmak and Sakaria from Asia--three times as much as is received by the Mediterranean. a stormy day of great darkness. Adassi. and consisting of a layer of black earth or vegetable mould. an inland sea. Bulgaria. in greatest breadth. and in the SW. BLACK SEA. extending between the Carpathians and the Urals. 4th August 1621. so called.ramakalai@gmail. in thickness. off the mouths of the Computer Lecturer. the Sea of Marmora. or EUXINE. and Asia Minor. receives the waters of the Danube. Bug. and a chief source. through the Bosphorus. BLACK MONDAY. It washes the shores of Turkey. and Don. from the colour of his armour. returned to England. remarkable for the extreme darkness that prevailed. BLACK PRINCE.com BLACK LANDS.. summons the Commons to the House. CTSTI. name given in Scotland to Saturday. being 700 m. It has but one island. of the wealth of the country. BLACK SATURDAY. Page 348 of 2772 . of from 3 to 20 ft.. broken in health. from Europe. in greatest length and 400 m. Easter Monday in 1351.

spoke much and wrote much in his day on manifold subjects. French and English (1802) secured trading rights.ramakalai@gmail. among his works. BLACKBURN (120). a common 7 m. Computer Lecturer. the inventor of the spinning-jenny. BLACKHEATH. bred to the bar. SE. executed a metrical translation of Goethe's "Faust. Page 349 of 2772 . a centre of the cotton industry. but other warships are excluded. "Self-Culture" is the most likely to survive him longest (1809-1895)." Part I. founded a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh University. the 42nd and 73rd. AEschylus. but devoted to literary pursuits. BLACKIE. Batoum.. Russia and Turkey keep fleets in it. of Manchester. CTSTI. a man of versatile gifts and warm human sympathies. Its waters are fresher than those of the ocean. Kherson. of London. and Homer's "Iliad" in verse. NW. born in Glasgow. 21 m. hence in summer navigation is very safe. no reefs or shoals. the first two are ice-bound in January and February. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. now a place of holiday resort for Londoners. raised originally for the preservation of the peace in the Highlands. Among the chief ports are Odessa. Trebizond. and it has no noticeable tides. and afterwards that of Greek in Edinburgh. for long provided the only golfing-course in England. BLACK WATCH. In winter it is harassed by severe storms. so called from the dark colour of the tartan. and the greatest in the world. filled the chair of Humanity in Aberdeen. took an active interest in everything affecting the welfare and honour of Scotland. and Sinope. Austrians (1784). is the birthplace of Hargreaves. JOHN STUART. which are numerous. once a favourite haunt of highwaymen. two Highland regiments. For three centuries the Turks excluded all other nations from its waters. studied German. Chennai 6. but the Russians (1774). was a zealous educational reformer.com Danube.

RICHARD DODDRIDGE.ramakalai@gmail. born in Annan. 1729. on his release went to Sweden. _d_." which." an authority on the subject and a work that has appeared in many editions (1723-1780). and may be credited. studied medicine. a clergyman. became highly popular. SIR RICHARD. thrown into prison for debt. Computer Lecturer. published four long worthless poems. the best known "Lorna Doone. sometimes called the "Brighton of the North. _b_. set up as a teacher in Edinburgh. a watering-place on the coast of Lancashire." BLACKSTONE. blind from early infancy. BLACKPOOL (23). BLACKMORE. with saving for his country and humanity at large one of the most gifted of his country's sons (1721-1791). ALEXANDER.. bred to the bar. 18 m. had Jeremy Bentham for one of his pupils. novelist. took to printing. SIR WILLIAM. CTSTI. an eminent jurist and judge. besides essays and psalms. born in London. was patronised by the king. he is pronounced unrivalled in his day as a writer of rustic comedy. born in Berks. became first Vinerian professor of Law at Oxford. born in Wilts. BLACKWELL. 1825. adventurer. and in 1746 called to the bar. THOMAS. convicted of conspiracy. and made himself the butt of all the wits of the period. and beheaded in 1747. though coldly received at first. born in Aberdeen. physician.com BLACKLOCK. was fellow of Pembroke College. was supported by his wife. Page 350 of 2772 . the son of a silk-mercer. of Preston. NW. therefore. after occupying a charge for two years. &c. was influential in inducing Burns to abandon his intention to emigrate. Oxford. has written several novels. the most voluminous of poetasters. Chennai 6. BLACKMORE. author of the well-known "Commentaries on the Laws of England.

BLAINVILLE. was admitted into the Maternity Hospital in Paris. and has since distinguished herself as a social reformer. in 1817.com BLACKWELL. Chennai 6. author of "Lectures on Rhetoric" and "Sermons. his third son. a lady doctor. a French naturalist. BLAEU. BLACKWOOD. graduated in 1849. BLACKWOOD. and procured him a pension of L200 from the king. and particularly on subjects connected with his appointment as a professor (1777-1850). 1673. HENRI MARIE. his principal literary advisers being Professor Wilson and Lockhart. SIR HENRY. conducted it as editor till his death (1776-1834). were much esteemed at one time for their polished style. JOHN." in 11 volumes. wrote largely on natural science. held in succession several charges in Scotland. Bartholomew's in London. his successor. WILLEM JANZSOON. Page 351 of 2772 . was present at Nelson's death. born at Alkmaar. born in Edinburgh. and to St. as it was called. originator of _Blackwood's Magazine_. WILLIAM. started _Maga_. his terrestrial and celestial globes have been admired for their excellence and accuracy (1571-1638). and the first to hold a medical diploma in the United States. he was a man of great critical acumen. succeeded him as professor of Comparative Anatomy. born in Bristol. devoted himself to medicine. clergyman. _b_. His son JAN edited a valuable atlas called "Atlas Major. CTSTI. British admiral. born in Edinburgh. distinguished at Aboukir Bay and Trafalgar. HUGH. _d_. and became professor of Rhetoric in Edinburgh University.ramakalai@gmail. originally a bookseller. became assistant to Cuvier. Dutch cartographer. ELIZABETH. 1821. no less distinguished in the cause of literature (1818-1879). held subsequently high naval positions (1770-1832). BLAIR. much trusted by Nelson." which latter are of the nature of moral essays rather than sermons. and Computer Lecturer.

CHARLES. poet. and finally. took first to sea in pursuit of Prince Rupert and the royalist fleet. ROBERT. BLANC. apprenticed to an engraver. Computer Lecturer. was an intensely religious man of deep spiritual insight. Catherine Boucher (1757-1828)." His poem has the merit of having been illustrated by William Blake (1699-1743). born at Madrid. BLANC." and "Songs of Experience". brother of Louis Blanc (1813-1882). JEAN JOSEPH LOUIS. beat the Dutch under Van Tromp de Ruyter and De Witt. and engraver. the author of "Douglas." a thoughtful and cultured man." and the "Book of Job. devoted his leisure to poetry." born at Bridgewater.ramakalai@gmail. sailed under the great guns of Tunis into the harbour. BLAIR. he spent his life a mystic from his very boyhood. "one of the fiercest actions ever fought on land or water" (1598-1657).com the celebrated Schleiermacher did not think it beneath him to translate some of them into German (1718-1800). CTSTI. whom he assisted with his drawings. illustrated Young's "Night Thoughts. a French art critic. with rare intervals. where. ROBERT. author of "The Grave. annihilated a Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay under the shadow of the Peak of Teneriffe. Page 352 of 2772 . where he was succeeded by Home. WILLIAM. before he tried seamanship. BLAKE." "Marriage of Heaven and Hell. his greatest feat." "Gates of Paradise. Chennai 6. most vivid feeling and imagination. the great English admiral and "Sea King. born in London. born in Edinburgh. wrote "Songs of Innocence. BLAKE. painter. which he destroyed. where he fired a fleet of Turkish pirates. and had for wife an angel." Blair's "Grave. successful as a soldier under the Commonwealth." He was a man of stainless character but eccentric habits. a French Socialist. started on original lines of his own as illustrator of books and a painter. minister of Athelstaneford.

who for his religious opinions was compelled to take refuge. the Mer de Glace the chief. almost entirely within France. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1871. and published separately in 1840 "Organisation of Labour. BLANCHE OF CASTILE." which had already appeared in the _Revue_. died by suicide (1803-1845). BLANC. was member of the Provisional Government of 1848. LAMAN. MONT. inventor of the parachute. threatened with impeachment. wife of Louis VIII. founded the _Revue du Progres_. 15. first in Poland. then in Computer Lecturer.780 ft. governed with great discretion and firmness. BLANCHARD. author of "Apologues and Tales." much esteemed (1707-1784). the highest mountain in Europe.. wrote an "elaborate and well-written" "History of the French Revolution". Piedmontese physician. regent of France during the minority of her son and during his absence in crusade. died at Cannes (1811-1882). a celebrated French aeronaut.com started as a journalist. French litterateur. a prolific periodical and play writer. CTSTI. THE ABBE. BLANDRATA. crushed by calamities. a man of a singularly buoyant spirit. Louis. BLANCHARD. returned to France on the fall of the Empire. GIORGIO. fled to England. Page 353 of 2772 . he fell from his balloon and was killed at the Hague (1738-1809). a work which gained the favour of the working-classes. sends numerous glaciers down its slopes. and eventually of the National Assembly. FRANCOIS. BLANCHET. died of grief over the long absence of her son and his rumoured intention to stay in the Holy Land (1186-1252). born at Yarmouth. of France and mother of St.

defined by Ruskin as the opposite of euphemy.. professor at Bonn. BLEEK. a celebrated French publicist and economist. and as wishing ill to anything. a great authority on theosophy. culminating in wishing ill to God. "History of Political Economy in Europe" (1798-1854). FRIEDRICH. as the height of "ill-manners. Say. a theosophist." BLATANT BEAST. Page 354 of 2772 . Chennai 6. and a free-trader. BLANQUI. suffered martyrdom in 316. bishop of Sebaste. where he sowed the seeds of Unitarianism (1515-1590). in Armenia. Spenser's name for the ignorant. B. of difficult access. LOUIS AUGUSTE.com Transylvania. a French republican of extreme views and violent procedure. the patron of wool-combers. eminent German Biblical exegete and critic of the Schleiermacher school. ADOLPHE. his principal work. would appear to have posed as a martyr. BLAVATSKY. which is said to endow whoso kisses it with a fair-spoken tongue.ramakalai@gmail. MME. a brother of the preceding. BLASIUS. born in Russia. born in Holstein. slanderous. clamour of the mob. a disciple of J. BLASPHEMY.. Cork. ST. hence the application of the word. BLANQUI. CTSTI. spent nearly half his life in prison (1805-1881). his chief Computer Lecturer. a stone in Castle Blarney. BLARNEY-STONE. the doctrines of which she professed she derived from the fountain-head in Thibet (1813-1891). born at Nice.

in which.. "Commentary on the Hebrews. accompanied Colenso to Natal. BLEFUSCU. understood to represent France. and had to flee the country (1789-1849). had her salon at Kensington. Wales. with the Woodstock estate. when his crew mutinied under his harsh treatment. served under Captain Cook. inhabited by pigmies. with 18 others. Computer Lecturer.. a philologist.ramakalai@gmail. BLICHER. was on intimate terms with Byron. BLIGH.S. in an open boat." a great work. Page 355 of 2772 . and published "Conversations with Byron. an Irish lady celebrated for her beauty and wit. a village in Bavaria. being extravagant. for his military services in the Spanish Succession war. COUNTESS OF. near Augsburg. STEEN STEENSEN. Oxford." and wrote several novels. BLEEK. BLENHEIM. WM. WM. BLENHEIM PARK. a naval officer. fell into debt. son of preceding. others are Introductions to the Old and to the New Testaments (1793-1859). BLESSINGTON. but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct (1753-1817). after incredible privations. near Woodstock. CTSTI. famous for Marlborough's victory in 1704. an island separated from Lilliput by a strait 800 yards wide. was afterwards governor of N. he arrived in England. and set him adrift. commanded the _Bounty_ at Tahiti. figured much in intellectual circles in London. author of "Comparative Grammar of the S. the gift.com work. Chennai 6. Danish poet of rural life (1782-1848). of the country to the Duke of Marlborough. African Languages" (1827-1875). and giving name to it.

CTSTI. FRANCIS. took part in the risings of 1848. born at Mannheim. BLOMEFLELD. a naturalist. CORNELIA. born at Anspach. France. 35 m. BLOIS. KARL. of Jewish descent. composed in verse "The Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland. a favourite residence of Francis I. Chennai 6. 197 ft. and the scene of events of interest in the history of France. capital of the deps. BLOCH. 1826. a prim school-matron in "Dombey & Son. BLOEMAERT. above the sea-level." BLINKERT DUNE.com BLIMBER. a dune near Haarlem. a wandering Scottish minstrel of the 15th century. BLIND HARRY. and cultivated his literary as well as his political proclivities by contributing to magazines. where he interested himself in democratic movements." but rescued by the mob." BLIND. found refuge in England. and otherwise. produced at the expense of the wealthiest princes of Germany (1723-1799).. S.ramakalai@gmail. a clergyman. and sentenced to prison in consequence of a pamphlet he wrote entitled "German Hunger and German Princes. _b_. of Loire and Cher. author of "Topographical History of the County of Norfolk" (1705-1751). Page 356 of 2772 . a family of Flemish painters and engravers in 16th and 17th centuries. his "Ichthyology" is a magnificent national work. of Orleans. MARCUS ELIESER. and Charles IX. Sir William Wallace. born at Norfolk. MRS. on the Loire. revolutionist and journalist. Computer Lecturer.

COLONEL.. unaccountably pardoned by Charles II. BLONDIN. CHARLES. THOMAS. 1824. and by the voice of Richard in responding to the strain. an acrobat and rope-dancer. celebrated for his feats in crossing Niagara Falls on the tight-rope. Edmunds. BLONDEL. born at Bury St. He was afterwards charged with conspiracy. Greek scholar. statute of Henry VIII. BLOODY BONES. a hobgoblin feared by children.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer.com BLOMFIELD. noted for his daring attempts against the life of the Duke of Ormonde. BLOODY ASSIZES. a troubadour of the 12th century. CTSTI. bishop of London. France. making it a crime involving the heaviest penalties to question any of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church. Page 357 of 2772 . Chennai 6. _b_. born at St. an Irish desperado. active in the Church extension of his diocese (1785-1857). and committed to the King's Bench. and received afterwards into royal favour with a pension of L500 per annum. Omer. it is said. and released. and for carrying off the regalia in the Tower. who. the judicial massacres and cruel injustices perpetrated by Judge Jeffreys during Circuit in 1685. BLOOD. BLOODY STATUTE. a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion. discovered the place of Richard's imprisonment in Austria by singing the first part of a love-song which Richard and he had composed together.

in height. assailant of revealed religion. translated into French and Italian. Page 358 of 2772 . to W. was involved in all the controversies of the time. Prussian field-marshal. served first in the Swedish army. a contrivance by which a current of air is driven through a flame. 16th June 1815. at the age of 70 commanded the centre of the Allied Army in 1813. born in Suffolk." a highly popular production. then in the Prussian. and the flame directed upon some fusible substance to fuse or vitrify it. CTSTI. arrived on the field of Waterloo just as the French were preparing to make their last charge. and met with varying fortune. BLOUNT. from 5000 to 7000 ft. author of the "Farmer's Boy. with a deep chasm between. BLOWPIPE. pressed forward to Paris at the time of Napoleon's abdication. Computer Lecturer.. ROBERT. died by his own hand (1654-1693). born in London. an English poet. spent his last days in ill-health struggling with poverty. which brought on dejection of mind (1766-1823). the highest 4100 ft. distinguished as a leader of cavalry. also a chain of mountains in New South Wales of two parallel ranges. BLUeCHER. defeated by Napoleon at Ligny. BLUE NOSE. CHARLES. a nickname given to an inhabitant of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick.com BLOOMFLELD. distinguished himself at Luetzen and Leipzig. and full of gloomy ravines and beetling precipices." born at Rostock. familiarly named "Marshal Forwards.ramakalai@gmail. a range of thickly wooded mountains traversing Jamaica from E. a deist. and contributed to decide the fate of the day (1742-1819). by trade a shoemaker. Chennai 6. BLUE MOUNTAINS. pursued the French across the Rhine.

1807. who wore a blue gown.. Page 359 of 2772 . marries a beautiful woman. and finds to her horror the remains of his former wives locked up in one of them. as she lies with her head on the block. a name given to Christ's Hospital. and leaves her in charge of the keys of the apartments in his absence. CTSTI. BLUE-STOCKING. a name derived from a learned coterie. or HARRY.com BLUEBEARD. _b_. who wore blue stockings as a badge. with injunctions not to unlock any of the doors.ramakalai@gmail. a German politician. an injunction which she fails to respect. as the corresponding documents in France are in _yellow_. who at once despatch the husband to his merited doom. BLUE-BOOKS. BLUE-GOWN. at Venice. Chennai 6. tried by court-martial and shot for abetting a political movement in Vienna in 1848. they have been published regularly since the beginning of the 18th century. those of a single session now forming a collection of some 60 folio volumes. formed in the 15th century. in Scotland a beggar. born at Cologne. Henry VIII. the owner of a castle. BLUE-COAT SCHOOL. and she is to prepare for death. London. her disobedience is discovered. by the timely arrival of her brothers. of England. founded in the reign of Edward VI. and had his license to beg. the gift of the king. a female pedant or _femme savante_. a proceeding which created a wide-spread sensation at the time all over Europe. BLUFF HAL. a bedesman of the king. from the blue coats worn by the boys. but is rescued. Computer Lecturer. a wealthy seigneur. BLUM. Parliamentary documents bound in _blue_ paper.

a liberal conservative both in Church and State. an eminent strategist. a distinguished jurist. JOHANN FRIEDRICH. LEONARD VON. born at Gotha. however fine. or ABU-ABDALLAH. recklessly throwing away his life on a field of battle. Page 360 of 2772 . was a great advocate for religious liberty (1752-1840). became professor at Goettingen. died shortly after in Africa. surnamed "The Unfortunate. wrote largely on theological and ecclesiastical subjects (1823-1884). expelled from his throne by Ferdinand of Castile and Aragon.. he made craniology a special study. but who opened his eyes to see that it is not in sentiment. founder and president of the Protestant Union called the _Protestantenverein_ (1808-1881). D. as he rode off he halted on a hill called "The Last Sigh of the Moor. BLUNTSCHLI. JOHANN KASPAR. Chennai 6. an office he filled for 60 years. field-marshal in the Prussian army. _b_. CTSTI. JOHN HENRY. while his mother added to his bitterness with the cutting sarcasm. BOABDIL. the chief were "Institutiones Physiologicae. BLUMI`NE. the siren that Calypsowise in "Sartor" seduced Teufelsdroeckh at the commencement of his career. an authority in international law." and wept as he looked back on the Alhambra. "Weep as a woman for a throne you have not been able to defend as a man". 1810.com BLUMENBACH. studied at Jena. Austria. BLUMENTHAL. a distinguished German naturalist and ethnologist. his works gave a great impulse to scientific research in all directions. born at Chelsea. and France.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer." "Manual of Natural History. distinguished in the wars with Denmark. born at Zurich." "Manual of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology". from 1481 to 1492.D. BLUNT. that the soul's cravings can find satisfaction." the last Moorish king of Granada.

CAPTAIN.ramakalai@gmail. in her despair. e. GIOVANNI. Petrarch's death deeply affected him. along with whom he contributed to the revival and study of classic literature. a braggadocio in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour. she put. lectured on Dante in Florence. attacked their settlements and destroyed them. the "Decameron". and his great work. BOAZ and JACHIN. but being attacked and defeated in turn by Suetonius Paulinus. Antoine faubourg. a beautiful woman.D. Page 361 of 2772 . CTSTI. signifying respectively strength and stability. and he died the year after (1313-1375). BOANERGES (i. Computer Lecturer. an end to her life by poison. a British heroine. A. son of an upholsterer of the St. the Roman governor. BOCCACCIO. born near Florence. the celebrated Italian _raconteur_. who. roused by indignity done to her and her people by the Romans.com BOADICE`A. Sons of Thunder). sent by his father to Naples to pursue a mercantile career. with a murderous onslaught. early formed a lifelong friendship with Petrarch. queen of the Iceni. for whom he wrote several of his works. under the Empire and the Restoration. a French theatrical clown. Chennai 6. BOB`ADIL. the type of the merry-andrew at country fairs. who occupied Norfolk and Suffolk. daughter of the king. gathered round her an army. two pillars of brass at the entrance of Solomon's Temple. applied by Christ to the sons of Zebedee for the vehemence of their zeal. styled by him Fiammetta. fell in love with Maria. showed early a passion for literature. 61. Cowper made her the theme of one of his poems. gave himself up to story-telling in prose and verse." BOBECHE.

" in six books. the violinist.000 printed volumes and 30. born at Hamburg. produced a number of astronomical works. born at Lucca. Computer Lecturer. appears to have lived in poverty and obscurity (1740-1805).ramakalai@gmail. author of "The Republic. BODLEIAN LIBRARY. called Bode's Law. enlarged from time to time by bequests. or rather restored. BODIN. published at first in French and then in Latin.000 MSS. wrote a treatise on sacred geography. by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1593.com BOCCHERINI. which summed up all the political philosophy of his time." gave name to the law of the planetary distances. a Protestant divine. SAMUEL. celebrated for a nine-days' discussion with the Jesuit Verin (1599-1667). BOCHART. BODEL. the university library of Oxford. an astronomer. one of his best. CTSTI. Page 362 of 2772 . Chennai 6. his works were numerous. often munificent. LUIGI. "An Introduction to the Knowledge of the Starry Heavens. It possesses 400. born at Arras. another name for the Lake of Constance. born at Rouen. JOHANN ELERT. founded. a publicist and diplomatist. a geographer and an Orientalist. JEAN. born at Angers. well called the filter of the Rhine. was the precursor of Hobbes and Montesquieu (1530-1596). although it was observed by Kepler long before his day (1747-1826). BODE. and contributed to prepare the way for subsequent speculations. pastor at Caen. a celebrated troubadour of the 13th century. was professor of Astronomy and director of Observatory at Berlin. a celebrated Italian musical composer. was associated with Manfredi. BODENSEE.

Computer Lecturer. Page 363 of 2772 . SIR THOMAS. along with others. whence issued magnificent editions of the classics. BODMIN (5). bequeathed them and his fortune to the university library of Oxford. and who aided. BODONI. lived chiefly in Italy (1793-1874). professor of Philosophy at Paris. BODMER. and sheep. but he refused to quit Parma and the patronage of the ducal house there (1740-1813). to wake up Germany to a sense of its poverty in that line. and.com BODLEY. born at Copenhagen. born at Dundee. Tacitus. the county town of Cornwall. Tasso. Chennai 6. born at Exeter. wrote "History of Bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen. BOeDTCHER." and "History of Scotland" in excellent Latin (1465-1536). Horace. France.ramakalai@gmail. and Italy. by study of the masters in literature of Greece and Rome. JOHANN JACOB. Homer. born near Zurich. BOECE. an important agricultural centre. named after him (1545-1613). last of all. LUDWIG. employed on embassies by Elizabeth on the Continent. the first. England. where he collected a number of valuable books. horses. was principal of university at Aberdeen. a Danish lyric poet. has large annual fairs for cattle. settled at Parma. where his press was set up in the ducal palace. friend of Erasmus. in the inauguration of a new era. CTSTI. He was often tempted to Rome. which he did more by his republication of the Minnesingers and part of the "Nibelungen Lied" than by his advocacy (1698-1783). an Italian printer. a distinguished Swiss critic. HECTOR. a humanist and Scottish historian. Virgil. supersedes Truro as capital.

seemed to have eyes given him to see visions of these things himself. &c. BOEHMER. as it comes out in nature. as all of his stamp are. a statue of Bunyan at Bedford. apocalyptical speech. and afterwards in his stall as a shoemaker. professor of Ancient Literature in Berlin." as they all are to the very core.. who acknowledges him as one of the fathers of German philosophy. Page 364 of 2772 . and bore up with the meekness which all men of his elevation of character ever do--"quiet. and his philosophy would seem to have anticipated the secret of Hegel. born at Carlsruhe. gentle. BOEHME. born at Goerlitz. CTSTI. He was subject to persecution. settled in England. viewing the divine as it is in itself. born in Vienna. and a contributor on a large scale to all departments of Greek classical learning. a thinker very fascinating to all minds of the seer class. in his way of thinking. buried in St. JACOB. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. a German historian. Computer Lecturer. author of works on the Carlovingian period of history (1795-1863). of an imaginatively meditative turn from boyhood as a neat-herd. by the men of the letter. He left writings which embody a scheme of mystical theology. classical antiquary. SIR JOSEPH EDGAR. was an eminently learned man.com BOECKH. and modest. PHILIP AUGUST. patronised by the Queen and royal family. spent his whole life in meditation on divine things. Paul's by the Queen's desire (1785-1869). for which he felt he had no organ to express. saw in the Bible a revelation of these as in no other book. that is. setting forth the trinity in unity of the Hegelian system. BOEHM. of Hungarian parentage. executed a colossal statue of the Queen at Windsor. and which he conveyed to others in mystical. a celebrated German mystic. and as it returns to itself in the human soul (1575-1624). a seated statue of Carlyle on the Thames Embankment. and an authority in different departments of learning (1785-1867). a classic of the first rank. sculptor. born at Frankfort.

as well as of Chemistry. a profoundly learned man. BOERS (i. and patients from far and wide came to consult him--among others. his reputation spread over Europe. his system was adopted by the profession. of Consular rank. and finally put to death. held the highest offices." and "Institutiones Chemicae" (1668-1738). his integrity and opposition to injustice procured him enemies." Computer Lecturer. settled at length in the Transvaal in a self-governed community by themselves. BOETHIUS. and Plutarch were natives of Boeotia. a character in "Ivanhoe. who accused him of treason. gave themselves to agriculture and cattle-rearing. Africa. and his influence was great during the Middle Ages (470-524). BOERHAAVE. Page 365 of 2772 . born at Rome." in five parts.ramakalai@gmail. e. and regarded as boors and dullards by the educated classes of Greece.com BOEO`TIA. CTSTI. Pindar. his principal works were "Institutiones Medicae. who in the 17th century squatted in S. peasants engaged in tillage). ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS. and particularly of Athens. Dutch colonists of an independent republican temper. FRONT DE." "Aphorismi de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis. a great physician. Europe. N. and yet Hesiod. a Roman statesman. Consul among others. Boerhaave." and found him. which King Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon. he was cast into prison. and Peter the Great. Chennai 6. under Theodoric the Goth. he was canonised as a martyr." "Libellus de Materia Medica. chairs of which he filled and adorned with the greatest distinction. though brave. and even as far as China--a letter from which bore the simple address. employing verse and prose alternately. of the Gulf of Corinth. "To M. ultimately professor of Medicine and Botany there. born near Leyden. were mere tillers of the soil under a heavy atmosphere. a country of ancient Greece. innocent of culture. BOEUF. and son of a pastor. his character was as noble as his abilities were great. the natives. Pope Benedict VIII. wrote in prison his "De Consolatione Philosophiae.

and precious metals. situated on a remarkable. and has a spring-like climate. now to certain Irish for their agility in escaping over bogs. called by his countrymen the "Russian Anacreon". wrote hymns and an autobiography. is encircled by mountains.ramakalai@gmail.com BOGATZKY. the Boehmerwald. of its port. and drained by the upper Elbe and its tributaries. and observatory. It is regularly built. capital of the United State of Colombia. the most northerly province in Austria. Dutch divine. and the Computer Lecturer. from Bavaria. CTSTI. its situation and the want of a railway hinder trade. the Foreign Bible. two-thirds the size of Scotland. The Erzgebirge separate it from Saxony. translated the Bible into Dutch.843). on the river Bogota. a Russian poet. his best-known poem "Psyche" (1743-1803). the highest navigable point of the Magdalena. a Congregational minister. born in Berwickshire. almost mountain-encircled. BOGUE. with innumerable churches. and was President of the Synod of Dort (1576-1633). Chennai 6. BOG-TROTTER. library. and the Religious Tract Societies (1750-1825). SE. BOGDANOVITCH. from Prussia. above sea-level. Honda. a mint. iron. Though the country is fertile and the mountains rich in coal. one of the founders of the London Foreign Missionary. religious writer. BOHEMIA (5. plateau. is best known as the author of the "Golden Treasury" (1690-1744). and several schools. a name given to the Scottish moss-troopers. 65 m. salt. Page 366 of 2772 . is 8600 ft. BOGERMANN. BOGOTA` (100). DAVID. KARL HEINRICH VON. the Riesengebirge. university. JOHANN.

BOHEMIAN BRETHREN. besieged and took Antioch. BOHLEN. and were invited. Computer Lecturer. the soil fertile. The mineral wealth is varied and great. This was followed by the Thirty Years' War. and the restoration of the Austrian House. professor at Koenigsberg (1796-1840). and porcelain clay. silver. CTSTI. was besieged in turn by the Saracens. organised as United Brethren in 1455. The people are mostly Czechs. under the name of Moravians or Herrnhuters. with whom the Czechs. Roman Catholics in religion. flax and hops the chief products. the extermination of the Protestants. The transit trade is very valuable. first prince of Antioch. Education is better than elsewhere in Austria. and the latter agitating for the elevation of the province to the same status as that of Hungary. Dyeing.ramakalai@gmail. The glassware is widely celebrated. there is a large and influential German minority of about two millions. there are iron-works and sugar-refineries. broken up in the Thirty Years' War. the former being riled at the official use of the Czech language. son of Robert Guiscard. met in secret. The climate is mild in the valleys. name given to one who lives by his wits and shuns conventionality. but in 1608 religious questions led to the election of the Protestant Frederick V. BOHEMIAN.com Moravian Mountains. VON. set out on the first crusade. linen and woollen manufactures. do not amalgamate. Page 367 of 2772 . forests are extensive. and imprisoned for two years. including coal. the most useful metals. there is a university at Prague. by Count Zinzendorf to settle on his estate. a fraternity of an extreme sect of the Hussites. calico-printing. BOHEMOND. he collected troops and recaptured the city (1056-1111). In the 16th century the crown was united with the Austrian. a German Orientalist. are the chief industries. the capital. Chennai 6. sulphur. who are twice as numerous. liberated. of the Slavonic race. from Moravia.

in which he attached and employed his wit against the bad taste of his time.. among other works. Chennai 6." which eclipsed it (1434-1494). BOIELDIEU. COUNT DE. and Moliere. courtier. as Pascal did to reform the prose.com BONN. Page 368 of 2772 . to whom he rendered signal service. born in St. MATTEO MARIA.. Sanskrit scholar. to distinguish him from his brother). which he dealt out generously and for the benefit of his country (1751-1830)." &c. an Italian poet. Russia. of a Sanskrit dictionary in 7 vols.ramakalai@gmail. author of "Satires" and "Epistles. BOIARDO. CTSTI. and statesman." "Telemaque. NICOLAS (surnamed Despreaux. an enterprising publisher. a German. diplomatist. _b_. BOILEAU. poet and critic. and the prince of the Mahrattas. the model of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso. called the French Mozart (1775-1834). issued a series of works identified with his name (1796-1884)." "L'Art Poetique. occupying territory between the Allier and the Loire. surnamed the "Flower of Chivalry". author of "Orlando Innamorato" (1456). BOIGNE. brought up to the law. associating himself with La Fontaine.1815. born at Chambery. and was for long the law-giver of Parnassus. East India Company. a German. Petersburg. author of the "Calife de Bagdad. BOII. author. ADRIEN FRANCOIS. a distinguished French musical composer of operas. OTTO." and "La Dame Blanche. did much to reform French poetry." "Le Lutrin. BOeHTLINGK. born in London. Racine. HENRY GEORGE." reckoned his masterpiece. but devoted to letters. an ancient people of Gaul. served under France. born in Paris. a French soldier of fortune. Count of Scandiano. was an Computer Lecturer. amassed wealth.

of Amsterdam. a French Greek scholar. SE. noted for his firmness and coolness during the frenzy of the Revolution: one day the Parisian mob burst in upon the Convention. they held up Feraud's bloody head to him. Page 369 of 2772 . but abandoned politics for letters (1774-1857). and yielded not". "sweeping the members of it before them to the upper-bench . BOISSIERE. THE ABBE. capital of North Brabant.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6.. he yielded not. became a senator and commander of Computer Lecturer. covered. THE ABBE. shot dead a young deputy. BOISSONADE.. the president sat unyielding. stern air he bowed to it. levelled muskets at him. patronised by Richelieu (1592-1662). JEAN FRANCOIS. Feraud. one of the first members of the French Academy. BOISARD. but especially of Horace (1636-1711). a French fabulist of remarkable fecundity (1743-1831). for a time carried away by the revolutionary movement. a French lexicographer (1806-1885). one of the best French pulpit orators of the 18th century (1715-1786). a French economist. 1714. 45 m. they menaced him. cousin of Vauban. _d_. and with a fine cathedral. COUNT. BOISSY D'ANGLAS. with grave. BOISROBERT. advocate of free trade. a member and president of the Convention in Paris. like a rock in the beating of seas. CTSTI. BOISMONT. a French poet.com imitator of Pope. seat of an archbishop. BOIS-GUILLEBERT. BOIS-LE-DUC (27).

and became queen. and cereals are grown. silk. (1756-1826).com the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. Chennai 6. second wife of Henry VIII. a mile.800). nominally independent. is traversed by a torrent. and Karshi. her marriage with Henry had important bearings on the English Reformation (1507-1536). and mother of Elizabeth. of whom the most famous is Boleslaus I. Rice. was married to him. JOHN. attracted the admiration of Henry. N. It has important trade and large slave markets. gold and salt are found. HENRY ST. 8 or 9 m. deep. BOLINGBROKE. a French lexicographer (1765-1824). BOLAN` PASS. Computer Lecturer. BOISTE. was found guilty and beheaded. the name of several dukes of Poland. and cultivation possible only near the rivers-the Oxus. BOKHA`RA (1. after a three years' residence at the French Court became maid of honour to Queen Katherine. the centre of learning and religious life in Central Asia. In the sands of the Oxus. Zarafshan. English statesman. cutlery. Bokhara (70). BOLEYN. BOLESLAUS. mud-built city. or BULLEN. daughter of Sir Thoman Bullen (afterwards Earl of Wiltshire). in circumference. a Mohammedan State in Central Asia. and firearms are manufactured. The people are of Turk and Persian origin. narrow gorge. cotton-thread.ramakalai@gmail. was made a peer by Louis XVIII. charged with adultery and conspiracy. with numerous colleges and mosques. cotton. Page 370 of 2772 . of Afghanistan. who ruled from 992 to 1025. ANNE. VISCOUNT. but the Khan is a vassal of the Czar. is on the plain of the Zarafshan. orator. a high-lying. was of the Reformed faith. the Great. extending between Quetta (Beluchistan) and Kandahar (Afghanistan). jewellery. a walled. CTSTI. The capital. The surface is arid. sloping upwards at an inclination of 90 ft.

returned in 1723 to his estates. but puny ephemeral forms of them--the partisan and personal politics of his day. Brazil. occupying lofty tablelands E. general and statesman. "is a rhetorician pure and simple. freed from the yoke of Spain Venezuela and New Grenada. and was preparing to leave the country when he died of fever. is chiefly desert. SIMON. seized with the passion for freedom during a visit to Madrid and Paris. if not most. and Chili. tobacco. however disinterested he may be. In the lower plains coffee. and his time deprived him of many. he erected into a republic under the name of Colombia. silver. which. Saintsbury. Argentina. an inland republic of S. a man of good birth and liberal education. born at Battersea. but the subjects of his rhetoric were not the great and perennial subjects.' a sort of apologia. Chennai 6.com and political writer. with the sage reflection on his lips. The very varied heights afford all kinds of vegetation. from wheat and maize to tropical fruits. he abdicated. after her dismissal of the Whigs. The most important industry is mining: gold. an indignity which he resented by working the overthrow of Walpole. BOLIVAR. and tin. born at Caracas. and cinchona are cultivated. cotton. is always dangerous in a State that is new to freedom". Trade Computer Lecturer. are Lake Titicaca and many well-watered valleys. America.ramakalai@gmail. of the rhetorician's most telling weapons. he has been called the Washington of S." It was he who suggested to Pope his "Essay on Man" (1678-1751).500). The S. was the friend of Pope and Swift. in 1819. henceforth called Bolivia. fled to France and joined the Pretender. "Bolingbroke. of the Andes. copper. The 'Letter to Windham. Page 371 of 2772 . surnamed the Liberator. accused of aspiring to the Dictatorship. devoted himself to the cause of S. and surrounded by Peru. CTSTI. in the N. and the 'Ideal of a Patriot King. the singularly shallow form of infidelity called Deism and the like. American independence. and the author of "Letters" bearing upon politics and literature. was impeached and attainted. after his name. on the accession of George I.' exhibit him at his best. Paraguay. Prime Minister of Queen Anne in the Tory interest." says Prof. BOLIVIA (1. America (1783-1830). "The presence of a soldier. achieved in 1824 the same for Upper Peru. but denied a seat in the House of Lords.

JOHN OF. BOLOR-TAGH. BOLLAND. a lake with clear water in a hollow crater of a volcano. BOLSENA. but La Pay (45) and Cochabamba (14) are larger towns. born in Belgium. on a fertile plain. now extended to sixty vols.com is hampered by want of navigable rivers. it lost its sea provinces in the war with Chili. CTSTI. a small town in Italy. of Florence. Peru. settled at Florence (1524-1608). has many fine buildings. one of the most celebrated sculptors of art in his time. manufactured goods are imported. a Jesuit of Antwerp. at the foot of the Lower Apennines. a succession of Jesuits who produced the Lives of the Saints. Chennai 6. and considerable trade. called after him "Bollandists. schools of music and art. N. Page 372 of 2772 . shore of Lake Bolsena. and abounding with fish. a high tableland in Central Asia. BOLSE`NA. but with an unwholesome atmosphere. The country has been independent since 1825. The capital is Sucre (12). a university. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. born at Douai. and Argentina. on the E. an ancient walled city of Italy. Silver is the chief export. and art collections. libraries. 83 m." BOLLANDISTS. There are some silk and other industries. BOLOGNA. one of the oldest in Europe. BOLOGNA (147)." which was continued by others. stretching from the Hindu Kush mountains northwards to the Tian Shan. compiled five vols. but helped by railways from Chili. JOHN. 1879-83. of the Lives of the Saints called "Acta Sanctorum.

destroyed by the Anglo-French fleet in 1854. BOMBA. and liquors are imported.ramakalai@gmail. BOMBAY (26. wool. connected with the coast by a causeway. the chief city. BOLTON ABBEY. BOMA. in the Congo Independent State. manufacturing town of Lancashire. from his calling upon his soldiers to bombard his people during an insurrection. BOMARSUND. its position promises to make it the most important commercial centre in the East. of it are mountain ranges and tablelands. BOMBASTES FURIOSO. Machinery. 6 m. once a great slave mart. In the fertile N. N. and wheat are the staple products. as it already is in the Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. and gold are mined. but pleasant on the plateaux. and has a magnificent harbour and noble docks. and is one of the greatest of seaports. The climate is hot and moist on the coast and in the plains. It is rapidly surpassing Calcutta in trade. but coal is wanting. an opera by Thomas Rhodes in ridicule of the bombastic style of certain tragedies in vogue. iron. given him. stands on an island. In the S. a fortress of the island of Aland occupied by Russia. nickname of Ferdinand II.. the Russians bound not to restore it. Page 373 of 2772 . E. Chennai 6. coal. tea. and drugs are exported. the western Presidency of India. BOMBAY (822). a station on the Lower Congo.960). embraces 26 British districts and 19 feudatory states. was founded by the Augustinian canons. salt. oil. of the Nerbudda River the country is flat and fertile. with sugar. of Skipton. late king of the Two Sicilies.com BOLTON (115). an old abbey in Yorkshire. S. cotton.. it is alleged. opium. Cotton manufacture has developed extensively and cotton cloths.

BONAPARTE. Chennai 6. name of a celebrated family of Italian origin settled in Computer Lecturer. Her symbol was a serpent. a French publicist. Its prosperity began when the Civil War in America afforded it an opening for its cotton. BONA (30). an ascetic writer. but revealed. surnamed the Fenelon of Italy. and that causation was inherent in matter (1758-1840).com cotton trade of the world. looked upon the Catholic religion and the royal authority as fundamental to the stability of the social fabric. _nom de plume_ assumed by Professor Aytoun and Sir Theodore Martin. who leased it to the East India Company for L10 a year. a seaport in Algeria. Page 374 of 2772 . VICOMTE DE. and its merchandise is mainly in the hands of the Parsees. worshipped by women. her priests vestals and her worship by rites from which men were excluded. and was opposed to the law of divorce. in the province of Constantine. It came to England from Portugal as dowry with Catherine of Braganza. on a bay of the Mediterranean. is much improved since its occupation by the French in 1832. BONALD. BONA DEA (the good goddess).ramakalai@gmail. but the name under which she was worshipped is not known. BON GAULTIER. the episcopal city of Augustine. It swarms with people of every clime. CTSTI. with an excellent harbour and a growing trade. It is the most English town in India. a violent royalist and ultramontanist. one of feuillant order of monks (1609-1674). a Roman goddess of fertility. He denied that language was innate. wife of Charles II.. BONA. the descendants of the ancient fire-worshippers. Near it are the ruins of Hippo. which led to its alteration.

his real name John Fidenza. 1744. died in Viterbo. the principal members of it were: CHARLES MARIE. MARIE-LAETITIA RAMOLINO.. 1778. died in 1860. called Jerome. entered the Franciscan Order. ascribed knowledge of the truth to union with God. 1840. born at Ajaccio. of this union were born eight children: JOSEPH. a state which could be recovered only by a life of purity and prayer. king of Westphalia (from 1807 to 1813). married Marat in 1800. Prince Napoleon. of which marriage was born Prince Victor Napoleon in 1862. father of Napoleon III. HORATIUS. BONAR. and died at Florence. surnamed the Seraphic Doctor. his writings were admired by Luther (1221-1274). then queen of Naples. 1785.. died at Montpellier. born at Edinburgh (1808-1889). CAROLINE-MARIE. became Grand-duchess of Berg and Cleves. 1784. 1836. 1820. 1826. king of Spain from 1808 to 1813. (q. CTSTI. _b_. was a mystic in theology. 1775.com Corsica. _b_. _b_. BONAVENTURA. _b_. Chennai 6. _b_. 1822. 1825. afterwards. MARQUIS DE. served Computer Lecturer. and prince of Canino. Page 375 of 2772 . 1782. BONCHAMP. cardinal. married Princess Clothilde. married Felix Bacciochi. born in Tuscany. born in Anjou. married Hortense de Beauharnais. 1750. _b_. _b_. 1780. 1777. 1846. and his son. a clergyman of the Free Church of Scotland. married. ST.ramakalai@gmail. married. such as existed between man and his Maker prior to the Fall. king of Holland (from 1806 to 1810). the Princess Mathilde. died at Rome. was chosen general of the Order and papal legate at the Council of Lyons in 1274. and a celebrated hymn writer. became king of Naples. married General Leclerc. retired to United States after Waterloo. daughter of Victor Emmanuel. CHARLES. MARIE-ANNE-ELIZA. who became prince of Lucca. v. died at Florence. returned to Europe. 1767. marshal of France in 1850.). 1844. LOUIS. died at Trieste. died at Leghorn. born at Ajaccio. Prince Camille Borghese. died at Florence. 1839. NAPOLEON I. LUCIEN. French general. his daughter. 1801. became president of the Council of the Five Hundred. Princess Catherine of Wuertemburg. by second marriage. _b_. 1806. Jerome. MARIE PAULINE. became Duchess of Guastalla. during the session of which he died. in 1803.

BONIFACE. fruits. ROSA. II. CTSTI. pope from 418 to 422. was about to massacre. relented over the blood already shed. brought up in poverty from ill-fortune. became one of the chiefs of the Vendean army. especially in miniature on ivory. a German fabulist and Dominican monk of the 14th century. her best-known works are the "Horse Fair" and the "Hay Harvest in Auvergne. through the Empress Eugenie she received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. _d_. yields maize. I.." "Ploughing with Oxen. 1793. pope from 530 to 532. HENRY. 1822. _b_. and when dying. a dependency of France. B. fell at the battle of Cholet. cotton. the name of nine popes. author of "Der Edelstein" (The Jewel). born at Truro (1755-1834).ramakalai@gmail. a book of fables. B. BONDU (30). BONHEUR. taught by her father. a celebrated enamel painter. a distinguished American astronomer (1789-1815). born at Bordeaux. a celebrated French animal painter. GEORGE PHILLIPS. JACQUES. exhibited when she was 19. BOND." considered her masterpiece. ordered the release of 5000 prisoners which his party. ULRICH. discovered a satellite of Neptune and an eighth satellite of Saturn (1826-1865). in their revenge. BONHOMME. during the siege of Paris her studio was spared by order of the Crown Prince. WILLIAM. Page 376 of 2772 . Chennai 6. BONE. Computer Lecturer.com in the American war. a name of contempt given by the nobility of France to the peasants in the 14th century. who with his son. assumed the title of First Bishop of Christendom. a country of Senegambia.. BONER.

the second time for six years in the Castle of Chillon. with a monument to his memory. whom he sought to convert (680-755). Chennai 6. BONIVARD. BONIN`. IX. the Apostle of Germany. his real name Winfried.. the birthplace of Beethoven. a French painter. pope from 608 to 614. III. was made Primate of Germany.. the first pope to wear the Triple Crown. imitated for Computer Lecturer. ST. born at Bayonne.. was.com B. B. pope in 896..ramakalai@gmail. who arrested him at Anagni. an old Roman station. pope for 10 months. his masterpieces (1801-1828). JOSEPH LEON. with a famous university.. pope from 974 to 985. painted the "Ducal Palace" and "Grand Canal" at Venice. he was released at the Reformation. a Duke of Savoy. B. of Japan. and adopted Protestantism (1496-1571). and since 1878 subject to it. and though liberated by the citizens died on his way to Rome.. B. it is a stronghold of the old Catholics. an eminent English landscape painter of exceptional precocity. VII. BONINGTON. CTSTI. pope from 617 to 625. twice imprisoned by Charles III. SE. BONNAT.. VI. V. from 607 to 608. of Cologne. with 53 companions. and a cause of much turmoil in Europe. a Prussian town on the Rhine. born near Nottingham. massacred by the barbarians of Friesland. BONN (38). B. Page 377 of 2772 . BONIFACE. VIII. a group of rocky islands SE.. RICHARD. B. consecrated Pepin le Bref. FRANCOIS DE. immortalised by Lord Byron in his "Prisoner of Chillon". pope from 1294 to 1303. for his sympathy with the struggles of the Genevese against his tyranny. a Genevese patriot and historian. provoked a war with Philip the Fair of France. B.. a strenuous assertor of the papal supremacy over all princes. born in Devonshire. IV. pope from 1389 to 1405.

a French botanist and traveller. CTSTI. Francia in Paraguay as a spy. kept prisoner there for about nine years. Graham of Claverhouse. of Scotland. _b_. was restored by Mary. thousands of species of them new to Europe. so called from the king being represented on it as wearing a bonnet instead of a crown. bishop of London. 1833. See ACHMED PASHA. affected to welcome Elizabeth to the throne. was again deposed and imprisoned for refusing to take the oath of supremacy under Elizabeth. a gold coin of James V. whom he served in her Anti-Protestant zeal. Swiss naturalist and philosopher. brought home a large collection of plants. BONNET.com a time the religious paintings of the old masters. American scientific explorations. went out again to America. BONNIE DUNDEE. consistent in his conduct. BONPLAND. was chaplain to Wolsey. BONNEVAL. he was faithful as a bishop. his studies as a naturalist gave a materialistic cast to his philosophy. "Christ at the Cross" in the Palais de Justice. born at Worcester. died in the Marshalsea Prison: he does not deserve all the odium that has been heaped on his memory. companion of Alexander von Humboldt in his S.. Computer Lecturer. BONNER. still less that of its sovereign Author. fell into disgrace under Edward VI. born at Geneva. against the Pope. he gave to material impressions a dominant influence in determining its manifestations (1720-1793). Paris. AIME. CHARLES DE. though he did not deny the existence of mind. born at Rochelle. COMTE DE. EDMUND. Viscount Dundee.ramakalai@gmail. BONNET-PIECE. arrested by Dr. and bore the indignities done him with manly fortitude (1495-1569). is his work. Chennai 6. sided with Henry VIII. but since 1862 has followed a style of his own. Page 378 of 2772 . CLAUDE-ALEXANDRE.

acted Shakespearean." an original work. DANIEL. psychology. a French personification of a state of leisure and freedom from care. a Swiss publicist and judge. a Buddhist priest in China. born at Lincoln. Computer Lecturer. inventor of the plough in the Greek mythology. BOOLE. BOONE. BARTON. long. CHARLES VICTOR DE. wrote several works bearing on plants (1773-1858). wrote on anthropology. a famous American backwoodsman. &c. and "Differential Equations" (1815-1864). settled in the prov. ROGER. &c. English actor. Burmah. a son of Ceres. the brightest star in which is Arcturus. mathematical professor at Cork. a deadly weapon.com released. (1745-1832). BOOMERANG. BONZE. BOOeTES (the ox-driver or waggoner). a missile of hard curved wood used by the Australian aborigines of 21/2 ft. BOOTH. where he died. characters and Hamlet's ghost (1681-1733).ramakalai@gmail. it takes a whirling course upwards till it stops. aged 84. Chennai 6. CTSTI. Page 379 of 2772 . Japan. _d_. born at Berne. though thrown forward. of Corrientes. so constructed that. BONTEMPS. when it returns with a swoop and falls in the rear of the thrower. BONSTETTEN. English mathematician. author of "Laws of Thought. translated along with his ox to become a constellation in the northern sky. 1822.

Gothic. who. assassinated Lincoln." q. his greatest work. America. son of an actor. of Landes. served in both army and navy. Lithuanian. BOOTHIA. SE. published "In Darkest England". BORDA. Zend.ramakalai@gmail. subject to the Dutch. BOOTON. the wife of Luther. W. born at Dax. v. and in which the N. Old Slave. a peninsula of British N. and was shot by his captors (1839-1865). and German". Greek. one of those employed in measuring an arc of the meridian to establish the metric system in France (1733-1799). born at Mayence. (1791-1867). magnetic pole of the earth is situated. an island in the Malay Archipelago. translated portions of the "MAHABHARATA. three sons and three daughters (1499-1552). born in Meissen. was at Luther's instance released from her convent. CTSTI. Latin. with eight others. in the dep.com BOOTH. a celebrated German philologist and Sanskrit scholar. proved "a pious and faithful wife" to Luther. WILLIAM. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. 1839. a man of singular self-devotion to the religious and social welfare of the race. discovered by Sir John Boss in 1830. BOOTH. BOPP. "A Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit. and became the mother to him of six children. JOHN WILKES. was professor of Oriental Literature and General Philology at Berlin. as he says of her. a French mathematician and physicist. BORA. born in Nottingham. KATHARINA. founder and general of the Salvation Army. _b_. originally a nun. Page 380 of 2772 . FRANZ. of the Gulf of Boothia. of Celebes.

The cod-fishing industry has its base here. and son of the Titan Astraeus and of Aurora. Chennai 6. medicine.. and chief seat of the wine trade in France and the third seaport on the Garonne. in England. of the dep. BORDER MINSTREL. There are sugar-refineries.. an Italian painter. and at the mouth of the Severn. BORDERS. and navigation. a great industrial and commercial city. There are schools of science. name of a family of high position and great wealth in Rome: Camillo. sister of Napoleon. his most celebrated picture. the Computer Lecturer. the god of the north wind. potteries. the Black Prince. glass and chemical works. museum. BORE. A cathedral dates from the 11th century. the shifting boundary between Scotland and England before the Union. and rich picture-gallery. art. in those of Brazil. his father. Page 381 of 2772 . theology. having become Pope in 1605 under the title of Paul V. the birthplace of Rosa Bonheur and Richard II.ramakalai@gmail. Bores are common in the estuary of the Ganges and other Asiatic rivers. a centre of endless fighting and marauding on the opposite sides for centuries. having had his seat here as governor of Aquitaine. BOREAS. born at Treviso. who separated himself from her on the fall of her brother (1775-1832). cap. a pupil of Titian and Giorgione. BORGHESE. due to a strong tidal wave travelling up a gradually narrowing channel. CTSTI. BORDONE. a watery ridge rushing violently up an estuary. "The Gondolier presenting the Ring of St. Sir Walter Scott. and Prince Borghese having married Pauline Bonaparte. a library. Mark to the Doge" (1500-1570). of Gironde. THE.com BORDEAUX (256). foundries.

in the Borghese gallery. an Italian savant skilled in numismatics (1781-1860). BORGIA. fourth son of Pope Alexander VI. was celebrated for her beauty and her patronage of letters. in which capacity it is alleged he gave himself up to deeds of inhumanity. was beatified by Urban VIII. who was murdered by her brother's assassins. LUCRETIA. and canonised by Clement IX. which have made his name a synonym for every action that is most crafty. and gave her to a nephew of the king of Naples. and cruel. and has a rich collection of paintings. though she has been accused of enormities as well as her brother (1480-1523). a post he filled with great zeal as well as prudent management. _d_. revolting. third general of the Order of the Jesuits. BORGIA. subject to the Royal Niger Company. Cornwall. is a masterpiece.ramakalai@gmail. fertile and densely-peopled state in Africa. Just.. CTSTI. her father annulled her first marriage. author of "Observations on the Antiquities of Cornwall" and Computer Lecturer. an honour he relinquished to become a soldier. BORGU.com palace of the family one of the finest in Rome. traversed by the Niger. born in St. when she married the Duke of Ferrara. FRANCESO. sister of Caesar Borgia. Chennai 6.. he is reputed to have been just as a ruler in his own domain. WILLIAM. BORGIA. COUNT. was made cardinal at the age of 17. a portrait of him by Raphael.. Notwithstanding the execration in which his memory is held. BORGHESI. 1671 (1510-1572). antiquary and naturalist. Page 382 of 2772 . 1507. and a patron of art and literature. BORLASE. in one of the chief towns of which Mungo Park lost his life. CAESAR. born at Rome.

the ruin of a magnificent Buddhist temple in Java. ebony. all tropical crops and spices are cultivated. its forests abound with valuable timber. the ruling race of Arab descent. and its breadth 700. Chennai 6. born at Frankfort. in the Baltic." BORNE.000 ft. disgusted with the state of things in Germany. population mostly negroes.000). BORNU (5.. the third largest in the globe. is placed by Dante in the "Inferno. a political writer. has no good harbour. famed for a breed of horses. climate hot and unhealthy in the low ground. Malay. rich in vegetation and in minerals. BERTRAND.800). an island in the Malay Archipelago. and fishing the occupation of the inhabitants. of Jewish parentage. cattle-breeding. agriculture. a Mohammedan State in the Central Soudan. its length 800 m. Computer Lecturer. the population is Dyak. Page 383 of 2772 . called Shuwas. in gold and precious stones.com "Natural History of Cornwall". one of the most celebrated troubadours of the 12th century.). and Chinese. but temperate in the high. Kinabalu the highest (13. covered with mountains in the interior. CTSTI. teak. Australia and New Guinea being larger. &c. aggravated the quarrel between Henry II. BORNHOLM (35). was vicar in his native parish (1696-1772). of England and his sons. has no volcanoes. possessed in great part by the Dutch. bordered all round with wide plains and low marshy ground. and turned Radical. born in Perigord.. an island belonging to Denmark. W. and in the north part by the British. BORO BUDOR. LUDWIG. and S. he and Heine were at deadly feud (1787-1837). BORN. was disappointed with the result. went to Paris after the Revolution there of 1830. of Lake Tehad.ramakalai@gmail. BORNEO (1.

BORROME`O. BOROUGH. of Moscow. a village 70 m. chariot races. though only three feet in height. but it is further an area of local government. four islands in Lago Maggiore. enriched with fine paintings and other works of art. Page 384 of 2772 . W. the scene of a bloody battle between Napoleon and the Russians. Sept. Chennai 6. Its charter may be held from the Crown or granted by Parliament. BOROWLASKI. and contributed to the Tridentine Catechism. &c. a prominent member of the Council of Trent. descent of lands to a youngest son. supervision. 1812. ST. on one of which stands a palace of the Borromeos. and deriving its income from rates levied on property within its bounds. exercising police. attained the age of 98. BORORO.ramakalai@gmail. and sometimes educational. of which three were converted into gardens by Count Borromeo in 1671. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. a Polish dwarf. is in its modern sense primarily a town that sends a representative to Parliament. sanitary. BOROUGH ENGLISH. and in Scotland sometimes from "common good" and petty customs. 7. processions. a large Brazilian nation between Cuyaba and Goyaz. BORODINO. with representations of battles. of perfect symmetry. cardinal and archbishop of Milan. BORROME`AN ISLANDS. in Scotland BURGH.com ornamented with figures of Buddha and scenes in his life. conspicuous by his self-sacrificing offices during a plague in the city of which he was the archbishop (1538-1584). COUNT. CARLO.

a ruined peel tower." which he was). BOSCOVICH. EDWARD. where. SE. a British admiral. he wrecked and ruined a fine French fleet. entitled "The Bible In Spain". celebrated for its beautiful scenery. BORY DE SAINT-VINCENT. associated much with the gipsies. eager to elude his grasp (1711-1761). and afterwards at Milan. in his fondness for open-air life. was appointed agent for the Bible Society in Russia and Spain. showed early a passion for adventure and a facility in languages. Page 385 of 2772 . Chennai 6. wrote an account of those in Spain. nephew and successor of the preceding. was professor in Pavia. traveller and philologist. and the Bay of Lagos. where Queen Mary and Bothwell spent four days together in June 1567. born in Norfolk. BOSCAWEN. a French traveller and naturalist (1780-1846). 13 m. BORROWDALE. BORROW. which is chiefly autobiography (1803-1831). with which Computer Lecturer. and similar character (1584-1631).com BORROMEO. JEAN BAPTISTE. CTSTI. discovered the equator of the sun and the period of its rotation. Cape Finisterre. of Edinburgh. after a "sea hunt" of 24 hours. wrote "Lavengro. a valley in the Lake District. GEORGE HENRY." his masterpiece (a gipsy designation applied to him. ROGER JOSEPH. born at Ragusa. FREDERIGO.ramakalai@gmail. entered the Order of the Jesuits. advocated the molecular theory of physics. meaning "word-master. Cumberland. Cathagena. known from his fearlessness as "Old Dreadnought". of equal status in the Church. distinguished himself in engagements at Puerto Bello. W. BORTHWICK CASTLE. an Italian mathematician and astronomer. and a famous book.

long and from 3 to 1/2 m. took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican clergy. Zeus. and the first attempt at a philosophy of history. and one of the ablest defenders of the doctrines of the Catholic Church. extending from the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea. BOSNA-SERAI (38). BOS`SUET. was wounded at the storming of the Malakoff (1810-1861). strongly defended by forts. proved himself more a time-server than a bold. and about 30 fathoms deep.200). BOS`PHORUS (Ox-ford). the inhabitants of Servian nationality. died insane (1701-1787). one of the greatest of French pulpit orators. or rather of the Crown. capital of Bosnia. according to the Greek myth. and seat of authority. a province in NW. under Austria-Hungary. of the Balkan Peninsula. surnamed the "Eagle of Meaux. his "Discourse on Universal History" is on approved lines.com his name is associated. distinguished in Algiers and the Crimea. patronised in France (1769-1845). PIERRE FRANCOIS JOSEPH. CTSTI. BARON. JACQUES BENIGNE. bishop of Meaux. Chennai 6. a marshal of France. Page 386 of 2772 . subject to Turkey. broad." of the see of which he became bishop. outspoken champion of the truth. BOSNIA (1. in the form of an ox. and to Fenelon for his defence of her and her Quietists. as against the claims of the Pope. born at Dijon. It derives its name from the channel which. conceived a violent dislike to Madame Guyon. BOSIO. a celebrated Italian sculptor. Computer Lecturer. crossed into Europe with Europa on his back. a channel 17 m.ramakalai@gmail. and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. wrote largely. the great aim of his life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith. BOS`QUET.

CHARLES... he scarcely ever oversteps it. cattle. and wool. boot and shoe making is one of many varied industries. his chief work "L'Histoire Generale des Mathematiques". now included in it. Sugar.. cotton. The most unfortunate incident of his life was his controversy with Fenelon" (1627-1704). also canvas and sail-cloth works. or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous. wool. With an excellent harbour and eight converging railways it is an emporium of trade. Computer Lecturer. in the contagious enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point. of Lincoln. It has a spacious church. was a native. French mathematician. _confrere_ of the Encyclopaedists. There is a large cattle and sheep market. machinery. exports coal. and in his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons. edited Pascal's works (1730-1814). Chennai 6. and chemicals are imported. The many educational institutions and its interest in literature and art have won for it the title of American Athens. His excellence lies in his wonderful survey and grasp of the subject. "Bossuet. on Massachusetts Bay. Page 387 of 2772 .. Though he is always aiming at the sublime. hides. one of the best-built and best-appointed cities of the Union. corn. and imports timber and general goods." says Professor Saintsbury. The Boston riots of 1770 and 1773 were the heralds of the revolution.. CTSTI. while his "Politique founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right of kings. BOSSUT.com his Funeral Orations are monuments of the most sublime eloquence. and Emerson. while most American men of letters have been associated with it. BOSTON (19). SE.. Poe. which is a conspicuous landmark and beacon at sea. not far off. and tobacco exported. 30 m. Among famous natives were Franklin. farm produce. a Lincolnshire seaport. born near Lyons. Fox. on the Witham.ramakalai@gmail. is the capital of Massachusetts and the chief city of New England. and the first battle was fought at Bunker Hill. "was more of a speaker than a writer. the martyrologist. BOSTON (561). and very wealthy.

He was a shrewd man and a quaint writer. Chennai 6. to his father's estate." BOSWELL. for which the latter was tried. born at Duns. a town in Leicestershire. author of the "Fourfold State. made a tour with him to the Hebrides in 1773. and fourth as in glory. and "The Crook in the Lot. the former an account of the state of man. first in innocence. BOSWELL. a Scottish divine. became minister of Ettrick. SIR ALEXANDER. and was called to the English bar. third as redeemed. and conceived for him the most devoted regard." a popular exposition of Calvinism. exercised a great influence on the religious views of the most pious-minded of his countrymen (1676-1732). "making it black with unexpected tea. settled in London.com BOSTON. JAMES. three English ships laden with tea. and hurled several hundred chests of it into Boston harbour.ramakalai@gmail. son and heir of the preceding. fell in with Johnson on a visit to London in 1763. the insurgent American colonists who. a work unique in biography. 16. Johnson dying in 1784. He succumbed in the end to intemperate habits. in Ayrshire. CTSTI. disguised as Indians. Boswell's "Life" of him appeared five years after. the "Journal" of which he afterwards published. showed early a penchant for writing and an admiration for literary men. mortally wounded in a duel with James Stuart of Dunearn. lost both crown and life in 1485. with an income of L1600 a year. an antiquary. boarded. and such as no man could have written who was not a hero-worshipper to the backbone. but acquitted (1775-1822). second as fallen. the biographer of Johnson." both at one time much read and studied by the pious Presbyterian burghers and peasantry of Scotland. BOSTON TEA-PARTY. Auchinleck. 1773. THOMAS. BOSWORTH. succeeded. aggravated by the death of his wife (1740-1795). in 1782. Page 388 of 2772 . on Dec. educated at Edinburgh. who had impugned his character. an event which terminated the Wars of the Roses and led to the accession of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of Computer Lecturer. near which Richard III. born at Edinburgh.

carried off Mary to Dunbar Castle. JOSEPH. became professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford. Earl of. as is believed (1525-1577). an Anglo-Saxon scholar. was acquitted. BOTH. divided into E. Page 389 of 2772 . 8 m. was once an English convict settlement. Computer Lecturer. BOTHWELL. BOTHWELL. JOHN AND ANDREW. had to flee to France for an act of conspiracy. from the variety and beauty of its flora. though when tried. BOTANY BAY. of Sweden. was believed to have murdered Darnley.ramakalai@gmail. born in Derbyshire.com England in the person of Henry VII. one of the envoys sent in 1560 to convey Mary. pardoned. the former a landscape and the latter a figure painter. 5 m. BOTHNIA. BOSWORTH. on the Clyde. an inlet in New South Wales. Flemish painters of the 17th century. parted with her at Carberry Hill. a village in Lanarkshire. was a great favourite with the queen. and was kept captive there at Malmoee. and W. from France home. a prov. SE. was recalled by Mary on her marriage with Darnley. CTSTI. JAMES HEPBURN. and married to her at Holyrood. was made Privy Councillor the year after. scene of a battle between Monmouth and the Covenanters in 1679. of Glasgow. worked frequently on the same canvas. fled to Norway. insane. S. discovered by Captain Cook in 1770. Queen of Scots. by a gulf of the name. of Sydney. was made Duke of Orkney. after ten years of misery he died. Chennai 6. so called. was the author of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Dictionary (1789-1876). by Sir Joseph Banks.

. or ALESSANDRO. began as a goldsmith's apprentice. discovered the ruins of Nineveh. and it is a rose on the petticoat of one of his figures. Assyriologist. BO-TREE. BOeTTGER. BOTTICELLI. "the thoughts of heathens and Christians equally. remarking that "no one has ever yet drawn. and are said to have no numerals beyond _one_. particularly in the drawing of flowers. PAUL EMILE. which Ruskin has reproduced on the title-page of his recent books.. and at a very low stage of civilisation. invented the celebrated Meissen porcelain (1682-1719). the best-known examples of his art are on religious subjects. though he was no less fascinated with classical--mythological conceptions. roses as he has done. a celebrated painter of the Florentine school. a wandering wild tribe in the forests of Brazil. an alchemist who. are demon-worshippers. BOTTA. near the coast. and could in a measure paint both Aphrodite and the Madonna" (1447-1515). he understood. Computer Lecturer.. See BUDDHA. a very low type of men.com BOTOCUDOS. SANDRO. was the author of some poems (1766-1837). or is likely to draw. in his experiments on porcelain. is distinguished for his attention to details and for delicacy. the figure of Spring. published in the "Memoire de l'Ecriture Cuneiform Assyrienne" and "Monuments de Ninive" (1802-1870). CTSTI. made further explorations. born in Piedmont. when consul at Mosul. his most important work is his "History of Italy from 1789 to 1814". Page 390 of 2772 . a pupil of Fra Lippo Lippi. in 1843. born at Turin. sacred to the Buddhists as the tree under which Buddha sat when the light of life first dawned on him." he adds. Chennai 6. CARLO GIUSEPPE. a species of Ficus.ramakalai@gmail. an Italian political historian. son of the preceding. BOTTA.

com BOeTTIGER. one of the bravest and noblest of French soldiers. a weaver in the interlude in "Midsummer-Night's Dream. BOUCHER DE PERTHES. courtier and author (1737-1815). born at Paris (1703-1770). a French painter. BOUFFLERS. Chennai 6. marshal of France. BOTTOM. distinguished in several famous battles. as "The Colleen Bawn" and "The Shaughraun" (1822-1890)." whom. Titania falls in love with under the influence of a love-potion. one of the heroes of the war of Greek independence (1789-1823). BOUFFLERS. a celebrated French sculptor (1698-1762). died in England (1364-1421). a dramatic writer. and his masterly retreat Computer Lecturer. especially classical (1760-1835). CTSTI. German archaeologist. BOUCHER. distinguished for his defence of Namur (1695) and of Lille (1708). BOUCICAULT. Page 391 of 2772 . CHEVALIER DE. author of popular Irish pieces. BOUCHARDON. born in Ardennes (1783-1868). French naturalist and anthropologist. born at Tours. MARSHAL DE. BOUCICAUT.ramakalai@gmail. with his ass's head. BOTZARIS. MARQUIS DE. DION. was taken captive by the English at Agincourt. field-marshal of France. was a voluminous writer on antiquities. KARL AUGUSTE.

originally a German duchy. with valour. wrote on optics and the figure of the earth (1698-1758). died in London. as well as portraits. See for the part he played in it. belonged Computer Lecturer. SAM. and settled in Edinburgh for 20 years (1822-1878). Chennai 6. with suppressed-explosive resolution. choleric. failed. Page 392 of 2772 . BOUGUER.. French litterateur. "last refuge of royalty in all straits". landscape painter. his "Travels" had a remarkably stimulating effect on the imaginations of the "philosophies. district in Belgium. LE PERE. did his utmost for royalty." BOUILLON. a distinguished French painter.ramakalai@gmail. an intrepid. born at Rochelle in 1825. born in Brittany. ADOLPHE. born at Carlisle. stubbornly-endeavouring man. born at Paris (1628-1702)." as described by him in "Un Voyage autour du Monde" (1729-1811). MARQUIS DE. a French navigator. BOUGH. PIERRE. French physicist. distinguished in the Seven Years' War.com from Malplaquet (1645-1711). a "quick. BOUILLE. BOUHOUR. sharp-discerning. favoured the flight of Louis XVI. a French general. adamantine man". muzzled and fettered by diplomatic pack-threads. in the West Indies and during the Revolution. CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. BOUGUEREAU. BOUGAINVILLE. LOUIS ANTOINE DE. born in Auvergne. nay. voyaged round the world. his subjects both classical and religious. born in Paris. which occupied him two years and a half. CTSTI.. headlong audacity.. and quitted France.. and left "Memoirs of the French Revolution" (1759-1800).

a promenade between Paris and St. BOULAY DE LA MEURTHE. of note for the political intrigues with which he was mixed up during the last years of his life. Henri. though the boulevard is not always on the line of a rampart. the crusader. a son. BOULAK (20). a French statesman. accused of peculation. distinguished as an orator. BOULAINVILLIERS.com to Godfrey. from his sentimentality "poete lacrymal" (1763-1842). author of a "History of Mahomet" (1658-1722). the port of Cairo. BOULEVARD. a large mass or block of rock found in localities often far removed from the place of its formation. and transported thither on the ice of the Glacial Age. a French dramatist. Chennai 6. Page 393 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. a French historian. BOULOGNE. Cloud. JEAN NICOLAS. a French general. took part in the redaction of the Civil Code. BOULDER. much Computer Lecturer. vice-president of the Republic from 1849 to 1851 (1797-1858). who pledged it to raise funds for the crusade. nicknamed. BOULAN`GER. on the Nile. born at Rennes. the rampart of a fortified city converted into a promenade flanked by rows of trees and a feature of Paris in particular. and the dangerous popular enthusiasm which he excited. CTSTI. JEAN MARIE. fled the country. born near Tours. BOUILLY. BOIS DE. and committed suicide at Brussels (1837-1891). was a faithful adherent of Napoleon (1761-1840).

to the seizure at length of certain of the offenders and the execution of others." MUTINY OF THE. _b_. on a barren heath near his native place. "BOUNTY. of Calais. reported the crime. and a favourite place of recreation. born at Birmingham. CHARLES DENIS SOTER. one of the principal ports for debarkation from England. a mutiny which took place on the ship _Bounty_.com frequented by people of fashion. on the part of 25 of the crew. the chief station of the North Sea fisheries. a town on the right bank of the Seine. served in the Crimean War and in Italy. contributed to the improvement of the coinage (1728-1809). of Paris. MATTHEW. on the English Channel. a fortified seaport in France. suffered disastrously in the Franco-German War. in the dep. is connected by steamer with Folkestone. and a favourite watering-place. Page 394 of 2772 . on the 28th April 1789. where Napoleon collected in 1803 a flotilla to invade England. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER (46). Bligh reached England after a time. SW. SW. CTSTI. and established with him a manufactory of steam-engines at Soho. a French general. 1816. BOULTON. is the centre of an important coasting trade. it rivals that of the Champs Elysees. 27 m. Those who escaped founded a colony on Pitcairn Island. afterwards retired. BOULOGNE-SUR-SEINE (32). 5 m. BOURBAKI. Chennai 6. served for a time under Gambetta. from which it is separated by the Bois-de-Boulogne. entered into partnership with James Watt. and attempted suicide. born at Pau. and likely to become a naval station. bound from Otaheite to the West Indies. an eminent engineer. who returned to Otaheite after setting the captain (Bligh) adrift with others in an open boat. of Pas-de-Calais.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer.

a French Jesuit. parted from Charles. united to the crown in 1531. his Computer Lecturer. grandson of Louis XIV.. carefully reasoned. it is said. and free from ornament. eldest son of Louis XIII. hailing from Bourbonnais. with Philip of Orleans. members of which occupied for generations the thrones of France. and lived in royal state. one of the most earnest and powerful of his sermons. and the latter ending with Louis Philippe and his line. Chennai 6. perhaps imaginary. styled the Constable de Bourbon. one of the most eloquent pulpit orators of France. Naples. but fearless and uncompromising (1632-1704).. his contemporary. and fell in the assault. being the duchy of Bourbon. one beginning with Louis XIV. was for his daring in the field named Constable of France by Francis I.. CTSTI.. and his family. both of which trace back to Henry IV. second son of Louis XIII.. a family of French origin. born at Montpellier. called the "king of preachers.. he clandestinely entered the service of the Emperor Charles V. born at Bourges. the former ending with Charles X. laid siege to Rome. by Benvenuto Cellini (1489-1527). injustice Francis did him. the one entitled "The Passion. and who severally ruled their territories under a more or less overweening sense of their rights as born to reign. BOURBON. Page 395 of 2772 . called the Orleans. the latter ending with Francis II..ramakalai@gmail. CHARLES DE. BOURDALOUE. LOUIS. offended at some. in 1860. BOURDON. did not suffer by comparison with Bossuet. a French painter. acquired immense wealth by the death of an elder brother and by his marriage. the former branch still (1899) in power. mortally wounded. BOURBONNAIS." is deemed the greatest. and took Francis captive. SEBASTIAN. and preacher of kings".. The branches of the family ruling in Spain and Naples began with Philip VI. though junior. and the other. His sermons are ethical in their matter from a Christian standpoint.com BOURBON. Moulins. and Spain. defeated the French at Pavia. ancient province in the centre of France. held sway in France. Two branches. cap.

of Cher.com _chef-d'oeuvre_ "The Crucifixion of St. birthplace of Louis XI. professional people. and founder of veterinary colleges at Lyons in 1762. brought herself into trouble by the wild fancies she promulgated. BOURGEOISIE. a famous French veterinary surgeon. as distinguished from the nobles and the peasants.ramakalai@gmail. 1852. ANTOINETTE. and L10." executed for the church of Notre Dame (1616-1671). to the derangement of others as well as herself (1615-1680). with a clear and elegant style. and merchants. member of the Convention. PAUL. a French revolutionist. _b_. a subtle analyst of character. BOURGEOIS. BOURGELAT. SIR FRANCIS. and often consulted on the matter (1712-1779). painter to George III. and Bourdaloue. Computer Lecturer. a Flemish visionary and fanatic. a French town in the dep. CTSTI. his novels are what he calls "psychological. Page 396 of 2772 . on which he bestows great pains. BOURDON DE L'OISE. an eminent French novelist and essayist. where he died in 1791. banished to Guiana. born at Lyons.000 to build a gallery for them (1756-1811). left his collection to Dulwich College. the name given in France to the middle class. BOURGET. resolved religion into emotion." and distinct from the romantist and naturalistic. BOURIGNON. was an authority on horse management.. but applied by the Socialists to the capitalists as distinct from the workers. BOURGES (43). Chennai 6. Peter. born at Amiens.

where Mungo Park lost his life as he was going up the Niger. wrote "Memoirs" disparaging to Napoleon (1769-1834). and then from left to right. a French marshal. a town in Central Africa.ramakalai@gmail. held the post for five years. and has been of rapid. LOUIS ANTOINE FAUVELET. Chennai 6. Page 397 of 2772 . of Southampton. is of recent. and a zealous propagator of their principles. HUGH. the Revolution of 1830 and the loss of his fortune affected his mind. BOURNEMOUTH (38)..com BOURMONT. BOUSTROPHE`DON. LOUIS AUGUSTE VICTOR. and he died a lunatic at Caen. served the royal cause in La Vendee. a great health resort. capital of a State of the same name. SW. Computer Lecturer. and a school friend. commanded under Ney on Napoleon's return from Elba. and was dismissed the service (1773-1846). which he did extensively both in Britain and America (1772-1852). as in ploughing a field. a town in Hants. joined the Bourbons at the Restoration. he was a carpenter by trade. BOURNE. commanded the expedition against Algiers. deserted on the eve of Waterloo to Louis XVIII. with a fine sandy beach. BOURRIENNE. BOUSSA. and he appears to have wrought at his trade while prosecuting his mission. COMTE DE. 37 m. growth. secretary of Napoleon. founder of the Primitive Methodists. refused allegiance to Louis Philippe on his accession. CTSTI. at the Revolution joined the Bourbons on the frontiers. held high commands under Napoleon. on Poole Bay. an ancient mode of writing from right to left. but dismissed for being implicated in disgraceful money transactions. born at Sens. gave evidence against Ney to his execution.

Chennai 6. and by his captures of the enemy's ships. born at Bristol. born in Boston. THOMAS. wrote "History of Poetry and Eloquence among the Modern Races" (1766-1828). BOWEN. of French extraction. Massachusetts. American mathematician. sent on a mission to Guinea. CTSTI. killed by grape-shot at the storming of Santa Cruz. Scottish chronicler. JAMES. BOWDOIN. FRIEDRICH. WALTER. published "Practical Navigation. continued Fordun's History down to the death of James I. a practical scientist. accompanied with an elaborate commentary (1773-1838). BOWDLER. born at Salem. a gallant British naval commander. a German philosopher and professor of Philosophy at Goettingen. an English traveller. an American statesman. wrote an interesting account of it in his "Mission to Ashanti" (1791-1824)." translated the "Mecanique Celeste" of Laplace. edited expurgated editions of Shakespeare and Gibbon in the interest of moral purity. Bowdlerism (1754-1825). and expounder of their doctrines. an English physician. BOWER. author of "Discourse on the Constitution of the United States" (1727-1790). a disciple of Kant. THOMAS EDWARD. at the moment when Nelson was wounded (1761-1797). and penetrated as far as Coomassie. abbot of Inchcolm.com BOUTERWEK. BOWDITCH. in 1437 from 1153 (1385-1449).ramakalai@gmail. RICHARD. a zealous advocate of American independence. added in consequence a new term to the English language. Computer Lecturer. NATHANIEL. BOWDICH. distinguished himself in several engagements. then of Jacobi. Page 398 of 2772 .

a poet." were much admired by Coleridge. and their appearance is believed to have inaugurated a new era in English poetry. BOWLING. WILLIAM LISLE. wrote on the origin of printing. Page 399 of 2772 . became governor of Hong-Kong. linguist and political writer. remarkable for a successful run such as is said to have brought the author L7000.com BOWLES. born at Exeter. "BOX AND COX. Nicholas' Day. first editor of _Westminster Review_. "of nature's aspect to human feeling. to act as bishop and do all his episcopal duties. whose undue influence in the State was broken by Peter the Great. the old nobility of Russia. For the term of his office." a farce by J. except celebrate mass. Morton. a typical British sailor in "Roderick Random. at the instance of the English Government visited the Continental States to report on their commercial relations. The term of office was limited in 1279 to 24 hours. M. WILLIAM. born in London. friend and disciple of Bentham as well as editor of his works. which varied. and published an edition of the Greek New Testament with notes (1699-1777). printer and scholar. BOYARS. and if he died during his tenure of it was buried with episcopal honours. TOM. born in Northamptonshire. ordered the bombardment of Canton." BOWLING. a boy chosen on 6th December. also the landed aristocracy of Roumania. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. by their "linking. he was treated as bishop. BOY BISHOP. generally out of the choir. Chennai 6. CTSTI. St." as Professor Saintsbury has it. which caused dissatisfaction at home (1792-1872). his sonnets. SIR JOHN. BOWYER. as developed in the Lake School (1762-1850).

which continued for long text-books on those Computer Lecturer. BOYER. chiefly of church music. CAPTAIN. JOHN. K. composer. with whom the population of the district in 1880 refused to have any dealings on account of disagreements with the tenantry. an Irish landlord's agent in Connemara." which was widely read. and rector of the University. author of the "Last Battell of the Soule in Death" and "Zion's Flowers." being mainly metrical versions of Scripture. composed "Hearts of Oak. bred for the bar. an English engraver and print-seller. became minister of Barony Parish. preached before Cromwell after the battle of Dunbar. H. ZACHARY. called "Boyd's Bible" (1585-1653). regent of a Protestant college at Samur. known to fame as A." with 96 plates in illustration of Shakespeare. BOYD. and the encouragement he gave to native artists. wrote works on anatomy and surgical diseases. but entered the Church. BOYD. returned to Scotland in consequence of the persecution of the Huguenots.com BOYCE." with 196 plates in illustration (1719-1804). BOYDELL." a naval song sung by ships' crews at one time before going into action (1710-1779). CTSTI. a Scottish divine. French anatomist and surgeon. famous for his "Shakespeare Gallery. he issued also Hume's "History of England. Chennai 6.. WILLIAM. died at Bournemouth by mischance of swallowing a lotion instead of a sleeping-draught (1825-1899).ramakalai@gmail. author of "Recreations of a Country Parson. B. born in London. attendant on Napoleon. BOYCOTT. afterwards professor in the University of Paris. ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON. BARON. published a collection of the "Cathedral Music of the Old English Masters". Glasgow. and of Reminiscences of his life. in France. Page 400 of 2772 . a Scottish clergyman and writer.

founded by his will an endowment for the "Boyle Lectures" in defence of Christianity against its opponents and rivals. RICHARD. as well as pneumatics. the lecturer must deliver eight lectures in defence of Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. when Cromwell saw how his estates were managed he remarked. distinguished among Irish patriots and landlords for what he did to improve his estates and develop manufactures and the mechanical arts in Ireland.com subjects. distinguished for the connection of his name with the Bentley controversy. being a student of theology. CHARLES. the endowment being L50 per annum. JEAN PIERRE. first and great Earl of Cork. secured the independence of the country. devoted his life and contributed greatly to science. Chennai 6. and for its connection with an astronomical contrivance by one Graham to illustrate the planetary system (1676-1731). was driven from power by a revolution in 1843. fourth Earl of Orrery. was one of the originators of the "Royal Society". BOYLE. Page 401 of 2772 . the lectureship founded by the Hon. refused the presidentship of the Royal Society. president of Hayti. born at Lismore. but suspected of consulting his own advantage more than that of the country. of the Orrery family. Robert Boyle in 1691. and declined a peerage (1626-1691). especially chemistry. born at Port-au-Prince of a negress and a Creole father. retired to Paris. where he spent the rest of his life and died (1776-1850). was a man of very conservative opinions (1757-1833). THE HON. BOYER. ROBERT. that had there been one like him in every province in Ireland rebellion would have been impossible (1566-1643). BOYLE LECTURES. BOYLE.ramakalai@gmail. BOYLE. a distinguished natural philosopher. and held for a tenure of three years. also for the honours conferred upon him for his patriotism. held the presidency for 25 years from 1818.

BRADDOCK. Brabant. British general. BRACTON. defeated the forces of James II." and the first attempt of the kind. sister to Rinaldo. Chennai 6. and S. also Belgian. a Belgian prov.. and became major-general in 1754. author of "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae. cap. had a lance which unhorsed every one it touched. and one of the heroines in "Orlando Furioso"." a writer on English law of the 13th century. which flows through Meath into the Irish Sea. inhabitants Dutch. gives name to the battle in which William III.. HENRY DE. inhabitants Walloons. Antwerp. born in Perthshire. Brussels. Page 402 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. an English "justice itinerant. cap. of the Low Countries. in mediaeval times was an important prov. fell in an attempt to invest Fort Computer Lecturer. inhabitants Flemings.com Christianity. being his nickname when a boy for a little brother. BOZ. and some of the most eminent men have held the post. the N. a river in Ireland. It comprises three provs. entered the Coldstream Guards." a "Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England. the whole mostly a plain. Antwerp. commanded a body of troops against the French in America. BOZZY. that the volume of a gas is inversely as the pressure. is now divided between Holland and Belgium. _d_. EDWARD. BRABANT. BOYLE'S LAW. or Dutch Brabant. cap. BOYNE. 1268. Johnson's familiar name for Boswell. Breda. on 30th July 1690. a _nom de plume_ under which Dickens wrote at first. BRADAMANTE.

9 m. _b_. professor of Astronomy at Oxford. born in London. astronomer. a social reformer on secularist lines. W. discovered the aberration of light and the nutation of the earth's axis.ramakalai@gmail. BRADSHAW. published maps illustrative of certain canal systems. of Leeds. 1837. a popular novelist. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. bred for the bar." and some 50 other novels. Also the name of a manufacturing town on the Avon. which developed into the well-known "Railway Guide" (1830-1863). a friend of Milton. on a tributary of the Aire. GEORGE. and lost nearly all his men (1695-1755).000 astronomical observations (1693-1762). wrote the "Impeachment of the House of Brunswick" (1833-1891). MISS (Mrs. and opposed to the Protectorate. authoress of "Lady Audley's Secret. an engraver of maps in Manchester. coal and iron mines are at hand. but not allowed to sit till he took the oath. Annie Besant. in Wilts. president of the High Court of Justice for trial of Charles I. CHARLES. contributed largely to magazines. which he did in 1886. and did the same service for railways. for Northampton thrice over. Chennai 6." "Aurora Floyd. had a chequered career. Page 403 of 2772 . John Maxwell).P. born in Gloucestershire. JOHN. died respected by all parties in the House of Commons. CTSTI. became president of Computer Lecturer. born at Stockport. and has an important wool market. BRADFORD (216).. elected M. BRADSHAW. BRADLAUGH. a thorough republican. had for associate in the advocacy of his views Mrs. and iron-works and machinery-making are its other industries. JAMES. born in London. BRADDON. and astronomer-royal at Greenwich. it is the chief seat of worsted spinning and weaving in England.com Duquesue. BRADLEY. made 60.

BRAGI.ramakalai@gmail. represented as an old man with a long flowing beard and unwrinkled brow. son of Odin and Frigga. gives name to the ruling dynasty of Portugal. his body was exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration (1586-1659). the name of a baron and his daughter. surnamed "Doctor Profundus" from his treatise "De Causa Dei" against Pelagianism. Chennai 6. much frequented by tourists. the eighth duke of Braganza having ascended the throne in 1640. was present at Crecy and at the taking of Calais. a city.com the Council on Cromwell's death. NE.." BRAEMAR`. was buried in Westminster. on the liberation of Portugal from the yoke of Spain. Portugal. the Norse god of poetry and eloquence. a Scottish Highland district SW. BRADWARDINE. the residence of the Primate. BRAGANZA. called the House of Braganza. capital of Traz-os-Montes. THOMAS. in Portugal. the heroine of "Waverley. 34 m. of Aberdeenshire. with a mild expression of face. archbishop of Canterbury. a pretender who ingratiates himself with people above him. and resorted to for summer country quarters. Page 404 of 2772 . BRAG. JACK. CTSTI. BRAGA (23). the capital of Minho. received in Valhalla the heroes who fell in battle. chaplain to Edward III. BRADWARDIN. died of the black death shortly after his consecration (1290-1348). Computer Lecturer. of Oporto.

and abounding in legends and speculations. JOHN. composed operas. born in London. Chennai 6. or immediate relationship with. TYCHO. e. BRAHMANAS. a celebrated tenor singer.com BRAHAM. killing that he may make alive. Page 405 of 2772 . however. were only dramas interspersed with songs. where he continued his work and had Kepler for assistant and pupil (1546-1601). and known all over Europe. in the Hindu religion and philosophy at one time the formless spirit of the Universe. the most so in Europe of his day. or BRAHMIN. treatises on the ceremonial system of Brahminism. circles round the E. BRAHMAPUTRA (i. one of the sacred caste of the Hindus that boasts of direct descent from. on the king's death. and. BRAHMA. accepted an invitation of the Kaiser Rudolf II. to Prague. he was. See TRIMURTI. the custodians and mediators of religion. compelled to retire under persecution at the hand of the nobles. a Swedish astronomer. a river which rises in Tibet. of noble birth. was particularly effective in rendering the national songs. Scott described him as "a beast of an actor. from which all beings issue and into which they all merge. and therefore of high-priestly rank.ramakalai@gmail. BRAHMAN. v. and at another the creator of all things. had an observatory provided for him on an island in the Sound by the king. spent his life in the study of the stars. but a subject of meditation. where he made observations for 20 years. v. Brahma. discovered a new star in Cassiopeia. of which VISHNU (q. with prescriptions bearing upon ritual. which. and as such is not an object of worship. after a course of some 1800 Computer Lecturer. but an angel of a singer" (1774-1856). of Jewish parents. CTSTI. BRAHE. son of Brahma).) is the preserver AND SIVA (q. of the Himalayas.) the destroyer.

as well as a profession of a sense of the brotherhood of man no less than the unity of God. CTSTI. founded on theistic. or that social. church of God). e. like an inland sea. BRAHMS. unitarian. particularly Assam. brings down twice as much mud as the Ganges. and Siva. Page 406 of 2772 . settled in Vienna. JOHANNES. political. and the rational ideas and philosophy of Europe. BRAHMINISM. it has numerous tributaries. born in Edinburgh. Vaisyas. a secession from traditional Hinduism. from whom issued the four castes of India--Brahmans. Brahma. e. the Dihong in Assam. originated in 1830 by Rammohun Roy. BRAHMO-SOMAJ (i. Vishnu. the appearance of compositions of his an event in the musical world. principles. or rather monotheistic. Kshatriyas. See CASTE. Chennai 6. which triple incarnation constitutes a trimurti or trinity.. a distinguished composer. joins the Ganges. JAMES. and developed by Chunder Sen.ramakalai@gmail. According to the religious conception of this class. distinguished as a performer as well as a composer. takes form or incarnates himself successively as Brahma. has no living rival. and Sudras--all the rest being outcasts or pariahs. Computer Lecturer. born at Hamburg. i. or the universal spirit. the creed and ritual of the Brahmans. had four sons. _b_. and in the lower part of its course overflows the land. the first incarnation of the universal spirit.com m. BRAIDWOOD. of great promise from a boy. 1833. approaches Beethoven as no other does. and religious organisation which developed among the Aryans in the valley of the Ganges under the influence of the Brahmans. distinguished for his heroism on the occasion of great fires both in Edinburgh and London (1790-1861). called the Sampo in Tibet. In this way Brahma. director of the London fire brigade. and the Brahmaputra in British India.

Chennai 6. was foolhardy enough once to engage. 1818. president of the British Association in 1888. MATTHEW. Computer Lecturer. BRAINERD. named after him (1748-1814). American missionary to the Red Indians.ramakalai@gmail. and previously of Association of Engineers. yet generous and kind. BRAMWELL. in whose house he died (1718-1747). civil engineer. DONATO. BRAMBLE. an engineer. Page 407 of 2772 . laid the foundation of St. born in Connecticut. CTSTI. nowise to his credit. BRAMHALL. JOHN. which he did not live to complete (1444-1514). invented printing in relief for the blind (1809-1852). Peter's at Rome. archbishop of Armagh. a blind Frenchman. among others the hydraulic press. name given to Fingal's dog. _b_.com BRAILLE. who has a sister. Yorkshire. an ungainly maiden at forty-five. a high-handed Churchman and imitator of Laud. 18 of which were patented. his Life was written by Jonathan Edwards. MISS TABITHA. in public debate with such a dialectician as Thomas Hobbes on the questions of necessity and free-will (1594-1663). author of many mechanical inventions. of a fretful temper. JOSEPH. born in Yorkshire. BRAMAH. BRAMANTE. a gouty humorist in "Humphrey Clinker". born in Barnsley. SIR FREDERICK. and of anything but a sweet temper. BRAN. architect.

from which descended the kings of Prussia. GEORGE. up to which time it was believed to exist. born at Copenhagen.542). THE HOUSE OF. an illustrious German family dating from the 10th century. a satirical writer. most of it a sandy plain. with fertile districts and woodlands here and there. antiquary.. an island reported of by St. chemist. in the great northern plain of Germany. BRANDE. the opposition to his views were such that he was forced to leave Copenhagen. Brandan as lying W. such as silver. ST. Chennai 6. Page 408 of 2772 . of the Canary Islands. though they were received with more favour afterwards. after a stay in Berlin. CTSTI. is a central Prussian province. into gold. in quest of which voyages of discovery were undertaken as recently as the beginning of the 18th century. but. born in London. BRANDT. his views of the present tendency of literature in Europe provoked at first much opposition in Denmark. wrote a "Popular Antiquities" (1744-1784). BRANDES. a Swedish chemist. author of "Manual of Chemistry" and other works (1788-1866). born in Durham. and the nucleus of the Prussian kingdom.com BRAND. and that figured on charts as late as 1755. a literary critic. 1692. BRANDT. BRANDENBURG. he returned to it in 1862. BRANDAN.ramakalai@gmail. author of Computer Lecturer. BRANDENBURG (2. with the support of a strong party in his favour. of Jewish parents. chanced on the discovery in 1669 of phosphorus while in quest of a solvent to transmute metals. _d_. born at Strassburg. JOHN. ISLAND OF. SEBASTIAN.

inlaid in a slab of stone. a vulgar. with a small body of helots and mercenaries. faithful. BRASS. BRANDY NAN.ramakalai@gmail. Page 409 of 2772 . SAMPSON. Indian chief who sided with the British in the American war.C. a knavish attorney in "Old Curiosity Shop". called latten. affected feeling for his clients." of which there have been many translations and not a few imitations (1458-1521). led the life of a knight-errant. evil-spoken family in Miss Burney's "Evelina. scene of a victory of the British over the Americans in 1777. JOSEPH. a French chronicler. _d_. whom he fleeced. contemporary of Montaigne. a nickname for Queen Anne. his most celebrated action. 1807. CTSTI. BRANDYWINE CREEK. BRASIDAS. the defeat at the expense of his life. THE. BRANTOME. and insculpt with figures and inscriptions of a Computer Lecturer. from her fondness for brandy. a Spartan general. of the flower of the Athenian army at Amphipolis. in 422 B. born in Perigord.. PIERRE DE BOURDEILLES. a brave and good man. Chennai 6.com the "Narrenschiff" or "Ship of Fools. sepulchral tablets of a mixed metal. and wrote Memoirs remarkable for the free-and-easy. BRANGTONS. distinguished in the Peloponnesian war. BRASSES. and vivid delineations of the characters of the most celebrated of his contemporaries (1527-1614)." BRANT. a small river in Delaware.

Chennai 6. he lived in the reigns of Charles II. CTSTI. William III. an inflammatory disease in sheep. famous for Simon Aleyn. so called from his fearlessness in battle. and comprises the Amazon basin. occupies the eastern angle of the continent. works numerous. and George I. Marshal Ney. with the valleys of the Parana and San Francisco. almost equal to Europe. BRAVEST OF THE BRAVE. Page 410 of 2772 . BRAY. BRAZIL (14. Great stretches of the interior are uninhabitable swamp and forest lands..000). the upper basin of the Paraguay. and of value (1809-1856).. a great railway contractor. born at Gotha. See AGES. BRAZEN AGE. "That man is a lion. forests tenanted by an endless variety of Computer Lecturer. a Berkshire village. that succeeded the weak Silver Age.com monumental character. contracted for the construction of railways in all parts of the world (1805-1870). Napoleon had on one occasion said. BRASSEY. James II. to retain his living. BRAUN. and the name given to the mutton of sheep affected with it. AUGUSTE EMIL. in the Greek mythology the age of violence. the tablelands of Matto Grosso. in Surrey.ramakalai@gmail.. German archaeologist. never scrupled to change his principles. Queen Anne. and the maritime highlands. the oldest in England is at Stoke d'Abernon. its vicar from 1540 to 1588. who." BRAXY. due to a change in food from succulent to dry. born in Cheshire. THOMAS. the largest South American State.

and an empire in 1822. the Portuguese king. Page 411 of 2772 . education is very backward. PIERRE SAVORGNAN DE. explorer. of the Haute-Pyrenees. Chennai 6. The vast mineral wealth includes diamonds. but the upper levels have a fine climate. the other seaports. Most of the trade is with Britain and America. BRAZIL-WOOD. which was made a kingdom 1815. noted for its wines. and obtained a governorship. _b_. which has been harassed ever since by desultory civil war. fled to his colony. The language is Portuguese. Vegetable products are indescribably rich and varied. a gorge in the dep. cotton. Roman Catholic. Bahia and Pernambuco. and fruit are exported. an island in the Adriatic.. of great value for dyeing red. 1832. BREAL. The population at the seaports is mostly white. mulatto. Computer Lecturer. BRAZZA (22). and government unsettled. and copper. born in Rome. timber of all kinds. _b_. acquired land N. the religion. mercury. Discovered in 1500. the coasts are often humid and unhealthy.com brilliant-plumed birds and insects. Pedro II. is richly wooded. belonging to Austria. which. a French philologist. The emperor. 1852. born at Landau. a South Sea island tree producing a fruit which. when roasted. yields marble.ramakalai@gmail. inland it is negro. was driven out in 1889. translator into French of Bopp's "Comparative Grammar". Almost all the country is within the tropics. BRAZZA. CTSTI. gold. BRECHE-DE-ROLAND. coffee and sugar are the chief crops. expelled by the French in 1808. is used as bread. The capital is Rio Janeiro. rubber. the colouring principle being named Brasilin. and annexed by Portugal. MICHEL. a wood found in Brazil. of the Congo for France. BREADFRUIT-TREE. and Indian. and a republic established on the federal system.

a French chronometer-maker. the Geneva Bible. resided here for a time during his exile. Charles II. a famous inventor of astronomical instruments (1747-1823). on the S. and whether it was at first traditional. German naturalist. an authority in it. CTSTI. so called at one time. many manuscript redactions of portions exist still. after Hamburg. born at Neuchatel. a body of judge-created laws that for long formed the common law of Ireland. of Montrose. with a cathedral and an old round tower near it. BREMEN (126). a town in Forfarshire. Page 412 of 2772 . Chennai 6. ALFRED EDMUND.ramakalai@gmail. Brabant. BREHON LAWS. his chief work "Illustrirtes Thierleben" (1829-1884). 7.com according to tradition. BREHM. a place of historical interest. Esk. BREDA (23). BRECHIN. the only one of the kind in Scotland besides being at Abernethy. the capital of N. BREECHES BIBLE. and issued hence his declaration prior to his restoration. iii. from one Place. fortified town. high. in which "aprons" is rendered "breeches. The origin of the code is unknown. Charlemagne's Paladin of the name of Roland cleft with one stroke of his sword when he was beset by the Gascons. W. BREGNET. so called from its rendering in Gen. 85 ft." BREECHES REVIEW. the chief seaport of Germany. is on the Computer Lecturer. existed from prehistoric times till Cromwell's conquest. who had been a leather-breeches maker at Charing Cross. the _Westminster_.

tobacco. 50 m. between Innsbruck and Botzen. as the gold was being weighed out he threw his sword and helmet into the opposite scale. after taking and pillaging Rome. distinguished in the Burmese and Chinese wars (1786-1850). a highly popular Swedish novelist.. with a territory less than Rutlandshire. Chennai 6. and is a free city." and "Strife and Peace. on the estuary of the Weser. FREDRIKA. celebrated for his voyages in quest of "a land beyond human ken" and his discovery of "a paradise amid the waves of the sea". the port of Bremen. which facilitates trade between Venice. Textiles. Page 413 of 2772 . invested the Capitol for so long that the Romans offered him a thousand pounds' weight of gold to retire. SIR JAMES. in his ninety-fourth year. pass on the central Tyrolese Alps. born in Finland. BREMERHAVEN. with a large hospice for emigrants. BRENNER PASS. BRENNUS. was one of the principal cities of the Hanseatic League.C. BREMER.. a Gallic chief. half the total of emigrants sail from its docks. born at Tralee. who. BREMER." are perhaps her best stories. an Irish saint. and Austria. it is the head-quarters of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company. has been called the Jane Austen of Sweden. "The Neighbours.com Weser. CTSTI. rear-admiral. crossed by a railway.ramakalai@gmail. Its export and import trade is very varied. 6853 ft. died in 577. BRENDAN. from its mouth. adding _Vae Computer Lecturer. and paper industries add to its prosperity. ST. 300 B. founded a monastery at Clonfert." "The President's Daughter. high. founded for the accommodation of large vessels in 1830. Germany.

there are a cathedral. 50 m. that figures in history and literature. on the Brent. and wine. W. on the Mella and Garza. waters Bassano. poet of the romanticist school. North Sea.com victis_. by rail SE. of Frankfort. JOHANN. an art gallery and library. the capital of Silesia. near Lerwick. and one of the authors of the Wuertemberg Confession. has two cathedrals. market-town in Middlesex.ramakalai@gmail. BRESCIA (43). Chennai 6. an Italian river. BRENTANO. and has a large woollen industry and grain market. and has a first-class fortress. of Milan. as well as a catechism extensively used (1499-1570). the reformer of Wuertemberg. rises in the Tyrol. leather. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. and Danube trade. a city of Lombardy. and totally routed the whole host. a Roman temple excavated in 1822. BRENZ. E. was a roving genius (1778-1849)." an insolence which so roused Camillus. CTSTI. and now a classical museum. is on the Oder. its manufactures are woollens. BRESSAY. and debouches near Venice. 10 m. with one of the Computer Lecturer. Page 414 of 2772 . of London. 150 m. BRENTA. silks. university. second city in Prussia. it stands in the centre of the Baltic. brother of Goethe's Bettina von Arnim. that he turned his back and offered battle to him and to his army. and library. "Woe to the conquered. an important commercial and manufacturing centre. BRESLAU (335). one of the Shetland Isles. CLEMENS. BRENTFORD.

a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God. a German rationalistic theologian. BRETON DE LOS HERREROS. a strongly-fortified naval station in the extreme NW. Computer Lecturer. waxcloth. and one of the safest. served in the army. Chennai 6. one of the chief naval stations in France. "Almanach der Heiligen auf das Jahr. born at Courrieres. 1788. and paper manufactures. its industries are chiefly related to naval equipment. (1733-1807). an ex-secretary of Louis XVI. Page 415 of 2772 . HENRY GOTTFRIED VON." "Wallers Leben und Sitten. his chief works. "Graf Esau" (1739-1810). wrote comedies and satires in an easy. in Pas-de-Calais." and an edition of Melanchthon's works. led a bohemian life. born at Gera. held political posts. first made a marine arsenal by Richelieu. BREST (76). "Handbuch der Dogmatik." and the comic epic." founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote. Spanish poet and dramatist. besides satirical writings.ramakalai@gmail. BRETEUIL. BRETHREN OF THE COMMON LIFE. CTSTI. much regarded for his sound judgment in critical matters. with leather. KARL GOTTLIEB. of France. a German satirical writer. composed.com best natural harbours in the world. JULES ADOLPHE. with a magnificent harbour. BRETSCHNEIDER. BARON DE. BRETON. flowing style (1800-1873). his theological writings are of permanent value. a French _genre_ and landscape painter. 1827. BRETSCHNEIDER. has large shipbuilding yards and arsenal.

ramakalai@gmail. BREWSTER. a father and two sons. and the leader in war. professor of English Literature in King's College. the father. as well as Lives of Euler." which gives those for special occasions. and the "Pontifical.'s Reign. a title apparently of some kind of acknowledged supremacy among the Anglo-Saxon kings. wrote largely on scientific and other subjects.com BRETWALDA.. Computer Lecturer. and the other. Chennai 6.. Peter. author of "Calendar of Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. edited the "Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. specially distinguished for his discoveries in light. SIR DAVID. BREVIARY. Page 416 of 2772 . such as the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope. Jacob Arteveld. "VELVET" B. a son. g. BREUGHEL." which gives the services connected with the celebration of the Eucharist. a Life of Newton.. born at Jedburgh. BREVET`. a family of Butch painters. JOHN SHERREN. called "OLD" B. BREWER OF GHENT. "HELLISH" B. either from his dress or from the vivid freshness of his colours (1560-1625)." his work the sole authority on Henry's early reign (1810-1879). his studies in optics. CTSTI. and for his optical inventions." in the pages of which Carlyle served his apprenticeship. BREWER. a commission entitling an officer in the army to a nominal rank above his real rank. historian. a book containing the daily services in the Roman Catholic Church and corresponding to the English Prayer-Book. connected with most scientific associations of his time. from his fondness for horrible subjects (1559-1637). London. e. Peter. differs from the "Missal. (1510-1570). John. an eminent Scottish natural philosopher.

being. v. ST. a day in 1002 on which a desperate attempt was made to massacre all the Danes in England and stamp them wholly out. Page 417 of 2772 . Principal of the United Colleges of St. Andrews by James David Forbes. the twenty-fifth battle in which he defeated them. BRIAN BOROIHME. BRICE'S. it is said. died defeating the Danes at Clontarf. bishop of Tours in the beginning of the 5th century. a Uranid with 50 heads and 100 arms.com Kepler. and for a time a probationer (1781-1868). Heaven and Earth. 4300 ft. who years before defeated him as candidate for the Natural Philosophy chair in Edinburgh. an Irish chief. who early in the 10th century established his rule over a great part of Ireland. being succeeded at St. and others of the class. BREWSTER. BRIAREUS.). son of Ouranos and Gaia. an attempt which was avenged by the Danish king. one of THE GIANTS (q. had been a clergyman of the Church of England. BRICE. and afterwards of Edinburgh.. Andrews. Festival.. 42 m. in 1620. according to another account. BRIANCON. and disciple of St. e. CTSTI. Massachusetts. ST. whom Poseidon cast into the sea and buried under Etna. leader of the Pilgrim Fathers in the _Mayflower_. from Grenoble.ramakalai@gmail. Martin. Computer Lecturer. with a trade in cutlery. above sea-level. and made great efforts for the civilisation of the country. SE. 19. WILLIAM. Nov. the highest town in France. Chennai 6. who conveyed them to Plymouth. but whom Zeus delivered to aid him against the Titans. Sweyn. i. bred originally for the Church.

. a manufacturing town in New Jersey. Page 418 of 2772 . BRIDGET." BRIDGEPORT (48). MAJOR RALPH." BRIDE OF THE SEA. so called from St. so called from a ceremony in which her espousals were celebrated by the Doge casting a ring into the Adriatic. Feb. with a mild climate and mineral waters. MRS. and 72 monasteries of the Order. whence the name. S. Venice. London. a character in "Tristram Shandy. from New York. BRIDEWELL. U. near it. Chennai 6. a thriving manufacturing town and seaport of Connecticut. N. and over which culprits under capital sentence were transported to their doom. Bridget's well. CTSTI. born at Dundalk. Also the name of a Swedish saint in the 14th century. ST. 1 (453-523). an American politician in "Martin Chuzzlewit.ramakalai@gmail. 58 m. Festival. founded a new Order. founded monasteries.." BRIDGET.com BRICK. a covered way in Venice leading from the Ducal Palace to the State prison. BRIDGETON. Patrick and St. of Computer Lecturer. a house of correction in Blackfriars. BRIDGENORTH. JEFFERSON. entered a monastery at 14.S. BRIDGE OF ALLAN. 3 m. NE. Columba. 38 m.. a Roundhead in "Peveril of the Peak. of Stirling. an Irish saint. a village on Allan water. takes rank in Ireland with St. BRIDGE OF SIGHS.

a deaf. celebrated for his self-sacrificing devotion to the improvement and extension of canal navigation in England. the bishop. 3RD DUKE OF. JUDGE. he did not take part in politics. a watering-place in Yorkshire. a judge in Rabelais' "Pantagruel. Computer Lecturer. of Flamborough Head. seat of the government." who decided cases by the throw of dice. FRANCIS EGERTON. Page 419 of 2772 . Chennai 6. a college.S. with a chalybeate spring.ramakalai@gmail.com Philadelphia. BRIDGEWATER. noted for the surprising development of intellectual faculty notwithstanding these drawbacks. BRIDLINGTON. embarking in it all his wealth." all to be found in Bohn's Scientific Library (1758-1829). FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON. &c. LAURA. BRIDGEWATER. capital of Barbadoes. and blind child. of Bristol. called "Bridgewater Treatises. bequeathed L8000 for the best work on natural theology. 8TH EARL OF. which his trustees expended in the production of eight works by different eminent men. it has suffered frequently from hurricane and fever. BRIDGMAN. born in New Hampshire. a seaport town in Somersetshire. Dickens gives an account of her in his "American Notes" (1829-1889). SW. educated for the Church. BRIDGETOWN (21). BRIDGWATER. dumb. though he was a supporter of Pitt.. 29 m. U.. BRIDLEGOOSE. CTSTI. 6 m. in which he was aided by the skill of Brindley. died unmarried (1736-1803). SW.

CTSTI. made an important improvement on the system of logarithms. squadrons. distinguished in several engagements (1797-1814). BRIGGS. the inventor. which was accepted by Napier. of Breslau.ramakalai@gmail. VISCOUNT. Computer Lecturer. Town of. HENRY.com BRIDPORT. France. 1237. a powerful British tribe that occupied the country between the Humber and the Roman Wall. 25 m. lake in the Swiss canton of Bern.. town in Prussian Silesia. a body of troops under a general officer. 8 m. a thriving. above sea-level. BRIGHAM YOUNG. BRIEG (20). elected king of Jerusalem. LAKE OF. BRIGADE. of Cotes-du-Nord. over 800 ft. abounding in fish. ST. long. BRIEUC. BRIGANTES. and is the system now in use (1561-1631). consisting of a number of regiments. (19). a distinguished English mathematician. descendant of an old French family. the chief of the Mormons (1801-1877). BRIENZ. called brigadier. a British admiral. and of great depth in certain parts. JEAN DE. third. BRIENNE. SE. 2 m. a seaport and an episcopal city in the dep. Chennai 6. broad. Page 420 of 2772 . a favourite resort for tourists. _d_. or battalions. commercially speaking. then emperor of Constantinople. first Savilian professor at Oxford.

a much-frequented watering-place in Sussex. S. public library and public gallery." a book of superior literary merit. _b_. Richard Bright. English statesman. of London. Oxford. JAMES FRANCK. a disease in the kidneys. historian. Also the name of a suburb of Melbourne. in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow University. BRIGHTON (128). he was closely associated with the 1867 Reform Act. a splendid aquarium. BRIGHT.com BRIGHT. he joined the Anti-Corn-Law League on its formation in 1839. and soon was associated with Cobden in its great agitation. he advocated financial reform and the reform of Indian administration. a museum. 50 m. and on the outbreak of the American Civil War supported the North. a fine parade extends along the whole length of the sea front. Page 421 of 2772 . his Ministerial career began in 1868. and again in 1881. the principal building is the Pavilion or Marine Palace. took an early interest in political reform. he was a strong opponent of protection. the game laws. Irish Church Disestablishment 1869. so called from Dr. entering Parliament in 1843. originally built for George IV. of Quaker birth and profession. he seceded from Gladstone's Government on the Egyptian policy in 1882. at his death Mr. Chennai 6. 1832.ramakalai@gmail. due to several diseased conditions of the organ. schools of science and art. of which it is virtually a suburb. has many handsome edifices. BLIGHT'S DISEASE. took a fancy to it. son of a Lancashire cotton spinner. author of "English History for the Use of Public Schools. and strenuously opposed Home Rule in 1886. Gladstone pronounced one of the noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another (1811-1889). engaged in manufacture. CTSTI. JOHN. though his business interests suffered severely. but was interrupted by illness. an animated and eloquent orator. and later of the Crimean war. in 1873. who first Computer Lecturer. he was a man of lofty and unblemished character. he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Master of University College. and the 1870 Irish Land Act. born near Rochdale. a place of fashionable resort ever since George IV.

distinguished as a critic in the department of belles-lettres. MATTHEW AND PAUL. MARQUISE DE. the poison she used appears to have been the Tofana poison. BRINVILLIERS. brother. BRIL BROTHERS. an art which one of her paramours taught her (1630-1676).ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. bred a millwright." a book full of wit and learning. JAN TEN. and two sisters for the sake of their property. was professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825). BRIN`DISI (15). BRINK. regarded rivers as mere "feeders to canals" (1716-1772). notorious for her gallantries and for poisoning her father. See AQUA TOFANA. employed in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the Vatican at Rome. has risen in importance since the opening of the Overland Route as a point of departure for the East. born at Antwerp. it is 60 hours by rail from London. on the Adriatic coast. BRILLAT-SAVARIN. a Dutch writer. his best pictures are in Rome. devoted his skill and genius to the construction of canals. a French gastronomist. the younger. under the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater. and for Palestine in mediaeval. _b_. published posthumously. of whom Paul. was the greater artist. a mechanician and engineer.com investigated its nature. author of "Physiologie du Gout. born in Derbyshire. it was the port of embarkation for Greece in ancient times. was tortured and beheaded. Page 422 of 2772 . as the greatest service he could render to his country. 1834. landscape painters. and three days by steam from Alexandria. CTSTI. BRINDLEY. JAMES. a seaport of Southern Italy.

com BRISBANE (49). who fell to the lot of Achilles among the spoil of a victory. and in 1807 the island of Curacoa. Page 423 of 2772 . but whom Agamemnon carried off from him. 500 m. ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES. a young virgin priestess. BRISE`IS. Computer Lecturer. whereupon he retired to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further part in the war. to its prolongation. Melbourne. SIR JAMES. and railway communication with Sydney. in Saldanha Bay. naval officer. it has steam communication with Australian ports and London. Ayrshire. gave name to the capital of Queensland. three ships of the line among them. as Homer relates. in consequence. succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society (1773-1860). a man of science and an astronomer. is the chief trading centre and seaport of the Colony. catalogued over 7000 stars. was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the colony. Vincent (1769-1829). born near Largs.ramakalai@gmail. BRISSAC. on the Brisbane River. BRISBANE. CTSTI. BRISBANE. the theme of the "Iliad" being the "wrath of Achilles" on this account. from the sea. it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city incorporated in 1859. captured in 1796 Dutch warships. N. saw service as a soldier. for ten long years. prosperity began when the colony was opened to free settlement in 1842. the name of a noble family which supplied several marshals to France. BRISBANE. was made governor of St. 25 m. brother of the preceding. British general. and Adelaide. and what it led to. served under Lord Howe and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829). SIR THOMAS MACDOUGALL. Chennai 6. of Sydney. capital of Queensland. a naval officer of distinction under Lords Hood and Nelson.

liberated. Chennai 6. in length. Wales and Devon and Cornwall. W. returned on the outbreak of the Revolution. and 118 m. of London. is subject to very high tides. American trade. designed by Robert Stephenson. BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE. Page 424 of 2772 . born at Chartres. or rather of a party of his own. but resigned after a few months. two colleges.com BRISSON. consists of Computer Lecturer. fell under suspicion like the rest of the party. with Irish. boots and shoes. as Gaul also was. sat in the National Assembly. from 5 to 43 in breadth. 1835. an inlet in SW. and inhabited by Celts. son of a pastry-cook. a name for Britain as old as the days of Caesar. 6 m. which was short-lived. 8 m. W. formed a Radical administration in 1898. and completed in 1850. he went to America. a railway bridge spanning the Menai Strait. is the largest town in Gloucestershire. BRISSOT DE WARVILLE. it forms a county in itself. was arrested. bred to the bar. the seventh in England. and with a depth of from 5 to 40 fathoms. it manufactures tobacco. CTSTI. French publicist and journalist. by a charter of Edward III. midway between the Jacobins and them. BRISTOL CHANNEL.ramakalai@gmail. and a great seaport. on the Avon. and as such dangerous to shipping. joined the Girondists. became one of the leaders. BRITANNIA. a library and many educational institutions. it has a cathedral. spent some time in the Bastille. named after him Brissotins. became an outspoken disciple of Rousseau. BRISTOL (286). and S. after holding presidentships in the Chamber became premier in 1885. numerous rivers flow into it. JEAN PIERRE. from its mouth. _b_. took to letters. Indian. HENRI. of England. tried and guillotined (1754-1793). a French revolutionary. between S.

antiquities. biological. is a lady knight in the "Faerie Queene. and cereals do well. now in that selected central city of the country.. geographical. long and four times the size of Great Britain. and objects of natural history. rich in timber and minerals. Chennai 6. Page 425 of 2772 . founded as far back as 1700. for the public benefit till 1759.. extending between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific. of Sir David Brewster's suggestion. chemical. BRITISH LION. a national institution in London for the collection of MSS. name applied to Andrew Marvell from his corresponding incorruptible integrity in life and poverty at death. rain is abundant. &c. books. which holds its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished scientist. being 800 m. geological. BRITANNICUS. Computer Lecturer. BRITISH COLUMBIA (98).. ethnology. and anthropological. of men of all departments of science for the encouragement of scientific research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge. the name given to John Bull when roused by opposition. of British America. though not opened. in Montagu House as it happened. mechanical. the son of Claudius and Messalina. to Alaska on the N.ramakalai@gmail. an association. poisoned by Nero. it is divided into eight sections--mathematical. now in this. a western fertile prov. economic. BRITOMART." representing chastity with a resistless magic spear. BRITISH ASSOCIATION. BRITISH MUSEUM. prints and drawings.com hollow tubes of wrought-iron plates riveted together. and from the United States on the S. CTSTI. BRITISH ARISTIDES. and took five years in erecting.

a third of its inhabitants still retain their Breton language." instalment of a work embracing all the counties of England and Wales. BROAD CHURCH. BROAD ARROW. topographer and antiquary. a southern suburb of London. so called from the powerful parties represented in it. BRIXTON. JOHN.. CTSTI. THE NORFOLK. and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or form. a district of the city that has of late years extended immensely. an old French prov. Pelham. they are Computer Lecturer. perhaps to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements distinctive of the Christian system. 1744 to Mar. a coalition of great weight under Mr. comprising the peninsula opposite Devon and Cornwall. which look like expansions of the rivers. land of the Bretons. that section of the Church which inclines to liberal opinions in theology. are "Antiquities of Great Britain" and "Cathedral Antiquities of England". on the Surrey side. BRITTON. of Norfolkshire. born in Wiltshire in humble position. BROADS. Page 426 of 2772 . was in former times a duchy. his chief work is 14 volumes. 1755. from Nov. BROAD BOTTOM MINISTRY. are a series of inland lakes in the E.162). his principal works. and works of value.ramakalai@gmail. a stamp like an arrow-head to indicate government property. the "Antiquities in Normandy" did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects (1771-1857). stretching westward between the Bays of Cancale and Biscay.com BRITTANY (3. Chennai 6. author of "Beauties of Wiltshire.

director of the St. but settled in Leipzig. BROCKHAUS. or BLOCKSBERG. found on the edge of straths or lochs in the N. BROCHS. of Scotland. Computer Lecturer. publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon." inhabited by giants. born in Paris. but which is only the beholder's shadow projected through.ramakalai@gmail. abundant vegetation.) of the Harz Mts. an imaginary country in "Gulliver's Travels. keen air. an eminent French surgeon. a single doorway. Page 427 of 2772 . a man of scholarly parts. began business in Amsterdam. long an object of superstition. fishing and boating attractions. and was the author of a number of medical works (1824-1880). PAUL. Gobin manufactory (1773-1810). each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple". Chennai 6. the highest peak (3740 ft. and open to the sky. cultivated to the summit.. FRIEDRICH ARNOLD. a mineralogist and geologist." BROCA. famous for a "SPECTRE" so called. anthropologist. held a succession of important appointments." and a great many other important works (1772-1823). BROCKEN. called also Picts' towers and Duns. a German publisher. and one of the chief French evolutionists. BROB`DINGNAG.com favourite holiday resorts on account of the expanse of strange scenery. and magnified by. dry-stone circular towers. the mists. CTSTI. in comparison with whom Gulliver was a pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked from the lazy finger of a maid. born at Dortmund. with thick Cyclopean walls. properly a native of the country. BROCHANT DE VILLIERS. and W.

and likely to be long remembered in the naval annals of the country (1776-1841). was an Orleanist. Computer Lecturer. SIR PHILIP BOWES VERE. _b_. BRODIE. was summoned by royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak of the Revolution. in which he boarded the latter and ran up the British flag. CHARLES VICTOR. WILLIAM. George's Hospital. negotiated a treaty with England for the abolition of slavery. took command of the Emigrants in 1792. Chennai 6. retired after the _coup d'etat_ (1785-1870).com BROCOLIANDO. BROKE. professor of surgery. a Liberal politician. in June 1813. 38 guns. president of the Royal Society (1783-1862). was medical adviser to three sovereigns. 1821 BROGLIE. surgeon. born at Ipswich. a Conservative politician and litterateur. a Scottish sculptor. ALBERT. CTSTI. DUC DE. could not persuade his troops to fire on the rioters. was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard. and died at Muenster (1718-1804). a French statesman. BROGLIE. rear-admiral. had to "mount and ride". born in Wiltshire. a forest in Brittany famous in Arthurian legend. celebrated for the action between his ship _Shannon_. DUC DE. Page 428 of 2772 . born in Banff. born at Paris. one of the most brilliant naval actions on record. and the American ship _Chesapeake_. did numerous busts and statues (1815-1881). 49 guns. author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th century". marshal of France.ramakalai@gmail. distinguished in the Seven Years' War. VICTOR FRANCOIS. and an enemy of the Second Empire. SIR BENJAMIN. BROGLIE. son of the following. held office under Louis Philippe. for 30 years surgeon in St. BRODIE. being "a firm disciplinarian".

some festive. Chennai 6. his plays are numerous. it suffered much in times of war." where by excavations he made important discoveries. BROMLEY (21). BROMPTON. where the bishops of Rochester had their palace. extracted from bittern.com BROMBERG (41). and spirit. PETER OLAF. ALEXANDER. a liquid which remains after the separation of salt. Computer Lecturer. _d_. and some political (1626-1666). and a rival. and were characterised by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study. Kensington. being a frontier town. of London. a busy town on the Brahe. SW. an English comic playwright. his great work "Travels and Archaeological Researches in Greece" (1780-1842). 1652.ramakalai@gmail. Page 429 of 2772 . RICHARD. originally his servant. BROeNDSTED. district of London. BROME. 10 m. now a fashionable district. and of his songs some are amatory. author of "Travels and Researches in Greece. CTSTI. whim. now called S. BROME. once a rustic locality. in Kensington. writer of songs and lampoons instinct with wit. and where there is a home called Warner's College for clergymen's widows. a Danish archaeologist. BROMINE. contemporary with Ben Jonson. a market-town in Kent. with several public buildings and the Oratory. an elementary fluid of a dark colour and a disagreeable smell. SE. a cavalier. in Prussian Posen.

showing still greater genius." which proved a failure. ANNE (Acton). removed with her father. a town in Sicily. first. ALEXANDRE. Chennai 6. Ellis. which gave title of duke to Nelson. In 1854 she married her father's curate. Mr. in conjunction with her sisters. the name of three ladies. ADOLPHE." a remarkable production. BRONTE. when weapons and tools were made of bronze. born at Paris." and then "Villette. BRONGNIART. Page 430 of 2772 . director of the porcelain works at Sevres. four years younger. author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic arts (1770-1847). wrote "Wuthering Heights. which she did not live to develop. introduced a new classification of reptiles. born at Thornton. prepared and published a volume of poems under the pseudonyms respectively of "Currer. to Haworth. Nothing daunted. the age in the history of a race intermediate between the Stone Age and the Iron. Nicholls. CTSTI. and in some cases overlapping these two. but her constitution gave way. French botanist. spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher. on her return." appeared. BRONZE AGE. Computer Lecturer. the first to discover and explain the function of the pollen in plants (1801-1876). daughters of a Yorkshire clergyman of Irish extraction: CHARLOTTE. BRONTE (16). and she died (1816-1855). in the same county. "Jane Eyre. but very ephemeral productions. Emily.ramakalai@gmail. Charlotte. collaborateur with Cuvier. EMILY (Ellis). and her fame was established.com BRONGNIART. a moorland parish. and Acton Bell. son of the succeeding. Yorkshire. two years younger. a French chemist and zoologist. and her success was instant. at the age of four. poet rather than novelist. and Anne. she set to novel writing. on the western slope of Etna. where she lived most of her days. also wrote two novels." then "Shirley. revived painting on glass.

born in Donegal. Cavan. BROOKE. sailed in a well-manned and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object. was wounded in the Burmese war. STOPFORD. but continued to preach in Bloomsbury. swept the seas of pirates. being succeeded in Sarawak by a nephew (1803-1868). HENRY.S. in Borneo.. arrived at Sarawak. a poem called "Universal Beauty." all works in evidence of critical ability of a high order. wrote the "Life of Robertson of Brighton. among other things. and wrote an account of it. preacher and writer. entered the Indian army. his famous picture. born at Benares. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. author of the "Fool of Quality. U. educated in England. BROOK FARM. _b_. Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the community. born in co. Page 431 of 2772 ." and "Life of Milton. conceived the idea of suppressing piracy and establishing civilisation in the Indian Archipelago." "Theology in the English Poets. for which he was rewarded by the English government. Bloomsbury." "History of English Poetry. BROOKE. and the only one of his works that survives. and was made rajah. Computer Lecturer. a Florentine painter. the former rajah being deposed in his favour. Irish dramatist and novelist. finally returned to England and died. "Descent of Christ into Hell" (1502-1572). BROOKE. and Queen's chaplain. from conscientious motives seceded from the Church.com BRONZI`NO. wrote. brought the province under good laws. was appointed governor of Labuan. by George Ripley in 1840. returned in consequence to England. Chennai 6. 1832." a "Primer of English Literature." and a play called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783). a great admirer of Michael Angelo. an abortive literary community organised on Fourier's principles. rajah of Sarawak. 8 m. SIR JAMES. after other clerical appointments became incumbent of Bedford Chapel. painted both in oil and fresco. from Boston." a book commended by John Wesley and much lauded by Charles Kingsley. assisted the governor in suppressing an insurrection.

BROSSETTE. and the fourth in the Union. who believed and persuaded others to believe that the English people were the ten lost tribes of Israel (1757-1824). as well as in Syria and Egypt. parks. it is now incorporated in Greater New York. born in Edinburgh. was on the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_. though ranking as a city. has many fine buildings. friend of Boileau. chemicals. dock. LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX. writing the "Essence of Parliament. and does an enormous shipping trade. he was the author of several works (1816-1874). the city is really a part of New York. sent to Russia to inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry and labouring classes there. a fanatic. and educated at the High School and University of that city. of water front. wrote among other subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and prehistoric man (1709-1777). a French archaeologist. BROSSES. as well as by some 12 lines of ferry boats plied by steam. on Long Island.com BROOKLYN (806). RICHARD. BROUGHAM. the largest in the world. born at Dijon. there is a naval yard. CHARLES DE. born at Lyons. manufactures include glass. his report published in his "Russians of the South". extensive docks and warehouses. CTSTI. a French litterateur.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6." and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor in 1870. BROTHERS. clothing. formed a connection with _Punch_ in 1851. a mile broad. born in London. and connected with it by a magnificent suspension bridge. and storehouse. CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY. and his editor and commentator (1671-1743). was admitted to Computer Lecturer. separated from New York by the East River. novelist and journalist. Page 432 of 2772 . BROOKS. born in Newfoundland. and pleasure grounds. and tobacco. a suburb of New York. HENRY. metallic wares. has 10 m.

novelist. companion of Vancouver. RHODA." "Red as a Rose is She. at the foot of Mt. and a favourite place of residence of Dundee merchants. WILLIAM ROBERT. he joined the English bar in 1808. wrote also "Cometh Up as a Flower. a writer on scientific. abounds in mosques. entering Parliament in 1810. and. and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. an English seaman. Page 433 of 2772 . along with Horner. one of the founders of the _Edinburgh Review_. a man of versatile ability and untiring energy. BROUGHTY FERRY (9). Chennai 6. the cause of education. 12 m. discovered a portion of Oceania (1763-1822). and law reform. also of London University. 1840. BROUGHTON. Olympus. speedily acquired a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in Crown libel actions. See HOBHOUSE. and Sidney Smith. historical. near Dundee. 1820. Jeffrey. he associated with the Whig opposition. of Asiatic Turkey. but his violence and eccentricity hurt his influence. political. won universal popular favour. BROUGHTON. and is celebrated for its baths.ramakalai@gmail. with villas. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI.. LORD." &c. excluded from promotion in Scotland by his liberal principles. but four years afterwards his political career closed. and philosophical themes. a watering-place. by his eloquence in the cause of Queen Caroline. her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well". the capital of the Turkish empire till the taking of Constantinople in 1453. where he died (1778-1868). spent his last days at Cannes. BROUSSA (37). a city in the extreme NW. BROUGHTON. became Lord Chancellor in 1830. _b_. threw himself into the agitation for the abolition of slavery. he was a supporter of many popular institutions. from the Sea of Marmora.com the Scotch bar in 1800.

BROWN. distinguished both in the Peninsular and in the Crimean war. a French materialist. AMY.ramakalai@gmail.". one of which is "Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III. when in command of the Light Division (1790-1863). born in England. born near Elgin." "Edgar Huntly. CTSTI. but declared her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876). a French Huguenot who returned to France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. a member of the Parlement of Paris. whose arrest. died in France. was severely wounded at Inkerman. he depicted with great spirit (1605-1638). BROUWER. born at Calais. SIR GEORGE. Computer Lecturer. (1771-1810). Chennai 6.com BROUSSAIS. mostly of low. anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism (1821-1893). JOSEPH VICTOR. which. vulgar life. the first wife of the Duc de Berri. the Pope. as familiar with it. British general. an English painter. BROWN. Page 434 of 2772 . BROWN. his subjects nearly all of a historical character. of Quaker connection. and disease into too much or too little (1772-1838). BROUSSON. BROWN. in 1816. his best-known fictions are "Wieland. resolved life into excitation. a Dutch painter. 1698. an American novelist. and was broken on the wheel. founder of the "physiological school" of medicine. the organisation of the Fronde." &c. born in Philadelphia. in 1648. annulled her marriage. CHARLES BROCKDEN. FORD MADOX. was the cause of. BROUSSEL. or pretext for.

was a pupil of James Syme. much beloved by all who knew him. those resulting from redundancy of excitation. BROWN. author of "Dictionary of the Bible. Perthshire. HENRY KIRKE. a colossal one of Washington among them (1814-1886).. and deep piety. born at Bunkle. was a fine and finely-cultured man. became a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington. JOHN. tried. Computer Lecturer. JOHN. and those due to deficiency of excitation. American slavery abolitionist. reduced diseases into two classes. and commenced quiet practice in Edinburgh. with six others." "Pet Marjorie.D. educated in Edinburgh High School and at Edinburgh University. Page 435 of 2772 . was surrounded. JOHN.D. BROWN. the eminent surgeon. founder of the Brunonian system of medicine.. M. an American sculptor. author of "Horae Subsecivae." "John Leech. who says of him. M. Nothing can tell the loss to me in his death. great-grandson of the preceding. seized on the State armoury at Harper's Ferry in hope of a rising.. did a number of statues. of Haddington. born at Carpow. near Abernethy. and resolutely opposed the project of making it a slave state. author of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on the Old and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). BROWN. he was "the best and truest friend of all my life.. See BROUSSAIS. entrenched himself armed in it. Berwickshire. and hanged (1800-1859). in the interest of emancipation. nor the grief to how many greater souls than mine that had been possessed in patience through his love" (1810-1882). a self-educated Scotch divine. born at Biggar." and other works. seized. settled in Kansas. left an orphan at 11." and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787).. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. son of a poor weaver. JOHN.com BROWN." "Rab and his Friends. and by none more than by John Ruskin. CTSTI. a man of considerable learning. BROWN.

the Linnean Society. America. M. to a reconstruction of the science of atomics. son of Ford Madox. as figured in the pages of _Punch_. the highest of the Rocky Mts. with the zeal of a mediaeval alchemist. born in Haddington. his great work. a distinguished botanist. CTSTI. with 4000 plants mostly new to science. whose life was devoted. in N. ROBERT. son of an Episcopal clergyman. much of which died along with him. where he spent a great part of his life. spent his life at Venice in the study of Italian history. chemist. grandson of John Brown of Haddington.000 ft. AND ROBINSON." left unfinished at his death. and drawn by Richard Doyle. styled by Humboldt _botanicorum facile princeps_. out of the fear of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858). became librarian to. he was a man of most minute and accurate observation. BROWN.. which he did not live to see realised: a man of genius. RAWDON. Page 436 of 2772 . returned after four years' exploration.. and finally president of. BROWN. BROWN. OLIVER MADOX. BROWN.ramakalai@gmail. a brilliant conversationist Computer Lecturer. SAMUEL. which he classified and described in his "Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae".com BROWN.). where Ruskin found him and conceived a warm friendship for him (1803-1883). which he prosecuted with unwearied industry. died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874). historical scholar. accompanied an expedition to survey the coast of Australia in 1801. work of 20 years' hard labour. MOUNT (16. BROWN. JONES. especially in its relation to English history. born at Montrose. three middle-class Englishmen on their travels abroad. "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern Italy.D. a youth of great promise both as an artist and poet. and of a wide range of knowledge. died at Venice. Chennai 6.

his lectures. known by the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward.) in Cornwall. the highest peak (1368 ft. his first literary effort was as "showman" to an imaginary travelling menagerie. carrying with him a whimsical panorama as affording texts for his numerous jokes. BROWN WILLY. CTSTI. travelled over America lecturing. CHARLES FARRAR. BROWNE. the first Computer Lecturer. among the number De Quincey. Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856). and defined their religion as singular. to the injury of his health and the shortening of his life. Fielding. he spent some time among the Mormons. Scottish psychologist.. HABLOT KNIGHT. born in Kirkcudbrightshire. under the pseudonym of "Phiz. born in London." born in Maine. professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. which he brought with him to London. illustrated Dickens's works. he was obliged from ill-health to resign his professorship after 10 years (1778-1820). "Pickwick" to begin with. "Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth sense. born in Rutland. colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart. and the Abbotsford edition of Scott. Page 437 of 2772 . ROBERT. founder of the Brownists. and Emerson. BROWNE. Chennai 6. and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success." and two volumes of "Essays." He was a man of precocious talent. he was skilful as an etcher and an architectural draughtsman (1815-1882). U. artist. Ainsworth. bred to medicine. but their wives plural (1834-1867). were published posthumously. THOMAS.ramakalai@gmail. and a devoted student." "Lectures on the Atomic Theory.S. Carlyle. BROWNE. and Smollett. wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory of Christianity." as well as the works of Lever.com and an associate of the most intellectual men of his time. a humorist and satirist. all improvised on the spur of the moment. which he called the "muscular. BROWN.

and died there. "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest favourite. often truly great. and he returned to the English Church." among them." says Coleridge. believed in Scotland to render obliging services to good housewives... steer." "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors. with a strong tinge of the fantastic.com seceder from the Church of England." a collection of eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque. exuberant in conceptions and conceits. was an imitator of Spenser. "rich in various knowledge. BROWNE WILLIAM.. as he favoured good husbandry. "the greatest prose writer perhaps. and was partial to houses where it was observed. born at Tavistock. Computer Lecturer. BROWNIE. he may be accounted the father of the Congregational body in England (1540-1630). CTSTI. He meditated much on death and the hereafter. was knighted by Charles II. "was..." "a man. contemplative. BROWNE. the latter" (1605-1682). and magnificent in his style and diction. Chennai 6. author of "Britannia's Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe. his principal works are "Religio Medici.. "all of the very first importance in English literature. and a parallel has been instituted between him and Keats (1590-1645). resided at Norwich for nearly half a century. and a sort of key to the others. where he was imprisoned for assaulting a constable. and the first to found a Church of his own on Congregational principles." on the story of Ulysses and Circe. in the whole range of English". or Urn-Burial. He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast. "Steer hither. died in jail at Northampton. English pastoral poet.. or leading on to. and his presence an evidence that the internal economies were approved of. a good-natured household elf. and on the former in its relation to." adds the professor. physician and religious thinker. though his project of secession proved a failure." and "Hydriotaphia." Professor Saintsbury says. SIR THOMAS. with some opening exquisitely beautiful verses. when all things are taken together.ramakalai@gmail. born in London. a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk". Page 438 of 2772 . which he did at Norwich. imaginative.

'the fear of death did not trouble him. after a time. that gave her a shock the effect of which never left her. published in 1838 "The Seraphim. Durham.." "a novel in verse." His creed was an optimism of the brightest. Love and Death. not like most poets. which developed early. among the poetesses of England. but Love and Life. Chennai 6. was a poet of great subtlety. of a genius and learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of. witnessed the death by drowning of a brother. v. one of the two greatest in the Victorian era. this was succeeded by a succession of others. her work is marked by musical diction. and imagination. Computer Lecturer. _nee_ BARRETT. deep insight. if not highest.ramakalai@gmail. ELIZABETH BARRETT. creative power. appeared." in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows. born in Camberwell.) published in 1833. a woman of great natural abilities.. and strong faith.' In the browner shades of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang. "Sordello" in 1840. 'James Lee.com BROWNING. lies buried in Westminster Abbey. who immediately took her abroad. settling in Florence." and in 1860 "Poems before Congress". fell in with and married Robert Browning in 1846." and in 1868 "THE RING AND THE BOOK" (q.' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the century.' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra. his longest poem. and his restful faith "it is all right with the world" (1812-1889). CTSTI. which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861). sensibility. finishing up with "Asolando. v. BROWNING. went to Torquay for her health. ROBERT. born at Carlton Hall. suffered from injury to her spine. knowledge. which was followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835.. she took an interest all through life in public affairs. Page 439 of 2772 . early given to write verses. poetess. his first poem "PAULINE" (q. of Browning it has been said by Professor Saintsbury. in which he was not idle." and in 1844 "The Cry of the Children"." which appeared the day he died at Venice. prepared himself for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary." in 1855 his "Men and Women. "Timor mortis non conturbabat. poet. wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese. ranks high.). with some of his "Dramatic Romances and Lyrics. and more analytic than poetic." and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh.

BRUCE. the general accuracy of which. 1697. BRUCE. born in Mauritius. _d_. his poems singularly plaintive and pathetic. MICHAEL. and who acquired lands first in Northumberland and then in Annandale. in poor circumstances. BRUANT. ROBERT. stayed two years in Abyssinia. descended from a Norman knight.ramakalai@gmail. BRUAT. felt hurt that no honor was conferred on him. _b_. a French architect. his title to the authorship of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention (1746-1767). born near Loch Leven.com BROWN-SEQUARD. who came over with the Conqueror. a family illustrious in Scottish history. physiologist. Page 440 of 2772 . died of consumption. and returned home by way of France. elated with his success. a Scotch poet. Stirlingshire. set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source of the Nile: believed he had discovered it. JAMES. rival with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on Computer Lecturer. and became a professor in the College de France. commanded the French fleet at the Crimea (1796-1885). a French admiral. BRUCE. has been attested by subsequent explorers (1730-1794). Chennai 6. Robert de Bruis. 1818. of American parentage. traveller. and published works on the subject. studied in Paris." born at Kinnaird House. architect of the Invalides and the Salpetriere. called the "Abyssinian. BRUCE. practised in New York.. CTSTI. made a special study of the nervous system and nervous diseases. in the parish of Portmoak. and for relief from the chagrin wrote an account of his travels in five quarto vols. as far as it goes. born in Paris. studied for the Church.

returned and landed in Carrick.com the death of Margaret. at Bannockburn. born at Aix. king of Scotland. 1306. son of the preceding. did homage for a time to Edward. but joined the national party and became one of a regency of four. BRUEYS. on the Clyde. spent his last two years at Cardross Castle. was defeated by an army sent against him. against whose claim Edward I. suffering from leprosy. decided in favour of Baliol (1210-1295). the Maiden of Norway. through Marjory his wife. in 1328. DAVID AUGUSTIN DE. son of the preceding. with Comyn for rival. and actively engaged in propagating the faith. the independence of Scotland was acknowledged as well as Bruce's right to the crown. and on 24th June 1314 defeated the English under Edward II. ROBERT. ROBERT. historian of philosophy. where he died in the thirty-third year of his reign (1274-1329). BRUCE. CTSTI. BRUeCKENAU. Chennai 6. of Kissingen. being only a twenty-fifth of the strength. NW. BRUCE. born at Augsburg. after which. managed to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays Computer Lecturer. author of "Historia Critica Philosophiae" (1696-1770). with mineral springs good for nervous and skin diseases. an alkaloid. sued for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304). BRUCKER. Ireland. though much weaker. and was that same year crowned king at Scone. BRUCIN.ramakalai@gmail. and a pastor there. stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at Dumfries. served under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one instance. small town in Bavaria. allied in action to strychnine. and obliged to flee to Rathlin. 17 m. an abbe converted by Bossuet. earl of Carrick. French dramatist. Page 441 of 2772 . cleared the English out of all the fortresses except Stirling.

Chennai 6. the foggy month). settled at Computer Lecturer. e. Page 442 of 2772 . as well as some of the streets. born at Berlin. connecting it with Ostend. overthrew the Directory and established himself in power. COUNT VON. BRUGES (49). as well as distilleries.ramakalai@gmail. and shipbuilding yards. little disturbed by traffic. HEINRICH. and indulged himself. sugar-refineries. a German Egyptologist. it has several manufactures. on his return from Egypt. whence its name "Bridges". afterwards George IV. he lived some years in the same reckless fashion. in Belgium. fled from his creditors to Calais. cap. the church of Notre Dame. BRUMMELL." BRUMAIRE. the 18th (i. was associated with Mariette in his excavations at Memphis. became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo. BRUeHL. having once had a population of 200. though many of them are now..com (1650-1725). textile and chemical. king of Poland. quarrelled with the prince. reduced to destitution. intersected by canals crossed by some 50 bridges. HEINRICH KARL. BRUIN. 1827.. in his day the prince of dandies. _b_. patronised by the Prince of Wales. the bear personified in the German epic of "Reynard the Fox. minister of Augustus III. born in London. and of great value. an unprincipled man. who encouraged his master. has a number of fine churches. in a decayed and a decaying place. CTSTI. the day when Napoleon. one specially noteworthy. of considerable depth.000. Flanders. so that when the Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to flee from Dresden and seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763). in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance. BEAU. the 9th November 1799. one of these canals. where. BRUGSCH. of W. his works on the subject are numerous.

Italian architect. submitted to Bourbons in 1814. son of the preceding. where he died insane (1778-1805). and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo (1377-1444). saw service in the Vendean war and in Italy.ramakalai@gmail. on his release. was imprisoned. BRUNEL. in particular the Thames tunnel. built the Duomo of the Cathedral. was the first to apply the screw propeller to steam navigation. the Pitti Palace. of France. played a perilous part in the French Revolution. was chief engineer of New York. engineer. French marshal. emigrated to the United States. classical scholar. and was attacked by a mob of Royalists at Avignon as he was setting out for Paris. an able French Hellenist. studied at Rome. born at Strassburg. assisted his father in his engineering operations. and brutally murdered and his body thrown into the Rhone (1763-1815). but had to surrender after Waterloo. BRUNCK. settled in England. CTSTI. constructed bridges and naval docks (1806-1859). designed and constructed the _Great Eastern_. BRUNE. and critic. distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland. begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849). BRUNEL. bred a goldsmith. was appointed to a post of command in the S. Chennai 6. Page 443 of 2772 . BRUNELLESCHI. was engineer of the Great Western Railway. SIR ISAMBARD. born in Florence. designed the _Great Western_ steamship. constructed the Thames tunnel. MARIE. ISAMBARD KINGDOM. G. had to sell his library in order to live (1729-1803).com length in Caen. entered the French navy. Computer Lecturer. and. returned to his native city. became block-maker to the Royal Navy. the first to cross the Atlantic. born in Rouen. edited several classical works. joined Napoleon on his return from Elba.

BRUNETTO-LATINI. begun in the form of lectures in 1890. Page 444 of 2772 . a very sound and sensible critic. his chief work. but was overthrown by Clothaire II. with large manufactures. and wrote a history of it. was deceived by Siegfried into marrying Gunther. the other division of the Frankish world. and dragged to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse. a masculine queen in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to marry the man that could beat her in feats of strength. connected with the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ and now editor. and was obliged to flee to Paris. who had married her rival Chriemhilda. Chennai 6. born at Arezzo. hence called Aretino.. of Vienna. Italian humanist. about the 7th century. had a lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde. N. Saintsbury. did much by his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of Greek (1369-1444). promises to be one of the chief monuments that the really "higher" criticism has yet furnished. LEONARDO. _b_. Computer Lecturer. which she accomplished by the hand of Hagen. Fredegunde's son. who played an important part among the Guelfs. BRUNNOW. according to Prof.com BRUNETIERE. an Italian writer. settled in Florence. Also a queen of Austrasia. where he had Dante for a pupil (1220-1294). BRUeNN (95). woollens the staple of the country. queen of Neustria. a Russian diplomatist. which at her death she seized possession of for a time.ramakalai@gmail. entitled "L'Evolution des Genres de l'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise". Austrian city. born at Dresden. and was twice ambassador at the English Court (1797-1875). CTSTI. capital of Moravia. and meditated the death of Siegfried. BRUNI. 93 m. represented Russia in several conferences. who. French critic. was papal secretary. BRUNHILDA. about one-half of the population Czechs. 1849. COUNT VON. beautifully situated.

a system which regards and treats diseases as due to defective or excessive excitation. _d_.ramakalai@gmail.. BRUNO. where each lived in cells apart. who he thought should. CTSTI. founder of the Carthusian Order of Monks. a Dominican monk. he was a pantheist. went for more freedom to Paris. as sthenic or asthenic. BRUNSWICK (404). Page 445 of 2772 . climate and crops are those of N. and regarded God as the living omnipresent soul of the universe. the first house of which was established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). Chennai 6. and Nature as the living garment of God. the capital. 1600. attached himself to Calvin for a time. BRUNONIAN SYSTEM. attacked the scholastic philosophy. ST. and they met only on Sundays. 6. BRUNSWICK (101). was arrested by the Inquisition. a N. German duchy. Festival. and after seven years spent in prison was burned as a heretic. chancellor of the Empire. propagated his views in Germany and Italy. is mountainous. quitted his monastery. archbishop of Cologne. and contains part of the Harz Mts. represent and encourage it (928-965). BRUNO THE GREAT. third son of Henry the Fowler. spent two years in England in friendship with Sir Philip Sidney. a great lover of learning. before all. mostly in the upper basin of the Weser. and promoter of it among the clergy. once a member Computer Lecturer. GIORDANO. in fact. born at Nola. made up of eight detached parts. a bold and fervid original thinker. was for heterodoxy obliged to flee from it. had to leave France as well.com BRUNO. a busy commercial town. retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble with six others. Germany generally. Oct.. JOHN. in Italy. born at Cologne. See BROWN. as the Earth-Spirit does in Goethe's "Faust"--a definition of Nature in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor Resartus".

and fell into comparative decay after the decay of the League. the town-hall a magnificent building. 140 m. CHARLES WILLIAM. and paper. was elected one of the two first Consuls of Rome.. There are many parks. a ship-canal and numerous railways foster commerce. BRUSSELS (477). an irregularly built city. headed a revolt. one of the sons of the Computer Lecturer. fell fighting at Ligny. SW. on the Senne. and squares. in the heart of the country. in the 6th century B. Page 446 of 2772 . BRUTUS. but a Revolutionary army under Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy. a cathedral. university and art schools. took part in the Peninsular war. ribbons. of Berlin. two days before the battle of Waterloo (1771-1815). The new town is well built. meaning stupid). and mortally wounded (1735-1806).ramakalai@gmail. of Antwerp.C. and manufactures textiles. and expelled the tyrant. boulevards. sentenced his two sons to death for conspiring to restore the monarchy. museum and library. BRUNSWICK. blustering manifesto. is the capital of Belgium. the founder of Republican Rome. FREDERICK WILLIAM. emitted a violent. art-gallery. and sewing-machines. BRUNSWICK. and one of the finest in Europe. LUCIUS JUNIUS. which. it saved his life when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death. leather. DUKE OF. was beaten by Davout at Auerstaedt. it has a cathedral. It is Paris in miniature. but when Tarquin's son committed an outrage on Lucretia. fell repelling an attempt to restore the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns. affected idiocy (whence his name. Prussian general. on the Oker. raised troops against France. The manufactures include linen. and compelled him to retreat in 1792. he threw off his disguise. The old town is narrow and crooked. being embarked for England. commanded the Prussian and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution. but picturesque. CTSTI. brother of Queen Caroline. 27 m. S.com of the Hanseatic League. DUKE OF. Chennai 6.

exclaiming as he did so. "O Virtue. but persuaded by Cassius and others to believe that Caesar aimed at the overthrow of the republic. _b_. Chennai 6. but escaped capture by falling on a sword held out to him by one of his friends. his chief literary work. BRUYERE. Illinois. bred to the bar and practised at it. BRUTUS. his poems were popular in America.com banished king." a satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696). BRYAN.ramakalai@gmail. 1838. was 50 years editor of the _New York Evening Post_. born in Salem. and son of Cato Uticensis's sister. a descendant of the preceding. Gladstone's last cabinet. "The Holy Roman Empire. author of "Characteres de Theophraste. bred to the bar. Fellow of Oriel College. was member of Mr. but defeated. "The Age. BRYANT. was defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus. some of the later his best (1794-1878). American statesman. a French writer. _b_. American poet." published in 1821. was twice nominated for the Presidency in opposition to Mr McKinley. Page 447 of 2772 . Oxford. joined the conspirators. CTSTI. lost his seat from his uncompromising views on that question.). forced to flee from Rome after the event. MARCUS JUNIUS. and was recognised by Caesar among the conspirators as party to his death.C. for a time professor of Civil Law at Oxford. WILLIAM JENNINGS. entered Parliament in 1880. entered Congress in 1890 as an extreme Free Silver man. much beloved by Caesar and Caesar's friend. 1860. historian and politician. BRYCE. WILLIAM CULLEN. wrote short poems all through his life." a work of high literary merit. thou art but a name!" (85-42 B. born at Belfast. the chief. Computer Lecturer. JAMES.

the wife of Ptah. differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli. broke in when no one else could. The town. a German Reformer. BUCEN`TAUR. the Egyptian Diana. and a city in Lower Egypt. chiefly English and French. with a stronghold of the Scott family. BUCCLEUCH. with their head-quarters in the Caribbean Sea. the horse which Alexander the Great. lived afterwards and died at Geneva. of Selkirk. an association. but devoted to literature.P. born at Strassburg. wrote novels and poems. invited by Cranmer to England. Page 448 of 2772 . in Kent. called to the bar. originally a Dominican. Bucephala. ox-head). BUCER MARTIN. which they were carrying home across the sea. SW. on the Hydaspes. CTSTI. an Egyptian goddess. giving the head the title of earl or duke. a glen 18 m. English antiquary. American continent. on the eastern branch of the Nile. BUCEPH`ALUS (i. it died in India from a wound. born at Wootton House. and on which he rode through all his campaigns. and edited old English writings of interest (1762-1837). while he tried to reconcile them. organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S. ministered as pastor and professor in his native place. was M.ramakalai@gmail. e. for Maidstone for six years. the state galley. Computer Lecturer. BUCCANEERS. in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it. of piratical adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries. was built near its grave. adopted the Reformed faith. worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers. SIR SAMUEL EGERTON. Chennai 6. while yet a youth.com BRYDGES. BUBASTIS.

BUCH. escaped to France. a German geologist. abounds in magnificent rock scenery. in 1566 principal of St. of Aberdeenshire. died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him. The Comyns were earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309.'s illegitimate sons. and when he found there was not. born at Cambuslang. born at Killearn. was buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard. when dying. GEORGE. Calcutta. near Glasgow. where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the Psalms. he ordered her to distribute what Computer Lecturer. LEOPOLD VON. wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853). came back to Scotland. vice-provost of the College at Fort William. but his bones were exhumed and burned a few years later (1491-1551). driven from one place to another. CTSTI. in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI. a most distinguished scholar and humanist. became tutor to James V. was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary. Barbe. in St. Andrews and Paris..com he accepted the invitation. a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt. Chennai 6. chaplain in Barrackpur under the East India Company. BUCHANAN. where he died. CLAUDIUS. BUCHANAN. returned to Scotland. wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815). adopted the volcanic theory of the earth. Andrews. and had several offices of State conferred on him." against the tyranny of peoples by kings. Page 449 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. wrote a "History of Scotland. Leonard's College. between the rivers Deveron and Ythan. who esteemed him highly." and his book "De Jure Regni. imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the Inquisition. a district in the NE. it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury him. Stirlingshire. and became professor of Divinity at Cambridge. one of the first to awaken an interest in India as a missionary field. BUCHAN. educated at St. imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for satires against the monks. professor for three years in the College at St.

the last "The Wandering Jew. his first work. the "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution". Chennai 6. made President in 1856. metal. a tributary of the Danube. it is the emporium of trade between the Balkan and Austria. a French historian. BUCHANITES. is a meanly built but well-fortified town. 180 m." which attacks the Christian religion. politician. of Scotland in 1783. the fifteenth in order. BUCHEZ. educated at Glasgow University. has written magazine articles. in a fertile plain. BUCHAREST (220). hides. besides novels. a writer in prose and verse. and Socialist. and one in particular. and coal are the chief articles in its markets. and he has since written a goodly number of poems. grain. BUCHANAN. favoured the South. textiles. joined the St. figured in political life after the Revolution Computer Lecturer. with the reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe. picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza.com there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as they saw good (1506-1582). Simonian Society. capital of Roumania. BUCHANAN. Page 450 of 2772 . from the Black Sea. Buchan. and a collaborateur in an important historical work. statesman of the United States. became a Christian Socialist. "Undertones. JOSEPH. born in Warwickshire. a fanatical sect who appeared in the W. _b_. xii. there is a Catholic cathedral and a university. JAMES. at the time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head. which involved him in some trouble. was ambassador in London in 1853. CTSTI.1841.ramakalai@gmail. who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. named after a Mrs. some of them of very high merit. ROBERT." a volume of verse published by him in 1863. retired after his Presidentship into private life (1791-1868).

was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton. is full of beautiful and varied Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. born in Falmouth. lying E. GEORGE VILLIERS. midland county. BUCHON. had to return to England.com of 1848. a learned Frenchman. Chennai 6. Page 451 of 2772 . of Oxford. served under Charles I. and gave offence to the East India Company by his outspokenness. in the Civil War. and Charles I. provoked by his conduct wars with Spain and France. conducted a journal in Calcutta. favourite of James I. by his writings and speeches paved the way for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855). BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185).. born in Leicestershire. CTSTI. traveller and journalist. fell into disfavour with the people. e. W. physician and materialist. LUDWIG. DUKE OF. son of the preceding. on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628). a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man (1627-1688). but retired to private life after the establishment of the Empire (1796-1865). BUCKINGHAM. English S. JAMES SILK. Force and Matter. which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899). became minister of Charles II." i. and had to retire into private practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy. was at the battle of Worcester. born at Darmstadt. lectured at Tuebingen University. BUeCHNER. rose under favour of the former to the highest offices and dignities of the State. GEORGE VILLIERS.. where his cause was warmly taken up. of Bedford and Hertford. BUCKINGHAM. wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846). wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff. DUKE OF. BUCKINGHAM.

" &c. GEORGE EARLE. 60 m. on the Ouse. wrote "Curiosities of Natural History. wood. and water. born in Lee. born near Bath. BUCKLE. hill. cattle and poultry feeding. in delicate health from his infancy. bred to medicine. thought himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England. an advanced thinker. 1854. CTSTI. BUCKLAND. where he distinguished himself. _b_. editor of the _Times_. the Ouse flows through the N. dairy produce. WILLIAM. which he started in 1866 (1826-1880). but failed. Chennai 6. a distinguished geologist. contributed largely to the journals.com scenery. HENRY THOMAS. and the Thame through the centre. such as the _Field_. NW.." "Familiar History of British Fishes. was inspector of salmon fisheries. in Kent. tried it. The Thames forms the southern boundary. having previously belonged to the editorial staff. Agriculture is the prevailing industry. Page 452 of 2772 . of London. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3). studied at Oxford. his theory as regards the development of civilisation is. born at Tiverton. and he remained in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856). naturalist. became editor in 1884.ramakalai@gmail. dale. his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects. The Chiltern Hills cross the county. that national character depends on Computer Lecturer. devoted to the study of animal life. and died at Damascus. and sheep rearing the sources of wealth. BUCKLAND. is a Fellow of All Souls' College. BUCKLE. awoke in Oxford University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology.. and edited _Land and Water_. his intellect gave way in 1850. FRANCIS (FRANK). was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel." in connection with that of Europe. had a predilection from boyhood for natural science. exerted himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in Genesis. son of the succeeding. too ambitious for his powers. visited the East for his health.

BUCKSTONE. or SAKYA-MUNI. of an intensely contemplative nature. the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B. CTSTI. e. a great commercial centre. consulted religious books. who went forth without sword. now he said to himself. the two cities being connected by a suspension bridge. born in London. for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre. retired into solitude at the age of 30. believed was a gospel to every creature. GAUTAMA. BUDDHA. the son of a king. and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones. like Christ's. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left. as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone with the universe. which he continued to do for 40 years." as Mahomet in his way did after him. could get no good out of them. an able comic actor and popular dramatist. BUDA-PESTH (506). Buda (Ger. JOHN BALDWIN. when at the end of ten years. "I know it all. from which. a twin city. and that progress depends upon the emancipation of rationality. the former on a rocky elevation and the latter on level ground. to preach what they. leaving behind him disciples. who did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life. born a Hindu. solitary of the Sakyas. like Christ's. nothing could detain him. and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as Buddha. e. an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements at work. Chennai 6. and became a preacher to others of what had proved salvation to himself. the Enlightened. his tribe.ramakalai@gmail. where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be held every year. the capital of Hungary. i.C. London (1802-1870). on the Danube.com material environment. Computer Lecturer.. BUDASTIS. he abstracted himself more and more from everything external. i. by-and-by. Page 453 of 2772 . an ancient town in Lower Egypt. the light of truth rose full-orbed upon him. in his contemplation of the vanity of existence. he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862). as Sakyamuni. however. till. soul with soul.

several Protestant churches. and the "way" to which was the mortification of all private passion and desire which mortification. Buddha is not answerable for this. as it is called. in such form as it has assumed. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising religion. CTSTI. was the Buddhist Nirvana. BUENOS AYRES (543). a great deal of the foreign trade is Computer Lecturer. NW. so called from the place of the inventor's abode. ever tend to do. which erelong became a formality. of Vienna. printing. cloth and boot manufacture are the leading industries. set itself solely to the work of salvation. who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulae. it is. capital of the Argentine Republic.com BUDDHISM. knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the spirit giveth life. but his followers. a religion which. eschewing all speculation about God and the universe. never attempted to do. which Buddha. Buddha wrote none himself. or triple basket. stands on the right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate. when finished. often a highly beggarly one. under the name of Tripitaka. BUDE-LIGHT. understood to be the religion of 340 millions of the human race. it at one time overran the whole of India. cigar-making. the end of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being. 133 m. or of this high order. and the centre of export and import trade. libraries and hospitals. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith. from the Atlantic. but in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form. it is the principal Argentine port.ramakalai@gmail. as all faiths of the kind. a university and military school. with a cathedral. Page 454 of 2772 . 150 m. it is a progressing city. Chennai 6. BUDWEIS (28). a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand burner. the climate does not correspond with the name it bears. improving in appearance. the religion of Buddha. and though it is now in small favour there. a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau.

BUGEAUD. Computer Lecturer. while immense iron-works. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between the years 1749 and 1767. his father one of the _noblesse de robe_. BUGENHAGEN. assisted. contributed to the conquest of Algiers. by Daubenton and others. handsome. spent some time in England. end of Lake Erie. and created duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the battle of Isly in 1844.ramakalai@gmail.. born at Montbard. though more to the display of it. and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi. produced 15 vols. was made governor. is supplied from Niagara. due NW. The saying "Style is the man" is ascribed to him. traction. Page 455 of 2772 . of New York. and flour-mills represent the industries. but it monopolises all the inland trade. a city of New York State. at the E. devoted from early years to science. studied law at Dijon. the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain. and he has been measured by some according to his own standard. his motto was _Ense et aratro_. GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC. and more than assisted. COMTE DE. and healthy city. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780). marshal of France. JOHANN. Chennai 6. a German Reformer. helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558). THOMAS. in Burgundy. &c. BUGGE. studying the English language. breweries. 1833. and coal. "By sword and plough" (1784-1849). served under Napoleon. _b_.com conducted through Monte Video. BUFFALO (256). is a well-built. electric power for lighting. BUFFON. tanneries. 300 m. retired from service till 1830. professor at Christiania. served under Louis Philippe. cattle. CTSTI. Norwegian philologist. born at Limoges. a great French naturalist. a convert of Luther's and coadjutor.

so called from a leaden seal attached to it. SOFIA (50). an Italian cabinet-maker. ornamental work for furniture. the chief export is cereals. BUKOWINA (640). with Eastern Roumelia (3.com BUHL. born at Wells. GEORGE." in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN CREED (q. v.154). Socinians. Servia the western. VARNA (28). the capital.'s reign. wine and tobacco. Turkey is the southern boundary.. the chief import is live stock. while the Black Sea washes the eastern shores. wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul and James on the matter of justification. an edict of the Pope. which takes its name from the inventor (see INFRA). much in fashion in Louis XIV.). and duchy in the E. breeds cattle and horses. the people industrious. on the Black Sea. mountains and forests in the S. and "Defensio Fidei Nicenae. with hills and fertile plains in the N. a small prov. Davids. manufactures of woollens. or with metals of another colour. Page 456 of 2772 . and Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail.. the Danube the northern. attar of roses. inventor of the work which bears his name (1642-1732). CTSTI. The climate is mild. consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel. is the seat of a university. BUHL. BULL. and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885. of Austria-Hungary. rich in minerals. CHARLES ANDRE. Chennai 6. is the principal port. BULGARIA. are staple industries. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in 1878. constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland. BULL. a stanch Churchman. bishop of St. and denied or modified by Arians.

25 m. Norway.com Sabellians (1634-1709). Egypt. GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY. a stream in Virginia. South Africa. U. a French architect and sculptor. BULL. Ashanti. pupil of Thomas Carlyle. a politician. the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire. Page 457 of 2772 . a Swiss Reformer. justice-loving. as well as wrought at the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578). and Catherine de Medicis. a humorous impersonation of the collective English people. HEINRICH. died in his prime. friend and Computer Lecturer. good-natured. universally beloved and respected (1806-1848). OLE BORNEMANN.ramakalai@gmail. from Washington. and plain-spoken. pupil of Paganini. honest-hearted. but a fool in spending it (1810-1880). served in China. BULL. a celebrated violinist. a Liberal in politics. _b_. CTSTI. and the Soudan..S. conceived of as well-fed." in which the Church of England figures as his mother. BULLER. born in Calcutta. with marked distinction in the 60th King's Royal Rifles. JOHN.. has held staff appointments. CHARLES. Henry II. born in Bergen. BULLANT. built the tombs of Montmorency. entered Parliament at 24. 1839. held distinguished State appointments. where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate. BULLINGER. "The History of John Bull. was a wise man at making money. and was for a short time Under-Secretary for Ireland. July 1861 and August 1862. born in Aargau. BULL RUN. BULLER. Chennai 6.

BUeLOW. originator of the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ (1803-1877). defeated the French under the Empire in several engagements." a "Life of Byron. CTSTI. and contributed to the victory at Waterloo. BUMBLE.com successor of Zwingli." Computer Lecturer. served the Liberal interest. Page 458 of 2772 . was a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575)." &c. was party to the conclusion of several important treaties. and the bear one who sells in the hope that it may fall. born near Geneva. a French litterateur. assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession. BARON VON. GUIDO VON. BUeLOW. and has done important diplomatic work in connection with it. BULWER. a Prussian general. See BEAR. _b_.. wrote several works.ramakalai@gmail. heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816). the bull being one who buys in the hope that the value may rise. a beadle in "Oliver Twist. in the Stock Exchange. "An Autumn in Greece. (1801-1872). 1850. HENRY LYTTON. a famous pianist. pupil of Liszt (1830-1894). having been secretary to several embassies and charge d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war. Foreign Secretary of the German empire. BULOZ. BUeLOW. an experienced and successful diplomatist. BERNARD VON. FRIEDRICH WILHELM. served his country in the war with Revolutionary France. early entered the Foreign Office. Chennai 6. BULLS AND BEARS. MR.

BUNSEN. invented the charcoal pile. author of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762). wrote the "Church of the Future." i." &c. Page 459 of 2772 . BUNSBY. in Waldeck. and the burner called after him." "Hippolytus and his Age. born at Korbach. between the Chambal and the Jumna. a district in N. the scene on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of Independence. BUNDELKHAND (2. BUNCOMBE. ROBERT WILLIAM. BUNSEN. born at Goettingen. a distinguished German chemist.. to please one's constituency. became acquainted with Niebuhr at Berlin. whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe. an eminence 112 ft. has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense. (1791-1860). was partial to English institutions. studied at Marburg and Goettingen. to the Prussian embassy at Rome. BUNKER HILL. commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son. became secretary.S. under Niebuhr. a territory in NW. for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the U. Congress.ramakalai@gmail. the magnesian light. Chennai 6.000). discovered the antidote to arsenic. became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England. JACK. Provinces. now included in Boston.com BUNAU. CTSTI. Carolina. BARON VON. with hydrate of iron and the Computer Lecturer. and succeeded Niebuhr. settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg. recommended himself to the king. and much esteemed in England. a German historian. India. a diplomatist and man of letters. e." regarded as an oracle by Captain Cuttle. studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de Sacy at Paris.

like Michael Angelo. English tragedian. it came out eventually in two parts. Page 460 of 2772 . and it was towards the close of it." continue to be read (1628-1688). BUONTALENTI. his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment. Chennai 6. the whole finished the year after. an Italian artist. RICHARD. an imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years. but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress.com SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. MR. (1562-1618)." &c. and in the precincts of Bedford jail. painter. that he dreamed his world-famous dream. after a time of resistance to them. and causes at the top a non-luminous flame. being.. and bred himself to that humble craft. v. author of the "Pilgrim's Progress. extended. at once architect. not more than two of these.). near Bedford. he was early visited with religious convictions. in the spring of 1676. encouraged by the success of it--for it leapt into popularity at a bound--Bunyan wrote some sixty other books. CTSTI. a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield." "King Lear." noted for Computer Lecturer. BURCHELL.ramakalai@gmail. and ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world. one of the greatest. born at Florence. _b_. born in London. but except this. "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War. and sculptor (1536-1608). here two-thirds of it were written.." born in Elstow. JOHN. and brought. and published at the end of it. 1811. largely used in chemical operations. to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ. BURBAGE. took the chief role in "Hamlet. which burns with the gas. a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the bottom of it to let in air. associate of Shakespeare." "Richard III. his masterpiece. BUNSEN BURNER. the son of a tinker. BUNYAN.

and acquired through her a large fortune. and in 1881 married Mr. _b_. travelled by way of Syria. was made a peeress in 1871. BURDER. and imprisoned three months. GEORGE. BARONESS. became secretary to the London Missionary Society. William Lehman Computer Lecturer. his travels were published after his death. married Sophia. born at Bale. born at Lausanne. JOHN LUDVIG. becoming M. BURDETT. received the freedom of the city of London in 1874. pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim--the first Christian to risk such a venture. SIR FRANCIS. daughter of Sir Francis. CTSTI. and got himself into serious trouble. inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts. acquired a proficiency in Arabic.P. and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817). many of which have since been adopted. which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well as patriotic objects.com his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to believe.ramakalai@gmail. sent out from England by the African Association to explore Africa. and died a member of it (1770-1844). a wealthy London banker. 1818. traveller." which were once widely popular (1752-1832). BURCKHARDT. he resolutely opposed the government measures of the day. fined L1000 for condemning the Peterloo massacre. and died at Cairo just as he was preparing for his African exploration. author of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance". was prosecuted for a libel. Swiss historian and archaeologist. Page 461 of 2772 . BURDETT-COUTTS. the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts.. THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA. returned to Egypt. and assumed Arabic customs. advocated radical measures of reform. joined the Conservative party in 1835. Chennai 6. a popular member of Parliament. BURCKHARDT. her grandfather. Congregational minister. author of "Village Sermons.

com Ashmead-Bartlett. of Old Castile. hence bureaucracy." which was translated by Sir Walter Scott. N. 1804. on the Arlanzon. devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama. amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531). an American. Computer Lecturer. joined the Royal Engineers. BURGOS (34). SIR JOHN. a German lyric poet. was the birthplace of the Cid. field-marshal. fell into disfavour. BUREAU. and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain." as well as songs. Chennai 6. led a wild life in youth. author of the ballads "Lenore. HANS. _b_. painter and engraver. Page 462 of 2772 . JOHN. after a victory or two. BURGOYNE. of Madrid by rail. and once a university seat. and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies. BURGOYNE. and "The Wild Huntsman. it has linen and woollen industries. was governor of the Tower (1782-1871). CTSTI. served under Abercromby in Egypt. boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period. and a very unhappy one in later years. BURGKMAIR. died in poverty (1747-1794). was present at the battles of Alma. GOTTFRIED AUGUST. being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga. a name given to a department of public administration. born at Augsburg. 225 m. and an old castle. the "Heiress" in the latter his best (1723-1792). defended his conduct with ability and successfully afterwards. who obtained the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts. BUeRGER. ancient cap. English general. Balaclava. and. a name for government by bureaux. and Inkerman in the Crimea. celebrated for his woodcuts.ramakalai@gmail.

and a place of great extent. in particular by his speeches on the American war. CTSTI. but still famous.com BURGUNDY was. is now in comparative decay. as formerly. born in Artois. an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose of suasion). BURKE. was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in the Deccan. BURHANPUR (32). and sometime after planned the "Annual Register. his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings." which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects of the time. between a bottle of hay and a pail of water. JEAN. NE. and educated at Dublin University. and probably the greatest that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797). in the Nimar district. author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom". SIR JOHN BERNARD. the country is still noted for its wines. silks. Catholic emancipation. and E. Page 463 of 2772 ." a weighty appeal. of France. Chennai 6. for its muslins. a scholastic doctor of the 14th century. a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE." and another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful. Computer Lecturer. a town in the Central Provinces of India. "He was." says Professor Saintsbury. born in London. he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution. of Irish descent. orator and philosophic writer. born at Dublin. and economical reform. of Bombay. wrote in early life two small but notable treatises. of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass. and famous as the reputed author. distinguished himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side. BURKE. though there is no evidence of it in his works. called after him Buridan's Ass. annexed to France as a province in the 6th century. and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections. genealogist. prior to the 16th century. a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will.ramakalai@gmail. e. "a rhetorician (i. entered Parliament in 1765. 280 m. EDMUND. "A Vindication of Natural Society. BURIDAN. and brocades." to which he was to the last chief contributor.

becoming informer. after terrible sufferings from privation and drought (1820-1861). conducted an expedition across Australia. WILLIAM CECIL. a notorious murderer. BURKE. native of Ireland. a number of works on aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892). Page 464 of 2772 . Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities. he had an accomplice as bad as himself. to the glory of the queen and the good of the country. he held for forty years. till his death. born in Galway. BURLINGAME. after intoxicating them with drink. Biblical expositor. executed in 1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation. and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset.ramakalai@gmail. concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870). ANSON. who. BURLEIGH.com produced. WILLIAM. His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without respect of persons. American diplomatist. managed to escape the Marian persecution. whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox. besides editing successive editions of it. BURKE." once held in high esteem (1650-1703). BURKITT. an office which. ROBERT O'HARA. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. Australian explorer. sent ambassador to China. WILLIAM. but on the way back both he and his companion Wells perished. a great statesman. born in Lincolnshire. and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts. author of "Expository Notes on the New Testament. CTSTI. LORD. bred to the legal profession. born in Suffolk. whom the citizens mobbed. and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598). and appointed him chief-secretary of state. got off.

and Sittang Rivers. editor of _Punch_. and author of a series of papers. observant wit: _b_. he was a daring aeronaut. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam. of Welsh descent. and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it. BURNAND. English vicar. lead. studied for the Church. and with Gordon in the Soudan. entitled "Happy Thoughts. and bamboo. the mines. lying E. born at Birmingham. was chiefly distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary. and his account of them in "On Horseback through Asia Minor". Page 465 of 2772 . Salween. powerful man. Upper Burma. born in Westmoreland. came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. Tibet. a tall. and bounded landward by Bengal. born at Bedford. the forests yield teak.com BURMA (9. silver. the climate varies with the elevation. an empire nearly as large as Spain.606). whose deltas are flat fertile plains. Chennai 6. having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885). RICHARD. at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge. which is at Computer Lecturer. drained by the Irawadi. of which he published a spirited account. FRANCIS COWLEY. Mandalay. China. rice is the chief crop. the country is mountainous. SIR EDWARD. a traveller of daring adventure. was annexed in 1886. Rangoon. cap. 1836. copper. cap. BURNABY. the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785). compiled several law digests. BURNE-JONES. a vast province of British India. artist. BURN. killed. the heights on the Chinese frontier reach 15.000 ft. and Siam.ramakalai@gmail. COLONEL." which give evidence of a most keen. but is mostly hot and trying. gum. an expert at the burlesque. and for his travels next year in Asia Minor and Persia. CTSTI. iron. of the Bay of Bengal. and was seized by Britain in 1826 and 1854. pierced by an Arab spear. and rubies. travelled in South and Central America. and became a Roman Catholic. Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue.

BURNET. a broad Churchman in creed. William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford. resident for a time in America. he was a Whig in politics. born at Edinburgh. master of the Charterhouse. BURNETT. was an officer in the Indian army. appointed Resident at Cabul. the most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times. if not the foremost. born at Fisherrow.ramakalai@gmail. engraver and author. along with his brother and others. and a man of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity. but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715). Page 466 of 2772 . CTSTI. THOMAS. BURNES. by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection (1805-1841)." the "History of His Own Times". afterwards preacher at the Rolls Chapel. of an old Aberdeen family. he was one of the foremost. took an active part in supporting the claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne. bishop of Salisbury. JOHN. BURNET. BURNET. engraved Wilkie's works." an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles. London. was murdered. imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment. novelist. born at Montrose. that of Salisbury." and other stories of Computer Lecturer. distinguished for the services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the native languages. was rewarded with a bishopric. Swift. SIR ALEXANDER. author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth. GILBERT. professor of Divinity in Glasgow. and used to spend their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898). Chennai 6." a work which Pope. his father a cousin of Robert Burns. born in Manchester. born in Yorkshire. FRANCES HODGSON. wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's. and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715).com once mystical in conception and realistic in execution." eloquent in descriptive parts. wrote the "History of the Reformation. and wrote on art (1784-1868). of the artists of his day.

a Frenchman. 1858. JOHN. born at Shrewsbury. and descriptive power. Page 467 of 2772 . BURNEY. purchased by the British Museum for L13. &c. accompanied Cook in his last two voyages. Computer Lecturer. a refugee of the Commune from Paris. BURNS. and has been twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament. wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852). of humble parentage. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. _b_. son of preceding. musical composer and organist. edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata Purana. wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821). was four times elected member of the London County Council for Battersea. imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman. brother of preceding. BURNOUF. a great classical scholar. made a special study of Buddhism. characterised by shrewd observation. JAMES." and the father of Madame d'Arblay. BURNEY. became a platform orator in the interest of Socialism. author of "The History of Music. CHARLES. bred to be an engineer. settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814). a friend of Johnson's.ramakalai@gmail. an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature. pathos. got into trouble in consequence. BURNLEY (87). 1849. with cotton mills. N. BURNEY. professor of Sanskrit in the College of France. rear-admiral." a book embodying Hindu mythology. born at Vauxhall. _b_. Chennai 6. CHARLES. EUGENE.500 (1757-1817). left a fine library. an illustrious Orientalist. and popular among the working class. politician and Socialist. born in Paris. CTSTI.com Lancashire manufacturing life. foundries. breweries. 27 m. of Manchester.

we may almost say. ROBERT. NE. best known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great Computer Lecturer. realised a few pounds thereby." See Carlyle's "Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung.. near Ayr. tried farming himself on his father's decease in 1784. without ever having lived. and published a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end. of which he knew many. ELIHU. and died in 1796.ramakalai@gmail. fell into bad health. its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom. accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries. driven desperate in his circumstances. celebrated Scottish poet. of Adelaide. and money came in. born in Connecticut. and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon. is the name and voice which Burns has given them. an inlet of river Fraser. Chennai 6.. CTSTI.. his poems were reprinted. in hut and hall. about 103 m. BURRARD INLET. born at Alloway. soon after he married. but failing. who tried farming in a small way. meditated emigrating to Jamaica. intelligent peasant.. when friends and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay. as the heart unfolds itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence. a copper-mine in S. both ancient and modern. aged 37. which might have soared could it but have walked. "he has found a tune and words for every mood of man's heart. he was invited to Edinburgh. son of an honest. and was about to set sail. and died. Australia. In them. To the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more venerable. Page 468 of 2772 . but did not prosper. in 1759." he adds. and took a farm... devoted to the study of languages. "His sun shone as through a tropical tornado. forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast. the _name_. which he thinks "by far the best that Britain has yet produced.. but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given.." BURRA-BURRA. BURRITT. in British Columbia..com BURNS. soon sank to the dust. And that spirit." he says. the _voice_ of that joy and that woe. but took to rhyming by preference. a blacksmith. He is at his best in his "Songs.

" "History of Scotland. SIR RICHARD FRANCIS. Page 469 of 2772 . Napier. Chennai 6. popular author. on which he has written largely and _con amore_. till Nero. formed in 1813. BURSLEM (31). and Computer Lecturer. a farmer.. travelled in Brazil. JOHN HILL." &c. wrote an account of his visit in his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage. wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals. bred for the bar. BURSCHENSCHAFT. BURRUS. and the "mother of the potteries". visited Mecca and Medina as an Afghan pilgrim. served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. traveller. and wrote "The City of the Saints". and discovered Lake Tanganyika. an association of students in the interest of German liberation and unity. born at Aberdeen. BURTON. "Life of Hume. born in New York.". and opposed his tyrannical acts. born in Hertfordshire. translated the "Arabian Nights". penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke. BURTON. was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1809-1881). weary of his expostulations. BURROUGHS. got rid of him by poison. and broken up by the Government in 1819. his works on his travels numerous. CTSTI. characterised by Lord Rosebery as a "dispassionate historian". with a great liking for country life and natural objects. &c. a cultured man. a Roman general.ramakalai@gmail. historian and miscellaneous writer.com part of Europe. accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife." "The Book-Hunter. manufactures porcelain and glass. on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879). JOHN. visited Utah. 1837. _b_. and Western Africa. a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire. who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education. an able man. Palestine." "The Scot Abroad.

named from Edmund. CTSTI. born in Leicestershire. an English clergyman. king of East Anglia. Scholar of Christ Church. EDMUNDSBURY (16). BURY ST. dye-works. BURTON-ON-TRENT (46). Lincolnshire. a mountain ridge in the prov.000 troops beat Massena with 65. 26 m. had a number of eminent men for his pupils. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. Computer Lecturer. in whose honour it was built. lived chiefly in Oxford.com show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890)." which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind. originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture. martyred by the Danes in 870. EDMUNDS. author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy. distinguished English schoolmaster." BUSA`CO. brews and exports large quantities of ale. spending his time in it for some 50 years in study. was head-master of Winchester School. where Wellington with 40. a town in Staffordshire. Locke. See ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. of Manchester.ramakalai@gmail.000. Chennai 6. the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes. BURTON. NW. among others Dryden. Oxford. BURY (56). Portugal. a book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic. RICHARD. from every manner of source (1576-1640). familiar and unfamiliar. 10 m. of Ipswich. of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. of Beira. or ST. famous for its abbey. and South (1606-1695). ROBERT. Page 470 of 2772 . BUSBY. but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works. born at Lutton. &c. a market-town in Suffolk. NW.

" and there associated with other desperadoes. in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush. long and from 3 to 5 broad. an island in the Firth of Clyde. a celebrated German geographer. but now fast becoming extinct. BUTE. a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in sacrifice. BUSHMEN. by a winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute. and separated from the mainland on the N. N. Chennai 6. Page 471 of 2772 . BUSHIRE (27). about 16 m.com BUeSCHING." Computer Lecturer. BUSIRIS. and How to Use it" (1815-1882). but Hercules snapped the bonds he was bound with. a rude. HANS. of Arran. at one time caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings. aborigines of South-west Africa. one of the originators of the Volunteer movement. CTSTI. author of "The Rifle.ramakalai@gmail. BUSKIN. at one time numerous. a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage. and a synonym for tragedy. the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf. seized Hercules and bound him to the altar. born in Wales. his "Erdbeschreibung. with his seat at Mount Stuart. nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property. or BOSJESMANS. and a great trading centre. gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793)." the first geographical work of any scientific merit. ANTON FRIEDRICH. and sacrificed him. nomadic race. BUSHRANGERS. BUSK.

born in Northampton. was very unpopular as a statesman. son of the second marquis. BUTLER. conformed to the Church of England." the first three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral science. BUTLER. to the Constitution and Course of Nature. born of an old Scotch family. "The Analogy of Religion. Secretary of State. spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement. an eminent English divine. CTSTI. admitted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1868. THIRD EARL OF. ALBAN. statesman. BUTLER. Natural and Revealed. born at Strensham. _b_. over whom he had a great influence. to show that the objections to revealed religion are equally valid against the constitution of nature. to the see of Bristol. a master of burlesque. head of the college at St. and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime Minister under George III. in Berks. Page 472 of 2772 . and is often obscure (1692-1752). SAMUEL. became preacher at the Rolls. born in Bute. Chennai 6. devoting himself to literature and science (1712-1792). in Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. born at Wantage. and interested in university education. an English barrister. in virtue of his merits alone. his leading idea being the supremacy of the king. made dean of St. wrote "Lives of the Saints" (1710-1773). wrote "Historical Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832). to establish a conformity between the divine order in revelation and the order of nature. and second. Paul's. JOSEPH. BUTLER. was raised." the aim of which is twofold--first. BUTE.. where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons. born in London. and finally bishop of Durham. JOHN STUART. 1849. devoted to archaeological studies. Omer. MARQUIS OF. his great work. CHARLES.com BUTE. born a Dissenter. his style is far from interesting. hagiographer.

. professor of Moral Philosophy at Dublin. BUTTMANN. Chennai 6. it is sparkling with wit. made her _debut_ in London at the Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend. born near Clonmel. in accordance with the new criticism. in which he subjects to ridicule the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the Civil War and the Commonwealth." says Stopford Brooke. PHILIPP. operatic singer. It is often as terse as Pope's best work. BUTT. ever since which appearances she has been much in demand as a singer. is absolutely without obscurity. _b_. a philosophical writer. Ireland. yet is hard reading. entered Parliament. BUTT. "the fierce reaction that (at the Restoration) had set in against Puritanism. the son of a small farmer. "for wit. It is justly famed. a German philologist. the first in 1663. became editor of the _Dublin University Magazine_. "It represents. and." a poem of about 10. and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party. CTSTI. ISAAC. and retired (1813-1879). born in Sussex. was an especial favourite with Charles II. who was never weary of quoting from it. CLARA. distinguished for his scholarship at Dublin University. but could not control it. WILLIAM ARCHER.com Worcestershire. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. the second soon after. its wit wearies us at last. author of "Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848). and it undoes the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its exaggeration" (1612-1680). learning. and the third in 1678. Page 473 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. but it is too long. it appeared in three parts. professor of Philology in Berlin. and ingenious drollery. the author of "Hudibras. good sense. 1872. and few who take it up read it through. BUTLER.ramakalai@gmail. best known by his "Greek Grammar" (1764-1829). Irish patriot." and in "Orfeo" at the Lyceum." he adds.000 octosyllabic lines.

an office he held till his death (1663-1733). fourth son of the preceding. stalactite cavern. Page 474 of 2772 .com BUXTON. JOHN. "Master of the Rabbis" (1564-1629). was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727. educated at Harrow and Cambridge. was known by the title. Australia. a tall man of energetic character. BYNG. whom she pursued into far lands. a celebrated Hebraist. member of a family of Orientalists. is also famous for its rock crystals. in Computer Lecturer. admiral. such as the amelioration of criminal law and the abolition of slavery. represented Weymouth in Parliament from 1818 to 1837. and a resort for invalids. in the Greek mythology a daughter of Miletus. BUXTORF. admiral. and won the navy over to his interest. a philanthropist. _b_. noted for its calcareous and chalybeate springs. commanded the squadron that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape Passaro. he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845). Chennai 6. was conspicuous for his interest in benevolent movements. BYBLIS. was made a baronet in 1840. a high-lying town in Derbyshire. 1837. a Liberal in politics. BYNG. born in Westphalia. GEORGE. was recalled. till. grandson of the preceding. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. born in Essex. entered life as a brewer. once governor of S. BUXTON.ramakalai@gmail. she was changed into a fountain. and fine scenery. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. worn out with sorrow. and made his fortune. VISCOUNT TORRINGTON. favoured the Prince of Orange. BUXTON. and member for King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868. CTSTI. professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle. in love with her brother Caunus. a philanthropist and Evangelical Churchman. having failed to compel the French to raise the blockade of Minorca.

and embarking in it. on the Continent. Chennai 6. an English poet. was shot at Portsmouth. spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother. when a storm raised against him on account of his private life drove him from England. born in London. Aberdeenshire. author of the pastoral. but she had not returned his affection. when at the latter. and he never came back. it is believed. son of Captain Byron of the Guards. was Happily Spent". and which he bore like a man and a Christian (1704-1757)." and soon afterwards left England and spent two years in foreign travel. poet and stenographer. and Catherine Gordon of Gight. and which he satirised in "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. Computer Lecturer." "awoke one morning and found himself famous". who in a year left him never to return. contributed as "John Shadow" to the _Spectator_. and being tried and condemned as guilty of treason. See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824)." completed several short poems. now superseded. and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank." and other work. from the character of the passion that breathed in them." "Hebrew Melodies. wrote "Hours of Idleness. and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge. SIXTH LORD.com deference to popular clamour. his vacations in London." a poor first attempt. or anyhow. died at Missolonghi in a fit. a fate it is now believed he did not deserve. the earth is looking green again once more. now a widow. the promise of such. where his mother had taken a house. finished "Childe Harold. JOHN. His poems. produced the "Giaour. under the breath. and wrote "Don Juan". BYROM.ramakalai@gmail. moved from place to place. invented a system of shorthand. but the like interest in them is happily now passing away. threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece. of a new spring-time. at the age of 36. BYRON." "Bride of Abydos. which called forth a severe criticism in the _Edinburgh Review_. O ye Muses. risked his all in the emancipation of the latter. CTSTI. wrote first part of "Childe Harold. made a great impression on his age. In his school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth. born near Manchester. GEORGE GORDON. and which he had the sole right of teaching for 21 years. spending. if not already past. his poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763). "My Time. Page 475 of 2772 . an heiress.

ramakalai@gmail." BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Fairholt as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon classic forms. BYZANTINE ART. he rose to the rank of admiral. the Eastern section falling to the share of the former. till Constantinople was taken by the Turks in 1453. born in Manchester. and commanded the squadron in the West Indies during the American war. Computer Lecturer. nicknamed from his misfortunes "Foul-weather Jack". HENRY JAMES. BYZANTIUM. Arcadius and Honorius. a celebrated citadel of Carthage. called also the Eastern.D. by the death of Theodosius. the Lower. Page 476 of 2772 . dates from 395 A.. the ancient name of Constantinople. but was wrecked in his ship the _Wager_. when. and it lasted with varied fortune for ten centuries after the accession of Arcadius. BYRSA.C. grandfather of the poet. ending in their debasement. who established the seat of his government at Byzantium. suffered almost unexampled hardships. it has been described by Mr. accompanied Anson in his voyage round the world. CTSTI. or the Greek Empire. naval officer. JOHN. founded by Greek colonists in 667 B.com BYRON. BYRON. of which he wrote a classical account on his safe return home. Pontus. Egypt in Africa. Chennai 6. the Roman empire was divided between his two sons. a decorative style of art patronised by the Romans after the seat of empire was removed to the East. Asia Minor. wrote "Our Boys" (1834-1884). died in England (1723-1786). and Ancient Greece. the empire included Syria. dramatist.

v. built in it. particularly Andalusian. Chennai 6. their names were Clifford. The name comes from a Hebrew word suggesting "to receive. letters. born at Montpellier (1828-1889). a science which really owes its existence to a dissatisfaction in the rabbinical mind with the traditional literal interpretation. the _nom de plume_ of Cecilia Boehl. Page 477 of 2772 . a collector of folk tales. and Lauderdale. a popular Spanish authoress. peasant life (1797-1877). Arlington. wrote charmingly.). derived from CABALA (q. CABALLERO. born in Switzerland. told stories of Spanish. CABANEL. on which all pilgrims who visit the shrine imprint a kiss." CABAL`. Computer Lecturer. and very accents of the Hebrew Scriptures. the initials of whose names go to make up the word. probably an aerolite. Buckingham. a secret science alleged to have been divinely imparted to Moses and preserved by tradition. FERNAN. a small square structure in the grand mosque of Mecca. a name applied to a junto of five ministers of Charles II." and denotes "that which is received" or tradition. CTSTI. of German descent. ALEXANDRE. in power from 1668 to 1673.com C CAABA. and a sense that there is more in Scripture than meets the ear. a secret intriguing faction in a State. the eyes of innumerable praying men being turned towards it from all the quarters of the compass five times a day. a French painter. Ashley. CAB`ALA. with a mysterious black stone. "the Keblah of all Moslem. an ancient Arab temple.ramakalai@gmail. by means of which the Rabbis affected to interpret the pretended mystic sense of the words.

has written interestingly on.). and published an account of it. CABEL. but failed. born in Dijon. a celebrated French medical man. Page 478 of 2772 . Creole life in America. CTSTI. author of the "Voyage en Icarie. PIERRE JEAN GEORGE. born in Cosnac." a body of whom he headed to carry out his schemes in America. born at New Orleans. wrote a history of the First Revolution. America. and held that the brain secretes thought just as the liver secretes bile (1757-1808). CABOT. a French communist. and created an interest in. GEORGE WASHINGTON. and especially with that of DEMETER and DIONYSUS (q. Louis broken-hearted (1788-1856). treated the soul as a nonentity. ETIENNE. and fled to England. a pronounced materialist in philosophy. GIOVANNI. which became the text-book of a communistic sect called "Icarians. son of the preceding. certain mysterious demonic beings to whom mystic honours were paid in Lemnos and elsewhere in Greece. a leader of the Carbonari.com CABANIS. born at Genoa. a Venetian pilot. CABOT. at Labrador. CABET. entered the service of Henry VII. provoked prosecution." in description of a communistic Utopia. his materialism was of the grossest. about 1497: _d_. 1844. died at St. CABLE. attended him in his last illness. settled in Bristol. born at Ryswick (1631-1698). a journalist. and discovered part of the mainland of N. and friend of Mirabeau. CABI`RI. _b_. born either in Venice or Computer Lecturer. SEBASTIAN. a celebrated painter of the Dutch school. of Charente Inferieure. v. in connection with nature-worship. in which he defended the Jacobins. 1498. first in Texas and then at Nauvoo. in the dep. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail..

to plant colonies in Brazil with no success. on which he planted the Portuguese flag.com Bristol. Chennai 6. the name also of its capital (14). CTSTI. as the province is for cattle-rearing. died in England. and of which he is accounted by some the discoverer. CACCIA. took up arms in his behalf. 1625. 1500. returned to Spain. _d_. Computer Lecturer. or KABUL (50). sought service as a navigator. and established a factory at Calicut in 1501 (1460-1526). famous for its bacon and sausages. did altar-pieces. a zealous supporter of the claims of Don Carlos. was the first to notice the variation of the magnetic needle. a Spanish general. Catalonia. on an elevated plateau of great fertility. attempted under Charles V. PEDRO ALVAREZ. on the high route between Central Asia and the Punjab. 6000 ft. a Spanish province in the N. but failed. his best work. of Estremadura. "Deposition from the Cross." at Novara. first in Spain then in England. cap. a great highway of trade. of a province of the name in Afghanistan. CABRAL. and a depot for European goods. he was an unscrupulous adversary (1810-1877). in a mild climate. Italian fresco-painter. Page 479 of 2772 . sailing for the Indies. CABRERA. one of the Balearic Isles. born at Tortosa. a Portuguese navigator.ramakalai@gmail. CACERAS (350). continued his course. CABUL`. produces wild olives. in height. accompanied his father to N. drifted on the coast of Brazil. used as a penal settlement by Spain. and to open up to England trade with Russia (1474-1557). America. for which he was imprisoned and banished. CABRE`RA.

discovered the Cape de Verde Islands in 1457. CACHE. an Irish adventurer.ramakalai@gmail. under the royal seal. could not prevent his followers from plundering. often obtained to gratify private ends. CTSTI. dragging them to his cave tail foremost to deceive the owner. was answered by an armed force. Chennai 6. a Venetian in the service of Portugal. encamped with his following on Blackheath. demanded of the king redress of grievances. name given in Canada to a hole in the ground for hiding provisions when they prove cumbersome to carry. published posthumously (1432-1480). CA`CUS. the citizens retaliating. with maps illustrative called Cadastral Maps. CADASTRE. JACK. in 1450. in the reign of Henry VI. abolished in 1790. represented by Virgil as breathing smoke and flames of fire. for the arrest and imprisonment of a person. a mythological brigand of gigantic stature who occupied a cave in Mount Aventine. entered the city. Computer Lecturer. CACHET. wrote the first book giving an account of modern voyages. but was overtaken and slain. CADEMOSTO. and the extent of their estates. which he defeated. headed an insurrection in Kent.com CACHAR (313). a warrant issued in France before the Revolution.. strangled by Hercules in his rage at the deception quite as much as the theft. Page 480 of 2772 . stole the oxen of Hercules as he was asleep. a great tea-growing district in Assam. LETTRE DE. a register of the landed proprietors of a district. CADE. he had to flee.

which devoured them. he sent. in Boeotia. in Andalusia. CTSTI. the winged rod of Hermes. and carries on a large export trade. having seen in him "a mind cast in the true mould". Chennai 6. entwined with two serpents.C. slew the dragon. came over from London. became the forefathers of Thebes. born in Brittany. whither he had retired. one of the chief commercial ports in Spain. founder of Thebes. GEORGES. CAD`MUS. and. on a secret mission from Charles X. wrote a poem on the beginning of things at the call of a voice Computer Lecturer. originally a simple olive branch. the son of a farmer. CADUCEUS.com CADIZ (62). a semi-mythological personage. after a short trial. but was defeated. with a view to its sacrifice. preserved by Bede. is the oldest specimen extant of English poetry. which sprang up into a body of armed men. founded by the Phoenicians about 1100 B. it is 7 m. who. tried hard and took up arms to restore the Bourbons in the teeth of the Republic. the story goes. having confessed his intention to overthrow the Republic and establish Louis XVIII. was suspected of evil designs against the person of Bonaparte. was in the hands of the god possessed of magical virtues. in the quest of his sister Europa. the fragment of a hymn by whom. called Gades by the Romans. CADOUDAL. condemned and executed. from Xeres and 50 m. arrested. and separated from the rest of the island by a channel crossed by bridges. arrived at the spot where the cow lay down. from Gibraltar. sowed its teeth. his companions to a well guarded by a dragon. was told by the oracle at Delphi to follow a cow and build a city where she lay down. at the NW. to whom is ascribed the introduction of the Greek alphabet from Phoenicia and the invention of writing.ramakalai@gmail. it was the symbol of peace. on the throne (1769-1804).). who speared each other to death. refused to serve under Bonaparte.. all but five. a brave man.. chief of the CHOUANS (q. v. who would fain have enlisted him. extremity of the Isle of Leon. CAEDMON. an English poet of the 7th century. Page 481 of 2772 .

many other tales in the sacred Scriptures. it is a very ancient place. and thereupon he began to sing. capital of Calvados. on the Usk.com from heaven. lace the chief manufacture. 21/2 m. and was by an edict of proscription against him obliged to quit the city. CAEN (45). CAESAR. a fine old Norman town. early provoked the jealousy of Sulla. Chennai 6. saying as he slept. NE. on the death of Sulla returned to Rome. it survives in the titles of the Kaiser of Germany and the Czar of Russia. the burial-place of William the Conqueror. and gave hints on their classification (1519-1603). and the story of Christ and the Apostles. Italian natural philosopher. and has fine old public buildings. a small old town in Monmouthshire. by birth and marriage connected with the democratic party. was forerunner of Harvey and Linnaeus.). and a noble collection of pictures. and finally to the consulship. was appointed to the government of Gaul. Page 482 of 2772 . about 80 m. CAESAR. and the native place of Charlotte Corday. CTSTI. SE. "Caedmon. name of an old Roman family claiming descent from the Trojan AEneas. was elected to one civic office after another. as Stopford Brooke reports. it is a well-built town. though the title was applied to succeeding emperors and to the heirs-apparent of the Western and the Eastern Empires. the story of Genesis and Exodus. celebrated by Tennyson in connection with Arthurian legend. and contains relics of Roman times. CAER`LEON. a large library. which the emperors of Rome from Augustus to Nero of right inherited. United with Pompey and Crassus in the First Triumvirate (60 B. CAESALPINUS. which he subdued after Computer Lecturer. born at Arezzo.ramakalai@gmail. discovered sex in plants. of Newport. of Cherbourg. CAIUS JULIUS. and of heaven and hell to come. come sing me some song". then dictator.C. pronounced the greatest man of antiquity. was professor of botany at Pisa.

pursued Pompey. of poor parents. distinguishing himself in Egypt and elsewhere. lies on the slopes of a hill.C. v. the cap of Sardinia. whence Christ. and defeated him at Pharsalia (48 B.C. Chennai 6. after which they absconded to Paris and lived in Computer Lecturer.C. married a pretty woman named Lorenza Feliciani. his real name being Giuseppe Balsamo. on assuring Himself that His disciples were persuaded of His divine sonship. by means of which he perpetrated the most audacious frauds. and wrung large sums from his dupes wherever they went. Page 483 of 2772 . a Syrian seaport. whence they were expelled by the Spaniards.100 B. conceived and executed vast schemes for the benefit of the city. and the chief port. was thereupon elected dictator and consul for five years. CAGLIOSTRO. 30 m. who had gone over to the aristocratic side. assumed name of an arch-impostor. _b_. he soon saw all Italy lying at his feet (49 B. CTSTI. N. built in honour of Augustus Caesar by Herod the Great.. CAGLIARI.). and is on the site of an ancient Carthaginian town. in the fifty-sixth year of his age.). when detected in one place were repeated with even more brazen effrontery in another. COUNT ALESSANDRO DI.). on the S. proper name of PAUL VERONESE (q. this roused Caesar. PAOLO. which. born in Palermo. though a place of note in the days of the Crusades. who had fled to Greece. coast. CAESAREA. who became an accomplice. the summit of which is 300 ft. and crossing the Rubicon with his victorious troops. and he was recalled. now in ruins.C. 44 B.ramakalai@gmail.com nine years to the dominion of Rome. professed supernatural powers. Also C. his successes awoke the jealousy of Pompey. high. returned to Rome (47 B. at the source of the Jordan. CAGLIARI (44). when he was assassinated on the Ides (the 15th) of March. and so by His sacrifice perfect their faith in Him. of Joppa. and became the idol of its citizens. turned to go up to Jerusalem. was a colony of Jews from the time of Tiberius till 1492. PHILIPPI.).C. early acquired a smattering of chemistry and medicine.

LUIGI. astronomer. a race in the SW. CAIAPHAS. born at Milan. where he died at 52. and committed to the fortress of San Leone." of white marble. to some taint of leprosy.). he was consigned to the tender mercies of the Inquisition. but annexed to Jamaica since 1874. LOUIS DE LA. CTSTI. on his wife turning informer. Page 484 of 2772 . calculated the table of eclipses for 1800 years (1713-1762). v. studied at the Cape of Good Hope.com extravagance. CAIAPOS.ramakalai@gmail. CAHORS (13). it is argued. of Lot. before unknown. the execution of which occupied him over 30 years (1762-1833). CAILLE. See CARLYLE'S "MISCELLANIES" for an account of his character and career. a wild savage race in the woods of Brazil. Chennai 6. with interesting Roman and other relics of antiquity. it has been supposed. a group of small islands connected with the Bahamas. treated as outcasts in the Middle Ages. from which. N. numbering 9000. owing. MARQUIS OF. of Toulouse. 71 m. his wife having retired into a convent (1743-1795). they were by their manner of life in course of time freed. hard to persuade to reconcile themselves to a settled life. the "Arco della Pace. in his native city. CAICOS. CAGNOLA. CAGOTS. registered stars of the Southern Hemisphere. his greatest work. a town in the dep. the High-Priest of the Jews who condemned Christ to death as a violator of the law of Moses. in the S. here he was thrown into the Bastille for complicity in the DIAMOND NECKLACE AFFAIR (q. of France. Computer Lecturer. Italian architect. of France of uncertain origin.

"It will go on. CTSTI. the first European to penetrate as far as Timbuctoo. EDWARD. it has been translated into most of the languages of Europe. brother of the following. and the murderer of his brother Abel.000 marks offered by the Geographical Society of Paris. his most recent novel. which he was in the habit of using in answering inquirers about the progress of the American revolution by his friends in France. RENE. the temptation was a prize of 10. and Ethiopia. born in Cheshire. according to Genesis. CAILLIAUD. and much challenged in England. a chief of the Jacquerie. _b_. THOMAS HENRY HALL. French mineralogist. 1853. CAIN. French traveller in Africa." his greatest but most ambiguous work. travelled in Egypt. taken prisoner and tortured to death. born in Poitou.com CAILLET. the "Christian. where the verdict is divided. interpreter of Kant and Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. eminent novelist. collecting minerals and making observations (1787-1869). and therefore of the race." a popular song in France during the Revolution. Nubia. CA IRA. in Central Africa. such as the "Deemster" and the "Manxman". of Manx blood. a peasant insurrection in France in 1358. Chennai 6. CAIN. said to have been a phrase of Benjamin Franklin's. author of a number of novels bearing on Manx life. which he did in 1828. CAIRD. CAILLIE. born in Nantes. began life as architect and took to journalism. though less so in America. the first-born of Adam and Eve. which he received with a pension of 1000 besides (1799-1839). Page 485 of 2772 .

CAIRNGORM. lawyer and politician. just above the Delta. professor successively in Dublin. CAIRO (400). and London. an eloquent Scotch preacher. Louth. Chennai 6. born in co. of Egypt. on one of the Scottish Grampians. and largest city in Africa. representing Belfast. 120 m. a political economist of the school of John Stuart Mill with modifications. generally by way of a sepulchral monument. entered Parliament. called to the English bar. HUGH MACCALMONT. succeeded Jowett as master of Balliol." and edited the lectures and sermons of his brother. among other places. Page 486 of 2772 . JOHN ELLIOT. Ireland. of Alexandria. so named. and presents a strange Computer Lecturer. a yellowish-brown variety of rock-crystal. author of works on political economy (1823-1875). CAIRN. and wrote eloquently on it.com Hegel. born at Greenock. Ireland. has written on the "Evolution of Religion. a heap of stones often. made a special study of the philosophy of religion. Down. SE. born in co. _b_. and again in 1874. Galway.ramakalai@gmail. on the right bank of the Nile. though not always. became Lord Chancellor under Disraeli's government in 1868. in Aberdeenshire. cap. JOHN. loosely thrown together. CAIRD. 1825. CAIRNS. took an active interest in philanthropic movements (1819-1885). EARL. CAIRNES. and it would seem sometimes in execration of some foul deed. so called from being found. CTSTI. Principal of Glasgow University. famous for a sermon entitled "The Religion of Common Life" preached before the Queen at Crathie in 1855. more especially the Christian version of it (1820-1898). covers an extensive area on a broad sandy plain.

and has all the advantages of modern civic appliances. Italians. though much spoiled by time and tourists. being poisonous.. CAJETAN. but there is little industry. and somewhat barren.. still represent the brightest period of Saracenic art. the country flat and the climate unhealthy. Page 487 of 2772 . employed in medicine. narrow streets. the inhabitants are to a great extent of Scandinavian origin. Chennai 6. CTSTI. and on the "Summa Theologiae" of Aquinas. is the language spoken. The most modern part of the city consists of broad boulevards. and Greeks are numerous. The population is mixed. county in the NE. known as the Ordeal Bean. and since 1882 the centre of British influence in Egypt. a fertile prov. with European-built villas. CALABRIA (1. and remains of the former cities are included in it. general of the Dominicans. 43 m. a district under British protection on the coast of Upper Guinea. and 400 mosques. Extensive railway communication and the Nile waterway induce a large transport trade. There is a rich museum.com agglomeration of ancient and modern elements. while Copts. of which Wick is the chief seat. embraced in the SW. it is a centre of Mohammedan learning. the townsfolk are half Arab. seed of an African bean. The modern city is the fourth founded in succession on the same site.500). fishing the chief industry. Turks. except in the W. having been used to test the innocence of people charged with witchcraft. and university with 2000 students. CARDINAL. gateways. and S. palaces. and English. has flagstone quarries. of Scotland. by 28 m. CALABAR`. a level. CALABAR BEAN. as. and latticed houses. represented the Pope at the Diet of Augsburg. These. with a bold and rocky coast. not Gaelic. and tried in vain to persuade Luther to recant. peninsula of Computer Lecturer. bare. born in Gaeta.. Jews. half Egyptian. hotels. &c. wrote a Commentary on the Bible. CAITHNESS (37).ramakalai@gmail. old walls.

of San Francisco. proved to the satisfaction of the legal authorities in France the innocence of the victims. is the chief landing-place for travellers from England to the Continent. and Louis XV. Glasgow. an eminent Nonconformist minister in London. after which his property was confiscated. and a variety of minerals. to grant a sum of money out of the royal bounty for the benefit of the family. and the protectorate of Cromwell. born in London. on the Strait of Dover. EDMUND. Voltaire. is inhabited by a race of somewhat fiery temper. after the Restoration. CALAVE`RAS. against which he vigorously protested with his pen. JEAN.ramakalai@gmail. was tried. which he could not. whose son committed suicide. Page 488 of 2772 . an inland county of California. to his immortal honour. and has considerable export trade. was in possession of the English from 1347 to 1558. Chennai 6. where it is 21 m. CALAS. and who was charged with murdering him to prevent his going over to the Catholic Church. refused a bishopric. for the high esteem in which he was held.com Italy. and Aberdeen universities (1671-1732). CALAIS (56). honorary degrees were conferred by the Edinburgh. a fortified seaport in France. but zealously opposed to Episcopacy. on whom. favourable to Royalty. opposed the execution of Charles I. CALAMY. accept (1600-1666). got the process revised. a grandson of the preceding. and sentenced to torture and death on the wheel (1762). and the last town held by them on French soil. E. while the widow escaped into Switzerland. EDMUND. a Presbyterian divine. Computer Lecturer. and traversed by the Apennines. a tradesman of Toulouse. yields grains and fruits. convicted. took up her case. is much subject to earthquakes. made chaplain to Charles II. with tunny and anchovy fisheries. CTSTI. on conscientious grounds. CALAMY. as well as cotton and tulle manufactures. across. and his children compelled to embrace the Catholic faith.

CTSTI. Chennai 6. university. CALCULUS. the rules of the differential calculus enable us to calculate the speed. but the native quarters. is the capital of Bengal and the Indian Empire. CALCUTTA (900). the soothsayer who accompanied Agamemnon to the siege of Troy. gas. on the left bank of the Hooghly. enjoined the sacrifice of Iphigenia to propitiate the gods.ramakalai@gmail. given the force at every point. a device by means of which Troy was surprised and taken. bank. are still squalid. the rules of the integral calculus assist us in calculating the position and velocity of the body at any future time. there are extensive dockyards. add to the amenities.com rich in minerals. while the integral calculus is a process of summation or _integration_ of these differentials. ships of 5000 tons enter Computer Lecturer. e. the differential calculus has to do with the _differentials_ (increments or decrements) of varying quantities. Expressed somewhat crudely. and the effective force acting on the body. and tramway services. museum. is the method by which we discuss the properties of continuously varying quantities. the largest and westernmost branch of the Ganges delta. g. Conversely. and jute mills. St. extensive railway and steamboat communications make it the chief emporium of commerce in Asia. in mathematics. an excellent water-supply. the change of speed. The nature of the method and the necessity for it may be indicated by a simple example. town hall. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL. an esplanade. CALCHAS. foretold the length or the war. iron-works. numerous quays. the Government buildings. and many other English Buildings have earned for it the name "city of palaces". warehouses. Page 489 of 2772 . with copper and gold mines. from the sea. Bishop's College (now an engineering school) High Court. e. though being improved. the houses of mud or bamboo. about 80 m. the motion of a train in a track. and the initial position and velocity. and the residence of the Governor-General. and advised the construction of the wooden horses. the curvature of the path). the change of direction of motion (i. or the motion of a planet in its orbit. Paul's cathedral. timber yards. If we know the successive positions of the moving body at successive short intervals of time.

and died in Florida. though professionally untrained. CALDER. became minister of Crailing. Page 490 of 2772 . returned on the death of the king. and reprimanded for not following up a victory which he had gained. and then banished for resisting the attempts of James VI. and has been ranked by the more competent critics among the foremost of the class in both ancient and modern times (1600-1681). wrote a book." in Holland. Computer Lecturer. whither he had gone to recruit (1846-1886). the great Spanish dramatist. producing the while dramas which were received with great enthusiasm. DAVID. founded in 1686. being a searching criticism of the claims of the Episcopacy. exercised his art chiefly in book illustrations. a Scotch ecclesiastic. artist. whither he had retired. Christian. Calcutta was captured by Surajah Dowlah. RANDOLPH. the population are two-thirds Hindus. British naval officer. but to the last continued to write poems and plays. graceful humour.ramakalai@gmail. and wrote a "History of the Kirk" (1575-1650). entered the army. to establish Episcopacy in Scotland. which were full of life. CALDERWOOD. he was a dramatist of the first order. CALDERON DE LA BARCA. served bravely in several naval engagements. and became a canon of Toledo. born at Dalkeith. he suffered from ill-health. CALDECOTT. born at Madrid. "Altare Damascenum.com the docks. and instinct with a kindly. was tried by court-martial. less than a third Mohammedan. a sentence which was afterwards found to be unjust. and has suffered frequently from cyclones. Chennai 6. attained afterwards the rank of admiral (1745-1818). and the "Black Hole" massacre perpetrated in 1756. born in Chester. first imprisoned. CTSTI. took holy orders. and 41/2 per cent. became the capital of India in 1772. his abilities as an artist were promptly and generously recognised by the Academy. SIR ROBERT. and served in Italy and Flanders.

300. CALICUT (66).com CALEDONIA. CALENDS. since applied poetically to the whole of Scotland. and champion of the slave-holding States. so called as the day on which the feast days and unlucky days of the month were announced." of the grossest animality of nature. regarding slavery as an institution fraught with blessing to all concerned. whence the cotton cloth first imported from the place got the name "calico. CAL`GARY. has 28 locks. His chief work is a treatise on the "Nature of Government" (1789-1850). an American statesman. cost L1. in the Madras Presidency of India. the Roman name for Scotland N. chief town on the Malabar coast. 60 m.000. for the passage of ships between the Atlantic and the North Sea. of which consist of natural lakes. territory of Canada. in NW. leader of "the States rights" movement. long. Chennai 6. of the Wall of Antoninus. the first day of the Roman month. the capital of Alberta. and any State had a right to withdraw from its conditions. a canal across the NW. was constructed for the benefit of coasting vessels to save the risks they encountered in the Pentland Firth." Computer Lecturer. born in S.ramakalai@gmail. 40 m. in vindication of the doctrine that the Union was a mere compact. a slave in Shakespeare's "Tempest. JOHN CALDWELL. finished 1823. CALEDONIAN CANAL. CALIBAN. CTSTI. the first port at which Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. all through his public life in high civic position. CALHOUN. of Irish descent. begun 1803. Page 491 of 2772 . of Scotland. Carolina. executed by Telford.

Roman emperor from A. the chief port being San Francisco. the original lawlessness gradually gave way to regular administration. lead. occupies the Pacific seaboard between Oregon and Mexico. youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina. The industries include brandy and sugar manufactures. in the Sierra Nevada. had his horse installed as consul in mockery of the office.D. and many other minerals abound. and a delightful climate. the rainfall is excessive. and seaward.208). born at Antium. and fishing. and winters severe. in the S. Constituted a State in 1850. sulphur. CTSTI. LOWER (30). and Southern Pacific railroads. the largest city. that he might shear it off at a blow. in Mexican territory. and scarcely habitable peninsula. agriculture is carried on in some of the valleys. gave way to the most atrocious acts of cruelty and impiety. and pearl and whale fisheries support some coast towns. wished Rome had only one head. shipbuilding. Union. eastward by the great Central. CALIFORNIA. Mineral wealth is great: it is the foremost State for gold and quicksilver. the grape and all manner of fruits grow luxuriantly. and progress has since been steady and rapid. the most south-westerly State in the American Union. larger by a quarter than the United Kingdom. Chennai 6. the discovery of gold next year raised great excitement. It is the second largest State. an extensive. would entertain people at a banquet and then throw them into the sea. is the most wonderful gorge in the world. and is bounded landward by Nevada and Arizona. stretching southward from the State. In the N. and had divine honours paid to him. was named his successor.ramakalai@gmail. through which falls the Merced River. and brought thousands of adventurers from all over the world. copper. mountainous.com CALIFORNIA (1. having ingratiated himself with Tiberius. All products are exported. Page 492 of 2772 . ruled with wisdom and magnanimity at first. declared himself a god. till a conspiracy was formed against him on his return from an expedition Computer Lecturer. coal. Captured from Mexico in 1847. Wheat is the most important product. as Sacramento is the capital of the State. The Yosemite Valley. silk-growing. dry. there is little rain. CALIGULA. 37 to 41. while he lived in the unbridled indulgence of every lust. but after an illness due to his dissipation. silver. iron.

and for considering the Apostles' Creed a broad enough basis for Christian union and communion.. an eminent musical composer. daughter of Lycaon. CALIXTUS. Pope from 1455 to 1458. (2) the Caliphate of Cordova. It was at Bagdad that Moslem civilisation achieved its final development. C.. III. established at Cordova by Abderrahman (756-1031). CALISTO. CALLA`O (32). transferred to Bagdad by the Abassides (632-1258). pope from 1119 to 1124. Pope from 218 to 222. The principal caliphates are: (1) the Caliphate of the East. its prosperity depends on trade. if not in the world.. and placed by Jupiter among the stars. 7 m. CALLCOTT. which is less than it was before the annexation of the nitrate fields to Chile. with a fine harbour the safest on the coast. king of Arcadia. and he retained the position he held in the Lutheran Church (1586-1656). CALIXTUS. established by the Fatimites (909-1171).ramakalai@gmail. (3) the Caliphate of Egypt. accused of heresy. Chennai 6. the name of three popes: C. CALIPH.com into Gaul. a port in Peru. Page 493 of 2772 . or rather apostasy. which might embrace both. Belgium. established by Abubekr at Mecca. JOHN WALL. GEORGE. for the liberal spirit in which he had learned in consequence to treat both Catholics and Calvinists. changed by Juno into a she-bear. travelled for four years in Germany. as supreme in both civil and religious matters. a Lutheran theologian of an eminently tolerant type. II. I. C. born at Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. England. the title adopted by the successors of Mahomet. from Lima. however. stood by him. his friends. when he was assassinated (12-41). born at Sleswick. and France.

and flourished in the 3rd century B. Ovid. which are said to have been on a variety of subjects and very numerous. was knighted for his eminent skill as an artist (1779-1841). LADY MARIA. SIR AUGUSTUS WALL. along with Ictinos. a district in the W. CALLI`OPE.C. and is celebrated for his glee compositions (1766-1821). from Stornoway.ramakalai@gmail. a disciple of Aristotle.C. 10 m. was keeper of the library there. author of "Little Arthur's History of England" (1779-1842). taught grammar and belles-lettres at Alexandria. and Propertius. who accompanied Alexander the Great to India. brother. and sometimes with a paper roll. was a pupil of Haendel's. the muse of epic poetry and eloquence. Greek poet. Greek architect. but professedly on a charge of treason. Chennai 6. and was put to death by his order for remonstrating with him on his adoption of the manners and style of the potentates of the East. CALLIS`THENES. was admired by Catullus. CTSTI. landscape painter.com Kensington. CALLIMACHUS. the whole in cruciform arrangement. is represented with a tablet and stylus. CALLIM`ACHUS. CALLERNISH. Page 494 of 2772 . See MUSES. noted for its circles of standing stones. inventor of the Corinthian order. CALLIC`RATES. Computer Lecturer. wife of Sir Augustus. 4th century B. architect of the Parthenon in Athens. of his writings. only a few epigrams and hymns remain. in height. born in Cyrena. from 10 to 17 ft. of the island of Lewis.

and much referred to at one time as an authority. who kindled in Demosthenes a passion for his art. CALMS. obnoxious to the people. born at Douay. and Chronological Dictionary of the Bible. tracts of calm in the ocean. on the confines of the trade winds. as also those of the gipsies with whom he associated in his youth (1593-1633)." referring to the Computer Lecturer. succeeded Necker in 1783 as comptroller-general of the finances in France.ramakalai@gmail. he wrote also a "Commentary on the Bible" in 23 vols. THE. CALOMAR`DE. could do nothing but convoke the Notables in 1787.com CALLIS`TRATUS. JACQUES. his etchings.. and which lasts for weeks at a time. CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE. which are much admired. minister of Ferdinand VII. Chennai 6. Page 495 of 2772 . engraver and etcher. born at Nancy. such as those of the sieges of Breda and Rochelle. "and he did it. could give no account of his administration that would satisfy them. CALLOT. amounted to 1600 pieces. (1672-1757). French financier under Louis XVI. a Spanish statesman. arrested for treachery. CTSTI. before all things for borrowing". after four years of desperate attempts at financial adjustment. escaped into France by bribing his captors (1773-1842). a learned Benedictine and biblical scholar. DUKE." says Carlyle. and had to quit Paris and France. of France. and led to his execution as a traitor. executed many of them at the instance of the Grand-duke of Tuscany and Louis XIII. CALMET. Critical. a violent enemy of liberal principles and measures. "his task to raise the wind and the winds. AUGUSTINE. and a "Universal History" in 17 vols." the first published book of its kind of any note... his Spartan sympathies brought him to grief. was dismissed. born in Lorraine. an Athenian orator. CALONNE. a man of "fiscal genius. and a reactionary. genius for persuading. but known in England by his "Historical.

alive to the danger of conspiracy. who. one of the PILLARS OF HERCULES (q. by means of the action of light on nitrate of silver.com Revolution he provoked. CALOTYPE. of France. in N. with a fertile soil and a moist climate. was permitted by Napoleon to return to France. CALPE. urged Caesar to stay at home the day he was assassinated. the last wife of Julius Caesar. Chennai 6. SW. v. which if accepted when offered. a declaration of war. was an emblem of peace. ABRAHAM. CALTAGIRONE (28). CALVADOS (428). daughter of the consul Piso. a maritime dep. a city 38 m. CALORIC. skirted by dangerous rocks of the same name. a bitter enemy of George Calixtus (1612-1686).ramakalai@gmail. where he died in embarrassed circumstances (1734-1802).). a process of photography invented by Fox Talbot in 1840. CAL`UMET. Page 496 of 2772 . CALPURNIA. the staple industry is pottery and terra-cotta ware. of Catania. Computer Lecturer. Gibraltar. and if rejected. CTSTI. CALORIUS. a fiery Lutheran polemic. among the American Indians a pipe for smoking. the name given by physicists to the presumed subtle element which causes heat.

CALVERLEY. was arrested as by the hand of God to stay and help on God's work in the place. in Picardy. the great Reformer. U. the place of the crucifixion. Oxford. for twenty years he held sway in Geneva. CALVARY. Chennai 6. was sent to study at the university of Orleans. Lords Baltimore. where he studied Hebrew and wrote his great epoch-making book. CHARLES STUART. also name given to effigies of the crucifixion in Catholic countries. a clever English parodist. Peter's. and for so long he was regarded as the head of the Reformed Churches in Scotland. DENIS. the "Institutes of the Christian Religion". after having mastered Latin as a boy at Paris. wrote "Fly-Leaves" and "Verses and Translations". and acquired a permanently theological bent.ramakalai@gmail. Domenichino. Fellow of Christ's Church. with a cliff on which criminals were cast down prior to being stoned. settled at Bologna. making after this for Strassburg. where he founded a school. retired to Basel. on his return he proposed and established his system of Church government. "St. flavoured by the author's scholarship (1831-1884). under charter from James I. of Jerusalem. which allowed of no license in faith any more than conduct.. devoted for a time to the law. became acquainted with the Scriptures. CALVIN. or CAUVIN. erected for devotion. but proceeded with such rigour that he was expelled. founders. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. GEORGE and CECIL. he chanced to pass through Geneva. JOHN. Bologna (1555-1619). among others Guidi Reni. born at Noyon. though recalled after three years. of Maryland. a painter.com CALVAERT. born at Antwerp. looked down upon from the city. as witness the burning of Servetus for denying the doctrine of the Trinity. Page 497 of 2772 . his parodies among the most amusing of the century. his masterpiece. from whence issued many eminent artists.S. Michael" in St. became the centre of a dangerous religious excitement. identified with a hill on the N. professed the Protestant faith. father and son. proceeded to Paris. had to flee for his life from France. CALVERT. and Albani.

in the Greek mythology a nymph. born at Buenos Ayres in 1824. CTSTI. daughter of Atlas. CALVO. CAMBACERES. Chennai 6. CHARLES. a name of recent origin in Spain for a clique of private counsellors at court.com Switzerland. Saintsbury. It was written in Latin. she died of grief on his departure. the merits of it being those of full maturity and elaborate preparation rather than of youthful exuberance" (1509-1564). Considering that the whole of it was written before the author of it was seven-and-twenty. author of "International Law. it is perhaps the most remarkable work of its particular kind to be anywhere found. the chief characteristic of which is that it assigns all in salvation to the sovereign action and persistent operation of Divine grace. the theological system of Calvin.. who interpose between the legitimate ministers and the crown. "it is beyond all question the first serious work of great literary merit not historical in the history of French prose.. as ever in the "Great Taskmaster's" eye. Besides his "Institutes. Theoretical and Practical. Duke of Parma. CALVINISM. took a prominent part as a lawyer in the national Convention. His greatest work was his "Institutes.ramakalai@gmail. "In the translated form." says Prof. was a man of masculine intellect and single-hearted devotion to duty. Page 498 of 2772 ." CALYPSO. an Argentine publicist. queen of the island of Ogygia. after the Revolution of the 18th Computer Lecturer. CAMARILLA." published in Basel in 1535-36.. JEAN JACQUES REGIS DE. who by her fascinating charms detained Ulysses beside her for 7 of the 10 years of his wanderings home from Troy. born at Montpellier." he found time to write Commentaries on nearly all the books of the Bible. and four years after translated by himself into French. and France. Holland. bred to the legal profession.

the landward boundaries touch Siam. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. Fenelon was archbishop here. tobacco. most of the country is inundated in the rainy season. his "Projet de Code" formed the basis of the _Code Napoleon_ (1753-1824). CAMBAY (31). the oldest round church in England. in the N. occupying an area as large as Scotland in the plains of the Lower Mekong. and timber are also produced. CAMBO`DIA (1. which is fast silting up. county town of Cambridgeshire. The kingdom was formerly much more extensive. was made by him High Chancellor of the Empire as well as Duke of Parma. CAMBRAI (17). there are iron-works at Kompong Soai. there are some fine buildings. country of the Kymry. in the cathedral of which is a monument to his memory. and maize are grown in the tracts thus irrigated. stands in flat country. an ancient city. The capital is Pnom-Penh (35). remarkable ruins of ancient grandeur are numerous. in consequence of which the place. it has been under French protection since 1863. of Bombay. with interesting archaeological remains. was chosen second consul. once a flourishing port. The glory of the city is the University. and a Roman Catholic church. Holy Sepulchre. CAMBRIA. has fallen into decay. a city in the dep. gutta-percha. a Celtic race. the ancient name of Wales. founded in the 12th Computer Lecturer. in France. Page 499 of 2772 . foreign trade is done through the port Kampot. of London. spices. to which the Welsh belong. on the Mekong. a town and seaport N. on the Scheldt. famous for its fine linen fabrics. a branch of the Mekong flows backward and forms the Great Lake. a small kingdom in Indo-China. hence called _cambrics_. 28 m. are stretches of forest and hills in which iron and copper are wrought.500). and French Cochin-China. was sincerely attached to Napoleon. on a gulf of the same name. The coast-line is washed by the Gulf of Siam. and rice.com Brumaire. CAMBRIDGE (44). on the Cam. cotton. CTSTI. of Nord. NE. Annam.

Queens'. marshy in the N.. with a range of chalk-hills. which he continued to be till. Gonville and Caius. the centre of the book-making trade.ramakalai@gmail. 1819. Each college is a corporation by itself. libraries. It lays emphasis on mathematical. was made viceroy of Hanover. Newton. 1496. founded 1257.. the crown fell to the Duke of Cumberland (1774-1850). and carried a marshal's baton. St John's.com century. Cromwell. 1448. son of the preceding and cousin to the Queen. Christ's. Clare College. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY contains 17 colleges: Peterhouse. with its colleges housed in stately buildings. 1511. St. Page 500 of 2772 . 1584. SECOND DUKE OF. 1347. CAMBRIDGESHIRE (188). served in the army.. CAMBRIDGE.. is rich in Roman remains. born in Hanover. as Oxford on classical. famed for its butter and cheese. the Gog-Magog in the S. and was succeeded by Lord Wolseley. and Downing. Spenser. very flat. 1519. Catherine's. chapels. Magdalene. seventh and youngest son of George III. culture. 1348. became commander-in-chief in 1856 on the resignation of Viscount Hardinge.S. Trinity Hall. CAMBRIDGE (70). FIRST DUKE OF. CAMBRIDGE. seat of Harvard University. CTSTI. 1441. a suburb of Boston. Emmanuel. Chennai 6. Pembroke. served as volunteer under the Duke of York.. 1350. Sidney Sussex. Computer Lecturer. 1352. King's. 1505. nine-tenths of its surface under cultivation. Thackeray. Among its eminent men have been Bacon. here Longfellow resided for many years. governed by statutes sanctioned by the crown. Trinity. Dryden. U. retired in 1895. 1326. Jesus. which shares with Oxford the academic prestige of England. and capable of holding landed or other property. 1598. an inland agricultural county. museums. and Tennyson. Milton. 1473. Pitt. 1546. 1800. one of the oldest towns in New England. _b_. in 1837. &c. Wordsworth. Corpus Christi.

from which not only his subjects suffered. who had a wonderful steed of brass. as judge in the case. CAMBY`SES. king of Tartary. _La Garde meurt. U. served under the Republic and the Empire. together with a magical mirror.'s reign. succeeded his father. sword. KING. 4. opposite Philadelphia. "The Guard dies.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. invaded and subdued Egypt. and as a statesman the policy and action of the government towards the American colonies. chief-justice of the King's Bench in George I. commanded a division of the Old Guard at Waterloo. 54 B. the terminus of six railways. but does not surrender" (1770-1842).. FIRST EARL OF. CAMBUS`CAN. CAMBYSES. and in the end gave himself up to dissipation and vindictive acts of cruelty.com CAMBRONNE. and ultimately Lord Chancellor of England. but afterwards suffered serious reverses. Page 501 of 2772 . CAMDEN (58). referred to by Falstaff in I Henry IV. fought to the last. and was taken prisoner. the great Cyrus. and ring. accompanied Napoleon to Elba in 1814. the prosecution of Wilkes as illegal. opposed. he was created earl in 1786 (1713-1794). _d_. is credited with the saying. CTSTI. on the left bank of the Delaware. CAMDEN. CHARLES PRATT.C. king of Persia. a busy town in New Jersey. though surrounded by the enemy and summoned to surrender.S. Act ii. refused. French general. born at Nantes. Computer Lecturer. sc. but the members of his own family. a distinguished British lawyer and statesman. magically obedient to the wish of the rider. identified with Genghis Khan. a ranting character in a play called "The Lamentable Tragedy". et ne se rend pas_..

and eventually head-master in Westminster School.com CAMDEN. he has been surnamed the Strabo and the Pausanias of England (1551-1623). played a prominent part in the religious struggles of his time. the first and most famous born in London. it is presumed. Page 502 of 2772 . a learned English antiquary. author of "Britannia. CAMERA LUCIDA. written in Latin. his most widely known work. and where entrenchments of an old town are still to be seen. where. collaborated with him in drawing up the Augsburg Confession (1500-1574)." a historical and topographical account of the British Isles. which led to his appointment as Clarencieux king-at-arms. during which time he gave proof of his antiquarian knowledge. in the Roman mythology a set of nymphs endowed with semi-prophetic powers. a precious stone cut in relief. CAMEO.ramakalai@gmail. by means of which the image of an object may be made to appear on a light or white surface. CAMERA OBSCURA. and sometimes identified with the Muses. as all the rest of his works. a distinguished scholar. CAMERARIUS. a place in Somerset. second master. CTSTI. King Arthur held his court. Computer Lecturer. active as a German Reformer. Chennai 6. CAMELOT. friend and biographer of Melanchthon." both. by means of which the images of external objects are exhibited distinctly on a surface in the focus of the lens. an optical instrument or contrivance. an optical contrivance. consists generally of two or three different colours. the upper cut in relief and the under forming the ground. and "Annals of Elizabeth's Reign. born at Bamberg. CAMENAE. WILLIAM.

Africa. and after a brave fight slain. falling by a wide estuary into the Bight of Biafra.. of the estuary. Edinburgh. a Presbyterian body in Scotland who derived their name from Richard Cameron. (2) Also a British regiment. VERNEY LOVETT. African explorer. JOHN. extending 199 m. a Scotch Covenanter of the 17th century. for long the 26th Regiment of the British line. NW. Fife. he was on the track of important discoveries. known as the oil river. but his explorations were cut short by the natives. Page 503 of 2772 . CAMERON. and fixed on the Netherbow Port. from the quantities of palm-oil exported. contended like him for the faith to which the nation by covenant had bound itself.com CAMERON. Computer Lecturer. (2) a mountain range. originally raised in defence of Scottish religious rights. v. (1) a river in W. his head and hands cut off. a learned divine. was surprised by a body of dragoons at AIRDS MOSS (q.000 ft." but he fell in disfavour with the people for his doctrine of passive obedience.). and his successors. born near Weymouth. traversed Africa all the way from east to west (1873-75). his knowledge was so extensive that he was styled a "walking library. CAMEROON. now the Scottish Rifles. CAMERON. born in Falkland. wrote "Across Africa" (1844-1894). the highest peak nearly 14. took to arms along with sixty others in defence of his rights. born in Glasgow.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. a ringleader of the persecuted Presbyterians. was for a time Principal of Glasgow University. who did not explicitly concede to the nation this right. along the coast. who held several professorial appointments on the Continent. a volcanic group. CAMERONIANS (1). (3) also a German colony. in 1680. at the head of the Canongate. RICHARD. and even declined to take the oath of allegiance to sovereigns such as William III. and he died of a wound inflicted by an opponent of his views (1579-1625). CTSTI.

and fought against the Moors. the poet of Portugal. saved Rome from destruction by the Gauls under Brennus. and remembered for generations after as one of the noblest heroic figures in Roman history. left Lisbon. CAMISARDS. were partly persuaded and partly compelled into submission by Marshal Villars in 1704. Huguenots of the Cevennes. the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). recalled from exile. the title of the poem is properly "The Lusiads. was banished to Macao.. a rival town. it has been translated into most European languages. i. was five times elected dictator. coming home he lost everything but his poem. after. Chennai 6. volunteered service in India. born at Lisbon. called.). died neglected and in poverty. joined the army. died at eighty of the plague. fell in passionate love with a lady of high rank in Lisbon. one of the CURIATII (q. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. a blouse over their armour. studied at Coimbra. under Jean Cavalier their chief. and got into trouble with the Portuguese authorities." noted for her preternatural fleetness on the racecourse.C. Page 504 of 2772 . not inaptly. after a ten years' siege. v. CAMILLUS. arrived at Goa. as she with him.com CAMILLA.ramakalai@gmail. and gained a succession of victories over rival Italian tribes. (2) also a sister of the HORATII (q. lamented by the whole nation. a famous patrician of early Rome. v. (1) a virgin queen of the Volsci. who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV. one of the heroines in the "AEneid. whom the Horatii slew. so called because they wore a _camiso_ (Fr. killed by her brother because she wept at the death of her affiance. but whom he was not allowed to marry. in 365 B. a _chemise_). e. and in consequence of. the "Epos of Commerce". and is their national epic.. and her grace. the Portuguese." or the Lusitanians. and into English alone no fewer than six times (1524-1580). in which others joined. retired into voluntary exile at Ardea on account of the envy of his enemies in Rome. MARCUS FURIUS. CAMOENS.). took Veii. and consoled himself by writing his "Lusiad".

and oil in great abundance. with a cathedral. at the reform of philosophy. CTSTI. MME. infested with malaria.com CAMORRA. was persecuted all along by the Church. and Gaeta. he retired to France. like him. became under Napoleon matron of an institution for daughters of officers of the Legion of Honour. after the Revolution opened a boarding-school at St. co-extensive with ancient Latium. he was the author of sonnets as well as philosophical works (1568-1639). wine. to suppress it. the members of it joined the revolutionary party. and spent 27 years of his life in a Neapolitan dungeon. born at Paris. an ancient prov. Chennai 6. CAMPAGNA. and fruit. CAMPANIA. wrote the "Private Life of Marie Antoinette" (1752-1822). contemporary of Bacon. CAMPAIGN. when steps were taken by Francis II. Salerno.ramakalai@gmail. oil. CAMPAN. a secret society in Naples with wide ramifications. an Italian philosopher of the transition period. opposed scholasticism. CAMPANELLA. Germain. in Salerno. fell back upon the ancient systems. born in Calabria. (2) a town in Italy. and devoted himself to the study of nature. and had their revenge in the expulsion eventually of the Bourbons from Italy. THE. and enjoyed the protection of Richelieu. (1) an unhealthy flat district round Rome. and a trade in wine. of great fertility. Capua was the capital. Page 505 of 2772 . TOMMASO. which at one time had by sheer terrorism considerable political influence in the country. poem by Addison in celebration of Marlborough's victory at Blenheim. released. in the W. originally a Dominican monk. DE. of Italy. it was a Computer Lecturer. aimed. and yields corn. the chief towns of which now are Naples. faithful friend and confidante of Marie Antoinette.

an Anti-Calvinistic Baptist. commanded in India during the Mutiny. and over half a million members. CAMPBELL. born in Antrim. the leaning tower of Pisa being one. a celebrated Scottish Highland clan. disowned creeds. born at Cupar-Fife. but not attached to it. the sect has upwards of 5000 meeting-houses in America. entitled "Dissertation on Miracles" (1709-1796). but took the study of law. LORD CLYDE. JOHN. a tower for bells constructed beside a church. with a pension of L2000. and created Lord Clyde. CTSTI." and an able reply to Hume's argument against miracles. in which he employed the words "immercer" and "immersion" for "baptist" and "baptism" (1788-1866). SIR COLIN. CAMPBELL. GEORGE. and rose rapidly. Chennai 6. was called to the bar.com favourite resort of the wealthy families of ancient Rome. entered the army.ramakalai@gmail. and founded a sect called the "Disciples of Christ". CAMPBELL. very common in Italian cities. he was one of the bravest soldiers of England (1792-1863). was made field-marshal. CAMPANILE. a Scotch divine. and quelled the rebellion. Campbell executed a translation of the New Testament. relieved Lucknow. served in China and the Punjab. Principal of Aberdeen University. and owned no authority in religion but the Bible. wrote "Philosophy of Rhetoric. was a Whig in Computer Lecturer. the members of which have played an important role in English and Scottish history. CAMPBELL. a son of the manse. commanded the Highland Brigade in the Crimea. son of a carpenter named Macliver. emigrated to America in 1807. won the day at Alma and Balaclava. Lord Chancellor of England. CAMPBELL. destined for the Church. and that of Florence one of the most famous. born in Glasgow. ALEXANDER. did journalistic work and law reports. Page 506 of 2772 .

is being now adopted as the central principle of Scotch theology. he wrote in prose as well as verse. enabled him to travel on the Continent. author of. with a fine harbour. held a succession of offices both on the Bench and in the Cabinet. where he did writing. among other works. born in Argyll. a town in Kintyre. CAMPBELTOWN. poet. the success of the work. after settling in London a pension of L200 was awarded him through the influence of Fox. Page 507 of 2772 . CAMPBELL. wrote the "Lives of the Chancellors" and the "Lives of the Chief Justices" (1779-1861). and a remarkable one for the enthusiasm and the patriotic devotion it displays (1822-1885). deposed from the ministry of the Scotch Church in 1831 for his liberal theological sentiments. born in Glasgow. and some more poetry. "Ye Mariners of England. which was great. born at Islay. Argyllshire. a Scotch clergyman. is a great fishing centre. his favourite theme was the self-evidencing character of revelation. he was elected Rector of Glasgow University in 1827. when a student of law in Edinburgh wrote "The Pleasures of Hope". Computer Lecturer." a collection all his own. "Popular Tales of the West Highlands. and has over 20 whisky distilleries. a saintly man. THOMAS. and settled in London." and "The Exile of Erin". JOHN FRANCIS. lecturing. CAMPBELL." "Hohenlinden. Chennai 6. whose character alone should have protected him from such an indignity. CTSTI. JOHN MACLEOD. and again in the following year: buried in Westminster (1777-1844). CAMPBELL. studied with distinction at the University. the Fatherhood of God. orally collected.com politics. while the doctrine for which he was deposed.ramakalai@gmail. he continued afterwards to ply his vocation as a minister of Christ in a quiet way to some quiet people like himself. married. and before his death a testimonial and address in recognition of his worth was presented to him by representatives of nearly every religious community in Scotland (1801-1872). where he wrote the well-known lines. in particular "The Last Man".

CAMPINE. manufactures cigars. PETER. a vast moor of swamp and peat to the E. LORENZO. and Catherine. he was an artist as well as a scientist. Holland. Chennai 6. his mission served only to embitter the relations of Henry with the see of Rome (1474-1539). a Dutch anatomist. a Mexican seaport on a bay of the same name. a family of painters. being now rendered fertile by irrigation. and a patron of art (1722-1789). German educationist. a Dutch landscape painter of the 17th century. CTSTI. held sundry professorships. CAMPEACHY (12).com CAMPE. Page 508 of 2772 . whom he would fain have befriended. born at Leyden. cardinal. with the effect of mortally offending the former and being of no real benefit to the latter.ramakalai@gmail. JOACHIM HEINRICH. CAMPEGGIO. disciple of Basedow. near which Admiral Duncan defeated the Dutch fleet under Van Winter in 1797. Computer Lecturer. made a special study of the facial angle in connection with intelligence. CAMPHUYSEN. CAMPI. and author of educational works (1746-1818). famous for his moonlight pieces. twice visited England as legate. of Antwerp. CAMPERDOWN. distinguished in the annals of Italian art at Cremona in the 16th century. a tract of sandy hills on the coast of N. the last time in connection with the divorce between Henry VIII. CAMPER.

CAMPO SANTO (_Holy Ground_). voted for the execution of the king as a traitor and conspirator. and did good service in preserving them (1740-1804). CTSTI. was arrested for sedition. a violent enemy of the mendicant monks (1582-1663). CAMPO-FORMIO. CAMUS. of Computer Lecturer. (1540-1581). was conservator of the national records. now called VERE. of the island of Walcheren. was in 1886 beatified by Pope Leo XIII. had a Scotch factory under Scotch law. and executed. a renegade from the Church of England. CAMUS. born at Paris. CAMPVERE. and certain Venetian States to Austria in return. became a keen Catholic propagandist in England. on the NE. EDMUND. in Venetia. a village near Udine. of which he was innocent. born in London. Italian and Spanish name for a burial-place. CAMPOS (13).com CAMPION. a learned French jurisconsult. a determined enemy of the Court party in France. Chennai 6. bishop of Belley. by which the Belgian provinces and part of Lombardy were ceded to France. a Jesuit. originally the coast land. CANAAN. where a treaty was concluded between France and Austria in 1797. of Rio Janeiro. Page 509 of 2772 . but eventually the whole. in the prov. a trading city of Brazil. civil and ecclesiastical. member of the National Convention.ramakalai@gmail.

Superior. agriculture and forestry are the most important industries. CANADA (5.000 ft. long. Manitoba. dependent on agriculture. and the original inhabitants of Palestine. and E. and St.ramakalai@gmail. Prince Edward Island. Huron. and the western prairie. Athabasca. Manitoba. the Dominion Parliament meets at Ottawa. and Athabasca. iron. gold. with hot summers. are united under the Dominion Government. the corn-growing land is practically inexhaustible. with rivers and lakes innumerable. through one of which the Canadian Pacific railroad runs. in the rich soil of Manitoba. the Rocky Mountains rise to 16.. Assiniboia. it comprises a lofty and a lower tableland W. the forests yield maple. Winnipeg. Ontario. Chennai 6. stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific. ash. fisheries. from which they were never wholly rooted out. Quebec. which with Newfoundland forms British North America. Nova Scotia. CTSTI.com Palestine W. and Ontario are the largest lakes. constituting the finest system of inland waterways in the world. the finest wheat is grown without manure. but there are several gorges. the chief rivers are the Fraser. cold. oak. coal. year after year.000). Saskatchewan. the peninsulas of Labrador and Nova Scotia. but as yet not much wrought. but bracing and exhilarating winters. pine. and between these a vast extent of prairie and undulating land. a civilised race with towns for defence. British Columbia. CANAANITES. Saskatchewan. and copper are widely distributed. the twelve provinces. of the Jordan. of the Rocky Mountains. are of great value. the Governor-General is the Viceroy of the Queen. the federal capital. and poplar in immense quantities. many of them of enormous size and navigable. worshippers of the fertilising powers of nature. and steps are taken to prevent the wealth of timber ever being exhausted. very wet west of the Rockies. Keewatin. Lawrence. the chief trade is done with England and the United States. the climate is varied. Athabasca. both on the coasts and inland. Alberta. Great Slave. elsewhere drier than in Europe. New Brunswick. Page 510 of 2772 . nearly every Computer Lecturer. from the United States to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. Mackenzie. each with its own Parliament. very cold in the north. Erie. occupies the northern third of the continent. elm. nearly as large as Europe. Great Bear.

except Newfoundland. ANTONIO. CANARY ISLANDS (288). settlement began at Quebec in 1608. Page 511 of 2772 . Toronto. farther up there are zones where wheat and cereals are cultivated. constituted at different times. picturesque scenery. were finally confederated in 1871. and tobacco are exported. sugar. a Greek statesman. 1703. bananas. Nova Scotia. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. the name of an ungraceful and indecent dance practised in the Paris dancing saloons. taken possession of by France in 1534. and water often scarce. famous for his pictures of Venice and handling of light and shade (1697-1768).com province has its university. CANDIA (12). the rest of French territory was ceded to England in 1763. CONSTANTINE. the largest town is Montreal. coast. more than any other statesman (1790-1877). African coast. Hudson Bay. a Venetian painter. BERNARDO BELLOTTO. CANARIS. distinguished for his perspective and light and shade (1720-1780). CANALETTO. now the name of the capital. and dates grow. belonging to Spain. that of Toronto being the most important. CTSTI. and Halifax are all larger than the capital. in the centre of the N. the various provinces. a group of mountainous islands in the Atlantic. on the lower levels the climate is delightful. the rainfall is low. Chennai 6. nephew and pupil of preceding. did much to free and consolidate Greece. the ancient name of Crete. and sugar. off the NW. the islands are a health resort of growing favour. CANALETTO. and Newfoundland passed to England. wine. Quebec. Hamilton. and wild. with rocky coasts. CANCAN. by the treaty of Utrecht.

a Scottish ecclesiastic. but failing to follow up his success by a march on Rome. Page 512 of 2772 . wrote on the antiquities of Rome. "All for the best in the best of all possible worlds"." CANDLEMAS. a slanderess in Sheridan's "Rivals. MRS. See DE CANDOLLE. who addressing him said. it is a sweeping satire. ROBERT SMITH.ramakalai@gmail." CANEA (12). a philosophic romance by Voltaire. oil. &c. national manners.. CTSTI. next to Chalmers. LUIGI. CANNAE. Italian architect. Etruria. coast. and written in ridicule of the famous maxim of Leibnitz. love. held on February 2. Chennai 6..com CANDIDE. CANINA.C. but not how to profit by your victory. in a great battle. celebrated with lighted candles. an old Roman custom in honour of the goddess Februa. was twitted by Maherbal. on NW. born in Edinburgh. distinguished. loyalty. for his services in organising the Free Church of Scotland. CANDLISH. and silk. a festival in commemoration of the purification of the Virgin. chief commercial town in Crete. trades in wax. CANDOUR. all come in for a sneer. near the mouth of the Aufidus. fruit. (1795-1856). "You know how to conquer. was an able debater and an eloquent preacher (1806-1873). ambition. Hannibal. CANDOLLE. political government. defeated the Romans in 216 B. wool. where Hannibal. human weakness." Computer Lecturer. and "religion. one of his officers. ancient town in Apulia.

CANO. born in London. satirised the Whigs by his pen in his "Anti-Jacobin". and died at the age of 57 (1770-1827). and the title became extinct (1812-1862). the first to sail round the world. and after a period of unpopularity became popular by adopting. grandson of the succeeding. of France. on the death of Liverpool was made Prime Minister. sculptor. in succession to Lord Dalhousie. perished on his second voyage to India (1460-1526).com CANNES (15). died in London without issue. where Napoleon landed on his return from Elba. held this post at the time of the Mutiny in 1857. CANNING. whom he strenuously supported. was rewarded by an under-secretaryship. a liberal policy. distinguished himself during this trying crisis by his discretion. CANO. entered Parliament as a protege of Pitt. was made Governor-General of India. became a member of the Liverpool ministry. born at Granada. under Portland distinguished himself by defeating the schemes of Napoleon. married a lady of high rank. was not equal to the opposition he provoked. after service in cabinet offices. became viceroy on the transfer of the government to the crown in 1858. a Spanish navigator. Computer Lecturer. to the disgust of his old colleagues. GEORGE. CTSTI. CANNING. ALONZO.ramakalai@gmail. studied for the bar. Chennai 6. and architect (1601-1667). 1856. a celebrated artist. a distinguished British statesman and orator. Page 513 of 2772 . with a fortune. EARL. and moderation. having been painter. a French watering-place and health resort on the Mediterranean. CHARLES JOHN. in the SE. firmness. surnamed the Michael Angelo of Spain. SEBASTIAN DEL. and once more minister of Foreign Affairs. on the death of Pitt became minister of Foreign Affairs.

and honoured by a special festival. CTSTI. revered and worshipped by the son of the sandy desert as a friend and guide to him. CANONISATION. on the site of ancient Canusium. is the solemn declaration by the Pope that a servant of God. waiting for Pope Gregory VII. much resembling a suit at law. CANOPUS. Page 514 of 2772 . with a wall from 3000 to 6000 ft. a town in Apulia. is to be publicly venerated by the whole Church. CANOSA (18). a town NW. as he wanders over the waste at night alone.ramakalai@gmail. and which established his fame.com CANON. the largest and deepest in the world. the name given to the body of Scripture accepted by the Church as of divine authority. his first great work." which was by-and-by succeeded by his "Cupid and Psyche. a great Italian sculptor. stood three days in the cold. abounding in Roman remains. long. in the courtyard of the castle of which the Emperor Henry IV. in perpendicular height. Chennai 6. CANON OF COLORADO. tedious. being 300 m. a gorge in Arizona through which the Colorado River flows. CANOSSA. A preparatory stage is beatification. CANOVA. the blue vault of heaven with its stars. was the group of "Theseus and the Minotaur. renowned for his virtue and for miracles he has wrought. termed Saint. ANTONIO. of Bologna. and the beatification and canonisation of a saint are promoted by a long. born in Venetia. and costly process." distinguished by a Computer Lecturer. bareheaded and barefooted. to remove from him the sentence of excommunication. gave early proof of his genius. in January 1077. in the Romish Church.

served for some 20 years in Algeria. of which there are two degrees. became a member of the senate under the Republic (1809-1895). CANTACUZE`NUS. insincere and sincere. emperor of the East. 100 years old. fought in Italy against Austria. Computer Lecturer.com tenderness and grace quite peculiar to him. and erelong by "Perseus with the Head of Medusa. which he made a generous use of (1757-1822). who acting as regent for the heir. the latter being of the darker and deeper dye. CANTARINI. his works were numerous. but was driven to resign at length. Chennai 6. and a tool. and sincere when one cants without knowing it. CANTABRI. a Scotch Presbyterian minister. believing." perhaps the triumph of his art. first under. CANT. and feeling what one in his heart and reality does not. CTSTI. where he wrote a history of his time. ANDREW. the original inhabitants of the N. born at Pesaro. had himself crowned king. commanded in the Crimea. who had an equal zeal for the Scotch covenant and the cause of Charles Stuart (1610-1664). a pupil of Guido and a rival. presumed to be the ancestors of the Basques. marshal of France. retired to a monastery on Mount Athos. CANROBERT.ramakalai@gmail. died in 1411. of Spain. but only an imitator from afar (1612-1648). an Italian painter. was shut up in Metz with Bazaine. and made prisoner. Page 515 of 2772 . SIMONE. and brought him a large fortune. and then in succession to St. was a supporter of Napoleon III. insincere when one cants knowing it. A son of his was Principal of Edinburgh University from 1675 to 1685. Arnaud.. affectation of thinking. JOHN. FRANCOIS. an able statesman. CANT.

if there is any unity in it at all. the author of the best tale to be treated with a supper. about the canonicity and interpretation of which there has been much debate. it contains many interesting monuments. in justification possibly of the secession. a book in the Bible erroneously ascribed to Solomon. the city is rich in old churches and ecclesiastical monuments. by rail 62 m. and called in Hebrew the Song of Songs. is the ecclesiastical capital of England. the present building belongs to various epochs. to the conclusion that it represents a young maiden seduced into the harem of Solomon. 597 by St. Augustin. there is an art gallery. CANTICLES. of London. her sole beloved. who cannot be persuaded to transfer to the king the affection she has for a shepherd in the northern hills of Galilee. 1170. Chennai 6. on the Stour. and agreed to tell each a tale going and each another coming back. CTSTI.D. CANTERBURY (128). They started from the Tabard Inn at Southwark. among the latter that of Thomas a Becket. though. Kit Marlowe was a native. CANTERBURY TALES. and tombs. in E. believed to be an allegory in which the Bridegroom represents Christ and the Bride His Church. and is by some still. SE. a body of tales by Chaucer.com CANTERBURY (23). statues. None of the tales on the homeward journey are given. trade is chiefly in hops and grain. Kent. a district in New Zealand. the cloisters. Page 516 of 2772 . the aim of the author presumed by some to present a contrast between the morals of the south and those of the north. chapter-house. Computer Lecturer. a great pasture-land for sheep of over three million acres. It was for long. on the east side of which are the Canterbury Plains or Downs. in the centre of the South Island. the cathedral was founded A. and other buildings occupy the site of the old monastic houses. recent criticism inclines. dating as far back as the 11th century.ramakalai@gmail. as regards the latter. conceived of as related by a small company of pilgrims from London to the shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. murdered in the north transept.

returned in 1015. a "Universal History" in 35 vols.ramakalai@gmail. its river communication with the interior has fostered an extensive commerce.800). the fancy goods. CANTON. is covered with forests of pine.com CANTON (1. but with a heavy rainfall. on the death of his sole rival became undisputed king of England. NW. CTSTI. among a number of other works. has narrow crooked streets. &c. Chennai 6. died in England. or CNUT. but at length liberated. son of Sweyn. discovered the means of making artificial magnets and the compressibility of water (1718-1772). exports. THE DANE. great part of the population live in boats on the river. carried all before him. sugar. called the Great. silk. mostly Buddhist. equitably. CAESARE. 100 m. wisely. Page 517 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. CANUTE. every one is familiar with the story of the rebuke he administered to the courtiers by showing how regardless the waves of the sea were of the authority of a king (994-1035). and was buried in Winchester Minster. and he had to flee. king of Denmark. born in Lombardy. &c. ivory. stands on a river almost on the seaboard. 10 and 13 centuries old respectively. CANTU. the claim was repudiated by the Saxons. literary as well as historical. porcelain. though the care of governing Denmark and Norway lay on his shoulders as well. an ingenious experimentalist in physics. 90 m.. the insular portion of the prov. and next year. an Italian historian. though London held out for a time. and after a success or two was elected king by his fleet. long and 85 broad. of Hong-Kong. and particularly in electricity. invaded England. and exports timber and fish. silk. and ruled it as an Englishman born. imprisoned by the Austrian government for his bold advocacy of liberal views. 125 temples. cassia. it is surrounded by walls. born at Stroud. tea. and well. and is a healthy town. and metal work are famous. CAPE BRETON (92). (1807-1895). oak. wrote. JOHN. and two pagodas. chief commercial city and port of Southern China. of Nova Scotia at its eastern extremity.

comprises the extremity of the African continent south of the Orange River and Natal. CAPE HORN. capital of the Gold Coast colony. roads are good. education is well cared for. who flourish under British rule. assisted by an executive council of five and a parliament of two houses.. appointed by the crown. much dreaded at one time by sailors. chiefly Kaffirs. Discovered by the Portuguese Diaz in 1486. discovered by Diaz in 1486. only requires irrigation to render it very fertile. the Cape was taken possession of by the Dutch in 1652. divides the country into two slopes. steep. Sheep and ostrich farming are the chief industries. hides. but hot in summer. a black. but there are many small towns. Various steps towards self-government culminated in 1872. local government is in vogue all over the country. and W. the northern slope long and gradual to the Orange River. wool. and the policy of extending British sway from the Cape to Cairo is explicitly avowed. English. Cape Town is the capital.com CAPE COAST CASTLE (11). frowning rock at the SE. CTSTI. two-thirds of the people are of African race. called at first "Cape of Storms. which. the Nieuwveld Berge. French. the prevalent vegetation is heath and bulbous plants. extremity of the Fuegean Islands." from the experience of the first Computer Lecturer. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. Page 518 of 2772 . Chennai 6. running E. the university of the Cape of Good Hope was founded in 1873. The government is in the hands of a governor. ostrich feathers. a cape in South Africa. CAPE COLONY (1.ramakalai@gmail. the southern shorter and terraced to the sea. railway and telegraph communication is rapidly developing. goats' hair. have been formally taken under British protection. diamonds from Kimberley and copper from Namaqualand are the chief exports. and is nearly twice the size of the United Kingdom. two-thirds of the country is arid plain.527). the climate is dry and healthy. and German origin. from whom it was captured by Great Britain in 1805. the remainder are of Dutch. however. Kimberley and Port Elizabeth the only other large towns. In recent years great tracts to the N.

a reddish star of the first magnitude in the northern constellation of Auriga. on the W. situated at the head of Table Bay. and lit. It has docks. paved.ramakalai@gmail. author of a work called the "Satiricon. with an excellent harbour. Chennai 6. and a graving dock. Computer Lecturer. museum and art gallery. The Government buildings and law courts. the wood-grouse.com navigators. capital of Cape Colony. EDWARD. an encyclopaedist. in three vols. and is a port of call for vessels of all nations.. a group of mountainous." a strange medley of curious learning. CAPELLA. Page 519 of 2772 . CAPE TOWN (84). and highly esteemed for table. with handsome buildings and extensive Government gardens. These islands are unhealthy. CAPELLA. spent 20 years in editing the text of Shakespeare. coast. Vincent. from Cape Verde. born at Bury St. altered in consideration of the promised land reached beyond. well drained. with notes and various readings (1713-1781). CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (110). CAPERCAILZIE. flat-roofed. and with a good water supply. of which 10 are inhabited. 350 m. born in North Africa in the 5th century. CTSTI. an inspector of plays. the largest and most productive Santiago and St. with a thriving commerce. are its chief architectural features. with Table Mountain rising behind it. volcanic islands. and cattle-breeding is the chief industry. is a regularly built. bank and exchange. oftenest visited. Edmunds. of Africa. a large game-bird found in fir woods in mountainous districts. CAPELL. on the SW. belonging to Portugal. imposing town.

" and voluminously both in French and English (1393-1464). the exact site of which is uncertain. the founder. and the Bourbon. CTSTI. CAPISTRANO. Augustine friar.com CAPERNAUM. Page 520 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. one of the seven hills of Rome. with sanction of the nobles. collections of royal edicts issued by the Frankish kings of the Carlovingian dynasty. entered the Russian diplomatic service. in 987. and under that name sentenced to the guillotine. hence the saying. which continued to rule France till 1328. JOHN. born in Corfu. for the whole Frankish empire. terminated at its southern extremity by Tarpeian Rock. aided John Hunniades in 1456 in defending Belgrade against the Turks (1385-1456). an Italian Franciscan. CAPO D'ISTRIA. CAPET. COUNT OF. which ruled till 1589. "The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitol. as distinct from the laws for the separate peoples comprising it. of the third dynasty of French kings. the surname of Hugh. a town on the N. wrote "Chronicle of England. though the name is applied both to the Valois dynasty. a temple and citadel erected by Tarquin on the Capitoline Hill. Chennai 6. Louis XVI." to denote the close connection between glory and disgrace. CAPGRAVE. and where victors who were voted a triumph were crowned. GIOVANNI DA. the most famous being those issued or begun by Charlemagne and St. from which criminals guilty of treason were precipitated. side of the Sea of Galilee. CAPITULARIES. Louis. played a prominent part in the insurrection of the Computer Lecturer. which ruled till 1848. the centre of Christ's labours. having been officially designated as a Capet at his trial. CAPITOL. a rabid adversary of the Hussites.

from the luxurious life they led. CAPO D'ISTRIA. COUNT. a small island at the entrance from the S. entered the army in 1849. and the modern city built in its stead. CAPRIVI.com Greeks against Turkey. a plateau with pastures for immense flocks. where. connected with the mainland by a causeway half a mile in length. Computer Lecturer. resigned in 1894 (1831-1899). at the invitation of the citizens. and where.ramakalai@gmail. where he died. CAPPADOCIA.. barren island off the N. CARDINAL. CTSTI. Hannibal. of varied political fortune. or rather near which. a favourite retreat of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius. destroyed by the Saracens in 840. of Naples. 216 B. CAPRARA. retired with his army to spend the winter after the battle of Cannae. assassinated at Nauplia from distrust of his fidelity (1776-1831). a port of a small island in the government of Trieste. on the Volturno. of the bay of Naples. born at Bologna. born in Berlin. held chief posts in the Austrian and Franco-German wars. CAPRI. CAPRE`RA. an ancient country in the heart of Asia Minor. the home of Garibaldi. legate of Pius VII. in France. his soldiers were enervated. 27 m. N. a fortified city in Campania. coast of Sardinia. with a capital of the same name on the eastern side. and his burial-place. made President of the Greek Republic. Page 521 of 2772 . and noted for its fine air and picturesque scenery. CAPUA (11). in 1890 succeeded Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor.C. a small. concluded the "Concordat" of 1801 (1733-1810). after which it was taken by the Romans. in a place of the same name. Chennai 6.

the founder of a new school of painting. AGOSTINO. a family of painters. familiar to us through Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet. brother of above. CAPYBA`RA. Chennai 6. cousin and pupil." Romeo being of the latter and Juliet of the former. did "St. "Three Marys weeping over Christ". went to Rome and painted the celebrated Farnese gallery. a Roman emperor. in consequence of which it is known as the Eclectic School. CARACAS or CARRACAS (72). among others the jurist Papinianus. above the level of the sea. or imitation of the styles of the best masters (1555-1619)." and his chief. ANNIBALE.com CAPUCHINS. the water-hog. and was assassinated himself by one of his guards. his reign (211-217) was a series of crimes.000 persons. Jerome" his greatest work Computer Lecturer. CAPULETS. in appearance like a small pig. the largest rodent extant. the principle of which was eclecticism. he put to death 20.ramakalai@gmail. the cap. born at Lyons. Roche distributing Alms. and extravagances. and were twice over suppressed by the Pope. the "Communion of St.000 perished. and great part of the city was destroyed. stands at an altitude 3000 ft. of Venezuela. CARACALLA. so called from a cowl they wear. assisted him in the frescoes of the gallery. they were a mendicant order. CTSTI. it contains the tomb of Bolivar. follies. founded in 1526. Page 522 of 2772 . CARACCI or CARRACCI. a celebrated Ghibelline family of Verona at mortal feud with that of the Montagues. though they exist still in Austria and Switzerland. monks of the Franciscan Order. in one of which (1812) 12. a work which occupied him four years (1560-1609). born at Bologna: LUDOVICO. subject to earthquakes. son of Septimius Severus.

and oxygen. &c. Computer Lecturer. CARAVANSERAI. Paul IV. CARAFFA.. and led in triumphal procession through Rome. taken captive. often in its grossest forms. CTSTI.D. with a court in the middle for the accommodation of caravans and other travellers at night in the East. starch. a knight of the Round Table. one of them. a British chief. an eminent Italian engraver. but was overthrown by Ostorius. after the works of the great masters (1500-1570). which gave birth to a number of distinguished ecclesiastics. a man of a violent temper. Chennai 6. an Italian painter. when the Emperor Claudius was so struck with his dignified demeanour. CARBOHYDRATES. a painting by him of "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" is in the National Gallery. a distinguished Neapolitan family. disdained the ideal and the ideal style of art. engraved on gems and medals as well as copper-plate. the latter in the proportion in which they exist in water. king of the Silures. and kept generally to crass reality. CARAGLIO. hydrogen. which hastened his end. CARAVAGGIO. a large unfurnished inn. a class of substances such as the sugars.. consisting of carbon. born at Verona. Page 523 of 2772 .com (1557-1602). 50 A. CARACTACUS. famous for his valour and the chastity and constancy of his wife. CARADOC. London (1569-1609). maintained a gallant struggle against the Romans for nine years. that he set him and all his companions at liberty.ramakalai@gmail.

and absorbed by the Young Italy party. Page 524 of 2772 . a county in S. Silvio Pellico. CARDIGANSHIRE (62). CARDAN. level towards the coast. CARDIGAN. a secret society that. Computer Lecturer. EARL OF. studied and wrote on all manner of known subjects. JEROME. and distinguished himself in the famous charge of the Six Hundred. county town of Glamorganshire. but with fertile valleys.ramakalai@gmail. a town that has risen more rapidly than any other in the kingdom. Wales. S. a number of churches. included Lord Byron. Chennai 6. numbering hundreds of thousands. born at Pavia. his favourite regiment. made discoveries in algebra. Wales. the sea outlet for the mineral wealth and products of the district. commanded the Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimean war.com CARBONARI (lit. and mountainous in the interior. CARDIFF (129). low-lying on the coast. they were broken up by Austria. which he led. having had at the beginning of the century only 2000 inhabitants. and Mazzini among them. was the author of "Cardan's Formula" a formula for the solution of cubic equations. left a candid account of himself entitled "De Vita Propria". in the beginning of the 19th century. _charcoal burners_). few of them belonging to the Church of England. a British officer. was far-famed as a physician. believed in astrology. the 11th Hussars. the object of which was the overthrow of despotic governments. he is said to have starved himself to death so as to fulfil a prophecy he had made as to the term of his life (1501-1576). on the equipment of which he lavished large sums of money (1797-1868). originated in Italy and extended itself into France. it has a university. CTSTI. Italian physician and mathematician. and has also three daily papers. on the river Taff.

Fortitude (the spirit that persists and endures rightly). 1743." and are defined by Ruskin as "Prudence or Discretion (the spirit which discerns and adopts rightly).ramakalai@gmail. 1837. CARDUCCI. CTSTI. Chennai 6." "Odi Barbari.com CARDINAL VIRTUES.. CARDUCCI. "are not only the means of protecting and prolonging life itself. CAREY. his poems. _d_. did their chief work in Spain. GIOSUE. present at her deathbed rode off post-haste on the occurrence of the death with the news to Edinburgh to announce it to King James (1560-1639). of the 17th century. excelled in ballads. an Italian poet and critic." he adds. HENRY. brothers." CARDINALISTS." "Commentaries on Petrarch. under four general heads. these have been "arranged by the wisest men of all time. English courtier poet. Florentine artists. and the governing powers and princes of economy. Justice (the spirit which rules and divides rightly). author of "Hymn to Satan. name given to the partisans in France of Richelieu and Mazarin. CAREY. These cardinal and sentinel virtues. and Temperance (the spirit which stops and refuses rightly). chiefly masks and lyrics (1589-1639). SIR ROBERT. _b_. but are the chief guards or sources of the material means of life. composed "Sally in Our Alley". warden of the Border Marches under Elizabeth. Computer Lecturer. THOMAS." &c. Page 525 of 2772 . English poet and musician. CAREW.

WILLIAM. founded the mission at Serampore and directed its operations. Glasgow. the principal river is the Drave. Computer Lecturer. lying between the Great Antilles and South America. CARGILL. CARISBROOKE. was minister of the Barony Parish. a SW. of which the Maeander is the chief river. fought at Bothwell Brig. CARIBS. CARIBBEAN SEA. a village in the Isle of Wight. died with the faith and courage of a martyr (1619-1681). Page 526 of 2772 . is a mountainous and a mineral country. a Scotch Covenanter. as far as the mouth of the Amazon. born in Perthshire. subject to hurricanes. it corresponds to the Mediterranean in Europe. distributing Bibles and tracts by thousands in native languages. in the castle of which. Klagenfurt. CTSTI. rears cattle and horses. capital.ramakalai@gmail. born in Northamptonshire. CARINTHIA (361). and is the turning-point of the Gulf Stream. since 1849 crownland of Austria. a race of American Indians.com CAREY. manufactures hardware and textile fabrics. but have lost their distinctive physique by amalgamation with other tribes. Calcutta (1761-1834). an inland sea of the Atlantic. CARIA. bordering on the Archipelago. suffered at the Cross of Edinburgh for daring to excommunicate the king. celebrated Baptist missionary. they are a fine race. founder of the Baptist Missionary Society. they give name to the Caribbean Sea. country in Asia Minor. tall. near Italy. and its first missionary. DONALD. Chennai 6. now confined to the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea. and of ruddy-brown complexion. was 29 years Oriental professor in the College of Fort William. as well as preparing grammars and dictionaries. originally inhabiting the West Indies.

WILLIAM. numismatist. Swedish novelist. his first work. Page 527 of 2772 . CTSTI. a disciple of Tom Paine's. EMILIA. and became eventually Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Palmerston (1802-1864)." followed by others of a like class (1794-1860)." the first twelve volumes of which are dated from his prison. CARLI. he was a martyr for the freedom of the press. and in that interest did not suffer in vain (1790-1843). county town of Cumberland. wrote as his chief work on political economy. GEORGE FREDERICK WILLIAM HOWARD. Irish novelist. and propagandist of his views with a zeal which no prosecution could subdue. a Whig in politics. born at Capo d'Istria. and the foundation of his reputation. born in Devonshire. and a cathedral founded by William Rufus and dedicated to Henry I.ramakalai@gmail. EARL OF. Chennai 6. English Radical and Freethinker. although he time after time suffered imprisonment for it. his principal organ was "The Republican. it was at one time a Roman station. CARLETON. CARLISLE. Computer Lecturer. RICHARD. Italian archaeologist. on the Eden. his wife included. a great railway centre. was imprisoned 13 months before his trial. CARLEN. "Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry. treat of the everyday life of the lower and middle classes (1807-1883). as well as those who associated themselves with him. her novels. supported the successive Whig administrations of his time. CARLILE. CARLISLE (39). with an old castle of historical interest. some 30 in number.com now in ruins. and economist. Charles I. president of the Council of Commerce at Milan (1720-1795).

he urged. CARLOS. Burgundy. the story of Don Carlos has formed the subject of tragedies. Page 528 of 2772 . and convicted. had. 771. Computer Lecturer. though set aside in her favour by her father. CARLOS. confessed to a priest a design to assassinate some one. especially one by Schiller.com CARLISTS. abdicated. tried. believed to be his father. against Isabella. son of Charles Martel. DON. _d_. excluded by his father from all share in the government. (1830). where he died. on whose death he laid claim to the crown as heir. DON. and especially in Spain to those of Don Carlos (1833). and retired into a monastery. of Spain. a name given in France to the partisans of Charles X. and heir to the throne. and Provence in 768. Chennai 6. no right to the throne. king of France conjointly with his brother Louis III. and heir to his rights. _d_. CARLOMAN. though sentence against him was never pronounced. his cause was taken up by a large party. the German poet (1545-1568). CTSTI. 884. DON. was seized.. grandson of the preceding. the brother of Ferdinand VII. Ferdinand's daughter who by the Salic law.ramakalai@gmail. CARLOMAN. died shortly after. of Spain. king of Austrasia from 741 to 747. or worse. defeated at length he retired from the contest. born at Valladolid. and abdicated in favour of his son (1785-1855). and brother of Pepin le Bref. but from incapacity. and those of his grandson (1873-1874). son of Pepin le Bref. son of Philip II. and brother of Charlemagne. and the struggle kept up for years. CARLOMAN. king of Austrasia. CARLOS.

a Swedish town. also the county town. to 165 deg. but fared no better than his grandfather. Pepin le Bref the first. in succession to the Merovingian. of aristocratic resort. CALLOW (40). on the Baltic. CARLSBAD (10). Chennai 6. radiating so from the duke's palace in the centre. a celebrated watering-place in Bohemia. CARLSRUHE (73). 1848. or KARLINGS. with a spacious harbour. the capital of the Grand-Duchy of Baden. population nearly trebled in the season. and gave name to the dynasty. strongly fortified. a German Reformer. CTSTI. CARLOWITZ. its streets. very much to the curtailment of the territories of the former. _b_. Page 529 of 2772 . an inland county in Leinster. NW. of Belgrade. the last.. Ireland. CARLSTADT. a town on the Danube. the springs being the hottest in Europe.com revived the struggle in 1870. took refuge in London. 30 m.ramakalai@gmail. where a treaty was concluded in 1699 between Turkey and other European powers. it is built on five rocky islands united by dykes and bridges. the inhabitants are engaged in industries which minister to the tastes of the visitors and their own profit. Charlemagne was the greatest of the race. the water varying from 117 deg. and Louis V. naval station. a great railway centre. which had become _faineant_. but Computer Lecturer. bore sway from 762 to 987. and arsenal. associated for a time with Luther. the name of the second dynasty of Frankish kings. built in the form of a fan. CARLSCRONA (21). CARLOVINGIANS. 32 in number.

a descendant of John Knox. CARLTON CLUB. and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia. left an "Autobiography. and a symbolical. where he wrote his "French Computer Lecturer. from 1747 to his death. a woman of deep piety and warm affection. distinguished himself early in mathematics. Dumfriesshire. friend of David Hume. minister of Inveresk. wrote a "Life of Schiller". CARLYLE. penetration. the Conservative club in London. in Dumfriesshire. a man of great force. and of Margaret Aitken." where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus. "the loneliest nook in Britain. a leader of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland. and enjoyed them to the full as any easy-going. the author of "Douglas". formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving. Chennai 6.com parted from him both on practical and dogmatical grounds. and afterwards a small farmer. the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies. a stone-mason. so called. and an autobiographical. Page 530 of 2772 . when he was Prince of Wales. succeeded Zwingli as professor at Basel (1483-1541). threw up both school-mastering and the church. educated at the parish school and Annan Academy. demolished in 1828. surnamed Jupiter Carlyle. born in the village of Ecclefechan. removed to London in 1834. and occupied by George IV. cultured pagan (1722-1805). CARLYLE. in the Arts classes." written in 1831. and integrity of character. from his noble head and imposing person. removed to Edinburgh. removed to Craigenputtock. became a teacher first in Annan Academy. and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews. THOMAS." which was not published till 1860. married Jane Welsh. ALEXANDER. and Home." proved "epoch-making" in British literature.ramakalai@gmail. Adam Smith. CTSTI. Annandale. entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14. as erected on the site of Carlton House. which shows its author to have been a man who took things as he found them. born in Dumfriesshire. a radically spiritual book. son of James Carlyle. though all too exclusively treated as a speculative. enrolled as a student in the theological department. then at Kirkcaldy. Musselburgh.

" says Froude. contains part of the coal-fields in the district. the social life affects the individual life to the very core. Chennai 6.." afterwards printed in 1840. lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born. if the will to hear had been in them . CARMAGNOLE. "The man. on the right bank of the Towy. as would seem. as he all along taught and felt. the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man. the most serious question of the time. as a subject of the realm. a Red-republican song and dance." says Emerson. and the largest in the Principality. with "The History of Friedrich II. CARMARTHENSHIRE (30). concluded (1858-1865) his life's task. "a book. delivered three courses of lectures to the _elite_ of London Society (1837-1840). and the manners of modern times". what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear. the last. CTSTI. his greatest disciple. a river which traverses the county. the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship. in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell. a NW. the Plain of Esdraelon. without thought of himself. and just for the love of God" (1795-1881)." which to the last he regarded. as he had left instructions to be." in 1843 "Past and Present. in 1840 appeared "Chartism. prosecuted from first to last. John Sterling. seeing. CARMEL.ramakalai@gmail. of Prussia. a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures. and at present. all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question. Page 531 of 2772 . in "sore travail" of body and soul. Wales." and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets"." and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend. extension of the limestone ridge that bounds on the S. a county in S.. in Palestine. and terminates in a rocky Computer Lecturer. "who alone of all our masters of literature. capital Carmarthen. for its moral verdict on men and nations. called Frederick the Great.com Revolution" (1837). "that is a Judgment Day." according to Ruskin." "the last and grandest of his works. and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century. has written.

a monastic order. in the dep. HENRY HOWARD.. in which Edward II. forms the southern boundary of the Bay of Acre. its highest point is 1742 ft. held office under Lord Derby and Disraeli. _b_. lost an only child. in the Madras Presidency of India that extended along the Coromandel coast from Cape Comorin. a Calabrian. CARMEN SYLVA. The Order is said to have existed from the days of Elijah.com promontory 500 ft. has taken an active interest in the elevation and welfare of her sex. with the highest mountains and grandest scenery in the Principality. Chennai 6. e. 1843. and a capital of the same name on the Menai Strait. the _nom-de-plume_ of Elizabeth. a French dramatist. high. CARMONTEL. with interesting historical records. Wales. N. CARNATIC. Earl of. author of little pieces under the name of "Proverbes" (1717-1806). the Virgin. of Morbihan. was born. in 1156. Page 532 of 2772 . CARMELITES. called the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. wrote the "Druses of Mount Lebanon" (1831-1890). an old prov. Conservative statesman. queen of Roumania. Computer Lecturer. many of them undecipherable by the antiquary. the first Prince of Wales. with the noble ruins of a castle.ramakalai@gmail. at length mendicant. was a good classical scholar. CARNARVON. a maritime county in N. particularly Celtic. in consecration to whom it was founded by a pilgrim of the name Berthold. CTSTI. and took to literature for consolation. CARNAC. above the sea-level. France. 600 m. a seaside fishing-village in the Bay of Quiberon. originally an association of hermits on Mount Carmel. CARNARVON. i.

sent once on an embassy to Rome." CARNOT. and the soil is not grain productive. CARNIVAL. KNOTT'S "PHYSICS. MARIE FRANCOIS. his whole philosophy a polemic against the dogmatism of the Stoics. born at Cyrene. CARNOT. 1835.. second only to those of Almaden. CTSTI. founder of thermo-dynamics. in Roman Catholic countries the name given to a season of feasting and revelry immediately preceding Lent. CARNEGIE.S. though in some parts it yields wine and fine fruit. in Spain. considered the most important contribution to physical science since the time of Newton (1796-1832). SW.ramakalai@gmail. on the Adriatic. of Austria. CARNIOLA (500). contains quicksilver mines. where he came from (213-129 B.). out of which he has liberally endowed institutions and libraries. a crownland of the Austrian empire. ANDREW. in his "Reflexions sur la Puissance du Feu" enunciates the principle of Reversibility. upon which Cato moved he should be expelled from the senate-house and sent back to Athens. Chennai 6. a Greek philosopher. LEONARD SADI. Page 533 of 2772 . See DR. both in America and his native country. born in Dunfermline. akin to the Saturnalia of the Romans. the son of a weaver. of Carinthia. but he denied the reality of them. on the alleged ground of the absence of any criterion of certainty in matters of either science or morality. he propounded this doctrine in the ears of the Conscript Fathers. ironmaster. son of Nicolas. _b_. civil engineer and statesman. made a large fortune by his iron and steel works at Pittsburg. born at Computer Lecturer.com CARNEADES. S.C. the surface is mountainous. conceded that truth and virtue were admirable qualities. U.

and pessimism (1826-1887). the "organiser of victory". from E. is well watered. and 180 m. and the manufactures are numerous.ramakalai@gmail. whence his name. of New Guinea and E. of N. to W. from N. nephew of the preceding. Page 534 of 2772 . from E. a member of the National Convention. is rich in minerals and natural products. Finance Minister in 1879 and 1887. Carolina. CAROLINE ISLANDS (36). born at Poitiers. to S. Chennai 6. CARO. belonging to Spain. a French philosopher. Minister of War under Napoleon. inland from the coast. a popular lecturer on philosophy. the mountains are covered with forests. S. of the Philippine Islands. surnamed _le philosophe des dames_. French mathematician and engineer.. the soil of the western is fertile. a stretch of lagoon islands. CAROLINA. to W. S. in Burgundy. well-watered subsoil in the high lands. 480 m. and central. materialism. MARIE. 100 m. of Virginia. about the size of England. NICOLAS. 2000 m.com Limoges. defender of Antwerp in 1814.. notable for his classic style (1507-1566). wrote on mysticism. CARNOT. and afterwards Minister of the Interior (1753-1823). America. has a fertile. produces rice and cotton in large quantities and of a fine quality. CAROLINA. one of the original 13 States of N. western. ANNIBALE. N. was assassinated at Lyons by an anarchist in 1894. voted for the death of the king. became member of the Committee of Public Safety. and there is plenty of fish and turtle in the Computer Lecturer. once divided into eastern. and organiser of the armies of the Republic. born at Nolay. CTSTI. SOUTH. on the Atlantic. is alluvial with swamps. an Italian author and poet. became President in 1887. NORTH. CARO.

adorned by his art.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. JEAN BAPTISTE. 8517 ft. was allowed to go abroad after a time. was charged with adultery.. CARON. but after a long trial acquitted. and their sides clothed with forests. but rejected it and claimed her rights as queen. under the first Empire. in 1795. queen of George IV. particularly in his early pieces. but almost immediately after her husband abandoned her. CARPATHIANS. and the facade of the Opera House (1827-1875). and have nearly all of them sacred subjects. his fertile imagination. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. the highest of them Negoi. "He had truth in his heart" (1450-1522). his works are numerous. and E. on the day of the coronation sought admission to Westminster Abbey. CARPEAUX. they are rich in minerals. CARPACCIO. particularly the whole of the N. she died a fortnight after (1768-1821). for his truth of delineation. Computer Lecturer. which. both on the Danube. CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK. long. sculptor. CTSTI. 880 m. in two great masses. born at Valenciennes.com lagoons. on the accession of her husband she was offered a pension of L50. but the door was shut against her. VITTORE. Page 535 of 2772 . a Venetian painter of great celebrity. principally of beech and pine. executed 1822. head of the Belford conspiracy in 1820 under the Restoration. extend from Presburg to Orsova. then Prince of Wales.. and his rich colouring. several of the public monuments of Paris. she retired to a mansion at Blackheath. reckoned highly imaginative. an Italian critic says of him.000 if she stayed out of the country. gave birth to the Princess Charlotte the year following. married George. a range of wooded mountains in Central Europe. and daughter of the Duke of Brunswick. in a semicircle round the greater part of Hungary.

and she was the founder of the National Indian Association (1807-1877). Italian painter and wood engraver. and receives several rivers. a legendary hero of the Moors of Spain. which had a quieting effect on the panic in Europe (1182-1252). deep gulf in the N. in her zeal. MARY. CARPENTER. is said to have invented engraving in chiaroscuro (1486-1530). took an active part in the establishment of reformatory and ragged schools. of Australia. a philanthropist. born at Ferrara. Unitarian minister. and a chief promoter of the Industrial Schools Act. successful imitator of Correggio (1501-1556). Lant Carpenter. CTSTI. was a corpulent man of 60. wrote a report of his journey in Latin. born at Exeter. headed an embassy from Pope Innocent IV. born in Umbria. GULF OF. GIROLAMO DA. her philanthropic efforts extended to India. a broad. Italian painter and architect. and advocated the theory of a vertical circulation in the ocean (1813-1877). held several high professional appointments in London.com CARPENTARIA. CARPI. CARPIO. CARPI. Chennai 6. author. a Franciscan monk. travelled from Lyons to beyond Lake Baikal and back. she visited four times. inaugurated deep-sea soundings. of the "Principles of General and Comparative Physiology" (1838). Computer Lecturer. among other numerous works. to the Emperor of the Mogul Tartars to persuade him out of Europe. which. contains several islands. CARPINI.ramakalai@gmail. Page 536 of 2772 . which he threatened. brother of the preceding. CARPENTER. UGO DA. contributed to mental physiology. biologist. is said to have slain Roland at Roncesvalles. daughter of Dr. WILLIAM BENJAMIN.

born near Aurillac. ARMAND. CARRICK. beheaded. See AYRSHIRE. by means of concentrated meditation on the divine unity. of Leghorn. famous for its quarries of white statuary marble. a man of high character. a town in N. born at Rouen. Chennai 6. the working of which is its staple industry. which he conducted with great ability. author of works on aesthetics and art in its relation to culture and the ideal. died of a wound in a duel with Emile de Girardin (1800-1836).ramakalai@gmail. or shot. born in Hesse. from Belfast. the southern division of Ayrshire.com CARPOC`RATES. CARREL. sent on a mission to La Vendee. and a life in conformity therewith. a German philosopher and man of letters. CARRICKFERGUS (9). was guillotined himself after trial by a Revolutionary tribunal (1756-1794). CARRARA (11). French publicist. and courage. with a picturesque castle. caused thousands of victims to be drowned. CARRIER. a Gnostic of Alexandria of the 2nd century. NW. an attorney by profession. are 400 in number. Italy. of Belfast Lough. was the founder of a sect called after his name. editor of the _National_. who believed in the transmigration of the soul and its final emancipation from all external bonds and obligations. Page 537 of 2772 . and employ as quarrymen alone regularly over 3000 men. JEAN BAPTISTE. CARRIERE. and highly esteemed. a town and seaport N. See NOYADES. CTSTI. advocated the compatibility of the pantheistic with the Computer Lecturer. 30 m. MORITZ. these quarries have been worked for 2000 years. 91/2 m. one of the most blood-thirsty of the French Revolutionists.

founded by the Computer Lecturer. controlled Church affairs in Scotland. near Glasgow. L. a naval port of Spain.ramakalai@gmail." rose at once into fame. was a most sagacious man (1649-1715). died in poverty at Rome (1754-1798). with a capacious harbour. v. CARROL. was the means of reviving it. accompanied him to England as chaplain in 1688. CARTAGENA (86). a Scotch ecclesiastic. Page 538 of 2772 . "The Fall of the Angels. on the appearance of his great picture. and became his political adviser. was chief promoter of the Treaty of Union.com deistic view of the world (1817-1893). was held in high esteem by his countrymen for his personal character as well as his public services. Danish artist. sent to Utrecht to study theology. KIT. the name given in Scotland to alluvial lands bordering on a river. Chennai 6. pseudonym of C. CARSON." with its sequel. treated classical subjects. and had no small share in bringing about the Revolution. ASMUS JAKOB. born in Kentucky. was admitted to the Berlin Academy. CARSTENS. WILLIAM. recommended himself to the regard of the Prince of Orange. brought back to Germany a taste for art. on the Mediterranean. born in Sleswig. LEWIS. CTSTI." CARSE. the author of "Alice in Wonderland. born at Cathcart. was made Principal of Edinburgh University. American trapper. quarrelled the Academy. was of service to the States in expeditions in Indian territories from his knowledge of the habits of the Indians (1809-1878). CARSTAIRS. DODGSON (q. one of the oldest towns in it. afterwards studied the masters at Rome. "Through the Looking-Glass.).

" which has proved a rich quarry of facts for subsequent historians (1686-1754). THOMAS. and proved a successful viceroy. a great Greek and Italian scholar. friend of Dr. and discovered several islands. a blank paper with a signature to be filled up with such terms of an agreement as the holder is authorised to accept in name of the person whose signature it bears. a devoted Jacobite. _d_. 1796. eminent British statesman. CARTERET. his first speech was in favour of the Protestant succession. orator. translated Epictetus and Algarotti's exposition of Newton's philosophy. wrote a "History of England. emphatic man" (1690-1763). PHILIP. EARL GRANVILLE. Computer Lecturer. his foreign policy has been in general approved of. first as an enemy but at length as a friend. Also capital (12) of the Bolivar State in Colombia. Sir Joshua Reynolds. ELIZABETH. in Parliament was head of the party opposed to Sir Robert Walpole and of the subsequent administration. was a "fiery. Page 539 of 2772 . was once the largest naval arsenal in Europe. English sailor and explorer. CARTER. born near Rugby. entered Parliament in the Whig interest. had the satisfaction of seeing. was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. CARTE. some of her papers appear in the _Rambler_ (1717-1806). the elder Pitt installed in office before he retired. CARTE-BLANCHE. Johnson. JOHN. Chennai 6. which he was instrumental in securing. in which capacity he was brought into contact with Swift. Pitcairn's Island among the number. and diplomatist. historian. an accomplished lady. and others. CTSTI. CARTERET. born at Deal. after service as diplomatist abroad.ramakalai@gmail.com Carthaginians. explored in the Southern Seas.

in consequence of which they figure not so much in the outside world as many other orders do. the most famous of which are those of Raphael. born at St. and founded by Phoenicians in 850 B.. drawings or designs made on stiff paper for a fresco or other paintings. CARTIER. though it rose again as a Roman city under the Caesars. America in quest of a North-West passage.ramakalai@gmail. each member of which had originally a single cell. 698 by Hassan. who was broken on the wheel alive in the Place de Greve (1698-1721). CARTOUCHE. by planting the French flag on the soil (1494-1554). the power of Rome.C. transferred by tracing or pouncing to the surface to be painted. born in Paris. eventually one consisting of two or three rooms with a garden. the Arab. CARTOONS. Computer Lecturer. an ancient maritime city. and at one time threatened. made three voyages to N. the struggle during the early part of its history was virtually a struggle for the ascendency of the Semitic people over the Aryan race in Europe. CARTHUSIANS. a French navigator. founded by St. and became a place of great importance till burned in A. and spent their time in study and contemplation. in the last of which it was taken and destroyed by Publius Cornelius Scipio in 146 B. originally the centre of a colony. Bruno in 1086. after a siege of two years. CTSTI.com CARTHAGE. on a peninsula in the N. Malo.D. they amassed considerable wealth. Chennai 6. took possession of Canada in the name of France. near the site of Tunis. all of them opening into one corridor. it became the capital of a wide-spread trading community. of Africa. a notorious captain of a band of thieves. a monastic order of a very severe type. but were given to deeds of benefaction. under Hannibal.. at the instance of Francis I. which even ventured to compete with.C. to overthrow. in a series of protracted struggles known as the Punic Wars.. Page 540 of 2772 .

but left both services for political reasons.000 was made him by Parliament in consideration of his services and in compensation for his losses. KARL GUSTAV. his invention. EDMUND. inventor of the powerloom and the carding machine. a French naval officer. at the battle of Aboukir. bred for the Church. after securing the safety of his crew. the corresponding male figures are called Atlantes. the Art of Living in the World" (1503-1556). CARTWRIGHT. born at Leipzig. draped female figures surmounting columns and supporting entablatures. CTSTI. Chennai 6. served in the navy and the militia. born in Nottinghamshire. his translation is admired for its fidelity as well as for its force and felicity (1772-1844). LOUIS. to his ruin for the time being. JOHN. took to the study of agriculture.ramakalai@gmail. is now universally adopted. a many-sided man. Secretary of State under Pope Paul IV. who would not leave him (1755-1798). a celebrated German physiologist. wrote "Galateo.com CARTWRIGHT. at first violently opposed. CASABIANCA. or. he had a turn for versifying as well as mechanical invention (1743-1823). Computer Lecturer. CASA. CARY. CARUS.. blew up his ship and perished along with his son. and the advocacy of radical political reform much in advance of his time (1740-1824). HENRY FRANCIS. who. CARYATIDES. Italian statesman. brother of the preceding. born at Gibraltar. advocate of the theory that health of body and mind depends on the equipoise of antagonistic principles (1789-1869). translator of Dante. born in Corsica. a grant of L10. Page 541 of 2772 .

died in Bohemia after endless roamings and wrigglings. professor of Greek at Geneva and Montpellier. who insinuated himself into the good graces for a time of all the distinguished people of the period. of Venetian origin. including even Frederick the Great.. CASAUBON. Computer Lecturer. ISAAC. manufactures silk twist. accompanied his father to England. "the smell of brimstone behind him". held a church living under the Charleses. inland. born in London. painted landscapes and battle-pieces (1727-1806). of the Cagliostro type.com CASA`LE (17). they are nearly parallel with the coast. and afterwards of belles-lettres at Paris. a range in Columbia that slopes down toward the Pacific from the Western Plateau. where James I. wrote a long detailed. a town on the Po. painter. a clever Venetian adventurer and scandalous impostor. brazen-faced account of his career of scoundrelism (1725-1798). and others. born in Geneva. CTSTI. has been ranked with Lepsius and Scaliger as a scholar (1559-1614). son of preceding. as Carlyle would say. gave him two prebends. MERIC. CASCADE MOUNTAINS. invited thither by Henry IV. leaving. and edited his father's works (1599-1671). and above 100 m. CASANOVA. Chennai 6. BARTOLOMEO DE LAS. distinguished for his exertions in behalf of the Christianisation and civilisation of the Indians of S. CASANOVA DE SEINGALT. CASAUBON. an eminent classical scholar and commentator. of which the Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary. Page 542 of 2772 . being a Protestant he removed to London on Henry's death. became professor of Theology at Oxford. who pensioned him. CASAS.ramakalai@gmail. Voltaire. a Spanish prelate. America (1474-1566).

shawl weaving and lacquer-work are the chief occupations of the inhabitants. one of the architects of St. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. CASIMIR. 20 m. limiting both the royal authority and that of the nobles (1309-1370). long and 80 m. CASHMERE or KASHMIR (2. recovered Silesia from Bohemia in two victories. _b_. a man of moderate views and firm character. in a valley of the Himalayas. defeated the Tartars on the Vistula. with beautiful scenery and a delicious climate. bordering upon Tibet.com CASERTA (35). built after plans supplied by Vanvitelli. president of the French Republic. called the Great. 1847. a town in Italy. with a "Rock" 300 ft. NE.ramakalai@gmail. because. the office had become irksome to him. a bishop's see. the name of five kings of Poland. dancing. born in Paris. resigned 1895. and watered by the Jhelum. 120 m. a town in Tipperary. billiards. which spreads out here and there near it into lovely lakes. was elected king in 1333. after distinguishing himself in wars against the Teutonic Knights. noted for a magnificent palace. succeeded Carnot in 1894. wide. Casimir III. owing to misrepresentation. Page 543 of 2772 . 49 m. a club-house or public building in Continental towns provided with rooms for social gatherings. CASHEL. high. CASINO.543). occupied by interesting ruins. Chennai 6. forming the basin of the Upper Indus.. formed a code of laws. and annexed part of Lithuania. was premier in 1893. &c. it was formerly the seat of the kings of Munster. CASIMIR-PERIER. of Cork. a native Indian State. Ireland. Peter's at Rome. hemmed in by deep-gorged woods and snow-peaked mountains. music. the most eminent. from Naples.

son of preceding. CASSANDER. to S.. Page 544 of 2772 . editor of _Le Pays_ and the journal _L'Autorite_.com CASIRI. a Syro-Maronite religious. CASPIAN SEA. king of Macedonia. invaded Macedonia and ascended the throne. CTSTI. became a supporter of the Empire. a member of the Democratic party. started several journals.S. CASPARI. from N. the sister of Alexander the Great. and openly hostile to Great Britain. professor at Christiania (1814-1892). edited _Le Pays_. which all died a natural death. which are not so salt as the ocean. embroiled himself in duels and lawsuits without number (1806-1880). but put Alexander's mother to death. and the Elburz on the S. thus securing himself against all rival claimants. CASS. born at Dessau. abound in fish. Chennai 6. wrote a "History of the U.ramakalai@gmail. though in favour of slave-holding. the waters. CASSAGNAC. married Thessalonica.. 1843. and from 270 to 130 m. on the W. and a learned Orientalist (1710-1791). being 600 m. shallow in the N. _b_. an inland sea. CASSAGNAC. at first an Orleanist. passed over in the succession by his father Antipater. a friend of Union. the largest in the world. in breadth. an obstinate Imperialist. Indians" (1782-1867). is the fragment of a larger sea which extended to the Arctic Ocean. PAUL. LEWIS. deep in the S. GRANIER DE. left his son Philip as successor Computer Lecturer. KARL PAUL. German theologian. an eminent American statesman. partly in Europe and partly in Asia. especially salmon and sturgeon. a French journalist. a semi-official organ. allied himself with the Greek cities.. with the Caucasus Mts.

ramakalai@gmail. it consists of three sections: first. q. and a French defeat under Moreau in 1799. 49 judges. JOHN. one to determine if the appeal should be received. who ordained him. as she had rejected his suit. v. it consists of a president and vice-president. came to Constantinople. doomed to utter prophecies which no one would believe. an interesting town. the publisher. and third. CASSANDRA. whom Apollo endowed with the gift of prophecy. appointed in the case of appeal to revise the forms of a procedure in an inferior court. JOANNUS. daughter of Priam and Hecuba. second. a court of highest and last appeal in France. and not being able to go the length of Pelaganism. COURT OF. which were treated by her countrymen as the ravings of a lunatic. opposed the extreme views of Augustine in regard to grace and free-will. it is the birthplace of Bunsen. founded two monasteries in Marseilles. one to decide in civil cases. one to decide in criminal cases. of Italy. who knew the value of knowledge and did much to extend it (1817-1865). but. and six advocates-general. adopted SEMI-PELAGIANISM. an Eastern ascetic. her name is applied to any one who entertains gloomy forebodings. as happened with her warnings of the fate and the fall of Troy. CASSELL. CASSIANUS. CASSATION. born in Manchester. capital of Hesse-Cassel. scene of a French victory under Vendome in 1705.C. 120 m. CTSTI.). and became a pupil of Chrysostom. Chennai 6. a beautiful Trojan princess. and human depravity. from Frankfort-on-Main. a self-made man. CASSANO. Page 545 of 2772 . (360-448). Computer Lecturer. a town in the S.com (354-297 B. also a town near Milan. a public prosecutor called the _procureur-general_. CASSEL (72).

and lived there nearly 30 years. CTSTI. repulsed on the right. a Latin statesman and historian. Brutus. called him the "last of the Romans". Chennai 6. placed after death among the constellations. of Italian origin. and left letters of great historical value (468-568). which the Phoenician sailors visited to procure tin. after completing in 1793 a great topographical map of France begun by his father. mother of Andromeda. presumed to have been the Scilly Islands or Cornwall. CASSITER`IDES. and became in succession directors of the observatory of Paris. queen of Ethiopia. like a canal. CASSIUS.com CASSINI. wrote a history of the Goths. withdrew into his tent. and called his freedmen to kill him.C. name of a family of astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries. thought all was lost. retired into a monastery about 70. CASSIOPE`IA. a constellation well north in the northern sky of five stars in the figure of a W. in Paris. joined his forces with those of Brutus at Philippi. and the moon. a remarkable river in Venezuela. which. father and son and grandson. born in Calabria.ramakalai@gmail. in his lamentation over him. Computer Lecturer. distinguished for their observations and discoveries affecting the comets. with the Orinoco. the planets. Page 546 of 2772 . prime minister of Theodoric the Great and his successor. they settled. _d_. soon after the deed was done fled to Syria. CASSIODO`RUS. made himself master of it. CASSIQUIA`RI. won over Brutus to join in the foul plot. islands in the Atlantic. the last of whom died in 1864. CAIUS. chief conspirator against Caesar. 42 B. connects the Rio Negro. an affluent of the Amazon. which they adjoin.

in 1808. CASTALIA. first time 502 B. made a league with the Latins. a British warlike chief.. earth-born all. CASTE. promoted an agrarian law. subdued the Sabines. Chennai 6. procured the canonisation of St. from the feet of Brahma. called Sudras. which conceded to the plebs a share in the public lands. CASTANOS. Louis (1256-1317). CASSIVELLAUNUS. Brahmans. if required. surrendered after defeat. a fountain at the foot of Parnassus sacred to the Muses. from the hands of Brahma. or the agricultural caste.ramakalai@gmail. Page 547 of 2772 . rank in society of an exclusive nature due to birth or origin. e_. a Spanish general. and those who have not.. CASTANET. a Roman. to invade France in 1815 (1758-1852). distinguished for his victory over the French under Dupont. the first passed. who drowned herself in it to escape Apollo. and became tributary to Rome. and Vaisyas. from the mouth of Brahma. or the priestly caste. bishop of Albi. Among them there are originally two great classes. who unsuccessfully opposed Caesar on his second invasion of Britain. and was commander of the Spanish army. after this he served under Wellington in several engagements. ready. and members of the lowest rise socially to the highest.C. named after a nymph. the twice-born and the once-born.C. Kshatriyas.com CASSIUS. such as prevails among the Hindus especially. Computer Lecturer. 52 B. thrice chosen consul. of the former there are three grades. or the soldier caste. whom he compelled to surrender and sign the capitulation of Baylen. those who have passed through a second birth. CTSTI. _i. while the latter are of one rank and are menial to the other. notwithstanding which distinction often members of the highest class sink socially to the lowest level. SPURIUS.

the scene of Pliny's death from the eruption of Vesuvius in A. CTSTI. Page 548 of 2772 . EMILIO.: the former consisting of a high bare plateau. CASTIGLIONE. born in Mantua. CASTILE.ramakalai@gmail.com CASTEL." a manual for courtiers. 1832. It takes its name from a castle built on it by the Emperor Frederick II. though under protest.. SE. CASTELLIO. has a cathedral.. arsenal. which led to a rupture. appointed dictator of Spain in 1873. born in Cadiz. divided by the mountains of Castile into Old Castile (1. as well as Rome. CASTELLAMARE (15).D. bounded by Computer Lecturer. but not being equal to the exigency in the affairs of the State. Chennai 6. wrote a history of the "Republican Movement in Europe" among other works of political interest. _b_. an accomplished Italian. a Spanish republican. and New Castile (3. a protege of Calvin's for a time. a central district of Spain. CASTIGLIONE. and made way for the return of monarchy. French poet and naturalist (1758-1832). resigned. and was a courtly man (1478-1529). a port on the coast of Italy. 35 m. Protestant theologian. famed for hazel nuts. called by the Italians in admiration of it "The Golden Book". till he gave expression to some heretical views. he ventured to pronounce the Song of Solomon a mere erotic poem (1515-1563). an eloquent man and a literary. of Naples.800) in the N. a town of Sicily. 79. RENE-RICHARD. and manufactures.500) in the S. SW. of Messina. COUNT. slope of Etna. author of "II Cortegiano. 115 m. CASTELAR. on N. had spent much of his time in courts in England and Spain.

also tableland. report themselves. represented the country in a congress after Napoleon's fall. and are advised where to settle or find work.ramakalai@gmail. his name has been unduly defamed. Both were at one time occupied by the Moors. became War Minister (1805). of Douglas. yields wheat and good pasturage. and yields richer produce. and committed suicide the year following. with extensive glass-works. and were created into a kingdom in the 11th century. CTSTI. 11 m. a seaport in the Isle of Man. entered political life as a member of the Irish Parliament. and united to the crown of Spain in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. the immigration depot of New York where immigrants land. a place in which the dwellers live amid luxurious delights. SE. and the soul of the coalition against Napoleon. visionary projects. and Computer Lecturer. Page 549 of 2772 . Chennai 6. and contains besides the quicksilver mines of Almaden. has a richer soil. and on the S. CASTLE GARDEN. breeds horses and cattle.. became Foreign Secretary in 1812. CASTLEFORD (14).com mountains on the N. to the enervation of soul and body. a poem of Thomson's. succeeded his father as Marquis of Londonderry in 1821. co-operated with Pitt in securing the Union. CASTLEREAGH. and his services to the country as a diplomatist have been entirely overlooked (1769-1822). LORD. CASTLETOWN. till the ill-fated Walcheren expedition and a duel with Canning obliged him to resign. CASTLES IN SPAIN. after which he entered the Imperial Parliament. of Leeds. CASTLE OF INDOLENCE. especially bottles. a town 10 m. with a variable climate. SW. the latter. and is rich in minerals.

twin signs in the zodiac. the Dioscuri. of Toulouse.) the epic of the Finns. the former in horsemanship. a town in the dep. GUILLEN DE. put to death out of jealousy of Spain by the latter's father. travelled all over Northern Europe and Asia. got acquainted with Lope de Vega. heir of the Portuguese throne. v. was a Roman station. died prematurely. E. 46 m. CASTRO. were raised eventually to become stars in the sky. rising and setting together. so that when the former was slain the latter begged to be allowed to die with him. Chennai 6. great." which gained him European fame. famed for their mutual affection.). CTSTI. INEZ DE. ELMO'S FIRE (q. this name is also given to the electric phenomenon called ST. translated the "KALEVALA" (q. CASTRO. MATHIAS ALEXANDER. v. whereupon it was agreed they should spend a day in Hades time about.com the former capital. and left accounts of the races he visited and their languages. CASTRES (22). professor of the Finnish Language and Literature in Helsingfors. and took to dramatic composition (1569-1631). worn out with his labours (1813-1852). author of the play of "The Cid. the heroine in Thackeray's "Esmond. but on his Computer Lecturer. born in Finland. CASTLEWOOD. CASTREN. the twin sons of Zeus by Leda. an eminent philologist. the Gemini. of Tarn." CASTOR AND POLLUX. the beloved wife of Don Pedro. and one of the first places in France to embrace Calvinism. Page 550 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. and the latter in boxing. he began life as a soldier. a Spanish dramatist. a royal heiress of the Spanish throne in the 14th century.

accession dug out of her grave, arrayed in her royal robes, and crowned along with him, after which she was entombed again, and a magnificent monument erected over her remains.

CASTRO, JUAN DE, a Portuguese soldier, born at Lisbon, distinguished for his exploits in behalf of Portugal; made viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, but died soon after in the arms of Francis Xavier (1500-1548).

CASTRO, VACA DE, a Spaniard, sent out by Charles V. as governor of Peru, but addressing himself to the welfare of the natives rather than the enrichment of Spain, was recalled, to pine and die in prison in 1558.

CASTROGIOVANNI (18), a town in a strong position in the heart of Sicily, 3270 ft. above the sea-level; at one time a centre of the worship of Ceres, and with a temple to her.

CASTRUCCIO-CASTRACANI, Duke of Lucca, and chief of the Ghibelline party in that town, the greatest war-captain in Europe in his day; lord of hundreds of strongholds; wore on a high occasion across his breast a scroll, inscribed, "He is what God made him," and across his back another, inscribed, "He shall be what God will make"; _d_. 1328, "crushed before the moth."

CATACOMBS, originally underground quarries, afterwards used as burial-places for the dead, found beneath Paris and in the neighbourhood of Rome, as well as elsewhere; those around Rome, some 40 in number, are the most famous, as having been used by the early Christians, not merely for burial but for purposes of worship, and are rich In monuments of art and memorials of history.

CATALANI, ANGELICA, a celebrated Italian singer and prima donna, born near Ancona; began her career in Rome with such success that it led

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to engagements over all the chief cities of Europe, the enthusiasm which followed her reaching its climax when she came to England, where, on her first visit, she stayed eight years; by the failure of an enterprise in Paris she lost her fortune, but soon repaired it by revisiting the capitals of Europe; died of cholera in Paris (1779-1840).

CATALONIA (1,900), old prov. of Spain, on the NE.; has a most fertile soil, which yields a luxuriant vegetation; chief seat of manufacture in the country, called hence the "Lancashire of Spain"; the people are specially distinguished from other Spaniards for their intelligence and energy.

CATAMAR`CA (ISO), NW. prov. of the Argentine Republic; rich in minerals, especially copper.

CATA`NIA (123), an ancient city at the foot of Etna, to the S., on a plain called the Granary of Sicily; has been several times devastated by the eruptions of Etna, particularly in 1169, 1669, and 1693; manufactures silk, linen, and articles of amber, &c., and exports sulphur, grain, and fruits.

CATANZA`RO (20), a city in Calabria, 6 m. from the Gulf of Squillace, with an old castle of Robert Guiscard.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, Kant's name for the self-derived moral law, "universal and binding on every rational will, a commandment of the autonomous, one and universal reason."

CATEGORIES are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant. The Logical, so derived, that group

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our notions, are ten in number: Substance or Being, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Position, Possession, Action, Passion. The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: (1) as regards _quantity_, Totality, Plurality, Unity; (2) as regards _quality_, Reality, Negation, Limitation; (3) as regards _relation_, Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; (4) as regards _modality_, Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. John Stuart Mill resolves the categories into five, Existence, Co-existence, Succession, Causation, and Resemblance.

CATESBY, MARK, an English naturalist and traveller, wrote a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas (1680-1750).

CATESBY, ROBERT, born in Northamptonshire, a Catholic of good birth; concerned in the famous Gunpowder Plot; shot dead three days after its discovery by officers sent to arrest him (1573-1605).

CATH`ARI, OR CATHARISTS, i. e. purists or puritans, a sect of presumably Gnostic derivation, scattered here and there under different names over the S. and W. of Europe during the Middle Ages, who held the Manichaean doctrine of the radically sinful nature of the flesh, and the necessity of mortifying all its desires and affections to attain purity of soul.

CATHARINE, ST., OF ALEXANDRIA, a virgin who, in 307, suffered martyrdom after torture on the wheel, which has since borne her name; is represented in art as in a vision presented to Christ by His Mother as her sole husband, who gives her a ring. Festival, Nov. 25.

CATHARINE I., wife of Peter the Great and empress of Russia, daughter of a Livonian peasant; "a little stumpy body, very brown,... strangely chased about from the bottom to the top of the world,... had

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once been a kitchen wench"; married first to a Swedish dragoon, became afterwards the mistress of Prince Menschikoff, and then of Peter the Great, who eventually married her; succeeded him as empress, with Menschikoff as minister; for a time ruled well, but in the end gave herself up to dissipation, and died (1682-1727).

CATHARINE II. THE GREAT, empress of Russia, born at Stettin, daughter of Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst; "a most-clever, clear-eyed, stout-hearted woman"; became the wife of Peter III., a scandalous mortal, who was dethroned and then murdered, leaving her empress; ruled well for the country, and though her character was immoral and her reign despotic and often cruel, her efforts at reform, the patronage she accorded to literature, science, and philosophy, and her diplomatic successes, entitle her to a high rank among the sovereigns of Russia; she reigned from 1763 to 1796, and it was during the course of her reign, and under the sanction of it, that Europe witnessed the three partitions of Poland (1729-1796).

CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, wife of Henry II. of France, and mother of his three successors; on the accession of her second son, Charles IX.--for the reign of her first, Francis II., was very brief--acted as regent during his minority; joined heart and soul with the Catholics in persecuting the Huguenots, and persuaded her son to issue the order which resulted in the massacre of St. Bartholomew; on his death, which occurred soon after, she acted as regent during the minority of her third son, Henry III., and lived to see both herself and him detested by the whole French people, and this although she was during her ascendency the patroness of the arts and of literature (1519-1589).

CATHARINE OF ARAGON, fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and wife of Henry VIII., her brother-in-law as widow of Arthur, from whom, and at whose instance, after 18 years of married life, and after giving birth to five children, she was divorced on the plea that, as she had been his brother's wife before, it was not lawful for him to have her; after her divorce she remained in the country, led an austere

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religious life, and died broken-hearted. The refusal of the Pope to sanction this divorce led to the final rupture of the English Church from the Church of Rome, and the emancipation of the nation from priestly tyranny (1483-1536).

CATHARINE OF BRAGANZA, the wife of Charles II. of England, of the royal house of Portugal; was unpopular in the country as a Catholic and neglected by her husband, on whose death, however, she returned to Portugal, and did the duties ably of regent for her brother Don Pedro (1638-1705).

CATHARINE OF SIENNA, born at Sienna, a sister of the Order of St. Dominic, and patron saint of the Order; celebrated for her ecstasies and visions, and the marks which by favour of Christ she bore on her body of His sufferings on the Cross (1347-1380). Festival, April 30. Besides her, are other saints of the same name.

CATHARINE OF VALOIS, daughter of Charles VI. of France, and wife of Henry V. of England, who, on his marriage to her, was declared heir to the throne of France, with the result that their son was afterwards, while but an infant, crowned king of both countries; becoming a widow, she married Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, whereby a grandson of his succeeded to the English throne as Henry VII., and the first of the Tudors (1401-1438).

CATHARINE PARR, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. and the daughter of a Westmoreland knight; was of the Protestant faith and obnoxious to the Catholic faction, who trumped up a charge against her of heresy and treason, from which, however, she cleared herself to the satisfaction of the king, over whom she retained her ascendency till his death; _d_. 1548.

CATHARINE THEOT, a religious fanatic, born in Avranches; gave

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herself out as the Mother of God; appeared in Paris in 1794, and declared Robespierre a second John the Baptist and forerunner of the Word; the Committee of Public Safety had her arrested and guillotined.

CATHAY, the name given to China by mediaeval writers, which it still bears in Central Asia.

CATHCART, EARL, a British general and diplomatist, born in Renfrewshire; saw service in America and Flanders; distinguished himself at the bombardment of Copenhagen; represented England at the court of Russia and the Congress of Vienna (1755-1843).

CATHCART, SIR GEORGE, a lieutenant-general, son of the preceding; enlisted in the army; served in the later Napoleonic wars; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; was governor of the Cape; brought the Kaffir war to a successful conclusion; served in the Crimea, and fell at Inkerman (1794-1854).

CATHEDRAL, the principal church in a diocese, and which contains the throne of the bishop as his seat of authority; is of a rank corresponding to the dignity of the bishop; the governing body consists of the dean and chapter.

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES, a famous leader of the Vendeans in their revolt against the French Republic on account of a conscription in its behalf; a peasant by birth; mortally wounded in attacking Nantes; he is remembered by the peasants of La Vendee as the "Saint of Anjou" (1759-1793).

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, the name given to the emancipation in 1829 of the Roman Catholics of the United Kingdom from disabilities which precluded their election to office in the State, so that they are

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eligible now to any save the Lord Chancellorship of England and offices representative of royalty.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES, the name, equivalent to encyclical, given to certain epistles in the New Testament not addressed to any community in particular, but to several, and given eventually to all not written by St. Paul.

CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a title given by the Pope to several Spanish monarchs for their zeal in the defence of the Catholic faith.

CATILINE, or LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA, a Roman patrician, an able man, but unscrupulously ambitious; frustrated in his ambitious designs, he formed a conspiracy against the State, which was discovered and exposed by Cicero, a discovery which obliged him to leave the city; he tried to stir up hostility outside; this too being discovered by Cicero, an army was sent against him, when an engagement ensued, in which, fighting desperately, he was slain, 62 B.C.

CATINAT, NICOLAS, a marshal of France, born in Paris; one of the greatest military captains under Louis XIV.; defeated the Duke of Savoy twice over, though defeated by Prince Eugene and compelled to retreat; was an able diplomatist as well as military strategist (1637-1712).

CATLIN, GEORGE, a traveller among the North American Indians, and author of an illustrated work on their life and manners; spent eight years among them (1796-1872).

CATO DIONYSIUS, name of a book of maxims in verse, held in high favour during the Middle Ages; of unknown authorship.

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CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO MAJOR, surnamed Censor, Priscus, and Sapiens, born at Tusculum, of a good old family, and trained to rustic, frugal life; after serving occasionally in the army, removed to Rome; became in succession censor, aedile, praetor, and consul; served in the second Punic war, towards the end of it, and subjugated Spain; was a Roman of the old school; disliked and denounced all innovations, as censor dealt sharply with them; sent on an embassy to Africa, was so struck with the increasing power and the threateningly evil ascendency of Carthage, that on his return he urged its demolition, and in every speech which he delivered afterwards he ended with the words, _Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam_, "But, be that as it may, my opinion is Carthage must be destroyed" (234-149 B.C.).

CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO THE YOUNGER, or UTICENSIS, great-grandson of the former, and a somewhat pedantic second edition of him; fortified himself by study of the Stoic philosophy; conceived a distrust of the public men of the day, Caesar among the number; preferred Pompey to him, and sided with him; after Pompey's defeat retired to Utica, whence his surname, and stabbed himself to death rather than fall into the hands of Caesar (95-46 B.C.).

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, an insignificant, abortive plot, headed by one Thistlewood, to assassinate Castlereagh and other ministers of the crown in 1820; so called from their place of meeting off the Edgeware Road, London.

CATRAIL, an old Roman earthwork, 50 m. long, passing S. from near Galashiels, through Selkirk and Roxburgh, or from the Cheviots; it is known by the name of the "Devil's Dyke."

CATS, JACOB, a Dutch poet and statesman, venerated in Holland as "Father Cats"; his works are written in a simple, natural style, and abound in wise maxims; he did service as a statesman; twice visited England as an envoy, and was knighted by Charles I. (1577-1660).

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CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a group of mountains, of steep ascent, and with rocky summits, in New York State, W. of the Hudson, none of them exceeding 4000 feet; celebrated as the scene of Rip Van Winkle's long slumber; belong to the Appalachians.

CATTEGAT, an arm of the sea, 150 m. in length and 84 of greatest width, between Sweden and Jutland; a highway into the Baltic, all but blocked up with islands; is dangerous to shipping on account of the storms that infest it at times.

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, artist, born in Norfolk; illustrated Britton's "English Cathedrals," "Waverley Novels," and the "Historical Annual" by his brother; painted mostly in water-colour; his subjects chiefly from English history (1800-1868).

CATTLE PLAGUE, or RINDERPEST, a disease which affects ruminants, but especially bovine cattle; indigenous to the East, Russia, Persia, India, and China, and imported into Britain only by contagion of some kind; the most serious outbreaks were in 1865 and 1872.

CATULLUS, CAIUS VALERIUS, the great Latin lyric poet, born at Verona, a man of wealth and good standing, being, it would seem, of the equestrian order; associated with the best wits in Rome; fell in love with Clodia, a patrician lady, who was the inspiration, both in peace and war, of many of his effusions, and whom he addresses as Lesbia; the death of a brother affected him deeply, and was the occasion of the production of one of the most pathetic elegies ever penned; in the civic strife of the time he sided with the senate, and opposed Caesar to the length of directing against him a coarse lampoon (84-54 B.C.).

CAUCA, a river in Colombia, S. America, which falls into the

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Magdalena after a northward course of 600 m.

CAUCASIA, a prov. of Russia, geographically divided into Cis-Caucasia on the European side, and Trans-Caucasia on the Asiatic side of the Caucasus, with an area about four times as large as England.

CAUCASIAN RACE, a name adopted by Blumenbach to denote the Indo-European race, from the fine type of a skull of one of the race found in Georgia.

CAUCASUS, an enormous mountain range, 750 m. in length, extending from the Black Sea ESE. to the Caspian, in two parallel chains, with tablelands between, bounded on the S. by the valley of the Kur, which separates it from the tableland of Armenia; snow-line higher than that of the Alps; has fewer and smaller glaciers; has no active volcanoes, though abundant evidence of volcanic action.

CAUCHON, bishop of Beauvais, infamous for the iniquitous part he played in the trial and condemnation of Joan of Arc; _d_. 1443.

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, mathematician, born in Paris; wrote largely on physical subjects; his "Memoir" on the theory of the waves suggested the undulatory theory of light; professor of Astronomy at Paris; declined to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III., and retired (1789-1857).

CAUCUS, a preliminary private meeting to arrange and agree on some measure or course to propose at a general meeting of a political party.

CAUDINE FORKS, a narrow mountain gorge in Samnium, in which, during the second Samnite war, a Roman army was entrapped and caught by the Samnites, who obliged them to pass under the yoke in token of

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subjugation, 321 B.C.

CAUDLE, MRS., an imaginary dame, a conception of Douglas Jerrold, famous for her "Curtain Lectures" all through the night for 30 years to her husband Mr. Job Caudle.

CAUL, a membrane covering the head of some children at birth, to which a magical virtue was at one time ascribed, and which, on that account, was rated high and sold often at a high price.

CAULAINCOURT, ARMAND DE, a French general and statesman of the Empire, a faithful supporter of Napoleon, who conferred on him a peerage, with the title of Duke of Vicenza, of which he was deprived at the Restoration; represented Napoleon at the Congress of Chatillon (1772-1827).

CAUS, SALOMON DE, a French engineer, born at Dieppe; discovered the properties of steam as a motive force towards 1638; claimed by Arago as the inventor of the steam-engine in consequence.

CAUSALITY, the philosophic name for the nature of the relation between cause and effect, in regard to which there has been much diversity of opinion among philosophers.

CAUTERETS, a fashionable watering-place in the dep. of the Hautes-Pyrenees, 3250 ft. above the sea, with sulphurous springs of very ancient repute, 25 in number, and of varying temperature.

CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGENE, a distinguished French general, born in Paris; appointed governor of Algeria in 1849, but recalled to be head of the executive power in Paris same year; appointed dictator, suppressed

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the insurrection in June, after the most obstinate and bloody struggle the streets of Paris had witnessed since the first Revolution; stood candidate for the Presidency, to which Louis Napoleon was elected; was arrested after the _coup d'etat_, but soon released; never gave in his adherence to the Empire (1802-1857).

CAVALCASELLE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian writer on art; joint-author with J. A. Crowe of works on the "Early Flemish Painters" and the "History of Painting in Italy"; chief of the art department under the Minister of Public Instruction in Rome; _b_. 1820.

CAVALIER, JEAN, leader of the CAMISARDS (q. v.), born at Ribaute, in the dep. of Gard; bred a baker; held his own against Montreval and Villars; in 1704 concluded peace with the latter on honourable terms; haughtily received by Louis XIV., passed over to England; served against France, and died governor of Jersey (1679-1740).

CAVALIERS, the royalist partisans of Charles I. in England in opposition to the parliamentary party, or the Roundheads, as they were called.

CAVALLO, a distinguished Italian physicist, born at Naples (1749-1809).

CAVAN (111), inland county S. of Ulster, Ireland, with a poor soil; has minerals and mineral springs.

CAVE, EDWARD, a London bookseller, born in Warwickshire; projected the Gentleman's Magazine, to which Dr. Johnson contributed; was the first to give Johnson literary work, employing him as parliamentary reporter, and Johnson was much attached to him; he died with his hand in Johnson's (1691-1754).

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CAVE, WILLIAM, an English divine; author of works on the Fathers of the Church and on primitive Christianity, of high repute at one time (1637-1713).

CAVENDISH, the surname of the Devonshire ducal family, traceable back to the 14th century.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey; never left him while he lived, and never forgot him or the lesson of his life after he was dead; this appears from the vivid picture he gives of him, though written 30 years after his death (1500-1561).

CAVENDISH, LORD FREDERICK, brother of the ninth Duke of Devonshire, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Liberal; was made Chief-Secretary for Ireland in 1882, but chancing to walk home one evening through the Phoenix Park, he fell a victim, stabbed to the heart, of a conspiracy that was aimed at Mr. Burke, an unpopular subordinate, who was walking along with him, and came to the same fate. Eight months after, 20 men were arrested as concerned in the murder, when one of the 20 informed; five of them were hanged; the informer Carey was afterwards murdered, and his murderer, O'Donnel, hanged (1836-1882).

CAVENDISH, HENRY, natural philosopher and chemist, born at Nice, of the Devonshire family; devoted his entire life to scientific investigations; the first to analyse the air of the atmosphere, determine the mean density of the earth, discover the composition of water, and ascertain the properties of hydrogen; was an extremely shy, retiring man; born rich and died rich, leaving over a million sterling (1731-1810).

CAVENDISH, SPENCER COMPTON, ninth Duke of Devonshire, for long known in public life as Marquis of Hartington; also educated at Trinity

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College, and a leader of the Liberal party; served under Gladstone till he adopted Home Rule for Ireland, but joined Lord Salisbury in the interest of Union, and one of the leaders of what is called the Liberal-Unionist party; _b_. 1833.

CAVENDISH, THOMAS, an English navigator, fitted out three vessels to cruise against the Spaniards; extended his cruise into the Pacific; succeeded in taking valuable prizes, with which he landed in England, after circumnavigating the globe; he set out on a second cruise, which ended in disaster, and he died in the island of Ascension broken-hearted (1555-1592).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, English courtier and cavalier in the reigns of James I. and Charles I.; joined Charles II. in exile; returned at the Restoration; was made Duke of Newcastle; wrote on horsemanship (1592-1676).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, first Duke of Devonshire; friend and protector of Lord William Russell; became a great favourite at court, and was raised to the dukedom (1640-1707).

CAVIARE, the roe (the immature ovaries) of the common sturgeon and other kindred fishes, caught chiefly in the Black and Caspian Seas, and prepared and salted; deemed a great luxury by those who have acquired the taste for it; largely imported from Astrakhan.

CAVOUR, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DE, one of the greatest of modern statesmen, born the younger son of a Piedmontese family at Turin; entered the army, but was precluded from a military career by his liberal opinions; retired, and for 16 years laboured as a private gentleman to improve the social and economic condition of Piedmont; in 1847 he threw himself into the great movement which resulted in the independence and unification of Italy; for the next 14 years, as editor of _Il

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Risorgimento_, member of the chamber of deputies, holder of various portfolios in the government, and ultimately as prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, he obtained a constitution and representative government for his country, improved its fiscal and financial condition, and raised it to a place of influence in Europe; he co-operated with the allies in the Crimean war; negotiated with Napoleon III. for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, and so precipitated the successful war of 1859; he encouraged Garibaldi in the expedition of 1860, which liberated Sicily and Southern Italy, and saw the parliament of 1861 summoned, and Victor Emmanuel declared king of Italy; but the strain of his labours broke his health, and he died a few months later (1810-1861).

CAWNPORE (188), a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. SW. of Lucknow, and 628 NW. of Calcutta; the scene of one of the most fearful atrocities, perpetrated by Nana Sahib, in the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

CAXTON, WILLIAM, the first English printer, born in Kent, bred a mercer, settled for a time in Bruges, learned the art of printing there, where he printed a translation of the "Recuyell of the Historyes of Troyes," and "The Game and Playe of Chesse"; returning to England, set up a press in Westminster Abbey, and in 1477 issued "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," the first book printed in England, which was soon followed by many others; he was a good linguist, as well as a devoted workman (1422-1491).

CAYENNE (10), cap. and port of French Guiana, a swampy, unhealthy place, rank with tropical vegetation; a French penal settlement since 1852.

CAYLA, COUNTESS OF, friend and confidante of Louis XVIII. (1784-1850).

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CAYLEY, ARTHUR, an eminent English mathematician, professor at Cambridge, and president of the British Association in 1883 (1821-1895).

CAYLEY, CHARLES BAGOT, a linguist, translated Dante into the metre of the original, with annotations, besides metrical versions of the "Iliad," the "Prometheus" of AEschylus, the "Canzoniere" of Petrarch, &c. (1823-1883).

CAYLUS, COUNT, a distinguished archaeologist, born in Paris; author of a "Collection of Antiquities of Egypt, Etruria," &c., with excellent engravings (1692-1765).

CAYLUS, MARQUISE DE, born in Poitou, related to Mme. de Maintenon; left piquant souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV. and the house of St. Cyr (1672-1729).

CAZALES, a member of French Constituent Assembly, a dragoon captain, a fervid, eloquent orator of royalism, who "earned thereby," says Carlyle, "the shadow of a name" (1758-1805).

CAZOTTE, author of the "Diable Amoureux"; victim as an enemy of the French Revolution; spared for his daughter's sake for a time, but guillotined at last; left her a "lock of his old grey hair" (1720-1792).

CEAN-BERMUDEZ, a Spanish writer on art; author of a biographical dictionary of the principal artists of Spain (1749-1834).

CEARA (35), cap. of the prov. (900) of the name, in N. of Brazil.

CE`BES, a Greek philosopher, disciple and friend of Socrates,

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reputed author of the "Pinax" or Tablet, a once popular book on the secret of life, being an allegorical representation of the temptations that beset it.

CECIL, ROBERT, EARL OF SALISBURY, succeeded his father, Lord Burleigh, as first Minister under Elizabeth, and continued in office under James I., whose friendship he sedulously cultivated before his accession, and who created him earl (1565-1612). See BURLEIGH, LORD.

CECILIA, ST., a Roman virgin and martyr, A.D. 230, patron saint of music, especially church music, and reputed inventor of the organ; sometimes represented as holding a small organ, with her head turned heavenwards as if listening to the music of the spheres, and sometimes as playing on an organ and with a heavenly expression of face. Festival, Nov. 22.

CECROPS, the mythical first king and civiliser of Attica and founder of Athens with its citadel, dedicated by him to Athena, whence the name of the city.

CEDAR RAPIDS (25), a manufacturing town in Iowa, U.S.; a great railway centre.

CELADON, poetical name for a languid swain, all sighs and longings.

CELAENO, name of one of the HARPIES (q. v.).

CELEBES (1,000), an island in the centre of the Eastern Archipelago, third in size, in the shape of a body with four long limbs, traversed by mountain chains, and the greater part of it a Dutch possession, though it

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contains a number of small native states; it yields among its mineral products gold, copper, tin, &c.; and among its vegetable, tea, coffee, rice, sugar, pepper, &c.; capital. Macassar.

CELESTE, MME., a dancer, born in Paris; made her _debut_ in New York; in great repute in England, and particularly in the States, where she in her second visit realised L40,000 (1814-1882).

CELESTIAL EMPIRE, China, as ruled over by a dynasty appointed by Heaven.

CELESTINE, the name of five Popes: C. I., Pope from 422 to 432; C. II., Pope from 1143 to 1144; C. III., Pope from 1191 to 1198; C. IV., Pope for 18 days in 1241; C. V., Pope in 1294, a hermit for 60 years; nearly 80 when elected against his wish; abdicated in five months; imprisoned by order of Boniface VIII.; _d_. 1296; canonised 1313.

CELESTINES, an order of monks founded by Celestine V. before he was elected Pope in 1354; they followed the rule of the Benedictine Order, and led a contemplative life.

CELLINI, BENVENUTO, a celebrated engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith, a most versatile and erratic genius, born at Florence; had to leave Florence for a bloody fray he was involved in, and went to Rome; wrought as a goldsmith there for 20 years, patronised by the nobles; killed the Constable de Bourbon at the sack of the city, and for this received plenary indulgence from the Pope; Francis I. attracted him to his court and kept him in his service five years, after which he returned to Florence and executed his famous bronze "Perseus with the Head of Medusa," which occupied him four years; was a man of a quarrelsome temper, which involved him in no end of scrapes with sword as well as tongue; left an autobiography, from its self-dissection of the deepest interest to all students of human nature (1500-1571).

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CELSIUS, a distinguished Swedish astronomer, born at Upsala, and professor of Astronomy there; inventor of the Centigrade thermometer (1701-1744).

CELSUS, a celebrated Roman physician of the age of Augustus, and perhaps later; famed as the author of "De Medicina," a work often referred to, and valuable as one of the sources of our knowledge of the medicine of the ancients.

CELSUS, a philosopher of the 2nd century, and notable as the first assailant on philosophic grounds of the Christian religion, particularly as regards the power it claims to deliver from the evil that is inherent in human nature, inseparable from it, and implanted in it not by God, but some inferior being remote from Him; the book in which he attacked Christianity is no longer extant, only quotations from it scattered over the pages of the defence of Origen in reply.

CELTIBE`RI, an ancient Spanish race occupying the centre of the peninsula, sprung from a blending of the aborigines and the Celts, who invaded the country; a brave race, divided into four tribes; distinguished in war both as cavalry and infantry, and whom the Romans had much trouble in subduing.

CELTS. The W. of Europe was in prehistoric times subjected to two invasions of Aryan tribes, all of whom are now referred to as Celts. The earlier invaders were Goidels or Gaels; they conquered the Ivernian and Iberian peoples of ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland; their successors, the Brythons or Britons pouring from the E., drove them to the westernmost borders of these countries, and there compelled them to make common cause with the surviving Iberians in resistance; in the eastern parts of the conquered territories they formed the bulk of the population, in the W. they were in a dominant minority; study of

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languages in the British Isles leads to the conclusion that the Irish, Manx, and Scottish Celts belonged chiefly to the earlier immigration, while the Welsh and Cornish represent the latter; the true Celtic type is tall, red or fair, and blue-eyed, while the short, swarthy type, so long considered Celtic, is now held to represent the original Iberian races.

CENCI, THE, a Roman family celebrated for their crimes and misfortunes as well as their wealth. FRANCESCO CENCI was twice married, had had twelve children by his first wife, whom he treated cruelly; after his second marriage cruelly treated the children of his first wife, but conceived a criminal passion for the youngest of them, a beautiful girl named BEATRICE, whom he outraged, upon which, being unable to bring him to justice, she, along with her stepmother and a brother, hired two assassins to murder him; the crime was found out, and all three were beheaded (1599); this is the story on which Shelley founded his tragedy, but it is now discredited.

CENIS, MONT, one of the Cottian Alps, over which Napoleon constructed a pass 6884 ft. high in 1802-10, through which a tunnel 71/2 m. long passes from Modane to Bardonneche, connecting France with Italy; the construction of this tunnel cost L3,000,000, and Napoleon's pass a tenth of the sum.

CENSORS, two magistrates of ancient Rome, who held office at first for five years and then eighteen months, whose duty it was to keep a register of the citizens, guard the public morals, collect the public revenue, and superintend the public property.

CEN`TAURS, a savage race living between Pelion and Ossa, in Thessaly, and conceived of at length by Pindar as half men and half horses, treated as embodying the relation between the spiritual and the animal in man and nature, in all of whom the animal prevails over the spiritual except in Chiron, who therefore figures as the trainer of the heroes of Greece; in the mythology they figure as the progeny of

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Centaurus, son of IXION (q. v.) and the cloud, their mothers being mares.

CENTRAL AMERICA (3,000), territory of fertile tableland sloping gradually to both oceans, occupied chiefly by a number of small republics, lying between Tehuantepec and Panama in N. America; it includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, St. Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and a few adjoining fractions of territory.

CENTRAL INDIA (10,000), includes a group of feudatory States lying between Rajputana in the N. and Central Provinces in the S.

CENTRAL PROVINCES (12,944), States partly British and partly native, occupying the N. of the Deccan, and lying between the Nerbudda and the Godavary.

CEOS, one of the Cyclades, a small island 13 m. by 8 m., yields fruits; was the birthplace of Simonides and Bacchylides.

CEPHALONIA (80), the largest of the Ionian Islands, 30 m. long, the ancient Samos; yields grapes and olive oil.

CEPHALUS, king of Thessaly, who having involuntarily killed his wife Procris, in despair put himself to death with the same weapon.

CERAM` (195), the largest of S. Moluccas; yields sago, which is chiefly cultivated and largely exported.

CERBERUS, the three-headed or three-throated monster that guarded the entrance to the nether world of Pluto, could be soothed by music, and

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tempted by honey, only Hercules overcame him by sheer strength, dragging him by neck and crop to the upper world.

CERES, the Latin name for DEMETER (q. v.); also the name of one of the asteroids, the first discovered, by Piazzi, in 1801.

CERI`GO (14), an Ionian island, the southernmost, the ancient Cythera; yields wine and fruits.

CERINTHUS, a heresiarch of the first century, whom, according to tradition, St. John held in special detestation, presumably as denying the Father and the Son.

CERRO DE PASCO, a town in Peru, 14,200 ft. above the sea-level, with the richest silver mine in S. America.

CERUTTI, a Jesuit, born at Turin; became a Revolutionary in France; pronounced the funeral oration at the grave of Mirabeau in 1789.

CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE, the author of "Don Quixote," born at Alcala de Henares; was distinguished in arms before he became distinguished in letters; fought in the battle of Lepanto like a very hero, and bore away with him as a "maimed soldier" marks of his share in the struggle; sent on a risky embassy, was captured by pirates and remained in their hands five years; was ransomed by his family at a cost which beggared them, and it was only when his career as a soldier closed that he took himself to literature; began as a dramatist before he devoted himself to prose romance; wrote no fewer than 30 dramas; the first part of the work which has immortalised his name appeared in 1605, and the second in 1615; it took the world by storm, was translated into all the languages of Europe, but the fortune which was extended to his book did not extend to himself, for he died poor, some ten days before

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his great contemporary, William Shakespeare; though carelessly written, "Don Quixote" is one of the few books of all time, and is as fresh to-day as when it was first written (1547-1616).

CERVIN, MONT, the French name for the Matterhorn, 705 ft., the summit of the Pennine Alps, between Valais and Piedmont.

CESAREWITCH, the eldest son and heir of the Czar of Russia.

CE`SARI, GIUSEPPE, sometimes called ARPINO, an eminent Italian painter; painted a series of frescoes in the Conservatorio of the Capitol, illustrative of events in the history of Rome (1568-1640).

CESAROTTI, an Italian poet, translator of the "Iliad" and "Ossian" into Italian (1730-1808).

CESTUS, a girdle worn by Greek and Roman women, specially the girdle of Aphrodite, so emblazoned with symbols of the joys of love that no susceptible soul could resist the power of it; it was borrowed by Hera to captivate Zeus.

CETINJE, the capital of Montenegro, in a valley 2000 ft. high; smallest of capital cities, with a population under 2000.

CETTE (36), a seaport, trading, and manufacturing town, on a tongue of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 m. SW. of Montpellier, with a large safe harbourage.

CE`UTA (12), a port opposite Gibraltar belonging to Spain, on the coast of Morocco, guarded by a fort on one of the Pillars of Hercules,

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overlooking it; of importance as a military and convict station.

CEVENNES, a range of low mountains on the eastern edge of the central plateau of France, separating the basin of the Rhone from those of the Loire and Garonne; average height from 3000 to 4000 ft.; the chief scene of the dragonnades against the Huguenots under Louis XIV.

CEYLON (3,008), a pear-shaped island about the size of Scotland, separated from India, to which it geographically belongs, and SE. of which it lies, by Palk Strait, 32 m. broad; comprises a lofty, central tableland with numerous peaks, the highest Tallagalla, 8000 ft., and a broad border of well-watered plains. It was an ancient centre of civilisation; the soil is everywhere fertile; the climate is hot, but more equitable than on the mainland; the chief products are tea, cinnamon, and tobacco; the forests yield satin-wood, ebony, &c.; the cocoa-nut palm abounds; there are extensive deposits of iron, anthracite, and plumbago; precious stones, sapphires, rubies, amethysts, &c., are in considerable quantities; the pearl fisheries are a valuable government monopoly. The chief exports are tea, rice, cotton goods, and coals. Two-thirds of the people are Singhalese and Buddhists, there are 6000 Europeans. The island is a crown colony, the largest in the British Empire, administered by a governor with executive and legislative councils; the capital and chief port is Colombo (127).

CHABAS, FRANCOIS, a French Egyptologist, born in Briancon; his works have contributed much to elucidate the history of the invasion and repulsion of the Hyksos in Egypt (1817-1882).

CHABOT, a member of the National Convention of France, a "disfrocked Capuchin," adjured "Heaven," amid enthusiasm, "that at least they may have done with kings"; guillotined (1759-1794).


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CHAD, LAKE, a shallow lake in the Sahara, of varied extent, according as the season is dry or rainy, at its largest covering an area as large as England, and abounding in hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, &c., as well as waterfowl and fish.

CHADBAND, REV. MR., a character in "Bleak House."

CHADWICK, SIR EDWIN, an English social reformer, born in Manchester, associated with measures bearing upon sanitation and the improvement of the poor-laws, and connected with the administration of them (1801-1890).

CHAERONEA, a town in Boeotia, where Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians, and extinguished the liberties of Greece.

CHALAIS, COUNT DE, a favourite of Louis XIII., accused of conspiracy against Richelieu, arrested at Nantes, and beheaded (1599-1626).

CHALAZA, one of the two filaments attached to the ends of the yoke of an egg to steady it in the albumen.

CHALCEDON, a city of Bithynia, at the entrance of the Thracian Bosphorus, where the fourth Council of the Church was held in 451, which defined the orthodox conception of Christ as God-man.

CHALCIDICE, the 3-fingered peninsula of the Balkan territory stretching into the AEgean Sea.

CHALCIS, the ancient capital of Euboea or Negropont.

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CHALDEA, ancient name for Babylonia.

CHALIER, a Piedmontese, head of the party of the Mountain at Lyons; his execution the signal for an insurrection at Lyons against the Convention (1747-1793).

CHALLENGER EXPEDITION, a scientific expedition sent out by the British Government in the _Challenger_ in 1872 in the interest of science, and under the management of scientific experts, to various stations over the globe, to explore the ocean, and ascertain all manner of facts regarding it open to observation, an expedition which concluded its operations in 1876, of which as many as 50 volumes of reports have been compiled.

CHALLIS, JAMES, an astronomer, born in Essex, noted the position of the planet Neptune before its actual discovery (1803-1882).

CHALLONER, RICHARD, a Roman Catholic bishop, born at Lewes; a zealous Catholic, author of "Garden of the Soul," a popular devotional book, as well as several controversial books (1691-1781).

CHALMERS, ALEXANDER, a miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; settled in London; edited the "British Essayists" in 45 vols., and author of "A General Biographical Dictionary."

CHALMERS, GEORGE, an English publicist, born at Fochabers, author of "An Account, Historical and Topographical, of North Britain" (1742-1825).

CHALMERS, THOMAS, a celebrated Scotch ecclesiastic and pulpit

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orator, born at Anstruther, Fife; studied for the Church, and entered the ministry; after he did so was for some years more engrossed with physical studies and material interests than spiritual, but he by-and-by woke up to see and feel that the spiritual interest was the sovereign one, and to the promotion of that he henceforth devoted himself body and soul; it was for the sake of the spiritual he took the interest he did in the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, and that the Church might have scope and freedom to discharge its spiritual functions was one chief ruling passion of his life, and it is no wonder he bent all his energies on a movement in the Church to secure this object; he was not much of a scholar or even a theologian, but a great man, and a great force in the religious life of his country; though the first pulpit-orator of his day, and though he wrote largely, as well as eloquently, he left no writings worthy of him except the "Astronomical Discourses" perhaps, to perpetuate his memory; he was distinguished for his practical sagacity, and was an expert at organisation; in his old age he was a most benignant, venerable-looking man: "It is a long time," wrote Carlyle to his mother, just after a visit he had paid him a few days before he died--"it is a long time since I have spoken to so _good_ and really pious-hearted and beautiful old man" (1780-1847).

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (25), capital of the French dep. of Marne, 100 m. E. of Paris, where Attila was defeated by the Romans and Goths in 451; Napoleon III. formed a camp near it for the training of troops.

CHALONS-SUR-SAONE (24), a trading centre some 80 m. N. of Lyons; manufactures machinery, glass, paper, and chemicals.

CHAINS, chief town of the French dep. of Haute Vienne, where Richard Coeur de Lion was mortally wounded in 1199 by a shot with an arrow.

CHAM, the pseudonym of the French caricaturist Amedee de Noe, famous for his humorous delineations of Parisian life (1819-1884).

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CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, an association of merchants to promote and protect the interests of trade, particularly of the town or the district to which they belong.

CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES, a French legislative assembly, elected now by universal suffrage.

CHAMBERLAIN, RIGHT HON. JOSEPH, born in London, connected as a business man with Birmingham; after serving the latter city in a municipal capacity, was elected the parliamentary representative in 1876; became President of the Board of Trade under Mr. Gladstone in 1880, and chief promoter of the Bankruptcy Bill; broke with Mr. Gladstone on his Home Rule measure for Ireland, and joined the Liberal-Unionists; distinguished himself under Lord Salisbury as Colonial Secretary; _b_. 1836.

CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM, an English writer, born in Kendal, author of a cyclopaedia which bears his name, and which formed the basis of subsequent ones, as Johnson confessed it did of his Dictionary (1680-1750).

CHAMBERS, GEORGE, an English marine painter, born at Whitby; _d_. 1840.

CHAMBERS, ROBERT, brother of the succeeding and in the same line of life, but of superior accomplishments, especially literary and scientific, which served him well in editing the publications issued by the firm; was the author of a great many works of a historical, biographical, and scientific, as well as literary interest; wrote the "Vestiges of Creation," a book on evolutionary lines, which made no small stir at the time of publication, 1844, and for a time afterwards, the authorship of which he was slow to own (1802-1871).

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CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, born at Peebles; apprenticed to a bookseller in Edinburgh, and commenced business on his own account in a small way; edited with his brother the "Gazetteer of Scotland"; started, in 1832, _Chambers's Edinburgh Journal_ to meet a demand of the time for popular instruction in company with his brother founded a great printing and publishing establishment, from which there has issued a number of valuable works in the interest especially of the propagation of useful knowledge of all kinds; was a distinguished Edinburgh citizen, and did much for the expansion and improvement of the city (1800-1883)

CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, architect, born at Stockholm, of Scotch origin; architect of Somerset House; was of the Johnson circle of wits (1726-1796)

CHAMBERY (19), chief town of dep. of Savoy, in a beautiful district; is the ancient capital, and contains the castle, of the dukes of Savoy; manufactures cloth, wines, soap, and textile fabrics; is also a summer resort.

CHAMBEZE, a head-stream of the Congo, N. of lake Nyassa.

CHAMBORD, spacious chateau in the dep. of Loire-et-Cher, France, built by Francis I.; after being long a residence for royalty and people of distinction, was presented in 1821 to the Duc de Bordeaux, the Comte de Chambord.

CHAMBORD, COMTE DE, Duc de Bordeaux, son of the Duc de Berri and grandson of Charles X., born at Paris; exiled in 1830, he retired to the chateau of Frohsdorf, in Austria, where he died without issue; his father and grandfather being dead, the monarchical party resolved to attempt a restoration in his behalf in 1872, but he refused to adopt the tricolor flag of the Revolution, and the scheme was abandoned, a like opportunity

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offering itself twice before being let slip (1820-1883).

CHAMBRE ARDENTE, a name given to certain courts of justice established to try certain cases that required to be sharply dealt with; they were held at night, and even when held in the daytime with lighted torches; a court of the kind was instituted for trial of the Huguenots in 1530, and again in 1680 and 1716.

CHAMFORT, a French wit and litterateur, born in Auvergne; took to the Revolution, but offended the leaders, and being threatened with arrest committed suicide, "cutting and slashing with frantic, uncertain hand, gaining, not without difficulty, the refuge of death"; he was a born cynic, and was famous for his keen insight into human nature and his sharp criticisms of it, summed up in a collection of maxims he left, as well as for his anecdotes in incisive portraiture of character. "He was a man," says Professor Saintsbury, "soured by his want of birth, health, and position, and spoilt by hanging on to the great persons of his time. But for a kind of tragi-comic satire, a _soeva indignatio_, taking the form of contempt for all that is exalted and noble, he has no equal in literature except Swift" (1741-1794).

CHAMILLARD, Minister of Finance and of War under Louis XIV.; "distinguished himself by his incapacity" (1651-1721).

CHAMISSO, ADALBERT VON, a German naturalist and litterateur born in France, but educated in Berlin; is famous for his poetical productions, but especially as the author of "Peter Schlemihl," the man who lost his shadow, which has been translated into nearly every European language; he wrote several works on natural history (1781-1838).

CHAMOUNI, OR CHAMONIX, a village in the dep. of Haute-Savoie, 33 m. SE. of Geneva, in a valley forming the upper basin of the Arve, famous for its beauty and for its glaciers; it is from this point that the

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ascent of Mont Blanc is usually made.

CHAMOUSSET, a French philanthropist, born in Paris; the originator of mutual benefit societies (1717-1773).

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province of France, 180 m. long by 150 broad, annexed to the Crown 1286, and including the deps. of Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne, and Ardennes; the province where the wine of the name is principally manufactured.

CHAMP-DE-MARS, a large space, of ground in Paris, between the front of the Ecole Militaire and the left bank of the Seine; the site of recent Expositions, and the scene of the Federation Fete, 14th July 1790.

CHAMPLAIN`, a beautiful lake between the States of New York and Vermont; it is 100 m. in length, and from 1 m. at its S. end to 14 m. at its N. end broad.

CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE, a French navigator, born at Brouage, in Saintonge, was founder of Quebec, and French Governor of Canada; wrote an account of his voyages (1570-1635).

CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANCOIS, a celebrated French Egyptologist, born in Figeac, dep. of Lot; early gave himself to the study of Coptic and Egyptian antiquities; was the first to decipher the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt, a great discovery; conducted a scientific expedition to Egypt in 1828, and returned in 1830 with the fruits of his researches; a chair of Egyptology was in consequence instituted in the College of France, and he was installed as the first professor; his writings on the science, of which he laid the foundation, are numerous (1790-1832).

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CHAMPS-ELYSEES, a Parisian promenade between the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de Triomphe.

CHANCELLOR, RICHARD, an English seaman, voyaging in northern parts, arrived in the White Sea, and travelled to Moscow, where he concluded a commercial treaty with Russia on behalf of an English company; wrote an interesting account of his visit; after a second visit, in which he visited Moscow, was wrecked on the coast of Aberdeenshire in 1556.

CHANDERNAGORE (25), a small town and territory on the Hooghly, 22 m. N. of Calcutta, belonging to France.

CHANDLER, RICHARD, a learned Hellenistic archaeologist, born in Hants; travelled in Asia Minor and Greece, along with two artists, to examine and describe the antiquities; the materials collected were published in his "Ionian Antiquities," "Travels in Asia Minor," &c. (1738-1810).

CHANDOS, an English title inherited by the Grenville family, of Norman origin.

CHANDOS, JOHN, a celebrated English general in the 14th century; was present at Crecy, governor of English provinces in France ceded by treaty of Bretigny; defeated and took prisoner Du Guesclin of Auray; served under the Black Prince, and was killed near Poitiers, 1369.

CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS, French general, born at Autun; distinguished himself in Algeria, was exiled after the _coup-d'etat_, returned in 1870, served in the Franco-German war; surrendered at Metz, at the close of the war came back, and assisted in reorganising the army (1793-1877).

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CHANNEL, THE ENGLISH, an arm of the Atlantic between France and England, 280 m. long and 100 m. wide at the mouth; the French call it _La Manche_ (the sleeve) from its shape.

CHANNEL ISLANDS (92), a group of small islands off the NW. coast of France, of which the largest are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark; formerly part of the Duchy of Normandy, and now all that remains to Britain of her French dominions, being subject to it since 1066; have a delightful climate mild and bright, and varied and beautiful scenery; the soil is fertile; flowers and fruit are grown for export to Britain, also early potatoes for the London market; Guernsey pears and Jersey cows are famous; valuable quarries of granite are wrought; the language is Norman-French.

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, a Unitarian preacher and miscellaneous writer, born at Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.; a man of the most liberal sentiments, who shrank from being classed with any sect; ranked high in point of moral character; was a vigorous thinker, and eloquent with the pen; "a man of faithful, long-continued striving towards what is Best" (1780-1842).

CHANSON DE GESTES (i. e. Songs of Deeds), poems of a narrative kind much in favour in the Middle Ages, relating in a legendary style the history and exploits of some famous hero, such as the "Chanson de Roland," ascribed to Theroulde, a trouvere of the 9th century.

CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS, an English sculptor, born in Derbyshire; was apprenticed to a carver and gilder in Sheffield; displayed a talent for drawing and modelling; received a commission to execute a marble bust for the parish, church, which was so successful as to procure him further and further commissions; executed four colossal busts of admirals for Greenwich Hospital; being expert at portraiture, his busts were likenesses; executed busts of many of the most illustrious men of the time, among them of Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and

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Wellington, as well as of royal heads; made a large fortune, and left it for the encouragement of art (