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The Comprehensive Dictionary THE NUTTALL ENCYCLOPAEDIA A

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A'ALI PASHA, an eminent reforming Turkish statesman (1815-1871).


AALBORG (19), a trading town on the Liimfiord, in the N. of Jutland.

AAR, a large Swiss river about 200 m. long, which falls into the Rhine as it leaves Switzerland.

AARGAU, a fertile Swiss canton bordering on the Rhine.

AARHUUS (33), a port on the E. of Jutland, with a considerable export and import trade, and a fine old Gothic cathedral.

AARON, the elder brother of Moses, and the first high-priest of the Jews, an office he held for forty years.

ABACA, Manila hemp, or the plant, native to the Philippines, which yield it in quantities.

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ABACUS, a tablet crowning a column and its capital.

ABADDON, the bottomless pit, or the angel thereof.

ABARIM, a mountain chain in Palestine, NE. of the Dead Sea, the highest point being Mount Nebo.

ABATEMENT, a mark of disgrace in a coat of arms.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a French Protestant theologian and a mathematician, a friend of Newton, and much esteemed for his learning by Rousseau and Voltaire (1679-1767).

ABBADIE, two brothers of French descent, Abyssinian travellers in the years 1837-1848; also a French Protestant divine (1658-1727).

ABBAS, uncle of Mahomet, founder of the dynasty of the Abbasides (566-652).

ABBAS PASHA, the khedive of Egypt, studied five years in Vienna, ascended the throne at eighteen, accession hailed with enthusiasm; shows at times an equivocal attitude to Britain; _b_. 1874.

ABBAS THE GREAT, shah of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sophis, great alike in conquest and administration (1557-1628).

ABBAS-MIRZA, a Persian prince, a reformer of the Persian army, and a

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leader of it, unsuccessfully, however, against Russia (1783-1833).

ABBASIDES, a dynasty of 37 caliphs who ruled as such at Bagdad from 750 to 1258.

AB`BATI, NICCOLO DELL', an Italian fresco-painter (1512-1571).

ABBE, name of a class of men who in France prior to the Revolution prepared themselves by study of theology for preferment in the Church, and who, failing, gave themselves up to letters or science.

ABBEVILLE (19), a thriving old town on the Somme, 12 m. up, with an interesting house architecture, and a cathedral, unfinished, in the Flamboyant style.

ABBOT, head of an abbey. There were two classes of abbots: Abbots Regular, as being such in fact, and Abbots Commendatory, as guardians and drawing the revenues.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., and one of the translators of King James's Bible; an enemy of Laud's, who succeeded him (1562-1633).

ABBOT OF MISRULE, a person elected to superintend the Christmas revelries.

ABBOTSFORD, the residence of Sir Walter Scott, on the Tweed, near Melrose, built by him on the site of a farm called Clarty Hole.

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ABBOTT, EDWIN, a learned Broad Church theologian and man of letters; wrote, besides other works, a volume of sermons "Through Nature to Christ"; esteemed insistence on miracles injurious to faith; _b_. 1838.

ABDAL`LAH, the father of Mahomet, famed for his beauty (545-570); also a caliph of Mecca (622-692).

ABDALRAH`MAN, the Moorish governor of Spain, defeated by Charles Martel at Tours in 732.

ABDALS (lit. servants of Allah), a set of Moslem fanatics in Persia.

ABD-EL-KA`DIR, an Arab emir, who for fifteen years waged war against the French in N. Africa, but at length surrendered prisoner to them in 1847. On his release in 1852 he became a faithful friend of France (1807-1883).

ABDE`RA, a town in ancient Thrace, proverbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants.

ABDICATIONS, of which the most celebrated are those of the Roman Dictator Sylla, who in 70 B.C. retired to Puteoli; of Diocletian, who in A.D. 305 retired to Salone; of Charles V., who in 1556 retired to the monastery St. Yuste; of Christina of Sweden, who in 1654 retired to Rome, after passing some time in France; of Napoleon, who in 1814 and 1815 retired first to Elba and then died at St. Helena; of Charles X. in 1830, who died at Goritz, in Austria; and of Louis Philippe, who in 1848 retired to end his days in England.

ABDIEL, one of the seraphim, who withstood Satan in his revolt

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against the Most High.

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Turkey from 1861, in succession to Abdul-Medjid (1830-1876).

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Morocco, was only fourteen at his accession; _b_. 1880.

ABDUL-HA`MID II., sultan of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz, and his successor; under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment, and the Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred; _b_. 1842.

ABD-UL-MED`JID, sultan, father of the two preceding, in whose defence against Russia England and France undertook the Crimean war (1823-1861).

ABDUR-RAH`MAN, the ameer of Afghanistan, subsidised by the English; _b_. 1830.

A'BECKET, GILBERT, an English humourist, who contributed to _Punch_ and other organs; wrote the "Comic Blackstone" and comic histories of England and Rome (1811-1856).

A'BECKET, A. W., son of the preceding, a litterateur and journalist; _b_. 1844.

ABEL, the second son of Adam and Eve; slain by his brother. The death of Abel is the subject of a poem by Gessner and a tragedy by Legouve.

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ABEL, SIR F. A., a chemist who has made a special study of explosives; _b_. 1827.

ABEL, HENRY, an able Norwegian mathematician, who died young (1802-1828).

AB`ELARD, PETER, a theologian and scholastic philosopher of French birth, renowned for his dialectic ability, his learning, his passion for Heloise, and his misfortunes; made conceivability the test of credibility, and was a great teacher in his day (1079-1142).

ABELLI, a Dominican monk, the confessor of Catharine de Medici (1603-1691).

ABENCERRA`GES, a powerful Moorish tribe in Grenada, whose fate in the 15th century has been the subject of interesting romance.

ABEN-EZ`RA, a learned Spanish Jew and commentator on the Hebrew scriptures (1090-1168).

ABERA`VON (6), a town and seaport in Glamorganshire, with copper and iron works.

ABERCROMBIE, SIR RALPH, a distinguished British general of Scottish birth, who fell in Egypt after defeating the French at Aboukir Bay (1731-1801).

ABERDEEN (124), the fourth city in Scotland, on the E. coast,

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between the mouths of the Dee and Don; built of grey granite, with many fine public edifices, a flourishing university, a large trade, and thriving manufactures. Old Aberdeen, on the Don, now incorporated in the municipality, is the seat of a cathedral church, and of King's College, founded in 1404, united with the university in the new town.

ABERDEEN, EARL OF, a shrewd English statesman, Prime Minister of England during the Crimean war (1784-1860).--Grandson of the preceding, Gov.-Gen. of Canada; _b_. 1847.

ABERDEENSHIRE (281), a large county in NE. of Scotland; mountainous in SW., lowland N. and E.; famed for its granite quarries, its fisheries, and its breed of cattle.

ABERNETHY, a small burgh in S. Perthshire, with a Pictish round tower, and once the capital of the Pictish kingdom.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT, an apparent motion in a star due to the earth's motion and the progressive motion of light.

ABERYST`WITH (16), a town and seaport in Cardiganshire, Wales, with a university.

AB`GAR XIV., a king of Edessa, one of a dynasty of the name, a contemporary of Jesus Christ, and said to have corresponded with Him.

ABHORRERS, the Royalist and High Church party in England under Charles II., so called from their abhorrence of the principles of their opponents.

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ABIGAIL, the widow of Nabal, espoused by David.

ABICH, W. H., a German mineralogist and traveller (1806-1886).

ABINGDON (6), a borough in Berks, 6 m. S. of Oxford.

ABIOGENESIS, the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

ABIPONES, a once powerful warlike race in La Plata, now nearly all absorbed.

ABLE MAN, man with "a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute" (Gibbon).

ABNER, a Hebrew general under Saul; assassinated by Joab.

ABO, the old capital of Finland and seat of the government, on the Gulf of Bothnia.

AB`OMEY, the capital of Dahomey, in W. Africa.

ABOU`KIR, village near Alexandria, in Egypt, on the bay near which Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1799; where Napoleon beat the Turks, 1799; and where Abercrombie fell, 1801.

ABOUT, EDMOND, spirited French litterateur and journalist (1828-1885).

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ABRAHAM, the Hebrew patriarch, ancestor of the Jews, the very type of an Eastern pastoral chief at once by his dignified character and simple faith.

ABRAHAM, THE PLAINS OF, a plain near Quebec.

ABRAHAM-MEN, a class of lunatics allowed out of restraint, at one time, to roam about and beg; a set of impostors who wandered about the country affecting lunacy.

ABRAN`TES, a town in Portugal, on the Tagus; taken by Marshal Junot, 1807, and giving the title of Duke to him.

ABRAXAS STONES, stones with cabalistic figures on them used as talismans.

ABRUZ`ZI, a highland district in the Apennines, with a pop. of 100,000.

ABSALOM, a son of David, who rebelled against his father, and at whose death David gave vent to a bitter wail of grief. A name given by Dryden to the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II.

ABSOLUTE, THE, the philosophical name for the uncreated Creator, or creating cause of all things, dependent on nothing external to itself.

ABSYRTUS, a brother of Medea, whom she cut in pieces as she fled with Jason, pursued by her father, throwing his bones behind her to detain her father in his pursuit of her by stopping to pick them up.

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ABT, FRANZ, a German composer of song-music (1819-1885).

ABU, a mountain (6000 ft.) in Rajputana, with a footprint of Vishnu on the top, and two marble temples half-way up, held sacred by the Jains.

AB`UBEKR, as the father of Ayesha, the father-in-law of Mahomet, the first of the caliphs and the founder of the Sunnites; _d_. 634.

AB`U-KLEA, in the Soudan, where the Mahdi's forces were defeated by Sir H. Stewart in 1885.

A`BUL-FARAJ, a learned Armenian Jew, who became bishop of Aleppo, and wrote a history of the world from Adam onwards (1226-1286).

ABUL-FAZEL, the vizier of the great Mogul emperor Akbar, and who wrote an account of his reign and of the Mogul empire; he was assassinated in 1604.

ABUL-FEDA, a Moslem prince of Hamat in Syria, who in his youth took part against the Crusaders, and wrote historical works in Arabic (1273-1331).

ABU-THA`LEB, uncle of Mahomet, and his protector against the plots of his enemies the Koreish.

ABY`DOS, a town on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, famous as the home of Leander, who swam the Hellespont every night to visit Hero in Sestos, and as the spot where Xerxes built his bridge of boats to cross

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into Europe in 480 B.C.; also a place of note in Upper Egypt.

ABYSSIN`IA, a mountainous country SE. of Nubia, with an area of 200,000 sq. m., made up of independent states, and a mixed population of some four millions, the Abyssinians proper being of the Semite stock. It is practically under the protectorate of Italy.

ACACIA, a large group of trees with astringent and gum-yielding properties, natives of tropical Africa and Australia.

ACADEMY, a public shady park or place of groves near Athens, where Plato taught his philosophy and whence his school derived its name, of which there are three branches, the _Old_, the _Middle_, and the _New_, represented respectively by Plato himself, Arcesilaos, and Carneades. The _French Academy_, of forty members, was founded by Richelieu in 1635, and is charged with the interests of the French language and literature, and in particular with the duty of compiling an authoritative dictionary of the French language. Besides these, there are in France other four with a like limited membership in the interest of other departments of science and art, all now associated in the _Institute of France_, which consists in all of 229 members. There are similar institutions in other states of Europe, all of greater or less note.

ACADIA, the French name for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

ACANTHUS, a leaf-like ornament on the capitals of the columns of certain orders of architecture.

ACAPUL`CO, a Mexican port in the Pacific, harbour commodious, but climate unhealthy.

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ACARNA`NIA, a province of Greece N. of Gulf of Corinth; its pop. once addicted to piracy.

ACCA`DIANS, a dark, thick-lipped, short-statured Mongol race in Central Asia, displaced by the Babylonians and Assyrians, who were Semitic.

ACCA-LAURENTIA, the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who saved the lives of Romulus and Remus.

ACCIAIOLI, a Florentine family of 15th century, illustrious in scholarship and war.

ACCOLADE, a gentle blow with a sword on the shoulder in conferring knighthood.

ACCOL`TI, a Tuscan family, of 15th century, famous for their learning.

ACCOR`SO, the name of a Florentine family, of 12th and 13th centuries, great in jurisprudence.

ACCRA (16), capital and chief port in British Gold Coast colony.

ACCRINGTON (39), a manufacturing town 22 m. N. of Manchester.

ACCUM, FRIEDRICH, a German chemist, the first promoter of gas-lighting (1769-1838).

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ACCUMULATOR, a hydraulic press for storing up water at a high pressure; also a device for storing up electric energy.

ACERRA (14), an ancient city 9 m. NE. of Naples; is in an unhealthy district.

ACETIC ACID, the pure acid of vinegar; the salts are called _acetates_.

ACETONE, a highly inflammable liquid obtained generally by the dry distillation of acetates.

ACET`YLENE, a malodorous gaseous substance from the incomplete combustion of hydro-carbons.

ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of 12 towns in the Peloponnesus, formed especially against the influence of the Macedonians.

ACHAE`ANS, the common name of the Greeks in the heroic or Homeric period.

ACHAI`A, the N. district of the Peloponnesus, eventually the whole of it.

ACHARD, a Prussian chemist, one of the first to manufacture sugar from beetroot (1753-1821).

ACHARD`, LOUIS AMEDEE, a prolific French novelist (1814-1876).

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ACHA`TES, the attendant of AEneas in his wandering after the fall of Troy, remarkable for, and a perennial type of, fidelity.

ACHELO`UeS, a river in Greece, which rises in Mt. Pindus, and falls into the Ionian Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of Oceanus, and the father of the Sirens.

ACHEN, an eminent German painter (1556-1621).

ACHENWALL, a German economist, the founder of statistic science (1719-1772).

ACH`ERON, a river in the underworld; the name of several rivers in Greece more or less suggestive of it.

ACH`ERY, a learned French Benedictine of St. Maur (1609-1685).

ACH`ILL, a rocky, boggy island, sparsely inhabited, off W. coast of Ireland, co. Mayo, with a bold headland 2222 ft. high.

ACHILLE`ID, an unfinished poem of Statius.

ACHIL`LES, the son of Peleus and Thetis, king of the Myrmidons, the most famous of the Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and whose wrath with the consequences of it forms the subject of the Iliad of Homer. He was invulnerable except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him as she dipt his body in the Styx to render him invulnerable.

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ACHILLES OF GERMANY, Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery, tough old gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very blazing, far-seen character," says Carlyle (1414-1486).

ACHILLES TENDON, the great tendon of the heel, where Achilles was vulnerable.

ACHMED PASHA, a French adventurer, served in French army, condemned to death, fled, and served Austria; condemned to death a second time, pardoned, served under the sultan, was banished to the shores of the Black Sea (1675-1747).

ACH`MET I., sultan of Turkey from 1603 to 1617; A. II., from 1691 to 1695; A. III., from 1703 to 1730, who gave asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden after his defeat by the Czar at Pultowa.

ACHIT`OPHEL, name given by Dryden to the Earl of Shaftesbury of his time.

ACHROMATISM, transmission of light, undecomposed and free from colour, by means of a combination of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint glass, or by a single glass carefully prepared.

ACIERAGE, coating a copper-plate with steel by voltaic electricity.

A`CI-REA`LE (38), a seaport town in Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, in NE. of Catania, with mineral waters.

A`CIS, a Sicilian shepherd enamoured of Galatea, whom the Cyclops

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Polyphemus, out of jealousy, overwhelmed under a rock, from under which his blood has since flowed as a river.

ACK`ERMANN, R., an enterprising publisher of illustrated works in the Strand, a native of Saxony (1764-1834).

ACLAND, SIR HENRY, regius professor of medicine in Oxford, accompanied the Prince of Wales to America in 1860, the author of several works on medicine and educational subjects, one of Ruskin's old and tried friends (1815).

ACLINIC LINE, the magnetic equator, along which the needle always remains horizontal.

ACNE, a skin disease showing hard reddish pimples; ACNE ROSACEA, a congestion of the skin of the nose and parts adjoining.

ACOEMETAE, an order of monks in the 5th century who by turns kept up a divine service day and night.

ACONCA`GUA, the highest peak of the Andes, about 100 m. NE. of Valparaiso, 22,867 ft. high; recently ascended by a Swiss and a Scotchman, attendants of Fitzgerald's party.

ACONITE, monk's-hood, a poisonous plant of the ranunculus order with a tapering root.

ACONITINE, a most virulent poison from aconite, and owing to the very small quantity sufficient to cause death, is very difficult of detection when employed in taking away life.

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ACORN-SHELLS, a crustacean attached to rocks on the sea-shore, described by Huxley as "fixed by its head," and "kicking its food into its mouth with its legs."

ACOUSTICS, the science of sound as it affects the ear, specially of the laws to be observed in the construction of halls so that people may distinctly hear in them.

ACRASIA, an impersonation in Spenser's "Faerie Queen," of intemperance in the guise of a beautiful sorceress.

ACRE, ST. JEAN D' (7), a strong place and seaport in Syria, at the foot of Mount Carmel, taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, held out against Bonaparte in 1799; its ancient name Ptolemais.

ACRES, BOB, a coward in the "Rivals" whose "courage always oozed out at his finger ends."

ACROAMATICS, esoteric lectures, i. e. lectures to the initiated.

ACROLEIN, a light volatile limpid liquid obtained by the destructive distillation of fats.

ACROLITHS, statues of which only the extremities are of stone.

ACROP`OLIS, a fortified citadel commanding a city, and generally the nucleus of it, specially the rocky eminence dominating Athens.

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ACROTE`RIA, pedestals placed at the middle and the extremities of a pediment to support a statue or other ornament, or the statue or ornament itself.

ACTA DIURNA, a kind of gazette recording in a summary way daily events, established at Rome in 131 B.C., and rendered official by Caesar in 50 B.C.

ACTA SANCTORUM, the lives of the saints in 62 vols. folio, begun in the 17th century by the Jesuits, and carried on by the Bollandists.

ACTAEON, a hunter changed into a stag for surprising Diana when bathing, and afterwards devoured by his own dogs.

ACTINIC RAYS, "non-luminous rays of higher frequency than the luminous rays."

ACTINISM, the chemical action of sunlight.

ACTINOMYCOSIS, a disease of a fungous nature on the mouth and lower jaw of cows.

ACTIUM, a town and promontory at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf (Arta), in Greece, where Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra, Sept. 2, 31 B.C.

ACTON, an adventurer of English birth, who became prime minister of Naples, but was driven from the helm of affairs on account of his

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inveterate antipathy to the French (1737-1808).

ACTON, LORD, a descendant of the former, who became a leader of the Liberal Catholics in England, M.P. for Carlow, and made a peer in 1869; a man of wide learning, and the projector of a universal history by experts in different departments of the field; _b_. 1834.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, a narrative account in the New Testament of the founding of the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of Peter and Paul, written by Luke, commencing with the year 33, and concluding with the imprisonment of Paul in Rome in 62.

ACUN`HA, TRISTRAM D', a Portuguese navigator, companion of Albuquerque; NUNA D', his son, viceroy of the Indies from 1528 to 1539; RODRIQUE D', archbishop of Lisbon, who in 1640 freed Portugal from the Spanish domination, and established the house of Braganza on the throne.

ACUPRESSURE, checking hemorrhage in arteries during an operation by compressing their orifices with a needle.

ACUPUNCTURE, the operation of pricking an affected part with a needle, and leaving it for a short time in it, sometimes for as long as an hour.

ADAIR, SIR ROBERT, a distinguished English diplomatist, and frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions (1763-1855).

ADAL, a flat barren region between Abyssinia and the Red Sea.

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ADALBE`RON, the archbishop of Rheims, chancellor of Lothaire and Louis V.; consecrated Hugh Capet; _d_. 998.

ADALBERT, a German ecclesiastic, who did much to extend Christianity over the North (1000-1072).

ADALBERT, ST., bishop of Prague, who, driven from Bohemia, essayed to preach the gospel in heathen Prussia, where the priests fell upon him, and "struck him with a death-stroke on the head," April 27, 997, on the anniversary of which day a festival is held in his honour.

ADA`LIA (30), a seaport on the coast of Asia Minor, on a bay of the same name.

ADAM (i. e. man), the first father, according to the Bible, of the human race.

ADAM, ALEX., a distinguished Latin scholar, rector for 40 years of the Edinburgh High School, Scott having been one of his pupils (1741-1809).

ADAM, LAMBERT, a distinguished French sculptor (1700-1759).

ADAM, ROBERT, a distinguished architect, born at Kirkcaldy, architect of the Register House and the University, Edinburgh (1728-1792).

ADAM BEDE, George Eliot's first novel, published anonymously in 1859, took at once with both critic and public.

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ADAM KADMON, primeval man as he at first emanated from the Creator, or man in his primeval rudimentary potentiality.

ADAM OF BROMEN, distinguished as a Christian missionary in the 11th century; author of a celebrated Church history of N. Europe from 788 to 1072, entitled _Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum_.

ADAMAS`TOR, the giant spirit of storms, which Camoens, in his "Luciad," represents as rising up before Vasco de Gama to warn him off from the Cape of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the resultant success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope.

ADAMAWA, a region in the Lower Soudan with a healthy climate and a fertile soil, rich in all tropical products.

ADAMITES, visionaries in Africa in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia in the 14th and 15th, who affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went naked.

ADAMNAN, ST., abbot of Iona, of Irish birth, who wrote a life of St. Columba and a work on the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written (625-704).

ADAMS, DR. F., a zealous student and translator of Greek medical works (1797-1861).

ADAMS, JOHN, the second president of the United States, and a chief promoter of their independence (1739-1826).

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ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, his eldest son, the sixth president (1767-1848).

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH, an English astronomer, the discoverer simultaneously with Leverrier of the planet Neptune (1819-1892).

ADAMS, PARSON, a country curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with a head full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but in absolute ignorance of the world, which in his simplicity he takes for what it professes to be.

ADAMS, SAMUEL, a zealous promoter of American independence, who lived and died poor (1722-1803).

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a chain of coral reefs and sandbanks connecting Ceylon with India.

ADAM'S PEAK, a conical peak in the centre of Ceylon 7420 ft. high, with a foot-like depression 5 ft. long and 21/2 broad atop, ascribed to Adam by the Mohammedans, and to Buddha by the Buddhists; it was here, the Arabs say, that Adam alighted on his expulsion from Eden and stood doing penance on one foot till God forgave him.

ADA`NA (40), a town SE. corner of Asia Minor, 30 m. from the sea.

ADANSON, MICHEL, a French botanist, born in AIX, the first to attempt a natural classification of plants (1727-1806).

AD`DA, an affluent of the Po, near Cremona; it flows through Lake Como; on its banks Bonaparte gained several of his famous victories over

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ADDINGTON, HENRY, Lord Sidmouth, an English statesman was for a short time Prime Minister, throughout a supporter of Pitt (1757-1844).

ADDISON, JOSEPH, a celebrated English essayist, studied at Oxford, became Fellow of Magdalen, was a Whig in politics, held a succession of Government appointments, resigned the last for a large pension; was pre-eminent among English writers for the purity and elegance of his style, had an abiding, refining, and elevating influence on the literature of the country; his name is associated with the _Tatler, Spectator_, and _Guardian_, as well as with a number of beautiful hymns (1672-1749).

A`DELAAR, the name of honour given to Cort Sivertsen, a famous Norse seaman, who rendered distinguished naval services to Denmark and to Venice against the Turks (1622-1675).

ADELAIDE (133), the capital of S. Australia, on the river Torrens, which flows through it into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. SE. of Port Adelaide; a handsome city, with a cathedral, fine public buildings, a university, and an extensive botanical garden; it is the great emporium for S. Australia; exports wool, wine, wheat, and copper ore.

ADELAIDE, eldest daughter of Louis XV. of France (1732-1806).

ADELAIDE, PORT, the haven of Adelaide, a port of call, with a commodious harbour.

ADELAIDE, QUEEN, consort of William IV. of England (1792-1849).

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ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS, sister of Louis Philippe, his Egeria (1771-1841).

ADELBERG, a town of Carniola, 22 m. from Trieste, with a large stalactite cavern, besides numerous caves near it.

ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a distinguished German philologist and lexicographer, born in Pomerania (1732-1806).

A`DEN (42), a fortified town on a peninsula in British territory S. of Arabia, 105 m. E. of Bab-el-Mandeb; a coaling and military station, in a climate hot, but healthy.

AD`HERBAL, son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, killed by Jugurtha, 249 B.C.

ADI GRANTH, the sacred book of the Sikhs.

ADIAPH`ORISTS, Lutherans who in 16th century maintained that certain practices of the Romish Church, obnoxious to others of them, were matters of indifference, such as having pictures, lighting candles, wearing surplices, and singing certain hymns in worship.

AD`IGE, a river of Italy, which rises in the Rhetian Alps and falls into the Adriatic after a course of 250 m.; subject to sudden swellings and overflowings.

ADIPOCERE, a fatty, spermaceti-like substance, produced by the decomposition of animal matter in moist places.

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ADIPOSE TISSUE, a tissue of small vesicles filled with oily matter, in which there is no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin and gives smoothness and warmth to the body.

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in the State of New York; source of the Hudson.

ADJUTANT, a gigantic Indian stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft. in height, which feeds on carrion and offal, and is useful in this way, as storks are.

ADLER, HERMANN, son and successor of the following, born in Hanover; a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred Scriptures; was elected Chief Rabbi in 1891; _b_. 1839.

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS, chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover (1803-1890).

ADLERCREUTZ, a Swedish general, the chief promoter of the revolution of 1808, who told Gustavus IV. to his face that he ought to retire (1759-1815).

ADME`TUS, king of Pherae in Thessaly, one of the Argonauts, under whom Apollo served for a time as neat-herd. _See_ ALCESTIS.

ADMIRABLE DOCTOR, a name given to Roger Bacon.

ADMIRAL, the chief commander of a fleet, of which there are in

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Britain three grades--admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the first displaying his flag on the main mast, the second on the fore, and the third on the mizzen.

ADMIRALTY, BOARD OF, board of commissioners appointed for the management of naval affairs.

ADMIRALTY ISLAND, an island off the coast of Alaska.

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group NE. of New Guinea, in the Pacific, which belong to Germany.

ADOLF, FRIEDRICH, king of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles divided themselves into the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party, and the Hats, or the war-party (1710-1771).

ADOLPH, ST., a Spanish martyr: festival, Sept. 27.

ADOLPH OF NASSAU, Kaiser from 1291 to 1298, "a stalwart but necessitous Herr" Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of Edward Longshanks.

ADOLPHUS, JOHN, an able London barrister in criminal cases, and a voluminous historical writer (1766-1845).

ADONA`I, the name used by the Jews for God instead of Jehovah, too sacred to be pronounced.

ADONA`IS, Shelley's name for Keats.

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ADO`NIS, a beautiful youth beloved by Aphrodite (Venus), but mortally wounded by a boar and changed by her into a flower the colour of his blood, by sprinkling nectar on his body.

ADOPTIONISTS, heretics who in the 8th century maintained that Christ was the son of God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with Him in character and will.

ADOR`NO, an illustrious plebeian family in Genoa, of the Ghibelline party, several of whom were Doges of the republic.

ADOUR, a river of France, rising in the Pyrenees and falling into the Bay of Biscay.

ADOWA`, a highland town in Abyssinia, and chief entrepot of trade.

ADRAS`TUS, a king of Argos, the one survivor of the first expedition of the Seven against Thebes, who died of grief when his son fell in the second.

ADRETS, BARON DES, a Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty; died a Catholic (1513-1587).

A`DRIA, an ancient town between the Po and the Adige; a flourishing seaport at one time, but now 14 m. from the sea.

A`DRIAN, name of six popes: A. I., from 772 to 795, did much to embellish Rome; A. II., from 867 to 872, zealous to subject the

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sovereigns of Europe to the Popehood; A. III., from 884 to 885; A. V., from 1054 to 1059, the only Englishman who attained to the Papal dignity; A. V., in 1276; A. VI., from 1222 to 1223. See BREAKSPEARE.

ADRIAN, ST., the chief military saint of N. Europe for many ages, second only to St. George; regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and protector against the plague.

ADRIANO`PLE (60), a city in European Turkey, the third in importance, on the high-road between Belgrade and Constantinople.

ADRIA`TIC, THE, a sea 450 m. long separating Italy from Illyria, Dalmatia, and Albania.

ADULLAM, David's hiding-place (1 Sam. xxii. 1), a royal Canaanitish city 10 m. NW. of Hebron.

ADULLAMITES, an English political party who in 1866 deserted the Liberal side in protest against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced. John Bright gave them this name. See 1 Sam. xxii.

ADUMBLA, a cow, in old Norse mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost, "licking the rime from the rocks--a Hindu cow transported north," surmises Carlyle.

ADVOCATE, LORD, chief counsel for the Crown in Scotland, public prosecutor of crimes, and a member of the administration in power.

ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF, body of lawyers qualified to plead at the

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Scottish bar.

ADVOCATES' LIBRARY, a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, founded in 1632; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds the privilege of receiving a copy of every book entered at Stationers' Hall.

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI, the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman Catholic Church appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization.

AEACUS, a Greek king renowned as an administrator of distributive justice, after death appointed one of the three judges in Hades. _See_ MINOS and RHADAMANTHUS.

AEDILES, magistrates of ancient Rome who had charge of the public buildings and public structures generally.

AEE`TIS, king of Colchis and father of Medea.

AEGE`AN SEA, the Archipelago.

AEGEUS, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into the AEgean Sea, so called after him, in the mistaken belief that his son, who had been to slay the Minotaur, had been slain by him.

AEGI`NA, an island 20 m. SW. of Athens, in a gulf of the same name.

AEGIR, the god of the sea in the Norse mythology.

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AEGIS (lit. a goat's skin), the shield of Zeus, made of the hide of the goat AMALTHEA (q. v.), representing originally the storm-cloud in which the god invested himself when he was angry; it was also the attribute of Athena, bearing in her case the Gorgon's head.


AEL`FRIC, a Saxon writer of the end of the 10th century known as the "Grammarian."

AELIA`NUS, CLAUDIUS, an Italian rhetorician who wrote in Greek, and whose extant works are valuable for the passages from prior authors which they have preserved for us.

AEMI`LIUS PAULUS, the Roman Consul who fell at Cannae, 216 B.C.; also his son, surnamed Macedonicus, so called as having defeated Perseus at Pydna, in Macedonia.

AENE`AS, a Trojan, the hero of Virgil's "AEneid," who in his various wanderings after the fall of Troy settled in Italy, and became, tradition alleges, the forefather of the Julian Gens in Rome.


AE`NEID, an epic poem by Virgil, of which AEneas is the hero.

AENESIDEMUS, a sceptical philosopher, born in Crete, who flourished shortly after Cicero, and summed up under ten arguments the contention against dogmatism in philosophy. See "SCHWEGLER," translated by

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Dr. Hutchison Stirling.

AEOLIAN ACTION, action of the wind as causing geologic changes.


AEO`LIANS, one of the Greek races who, originating in Thessaly, spread north and south, and emigrated into Asia Minor, giving rise to the AEolic dialect of the Greek language.

AEOLOTROPY, a change in the physical properties of bodies due to a change of position.

AE`OLUS, the Greek god of the winds.

AEON, among the Gnostics, one of a succession of powers conceived as emanating from God and presiding over successive creations and transformations of being.

AEPYOR`NIS, a gigantic fossil bird of Madagascar, of which the egg is six times larger than that of an ostrich.

AE`QUI, a tribe on NE. of Latium, troublesome to the Romans until subdued in 302 B.C.

AERATED BREAD, bread of flour dough charged with carbonic acid gas.

AERATED WATERS, waters aerated with carbonic acid gas.

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AES`CHINES, a celebrated Athenian orator, rival of Demosthenes, who in the end prevailed over him by persuading the citizens to believe he was betraying them to Philip of Macedon, so that he left Athens and settled in Rhodes, where he founded a school as a rhetorician (389-314 B.C.).

AES`CHYLUS, the father of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished himself as a soldier both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a poet; wrote, it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are extant--the "Suppliants," the "Persae," the "Seven against Thebes," the "Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon," the "Choephori," and the "Eumenides," his plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in Sicily (525-456 B.C.).

AESCULA`PIUS, a son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, whom, for restoring Hippolytus to life, Zeus, at the prayer of Pluto, destroyed with a thunderbolt, but afterwards admitted among the gods as god of medicine and the healing art; the cock, the emblem of vigilance, and the serpent, of prudence, were sacred to him.

AESON, the father of Jason, was restored to youth by Medea.

AE`SOP, a celebrated Greek fabulist of the 6th century B.C., of whose history little is known except that he was originally a slave, manumitted by Iadmon of Samos, and put to death by the Delphians, probably for some witticism at their expense.

AESO`PUS, a celebrated Roman actor, a friend of Pompey and Cicero.

AESTHETICS, the science of the beautiful in nature and the fine arts.

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AE`TIUS, a Roman general, who withstood the aggressions of the Barbarians for twenty years, and defeated Attila at Chalons, 451; assassinated out of jealousy by the Emperor Valentinian III., 454.

AETO`LIA, a country of ancient Greece N. of the Gulf of Corinth.

AFFRE, archbishop of Paris, suffered death on the barricades, as, with a green bough in his hand, he bore a message of peace to the insurgents (1793-1848).

AFGHAN`ISTAN` (5,000), a country in the centre of Asia, between India on the east and Persia on the west, its length about 600 m. and its breadth about 500 m., a plateau of immense mountain masses, and high, almost inaccessible, valleys, occupying 278,000 sq. m., with extremes of climate, and a mixed turbulent population, majority Afghans. The country, though long a bone of contention between England and Russia, is now wholly under the sphere of British influence.

AF`GHANS, THE, a fine and noble but hot-tempered race of the Mohammedan faith inhabiting Afghanistan. The Afghans proper are called PATHANS in India, and call themselves Beni Israel (sons of Israel), tracing their descent from King Saul.

AFRA`NIUS, a Latin comic poet who flourished 100 B.C.; also a Roman Consul who played a prominent part in the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey, 60 B.C.

AFRICA, one of the five great divisions of the globe, three times larger than Europe, seven-tenths of it within the torrid zone, and containing over 200,000,000 inhabitants of more or less dark-skinned

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races. It was long a _terra incognita_, but it is now being explored in all directions, and attempts are everywhere made to bring it within the circuit of civilisation. It is being parcelled out by European nations, chiefly Britain, France, and Germany, and with more zeal and appliance of resource by Britain than any other.

AFRICA`NUS, JULIUS, a Christian historian and chronologist of the 3rd century.

AFRIDIS, a treacherous tribe of eight clans, often at war with each other, in a mountainous region on the North-Western frontier of India W. of Peshawar.

AFRIKAN`DER, one born in S. Africa of European parents.

AFRIT`, a powerful evil spirit in the Mohammedan mythology.

AGA`DES, a once important depot of trade in the S. of the Sahara, much decayed.

AGAG, a king of the Amalekites, conquered by Saul, and hewn in pieces by order of Samuel.

AGAMEM`NON, a son of Atreus, king of Mycenae and general-in-chief of the Greeks in the Trojan war, represented as a man of stately presence and a proud spirit. On the advice of the soothsayer Calchas sacrificed his daughter IPHIGENIA (q. v.) for the success of the enterprise he conducted. He was assassinated by AEgisthus and Clytaemnestra, his wife, on his return from the war. His fate and that of his house is the subject of AEschylus' trilogy "Oresteia."

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AGAMOGENESIS, name given to reproduction without sex, by fission, budding, &c.

AGANIPPE, a fountain in Boeotia, near Helicon, dedicated to the Muses as a source of poetic inspiration.

AG`APE, love-feasts among the primitive Christians in commemoration of the Last Supper, and in which they gave each other the kiss of peace as token of Christian brotherhood.

AGAR-AGAR, a gum extracted from a sea-weed, used in bacteriological investigations.

AGA`SIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, famous for his statue of the "Gladiator."

AGASS`IZ, a celebrated Swiss naturalist, in the department especially of ichthyology, and in connection with the glaciers; settled as a professor of zoology and geology in the United States in 1846 (1807-1873).

AG`ATHE, ST., a Sicilian virgin who suffered martyrdom at Palermo under Decius in 251; represented in art as crowned with a long veil and bearing a pair of shears, the instruments with which her breast were cut off. Festival, Feb. 5.

AGA`THIAS, a Byzantine poet and historian (536-582).

AGATH`OCLES, the tyrant of Syracuse, by the massacre of thousands of

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the inhabitants, was an enemy of the Carthaginians, and fought against them; was poisoned in the end (361-289 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, an Athenian tragic poet, a rival of Euripides (447-400 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, ST., pope from 676 to 682.

AG`DE (6), a French seaport on the Herault, 3 m. from the Mediterranean.

A`GEN (21), a town on the Garonne, 84 m. above Bordeaux.

AGES, in the Greek mythology four--the Golden, self-sufficient; the Silver, self-indulgent; the Brazen, warlike; and the Iron, violent; together with the Heroic, nobly aspirant, between the third and fourth. In archeology, three--the Stone Age, the Bronze, and the Iron. In history, the Middle and Dark, between the Ancient and the Modern. In Fichte, five--of Instinct, of Law, of Rebellion, of Rationality, of Conformity to Reason. In Shakespeare, seven--Infancy, Childhood, Boyhood, Adolescence, Manhood, Age, Old Age.

AGESAN`DER, a sculptor of Rhodes of the first century, who wrought at the famous group of the Laocoon.

AGESILA`US, a Spartan king, victorious over the Persians in Asia and over the allied Thebans and Athenians at Coronea, but defeated by Epaminondas at Mantinea after a campaign in Egypt; _d_. 360 B.C., aged 84.

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AGGAS, RALPH, a surveyor and engraver of the 16th century, who first drew a plan of London as well as of Oxford and Cambridge.

AGGLUTINATE LANGUAGES, languages composed of parts which are words glued together, so to speak, as cowherd.

AGINCOURT`, a small village in Pas-de-Calais, where Henry V. in a bloody battle defeated the French, Oct. 25, 1415.

A`GIS, the name of several Spartan kings, of whom the most famous were Agis III. and IV., the former famous for his resistance to the Macedonian domination, _d_. 330 B.C.; and the latter for his attempts to carry a law for the equal division of land, _d_. 240 B.C.


AG`NADEL, a Lombard village, near which Louis XII. defeated the Venetians in 1509, and Vendome, Prince Eugene in 1705.

AGNA`NO, LAKE OF, a lake near Naples, now drained; occupied the crater of an extinct volcano, its waters in a state of constant ebullition.

AGNELLO, COL D', passage by the S. of Monte Viso between France and Italy.

AGNES, an unsophisticated maiden in Moliere's _L'Ecole des Femmes_, so unsophisticated that she does not know what love means.

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AGNES, ST., a virgin who suffered martyrdom, was beheaded because the flames would not touch her body, under Diocletian in 303; represented in art as holding a palm-branch in her hand and a lamb at her feet or in her arms. Festival, Jan. 21.

AGNES DE MERANIE, the second wife of Philip Augustus by a marriage in 1193, declared null by the Church, who, being dismissed in consequence, died broken-hearted in 1201.

AGNES SOREL, surnamed _Dame de beaute_, mistress of Charles VII. of France (1409-1450).

AGNE`SI, MARIA GAETANA, a native of Milan, a woman of extraordinary ability and attainments, prelected for her father in mathematics in the University of Bologna under sanction of the Pope; died a nun at her birthplace (1718-1799).

AG`NI, the god of fire in the Vedic mythology, begets the gods, organises the world, produces and preserves universal life, and throughout never ceases to be fire. One of the three terms of the Vedic trinity, Soma and Indra being the other two.

AGNOLO, a Florentine artist, friend of Michael Angelo and Raphael, distinguished for his carvings in wood (1460-1543).

AGNOSTICISM, the doctrine which disclaims all knowledge of the supersensuous, or denies that we know or can know the absolute, the infinite, or God.

AGNUS DEI, the figure of a lamb bearing a cross as a symbol of Christ, or a medal with this device; also a prayer in the Mass beginning

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with the words, "Lamb of God."

AGONIC LINE, line along which the needle points due north and south.

AGORA, the forum of a Grecian town.

AGOS`TA, a city on east coast of Sicily.

AGOULT, COUNTESS OF, a French authoress under the pseudonym of Daniel Stern (1805-1876).

AGOUST, CAPT. DE, a "cast-iron" captain of the Swiss Guards, who on May 4, 1788, by order of the Court of Versailles, marched the Parliament of Paris out of the Palais de Justice and carried off the key. See CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION," BK. I. CHAP. VIII.

AGOU`TI, a rodent, native of Brazil, Paraguay, and Guiana; very destructive to roots and sugar-canes.

A`GRA (168), a handsome city on the Jumna, in NW. Province of India, famous for, among other monuments, the Taj Mahal, a magnificent mausoleum erected near it by the Emperor Shah Jehan for himself and his favourite wife; it is a centre of trade, and seat of manufactures of Indian wares.

AG`RAM, (37), a Hungarian town, the capital of Croatia, with a fine Gothic cathedral and a university; is subject to earthquakes.

AGRARIAN LAWS, laws among the Romans regulating the division of lands.

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AGRIC`OLA, a Roman general, father-in-law of Tacitus, who conquered Great Britain in 80, recalled by the Emperor Domitian in 87, and retired into private life (37-93).

AGRICOLA, JOHANN, a follower and friend of Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians (1492-1566).

AGRICOLA, RUDOLPHUS, a learned and accomplished Dutchman, much esteemed by Erasmus, and much in advance of his time; his most important work, "Dialectics," being an attack on the scholastic system (1442-1485).

AGRIGEN`TUM, an ancient considerable city, now Girgenti, on the S. of Sicily, of various fortune, and still showing traces of its ancient grandeur.

AGRIPPA, H. CORNELIUS, a native of Cologne, of noble birth, for some time in the service of Maximilian, but devoted mainly to the study of the occult sciences, which exposed him to various persecutions through life (1486-1535).


AGRIP`PA, M. VIPSANIUS, a Roman general, the son-in-law and favourite of Augustus, who distinguished himself at the battle of Actium, and built the Pantheon of Rome (63-12 B.C.).

AGRIPPI`NA, the daughter of Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and thus the granddaughter of Augustus; married Germanicus, accompanied him in his

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campaigns, and brought his ashes to Rome on his death, but was banished from Rome by Tiberius, and _d_. in 33.

AGRIPPINA, the daughter of Germanicus and the former, born at Cologne, and the mother of Nero. Her third husband was her uncle, the Emperor Claudian, whom she got to adopt her son, and then poisoned him, in order to place her son on the throne; but the latter, resenting her intolerable ascendancy, had her put to death in 59.

AGTELEK, a village NE. of Pesth, in Hungary with vast stalactite caverns, some of them of great height.

AGUA`DO, A. M., an enormously wealthy banker of Spanish-Jewish descent, born in Seville, and naturalised in France (1784-1842).

AGUAS CALIENTES (31), a high-lying inland trading town in Mexico.

AGUE-CHEEK, SIR ANDREW, a silly squire in "Twelfth Night."

AGUESSEAU`, D', a French magistrate under Louis XIV. and Louis XV., of unimpeachable integrity and unselfish devotion, a learned jurist and law reformer, and held high posts in the administration of justice (1668-1751).

AGUILAR, GRACE, a Jewess, born at Hackney; authoress of "Magic Wreath," "Home Influence," "Vale of Cedars"; of a delicate constitution, died young (1816-1847).

A`GULHAS, CAPE (i. e. the Needles), the most southerly point of Africa, 100 m. ESE. of the Cape, and along with the bank of the whole

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south coast, dangerous to shipping.

A`HAB, a king of Israel fond of splendour, and partial to the worship of Baal (918-896 B.C.).

AHASUE`RUS, a traditionary figure known as the Wandering Jew; also the name of several kings of Persia.

AHAZ, a king of Judah who first brought Judea under tribute to Assyria.

AHLDEN, CASTLE OF, a castle in Lueneburg Heath, the nearly lifelong prison-house of the wife of George I. and the mother of George II. and of Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.

AHMADABAD (148), a chief town of Guzerat, in the Bombay Presidency, a populous city and of great splendour in the last century, of which gorgeous relics remain.

AHMED, a prince in the "Arabian Nights," noted for a magic tent which would expand so as to shelter an army, and contract so that it could go into one's pocket.

AH`MED SHAH, the founder of the Afghan dynasty and the Afghan power (1724-1773).

AHMEDNUG`AR (41), a considerable Hindu town 122 m. E. of Bombay.

AHOLIBAH, prostitution personified. See EZEK. XXIII.

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AHOLIBAMAH, a grand daughter of Cain, beloved by a seraph, who at the Flood bore her away to another planet.

AH`RIMAN, the Zoroastrian impersonation of the evil principle, to whom all the evils of the world are ascribed.

AIDAN, ST., the archbishop of Lindisfarne, founder of the monastery, and the apostle of Northumbria, sent thither from Iona on the invitation of King Oswald in 635.

AIGNAN, St., the bishop of Orleans, defended it against Attila and his Huns in 451.

AIGUILLON, DUKE D', corrupt minister of France, previously under trial for official plunder of money, which was quashed, at the corrupt court of Louis XV., and the tool of Mme. Du Barry, with whom he rose and fell (1720-1782).

AIKIN, DR. JOHN, a popular writer, and author, with Mrs. Barbauld, his sister, of "Evenings at Home" (1747-1822).

AIKMAN, W., an eminent Scotch portrait-painter (1682-1731).

AILLY, PIERRE D', a cardinal of the Romish Church, and eminent as a theologian, presided at the council of Constance which condemned Huss (1350-1420).

AILSA CRAIG, a rocky islet of Ayrshire, 10 m. NW. of Girvan, 2 m. in

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circumference, which rises abruptly out of the sea at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde to a height of 1114 ft.

AIMARD, GUSTAVE, a French novelist, born in Paris; died insane (1818-1883).

AIME, ST., archbishop of Sens, in France; _d_. 690; festival, 13th Sept.

AIN, a French river, has its source in the Jura Mts., and falls into the Rhone; also a department of France between the Rhone and Savoy.

AINMILLER, a native of Muenich, the reviver of glass-painting in Germany (1807-1870).

AI`NOS, a primitive thick-set, hairy race, now confined to Yezo and the islands N. of Japan, aboriginal to that quarter of the globe, and fast dying out.

AINSWORTH, R., an English Latin lexicographer (1660-1743).

AINSWORTH, W. H., a popular English novelist, the author of "Rookwood" and "Jack Sheppard," as well as novels of an antiquarian and historical character (1805-1882).

AIN-TAB (20), a Syrian garrison town 60 m. NE. of Aleppo; trade in hides, leather, and cotton.

AIRD, THOMAS, a Scottish poet, author of the "Devil's Dream," the

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"Old Bachelor," and the "Old Scotch Village"; for nearly 30 years editor of the _Dumfries Herald_ (1802-1876).

AIRDRIE (19), a town in Lanarkshire, 11 m. E. of Glasgow, in a district rich in iron and coal; is of rapid growth; has cotton-mills, foundries, etc.

AIRDS MOSS, a moor in Ayrshire, between the rivers Ayr and Lugar.

AIRE, a Yorkshire river which flows into the Ouse; also a French river, affluent of the Aisne.

AIRY, SIR G. B., an eminent English astronomer, mathematician, and man of science, astronomer-royal from 1836 to 1881, retired on a pension; was the first to enunciate the complete theory of the rainbow.

AISNE, a French river which, after a course of 150 m., falls into the Oise near Compiegne; also a department in the N. of France.

AISSE, MLLE., a Circassienne brought to France about 1700; left letters on French society in the eighteenth century, sparkling with wit and full of interest.

AITON, WM., a botanist, born in Lanarkshire, the first director of the Royal Gardens at Kew (1731-1793).

AITZEMA, LEO, historian of Friesland (1600-1669).

AIX (22), a town, the ancient capital of Provence, 20 m. N. of

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Marseilles, the seat of an archbishop and a university; founded by the Romans 123 B.C.; near it Marius defeated the Teutons.

AIX, ISLE OF, island in the Atlantic, at the mouth of the Charente.

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE` (103), in Rhenish Prussia, one of the oldest cities in Germany, made capital of the German empire by Charlemagne; derives its name from its mineral springs; is a centre of manufacturing industries and an important trade; is celebrated for its octagonal cathedral (in the middle of which is a stone marking the burial-place of Charlemagne), for treaties of peace in 1668 and 1748, and for a European congress in 1818.

AIX-LES-BAINS`, a small town near Chambery, in the dep. of Savoy, and much frequented by invalids for its waters and baths.

AJAC`CIO (18), the capital of Corsica, the birthplace of the Bonaparte family, of Cardinal Fesch, and Bacciochi.

AJALON, VALLEY OF, in Palestine, scene of a battle between Joshua and five Canaanitish kings, during which the sun and moon stood still at the prayer of Joshua, to enable him to finish his victory.

A`JAN COAST, a district on the E. coast of Africa, from Cape Guardafui to the mouth of the Juba, under the protectorate of Germany.

A`JAX the name of two Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and the synonym of a fiery and impetuous warrior: AJAX, the son of Telamon of Sparta, one of the bravest of the Greeks, who, on the death of Achilles, contended with Ulysses for his arms, but was defeated, in consequence of which he lost his reason and put an end to his life; and AJAX, the son of Oileus, swift of foot, like Achilles, who suffered

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shipwreck on his homeward voyage, as a judgment for an outrage he perpetrated on the person of Cassandra in the temple of Athena in Troy.

AJMERE` (68), a city in a small territory in the heart of Rajputana, under the rule of the Viceroy; well built, and contains some famous edifices.

AJODHYA, an ancient city of Oudh, 77 m. E. of Lucknow, once, on religious grounds, one of the largest and most magnificent cities of India, now in ruins; the modern town is an insignificant place, but has an annual fair, attended by often 600,000 pilgrims.

AK`ABA, a gulf forming the NE. inlet of the Red Sea.

AKAKIA, DOCTOR, a satire of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which so excited the anger of Frederick the Great, the patron of the Academy, that he ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman, after 30,000 copies of it had been sold in Paris!

AKAKIA, MARTIN, physician of Francis I., born at Chalons-sur-Marne, his real name being Sans-Malice; _d_. 1551.

AK`BAR, the great Mogul emperor of India, who, after a minority of a few years, assumed the reins of government at the age of eighteen, and in ten or twelve years, such was his power of conquest, had the whole of India north of the Vindhya Mts. subject to his rule. He was wise in government as well as powerful in war, and one of the most large-minded and largest-hearted rulers recorded in history. He reigned half a century (1542-1605).

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AKENSIDE, MARK, an English physician, who wrote, among other productions and pieces, the "Hymn to the Naiads," especially a poem entitled the "Pleasures of Imagination," much quoted from at one time, and suggested by the study of Addison on the Imagination in the _Spectator_ (1721-1770).

AKERS, B. P., an able American sculptor (1825-1861).

AKERMAN` (55), a fortified town in Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Dniester.

AKIBA, BEN JOSEPH, a famous Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, a great authority in the matter of Jewish tradition, flayed alive by the Romans for being concerned in a revolt in 135.

AKKAS, a wandering race of negro dwarfs in Central Africa, with large heads and slender necks, who live by hunting.

AKRON (27), a town in Ohio, U.S., seat of manufactures and centre of traffic.

AKSAKOF`, a Russian litterateur and advocate of Panslavism (1823-1886).

AKSU (20), a trading town in E. Turkestan, 250 m. NE. of Yarkand.

AK`YAB (37), the capital of Aracan, in British Burmah, 90 m. SE. of Calcutta.

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AL RAKIM, the dog that guarded the SEVEN SLEEPERS (q. v.), and that stood by them all through their long sleep.

ALABA`MA (1,513), one of the United States of N. America, traversed by a river of the name, a little larger than England, highly fertile and a great cotton-growing country, and abounding in iron, coal, and marble, bounded on the W. by the Mississippi, on the N. by Tennessee, and the E. by Georgia.

ALABAMA, THE, a vessel built in Birkenhead for the Confederates in the late American Civil War, for the devastation done by which, according to the decision of a court of arbitration, the English Government had to pay heavy damages of three millions of money.

ALACOQUE, MARIE, a French nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the Sacred Heart (1647-1690).

ALAD`DIN, one of the chiefs of the Assassins in the 13th century, better known by the name of the Old Man of the Mountain.

ALADDIN, a character in the "Arabian Nights," who became possessed of a wonderful lamp and a wonderful ring, by rubbing which together he could call two evil genii to do his bidding.

ALADINISTS, free-thinkers among the Mohammedans.

ALAGO`AS (397), a maritime province of Brazil, N. of Pernambuco, with tropical products as well as fine timber and dye-woods.

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ALAIN DE L'ISLE, a professor of theology in the University of Paris, surnamed the _Doctor universel_ (1114-1203).


ALAIS` (18), a town at the foot of the Cevennes, in the centre of a mining district; once the stronghold of French Protestantism.

ALAMAN`NI, LUIGI, an Italian poet and diplomatist, born at Florence (1495-1556).

ALAND ISLES, a group of 300 small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, of which 80 are inhabited; fortified by Russia.

ALANS, a barbarous horde from the East, who invaded W. Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, but were partly exterminated and partly ousted by the Visigoths.

ALAR`CON Y MENDO`ZA, JUAN RUIZ DE, a Spanish dramatist born in Mexico, who, though depreciated by his contemporaries, ranks after 200 years of neglect among the foremost dramatic geniuses of Spain, next even to Cervantes and Lope de Vega; he was a humpback, had an offensive air of conceit, and was very unpopular; he wrote at least twenty dramas, some of which have been translated into French; _d_. in 1639.

AL`ARIC I., the king of the Visigoths, a man of noble birth, who, at the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th century, ravaged Greece, invaded Italy, and took and pillaged Rome; died at Cosenza, in Calabria, in 412, at the early age of thirty-four.

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ALARIC II., king of the Visigoths, whose dominions included all Gaul and most of Spain; defeated by the Franks at Poitiers, and killed by the hand of Clovis, their king, in 567.

ALARIC COTIN, Voltaire's nickname for Frederick the Great, the former in recognition of him as a warrior, the latter as a would-be litterateur, after an indifferent French poet of the name of Cotin.

ALAS`CO, JOHN, the uncle of Sigismund, king of Poland, and a zealous promoter in Poland of the Reformation, the friend of Erasmus and Zwinglius (1499-1560).

ALAS`KA (32), an immense territory belonging to the U.S. by purchase from Russia, extending from British N. America to Behring Strait; it is poor in resources, and the inhabitants, who are chiefly Indians and Eskimos, live by hunting and fishing, and by the export of salmon; seal fishery valuable, however.

ALASNAM, a hero related of in the "Arabian Nights" as having erected eight statues of gold, and in quest of a statue for a ninth unoccupied pedestal, finding what he wanted in the person of a beautiful woman for a wife.

ALAS`TOR, an avenging spirit, given to torment families whose history has been stained by some crime.

A`LAVA (97), the southernmost of the three Basque provinces of Spain, largest, but least populous; rich in minerals, and fertile in soil.

ALAVA, RICARDO DE, a Spanish general, born in Vittoria, joined the

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national party, and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and became eventually ambassador to London and Paris (1771-1843).

ALBA LONGA, a city of Latium older than Rome.

ALBACETE (229), a province in Spain, with a capital (30) of same name, 173 m. SE. of Madrid.

ALBAN LAKE, near Alban Mount, 6 m. in circuit, occupying the basin of an extinct volcano, its surface 961 ft. above the sea-level.

ALBAN MOUNT, a small mountain overlooking Alba Longa.

ALBAN, ST., the first martyr in Britain to the Christian faith in 303; represented in art as carrying his head between his hands, having been beheaded.

ALBA`NI, an Italian painter, a disciple of Caracci, born at Bologna; surnamed the Anacreon of painting; his pictures more distinguished for grace than vigour.

ALBA`NI, an illustrious Roman family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the Church, one, Clement XI., having been Pope.

ALBANI, MME., _nee_ Emma la Jeunesse, a well-known and highly popular operatic singer of French-Canadian descent; _b_. 1847.

ALBA`NIA, a region in Balkan peninsula, on the Adriatic, extending from Servia to Greece.

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ALBANO, LAKE OF, a small crater-like lake 15 m. SE. of Rome, near which rises the Castel Gandolfo, where the Pope has a villa.

ALBANY, the old Celtic name for the Scottish highlands.

ALBANY, a town in W. Australia, on King George Sound, 261 m. SE. of Perth, a port of call for Australian liners; also the capital (94) of the State of New York, on the Hudson River, a well-appointed city; seat of justice for the State, with a large trade and numerous manufactures.

ALBANY, COUNTESS OF, wife of English pretender, Prince Charles Stuart, a dissolute woman (1753-1824).

ALBANY, THE DUKE OF, a title formerly given to a member of the royal family, and revived in the present reign.

ALBANY, DUCHESS OF, daughter of Prince Waldeck Pyrmont and widow of Prince Leopold of England; _b_. 1861, widow since 1884.

ALBATEGNI, a distinguished Arabian astronomer, born in Mesopotamia in the 9th or 10th century of our era; his observations extended over 50 years; he so improved the methods and instruments of observation as to earn the title of the Ptolemy of the Arabs.

ALBATROSS, the largest and strongest of sea-birds, that ranges over the southern seas, often seen far from land; it is a superstition among sailors that it is disastrous to shoot one.

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ALBERO`NI, an Italian of humble birth, became a Cardinal of the Church and Prime Minister to Philip V. of Spain, wrought hard to restore Spain to its ancient grandeur, was defeated in his project by the quadruple alliance of England, France, Austria, and Holland, and obliged to retire (1664-1752).

ALBERT, archbishop of Mainz, a dignity granted him by Pope Leo X. at the ransom of L15,000, which he was unable to pay, and which, as the Pope needed it for building St. Peter's, he borrowed, the Pope granting him the power to sell indulgences in order to repay the loan, in which traffic Tetzel was his chief salesman, a trade which roused the wrath of Luther, and provoked the German Reformation (1450-1545).

ALBERT, the last Grandmaster of the Teutonic knights, who being "religious in an eminent degree and shaken in his belief" took zealously to Protestantism and came under the influence of Luther, who advised him to declare himself Duke of Prussia, under the wing of Sigismund of Poland, in defiance of the Teutonic order as no longer worthy of bed and board on the earth, and so doing, became founder of the Prussian State (1490-1568).

ALBERT, markgrave of Brandenburg, defined by Carlyle "a failure of a Fritz," with "features" of a Frederick the Great in him, "but who burnt away his splendid qualities as a mere temporary shine for the able editors, and never came to anything, full of fire, too much of it wildfire, not in the least like an Alcibiades except in the change of fortune he underwent" (1522-1557).

ALBERT, PRINCE, second son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819, an accomplished man with a handsome presence, who became the consort of Queen Victoria in 1840, and from his prudence and tact was held in the highest honour by the whole community, but died at Windsor of typhoid fever, Dec. 14, 1861, to the unspeakable sorrow of both Queen and country.

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ALBERT, ST., bishop of Liege, was assassinated by the emissaries of the Emperor Henry VI. in 1195. Festival, Nov. 21.


ALBERT I., emperor of Germany from 1298 to 1308, eldest son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, "a most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, tough, and unbeautiful man, whom his nephew at last had to assassinate, and did assassinate, as he crossed the river Reuss with him in a boat, May 1, 1308."

ALBERT II., a successor, "who got three crowns--Hungary, Bohemia, and the Imperial--in one year, and we hope a fourth," says the old historian, "which was a heavenly and eternal one," for he died the next year, 1439.

ALBERT III., elector of Brandenburg. See ACHILLES OF GERMANY.

ALBERT MEDAL, a medal of gold and of bronze, instituted in 1866, awarded to civilians for acts of heroism by sea or land.

ALBERT THE BEAR, markgrave of Brandenburg, called the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong hand, and could pick what way was straightest among crooked things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg for one there, a conspicuous country ever since," says Carlyle, "and which grows more so in our late times" (1100-1175).

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in the S. and by the Inquisition afterwards. ALBIGEN`SES. 22 m. to the Church. teacher of Thomas Aquinas. one of the greatest of the scholastic philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages. against which Pope Innocent III. odious. and 2500 feet above sea-level. and eyes too weak to bear full light. the south abounding in cattle ranches. a religious sect. ALBINUS. ALBER`TA (26). on the E. ALBI. supreme in knowledge of the arts and sciences of the time. which was carried on by Simon de Montfort in the 13th century. CTSTI. Chennai 6.com ALBERT NYAN`ZA. and regarded by his contemporaries in consequence as a sorcerer (1190-1280). to their utter annihilation.ramakalai@gmail. rivals of the Medicis and the Albrizzi. slope of the Rocky Mountains. NE. discovered by Sir Samuel Baker in 1864. in the Nile basin. proclaimed a crusade. of Toulouse. an illustrious Florentine family. persons or animals with preternaturally pale skin and fair hair. of France. 150 m. also with pupils of a red or pink colour. long by 40 broad. as heretical. in the 12th century. and the mountainous districts in minerals. which sprung up about Albi. Page 56 of 2772 . a town of some antiquity and note in S. of France. ALBERTI. a fertile region with large forests in British America. ALBER`TUS MAGNUS. a lake in Equatorial Africa. ALBINOS. an able professor of anatomy and therapeutics at Leyden Computer Lecturer.

from 561 to 573. high. AL`BULA. who had him assassinated for forcing her to drink wine out of the skull of her father. a lake on the coast of Spain. 7595 ft. the ancient name of Great Britain. king of the Lombards in the 6th century. ALBUFE`RA. ALBORAK. ALBOIN. 7 m. ALBRECHT. Computer Lecturer. of Badajoz. scene of a victory (May 16. an impersonation of the lightning as his steed. near which Marshal Suchet gained a victory over the English in 1811. archbishop of Toledo. a wonderful horse of Mahomet. a Spanish village 12 m. Chennai 6. See ALBERT.ramakalai@gmail. ALBRIZZI. a white cliff. of Valencia.com (1696-1770). rivals of the Medicis and the Alberti. ALBUE`RA. a Spanish statesman. a powerful Florentine family. and set up his capital in Pavia. S. SE. CTSTI. invaded Italy as far as the Tiber. a bold defender of the faith against the Moor and a plain-spoken man in the interest of Christianity (1310-1367). ALBION. ALBOR`NOZ. Swiss mountain pass in the canton of Grisons. Page 57 of 2772 . 1811) of General Beresford over Marshal Soult. incurred the resentment of his wife.

built in honour of Trajan in 104. a religious and military order. and found nearly pure in the white of an egg or in the serum of the blood. after securing a footing in India for Portugal that he sought for. who. and was suppressed in 1835. a town of Spain. with a bridge of six arches.C. and used to visit his tomb to pray him to deliver them from the oppression of his successors (1453-1513). ALCA`LA DE HENA`RES (14). the founder of the Portuguese power in India. was established in 1176 here. The Order of Alcantara. high. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. a celebrated Portuguese patriot and navigator.com ALBUMEN. ALCESTE. Chennai 6. ALFONSO D'. a town in Spain. ALCAN`TARA. a Greek lyric poet. ALBUQUERQUE`. where his recall at the instance of jealous rivals at home gave him such a shock that he died of a broken heart just as he was leaving. E. the chief character in Moliere's _Misanthrope_. 670 ft. ALBYN. of Madrid. near Portugal. a glairy substance a constituent of plants and animals.ramakalai@gmail. a contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho. long and 210 ft. ancient Celtic name of Scotland. ALCAE`US OF MITYLENE. settled in Goa. on the Tagus. for defence against the Moors. long the seat of a famous university founded by Cardinal Ximenes. flourished about 600 B. 21 m. and much admired by Horace. an aristocrat by birth. Page 58 of 2772 . The Indians long remembered his benign rule. the birthplace of Cervantes.

Computer Lecturer. a walled town in Spain. He involved his country in a rash expedition against Sicily. Page 59 of 2772 . of a universal solvent. ALCME`NE. CTSTI. possessed of a handsome person. and its end in poverty. the wife of Admetus. ALCHEMY. it has been defined to be "an art without art. but failed. of Valencia. and related to Pericles.C. the father of Nausicaa. on an island 22 m. its middle in toil. a patronymic of Hercules. born at Sardis. who figures in the Odyssey as the host of Ulysses. ALCI`RA (18). Chennai 6. an early Greek lyric poet. and great wealth. served and betrayed it by turns in the Peloponnesian war. brilliant abilities. and of the elixir of life." ALCIBI`ADES. who had been shipwrecked on his shore. and which aimed chiefly at the discovery of the philosopher's stone. the early analysis of substances which has in modern times developed into chemistry. ALCIN`OUS. She is the subject of one of the tragedies of Euripides. ALCI`DES. ALCMAN. Hercules descended to the lower world and brought her back.com ALCES`TIS. whom Socrates tried hard to win over to virtue. SW.ramakalai@gmail. the grandson of Alcaeus. an Athenian of high birth. the wife of Amphitryon and the mother of Hercules. a king of the Phaeacians. and died by assassination in exile (450-404 B. who gave herself up to death to save her husband. but was of a wayward temper and depraved.). which has its beginning in falsehood.

ALCOTT.com ALCMEONIDAE. paper. of Alicanti. Computer Lecturer. staple manufacture. Page 60 of 2772 . ALCOCK. JOHN. invited by Charlemagne to introduce scholarly culture into the empire and establish libraries and schools of learning. a popular American authoress. a learned Englishman. _d_. her works mostly addressed to the young (1832-1888). LOUISA MARY. the results. acute or chronic. See KORAN. and the intoxicating principle of all spirituous liquors.. of which Pericles and Alcibiades were members. ALCOHOL.ramakalai@gmail. who professed to be descended from Alcmaeon. ALCOY (30). N. was one of those men whose work lies more in what they influence others to do than in what they do themselves (735-804). the grandson of Nestor. ALCORAN`. an eminent ecclesiastic of the reign of Edward IV. a disciple of Bede. pure or highly rectified spirit obtained from fermented saccharine solutions by distillation. CTSTI. a town in Spain. a powerful Athenian family. who acted as a nurse to the wounded during the Civil War. Chennai 6. of the deleterious action of alcohol on the human system. AL`CUIN. distinguished for his love of learning and learned men. ALCOHOLISM. 1500.

a Florentine jurisconsult (1500-1558). ALDEHYDE. AL`DERSHOT. the steward of Eleanor. a limpid. AL`DERNEY (2). a permanent camp. ALDINGAR. and was changed into the kingfisher. when an angel in the form of a child appeared and certified her innocence.com ALCY`ONE. for instruction in military manoeuvres. ALDE`BARAN. issued from the press of Aldus Manutius in Venice in the 16th century. who had perished in shipwreck. bishop of Worcester in the reign of Edward the Confessor. of a suffocating odour. very volatile liquid. Chennai 6. SIR. CTSTI. separated from Cape de la Hogue by the dangerous Race of Alderney.ramakalai@gmail. daughter of AEolus. made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. of London. who accused her of infidelity. and offered to substantiate the charge by combat. the bull's-eye. obtained from the oxidation of alcohol. established in 1855. it is the sun in the Arabian mythology. chiefly of the classics. wife of Henry II. one of the Channel Islands. legendary character. who threw herself into the sea after her husband. ALDINE EDITIONS. on a moorland 35 m. ALDOBRANDINI. and remarkable for the correctness of the text and the beauty and clearness of the printing. became archbishop of York. long by 2 broad. SW. celebrated for its breed of cows. editions. and crowned Computer Lecturer. AL`DRED.. Page 61 of 2772 . 3 or 4 m. a star of the first magnitude in the eye of the constellation Taurus.

ALDROVAN`DI. issued the celebrated Aldine Editions of the classics. and invented the italic type. an Italian printer. soil fertile to Computer Lecturer. ALDUS MANUTIUS. wrote a system of logic. a famous Italian naturalist of Bologna. ULYSSES.com the last of the Saxon and the first of the Norman kings of England. who collected an immense body of interesting facts in natural history.. AL`DRICH. dean of Oxford. published partly in his lifetime and partly after his death (1522-1607). a southern province of Portugal. Page 62 of 2772 . for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent. ALEMTE`JO (369). 1063. an accomplished ecclesiastic. a confederacy of tribes which appeared on the banks of the Rhine in the 3rd cent. _d_. ALEMAN`. author of the celebrated romance _Guzman de Alfarache_. a Spanish novelist. but whose incursions were arrested. long in use in Oxford University (1647-1710). Chennai 6. was a skilful musician. ALEC`TO. first by Maximinus. Franciso de Bologna. hence the modern names in French for Germany and the Germans. who made them subject to the Franks. than to him (1447-1515). though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder. ALEMAN`NI. or ALDO MANUZIO. died in Mexico in 1610.ramakalai@gmail. and composed many services for the Church. and finally by Clovis in 496. CTSTI. born at Bassano. and for long gave no small trouble to Rome. which in 6 years ran through 26 editions. established a printing-office in Venice in 1488. was translated several times into French. one of the three Eumenides or Furies.

a strong place in the E.ramakalai@gmail. born in Edinburgh. CTSTI. Page 63 of 2772 . in Northern Italy.com the east. a title borne by several members of the house of Valois--e. the centre of 8 railways. as situated on a hill and garrisoned by 80. ALENCON (17). who fell at Agincourt (1415). 55 m. Computer Lecturer. once one of the greatest trading centres in the world. and took an active part in the Reformation there (1500-1563). of Orne. ALENCON. of Turin. q. which. ALESIUS. COUNTS AND DUKES OF. the largest of the glaciers of the Alps. THE. Chennai 6. ALETSCH GLACIER. (1500-1572). converted to Protestantism by Patrick Hamilton. 105 m. who fell at Crecy (1346). a town in the dep. of Gaul. ALESSI. a city in Northern Syria. ALEP`PO (130). which descends round the south of the Jungfrau into the valley of the Upper Rhone. ALESSANDRIA (78).. one of the finest in the East. JEAN IV. cost Caesar no small trouble to take. W. SE. born at Perugia. v. once famous for its lace. of Paris.000 Gauls. was driven first from Scotland and then from England. till he settled as a theological professor in Germany. architect. CHARLES OF VALOIS. a strongly fortified and stirring town on the Tenaro. g. ALE`SIA. a noted Reformer. or ALANE. architect of the monastery and church of the ESCURIAL.

pope. had himself proclaimed generalissimo of the Greeks against the Persians. Feb 26. ST. Chennai 6. stretching over the N. Page 64 of 2772 .. overran Egypt. ascended the throne on the death of his father. all unconsciously to himself belike. to Kamchatka. 150 in number. after subduing Greece. and being instructed by him in all kinds of serviceable knowledge. but finally assented to. routed the Persians at Arbela. SOLOMON. and in eleven days died at the early age of 32..ramakalai@gmail. patriarch of Alexandria from 311 to 326. king of Epirus.. festival. with these conquered the army of Darius the Persian at Granicus in 334 and at Issus in 333. ALEXANDER III. when he suddenly fell ill of fever. 356 B. ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Pacific from Alaska in N. ALEXANDER. first Protestant bishop of Jerusalem.com ALEU`TIAN ISLANDS (2) a chain of volcanic islands. successor to Adrian IV. he swept everything before him. took the Computer Lecturer. at the age of 20. an able man. cut off during a journey to Cairo (1799-1845). in Asia. whose election Barbarossa at first opposed.000 foot and 5000 horse. the king of Macedonia. hurrying on farther. CTSTI.C. son of Philip by Olympias. and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris.. He is said to have slept every night with his Homer and his sword under his pillow. contributed to bring about the condemnation of Arius at the Council of Nice. is defined to have been the right of Greek intelligence to override and rule the merely glittering barbarity of the East. subdued the principal cities of Syria. till the Macedonians refusing to advance. had the philosopher Aristotle for tutor. of Jewish birth. ALEXANDER. America. and in 2 years after his accession crossed the Hellespont. born at Pella. and the inspiring idea of his life. daughter of Neoptolemus. followed by 30. he returned to Babylon.

and VI.. and canonised him. Alexander V. six of the name were popes: Alexander I. and on the conclusion of peace gave his daughter in marriage to Haco's successor Eric. a Spaniard by birth.. took part in the European strife against the encroachments of Napoleon. ALEXANDER III. successor of William the Lion. after a career of crime. and married Joan...com part of Thomas a Becket against Henry II. aided the English barons against John. 1124. son and successor of Paul I. Alexander II. in 1503. and stood stoutly in defence of the independent rights of both Crown and Church against the claim of supremacy over both on the part of England. surnamed on that account _The Fierce_. pope from 1653 to 1667. emperor of Russia. pope from 1409 to 1410. successfully resisted the invasion of Haco. subdued a rising in the North. was present at the battle of Austerlitz.. pope from 108 to 117. fought the French at Pultusk and Computer Lecturer. Alexander VII. Bernard. 1249.. as also St. Alexander VIII... son of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret... among others the celebrated Lucretia and the infamous Caesar Borgia. Alexander IV... who was forced to kiss his hand to Louis XIV. Chennai 6. _d_. lived a licentious life and had several children. ALEXANDER II. pope from 1689 to 1691. _d_. CTSTI. pope from 1254 to 1261.. sister of Edgar Atheling. king of Scotland. of Scotland. In addition to Alexanders III. Page 65 of 2772 . his father. ALEXANDER I. not without suspicion of poison. a just and wise ruler. obtained the popehood by bribery in 1492 in succession to Innocent VIII. pope from 1061 to 1073. son of the preceding.. ALEXANDER VI..ramakalai@gmail. _d_. accidentally killed by falling over a cliff near Kinghorn when hunting in 1285. a vigorous prince... king of Norway. ALEXANDER I. called Borgia from his mother. married a daughter of Henry III. sided with him against the barons. the sister of Henry III. Pope from 1159 to 1181.

grand-duke of Russia... king of Servia. entered into a coalition with the other Powers against France. revised by the treaty of Berlin. and he was killed by a bomb thrown at him by a Nihilist (1818-1881). CTSTI. freed Russia from tribute to the Mongols. ALEXANDER OF HALES.ramakalai@gmail. ALEXANDER NEVSKY. Computer Lecturer. and the Teutonic Knights on the banks of the Neva. son of the preceding.. on the conclusion of a peace applied himself to reforms in the state and the consolidation and extension of the empire. conquered the Swedes. emperor of Russia. by severe rigour of Aristotelian logic. the _Doctor irrefragabilis_ of the Schools. His reign is distinguished by a ukase decreeing in 1861 the emancipation of the serfs numbering 23 millions. Chennai 6. was defeated at Friedland. His later years were clouded with great anxiety. 1876. Page 66 of 2772 . a member of the Franciscan order. an English ecclesiastic. which was ended by the peace of San Stephano. ALEXANDER II. son and successor of Nicholas I.com Eylau. had an interview with Napoleon at Tilsit in 1813. and showed a marked disposition to live on terms of peace with the other Powers. emperor of Russia. ALEXANDER III.. _b_. followed in the footsteps of his father. Under his reign Russia rose into political importance in Europe (1777-1825). by the extension of the empire in the Caucasus and Central Asia. fell heir to the throne while the siege of Sebastopol was going on. which ended in the capture of Paris and the abdication of Napoleon in 1814. the Danes. his reign not distinguished by any very remarkable event. who in his "Summa Universae Theologiae" formulated. and by the war with Turkey in the interest of the Slavs in 1877-78. is one of the saints of the Russian Church. owing to the spread of Nihilism. The present Czar is his son and successor (1845-1894). ALEXANDER I.

in an expedition against him. ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. also a thriving town (7) on the river Leven. which was at its height on the first encounter of these elements. from its intimate connection with both East and West. of Sweden. Charles XII. and in possession of the largest library of antique literature in the world. who were causing trouble on the frontiers of the empire. Alexandria. but that has very materially decayed since the opening of the Suez Canal.C. a Norman poet of the 16th century. _d_.. at one time a great centre of learning. ALEXANDER OF PARIS. along with his mother. accessible to vessels of the largest size. at one time a place of great commerce. conquered Artaxerxes. ALEXANDER SEVE`RUS. and pious prince. ALEXAN`DRIA (230). of Dumbarton. N. gave birth in early times to a speculative philosophy which drew its principles from eastern as well as western sources.com the theological principles and ecclesiastical rites of the Romish Church. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. ALEXANDRIA (14). an MS. to an insurrection among his troops not far from Mainz (205-235). called after him Alexandrines. 7 m. a Roman emperor. a wise. which belonged to the library of the Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. in 1222. which was burned by the Caliph Omar in 640. who wrote a poem on Alexander the Great in twelve-syllabled lines. ALEXANDER OF THE NORTH. a town on the Potomac. the chief port of Egypt. S. Page 67 of 2772 . on parchment of the Septuagint Scriptures in Greek in uncial letters. fell a victim. but setting out against the Germans. founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B. virtuous. king of Persia. a world-famous city. of Washington. 3 m.

a lake in Australia into which the river Murray flows. ALEXIS PETROVITCH. emperor of the East. ALEXANDRINES. czar of Russia. conspired against his father as he had broken the heart of his mother. with a letter in his hand. after his trial by secret judges he was found dead in prison (1695-1718). CTSTI. began life as a soldier. a Gnostic philosophy. ALEXAN`DROPOL (22). ST. the father of Peter the Great. ALEXIS. combining eastern with western forms of thought. ALEXIS MICHAELOVITCH. and a fortress of great strength. Chennai 6. the first czar who acted on the policy of cultivating friendly relations with other European states (1630-1677). Page 68 of 2772 .com patriarchs of Alexandra. sometimes lying on a mat. the largest town in the Erivan district of Russian Armenia. was Computer Lecturer. ALEXANDRINE PHILOSOPHY. ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY. ALEXANDRI`NA LAKE. was condemned to death. the library burned by the Caliph Omar in 642. dying.. See ALEXANDER OF PARIS. ALEXIUS COMNE`NUS.ramakalai@gmail. the patron saint of beggars and pilgrims. said to have contained 700. son of Peter the Great. represented in art with a staff and in a pilgrim's habit.000 volumes.

the All-Father or uncreated supreme in the Norse mythology. Page 69 of 2772 . ALFONSO I. an Italian dramatist. an esparto grass valuable for making paper." founder of the kingdom of Portugal. 49 minutes. in that capacity took up arms against the Moors. and returned to Florence. an Arabian philosopher of the 10th century. He managed to hold the empire together in spite of these troubles.. was the first king. wrote on various subjects. astronomical tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X. when the empire was infested by Turks on the one hand and Normans on the other. Chennai 6. originally only count. ALFARA`BI. in a period of anarchy. and to stave off the doom that impended all through his reign of thirty-seven years (1048-1118). in 1252 to correct the anomalies in the Ptolemaic tables. raised him to the throne at the period of the first crusade. ALFIE`RI. and defeating them had himself proclaimed king on the field of battle. a title confirmed to him by the Computer Lecturer. 16 seconds. where he died and was buried. while the crusaders who passed through his territory proved more troublesome than either. they divided the year into 365 days. on the success of his first drama "Cleopatra. Tragedy was his _forte_ as a dramatist (1749-1803). spent his youth in dissipation before he devoted himself to the dramatic art. 5 hours. the "Conqueror. AL`FADUR. CTSTI. ALFA.ramakalai@gmail. as his father before him.com a great favourite with the soldiers. ALFONSINE TABLES. the wife of Charles Edward Stuart. had Avicenna for a disciple. on whose death he married her." met at Florence with the Countess of Albany. who. was at Paris when the Revolution broke out. and was the first to attempt an encyclopedic work.

and included poems and hymns. DUKE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA. son of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. or the Astronomer. His fame connects itself with the preparation of the Alfonsine Tables. various readings. MICHAEL. first one son and then another rose against him and drove him from the throne. vicar of Wymeswold and afterwards Dean of Canterbury. fought against and gained numerous victories over the Moors. the members of his family rose against him and compelled him to abdicate. ALFORD.. a learned English Jesuit. HENRY.. king of the West Saxons. and the most celebrated Computer Lecturer. ALFORD.ramakalai@gmail. his works and writings were numerous. was an edition of the Greek New Testament. and old friends to converse with" (1226-1284). Page 70 of 2772 . surnamed the Great. ascended the throne in 866. _b_. died in Zamora. with notes. 1844. "old wood to burn. "Britannia Illustrata" and "Annales Ecclesiastici et Civiles Britannorum. Chennai 6. old wine to drink. His great work. left two great works. 910. ALFONSO X." ALFRED. CTSTI. and the remark that "the universe seemed a crank machine. king of Asturias. after various successes over the Moors. the Wise. and comments (1810-1871)." It was a saying of his. old books to read. ALFRED THE GREAT. and it was a pity the Creator had not taken advice.com Pope and made good by his practically subjecting all Portugal to his sway (1110-1185). died of chagrin at Seville two years later. king of Castile and Leon. but on a fresh incursion of the Moors he came forth from his retreat and triumphantly beat them back. celebrated as an astronomer and a philosopher. ALFONSO III. however.

ALGAR`VE (240). and it was he who in the creation of a fleet laid the first foundation of her greatness as monarch of the deep. FRANCESCO. England owes much to him both as a man and a ruler." according to Wilhelmina. His literary works were translations of the "General History" of Orosius. all executed for the edification of his subjects (849-901). they are flowerless. which he never showed any disposition to break. the largest existing. Page 71 of 2772 . Boethius's "Consolations of Philosophy. Except his wit. an Italian sculptor of note.com and greatest of all the Saxon kings. for the want of the due practical faculty. oranges. Frederick's sister. sea-weeds and plants of the same order under fresh water as well as salt. a clever Italian author. the southernmost province of Portugal. &c. and the encouragement of learning. in 878." and the "Cura Pastoralis" of Pope Gregory. CTSTI. stemless. and cellular throughout. After this Alfred devoted himself to legislation. hilly. the "Ecclesiastical History" of Bede. His troubles were with the Danes. Frederick the Great was attached to and patronised. all the faculty he had having evaporated in talk (1712-1764). which yield olives. ALGARO`TTI. Computer Lecturer. till after a lull of some years he was surprised by Gunthrum. being a man of letters himself. but traversed with rich valleys. vines. and driven to seek refuge on the island of Athelney. then king. born at Venice. "one of the first _beaux esprits_ of the age. the administration of government. born at Bologna. ALGAE. Not long after this he left his retreat and engaged Gunthrum at Edington. whom. Chennai 6. ALGAR`DI. for his wit. with these he fought nine battles with varied success. of Pope Leo restraining Attila from marching on Rome (1602-1654). and after defeating him formed a treaty with him. his greatest work is an alto-relievo. who at the time of his accession infested the whole country north of the Thames. it does not appear Frederick got much good out of him.ramakalai@gmail.

CTSTI. was for centuries under its Bey the head-quarters of piracy in the Mediterranean. The country is divided into Departments. called the "silver city. founded by the Arabs in 935. after a siege of twenty months. presenting a striking appearance. and letters to represent number and quantity. Since it fell into the hands of the French the city has been greatly improved. Chennai 6. its extent nearly equal in area to that of France. of which Algiers. against whom a succession of expeditions were sent from several countries of Europe. ALGE`RIA. the Atlas Highlands overlooking it on the S. across the bay. ALGESI`RAS (12).com ALGEBRA. the Byzantines." from the glistening white of its buildings as seen sloping up from the sea. in the N. belongs to France. but it was only with the conquest of it by the French in 1830 that this state of things was brought to an end.. of Africa. the capital of Algeria. and the Sahara beyond. for centuries a stronghold of the Moors. ALGIERS` (75). which is fertile. 5 m. and the Berbers.ramakalai@gmail. rendered habitable here and there by the creation of artesian wells.. the Romans. Oran. and the population numbers about four millions. of which only a quarter of a million is French. stretches between Morocco on the W. the country being divided into the Tell along the sea-coast. the Arabs. Page 72 of 2772 . At the end of this period it became a nest of pirates. and its neighbourhood has become a frequent resort of Computer Lecturer." on which alfa grows wild. in which symbols are employed to denote operations. and Constantine are the respective capitals. which last were in the 16th century supplanted by the Turks. the fortifications strengthened. but taken from them by Alfonso IX. and Tripoli and Tunis on the E. on the southern slopes of which are marshy lakes called "shotts. which only began to cease when Lord Exmouth bombarded the town and destroyed the fleet in the harbour. a universal arithmetic of Arabian origin or Arabian transmission. It has been successively under the sway of the Carthaginians. a town and port in Spain on the Bay of Gibraltar. the Vandals.

E.com English people in winter. of the Cape of Good Hope. decorated with gorgeous arabesques by Usuf I. CTSTI. has suffered from neglect. AL`GOL. Chennai 6. Carolina. one of the three aboriginal races of N. and one of his first followers at the age of sixteen. a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. ALGONQUINS. of the Rocky Mts. in 1213. (1345). A`LI. Something chivalrous in him. ALHAM`BRA (Red Castle). a double star in the constellation Perseus.ramakalai@gmail. the cousin of Mahomet. of Cape Colony. 20 m. 425 m. died by assassination in the Mosque at Bagdad. Page 73 of 2772 . "a noble-minded creature. the language they speak has been divided into five dialects. bad usage. yet with a grace. and for thickening soups and jellies. to Newfoundland." Became Caliph in 656. founded by Muhammed II. ALI. the Sheiks yearly commemorate his death. full of affection and fiery daring. American Indians. an inlet at the E. See BABA. on which Port Elizabeth stands. ALGO`A BAY. and from the E. an ancient palace and stronghold of the Moorish kings of Granada. originally occupying nearly the whole region from the Churchill and Hudson Bay southward to N. a viscous gum obtained from certain sea-weeds. used as size for textile fabrics. erected on the crest of a hill which overlooks Granada. of changing brightness. and earthquake. wide." ALI BABA. Computer Lecturer. See Carlyle's "Heroes. ALGINE. brave as a lion.

oesophagus. when his head was severed from his body and sent to Constantinople (1741-1822). able man. a passage 5 or 6 times the length of the body. and small and large intestines. the family name of Dante. and sent Hassan Pasha to demand his head. he offered violent resistance but being overpowered at length surrendered. alternately gained the favour of the Porte and lost it by the alliances he formed with hostile powers. Chennai 6. an affluent on the right bank of the Congo. ALIGHIE`RI. ARCHIBALD. the third seaport-town in Spain. an Episcopal clergyman in Edinburgh. a town with a fort between Agra and Delhi. extends from the mouth to the anus. ALIMENTARY CANAL. ALICAN`TE (40). and notorious for his cruelty as well as craft. in French territory.ramakalai@gmail. AL`IMA. pharynx. of which he was a native. pasha of Janina.com A`LI PASHA. a bold and crafty Albanian. stomach. Page 74 of 2772 . the garrison of which mutinied in 1857. and includes mouth. with a spacious harbour and strongly fortified. until the Sultan sentenced him to deposition. ALIGARH` (61). fauces. Computer Lecturer. best known for his "Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste" (1757-1839). CTSTI. lined throughout with mucous membrane. in a province of the same name on the Mediterranean. ALISON.

on the Sutlej.com ALISON. SIR ARCHIBALD. who were provided with forces in superior numbers. NW. combining with acids form salts. contain as a rule carbon. and a historian. oxygen. as well as toxicologically. 25 m. lime.ramakalai@gmail. and baryta. potash. the capital of N. CTSTI. and properly four in number. hydrogen. ALKMAAR` (14). magnesia. viz. son of the preceding. and cheese. strontia. ALKALINE EARTHS. W. ALKALOIDS. ALISON. lithia. similar in their properties.. earths not soluble in water. PULTENEY. and nitrogen. many of them are poisonous and invaluable in medicine. Computer Lecturer. the presumed universal solvent of the alchemists. viz. AL`KAHEST. where Sir Harry Smith gained a brilliant victory over the Sikhs. grain.. and a philanthropist (1790-1859). ALKALIES. Holland. in 1846. to alkalies. with a large trade in cattle. are soluble in water. of Amsterdam." afterwards extended to the "Accession of Louis Napoleon" (1792-1867). soda. a lawyer who held several prominent legal appointments. Page 75 of 2772 . professor of medicine in Edinburgh University. Chennai 6. bodies which. ALIWAL`. bodies of vegetable origin. brother of the preceding. his great work being a "Modern History of Europe from the French Revolution to the Fall of Napoleon. and ammonia. a village in the Punjab.

a ministry formed by Lord Grenville on the death of Pitt in 1806. a French general. he was a friend of Scott. entered the service of Runjeet Singh at Lahore. HENRIK VAN. birds. illustrated Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd". a central city of British India. ALLARD`. a Scottish portrait and historical painter. died at Peshawar (1785-1839). CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. adopted by the Mohammedans as the name of the one God. Page 76 of 2772 . ALLAN. his greatest work is the "Origin of Painting. ALLANTOIS. 550 m. and in succession to Wilkie. the reputed author of the first German version of "Reynard the Fox. born at Edinburgh. Chennai 6. a distinguished Scottish historical painter. ADMINISTRATION OF. and served him against the Afghans. the City of God." ALL THE TALENTS. from Calcutta. many of his paintings being on national subjects. the Arab name for God. born at Alloa. painted "Circassian Captives" and "Slave-Market at Constantinople" (1782-1850). AL`LAH. DAVID. trained his troops in European war tactics. who patronised his work. president of the Royal Scottish Academy." now in the National Gallery at Edinburgh (1744-1796). on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna. ALLAN. SIR WILLIAM. the Adorable. and reptiles. a membrane enveloping the foetus in mammals. and on the railway between that city and Bombay.com ALKMER. Computer Lecturer. ALLAHABAD` (175).

ramakalai@gmail. AL`LEINE. and Kildare.S. entitled "Alarm to the Unconverted" (1632-1674). in which a subject of a higher spiritual order is described in terms of that of a lower which resembles it in properties and circumstances. Computer Lecturer. Carolina. the author of a still celebrated _Miserere_ (1580-1652). of the Shannon. Chennai 6. a figurative mode of representation. run parallel with the Atlantic coast. born at Rome. assigning a higher than a literal interpretation to the Scripture record of things.com ALLEGHA`NY (105). CTSTI. JOSEPH. opposite Pittsburg. a dreary expanse of bogs of peat E. BOG OF. the name of an Italian composer. ALLEGORY. ALLEGHA`NY MOUNTAINS. a Puritan writer. ALLEN. and to some extent still. extending from Pennsylvania to N. ALLEGRI. ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION. a manufacturing city in Pennsylvania. in particular the Old Testament story. of which it is a kind of suburb. Page 77 of 2772 .. much in favour among religious people. LOUGH OF. on the Ohio. the family name of Correggio. Ireland. author of a book once. an expansion of the waters of the Shannon. the principal subject being so kept out of view that we are left to construe the drift of it from the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject. a range in the Appalachian system in U. in height. and form the watershed between the Atlantic rivers and the Mississippi. do not exceed 2400 ft. in King's Co.

THE TRIPLE. and Sweden Computer Lecturer. Holland. a stream flowing into the Tiber 11 m. 387 B. in heraldry. ETHAN. ALLE`RION.ramakalai@gmail.S. JOHN. ALLEN. NW. was a contemporary of Shakespeare (1566-1626). the founder of Dulwich College. CTSTI. between England. of Philadelphia. WM. from Rome. and a devoted promoter of its principles (1770-1843). GRANT. 1848. an M. in 1668. 50 m.. a celebrated actor in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. ALLENTOWN (34). a member of the Society of Friends. man of letters. ALLEN. ALLIANCE. Page 78 of 2772 . AL`LIA. an able upholder of the evolution doctrine and an expounder of Darwinism. of Scotch birth. ALLEN. and a prolific writer. and was voluntarily along with his wife one of its first beneficiaries and inmates. born in Kingston.. Chennai 6. the great centre of the iron trade in the U. one of the early champions of American independence. taken prisoner in a raid into Canada. a town on the Lehigh River. an eagle with expanded wings. a distinguished chemist and philanthropist. EDWARD.D. Canada. ALLEYN.com ALLEN. the points turned downwards. and without beak or feet. and a contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_ (1771-1843). where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus. wrote a defence of deism and rational belief (1738-1789). son of a Spitalfields weaver.C.

between Germany. ALLIER. an English clergyman who turned Roman Catholic.. however.ramakalai@gmail. a confluent of the river Loire. in France. the TRIPLE. M. also the department through which it flows. at the instigation of Bismarck. subsists on fish. CTSTI. GEORGE J. Holland. THOMAS WILLIAM. and its attacks can be easily evaded. ALLINGHAM. Emeritus Professor of Natural History in Edinburgh. American fresh-water crocodile. his most celebrated works are "Day and Night Songs" and "Lawerence Bloomfield in Ireland". Page 79 of 2772 . the HOLY. in 1815. numerous in the Mississippi and the lakes and rivers of Louisiana and Carolina. the name generally given to the confederate Powers who in 1814 and 1815 entered France and restored the Bourbons. is dangerous when attacked. Chennai 6. born in Ireland (1812-1898). Computer Lecturer. England. of English origin.D. the Rock of the Church. in defence of the step. an eminent naturalist.. among others. Austria. Austria. WILLIAM. in 1872. the "See of St. between Russia. Under it the signatories in 1887 guarantee the integrity of their respective territories. and Prussia against Liberal ideas. and though timid." ALLIGATOR. is slow in turning. born in Ireland. the QUADRUPLE. a poet and journalist. Peter. ALLIES. and wrote. ALLMAN. near Nevers. when Italy stepped into her place. and Russia. from which Russia withdrew in 1886. a N. between France. and the Empire to maintain the treaty of Utrecht. was for a time editor of _Fraser's Magazine_ (1824-1889).com against Louis XIV. in 1718.. ALLIES.

a Celtic race troublesome to the Romans. ALLOPATHY. below Stirling. Computer Lecturer. corresponding to Dauphine and Savoy. the berry of the pimento. 2 m.com ALLOA (12). or Jamaica pepper. ALLOB`ROGES. 6 m. although composed of identical elements. in Clackmannan. a thriving seaport on north bank of the Forth. the birthplace of Burns. ALLSPICE. ALLOWAY. Page 80 of 2772 . a festival on the 2nd November to pray for the souls of the faithful deceased. ALL-SOULS' DAY. on the Doon. the capability which certain compounds show of assuming different properties and qualities. celebrated as the scene of the witches' dance in "Tam o' Shanter. the treatment of disease by producing a condition of the system different from or opposite to the condition essential to the disease to be cured. a feast dedicated to all the Saints. Chennai 6. ALLOTROPY. a ruin S. of Ayr." ALL-SAINTS' DAY. the 1st of November. in opposition to homoeopathy. who occupied the country between the Rhone and the Lake of Geneva. such as may be presumed to be still suffering in Purgatory. ALLOWAY KIRK.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. the assumed scene of Tam o' Shanter's adventure. from Ayr. famous for its ale.

ALMA. afterwards known as Willis's Rooms. where select balls used to be given. as well as statistical information. 1854. and Turkish armies defeated the Russians under Prince Menschikoff. a confederate of Pizzaro in the conquest of Peru. the 2nd Abbaside caliph and the first of the caliphs to patronise learning. 20. Page 81 of 2772 .--DIEGO D'. WASHINGTON. a great promoter of science and learning. ALMANSUR. CTSTI. DIEGO D'. and made it the seat of Computer Lecturer. was himself put to death (1520-1542). an American painter and poet. 833. where the allied English. published annually by Perthes at Gotha. with rich mines of quicksilver. a kind of European peerage. Sept. a river in the Crimea. ALMADEN (9). but a quarrel with the brothers of Pizzaro about the division of the spoil on the capture of Cuzco. founded Bagdad. _b_. whose genius was much admired by Coleridge (1779-1843). who avenged his death by killing Pizzaro. ALMACK'S. his son. admission to which was a certificate of high social standing. half-way between Eupatoria and Sebastopol. ALMANACH DE GOTHA. ABU GIAFAR. French. Chennai 6. a suite of assembly rooms. of late years extended so as to include statesmen and military people.com ALLSTON. led to his imprisonment and death (1475-1538). in Spain. the 7th Abbaside caliph. a town on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena. the son of HAROUN-EL-RASCHID. the capital of Chile. but being conquered by Vaca de Castro.ramakalai@gmail. AL-MAMOUN. ALMA`GRO.

ALMANSUR. a character in Beaumarchais' _Marriage de Figaro_. and intrigue. ALMEIDA. the first Portuguese viceroy of India. by Washington Irving. settled in London.ramakalai@gmail. representative of one of the old noblesse of France. acting under him. Page 82 of 2772 . superseded by Albuquerque. a strong fortress in the province of Beira. _b_. ALMIGHTY DOLLAR. ALMERIA (37). under the Moors. and killed on his way home by the Kaffirs at the Cape in 1510. and made Ceylon tributary to Portugal. an important and flourishing place. ALMAVIVA. a chief town and seaport in the S. 1836. of Spain. distinguished himself in the Indian seas. Computer Lecturer. who is duped by his valet Figaro. a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century.com the caliphate. it would seem. a distinguished artist of Dutch descent. AL`MA-TAD`EMA. famous for his highly-finished treatment of classic subjects. _d_. LAURENCE. next to Granada. CTSTI. a firm and wise governor. ALMEIDA. ABU MOHAMMED.--LORENZO. when he was repulsed and totally defeated by the kings of Leon and Navarre in 948. first applied to them. a personification of wit. on the Spanish frontier of Portugal. Chennai 6. had overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain. FRANCESCO. the Almighty whom the Americans are charged with worshipping. recalling all their manners and vices. and at one time a nest of pirates more formidable than those of Algiers. talent. 775. his son.

one of the grandest in Belgium. with a cathedral. Roche beseeching Christ to arrest the Plague at Alost. in particular a purgative from the juice of the leaves of several species. ALMO`RA. ALOE. 19 m. of Bareilly. a Moslem dynasty which ruled in N. one of the most magnificent structures of the kind in England. and during the Border wars a place of great strength. ALMORAVIDES. CTSTI. the seat of the Duke of Northumberland. from 1055 to 1147.com ALMOHADES. ALOES WOOD." ALOYSIUS. Africa. Computer Lecturer. which yields a fragrant resinous substance and admits of high polish. a genus of succulent plants embracing 200 species. See GONZAGA. and then S. a Moslem dynasty which subdued first Fez and Morocco. the county town of Northumberland. ST. ALOST (25). valuable in medicine. NW. a high-lying town at the foot of the Himalayas. at the north entrance is Alnwick Castle.ramakalai@gmail. the heart of certain tropical trees. which contains a famous painting by Rubens. a Belgian town on the Dender. ALNWICK. from Brussels. N. Page 83 of 2772 . the majority natives of S. 85 m. Chennai 6. on the Aln. "St.. Africa and Spain from 1129 to 1273. Spain.

a club of English gentlemen devoted to mountaineering.. ALPINE PLANTS. and has a long erect neck with a handsome head. members of which have successfully addressed themselves to attempts of the kind on loftier mountains.. ST. cap. first of all in the Alps. Chennai 6. climate severe. Digne. forming part of Dauphine. ALP-ARSLAN (Brave Lion). and of Monaco and Var. France: the BASSES-A. made up of the territory of Nice. bounded by Hautes-Alpes on the N. ALPINE CLUB. to which he himself fell a victim. ALPACA. cap. CTSTI. A. part of Provence. ceded by Italy. in appearance resembles a sheep. June 21. a river in the Peloponnesus. but is larger in size. Nice. in NE. HAUTES-A. who joined the Society of Jesus. traversed by the Cottian Alps. and particularly the tablelands of Chile and Peru. an Italian nobleman. a sultan of the Seljuk dynasty in Persia.com ALOYSIUS. bordering on Italy and the Mediterranean.. a native of the Andes. MARITIMES. canonised for his devotion to the sick during the plague in Rome. is covered with a long soft silky wool. of which textile fabrics are woven. cap. and who pursued her under the sea as far as Sicily. sterile in the N. added Armenia and Georgia to his dominions (1030-1072). Computer Lecturer. ALPES. of the Basses-A. flowing west.. 1591.. ALPHE`US. with its source in Arcadia. Page 84 of 2772 .. E. Gap. three departments in SE. where he overtook her and was wedded to her. a gregarious ruminant of the camel family.ramakalai@gmail. and Var on the S. fertile in the S. also the name of the river-god enamoured of the nymph Arethusa. plants whose natural habitat approaches the line of perpetual snow.

their peaks mostly covered with perpetual snow. extend from Mont Blanc to the Brenner Pass.000 sq. which at one time enjoyed the privilege of a debtors' sanctuary. the Middle. Page 85 of 2772 . till abolished in 1697. the household goddess of a German family. and had. by the peace of Westphalia in 1648. become a haunt of all kinds of nefarious characters. and extend from the 44th to the 48th parallel of latitude.. and _Eastern:_ the Western. In respect of range or extent. the Dauphine. ALPUJAR`RAS. Chennai 6. but restored to Germany after the Franco-German war in 1870-71. and W. Middle_. ALSACE-LORRAINE` (1. within the frontiers of France.com ALPS. by the peace of Frankfort. the Middle. These giant masses occupy an area of 90. and the Dinaric. Middle_. and the Graian. the Julian. a rich and lovely valley which stretches S. including the Pennine and Bernese. ALSA`TIA. the highest being Mont Blanc. ceded to Louis XIV. including the Dolomite. and _High:_ the Fore rising to the limit of trees. a territory originally of the German empire. Whitefriars. is a great wine-producing country. According to height.640). and the High. THE. is under a governor general bearing the title of "Statthalter". CTSTI. to the line of perpetual snow. extend from the Mediterranean to Mont Blanc. Germany. form the boundary between France. the Cottian.ramakalai@gmail. extend from the Brenner and Hungarian plain to the Danube. and the Eastern. and Italy on the S. above the snow-line. its cotton manufacture the most important in Germany. Computer Lecturer... the vastest mountain system in Europe. they have been distributed into _Western. and Switzerland on the N. London. they have been distributed into _Fore. yields cereals and tobacco. m. from the Sierra Nevada in Spain. including the Maritime. ALRUNA-WIFE.

a German painter and engraver. AL`TEN. KARL AUGUST. abounding. of France. S.ramakalai@gmail. as well as other metals. boundary of Asiatic Russia. a Danish island adjacent to Sleswig. to the profit of Russia. related by Carlyle in his "Miscellanies. under Wellington. now ceded to Germany. Norway. Computer Lecturer." ALTHEN. in silver and copper. and 4 m. and as a painter. one of the finest in the Baltic. CTSTI. AL-SIRAT. ALBRECHT. bore arms under Sir John Moore. a Persian refugee. which every Mohammedan must pass to enter Paradise. Chennai 6. in the Peninsular war. Page 86 of 2772 . capital of Saxe-Altenburg. a distinguished pupil of Albert Duerer. in Central Asia. ALSTEN. its castle is the scene of the famous "PRINZENRAUB" (q.). and closed his military career at the battle of Waterloo (1763-1840). called the Seven Sisters. ALTAI` MOUNTAINS. who introduced into France the cultivation of madder. stretching W. v. the hair-narrow hell-bridge of the Moslem. a distinguished officer. with seven snow-capped hills. from the Desert of Gobi. of Leipsic.com ALSEN (25). who entered the British service. which became one of the most important products of the S. inspired with his spirit. ALTDOR`FER. his "Battle of Arbela" adorns the Muenich Picture Gallery (1488-1538). AL`TENBURG (33). was chief of a division. an island off the coast of Northland. and forming the S. native of Hanover.

CTSTI. end of the Lake of Lucerne. ALURED OF BEVERLEY. and stirring up the Dutch to such fury as was needful for exploding Spain and Computer Lecturer. a Comtist doctrine which inculcates sacrifice of self for the good of others as the rule of human action. ALTO-RELIEVO.com ALTON LOCKE. ALTO`NA (148). figures carved out of a tablet so as to project at least one half from its surface. and Normans up to his own time. and as good as forming one city with it. Chennai 6. written in sympathy with the Chartist movement. a town and seaport of Sleswig-Holstein. a member of a Spanish sect that laid claim to perfect enlightenment. in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages. "very busy cutting off high heads in Brabant. now belonging to Germany. a general of the armies of Charles V. and healthier. his annals comprise the history of the Britons. an English chronicler of the 12th century. close to Hamburg. at the S. but as a governor his cruelty was merciless. ALTRUISM.ramakalai@gmail. AL`TORF. especially as the viceroy of Philip in the Low Countries. _d_. an old town in the canton Uri. DUKE OF. on the right bank of the Elbe. his career as a general was uniformly successful. a place of transit trade. ALUMBRA`DO. Page 87 of 2772 . Saxons. ALVA. 1129. associated with the story of William Tell. a novel. by Charles Kingsley. and Philip of Spain.

and comrade of Cortez. he conceived so great an aversion. for his treatment of his country. born near Cordova. and patronised by Napoleon.com him" (1508-1582). ALVAREZ. AMADEUS VIII. but abdicated in 1873 (1845-1890). 2nd son of Victor Emmanuel of Italy. AMADEUS. a lake in the centre of Australia. of Spain.. AMADE`US V. Computer Lecturer. increased his dominions. CTSTI.. 1st duke of Savoy. as a reward for his valiant services in the interest of Spain. an eminent Venetian general. but was not acknowledged by the Church (1383-1451). surnamed the Great from his wisdom and success as a ruler (1249-1323). and retired into a monastery on the death of his wife. the most distinguished of Spanish sculptors. ALVARA`DO. subject to an almost total drying-up at times. Chennai 6. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico. was a generous man as well as a brave. distinguished himself in the defence of the republic against the Emperor Maximilian (1455-1515). PEDRO DE.ramakalai@gmail. elected king of Spain in 1870. count of Savoy. who presented him with a gold medal. Page 88 of 2772 . DON JOSE.. a Portuguese who. visited Abyssinia and wrote an account of it. was appointed Governor of Guatemala by Charles V. that he would never model a bust of him (1768-1827). ALVAREZ. ALVIANO. in the 15th century. LAKE.. FRANCESCO. he was elected Pope as Felix V. AMADEUS I. but to whom.

24 m. ANNA. of whom Don Quixote is the caricature. AMALFIAN LAWS. of the Gulf of Salerno. Amadis. Computer Lecturer. of Naples. used as a styptic. AMAL`FI. consisting of slices of certain fungi beaten together. AMA`LIA. a celebrated romance in prose.ramakalai@gmail. surnamed the Knight of the Lion. CTSTI. as well as a model knight-errant.com AM`ADIS DE GAUL. The hero of the book. SE. used as tinder. _d_. married a daughter of Clovis. AMADOU. the first four books were regarded by Cervantes as a masterpiece. a code of maritime law compiled at Amalfi. 581. of great importance in the Middle Ages. collected about her court the most illustrious literary men of the time. Chennai 6. which gave much trouble to the Israelites in the wilderness. AMALEKITES. stands for a type of a constant and deferential lover. AMAIMON. AMALARIC. the Duchess of Weimar. a devil who could he restrained from working evil from the third hour till noon and from the ninth till evening. Page 89 of 2772 . a spongy substance. after being steeped in saltpetre. a port on the N. king of the Visigoths. the mother of the grand-duke. were as good as annihilated by King David. a warlike race of the Sinaitic peninsula. and. and governed by Doges of its own. written partly in Spanish and partly in French by different romancers of the 15th century.

and took part in its emancipation. devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily. Andrea and Niccolo. AMALRIC. left a valuable thesaurus of Sanskrit words. one of whose horns became the cornucopia--horn of plenty. the goat that suckled Zeus. MICHELE. dethroned the reigning monarch and assumed the crown. he is famous for throwing light on the true character of the Sicilian Vespers (1806-1889). 1225. a Hindu Buddhist. was an Orientalist as well. who. an Italian patriot. AMALTHE`A. one of the leaders in the crusade against the Albigenses. and cultivated alliances with Greece. God will know His own. "Kill them all. took part in an insurrection.C. a shepherdess in one of Virgil's pastorals. AMARYL`LIS. AMA`RA SINHA. any young rustic maiden. Chennai 6. when his followers asked him how they were to distinguish heretics from Catholics.ramakalai@gmail. originally a simple soldier." _d_. Page 90 of 2772 . reigned from 570 to 546 B. proved an able ruler. CTSTI. king of Egypt. once the capital of the kings of Pontus. a celebrated family of violin-makers. AMA`TI. who was much attached to her (1739-1807).com headed by Goethe. AMA`SIS. a town in Asia Minor. AMA`RI. Computer Lecturer. answered. born at Palermo. AMA`SIA (25).

out. at Cremona. a town in Guatemala. burnt off the right breasts of the females. up. a river in S. America and the largest on the globe. its waters increased by an immense number of tributaries.. its mouth 200 m. a fabulous race of female warriors. one 2000 m. falls by a delta into the Atlantic. Page 91 of 2772 . the cause of which was at one time unknown. its basin nearly equal in extent to the whole of Europe. AMAZON. that they might be able to wield the bow in war. becomes electric by friction. from the Pacific. a weakness or loss of vision. AMBER. and by steamers as far as the foot of the Andes. CTSTI. and after a course of 4000 m. is navigable 3000 m. the Greek word for it being _electron_. its current affects the ocean 150 m. to perpetuate the race.com brothers. wide. in length. "an honest man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth" (_Wotton_). a fossil resin. derived. generally yellow and semi-transparent. and gives name to electricity. traverses the continent at its greatest breadth. and excluded all men from their community. and is now used in varnishes and for tobacco pipes. AMATITLAN (10). it is presumed. or sent them to their fathers. Chennai 6. in the 16th and 17th centuries. Computer Lecturer. AMBASSADOR. AMAZONS. slew all the male children they gave birth to. from certain extinct coniferous trees.ramakalai@gmail. has been fished up for centuries in the Baltic. who had a queen of their own. AMAUROSIS. rises in the Andes about 50 m. the inhabitants of which are mainly engaged in the preparation of cochineal. they cohabited with men of the neighbouring nations. 20 of which are above 1000 m.

(1563) conceded the free exercise of their worship to the Protestants. a town on the Loire. as merely sceptical.ramakalai@gmail. a small fish without eyes. of Tours. AMBLESIDE. AMBOISE. being often found floating on the ocean which it frequents. without success. his father took steps to secure the suppression of. and as the Pope's legate in France effected a great reform among the religious orders. CTSTI. with a castle. son of Lord John Russell. the conspiracy of Conde and the Huguenots in 1560 against Francis II. a small market-town near the head of Lake Windermere. once the residence of the French kings. Catharine de Medici. AMBERGRIS. a disciple of Holbein. E. AMBLYOPSIS. The Edict of A. GEORGE DE. Chennai 6. wrote an "Analysis of Religious Belief. as such.com AMBERGER. reduced the Public burdens.. Computer Lecturer. presumed to be a morbid fragment of the intestines of the spermaceti whale.. who.. Page 92 of 2772 . in the Wordsworth or so-called Lake District. LORD. an ashy-coloured odorous substance used in perfumery. The Conspiracy of A. AMBOISE (5). AMBERLEY. is said to have died immensely rich (1460-1510). found in the Mammoth Cave. the popular Prime Minister of Louis XII. CARDINAL. and the Guises. 14 m. a painter of Nuernberg in the 16th century. his principal work being the history of Joseph in twelve pictures.S. U." which.

Festival. and a _beehive_. one of the Fathers of the Latin Church. AM`BROSE. born at Treves. JOHANN. spared no expense in his art. he improved the Church service. as a stern puritan refused to allow Theodosius to enter his church. the fragrant food of the gods of Olympus. bishop of Milan. Page 93 of 2772 . and a zealous opponent of the Arian heresy. in the Malay Archipelago. He is the Patron saint of Milan. AMBRO`SIA. Chennai 6. his attributes are a _scourge_. 1515. AMELIA. to beg pardon on his knees of his God. Computer Lecturer. from his severity.com AMBOYNA (238). his writings fill two vols. and led into court with a rope round his neck held by the public executioner. CTSTI. and rich before all in spices. a character in one of Fielding's novels. distinguished for her conjugal affection. ST. now used to denote a satisfactory apology or reparation. Dec. folio. and his country. like a true workman. a celebrated printer in Basel in the 15th century.ramakalai@gmail. wrote several hymns. a pride in it. who have diligently fostered its capabilities. _d_. originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender. his king. the first who used the Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian. AMERBACH. AMENDE HONORABLE. 7. from the tradition that a swarm of bees settled on his mouth when an Infant without hurting him (340-397). fabled to preserve in them and confer on others immortal youth and beauty. with a chief city of the name. stripped to his shirt. it belongs to the Dutch. taking.. the most important of the Moluccas. covered as his hands were with the blood of an infamous massacre. which are reckoned his most valuable legacy to the Church. and only admitted him to Church privilege after a severe penance of eight months.

in breadth. on the W. 9000 m. consists of seven political divisions: Guatemala. including both North and South.ramakalai@gmail. the largest in the world. and has now a population of 80 millions. RUSSIAN. belongs by purchase to the United States. and a lower range. AMERICA. British Honduras. and seas. by the Arctic Ocean. m. on the S. to 28 m. Mexico. is a plateau with terraces descending to the sea on each side. is bounded on the N. AMERICA. a high range of mountains. bays. CTSTI. BRITISH N. and rich in all kinds of tropical vegetation. a rich fauna and flora. varies from 3400 m. extends from Mexico on the north to Panama on the south. French. m. AMERICA. the West Indian Republics. was discovered by Columbus in 1492.. and on the W. CENTRAL. British Honduras. is 4560 m. and Dutch West Indies. Chennai 6. the divisions are British North America.. and the Spanish. and Costa Rica. aborigines. by the Pacific. Mosquitia. and the Pacific on the W. is larger than Europe and Africa together. Honduras.. San Salvador. in length. Computer Lecturer. of which a fourth are negroes. United States. and half-caste. is less than half the size of Asia.. parallel with the coast. which is largely indented with gulfs. has a magnificent system of rivers. in length. Page 94 of 2772 . now called Alaska. contains 161/2 millions of sq. by the Atlantic. bounded throughout by the Atlantic on the E. the Appalachian.com AMERICA. NORTH. Nicaragua. contains over 81/2 millions sq. Central American Republics. and an exhaustless wealth of minerals. occupies one-third of the continent. British. by the United States. large lakes.. on the E. AMERICA. on the E. but is a good deal smaller than Asia. and comprises the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. consists of a plain in the centre throughout its length. the Rocky. and is about six times as large as Ireland.

as is known.com AMERICA. and a long plain with minor ranges extending therefrom eastward. the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. while Columbus's discovery. the vegetable and mineral wealth of the continent is great. George Washington. these visits were made between 1499 and 1505. limited to America. who. which the first cartographers called America. Selvas. AMERICAN INDIANS.ramakalai@gmail. under the auspices first of Spain. which go under the names of Llanos. while the river system is the vastest and most serviceable in the globe. coarse black straight hair. was in 1492 (1451-1512). the coast is but little indented. and tall erect figure. CTSTI. a race with a red or copper-coloured skin. to be found still as far south as Patagonia. AMERICAN FABIUS. till lately belonging to Spain. after his name. AMES. a Florentine navigator. AMERI`GO-VESPUC`CI. abounds in extensive plains. though the designation is often applied to all the countries in N. and afterwards of Portugal. America where Spanish is the spoken language. SPANISH. but the Amazon and the Plate Rivers make up for the defect of seaboard. and Pampas. just discovered by Columbus. the Patagonians being of the race. Chennai 6. black deep-set eyes. JOSEPH. AMERICA. Page 95 of 2772 . and consists of a high mountain range on the west. high cheek-bones. and seems for most part fast dying out. in a work which must have involved him in much labour (1689-1759). SOUTH. historian of early British typography. and it can match the world for the rich plumage of its birds and the number and splendour of its insect tribes. lies in great part within the Tropics. Computer Lecturer. four times visited the New World.

are wooded. and Padua (1511-1592). a flowing cloak formerly worn by pilgrims. BARTOLOMEO. are 11 in number. was the birthplace of Peter the Hermit. and executed several works in Rome. CTSTI. the central and largest division of Abyssinia. a professor of aesthetics. a British officer who distinguished himself both on the Continent and America. authoritative. Page 96 of 2772 . AMHERST. and is celebrated for a treaty of peace between France and England concluded in 1802. AM`IEL. possesses other buildings of interest. and which has been translated into English by Mrs. AMMANA`TI. AMIENS` (88). a group of small coral islands NE. described as the "Parthenon of Gothic architecture.com AMHA`RA. LORD. clear of Roman tradition and of Arabian taint. unsurpassable. on the Somme. and particularly along with General Wolfe in securing for England the superiority in Canada (1717-1797). which teems with suggestive thoughts bearing on the great vital issues of the day. and afterwards of ethics at Geneva. belonging to Britain. AMICE." and by Ruskin as "Gothic. and unaccusable". with a cathedral begun in 1220. of Madagascar. the old capital of Picardy. and only a few feet above the sea-level. Venice. who is known to the outside world solely by the publication of selections from his Journal in 1882-84. a Florentine architect and sculptor of note. AMIRAN`TES. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. Humphrey Ward. also a strip of linen cloth worn over the shoulder of a priest when officiating at mass. Computer Lecturer. Gothic pure. was an admirer of Michael Angelo.

AMMONIO. ANDREA. a genus of fossil shells curved into a spiral form like the ram-horn on the head of the image of Ammon. Page 97 of 2772 . and Plotinus were among his pupils. an Italian historian. and in Rome with Jupiter. represented with the head of a ram. obtained from sal-ammonia. _d_. Longinus. AMMONITES. a philosopher of Alexandria. was much resorted to as an oracle of fate. identified in Greece with Zeus. _d_. a Greek who served as a soldier in the Roman army. at a great age. till subdued by Judas Maccabaeus. who had a temple at Thebes and in the Lybian Desert. AMMO`NIUS SACCAS. of nitrogen and hydrogen. Chennai 6. CTSTI. he became Latin secretary to Henry and a prebendary of Salisbury. author of a history of Florence (1531-1601). of the Jordan.com AMMIA`NUS MARCELLI`NUS. 1517. and a continual trouble to them. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. specially valuable as a record of contemporary events. 390. sent to England by the Pope. and wrote a history of the Roman Empire. AMMONIA. AM`MON. Origen. and founder of Neo-Platonism. a Latin poet born in Lucca. a pungent volatile gas. 243. an Egyptian deity. AMMIRATO. a Semitic race living E. at continual feud with the Jews. Computer Lecturer. held in high esteem by Erasmus. AMMONITES.

AMOMUM. paper. an eccentric writer of Irish descent. subdued by Joshua at Gibeon. NE. name given to the innermost membrane investing the foetus in the womb. in Judah. AMOS. Chennai 6. gold-leaf. which nothing could avert.. who in the 8th century B. and denounced the judgment of God as Lord of Hosts upon one and all for their idolatry. author of the "Life of John Buncle. a poor shepherd of Tekoa." and other semi-insane productions. born at Computer Lecturer. being a mere mass of protoplasm. such as the cardamom and grains of paradise. on a small island in the Strait of Fukien. AMORITES. absorbs its food at every point all over its body by means of processes protruded therefrom at will.C. AMOEBA. a minute animalcule of the simplest structure. Page 98 of 2772 . with the effect that it is constantly changing its shape. and a large export and import trade. a powerful Canaanitish tribe. raised his voice in solitary protest against the iniquity of the northern kingdom of Israel. a genus of plants. of the Jordan. one of the open ports of China.com AMNION. near Bethlehem. ANDRE MARIE. CTSTI. has one of the finest harbours in the world. Esq. &c. seemingly of tall stature. he was a fanatical Unitarian (1691-1789). AMOY` (96). AMPERE`. remarkable for their pungency and aromatic properties. THOMAS.ramakalai@gmail. AMORY. sugar. the chief exports are tea. a French mathematician and physicist.

as Zeus proved himself to the household to be when he visited Alcmene. AM`PHITRITE. son of the preceding. sitting alternately at Thermopylae and Delphi.ramakalai@gmail. the decisions of which were several times enforced by arms. two from each. who is said to have invented the lyre. and by Zeus the mother of Hercules. JEAN JACQUES. a son of Zeus and Antiope. AMPHITRYON THE TRUE. eminent as a litterateur. Chennai 6. AMPHI`ON. Page 99 of 2772 . mother of Triton. a daughter of Oceanus or Nereus. Computer Lecturer. a feat often alluded to as an instance of the miraculous power of music. who became by him the mother of Iphicles. a genus of limbless lizards. a council consisting of representatives from several confederate States of ancient Greece. attained to the rank of a member of the French Academy (1800-1864). and husband of Alcmene. CTSTI. AMPHIT`RYON. AMPHISBAENA. and gave rise to what were called _sacred wars_. and a historian and critic of literature.com Lyons. distinguished for his discoveries in electro-dynamics and magnetism. AMPHIC`TYONIC COUNCIL. the man who provides the feast. it was originally instituted for the conservation of religious interests. and goddess of the sea. AMPERE. the king of Tiryns. twelve in number at length. the real host. a serpent fabled to have two heads and to be able to move backward or forward. that met twice a year. to settle any differences that might arise between them. and the influence of these on electro-telegraphy and the general extension of science (1775-1836). the wife of Neptune. of which there were three. and built the walls of Thebes by the sound of it.

ramakalai@gmail. a large eastward-flowing river. AMYOT. CTSTI. who appointed him grand-almoner. as well as an emporium of trade. birthplace of Spinoza. is second to Delhi in Northern India. a sacred city of the Sikhs in the Punjab. _d_.com AM`RAN RANGE. and a great centre of trade. E. resting on 90 islands connected by 300 bridges. the houses built on piles of wood driven into the marshy ground. on the Zuyder Zee. AM`RU. manufactures cashmere shawls. of Lahore. among other works. it was much esteemed by Montaigne (1513-1593). pronounced the "scientific frontier" of India towards Afghanistan. is a largely manufacturing place. after a course of 3060 m. falls into the Sea of Okhotsk. partly in Siberia and partly in China. was tutor of Charles. Page 100 of 2772 . he is said to have executed the order of the Caliph Omar for burning the library of Alexandria. which. which remains to-day one of the finest monuments of the old literature of France. was of humble birth. on account of a cave believed to be the dwelling-place of Siva. the capital of Holland. a great trading city and port at the mouth of the Amsel. JACQUES. AMRIT`SAR (136). AMURNATH. one special industry being the cutting of diamonds and jewels. he was the translator. a place of pilgrimage in Cashmere.. 663. Computer Lecturer. AMSTERDAM (456). AMUR`. Chennai 6. conquered Egypt among other military achievements. 32 m. a Mohammedan general under the Caliph Omar. grand-almoner of France and bishop of Auxerre. of Plutarch into French.

Barere. A. he stands for a Scythian savant living among a civilised people. Computer Lecturer. OF THE GUILLOTINE. ANACHARSIS CLOOTZ. ANAC`REON. ANAB`ASIS. as well as for a wise man living among fools. a French Jesuit missionary to China. ANACHARSIS.C. ANACREON OF PAINTERS. A. an account by Xenophon of the ill-fated expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes. OF PERSIA. JOSEPH.. ANACON`DA.000 Greeks under Xenophon who accompanied him. and of the retreat of the 10. CTSTI. ANABAPTISTS. a celebrated Greek lyric poet. not many fragments of them are preserved (560-418 B. but was put to death on his return home by his brother. in his roamings in quest of wisdom. Chennai 6. See CLOOTZ. a fanatical sect which arose in Saxony at the time of the Reformation. and became the friend and disciple of Solon. arrived at Athens.C. Haefiz. lived chiefly at Samos and Athens.C. came at length to grief by the excesses of its adherents in Muenster. See BAPTISTS. a gigantic serpent of tropical America.com AMYOT. and a learned Orientalist (1713-1794).). a native of Teos. who. his songs are in praise of love and wine. Page 101 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. Francesco Albani. and though it spread in various parts of Germany. in Asia Minor. a Scythian philosopher of the 6th century B. after the battle of Cunaxa in 401 B.

a plateau in Central Mexico. a race of giants that lived in the S. a projected social revolution. the most eminent. 7580 ft. the professed aim of which is that of the emancipation of the individual from the present system of government which makes him the slave of others. a range of the W. ANARCHISM. the birthplace of several Popes. of Rome. the name of four popes: A. and of the training of the individual so as to become a law to himself. of the right to the control of all his vital interests.. the highest point in the Anamalah Mts. a small town 40 m. ANAMU`DI. ANADYR. of mean elevation. a river in Siberia. ANAG`NI. Ghats in Travancore. Chennai 6. Page 102 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. AN`AKIM. ANAM`ALAH MOUNTAINS. Aphrodite.com ANADYOM`ENE. and in possession. of Palestine. therefore. CTSTI. called also sons of Anak." given to her in allusion to her arising out of the sea. I. a name meaning "emerging. which flows into Behring Sea. 7000 ft. one of the names of Mexico prior to the conquest of it by the Spaniards. Computer Lecturer. the project definable as an insane attempt to realise a social system on the basis of absolute individual freedom. ANAHUAC`. ANASTA`SIUS. SE. the name of a famous painting of Apelles so representing her..

was the first to assign to the _nous_. a formative power in the origin and organisation of things". settled in Lampsacus..ramakalai@gmail. April 15. a Greek philosopher of Miletus. pope from 1153 to 1154. ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY.C. ANASTASIUS I. also of Miletus.C. e. ANAXAR`CHUS. III.). a "mosaic" work by Burton. made air the first principle of Computer Lecturer. II. A. a martyr under Nero.. indeterminate and eternal (611-547 B. derived the universe from a material basis. of which in turn the _taedium_ is not obscurely hinted. A.com pope from 398 to 401. through all employments. ANATO`LIA.. Page 103 of 2772 . desires. described by Professor Saintsbury as "a wandering of the soul from Dan to Beersheba. ANAXIM`ENES. emperor of the East. a Greek philosopher of Clazomenae. ST. _d_. a Greek philosopher of the school of Democritus and friend of Alexander the Great. IV. i.. pleasures. transplanted it there. pope from 496 to 498. and finding them barren except for study. 425 B. Chennai 6. but being banished thence for impiety to the gods. ANASTASIUS. CTSTI. in Ionia. A. pope from 911 to 913. and the first sovereign to be so treated by the Pope (430-515). excommunicated for his severities to the Christians. conceived of "as a purely immaterial principle. removed to Athens and took philosophy along with him. festival. the Greek name for Asia Minor.. ANAXIMANDER." ANAXAG`ORAS.

ANCESTOR-WORSHIP. called the Apostle of the New World (1538-1597). was killed by it. Chennai 6.. was buried in Sicily.C. due to a belief in ANIMISM (q. of Nantes. CTSTI. ANCELOT. v. Computer Lecturer. ANCHOVY.. ANCHITHERIUM. ANCHOVY PEAR. of the taste of the mango. ANCAEUS. a Portuguese Jesuit. a fossil animal with three hoofs. NE. born at Teneriffe. the father of AEneas. ANCHI`SES. his wife also a distinguished writer (1792-1875). a town on the Loire. distinguished both in tragedy and comedy. a French dramatic poet. having left a flagon of wine to pursue a boar. the presumed original of the horse. _d_. Page 104 of 2772 . whom his son bore out of the flames of Troy on his shoulders to the ships. a small fish captured for the flavour of its flesh and made into sauce. 23 m. the worship of ancestors that prevails in primitive nations. preceptor and biographer of Alexander the Great. who. ANCENIS (4).).com things. a son of Neptune. of Lampsacus. A. ANCHIETA.ramakalai@gmail. 500 B. Indian plant. fruit of a W.

ANCUS MARCIUS. a small town on the Seine. a central Swiss village in Uri. Chennai 6. fruits. 4th king of Rome. of Evreux. FREDERICK. when he reaches land.com ANCIENT MARINER. CTSTI. Page 105 of 2772 . a region in the S. 20 m. is haunted by the recollection of them. of Altorf.ramakalai@gmail. grandson of Numa. divided into Great and Little. volcanic islands in the Bay of Bengal. ANCO`NA (56). philosophic man of letters. and vines. HANS CHRISTIAN. LES. a port of Italy in the Adriatic. MARSHAL. S. a Prussian statesman. ANDAMANS. a world-famous story-teller of Danish Computer Lecturer. and rich in minerals. ANDALUSIA (3. fertile in grains.370). founded by Syracusans. and who. since 1858 used as a penal settlement. and feels compelled to relate the tale of them as a warning to others. ANDERMATT. and of French descent (1766-1837). second to that of Venice. ANCRE. a mariner doomed to suffer dreadful penalties for having shot an albatross. ANCILLON. surrounded by coral reefs. NE. 18 m. ANDERSEN. of Spain watered by the Guadalquivir. the hero of a poem by Coleridge. extended the city and founded Ostia. ANDELYS. a profligate minister of France during the minority of Louis XIII.

the Central as far as 10 deg. along the west of South America from Cape Horn to Panama. a writer on agriculture and promoter of it in Scotland (1739-1808).ramakalai@gmail. divided into the Southern or Chilian as far as 231/2 deg.. a Scotch lawyer. Page 106 of 2772 . one of the chief reformers of religion in Sweden (1480-1552). CTSTI. JAMES.com birth. 150 of them actively volcanic. born at Odense. was some time before he made his mark. 1859. sat as judge at the trial of Mary. LAWRENCE. an unbroken range of high mountains. professor of physics in Glasgow University. a native of Roseneath. Anderson's Reports is still a book of authority. 1605. ANDERSON. MARY. native of California. _d_. in 1890 married M. ANDERSON. ANDERSON. ANDERSON.. native of Hermiston. Chennai 6. near Edinburgh. JAMES. a distance of 4500 m. was honoured at length by the esteem and friendship of the royal family. son of a poor shoemaker. ANDES. Navarro de Viano of New York. ANDERSON. and the founder of the Andersonian College in Glasgow (1726-1796). and the Northern to their termination. SIR EDMUND. famous for his learning and his antiquarian knowledge (1662-1728). Queen of Scots. JOHN. _b_. often in double and triple chains. which extend.. S. and by a national festival on his seventieth birthday (1805-1875). ANDERSON. Lord Chief-Justice of Common Pleas under Elizabeth. a celebrated actress. S. Computer Lecturer.

took part in the fifth crusade. Page 107 of 2772 . ANDREA DEL SARTO. JOHN. ANDOR`RA (6). Computer Lecturer.S. Chennai 6. also a town 23 m. ANDRE II. ANDRAL. a Hungarian statesman. a monument is erected to him in Westminster Abbey. was exiled from 1848 to 1851. in Catalonia. CTSTI. tried and hanged as a spy in the American war in 1780. a small republic in the E. an old municipal borough and market-town in Hampshire. AN`DRASSY. a distinguished French pathologist.ramakalai@gmail. enclosed by mountains. COUNT. ANDRE. professor in Paris University (1797-1876).com ANDOCIDES. ANDOVER. SW.. king of Hungary from 1205 to 1235. a brave British officer. GABRIEL. U. became Prime Minister in 1867. from Boston. 66 m. See SARTO. under the protection of France and the Bishop of Urgel. famous for its theological seminary. Pyrenees.C. the first time for profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries (467-393 B. founded in 1807. of London. an orator and leader of the oligarchical faction in Athens. who are a primitive people and of simple habits. cattle-rearing is the chief occupation of the inhabitants.. was four times exiled. played a prominent part in diplomatic affairs on the Continent to the advantage of Austria (1823-1890).).

born in Essex. ANDREWES.com ANDREA PISANO. an English prelate. and the name of the hero. and of the translators of the Authorised Version of the Bible.. Chennai 6. a novel by Fielding. Chichester. CTSTI.. ANDREOSSY. and zealous High Churchman in the reign of Elizabeth and James I. ANDREW. ANDREWS. holding the Gospel in his right hand.. eminent as a scholar.ramakalai@gmail. cross like a X. the highest Order in Russia. JOSEPH. and a preacher. an eminent French general and statesman. ST. and leaning on a transverse cross. it is said. ST. ANDREW. was one of the Hampton Court Conference. became patron saint of Scotland. was not inappropriate: "He rather plays with his subject than preaches on it" (1555-1626). represented in art as an old man with long white hair and a beard. ANDREOSSY. who Computer Lecturer. but of his sermons the criticism of a Scotch nobleman. been the form of the cross on which St. he was fervent in devotion.. such having. ANDREW. a theologian. Page 108 of 2772 . a sculptor and architect. born at Pisa. and Winchester. when he preached at Holyrood once. contributed greatly to free modern art from Byzantine influence (1270-1345). Vienna. advocated the recall of the Bourbons on the fall of Napoleon. and Constantinople. FRANCOIS. suffered martyrdom by crucifixion. Andrew suffered. an eminent French engineer and mathematician (1633-1688). COUNT. one of the Apostles. LANCELOT. in succession bishop of Ely. RUSSIAN ORDER OF. ambassador at London. THE CROSS OF. served under Napoleon. ST.

fought stoutly against the Turks without staying their advances (1328-1341). a French litterateur and dramatist.ramakalai@gmail. THOMAS. ANDRONI`CUS. at the fall of Troy. ANDROM`EDA. fell to Pyrrhus. Alexis II. A. sent into the arena to attack him. born and professor in Belfast (1813-1885). dethroned his father. dethroned him. receiving as his reward the hand of the maiden. Chennai 6.. but saved by a lion. Computer Lecturer. but was given up by him to Hector's brother.. Achilles' son.com is a footman. CTSTI. ST. Page 109 of 2772 . a Roman slave condemned to the wild beasts. 1183. out of whose foot he had long before sucked a thorn that pained him. A. ANDROM`ACHE. IV... and was put to death. professor in the College of France.. III. the name of four Byzantine emperors: A. born at Strassburg. ANDREWS. usurped the throne. and the brother of Richardson's Pamela. and was immediately stripped of his possessions himself (1377-1378). A. lived to see the empire devastated by the Turks (1282-1328). killed his ward.. Soter V. an eminent physicist. is the subject of tragedies by Euripides and Racine respectively. and permanent secretary to the Academy (1759-1822). I. II. ANDRO`CLUS. she had been demanded by Neptune as a sacrifice to appease the Nereids for an insult offered them by her mother. COMNENUS. the wife of Hector and the mother of Astyanax. a beautiful Ethiopian princess exposed to a sea monster. famous for her conjugal devotion. grandson of the preceding. and who recognised him as his benefactor. which Perseus slew. ANDRIEUX.

a barometer. air-exhausted metallic box. which passes through Lake Computer Lecturer. a tumour. CTSTI. ANDROS (22). and velocity of the wind. ANEROID. and to whom we owe the preservation of many of Aristotle's works. fertile soil and productive of wine and silk. the most northern of the Cyclades. on the coat of an artery. ANEU`RIN. Chennai 6.com ANDRONICUS. LIVIUS. affected by the pressure of the air on plates exposed to its action. an eminent French architect who designed the Pont Neuf at Paris (1530-1600). the oldest dramatic poet in the Latin language (240 B. who took part in the battle of Cattraeth. ANDRONICUS OF RHODES. ANDUJAR (11). an instrument for measuring the force. course. ANDROUET DU CERCEAU`. ANEMOMETER. and made it the subject of a poem. with internal spring-work and an index. on the Guadalquivir. consisting of a small watch-shaped. noted for the manufacture of porous clay water-cooling vessels. air-tight.ramakalai@gmail. Page 110 of 2772 . a disciple of Aristotle in the time of Cicero.C. ANEURISM. containing blood. a British bard at the beginning of the 7th century.). a tributary of the Yenisei. a town of Andalusia. ANGARA.

SW. AN`GELUS. Page 111 of 2772 . an Italian painter. born at Mugello. where he died. a devotional service in honour of the Incarnation.com Baikal. Thomas Aquinas. for whose sake Orlando lost his heart and his senses. CTSTI. became a Dominican monk at Fiesole. whence he removed to Florence. born in St. a distinguished patron of the fine arts. Chennai 6. 160 m. devoted his life to religious subjects. on the Maine. FRA. ANGEL-FISH. and conceived in virgin purity and child-like simplicity of soul. and finally to Rome. ANGERSTEIN. ANGELICA DRAUGHT. a theological seminary. birthplace of David the sculptor. ANGEL`ICA. JOHN. the ancient capital of Anjou. which he treated with great delicacy. beauty. bought by the British Computer Lecturer. something which completely changes the affection. ANGELICO. ANGERS` (77). and finish. Petersburg. whose collection of paintings. his work in the form of fresco-painting is to be found all over Italy (1387-1455). with a fine cathedral.ramakalai@gmail. with the archangel Michael piercing the dragon on the obverse of it. of Paris. an old English coin. ANGEL. voracious fish of the shark family. a faithless lady of romance. ANGELIC DOCTOR. in Tuscany. and a medical school. a hideous.

CTSTI. though not subject to her jurisdiction. big-mouthed head and a tapering body. Chennai 6. an island forming a county in Wales. ANGLER. by which. as it burrows in the sand. the body of Episcopal churches all over the British Empire and Colonies. and especially at Waterloo. an affection of the heart of an intensely excruciating nature. i. ANGI`NA PEC`TORIS. and for his services at which he received his title. MARQUIS OF. AN`GLESEA (50). sprung from the Church of England. ANGLES. ANG`LICAN CHURCH. as well as America. the pain of which at times extends to the left shoulder and down the left arm. Computer Lecturer. Page 112 of 2772 . where he was very popular (1768-1854). separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait.ramakalai@gmail. both covered with appendages having glittering tips. formed the nucleus of the National Gallery (1735-1822). it allures other fishes into its maw. at which he lost a leg.com Government. fertile. ANGLIA. EAST territory in England occupied in the 6th century by the Angles. famous as a cavalry officer in Flanders. corresponding to counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. Holland. a German tribe from Sleswig who invaded Britain in the 5th century and gave name to England. and rich in minerals. the Peninsula. flat. was some time viceroy in Ireland. Island of the Angles. a fish with a broad. the term _Anglo-Catholic_ being applied to the High Church section. ANGLESEY. eldest son of the first Earl of Uxbridge. e.

ANGOSTU`RA. between the Congo and Benguela. ANGOULEME. Chennai 6. up the Orinoco. a Computer Lecturer. of Bordeaux. with a fine cathedral.com ANGLO-SAXON. the name usually assigned to the early inflected form of the English language. DUC D'. also a medicinal bark exported thence. capital of the province of Guayana. natural son of Charles IX. CTSTI. CHARLES DE VALOIS. the eldest son of Charles X. in a district noted for its silky. ANGOULEME. gained great reputation as a military commander. after the Revolution of 1830 gave up his rights to the throne and retired to Goritz (1778-1844). a district on the W. ANGO`RA (20). and wife of the preceding (1778-1851). in Venezuela.ramakalai@gmail. left Memoirs of his life (1575-1650). 240 m. ANGO`LA (2. a city in the centre of Anatolia. 83 m. ANGOULEME. coast of Africa. ANGOULEME` (31). AN`GRA.. Paul de Loando. DUCHESSE D'. on the island of Terceira.. NE. daughter of Louis XVI. the birthplace of Marguerite de Valois and Balzac. long-haired animals. the capital of the Azores.400). cats and dogs as well as goats. subject to Portugal. DUC D'. an old French city on the Charente. Page 113 of 2772 . the capital of which is St.

ANILINE. LEOPOLD. executed a medal representing the interview of Alexander the Great with the High Priest of the Jews. a Swedish physicist and professor at Upsala. ANHALT-DESSAU. 1814. distinguished for his studies on the solar spectrum. Computer Lecturer. a Prussian field-marshal. one of the Lesser Antilles. ANGUIL`LA (2). Page 114 of 2772 . E. rich in minerals. CTSTI. surrounded and split up by Prussian Saxony. N. ANGUIER. or Snake Island. PRINCE OF. obtained chiefly from coal-tar. AN`HALT (293). of Porto Rico. and extensively used in the production of dyes. AN`GRA PEQUE`NA. was wounded at Cassano. a duchy of Central Germany.com fortified place. Africa. of the Orange River. the name of two famous French sculptors in the 17th century. a port in SW. belonging to Britain.ramakalai@gmail. and the nucleus of the territory belonging to Germany. served and distinguished himself in the war of the Spanish Succession and in Italy. a colourless transparent oily liquid. _b_. which Michael Angelo pronounced the perfection of the art. Chennai 6. defeated Charles XII. and the Saxons and Austrians at Kesseldorf (1676-1747). ANG`STROM. at the Isle of Ruegen. ANICHINI. and watered by the Elbe and Saale. an Italian medallist of the 16th century.

of France. Chennai 6. a belief that there is a psychical body within the physical body of a living being. the seed of which is used as a carminative and in the preparation of liqueurs. above Rome. Computer Lecturer. at a masked ball. ANIMISM. annexed to the crown of France under Louis XI. the intensity depending on the activity of the process. 4 m. ancient Rome was supplied with water from it by means of aqueducts. ANKLAM (12). belonged to England till wrested from King John by Philip Augustus in 1203. ANJOU`. an ancient province in the N. ANISE. connected by railway with Stettin. an old Hanse town in Pomerania. the assassin of Gustavus III. in certain passive states. ANIMAL MAGNETISM. its physical counterpart. an umbelliferous plant.com ANIMAL HEAT. of Sweden. and that when the connection between them is dissolved by death the former lives on in a ghostly form. 1792. the heat produced by the chemical changes which go on in the animal system. for which he was executed after being publicly flogged on three successive days. of certain presumed magnetic influences acting upon it. AN`IO. a belief of a ghost-soul existing conjointly with and subsisting apart from the body. Page 115 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. ANKARSTROeM. correspondent with it in attributes. an affluent of the Tiber. a name given to the alleged effects on the animal system. March 15. in 1480. in other words. CTSTI.

E. of the size of Sweden. "which.ramakalai@gmail. which yields tropical products. on river Annan. on the Bay of Fundy. and is rich in minerals.000). AN`NA IVANOV`NA. "was comparable to a Westphalian ham" (1693-1740). along the east coast of Indo-China.. capital of Shoa. her reign was marred by the evil influence of her paramour Biren over her. 28 m. of Washington. from 1730 to 1740. who. ANNA COMNE`NA. in Abyssinia. Chennai 6. and at length mathematical schoolmaster. on the Huron. seaport of Nova Scotia. also the capital (7) of Maryland. with an observatory and a flourishing university. retired into a convent and wrote the life of her father. birthplace of Edward Irving. it has a rich well-watered soil. under the title of the "Alexiad" (1083-1148). Alexius I. Page 116 of 2772 ." Carlyle says. a burgh in Dumfries. an empire. Computer Lecturer. which led to the perpetration of great cruelties. above the sea-level. and where Carlyle was a schoolboy. U. ANNAP`OLIS (3). CTSTI. a Byzantine princess. ANN ARBOR (10). empress of Russia in succession to Peter II. stands 8200 ft. AN`NAN (3). having failed in a political conspiracy. was famed for her big cheek. under a French protectorate since 1885. a city of Michigan. as shown in her portraits. AN`NAM (6.com ANKOBAR.S. niece of Peter the Great..

in France. a Spanish isle in the Gulf of Guinea. by her marriage. the daughter of Philip III. paper the chief Computer Lecturer. though without any patronage on the part of the Queen (1665-1714). ANNONAY (14). ST. ANNE OF BRITTANY. daughter of James II. the duchy was added to the crown of France (1476-1514). of Spain. CTSTI. first to Charles VIII. of Geneva.ramakalai@gmail. during the minority of her son. with Cardinal Mazarin for minister. and mother of Louis XIV. at which the Counts of Geneva had their residence. ANNE OF CLEVES. on a lake of the name.. July 26. S. wife of St. daughter of Duke of Cleves. soon divorced her. and the patron saint of carpentry. but being disappointed. a town in Ardeche.. triumphed over the Fronde. retired to a convent on the death of Mazarin (1610-1666). ANNE OF AUSTRIA. 1577. Page 117 of 2772 . Duke of Brittany. _d_. France. mother of the Virgin Mary. ANNOBON. festival. became regent on the death of her husband. Joachim. who fell in love with the portrait of her by Holbein. and where Francis of Sales was bishop. by the union of Scotland with England during her reign in 1707 became the first sovereign of the United Kingdom... QUEEN. the capital of Haute-Savoie. literary and scientific. Chennai 6. wife of Louis XIII. a wife of Henry VIII.com ANNE. ANNECY (11). ANNE.. her reign distinguished by the part England played in the war of the Spanish succession and the number of notabilities.. that flourished under it. 22 m. then to Louis XII.. the daughter of Francis II.

CTSTI. ANQUETIL`. to whom we owe the discovery and first translation of the Zend-Avesta and Schopenhauer his knowledge of Hindu philosophy. LOUIS PIERRE.. gained the favour of King Rufus. v. ST. ANQUETIL`-DUPERRON. and which influenced his own system so much (1731-1805). 25 m. a quarrel with whom about investiture ended in a compromise.. SW. an able. ANSBACH (14). God-fearing man. ANSCHAR or ANSGAR. a Frenchman born. wrote "Precis de l'Histoire Universelle" and a "Histoire de France" in 14 vols. in Piedmont. of Nuernberg. quarrelled with Rufus and left the country. but returned at the request of Henry I. an enthusiastic Orientalist. monk and abbot. brother of the preceding. Page 118 of 2772 ." Computer Lecturer.com manufacture. a native of Aosta. a festival on the 25th of March in commemoration of the salutation of the angel to the Virgin Mary on the Incarnation of Christ.). and a calmly resolute upholder of the teaching and authority of the Church (1033-1109). who appointed him to succeed Lanfranc. continued by Bouillet in 6 more (1723-1806). a French historian in holy orders. was by appointment of the Pope the first archbishop of Hamburg (801-864).. high-principled.ramakalai@gmail. the capital of the old margraviate of the name. a manufacturing town in Bavaria.. visited England frequently. ANNUNCIATION DAY. See CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. the first to preach Christianity to the pagans of Scandinavia. Chennai 6. ANSELM. archbishop of Canterbury. and the margraves of which were HOHENZOLLERNS (q. ST.

The fable has been used as a symbol of the spiritual strength which accrues when one rests his faith on the immediate fact of things. Computer Lecturer. ANTAR. sailed round the world. above the sea-level. a _terrae filius_ or son of the earth.C. "written in brief. ANTAEUS.000 of Spanish treasure on board. the capital of Madagascar. during war on the part of England with Spain. a weakness which Hercules discovered to his discomfiture when wrestling with him. on a well-nigh inaccessible rocky height 5000 ft. Page 119 of 2772 . LORD. two contiguous royal burghs on the Fife coast. his fleet reduced to one vessel.). a Spartan general." witnesses Carlyle.com ANSON. celebrated for a treaty which he concluded with Persia whereby the majority of the cities of Asia Minor passed under the sway of the Persians. and after three years and nine months returned to England. Chennai 6. Anson's "Voyage Round the World" contains a highly interesting account of this. "a real poem in its kind. to the loss of the fruit of all the victories gained over them by Athens (387 B. lifted in air he became weak as water. a mythical giant. who was strong only when his foot was on the earth. ANSTRUTHER. or romance all fact. perspicuous terms. in the centre of the island. one of the pleasantest little books in the world's library at this time" (1697-1762). an Arab chief of the 6th century. and distinguished as a poet. CTSTI. Thomas Chalmers. but with L500. the former the birthplace of Tennant the poet. and John Goodsir the anatomist. EAST AND WEST.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated British naval commander. on a voyage of adventure with a fleet of three ships. a subject of romance. ANTANANARI`VO (100). ANTAL`CIDAS.

Computer Lecturer. luminous rings witnessed in Alpine and Polar regions. an animal closely allied to the sheep and the goat. very like the latter in appearance. ANTELOPE. with a light and elegant figure. Chennai 6. a disease. including the gorilla. small cloven hoofs. without tails.com ANT-EATERS. a family of edentate mammals. a stronghold of the Moors from 712 to 1410. of Malaga. chimpanzee. especially in cattle. under certain conditions. with semi-erect figures and long arms. Sophia in Constantinople. a well-known American classical scholar and editor of the Classics (1797-1867). the architect of the church of St. slender. and generally a very short tail. N. which they thrust into the ant-hills and then withdraw covered with ants. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. ANTHE`LIA. CHARLES. called also splenic fever. 22 m. breeds rapidly. 534. and a long tongue covered with a viscid secretion. a town in Andalusia. ANTHROPOID APES. due to the invasion of a living organism which. ANTHRAX. ANTHON. orang-outang. graceful limbs. ANTHE`MIUS. have a tubular mouth with a small aperture. Page 120 of 2772 . and gibbon. seen round the shadow of one's head in a fog or cloud opposite the sun. ANTEQUE`RA (27). CTSTI. a class of apes.

made himself master of all Asia Minor. frequented by fishermen. the science of man as he exists or has existed under different physical and social conditions. of France. a name given in the New Testament to various incarnations of opposition to Christ in usurpation of His authority. ANTIGONE. See THE PARTING SCENE IN CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. king of Thebes. ANTICOSTI. surnamed the Cyclops or One-eyed. ANTHROPOMORPHISM. one of the generals of Alexander the Great. killed himself on the spot where she was buried. out of love for her. THE MODERN. returned to Thebes on his death.com ANTHROPOLOGY.ramakalai@gmail. a barren rocky island in the estuary of St Lawrence. was condemned to be buried alive for covering her brother's exposed body with earth in defiance of the prohibition of Creon. the Duchess of Angouleme. who had usurped the throne. ANTICHRIST. excited the jealousy of his rivals. John defined to involve that form of opposition which denies the doctrine of the Incarnation. in Phrygia. the daughter of Oedipus. Creon's son. daughter of Louis XV. led about her father when he was blind and in exile. but is by St. ANTIG`ONE`." ANTIG`ONUS. ANTI`BES (5) a seaport and place of ancient date on a peninsula in the S. the ascription of human attributes to the unseen author of things. or that Christ has come in the flesh. She has been immortalised in one of the grandest tragedies of Sophocles. CTSTI. 301 Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. was defeated and slain at Ipsus. and with hardly a permanent inhabitant. near Cannes and opposite Nice. Page 121 of 2772 .

on the E.. Page 122 of 2772 . an archipelago curving round from N. Jamaica... being Cuba. but recovered it. forming the Leeward Islands. a Bithynian youth of extraordinary beauty. the seat of the government. the GREATER A. and the LESSER A. attempted to prevent the formation of the Achaean League (275-240 B. a brittle white metal. and embracing the Caribbean Sea. ANTIGONUS. ANTILLES. the Windward Islands. in the transcendental philosophy the contradiction which arises when we carry the categories of the understanding above experience and apply them to the sphere of that which transcends it. a slave of the Computer Lecturer. and the Venezuelan Islands--the Leeward as far as Dominica. Chennai 6. all-emancipating free spirit of Christ.).ramakalai@gmail. ANTIMONY. of value both in the arts and medicine. the last king of the Jews of the Asmonean dynasty. on the N.C. of the sea. and Porto Rico. the Windward as far as Trinidad. one of the Leeward Islands. Hayti. CTSTI. the doctrine that the law is superseded in some sense or other by the all-sufficing. and the Venezuelan along the coast of S. ANTIGUA.C. America. ANTIGONUS GONATAS.C. the most productive of them belongs to Britain. America. ANTINOMIANISM. America to S. grandson of the preceding. ANTIN`OUS. ANTINOMY. twice deprived of his kingdom. king of Macedonia.com B. put to death in 77 B.

.. ANTIP`ATER. king from 164 to 162. CTSTI. a Macedonian general. Saviour. Page 123 of 2772 . being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus.com Emperor Hadrian. i. ANTI`OPE.. SOTER. V. the Great. _chef-d'oeuvre_ of Correggio in the Louvre. There was an Antioch in Pisidia. declared war against Rome. king from 175 to 104. Chennai 6. once a city of great splendour and extent.ramakalai@gmail. THEOS. e. III. king from 281 to 261 B. queen of the Amazons and mother of Hippolytus. _The Sleep of Antiope_. while artists vied with each other in immortalising his beauty. became a great favourite of his and accompanied him on all his journeys. A. W. afterwards called Caesarea. tyrannised over the Jews. A. He was drowned in the Nile.. he enrolled him among the gods. fell heir of all Syria. extended and consolidated the empire. gave harbour to Hannibal. king from 261 to 246.. son of one of Alexander's generals. ANTI`OCHUS.. defeated the confederate Greek Computer Lecturer. and the W. failed against Egypt. with a stalactite cavern. on the Orontes. e. EUPATOR. A. Illustrious. name of three Syrian kings of the dynasty of the Seleucidae: A. God. was defeated at Thermopylae and by Scipio at Magnesia. i. and famous in the early history of the Church as the seat of several ecclesiastical councils and the birthplace of Chrysostom. IV. A. ANTIP`AROS (2). erected a temple and founded a city in his honour. EPIPHANES. governed Macedonia with great ability during the absence of Alexander. i. I. and died delirious. of Paros. II. AN`TIOCH (23). killed in attempting to pillage the temple at Elymais. called the Queen of the East. lying on the high-road between the E. e. and accordingly a busy centre of trade. one of the Cyclades. and the grief of the emperor knew no bounds. king from 223 to 187. an ancient capital of Syria. provoked the Maccabaean revolt.C.

who speaks of him in terms of honour. reigned supreme on the death of Perdiccas (397-317 B. ANTIPH`ILUS. substances used. or one self-elected and usurped. ANTISA`NA. a pope elected by a civil power in opposition to one elected by the cardinals. high. and used as a substitute for quinine. a Greek painter.). Chennai 6. ANTISE`MITES. a party in Russia and the E. preceptor of Thucydides.ramakalai@gmail. was the first to formulate rules of oratory (479-411 B. of which the chief are quinine and salicylate of soda. contemporary and rival of Apelles.C.200 ft. ANTIPYRIN. a febrifuge prepared from coal-tar. ANTIPOPE. of Germany opposed to the Jews on account of the undue influence they exercise in national affairs to the alleged detriment of the natives.com states at Cranon. Computer Lecturer. a volcano of the N. in Ecuador. AN`TIPHON.000 ft. first and last. also a village on its flanks. 19.). particularly in surgery.C. to prevent or arrest putrefaction. medicines to reduce the temperature in fever. ANTISEPTICS. ANTIPYRETICS. CTSTI. high. an Athenian orator and politician. there were some 26 of such. 13. Andes. Page 124 of 2772 . the highest village in the world.

the chief adviser and Prime Minister of Pope Pius IX. "I see your pride looking out through the rent of your cloak. long antagonistic to Rome. a Greek philosopher. CTSTI. ANTIUM. of Messina. ANTONELLI. the beaks of its ships. introduced from Holland oil-painting into Italy (1414-1493). a rising port in Chile. were taken to form a rostrum in the Forum at Home. wrote "The Last Moments of Napoleon" (1780-1838). Page 125 of 2772 . a fortified seaport lately ceded to Montenegro. O Antisthenes. ANTONEL`LO. came back with him to Rome. and was the first to carry staff and wallet as the badge of philosophy. taken from Bolivia after the war of 1879. exports silver ores and nitrate of soda. captured in a naval engagement. it was the birthplace of Caligula and Nero. Computer Lecturer. acting as his foreign minister there. ANTOFAGAS`TA (7). accompanied the Pope to Gaeta. a mountain range running NE. subdued in 333 B.. and offered a determined opposition to the Revolution. but so ostentatiously as to draw from Socrates the rebuke.. ANTIVA`RI." ANTI-TAURUS. CARDINAL.C.com ANTIS`THENES. Italian painter of the 15th century.ramakalai@gmail. Helena. Napoleon's attached physician at St. ANTOMMAR`CHI. left immense wealth (1806-1876). a town of Latium on a promontory jutting into the sea. a disciple of Socrates. the master of Diogenes. and founder of the Cynic school. affected to disdain the pride and pomp of the world. Chennai 6. from the Taurus Mts.

" and has left in his "Meditations" a record of his religious and moral principles (121-180). in Scotland. of Stoic principles. WALL OF.C. ANTONI`NUS PIUS. ANTONI`NUS. AN`TONY. was defeated by Octavius in the naval battle of Actium. resisting devils without number. but Computer Lecturer. a famous anchorite of the Thebaid. who reigned with justice and moderation from 138 to 161. fell in love with the famous Cleopatra. erected in the year 140 A. and so became the founder of monachism. MARCUS (Mark Antony). Page 126 of 2772 . in a lonely ruin by himself. ANTO`NIUS. Roman emperor.).C. CTSTI. a Roman emperor. during which time the Empire enjoyed unbroken peace. and who surpassed him in virtue. ITINERARY OF. where from the age of thirty he spent 20 years of his life. grandson of the preceding and warm partisan of Caesar. a valuable geographical work supposed of date 44 B..ramakalai@gmail. after the murder of the latter defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. and afterwards killed himself (83-30 B. in length. ANTO`NIUS. was surnamed the "philosopher. slain in the civil war between Marius and Sulla. successor to the following. as a barrier against invasion from the north. a famous Roman orator and consul. an earthen rampart about 36 m.D. Chennai 6. being also of the Stoic school and one of its most exemplary disciples.C.). Marcus Aurelius.com ANTONI`NUS. formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus. from the Forth to the Clyde. ANTONI`NUS. MARCUS. left his retreat for a while to institute monasteries. ST. having sided with the latter (143-87 B.

with a beautiful Gothic cathedral. banished in consequence from Athens. soil two-thirds arable. linen the chief manufacture. ANWARI. says the fable. June 13 (1195-1234) ANTRAIGUES. the fishes came in myriads to listen. 50 m. and shamed the pagans into conversion. Page 127 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. high. "rose into furor almost Pythic. festival. ANTONY OF PADUA. from the sea. ANTWERP (240). who listened to him when no one else would. an Egyptian deity with the body of a man and the head of a jackal. has a large picture-gallery full of the works of the Dutch and Flemish artists. on the Scheldt. a Minorite missionary to the Moors in Africa.com returned to die. like that of Hermes. highest where many were high. inhabitants mostly Protestant. a maritime county in the NE. whose office. it was to see to the disposal of the souls of the dead in the nether world. in Ireland. exports butter. CTSTI. the most vehement accuser of Socrates. ANU`BIS. on quitting the body.ramakalai@gmail. AN`YTUS. festival. preached to the fishes. the burial-place of Rubens. one of the firebrands of the French Revolution. 17 (251-351). a large fortified trading city in Belgium. which he at length intrigued on behalf of--to death by the stiletto (1765-1812). COUNT D'. the spire 402 ft. of Ulster. after Socrates' death. ANT`RIM (471)." but veered round to royalism. Chennai 6. a Persian lyric poet who flourished in the 12th century. Jan.

wife of Hephaestos and mother of Cupid. in a fertile Alpine level valley. Chennai 6. a town of Italy. forming about the middle of the peninsula a double chain which supports the tableland of Abruzzi. seems to have become a weariness and a humbug See "PAST AND PRESENT. Page 128 of 2772 ." BK. CTSTI. and possessed the power of conferring beauty. of Turin. bred. of mastery in his art.com AOS`TA (5). as comes out in his advice to the criticising shoemaker to "stick to his last. APA`CHES. according to the Moslem tradition. the cestus. at Ephesus. v. III. of many in modern time to whom the universe. if not born. with all its serious voices. on others. as queen of beauty had the golden apple awarded her by Paris. by means of her magic girdle. a fierce tribe of American Indians on the S. were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's message to them by the lips of Moses. lived at the court of Alexander the Great.). of the United States. Computer Lecturer. APES. nearly through the whole length of Italy. III. sprung from sea-foam. dwellers by the Dead Sea who. a family of insects very destructive to plants by feeding on them in countless numbers. DEAD SEA. fit symbol. the birthplace of Anselm." AP`ENNINES. APH`IDES. APEL`LES. APHRODI`TE. the most celebrated painter of antiquity. the Greek goddess of love and beauty. a branch of the Alps extending. thinks Carlyle. and W.ramakalai@gmail. with spurs at right angles. a man conscious. but where goitre and cretinism prevail to a great extent. like Duerer. long a source of trouble to the republic. N. his great work "APHRODITE ANADYOMENE" (q. CHAP.

and his mummy regarded as an object of worship. A`PION. bishop of Laodicea. a literature of sixteen books composed by Jews. are instinct. APOL`DA (20). after the close of the Hebrew canon. and it was given to it by the Jews to distinguish it from the books which they accepted as canonical.. with the wisdom which rests on the fear of God and loyalty to His law. an Alexandrian grammarian of the 1st century. and predicting its final deliverance at the hands of the Messiah. Chennai 6. had his body embalmed. APOCRYPHA. and hostile to the privileges conceded them in Alexandria. The word Apocrypha means hidden writing. Page 129 of 2772 . the figure of an eagle on the back. APOCALYPTIC WRITINGS. and ascribed to one and another of the early prophets of Israel. have a white triangular spot on the forehead. and the third with Trajan. denied the proper humanity of Computer Lecturer. the incarnation of Osiris. CTSTI. which though without the unction of the prophetic books of the canon. the second with Augustus. for most part. must be black all over the body. was at the end of 25 years drowned in a sacred fountain. has mineral springs. A`PIS. the sacred live bull of the Egyptians. and under the tongue the image of a scarabaeus. the first of whom was contemporary with Sulla. and an enemy of the Jews. writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B. forecasting the judgments ordained of God to overtake the nation. the name of three famous Roman epicures.C. THE.com API`CIUS. a town in Saxe-Weimar with extensive hosiery manufactures. APOLLINA`RIS.ramakalai@gmail.

Page 130 of 2772 . the god _par excellence_ of the Greeks. _d_.D. an Athenian painter. v. who became an eloquent preacher of Christ. it is said. and. a power to work miracles." a rather prosaic account of the adventures of the Argonauts. CTSTI. APOL`LOS. APOLOGETICS. and on account of his eloquence rated above St. whither Leto had fled from the jealous Hera. (2) a celebrated architect of Damascus. identified with the sun and all that we owe to it in the shape of inspiration.C. as well as by maintaining that His body was not composed of ordinary flesh and blood. professed to have a divine mission. and medicine.). the destroying angel. was worshipped after his death. A. APOLLONIUS OF RHODES. Chennai 6. a defence of the historical verity of the Christian Computer Lecturer. APOLLO. by affirming that the Logos in Him took the place of the human soul.com Christ. an Athenian who wrote a well-arranged account of the mythology and heroic age of Greece.. APOLLYON. 390.C. and (3). a Pythagorean philosopher. who. _d_. flourished in the 3rd century B. 129. poetry. art. a grammarian and poet. author of the "Argonautica. _d_. his favourite oracle at Delphi. APPLLODO`RUS (1).. a Jew of Alexandria. and has been compared to Christ. 97. APOLLONIUS OF TYANA.ramakalai@gmail. the first to paint figures in light and shade. born in the island of DELOS (q. Paul. having become acquainted with some sort of Brahminism. the Greek name for the Hebrew Abaddon. twin brother of Artemis. 408 B. son of Zeus and Leto.

Ignatius. in favour of paganism. Denis. their utmost height. Chennai 6. A. Patrick. Augustine. OF THE ENGLISH. Ansgar. CTSTI. a mountainous system of N. America that stretches NE. and Inner Rhoden. OF THE GOTHS. Peter.com religion in opposition to the rationalist and mythical theories. and Hermas. from the tablelands of Alabama to the St. enclosed by St. do not reach the snow-line. St. and St. THE FOUR. St. Gall. St. abjured the Christian religion established by Constantine. OF TEMPERANCE. under 7000 feet. of Switzerland. St. also the name of Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. Paul. picture of St. APOSTATE. divided into Outer Rhoden. APPALA`CHIANS. Fathers of the Church who lived the same time as the Apostles: Clemens. APOSTOLIC FATHERS. OF THE GENTILES. OF THE SCOTS. St. OF THE NORTH. and includes the Alleghanies and the Blue Mountains. St. Paul. OF THE PICTS. abound in coal and iron. which is agricultural and Catholic. conscientiously however. the derivation of episcopal power in an unbroken line from the Apostles. from his having. Lawrence. Columba. OF IRELAND. APPENZELL` (67). Ulfilas. in the museum at Muenich. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. OF THE FRENCH. St. Boniface. St. APOSTLES. Irenaeus. Page 131 of 2772 . APOSTLE OF GERMANY. Mark. Barnabas Polycarp. painted by Albert Duerer. Ninian. a canton in the NE. which is manufacturing and Protestant. an epithet applied to the Emperor Julian. OF THE GAULS. Father Mathew. John Eliot. John. OF THE INDIAN. OF THE INDIES. Francis Xavier. a qualification believed by High Churchmen to be essential to the discharge of episcopal functions and the transmission of promised divine grace.

"To the most Beautiful. a city of Wisconsin. to Aphrodite. from Rome to Brundusium. EDWARD. Chennai 6. a magnificent highway begun by Appius Claudius. and awarded by Paris of Troy. is a health resort. on the Eden. Lee surrendered to Gen.S. a golden apple inscribed with the words. APPLEBY. U. APRAXEN. on the Fox River. wrote in 2nd century a history of Rome in 24 books.C. and Aphrodite. where Gen.S." thrown in among the gods of Olympus on a particular occasion... AP`PIAN WAY. APPLETON.ramakalai@gmail. as referee. Grant in 1865. and finished by Augustus. of which 11 remain. AUGUSTUS. COUNT. APPLEGATH. Page 132 of 2772 . APPLE OF DISCORD. APPLETON (11). Athena. U. 312 B.com the capital. CH. inventor of the vertical printing-press (1788-1871). CTSTI. contended for by Hera. APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE. a celebrated naval commander under Peter the Great Computer Lecturer.. on promise that he would have the most beautiful woman of the world for wife. the county town of Westmorland. AP`PIAN. founder and editor of the _Academy_ (1841-1879). an Alexandrian Greek. a village in Virginia.

was charged at one time with sorcery. a curious New Zealand bird with rudimentary wings. and of the voices of the birds. CTSTI. which extends as far N. Computer Lecturer. AQUA`RIUS. AQUA TOFA`NA. 11th sign of the Zodiac. the Water-bearer. among other stories. and no tail. the month of "opening of the light in the days. plumage like hair. and of the hearts of men. the fourth month of the year. APULE`IUS. lived in the 2nd century. having captivated a rich widow. a general of the Jesuits of high authority (1543-1615). of Italy. Tofana's poison. Page 133 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. the exquisite apologue or romance of PSYCHE and CUPID (q. and the scene of the last stages in the second Punic war. some solution of arsenic with which a Sicilian woman called Tofana.797). and of the life of the leaves. a student of Plato. in 17th century.com and his right-hand man in many enterprises (1671-1728). of N. African birth." which contains. 600 people. APU`LIA (1." AP`TERYX. v. as Monte Gargano. poisoned. Chennai 6. AQUAVIVA. his most celebrated work was the "Golden Ass. APU`RE. APRIL.). a river in Venezuela. 21. chief tributary of the Orinoco. an ancient province in SE. into which it falls by six branches. it is alleged. which the sun enters Jan.

was from the time of Henry II. sat at the feet of Albertus Magnus. and the ETHICO-PRACTICAL OR REALISM OF MODERN TIMES on the other. where several councils of the Church were held. AQUILEIA. founded by Barbarossa. till 1453 an appanage of the English crown. AQUI`NAS. a Judaised Greek of Sinope. capital of the province of Abruzzo Ulteriora." the greatest of his many works. was known among his pupils as the "Dumb Ox. or Doctor of the Schools. Chennai 6. a busy place. his rival. Page 134 of 2772 . an Italian of noble birth. His "Summa Theologiae. the Angelic Doctor. His writings. fell sick and died. and to this day of standard authority in the Romish Church. studied at Naples. (1226-1274). is a masterly production. constitute the high-water mark of scholastic philosophy and the watershed of its divergence into the PHILOSOPHICO-SPECULATIVE THOUGHT on the one hand.. executed a literal translation of the Old Testament into Greek in the interest of Judaism versus Christianity in the first half of the 2nd century A. in Pontus. A`QUILA.ramakalai@gmail.com A`QUILA (20). A`QUILA. and went with him to Paris. a friend of Luther who aided him in the translation of the Bible." from his stubborn silence at study. v. along with those of Duns Scotus. THOMAS. prelected at his Alma Mater and elsewhere with distinguished success. on the Alterno. 22 m. once a place of great importance. GASPAR. W. which fill 17 folio vols. a division of ancient Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees. became a Dominican monk despite the opposition of his parents. Computer Lecturer.D. of Trieste. CTSTI. an Italian village. AQUITAINE`. and being invited to assist the Council at Lyons. q.

has no forests. leader of an insurrectionary movement in Egypt in 1882. only wadies. an ornamentation introduced by the Moors. Computer Lecturer. the Great Arabian. where she died bereft of reason in 1615 at the age of 38. 1839. generally fertile on the W.ramakalai@gmail. consisting of (_a_) a central plateau with pastures for cattle. being one-third the size of the whole of Europe. mathematical or vegetable forms. the W. ARABIAN DESERT. suspected of aspiring to the crown on the death of Queen Elizabeth. oftenest dry.. sandy. a cousin of King James I. and fertile valleys. is divided into eight territories. (_b_) a ring of deserts. the Nefud in the N. a perfect Sahara. ARABESQUE. ARA`BI. and the Dahna between. stony. CTSTI. and therefore few wild animals... a trading country with no roads or railways. only caravan routes. and of a religion that has been a life-guidance to wide-scattered millions of human beings for over twelve centuries of time. _b_. and S. has no lakes or rivers. contains YEMEN and EL HEJAZ (q. the most westerly peninsula of Asia and the largest in the world. the victim all her days of jealousy and state policy. consisting of imaginary. he claimed descent from the Prophet. deep. Page 135 of 2772 . often fantastic. in the S.. v. and (_c_) stretches of coast land. AHMED PASHA. See ARABIA.000). yet the birthland of a race that threatened at one time to sweep the globe. ARABIA FELIX. coast of Arabia.com ARABELLA STUART. said sometimes to be 600 ft.). but exclusive of the forms of men and animals. ARABIA (12. the climate being hot and arid. Chennai 6. banished to Ceylon. and is subject to Turkey. was shut up in the Tower of London.

deep-hearted. enthusiastic in their character. an earnest. which is not Jewish. trades in cattle and corn. seat of a bishop. a people of wild. released her and spared her life. it is said. active. traceable in their present form to the middle of the 15th century. a fortified town in Hungary. truthful kind of men. Chennai 6. ARABS. at the end of which term the king. a collection of tales of various origin and date. of Jewish kindred indeed." Such is Carlyle's opinion of the race from whom Mahomet sprang. and began a story which broke off at an interesting part evening after evening for a thousand and one nights. strong feelings. and previously hanged herself in her despair. as in action. but with that deadly terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something graceful. Computer Lecturer. In words too. the vizier's daughter obtained permission to be the first bride. and first translated into French by Galland in 1704. and iron restraint over these. she had failed in the competition.ramakalai@gmail.com ARABIAN NIGHTS. who excelled in weaving. The thread on which they are strung is this: A Persian monarch having made a vow that he would marry a fresh bride every night and sacrifice her in the morning. ARAD (42). CTSTI. Page 136 of 2772 . not a loquacious people. ARACH`NE. See ARAKAN. a Lydian maiden. as given in his "Heroes. something most agile. but eloquent. THE. gifted when they do speak. swift-handed. taciturn rather. brilliant." ARACAN. manufactures tobacco. "a noble-gifted people. on the right bank of the Maros. and whom Athena changed into a spider because she had proudly challenged her ability to weave as artistic a work. or the Thousand and One Nights. yet most meditative.

a granite hill E. The natives belong to the Burman stock. on the E. which it joins after a course of 1000 m. marshy country. rather barren. born in the S. of the Bay of Bengal. was member of the Provisional Government in 1848. Page 137 of 2772 . 400 m. and are of the Buddhist Computer Lecturer.. long and from 90 to 15 m. traversed by the Ebro. the Mohammedan sheol or borderland between heaven and hell for those who are from incapacity either not morally bad or morally good. a strip of land in British Burmah. CTSTI. ARAKAN (671). and divided as you proceed southward into the provinces of Huesca. ARAFAT`. and Teruel. was a kingdom till 1469. nominated Director of the Observatory in 1830. in Brazil. in the S.. augmented by subsidiary streams. Saragossa. a brother of the preceding. author of a "Voyage Round the World" (1790-1855). ARAGUAY. mountainous in the N. JACQUES. and at his death received a public funeral (1786-1853). of Spain. AR`AGON (925). as well as sugar and hemp. elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at the early age of twenty-three. a territory in the NE. an affluent of the Tocantins.com ARAF. ARAGO. broad. AR`AGO. a low. a place of pilgrimage as the spot where Adam received his wife after 200 years separation from her on account of their disobedience to the Lord in deference to the suggestion of Satan. a litterateur and a traveller. refused to take the oath to Louis Napoleon after the _coup d'etat_.ramakalai@gmail. with beautiful fertile valleys. would rather resign his post at the Observatory. an eminent physicist and astronomer. Chennai 6. of France. produces and exports large quantities of rice. but was retained. of Mecca. FRANCOIS. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris when seventeen.

shallow. also to those that dwelt at the mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris. ARAM. and curtailed the power of the Inquisition. the inhabitants of which spoke a Semitic dialect called Aramaic. CTSTI. THE SEA OF. the territories lying to NE. to which they form a breakwater. has no outlet. of Palestine. 150 m.ramakalai@gmail. ARAMAE`ANS. an eminent Spanish statesman. three islands with antique relics across the mouth of Galway Bay. long and 145 broad. a lake in Turkestan. larger than the Irish Sea. was Prime Minister of Charles IV. source of the Garonne. a Pyrenean valley.com faith. and one of the highest of the Pyrenees. to whose fate a novel of Bulwer Lytton's and a poem of Hood's have lent a romantic and somewhat fictitious interest. an English school-usher of scholarly attainments. Chennai 6. ARAMAEA. of Palestine. 265 m. a generic name given to the Semitic tribes that dwelt in the NE. a Semitic dialect that has now almost entirely died out. though there is a sprinkling of Mohammedans among them.. and improperly Chaldee. ARANDA. convicted of murder years after the act and executed 1759. the language of Palestine in the days of Christ. ARAL. ARAN ISLANDS. VAL D'. EUGENE. Page 138 of 2772 . of the Caspian. and is said to be drying up. E. suppressed brigandage. and was succeeded by Computer Lecturer. COUNT OF. ARAN. banished the Jesuits. ARAMA`IC.

in which he was thwarted by Philip of Macedon. born in Cilicia. CTSTI. in Greece. where Alexander the Great finally defeated Darius. the Araucos being an Indian race long resistant but now subject to Chilian authority. and interesting as the only one that has proved itself able to govern itself and hold its own in the presence of the white man. of Valdivia. native of Sicyon. 17. 331 B. long the spring resort of the Spanish Court. SE. a town 28 m. AR`ARAT. ARAUCA`RIA. promoter of the Achaean League. a popular Hungarian poet of peasant origin.ramakalai@gmail. in Chile. by his order (271-213 B. AR`ANY. JANOS. it is said.C. of Madrid. a town near Mosul. S. 28. quoted by St Paul in Acts xvii. ARAUCA`NIA (88).com Godoy (1719-1798). was poisoned. the country of the Araucos. also a Greek poet.000 ft. of Concepcion and N. high. a mountain in Armenia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. ARANJU`EZ (8). ARBE`LA. Chennai 6. Page 139 of 2772 . ARBROATH (22). ARA`TUS. attained to eminence as a man of letters (1819-1882). and borders on both Turkey and Persia. author of two didactic poems. natives of and confined to the southern hemisphere. a thriving seaport and manufacturing town on the Computer Lecturer.). tall conifer trees.C. is within Russian territory.

a Greek philosopher. Page 140 of 2772 . and rustic simplicity and bliss. a physician and eminent literary man of the age of Queen Anne and her two successors. and denounced all dogmatism in opinion. of Bordeaux. conceived by the poets as a land of shepherds and shepherdesses. 34 m." ARBUTHNOT. much esteemed by them for his wit and kind-heartedness. born in Spain. ARCA`DIA. SW. born in Kincardineshire. it is thought.com Forfarshire coast. and was the seat of the worship of Artemis and Pan. leaving the government in other hands (377-405). N. which has to do with extinct organisms or fossil remains. with the picturesque ruins of an extensive old abbey. ARCHAEOLOGY. JOHN. ARCA`DIUS. as distinct from palaeontology. of the "Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus" and the "History of John Bull" (1667-1735). Chennai 6. the first emperor of the East. favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints. Computer Lecturer. a member of the Platonic School and founder of the New Academy. 50 m. the friend of Swift and Pope and other lights of the time. of which Cardinal Beaton was the last abbot. It is the "Fairport" of the "Antiquary. ARCESILA`US. a popular watering-place. long by 40 broad. CTSTI. a mountain-girt pastoral tableland in the heart of the Morea. a weak. the study or the science of the monuments of antiquity. luxurious prince. who held in opposition to the Stoics that perception was not knowledge.ramakalai@gmail. joint-author with Swift. denied that we had any accurate criterion of truth. AR`CACHON (7). 17 m. of Dundee. with a fine beach and a mild climate.

also the Ethnarch of Judea. and patron of art and literature. is connected with the interior by river and canal. the judge of which is called the dean. Azrafil. a purple dye obtained from lichens. a sorcerer in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. a general of Mithridates. ARCHER. Chennai 6. and tar. the angel of death. Michael. Azrael. AR`CHES. the angel who fights.).C. 1824. CTSTI. ARCHELA`US. 400 B. of these. born in Perth. died at Vienne. the angel who reveals.C. there are four: Gabriel. the inventor of iambic verse (714-676 B. is accessible to navigation from July to October. near its mouth. 1856. ARCHIL`OCHUS. the angel of the resurrection. _d_. dramatic critic. JAMES. WM. Computer Lecturer. timber. of a satiric and often bitter vein. on the Dvina. with whom Euripides found refuge in his exile. tallow. ARCHIMA`GO. son of Herod. ARCHANGELS. ARCHER. AR`CHIL. seduces the Red-Cross Knight from Una or Truth. deposed by Augustus. king of Macedonia. Page 141 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. and by the help of Duessa or Deceit. a celebrated lyric poet of Greece. according to the Koran. the oldest seaport of Russia.. born in Edinburgh. an ecclesiastical court of appeal connected with the archbishopric of Canterbury." who in the disguise of a reverend hermit. and has a large trade in flax. COURT OF.com ARCHANGEL (19). portrait-painter. conquered by Sulla twice over.. on the White Sea.

ARCHITRAVE. a geometrician.C. the greatest mathematician of antiquity. Page 142 of 2772 . while busy on some problem. by a Roman soldier. and finally for one. notwithstanding the order of the Roman general that his life should be spared. he darted off stark naked on the instant through the streets.). and Aristotle. a soldier. a philosopher. or the group of islands included in it." He discovered how to determine the specific weight of bodies while he was taking a bath. a Pythagorean in philosophy. otherwise he would have had to wander on this side the Styx Computer Lecturer. ARCHIPEL`AGO. shouting "_Eureka! Eureka!_ I have found it! I have found it!" (287-212 B. ARCHY`TAS OF TARENTUM. he was unconscious of the fact.. then for ten years. famous as a statesman. in its original form a hollow spiral placed slantingly to raise water by revolving it. and a man. now the name of any similar sea interspersed with islands.ramakalai@gmail. it is said. a man of superlative inventive power. CTSTI. originally the AEgean Sea. He is credited with the boast: "Give me a fulcrum. of which there were nine at a time. each over a separate department. When Syracuse was taken by the Romans. and influential in that capacity over the minds of Plato. his contemporary. was drowned in the Adriatic Sea. ARCHIMED`ES SCREW. his body lay unburied on the shore till a sailor humanely cast a handful of sand on it.C. resting immediately on the capital. AR`CHON. and was so excited over the discovery that. Chennai 6. 4th century B. and slain. a chief magistrate of Athens.com ARCHIME`DES OF SYRACUSE. well skilled in all the mechanical arts and sciences of the day. the tenure of office was first for life. and I will move the world. the lowest part of an entablature.

a large forest at one time in England. ARCIS`-SUR-AUBE (3). N. flat shores. in France. gives name to a department traversed by the Cevennes Mountains. in the Presidency of Madras. scene of a defeat of Napoleon. also chief town (11) in the district. N. ARDEN. star of the first magnitude and the chief in the N. Pole. with low. ENOCH. after long absence. who believed him dead. ARDEN. Page 143 of 2772 . birthplace of Danton. including numerous islands. source in the Cevennes.. ARDECHE. E. ARDENNES. an affluent of the Rhone. and a current flows out of it into the Atlantic. on his return from the sea. once the capital of the Carnatic. a forest. covered with ice-fields.. of Troyes. also department of France (325). a tract of rugged woodland on the confines of France and Belgium. his wife. captured by Clive in 1787. and S. does not disclose himself. a circular ocean round the N. AR`COT. hero of a poem by Tennyson. the name of two districts. its diameter 40 deg. _munera pulveris_. a town 17 m. and dies broken-hearted. of Madras. 65 m. SW. such the virtue of a little dust.com for a hundred years. as Horace calls it. who finds. married happily to another. of the Severn. March 1814. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. ARCTU`RUS. the Gulf Stream penetrates it. CTSTI. on the borders of Computer Lecturer. ARCTIC OCEAN. constellation Booetes.

described by Prof. the Greek god of war in its sanguinary aspects.com Belgium. and cures. ARETAE`US. Saintsbury as "a magnificent search for the Dead Truth. and had for sister Eris. is much subject to earthquakes. who used to pander to his passion. in Greece. still extant. a Russian of literary ability. a place in Perthshire. inland. CTSTI. charged with judgment in criminal offences. with the remains of a Roman camp. 8000 ft. near Syracuse. identified by the Romans with Mars. in a fruitful valley of the Andes. ARENDS. 30 m. a tribunal of 31 members. Computer Lecturer. which gave name to the celebrated council held there. Page 144 of 2772 ." AREOP`AGUS. was fond of war for its own sake. Chennai 6. the most complete in Britain. transformed from a Nereid pursued thither from Elis. and whose sentences were uniformly the awards of strictest justice. a Greek physician of 1st century. the goddess of strife. AREQUI`PA (35). symptoms. a celebrated fountain in the island of Ortygia. was the son of Zeus and Hera. from Crieff. a prose work of Milton's. LEOPOLD. above the sea.ramakalai@gmail. their causes. AREOPAGITICA. AR`DOCH. ARETHU`SA. inventor of a system of stenography extensively used on the Continent (1817-1882). 7 m. and was almost destroyed by one in 1868. the hill of Ares in Athens. wrote a treatise on diseases. a city in Peru. founded by Pizarro in 1536. A`RES.

Computer Lecturer. ARGELAN`DER. and eventually subject to it. born at Arezzo." a licentious satirical writer. an ancient Tuscan city. AREZZO (44). alternately attached to people and repelled from them by his wit. AR`GENS. Michael Angelo. a Swiss physician and chemist. strong-limbed. as large as a moderately-sized ox. with enormous grooved curving horns. ARGAN`. the hypochondriac rich patient in Moliere's "Le Malade Imaginaire. AR`GALI. and Vasari. introduced a circular wick (1755-1803)." ARGAND. professor at Bonn. Guido. settled in Venice. sure-footed. which. SE. MARQUIS D'. 38 m. as invented by him. a distinguished astronomer. Page 145 of 2772 . ARETI`NO.000 stars. CTSTI. moved from one centre of attraction to another. in Tuscany. Petrarch. of which the best known is entitled "Lettres Juives" (1704-1771). born at Geneva. born at Memel. a French soldier who turned to letters. and recorded observations to prove that the solar system was moving through space (1799-1874). author of sceptical writings. and swift.com by the river-god Alphaeus. he fixed the position of 22. inventor of the argand lamp. the birthplace of Maecenas.ramakalai@gmail. so that the waters of the river henceforth mingled with those of the fountain. Chennai 6. PIETRO. a sheep of Siberia. of Florence. where he died after an uncontrollable fit of laughter which seized him at the story of the adventure of a sister (1492-1557). called the "Scourge of Princes.

ARGONAUTICA. with the fleece. French statesman. by Bolivia and Paraguay. Computer Lecturer. French. English. Spaniards. AR`GO. the Greek heroes. a confederation like that of the United States of 14 states and 9 territories. the daughter of the king. which was guarded by a dragon that never slept. or ARGENTINA (4. Jason in the end brought away with him to be his wife. who. Italians. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. while the population includes 600.ramakalai@gmail. long by 5 m. and Germans.). whom.000). the north-eastern peninsula of the Morea of Greece. AR`GONAUTS. the fifty-oared ship of the ARGONAUTS (q. CTSTI. and one of the 13 provinces of Greece. a new element lately discovered to exist in a gaseous form in the nitrogen of the air. Page 146 of 2772 .000 foreigners. Chennai 6. v. bounded on the N. but it proved successful with the assistance of Medea. the title of a poem on the Argonautic expedition by Apollonius of Rhodes. broad.'s reign (1694-1757). sailed for Colchis in quest of the golden fleece. a perilous venture. sailors in the _Argo_. under the command of Jason. AR`GON.com ARGENSON. is 12 m. RENE-LOUIS. its area ten times that of Great Britain and Ireland. AR`GOLIS. MARQUIS D'. occupying the eastern slopes of the Andes and the vast level plain extending from them to the Atlantic. who left "Memoirs" of value as affecting the early and middle part of Louis XV.

at Scone. ARGYLL. under such excitement. CTSTI. ARGUS. consisting of deeply indented mainland and islands.ramakalai@gmail. Page 147 of 2772 . Marquis. but paled before the power of Sparta. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. and lochs. her favourite bird. disgusted with the execution of Charles I. and their earldom from 1453. within the borders of which the Duke of Brunswick was outwitted by Dumouriez in 1792. their first patent of nobility dating from 1445. he was the only creature that recognised Ulysses under his rags on his return to Ithaca after twenty years' absence. after the Restoration committed Computer Lecturer. crowned Charles II. appointed by Hera to watch over Io. of Scotland. and Duke. that immediately after he dropped down dead. however. moorlands. of which one half was always awake. 1ST MARQUIS OF. so called from the eye-like markings on its plumage. a large county in the W. a pheasant. sided with the Covenanters. Also the dog of Ulysses. of France. fought against Montrose. immortalised by Homer. the capital of Argolis." a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes. with scenery often picturesque as well as wild and savage. the members of which have held successively the title of Earl. and abounding in mountains. FOREST OF. Chennai 6. ARGYLL. AR`GOS (9). a beautiful Oriental game-bird.. a noble family or clan of the name of Campbell.com ARGONNE`. played for long a prominent part in the history of Greece. whereupon Hera transferred his eyes to the tail of the peacock. AR`GUS. but Hermes killed him after lulling him to sleep by the sound of his flute. surnamed the "All-seeing. ARGYLL (74). "a long strip of rocky mountain and wild wood" in the NE.

was created an English peer. where. and another in the same interest in 1884 entitled "The Unity of Nature". 2ND DUKE OF. 1824. placing her at her death among the gods. according to one tradition. and according to another. was a member of the Cabinets of Aberdeen. was captured and executed in 1685. and was condemned to death. Palmerston. ARGYLL. for which Theseus promised to marry her. GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL. son of the preceding. the heresy of ARIUS (q. was tried and condemned. and Gladstone. takes a deep interest in the scientific theories and questions of the time. wrote. Artemis killed her. met death nobly (1598-1661). CTSTI. a book in 1866 entitled "The Reign of Law. Dionysos found her and married her. made a descent on Scotland. 9TH EARL OF. released at the Restoration and restored to his estates. among other works. opposed the return of the Stuarts. proved rebellious at last. and hanging her wedding wreath as a constellation in the sky. v.com to the Tower. JOHN CAMPBELL. defeated Mar at Sheriffmuir. daughter of Minos. gave to Theseus a clue by which to escape out of the labyrinth after he had slain the Minotaur. was taken prisoner. a Whig in politics. favoured the Union. fought for Charles II. ARIANISM. escaped to Holland. as Marquis of Lorne took a great interest in the movement which led to the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843.). ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. ruled Scotland under Walpole (1678-1743). Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. ARGYLL. Computer Lecturer. took her with him to Naxos and left her there. ARGYLL. 8TH DUKE OF." in vindication of Theism. of late has shown more Conservative tendencies. fought under Marlborough. king of Crete. Page 148 of 2772 . ARIAD`NE.. _b_.

the chief outlet for the produce of Bolivia. mostly in poverty. were apprehended and punished. which she willingly engages to do. S. spent his life chiefly in Ferrara. CTSTI. the Ram. has a trade in wine and butter.ramakalai@gmail. has extensive forests and is rich in minerals. suffers again and again from earthquakes. ARI`ON. an outcast angel. a seaport connected with Tacna. the first of the signs of the Zodiac. A`RIEL. above the sea-level. in Lombardy. his great Computer Lecturer. was received on the back of one of them. whereupon he leapt over the bulwarks. on their landing. in Shakespeare's "Tempest. ARIEGE. the sailors plotted to kill him. dolphins crowded round the ship. Corinth. and liberates on condition of her serving him for a season. Chennai 6. arriving there before the sailors. ARIEL. and does. ARI`CA." a spirit of the air whom Prospero finds imprisoned by Sycorax in the cleft of a pine-tree. who. owing to the precession of the equinoxes. at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pyrenees. ARIOS`TO. a city with a fine cathedral. is no longer within the limits of the sign. an illustrious Italian poet. when he begged permission to play one strain on his lute. a lyrist of Lesbos. LUDOVICO. born at Reggio. returning in a ship from a musical contest in Sicily laden with prizes. lived chiefly at the court of Periander. which being conceded. 1500 ft. an idol of the Moabites.com ARIA`NO (12). though the constellation itself. ARIES. which the sun enters on March 21. of Peru. and was almost destroyed in 1832. a department of France. and carried to Corinth. of Naples. Page 149 of 2772 . NE.

who advised him to sacrifice four bullocks to appease the manes of Eurydice. whereupon the nymphs. ARISTE`AS. in 1532. this done. the work is so called from the chief subject of it. in 1516. In this extremity Aristaeus applied to Proteus. a son of Apollo.). a German chief. ARISTI`DES. and threatened to overrun it. in 40 cantos. and the third in 46 cantos.C. ARISTARCHUS OF SAMOTHRACE. ARIOVISTUS. an Athenian general and statesman.com work "ORLANDO FURIOSO" (q. of hunters and herdsmen. the madness of Roland induced by the loss of his lady-love through her marriage to another (1474-1532). a Greek astronomer. who turns up here and there in Greek tradition. who first conceived the idea of the rotundity of the earth and its revolution both on its own axis and round the sun. and was thought to be endowed with a soul that could at will leave and enter the body.ramakalai@gmail. set upon his bees and destroyed them. Page 150 of 2772 . ARISTAE`US. CTSTI. Chennai 6. in promulgating which idea he was accused of impiously disturbing the serenity of the gods (280 B. ARISTAR`CHUS OF SAMOS. v.C. companions of Orpheus. which reconciled him to the loss of the first ones. who devoted his life to the elucidation and correct transmission of the text of the Greek poets. but was forced back over the Rhine by Caesar. surnamed The Just. published the first edition. her husband. the guardian divinity of the vine and olive.). invaded Gaul. some of which stung Eurydice to death. covered himself with glory at the battle of Marathon. was made archon Computer Lecturer. a sort of Wandering Jew of Greek fable. there issued from the carcasses of the victims a swarm of bees. a celebrated Greek grammarian and critic. and especially Homer (158-88 B.). first taught the management of bees.

III. fought bravely at Salamis.C. A. 724 B. put to death by order of Sylla. while he escaped and was snatched up by the gods.. twice carried captive to Rome. whom he had sacrificed to ensure the fulfilment of an oracle to the advantage of his house. celebrated for his struggle with the Spartans. founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. 34 B. which at length fell to the enemy. in the discharge of the duties of which office he received his surname.com next year. 4th century B. in insisting too exclusively upon pleasure as the supreme good and ultimate aim of life. tyrant of Athens. was buried at the public charges. and left the State to provide for his children. was banished by ostracism at the instance of his rival. II. Themistocles. a philosopher. Page 151 of 2772 . son of John Hyrcanus. last of Asmonaean dynasty.. first of the Asmonaean dynasty in Judea to assume the name of king...C. 86 B.ramakalai@gmail.C. apart from the rest.. and his resistance to them on Mount Ira for 11 years. till at length finding resistance hopeless he put an end to his life on the tomb of his daughter. assassinated 50 B. was reconciled to Themistocles. ARISTODE`MUS. in his teaching laid too much emphasis on one principle of Socrates. king of Messenia. ARISTOBU`LUS I. drowned by Herod in the Jordan. recalled three years after the invasion of Xerxes.C.C. carried on for 20 years a war with Sparta. A. CTSTI. ARISTION. ARISTIP`PUS OF CYRENE. Chennai 6. a pronounced Helleniser. Also a Greek sculptor. died at Rhodes.C. managed the finances of the State with such probity that he died poor. Computer Lecturer. ARISTOM`ENES. a disciple of Socrates. and distinguished himself at Plataea. which he did from 104-102 B. _d_. a mythical king of Messenia.

contemporary of Aristotle.C. remained in Plato's society there for 20 years. the great comic dramatist of Athens. lived in the 5th century B. political. in Thrace. king of Macedon. _d_. came in his 17th year to Athens. became the preceptor of Alexander the Great. AR`ISTOTLE. returned to Athens and began to teach in the Lyceum.ramakalai@gmail. from which circumstance his school got the name of Peripatetic. of which the progress of modern science goes to establish the value. deprived of his parents while yet a youth. and one of the oldest writers on music. of which 11 have come down to us. then only 13 years old. which denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father in the so-called Trinity. at the request of Philip. and. after 13 years he left the city and went to Chalcis. of these the "Clouds" aim at Socrates. social. and the "Knights" at Cleon. wrote 54 plays. is the author of a great number of writings which covered a vast field of speculation. a doctrine which hovered for a time between acceptance and rejection throughout the Catholic Church. in Euboea.C. A`RIUS. and held up to ridicule such men as Socrates and Euripides. where he died. Page 152 of 2772 . a Greek philosopher. amend. as well as Cleon the tanner. the "Acharnians" and the "Frogs" at Euripides. Chennai 6. or literary creed and practice of the country. was condemned first by a local synod which met at Alexandria in 321. 384 B. author of the "Elements of Harmony. directed the shafts of his wit. is often referred to as the incarnation of the philosophic spirit (385-322 B. and hence named the Stagirite. which were very keen. ARISTOX`ENUS OF TARENTUM.." the only one of his many works extant. and founder of Arianism. CTSTI.C. who held him in high honour. the religious. and then by a Computer Lecturer. against all of whatever rank who sought in any way to alter. philosophical. a native of Stagira.). He was the oracle of the scholastic philosophers and theologians in the Middle Ages. on Alexander's expedition into Asia.com ARISTOPHANES. a presbyter of Alexandria in the 4th century. where it was his habit to walk up and down as he taught. after the death of Plato. as it was presumed.

Chennai 6. "that had to give to England the power of cotton" (1732-1792).com General Council at Nice in 325. which the Emperor Constantine attended in person. high. who entered into partnership with him. the gold pot with the manna. fell in with Mr. after three years he was recalled by Constantine. one of the Southern States of America. and copper. took interest in the machinery of cotton-spinning. his writings burned. of the Mississippi. by poison.ramakalai@gmail. the lid supported the mercy-seat. with a cherub at each end. and the shekinah radiance between. through which the canon of the Colorado passes. Imperial Caesars were impotent without the cotton and cloth of England. CTSTI. and it was this man." says Carlyle. and had to flee. fertile in the lowlands. a little larger than England. the author was banished to Illyricum. to resist the same in any way. Lancashire. a territory of the United States N. and Aaron's rod. much of the surface a barren plateau 11. ARK OF THE COVENANT. Page 153 of 2772 . and the possession of them voted to be a crime. said his enemies (280-336). ARIZO`NA (59). Computer Lecturer. alleged his friends--by the judgment of God. of Louisiana and W. ARKWRIGHT. of New Mexico. a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold. rich in mines of gold. invented the spinning frame. contained the two tables of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments.000 ft. "French Revolutions were a-brewing. prospered in business and died worth half a million. was about to be readmitted into the Church when he died suddenly. of Mexico and W. who ordered him to be restored. SIR RICHARD. with the help of a clockmaker. 21/2 cubits long and 11/2 in breadth. was mobbed for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages. ARKANS`AS (1. grows cotton and corn. bred to the trade of a barber. born at Preston. Strutt of Derby. silver. nearly four times as large as Scotland. rich in metals.128). N. See CANON.

AR`LINGTON. of Spain against England.ramakalai@gmail. consisting of 130 war-vessels. completely dispersed and shattered by a storm in retreat on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. the seat of several Church Councils. pierced by a tunnel. Page 154 of 2772 . a prosperous town in Belgium. and Frobisher. AR`LINCOURT.000 soldiers. born near Versailles (1789-1856). a prominent member of the famous Cabal. HENRY BENNET. a city. a French romancer. was defeated in the Channel on July 20 by Admiral Howard. EARL OF. capital of Luxemburg. ARMA`DA. being impeached when in office. lost favour and retired into private life (1618-1685). one of the three that penetrate the Alps. in his exile. CTSTI. AR`LON (8). named the Invincible. Hawkins. with ruins of an amphitheatre and other Roman works. on the Rhone. mounted with 2430 cannon. a mountain mass between the Austrian provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol. Computer Lecturer. VISCOUNT D'. served under Charles I. or Christ and Antichrist. where Constantine built a palace. one of the oldest in France. Chennai 6. N. ARMAGEDDON. and these nearly all _hors de combat_. of Marseilles. seconded by Drake. and accompanied Charles II. an armament fitted out in 1588 by Philip II. 46 m. and nearly four miles in length.com ARLBERG. and manned by 20. of the whole fleet only 53 ships found their way back to Spain. ARLES (14).. the English losing only one ship. a name given in Apocalypse to the final battlefield between the powers of good and evil.

at mortal feud with the Bourguignons. and are.com ARMAGH (143). countries. like the Jews. Russia. ARMATO`LES. Ireland. warlike marauding tribes in the mountainous districts of Northern Greece. and even remote. broad. from the 5th to the 9th century the capital of Ireland. N. Page 155 of 2772 . Ararat. 32 m. ARMED SOLDIER OF DEMOCRACY. ARMAGNAC. which culminates in Mt. 12 m. SW. mainly engaged in commercial pursuits. played a prominent part in the War of Independence in 1820. the chief manufacture linen-weaving. W. now in dep. from early times have emigrated into adjoining. occupying a plateau interspersed with fertile valleys.ramakalai@gmail. part of Gascony. long by 20 m. a country in Western Asia. of Gers. now divided between Turkey. ARME`NIA. anciently independent. a county in Ulster. ARMENTIERES (27). of Kurdistan Mts. celebrated for its wine and brandy. the wealthier of them especially in banking. Napoleon Bonaparte. a people of the Aryan race occupying Armenia. 33 m. a faction in France in time of Charles VI. of Belfast.. and a town (18) in it. of the Caspian Sea and N. CTSTI. in France. of Lille. ARMAGNACS. a district. Chennai 6. and Persia. a manufacturing and trading town in France. early converted to Christianity of the Eutychian type. ARMENIANS. Computer Lecturer. in which the Euphrates and Tigris have their sources. as it is the ecclesiastical still.

as well as of Wilkes and Smollett. one of the Crusaders. an assertion of the free-will of man in the matter of salvation against the necessitarianism of Calvin (1560-1609). in which she enchanted Rinaldo. _The Almida Palace_.D. and in 1887 raised to the Computer Lecturer." who bewitched Rinaldo. which he got the Government to adopt. knighted in 1858. the Deliverer of Germany from the Romans by the defeat of Varus. born at Newcastle. practised medicine in London. ARMSTRONG. ARMINIANISM. overpowered her by his love and persuaded her to become a Christian. JOHN.com ARMI`DA. or HERMANN.ramakalai@gmail. killed in some family quarrel in his 37th year. and who in turn. devoted his attention to the improvement of heavy ordnance. invented the Armstrong gun. produced the hydraulic accumulator and the hydraulic crane. Page 156 of 2772 . when the spell was broken. the Roman general. born in Roxburghshire. ARMIN`IUS. a district of Gaul from the Loire to the Seine. WILLIAM GEORGE. near Detmold (where a colossal statue has been erected to his memory). established the Elswick engine works in the suburbs of his native city. has become a synonym for any merely visionary but enchanting palace of pleasure.. friend of poet Thomson. in 9 A. CTSTI. ARMSTRONG. See ARMINIUS. a Scotch doctor and poet. Chennai 6. JACOBUS. a learned Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism. ARMINIUS. ARMOR`ICA. a beautiful enchantress in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered. LORD. by her charms. as Circe did Ulysses. and author of "The Art of Preserving Health" (1709-1779).

has contributed to infuse a new spirit of life into the profession of the Christian religion. AR`NAUD. and acted pastor to them till his death (1641-1721). in Germany and elsewhere. whose memory is much revered by the whole German people. he accompanied them in their exile to Schomberg." a work which. the author of "True Christianity. associated here with a circle of kindred spirits. ANTOINE." a French theologian. HENRI. ARNDT. the "great Arnauld. a Lutheran theologian. which seemed withering away under the influence of a lifeless dogmatism (1553-1621). CTSTI.com peerage. one of the first to rouse his countrymen to shake off the tyranny of Napoleon. MARIE ANGE`LIQUE. his "Geist der Zeit" made him flee the country after the battle of Jena. ERNST MORITZ. _La Mere Angelique_ as she was called. doctor of the Sorbonne. a German poet and patriot. among others Pascal. Computer Lecturer. ARNAULD. his co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution of the Count of Savoy. defended Jansenism against the Bull of the Pope. JOHN. a pastor of the Vaudois. died at Brussels (1612-1694). an inveterate enemy of the Jesuits. and did rescue. turned soldier to rescue. Page 157 of 2772 . _b_. and his "Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?" strikes a chord in the breast of every German all the world over (1710-1860). but when the Vaudois were exiled a second time. a victim of the persecutions of the Jesuits to very death (1624-1684). Chennai 6. 1810. became religious director of the nuns of Port Royal des Champs.ramakalai@gmail. ARNAULD. expelled from the Sorbonne and banished the country. his songs and eloquent appeals went straight to the heart of the nation and contributed powerfully to its liberation. ARNDT. sister of the preceding and abbess of the Port Royal.

COUNT. ARNO. sister of Clemens Brentano. ARNIM. accused in the latter capacity of purloining State documents. at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe. Chennai 6. Page 158 of 2772 . a musical composer of versatile genius. an American military general. then in his 60th year. still extant. rises in the Apennines. a German poet and novelist (1781-1831). BENEDICT. and of great value. an African rhetorician who. CTSTI. part of which correspondence appeared subsequently under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child" (1785-1859). ARNOBIUS. among others the world-famous chorus "Rule Britannia". ambassador of Germany. LUDWIG ACHIM VON. a river of Italy. entered the ranks of Computer Lecturer. Mrs. is situated on the right bank of the Rhine. died in exile at Nice (1824-1881). BETTINE VON. Cibber was his sister (1719-1778)." ARNOLD. produced. during over 40 years. embraced Christianity. first at Rome and then at Paris. a succession of pieces in every style from songs to sonatas and oratorios. and corresponded with him afterwards. flows westward past Florence and Pisa into the Mediterranean. and wrote a book in its defence. entitled "Disputations against the Heathen. and sentenced to imprisonment. and has a large transit trade. the capital of Guelderland. subject to destructive inundations.ramakalai@gmail. THOMAS AUGUSTINE. in the beginning of the 4th century. wife of Ludwig Arnim. ARNIM. visited him at Weimar.com ARNE. a native of Frankfort. ARNIM. ARN`HEIM (51).

He was more eminent as a poet than a critic. author of the "Light of Asia. influential as he was in that regard. the corruptions of the Church." "Culture and Anarchy. _b_. and especially literary culture. to inquire into educational matters there. "It is. died suddenly at Liverpool. distinguished himself in several engagements." and is being now judged (1822-1888). familiar with Indian literature. at Gravesend. 1832. was liberal in his principles and of a philanthropic spirit.ramakalai@gmail. promoted to the rank of general. declaimed against the temporal power of the Pope. Germany. MATTHEW. and professor of Modern History at Oxford. Page 159 of 2772 . escaped to the English ranks on the discovery of the plot. and the avarice of the clergy." of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift. by his moral character and governing faculty effected immense reforms in Rugby School." "Light of the World. negotiated with the English general Clinton to surrender an important post entrusted to him. SIR EDWIN. "by his verse and not his prose he must be judged." and other works in prose and verse. and Holland. ARNOLD OF BRESCIA. and disciple of Abelard. inspector of schools for 35 years from 1851. his "Life and Correspondence" was edited by Dean Stanley (1795-1842). Paul and Protestantism. and served in them against his country." &c. Chennai 6. poet and journalist." "Literature and Dogma. eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby. "Essays on Criticism.com the colonists under Washington during the War of Independence. in England in 1801. ARNOLD. THOMAS. poet and critic. ARNOLD. an Italian monk. he wrote a "History of Rome" based on Niebuhr.. and edited Thucydides. head-master of Rugby. a man of culture. ARNOLD. headed an insurrection against the Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. _d_." says Swinburne. author of "Poems. professor of Poetry in Oxford from 1857 to 1867. of which he is reckoned the apostle. commissioned twice over to visit France." "St. wrote two separate reports thereon of great value.

Computer Lecturer. the Decius of Switzerland. birthplace of Cicero and Marius. a native of Arbroath. which collapsed under the Pope's interdict. ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED. of Padua.com Pope in Rome. Chennai 6. a town in Bengal. SW. 907. ARPI`NO (ARPINIUM). was founder of the Arpad dynasty. AROU`ET. which became extinct in 1301. AR`PAD. (jeune). an ancient town in Latium. at last was burned alive in 1156. who. famous for its defence by a handful of English and Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny. Page 160 of 2772 . Arouet l. _d_. AR`RAH. from Patna. ARNOTT. the family name of Voltaire. and his ashes thrown into the Tiber. the national hero of Hungary. by the voluntary sacrifice of his life. a spirituous liquor. broke the lines of the Austrians at Sempach in 1386 and decided the fate of the battle. NEIL. established for the Magyars a firm footing in the country. a village 12 m.ramakalai@gmail. j. author of the "Elements of Physics" and of several hygienic inventions (1788-1874). 36 m. ARRACK. especially that distilled from the juice of the cocoa-nut tree and from fermented rice. DR. of Rome. a peasant of the canton of Unterwald. S. where Petrarch died and was buried. CTSTI. his name formed by an ingenious transposition he made of the letters of his name. ARQUA.

belonging to Holland.).C. v. largest island in the Firth of Clyde. pearls. 2866 ft. to encourage her husband in meeting death. 250 B. of Pas-de-Calais. thrust a poniard into her own breast. who wrested the throne from Antiochus II. by a revolt which proved successful against the Seleucidae.. _b_. wrote a "History of Alexander the Great. highest summit Goatfell. the last of the Seleucidae. FLAVIUS. AR`RIAN. of New Guinea. and then handed it to him. who. the founder of the dynasty of the Arsacidae. CTSTI. a mountainous island." whereupon he followed her example. the birthplace of Damiens and Robespierre. 250 B. with a margin of lowland round the coast.ramakalai@gmail. export mother-of-pearl. a Bithynian. AR`RIA. edited his "Enchiridion". "It is not painful.com ARRAN (4). ARSACIDAE. a dynasty of 31 Parthian kings." an account of voyages round the Euxine and round the Red Sea. a friend of Epictetus the Stoic. ARRAS (20). AR`SACES I.C. Computer Lecturer. a group of 80 coralline islands. nearly all the property of the Duke of Hamilton. &c. long celebrated for its tapestry. to which he had been sentenced. the same as the CUNEIFORM (q. Chennai 6. whose seat is Brodick Castle. 100. tortoise-shell. a Roman matron." and "Periplus. saying. ARRU ISLANDS (15). and died at an advanced age. a French town in the dep.. W. Page 161 of 2772 . ARROW-HEADED CHARACTERS. in Buteshire.

Computer Lecturer. king from 405 to 359 B. I. THE.ramakalai@gmail.D.C. "Ichthyologia.. his own great work. to his name. and the Fine. slew all his kindred on ascending the throne. king from 465 to 424 B. implying skill. grandson of Sassan. ARTAXER`XES. ARTE`DI.C. graduation in which is granted by universities. as holding of the entire. the Liberal. founder of the dynasty Sassanidae." ARTA.com ARSIN`OE. III. Page 162 of 2772 . the Fine. and the Mechanical: the Liberal. MNEMON. son of Xerxes I. A. discriminated from the mechanical by the word spiritual. imposed in 387 on the Spartans the shameful treaty of ANTALCIDAS (q. vanquished and killed his brother Cyrus at Cunaxa in 401. II. the name of several Egyptian princesses of antiquity. A.). also a prude in Moliere's "Misanthrope. v. ARTS. in Egypt slew the sacred bull Apis and gave the flesh to his soldiers. entitling the holder to append M. GULF OF. entertained Themistocles at his court.C.. and promoted education. restored the old religion of the Magi. king from 359 to 338 B. Chennai 6. 223 to 232. for which his eunuch Bagsas poisoned him. a Swedish naturalist.. undivided man. A. who had revolted against him.A.. frontier of Greece. gulf forming the NW. amended the laws. IV. implying the possession of a soul. implying scholarship. king from A. the name of several Persian monarchs: A.. assisted Linnaeus in his "Systema Naturae". the Mechanical. OCHUS. son of the preceding." published by Linnaeus after his death (1703-1735). heart as well as brain. There are three classes of these." from his right hand being longer than his left. concluded a peace with Greece after a war of 52 years. called the "Long-handed. CTSTI.

Chennai 6. of Euboea.C. Page 163 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. See C. 480 B. JACOB VAN. queen of Halicarnassus. wells made by boring for water where it is lower than its source. twin sister of Apollo. II. F. was massacred in a popular tumult (1300-1345). presided over the birth of animals. a virgin goddess. joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. and fought with valour at Salamis. near which Xerxes lost part of his fleet. 355 B. ARTEMI`SIUM. chosen chief in a revolt against Count Louis of Flanders. born in the Isle of Delos. the impersonation and champion of Justice in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. AR`TEVELDE. ARTEVELDE.. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. so as to obtain a constant supply of it. and got mixed up with deities in other mythologies. A. and one of the great divinities of the Greeks. and became king. the moon the type of her and the laurel her sacred tree. ARTESIAN WELLS. raised a tomb over the grave of her husband Mausolus. son of the preceding. CTSTI. in the Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and Leto. PHILIP VAN. made a treaty with Edward III. a promontory N.C. was guardian of flocks. defeated Louis II.C. as lord-superior of Flanders.com AR`TEGAL. 440 B. ARTEMI`SIA." AR`TEMIS. represented as a huntress armed with bow and arrows. was the Diana of the Romans. ARTEMUS WARD. but with the help of France Louis retaliated and defeated Computer Lecturer. a wealthy brewer of Ghent. expelled him. BROWNE. also queen.

ARTHUR.. originally Forty-Two. as the accepted faith of the Church." AR`THUR.ramakalai@gmail. and slew him in 1382. ARTHUR SEAT. whose exploits and those of his court have given birth to the tradition of the Round Table. and a prominent member of the Republican party (1830-1886). supplanted by King John. whatever it may be now. from the top of which the prospect is unrivalled. a creed framed in 1562. and show like a city of fairyland"--such the view Carlyle had in a clear atmosphere of 1826. to the rendering of which Tennyson devoted so much of his genius. rough crags and rude precipices at our feet ('where not a hillock rears its head unsung'). an expert in the profession in Dickens' "Oliver Twist.com the Flemings.. venerable masses of stone-work. THE THIRTY-NINE. a British prince of wide-spread fame. and covering with a vapoury mantle the jagged. a lion-shaped hill 822 ft. PRINCE. CHESTER ALAN.. clustering proudly over her rugged foundations. black. who is supposed to have lived at the time of the Saxon invasion in the 6th century. ARTHUR. DUKE OF BRITTANY. with Edinburgh at their base. which every clergyman of the Church of England is bound by law to subscribe to at his ordination. a lawyer by profession. majestic. twenty-first president of the United States. Page 164 of 2772 . close to Edinburgh on the E. heir to the throne of England by the death of his uncle Richard I. everlasting ocean. CTSTI. ARTICLES.. ARTFUL DODGER. that stretch far and wide. a young thief. with the Fife hills swelling gradually into the Grampians behind it on the N. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. "the blue.

famed. now in the possession of the University of Oxford. CTSTI. that he may bestow a delight which it is gracious to bestow. on the Arun.. (q. Albert Duerer. with a castle of great magnificence. so called by his countrymen. "a person who has submitted to a law which it was painful to obey.. comprising the dep. son of Tarquinus Superbus. of Pas-de-Calais." ARTISTS. an ancient province of France. but a munificent benefactor of the Church (1353-1414). v. MONSEIGNEUR D'." for "breeches of a new kind in this world". the seat of the Earls of Arundel. THOMAS. ARUNS. 9 m. ARTOIS.. united to the crown in 1659. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer.com ARTIST. the date of the marbles themselves is 263 B.C. who fell in single combat with Brutus. ancient Grecian marbles collected at Smyrna and elsewhere by the Earl of Arundel in 1624. ARUNDEL MARBLES. ARUNDEL. AR`UNDEL (2).). Page 165 of 2772 . Lord Chancellor. and archbishop of Canterbury. successively bishop of Ely. and parts of the Somme and the Nord. of Chichester.C. a municipal town in Sussex. AR`TOIS.ramakalai@gmail. archbishop of York. according to a definition of Ruskin. a persecutor of the Wickliffites. PRINCE OF. the most important of which is one from Paros inscribed with a chronology of events in Grecian history from 1582 to 264 B. which he prints in small caps. and afterwards CHARLES X. E. brother of Louis XVI. as described in Carlyle's "French Revolution.

Celts. a race that is presumed to have had its primitive seat in Central Asia. Computer Lecturer. ARVEYRON. Chennai 6. 22 m. or Indo-Europeans. of the Hindu-Kush. FRATRES. a fetid inspissated sap from an Indian umbelliferous tree. ASAFOE`TIDA. from Oran. AR`ZEW. an affluent of the Congo on the right bank below the Stanley Falls. a community of origin that is attested by the comparative study of their respective languages. used in medicine. AR`YANS. on the one hand. exports grain and salt. from which sprung the Greeks.ramakalai@gmail. ASAPH. a musician of the temple at Jerusalem. with Roman remains. CTSTI. a river that flows through the valley of Chamouni and falls into the Rhone below Geneva.com ARUWI`MI. a college of twelve priests in ancient Rome whose duty it was to make annual offerings to the Lares for the increase of the fruits of the field. an affluent of the Arve from the Mer de Glace. Teutons. Slavs. Page 166 of 2772 . a seaport in Algeria. ARVA`TES. and the Persians and Hindus on the other. E. and southward into Persia and the valley of the Ganges. Latins. ARVE. and to have branched off at different periods north-westward and westward into Europe. of the Caspian Sea and N.

a giant conquered by Bevis of Southampton. Chennai 6. paper. was consecrated the first bishop of the newly organised Methodist Church there (1745-1816). from Chester. as well as an author of children's stories (1812-1885). a zealous.ramakalai@gmail. Helena.com ASAPH. a Dane. and particularly as a collector of folk-lore. 20 m. from the coast of Africa. rising to nearly 3000 ft. his wife. distinguished as a naturalist. a bare volcanic island in the Atlantic. and horse under his arm. sent to America. which has been manufactured into cloth. AS`CAPART. ST. an incombustible mineral of a flax-like fibrous texture. Page 167 of 2772 . FRANCIS. the son of AEneas. seat of a bishopric. a coaling and victualling station for the navy. who trotted _non passibus aequis_ ("with unequal steps") by the side of his father as he escaped from burning Troy. was founder of Alba Longa. steam-pipes. one of the five cities of the Philistines. CTSTI.. belonging to Britain. NW. ASBJOeRN`SEN. AS`CALON. much contested for during the Crusades. a town in Flintshire. ASCENSION. of St. though so huge as to carry Bevis. 500 m.. ASBES`TOS. &c. Computer Lecturer. gas-stoves. lamp-wick. AS`BURY. assiduous Methodist preacher and missionary. ASCA`NIUS. and 900 m.

author of an English dictionary. JOHN. e. JOHN. AS`GARD. to spend 30 years. wrote a book to prove that death was due to want of faith. a racecourse in Berks. AS`COT. instituted by Queen Anne. was tutor and Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth. ASH. deemed a classic. SW. and translated he was. and end his days in the debtors' prison. Johnson. from Frankfort." for which Henry VIII. the rainbow. the sum of which is _docendo discas_. and who held intercourse with the other spheres of existence by the bridge Bifroest. and much esteemed by her. an ancient town of Bavaria. 20 m.ramakalai@gmail. the "Schoolmaster. and particularly Greek. take place a fortnight after the Derby. writing pamphlets. wrote a book on archery. the races at which. with an old castle and cathedral. entitled "Toxophilus. of Windsor. ASCHAM." an admirable treatise on education. ASCHERSLE`BEN (22). held in high regard by Dr. apparently quite happily.com ASCHAF`FENBURG (14). ROGER. and to express his belief that he would be translated. ASGILL. i. a manufacturing town in the Magdeburg district of Prussia. 6 m. an eccentric Englishman. a Bithynian who practised medicine with repute at Rome in Cicero's time. a good classical. ASCLEPI`ADES. a dissenting divine. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. Fellow of Cambridge. Page 168 of 2772 . the garden or heaven of the Asen or gods in the Norse mythology. settled a pension on him. his chief work. a Yorkshireman. on the Main. in which each had a separate dwelling. and was great in hygiene. CTSTI. "learn by teaching" (1515-1560). scholar.

ASHBURTON. sent special ambassador to the United States in 1842. W. and finally the despatch of a military expedition." with the ruins of a castle in which Queen Mary was immured. JOHN. in his retirement "a really good. and skilful. and assistant to him in his troubles (1603-1671). of Leicester. member of Peel's administration in 1834-35. Page 169 of 2772 . a small market-town 17 m. concluded the boundary treaty of Washington. well watered. a negro inland kingdom in the Upper Soudan. 1878. "a very worthy man. and well cultivated. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail.com valuable for the number of obsolete and provincial words contained in it (1724-1779). natives intelligent. of Thomas Carlyle (1797-1844). simple-hearted old man" (1774-1848). sagacious. and rare books known as the Ashburnham Collection. ASHBURNHAM. turned Conservative. figures in "Ivanhoe. a faithful adherent and attendant of Charles I. which led to the submission of the king and the appointment of a British Resident. ASHBURTON. Lady Harriet. a Liberal politician. Chennai 6.." an admirer. of Gold Coast territory. ASHBURNHAM. LORD. warlike. Computer Lecturer. _d_. ASH`ANTI. a member of the Long Parliament. known as the Ashburton Treaty. son of the preceding. WILLIAM BINGHAM BARING. N. second son of Sir Francis Baring. collected a number of valuable MSS. ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH. solid. wooded. ALEXANDER BARING. most cheery. or ASHANTEE. still more. and his wife. twice over provoked a war with Great Britain. 5TH EARL OF.

. ELIAS. with a large continental basin. which. which laid the foundation of the Ashmolean Collection there (1617-1692). seat of the Dagon worship. ASIA. being the half of that of the globe.com ASHDOD. with every variety of climate. and eastward into three bulging masses and three pronounced peninsulas forming seas. of Jaffa. strikingly stand at a higher level as we go E. the largest of the four quarters of the globe. contains one-third of all the land. ASH`MOLE. with rivers the largest in the whole world. extensive plains. ASHMUN. a maritime Philistine city 20 m. on the W. an American philanthropist. from a centre of high elevations. with a richly varied flora and fauna. ASH`TON-UNDER-LYNE (47).. two SE. CTSTI. and as good as in touch with the other three. and deep depressions. and eight S. founder of the Negro Republic of Liberia.. a cotton-manufacturing town near Manchester. Page 170 of 2772 .000. stretches southward into three large peninsulas separated by three immense arms of the sea. and associated with the worship of that goddess. a celebrated antiquary and authority on heraldry. See ASTARTE.000. of Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. and with lakes which though they do not match those of America and Africa.). of which four flow N. coast of Africa (1794-1828). JEHUDI. presented to the University of Oxford a collection of rarities bequeathed to him. S..ramakalai@gmail. v. with a population of 840. ASHE`RA. also the largest in the world. ASH`TAROTH. an image of ASTARTE (q. protected by groups of islands.

ANTONY. ASIA MINOR. ANNE. organised Buddhism. tortured on the rack and burnt at the stake. Mongolian. for denying transubstantiation. as Constantine did Christianity. by the Levant. convened the third great council of the Church of that creed at Patna. the place of their origin. made a proclamation of this faith Computer Lecturer. Mahomet. in India. a king of Behar. a peninsular extension westward of the Armenian and Kurdistan highlands in Asia. who gloats on the vices and follies of mankind. ASKEW. a mischievous demon or goblin of the Jewish demonology. Chennai 6. ASMONAE`ANS. a name given to the Maccabees. after his accession in 264 B. or Christ. all more or less busy centres of trade. Caucasian.com chiefly three races. mainland as well as adjoining islands. Buddha.000. ASMODE`US.ramakalai@gmail. called also ANATOLE`. a physician and classical scholar. by the Archipelago. Page 171 of 2772 .C. by far the majority professing the faith of Brahma. on the W. ASKEW." as lifting off the roofs of the houses of Madrid and exposing their inmost interiors and the secret doings of the inhabitants. and Malay. a victim of persecution in the time of Henry VIII. and figures in Le Sage's "Le Diable Boiteux. CTSTI. has a population of over 28. with bays and harbours. from Asmon. into a State religion. a lady of good birth. and consists of a plateau with slopes all round to the coasts. became an ardent disciple of Buddha. is as large as France. indented all round." or the "Devil on Two Sticks. bounded on the N. at different stages of civilisation. a collector of rare and curious books (1722-1774). by the Black Sea.000. and as regards religion. and on the S. 1546. ASO`KA.

ASP. CTSTI. v. but a no less real. Computer Lecturer.).com as far as his influence extended. on the Danube. a village in Austria. 4 m. and Marshal Lannes killed. beauty. a native of Miletus. a woman remarkable for her wit. and her home the rendezvous of all the intellectual and wise people of the city. _d_. a term frequently employed by Carlyle to denote a much more recondite. became the wife of Pericles. 223 B. corresponding phenomenon in the spiritual life. ASPHALT. in their imagination. Socrates included. suspended respiration in the physical life. her character was often both justly and unjustly assailed.C. ASPA`SIA. where a charge of the Austrians under the Archduke Charles was defeated by Napoleon. AS`PHODEL. called hence the Asphodel Meadow. ASPHYX`IA. the DEAD SEA (q.ramakalai@gmail. a lily plant appraised by the Greeks for its almost perennial flowering. of Vienna. AS`PERN. being attracted to Athens. Chennai 6. a mineral pitch of a black or brownish-black colour. and more or less in every quarter of the globe. so called from the asphalt on its surface and banks. 1809. ASPHALTIC LAKE. NE. also a limestone impregnated with bitumen. May 21. covered the Elysian fields. and with which they. consisting chiefly of carbon. a poisonous Egyptian viper of uncertain species. and culture. Page 172 of 2772 . evidence of which is still extant in pillars and rocks inscribed with his edicts in wide districts of Northern India. came and settled in it.

since the Empress Eugenie presented it with a statue of Columbus. a town founded by an American of the name in 1800. long and 50 broad. born at Genoa.ramakalai@gmail. COUNT. an Italian philanthropist. NICOLAS. of Bengal. ASSAM` (5. the low lands extremely fertile and productive. on the W. to the saving of his countrymen. three-fourths of the tea raised in India. 450 m. and the hills covered with tea plantations. named Colon. a province E. ASQUINI. yielding at one time. if not still. ASSAB BAY. whose celebrity depends on a single act of defiance: having entered a wood to reconnoitre it the night before the battle of Kloster Kampen. with ranges of hills along the Brahmapootra. ceded to Britain after the Burmese war in 1826. near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862. Auvergne!" he exclaimed.com ASPINWALL. and defied with bayonets at his breast to utter a cry of alarm. ASPROMON`TE. being an alluvial plain. CTSTI. Chennai 6. the first to open a school for deaf-mutes in Italy. overlooking the Strait of Messina. AS`SAS. Computer Lecturer. was suddenly surrounded by the enemy's (the English) soldiers. "Ho. at the Atlantic extremity of the Panama railway. coast of the Red Sea. captain of the French regiment of Auvergne. and devoted zealously his fortune and time to the task (1753-1821).500). Page 173 of 2772 . ASSAROTTI. and fell dead on the instant. a rural economist who did much to promote silk culture in Italy (1726-1818). a mountain close by Reggio. pierced with bayonets. a coaling-station belonging to Italy.

from July 1. a small town 46 m. half clergymen and half laymen. a body composed of 140 members. 1789. of Aurungabad. whose stronghold was a rock fortress at Alamut. of which 117 were clergymen. and determines appeals. GENERAL. ASSEMBLY. disposes of the general business of the Church. under a chief called the Old Man of the Mountain. NATIONAL. used by certain S. and discipline in the National Church. ASSEGAI. ASSEMBLY. Computer Lecturer. NE. 1643. to Feb. where Sir Arthur Wellesley gained a victory over the Mahrattas in 1803. and gave a new constitution to the country. at the time of the Crusades. Chennai 6. A Tartar force burst upon the horde in their stronghold in 1256. ASSEMBLY. a fanatical Moslem sect organised in the 11th century. 1649. and so called because they braced their nerves for their deeds of blood by draughts of an intoxicating liquor distilled from hashish (the hemp-plant). WESTMINSTER. and which held its sittings. worship. African tribes with deadly effect in war. over 1100 of them.com ASSASSINS. convened at Westminster to determine questions of doctrine. which sits in Edinburgh for ten days in May. a representative body. constituted itself into a legislative assembly. ASSAYE`.ramakalai@gmail. devoted to the assassination of all enemies of the Moslem faith. Page 174 of 2772 . CTSTI. 22. but were divided in the matter of government. a spear or javelin of wood tipped with iron. in Persia. the chief court of the Presbyterian Church. with the result that the members of it were unanimous in regard to doctrine. and put them wholesale to the sword. the Commons section of the States-General of France which met on May 5.

Francis. monk of St. ASSI`SI (3). and finally the South Sea Company. the few of whom that remain do farming on the banks of the Saskatchewan. librarian of the Vatican. GIUSEPPE. bills or notes. in Wales. a town in Central Italy. the Genoese. a treaty with Spain to supply negroes for her colonies. held the same office.ramakalai@gmail. is said to have suggested the founding of Oxford University. to the number of 45 thousand million. 909. and based on the security of Church and other lands appropriated by it. Page 175 of 2772 . certain aborigines of Canada.com ASSEMANI. nephew. CTSTI. ASSINIBOI`A. David's. a French company. who sometimes came in great numbers. wrote an account of Syrian writers (1687-1768). Computer Lecturer. issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France in 1790. and the birthplace of Metastasio. a province in Canada between Saskatchewan and the United States. wrote "Acta Sanctorum Martyrum" (1707-1782). and biographer of Alfred the Great. a learned Syrian Maronite. ASSER. concluded in succession with the Flemings. friend. JOHN. _d_. to the ruin of millions. Chennai 6. 12 m. the English. SE. who relinquished their rights in 1750 on compensation by Spain. STEPHANO. the birthplace and burial-place of St. and which in course of time sunk in value. ASSINIBOINES. it was a celebrated place of resort of pilgrims. AS`SIGNATS. tutor. of Perugia. ASSIEN`TO.

. a French burlesque poet ridiculed by Boileau (1604-1679). ASSUR. in 606 B. the latter. and Babylonia on the S. ASSUMPTION. a fact employed to explain certain recondite psychological phenomena. or ASHTORETH. which lay to the E.. ASSYR`IA. as Baal was the male.ramakalai@gmail. D'. ASSYRIOLOGY.C. such that the consciousness of one tends to recall the other. these two being representative respectively of the conceptive and generative powers of nature. and symbolised. mythical name of the founder of Assyria.. the alleged day of the event. celebrated on the 15th of August. with a fertile soil and a population at a high stage of civilisation. on the right bank of the Nile. the origin and early history of which is uncertain. like Computer Lecturer. by the sun. CTSTI. the female divinity of the Phoenicians. and the former. ASSOUAN`. ASSOUCY. FEAST OF THE. long and 150 broad. near the last cataract. an ancient kingdom.com ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS. between the Niphates Mountains of Armenia on the N. and has been under the Turks since 1638. a connection in the mind between two ideas. Chennai 6. chiefly in a Biblical interest. the ancient Syene. Page 176 of 2772 . like Apollo. festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to heaven. and afterwards a satrapy of the Persian empire. became a province of Media. the study of the monuments of Assyria. in whose hands it is now a desert. or IST`AR. the southernmost city of Egypt. ASTAR`TE. 280 m.

on the Tanaro. ASTER. AS`TEROIDS. Computer Lecturer. "To the right eye of Philip.ramakalai@gmail. ASTOLFO. surmised in 1596. German authoress. or Planetoids. and named Ceres. in "Orlando Furioso" he brings back Orlando's lost wits in a phial from the moon. 1801. a knight-errant in mediaeval legend who generous-heartedly is always to do greater feats than he can perform. ASTON. and went about in male attire. all discovered in the present century. the first on Jan. of Amphipolis. Aster will hang for it. gradually found to number more than 200. _b_. along with Franconi established the Cirque Olympique in Paris (1742-1814). Page 177 of 2772 . "When Philip takes the town. an ancient city in Piedmont. a famous equestrian and circus manager. PHILIP. an archer who offered his services to Philip of Macedon. 1. and to whom Philip had replied he would accept them when he made war on the birds. by the moon. sped an arrow from the wall of a town Philip was besieging. birthplace of Alfieri. AS`TI (33). the rites connected with her worship were of a lascivious nature. 1820. boasting of his skill in bringing down birds on the wing.com Artemis or Diana. SE. small planets in orbits between those of Mars and Jupiter. from Turin. inscribed." and he was true to his word. LUISE." which took effect. to be revenged. ASTLEY. 26 m. is noted for its wine. CTSTI. sometimes identified with Urania and sometimes with Venus. Aster. and possesses a horn that with a blast can discomfit armies. Chennai 6. whereupon Philip sped back another with the words. championed the rights of women. with a Gothic cathedral.

_b_. the withdrawal explained to mean the vanishing of the ideal from the life of man on the earth.) Computer Lecturer. JOHN JACOB. but left the earth on its decline. a suburb of Birmingham. a fur-trading station. and her sister Pudicitia along with her. His son doubled his fortune. 40 m. an ethereal body believed by the theosophists to invest the animal. CTSTI. a Russian trading town on the Volga. Chennai 6. AS`TRAKHAN (43). with numerous salmon-tinning establishments. Page 178 of 2772 . who made a fortune of four millions in America by trading in furs (1763-1848). and to be capable of BILOCATION (q. in Oregon. ASTOR. now placed among the stars under the name of Virgo. to correspond to it. dwelt among men during the Golden Age. 1891. came to London. from its mouth in the Caspian Sea. ASTRAL BODY. the goddess of justice. v. devoted to politics.com ASTON MANOR (54). 1848. son of a German peasant. known as the "landlord of New York" (1792-1875). ASTRAEA REDUX. ASTRAE`A. the daughter of Zeus and Themis. the name given to an era which piques itself on the return of the reign of justice to the earth. son of the preceding. a millionaire. of which it is the chief port. WILLIAM WALDORF. became proprietor of the _Pall Mall Gazette_ and _Budget_ in 1893. ASTOR.ramakalai@gmail. ASTO`RIA.

spirits believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies. lest he should live and restore the city. in the Hindu mythology the demons of the darkness of night. ASTRUC. JEAN. now noted as having discovered that the book of Genesis consists of Elohistic and Jehovistic portions. THE. ASTROLOGY. on the left bank of the Paraguay. and few great families at one time but had an astrologer attached to them to read the horoscope of any new member of the house. the capital of Paraguay. a science at one time believed in by men of such intelligence as Tacitus and Kepler. so called from having been founded by the Spaniards on the Feast of the Assumption in 1535. CTSTI. ASTY`ANAX. ASTY`AGES. ASTU`RIAS (579). Page 179 of 2772 . in overcoming whom the gods asserted their sovereignty in the Computer Lecturer. and who by this discovery founded the modern school called of the Higher Criticism (1681-1766).ramakalai@gmail. gives title to the heir to the crown. the son of Hector and Andromache. and to hover unembodied through space exercising demonic influence on embodied spirits. a French physician and professor of medicine in Paris.C. was cast down by the Greeks from the ramparts after the fall of Troy. an ancient province in the N. 549 B. and with good fisheries. last king of the Medes. or ASSUMPTION (18). from the principal town. Chennai 6. ASUN`CION.com ASTRAL SPIRITS. a science founded on a presumed connection between the heavenly bodies and human destiny as more or less affected by them. dethroned by Cyrus. now named Oviedo. ASURAS. of Spain. to whom worship was paid. rich in minerals.

then another. which it joins near Berber. America. or Black River. that is. for the annoyance she gave him. and was strangled by his orders in 1533. ATHABA`SCA. ATE`. Chennai 6. but as he neared the goal. as well as gold in considerable quantities. a province. the prize of any suitor who could outstrip her on the racecourse. who fell into Pizarro's hands through perfidy. whereupon Hippomenes claimed the prize. at last one suitor. Computer Lecturer. stooping to lift which lost her the race. ASYMPTOTE. a line always approaching some curve but never meeting it. and a lake in British N. Hippomenes his name. also of vengeance. of Chile.ramakalai@gmail. was banished by her father Zeus. ATBA`RA. little short of a year after the Spaniards landed in Peru. and even diseases. in the Greek mythology the goddess of strife and mischief. where she has not been idle since. ATALAN`TA. ATACA`MA. of ancestors dead generations before. ATAHUALPA. an all but rainless desert in the N. failure being death. accepted the risk and started along with her. AT`AVISM.com universe. kept dropping first one golden apple. from heaven to earth. name given to the reappearance in progeny of the features. Page 180 of 2772 . the last of the Incas of Peru. abounding in silver and copper mines. from the Highlands of Abyssinia. a beautiful Grecian princess celebrated for her agility. CTSTI. the lowest tributary of the Nile. provided him by Venus. a river.

for which she was in the end massacred by her subjects. the queen of Judah. and a deacon of the Church. 9th century B. and in employing young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not know. Chennai 6.com ATHALIA. and the Holy Ghost in the Trinity. the latter the more common and the more fatal form of it. but now believed to be of later date. where he died. a statement. a native of Alexandria. which may be either theoretical. driven forth again and again from his bishopric under persecution of the Arians. and in vindication of the doctrine of the Trinity viewed in the most absolute sense (296-373). ISLE OF. or practical. of the orthodox creed of the Church as against the Arians. an island in a marsh near the confluence of the Computer Lecturer. was chosen bishop of Alexandria. took a prominent part against Arius in the Council at Nice.ramakalai@gmail. ATHANASIAN CREED. ATHEISM. MODERN. ATHEISM. Christian theologian. his works consist of treatises and orations bearing on the Arian controversy. in the life. in the intellect. celebrated for her crimes and impiety.C. spent the last 10 years of his life as bishop at Alexandria. retired into the Thebaid for a time. the Son. ATHANASIUS. Page 181 of 2772 . disbelief in the existence of God. in the form of a confession. daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. and damnatory of every article of the heresy severally. and was his most uncompromising antagonist. ascribed to Athanasius at one time. ascribed by Ruskin to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy in teaching children what they cannot understand." ATHELNEY. CTSTI. though embracing his theology in affirmation of the absolute co-equal divinity of the Father.

particularly in the arts. Page 182 of 2772 . the Greek virgin goddess of wisdom. and in the heart". the capital of Attica. that have been considered to rival it in this respect. and bears on her left arm the aegis with the Medusa's head. a school of learning established in Rome about 133 by Hadrian. from all parts of the country and lands beyond. Alfred's place of refuge from the Danes. the resort in ancient times of all the able and wise men. were sacred to her. ATHENAEUS. and is the name of over twenty places in the United States.ramakalai@gmail. wears a helmet. to have issued full-armed from the brain of Zeus.com Tone and Parret. happily called by Ruskin the "'Queen of the Air. was Athenian and a pagan by birth. Chennai 6. at once the brain and the heart of it. but being converted to Christianity. ATH`ENS. Edinburgh in particular. ATHE`NA. both erected on the Acropolis. ATHENAEUM. of war as of peace. particularly in the domain of literature and art. and in this way the child of both wisdom and power. in the earth. the olive among trees. and the chief city of ancient Greece. a Greek writer of the 3rd century. wrote an apology in its defence." extant only in an imperfect state. or the Suppers of the Learned. though the name Athens has been adopted by or applied to several cities. and a treatise on the resurrection of the dead. an able Christian apologist of the 2nd century. ATHENAG`ORAS. Somerset. The two chief monuments of the architecture of ancient Athens. are the Computer Lecturer. and the owl among animals. while the monuments of temple and statue that still adorn it give evidence of a culture among the citizens such as the inhabitants of no other city of the world have had the genius to surpass. is said to have been the conception of Metis.' in the heavens. CTSTI. wrote a curious miscellany of a book entitled "Deipnosophistae.

ATHOLE-BROSE. Page 183 of 2772 . a large manufacturing and railway centre. high at the southern extremity of the most northerly peninsula of Salonica. the more devout among them at one time celebrated for the edification they derived from the study of their own navels. and whisky mixed. and the Erechtheum. and rich in curious manuscripts. ATLANTES. v. 7TH DUKE OF. oatmeal. a district in the N. bee-culture. ATLANTA (65). and the residence of the king. the largest city in Georgia.). is the capital (100) of modern Greece. a market-town on the Shannon. _b_. U.. inhabited exclusively by monks of the Greek Church. ATHLONE (7). a temple dedicated to Poseidon close by. in Turkey. or MONTE SANTO (6). MOUNT.S. and a chief military station. the monks devote themselves to gardening. and other rural occupations. Chennai 6. covered with monasteries. honourably distinguished for having devoted years of his life to editing the records of the family and the related history. which gives name to a branch of the Murray family. figures of men used in architecture instead of pillars. SIR JOHN JAMES HUGH STEWART-MURRAY. dedicated to Athena. ATHOLE. Computer Lecturer. 1840 A`THOS.ramakalai@gmail. the seat of the government. ATHOLE. of Perthshire. honey. CTSTI.com PARTHENON (q. which divides it. a mountain 6780 ft. the finest building on the finest site in the world.

the pupil.. CTSTI. connecting. rather than separating. to Cape Bon. the divine spirit in man. with waves in consequence of greater height and volume than those of any other sea. its average depth 15. or from 3 to 5 m. an island alleged by tradition to have existed in the ocean W. THE NEW. ATMAN. Computer Lecturer. AT`LAS. it is centred in the heart of the universe. ATLAS MOUNTAINS. conceived of as a small being having its seat in the heart. a Titan who. Plato has given a beautiful picture of this island. THE. best known. and appears with dazzling effect in the sun. the LESSER extending besides through Algeria and Tunis. and the whole system extending from Cape Nun. was doomed to bear the heavens on his shoulders. the Old World and the New. a range in N. Chennai 6.. ATLAN`TIS. although another account makes him a king of Mauritania whom Perseus.ramakalai@gmail. in the Hindu philosophy. the GREATER in Morocco. and an account of its fabulous history.. changed into a mountain by exposing to view the head of the Medusa. and is the same there as in the heart of man. THE. of the Pillars of Hercules. Page 184 of 2772 . the most important. which Lord Bacon began to outline but never finished. the heart and eye of the world. the highest 11. length 9000 m.. for his audacity in attempting to dethrone Zeus. for his want of hospitality.000 ft. where it may be felt stirring. Africa. most traversed and best provided for traffic of all the oceans on the globe. travelling whence along the arteries it peers out as a small image in the eye.000 feet. in Tunis. a Utopia figured as existing somewhere in the Atlantic. covers nearly one-fifth of the surface of the earth. in Morocco.com ATLANTIC. its average breadth 2700 m.

the name of three kings of Pergamos: A.com AT`OLL. the theory that all compound bodies are made up of elementary in fixed proportions. ATOMIC THEORY. appointed to spin the thread. Chennai 6. into a canal to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. ATRI`DES. CTSTI.C.ramakalai@gmail. particularly Agamemnon and Menelaus. Lachesis. ATRA`TO. a river in Colombia which flows N.. the unit. ATOMIC WEIGHT. a family frequently referred to as capable of and doomed to perpetrating the most atrocious crimes. his descendants had to pay heavy penalties. given to a coral island consisting of a ring of coral enclosing a lagoon. proposed. A. along with San Juan River. for which act. to be converted.. bequeathed his wealth to the Roman people Computer Lecturer. and served them up in a banquet to him. AT`ROPOS. the one who cut asunder the thread of life. I. as tradition shows. since the failure of the Panama scheme. III.. Clotho. kept up the league with Rome (157-137). to avenge a wrong done him by his brother Thyestes. AT`TALUS.). who. the name. a son of Pelops and king of Mycenae. A. a Polynesian one. founded the library of Pergamos and joined the Romans against Philip and the Achaeans (241-197 B. is navigable for 200 m. and the other. Page 185 of 2772 .. descendants of Atreus. into the Gulf of Darien. II. to direct it. A`TREUS. killed his two sons. the weight of an atom of any body compared with that of hydrogen. one of the three Fates. one of her sisters.

opposed to Punic. inviolable faith. Xenophon. a pure and refined style of expression in any language. a country in ancient Greece.com (137-132). which has nevertheless had a history of world-wide fame and importance. ATTIC SALT. ATTICUS. within an area not larger than that of Lanarkshire. AT`TICA. died in Paris. pointed and delicate wit.. Sophocles. a wealthy Roman and a great friend of Cicero's. Page 186 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. classical. on the NE. from the simplicity and elegance of his style. in succession dean of Christ Church. bishop of Rochester. an eloquent preacher. Chennai 6. an English prelate. ATTIC STYLE. He was a scholarly man. from the sweetness and beauty of his productions. ATTICISM.ramakalai@gmail. ATTIC MUSE. a zealous Churchman and Jacobite. originally the purest and most refined style of the ancient literature of Greece. CTSTI. ATTIC FAITH. which last brought him into trouble on the accession of the House of Hanover and led to his banishment. a pure. ATTERBURY. FRANCIS. of the Peloponnesus. TITUS P. and elegant style. and dean of Westminster. and wrote an eloquent style (1662-1731). ATTIC BEE.

CTSTI. retreated across the Alps and ravaged the N.com devoted to study and the society of friends. been killed. died of voluntary starvation rather than endure the torture of a painful and incurable disease (110-33 B. or Etzel. who turned him into a pine. overran the Roman Empire at the time of its decline. AT`TOCK (4). driven him mad. died of hemorrhage. ATTWOOD. Computer Lecturer. extorting heavy tribute. a town and fortress in the Punjab. of Italy. a mathematician." from the terror he everywhere inspired. A`TYS. beloved by Cybele. it is alleged. led his forces into Germany and Gaul. the king of the Huns. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. THOMAS. wrote a few anthems (1767-1836). vanquished the emperors of both East and West. on the day of his marriage. by her apparition at his marriage to forbid the banns. Page 187 of 2772 . a beautiful Phrygian youth. and was buried in a gold coffin containing immense treasures in 453.ramakalai@gmail. an eminent English musician and composer. on the Indus where the Kabul joins it--a river beyond which no Hindu must pass. invented a machine for illustrating the law of uniformly accelerated motion. it was built by Akbar in 1581. after she had. surnamed "the Scourge of God. GEORGE. AT`TILA. the slaves who dug the grave having. the name given the first law officer and legal adviser of the Crown in England and Ireland. Chennai 6. took no part in politics. as in falling bodies (1745-1807). it is said. lest they should reveal the spot.). was defeated in a great battle near Chalons-sur-Marne by the combined armies of the Romans under Aetius and the Goths under Theodoric. ATTWOOD.C.

left a vast number of MSS. 1382. born at Dijon. v. an eminent antiquary.ramakalai@gmail. preserved a good deal of the gossip of the period (1624-1697). with Troyes for capital." "Fra Diavolo.. AU`BERT. Chennai 6." "Le Domino Noir. provost of Paris under Charles V." being a collection of popular superstitions. was intimate with all the literary men of the day. a popular French composer of operas. born at Caen. THE ABBE. formed of Champagne and a small part of Burgundy. a French town on the Creuse. PIERRE D'. died at Dijon. was imprisoned in it for heresy. the sole witness of the crime and the avenger of it being his dog. of French descent. AUBUSSON. inherited estates in Wilts. his operas included "La Muette de Portici. AUBUSSON.). (1782-1871). published one work. "Miscellanies. born at Paris (1731-1814). AUBRY DE MONTDIDIER. in France. a French fabulist. John of Jerusalem. French knight murdered by ROBERT MACAIRE (q. AUB`REY. grand-master of the Knights of St. AU`BER. a French statesman. a friend of Anthony Wood's. a dep. JOHN. Page 188 of 2772 . but released by a mob.com AUBE (255). AUB`RIOT." &c.: built the famous Bastille. all of which he lost by lawsuits and bad management. who in 1480 gallantly defended Rhodes when Computer Lecturer. and Wales. CTSTI. manufactures carpets and tapestry. Hereford.

000 men (1423-1503). and drove the assailants back.ramakalai@gmail. AUCHINLECK. in the N. GEORGE EDEN. and the assertion of the rights of the people and led to the disruption of the community. a town on the Wear.com besieged by Mahomet II. a Whig in politics. and the capital of a district of the name. a village in Perthshire. broad. 400 m. long. the largest town in New Zealand. with the palace of the bishop. a village 15 m. 14 m. with an excellent harbour in the Gulf of Hauraki. has a trade in wine and brandy. with the mansion of the Boswell family. CTSTI. island. E. of Ayr. W. Chennai 6. and 200 m. Page 189 of 2772 . was the capital of New Zealand till the seat of government was transferred to Wellington. Computer Lecturer. amounting to no fewer than 100. AUCK`LAND (60). returned afterwards to his post in the Admiralty (1784-1849). AUCKLAND. of Gers. and accessible only by a flight of 200 steps. capital of the dep. BISHOP (11). SW. where the forcing of a presentee by a patron on an unwilling congregation awoke a large section in the Established Church to a sense of the wrong. First Lord of the Admiralty. AUCH (12). of Toulouse. LORD. AUCKLAND. gave name to Auckland. France. son of the following. of Durham and in the county of Durham. Governor-General of India. AUCHTERAR`DER. with a fertile soil and a fine climate. rich in natural products of all kinds. and the creation of the Free Church in 1843. with a splendid cathedral perched on a hill.. 10 m.

born at Lyons. became Speaker of the House of Commons and Lord Chancellor of England. being a portion of Languedoc. and the insects that destroy the vines (1797-1841). devoted himself to the illustration in coloured plates of objects of natural history. that nourished Hymir. of France. AUDLEY. (1488-1554). an eminent French entomologist. SIR THOMAS. born in Essex. wine. a French artist and naturalist. the most eminent of a family of artists. AUDEBERT. AUDHUMBLA. was employed by the French Government to inquire into and report on the diseases of the silkworm. the selfish. of New Zealand. JEAN VICTOR. a group of small islands 180 m.ramakalai@gmail. GERARD. in the Norse mythology. engraved the works of Lebrun. and lived herself by licking the hoar-frost off the rocks. such especially as monkeys and humming-birds. Page 190 of 2772 . and Poussin. CTSTI. &c.. and an authority on criminal law (1744-1814). yields cereals. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. son of a yeoman. and is rich in minerals. a maritime dep. WILLIAM EDEN. LORD. Mignard. AUDRAN. JEAN BAPTISTE. S. LORD. he did some fine illustrations of the battles of Alexander the Great (1640-1703). with some good harbours. AUCKLAND ISLANDS. diplomatist. AU`DOUIN. an engraver. the cow. AUDE (317). and rich in vegetation. in the S.com AUCKLAND. unscrupulous tool of Henry VIII. all exquisitely done (1759-1800).

an Austrian lyrical and satirical poet. AU`ENBRUGGER." Computer Lecturer. Page 191 of 2772 . AUFKLAeRUNG. his novels. and under the guidance of so-called rationalism. and a pronounced enemy of the absolutist party headed by Metternich (1806-1876). his "Village Tales of the Black Forest" were widely popular (1812-1882). a German poet and novelist of Jewish birth. if they could only persuade men to forego reason. of faith. eminent Sanskrit scholar. a movement. by appeal to private judgment and majorities. and having begun his literary career as editor of his works. conspicuously of the present time. and who profess to settle all questions of reason. or Illuminationism. THEODOR. _b_.ramakalai@gmail. AU`ERSPERG. or as Dr. "that stripping of us naked of all things in heaven and upon earth. discoverer of the method of investigating diseases of the chest by percussion (1722-1809). AU`ERBACH." drawn and illustrated by himself. Chennai 6. 1822. born in Silesia. AUF`RECHT. Stirling defines it. he having been early led to the study of Spinoza. which have been widely translated. THE. of liberal politics. JOHN JAMES. COUNT VON. the members of which pique themselves on ability to disperse the darkness of the world. as the only test of truth. at the hands of the modern party of unbelief. returning to Germany. the former characterised by Cuvier as "the most magnificent monument that Art up to that time had raised to Nature" (1780-1851).com AU`DUBON. born in the Black Forest. common-sense. BERTHOLO. CTSTI. are in the main of a somewhat philosophical bent. author of two great works. was professor of Sanskrit in Edinburgh University. became professor at Bonn. the "Birds of America" and the "Quadrupeds of America. that is. a celebrated American ornithologist of French Huguenot origin. and accept sense. an Austrian physician.

ramakalai@gmail. renowned as a critic (1772-1829). a document drawn up by Melanchthon in name of the Lutheran reformers. EMILE. CTSTI. executed the _coup d'etat_ of the 4th Sept. where in 1531 the Protestants presented their Confession to Charles V. distinguished in the campaigns of the Republic and Napoleon. but was cleansed by Hercules turning the rivers Peneus and Alpheus through it. PIERRE FRANCOIS CHARLES. AUGS`BURG (75). rude and rough-mannered. marshal of France and duke of Castiglione. He was simply a soldier. his services were rejected by Napoleon on his return from Elba. on account of his having supported the Bourbons during his absence. the act a symbol of the worthless lumber a reformer must sweep away before his work can begin. AU`GIER. 1797. in Bavaria. and one of the Argonauts. Chennai 6. able French dramatist. AUGSBURG CONFESSION. and where the peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555. that had not been cleaned out for 30 years.com AUGE`AS. and of the doctrines of the Church of Rome. a busy manufacturing and trading town on the Lech. headed by the Elector of Saxony in statement of their own doctrines. Sardou (1820-1889). a French litterateur. all distinctly on the side of virtue. and with no great brains for anything else but military discipline (1757-1816). AUGER. the work of reformation proper. once a city of great importance. produced brilliant comedies for the French stage through a period of 40 years. Page 192 of 2772 . had a stable with 3000 oxen. AU`GEREAU. against Computer Lecturer. ensuring religious freedom. born at Paris. in Greece. His only rivals were Dumas _fils_ and M. a legendary king of Elis. born at Paris..

U.. a college of priests in Rome appointed to forecast the future by the behaviour or flight of birds kept for the purpose. of Canterbury. the time in the history of a nation when its literature is at its best. was converted to Christ by a text of St. became Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. son of a pagan father and a Christian mother. sent thither with a few monks by Pope Gregory in 596 to convert the country to Christianity. as being the month identified with remarkable events in his career. and which were sometimes carried about in a coop to consult on emergencies. the apostle of England. "Take and read". born near Gotha (1771-1841).S. or AUSTIN. Paul (Rom. which his eyes first lit upon. the bishop of Hippo and the greatest of the Latin Fathers of the Church. 14). AUGUSTA (33). originally called Sextilis. after a youth of dissipation. Chennai 6. AUGUST. St. ST. AUGUSTIN.S.. a native of Tagaste. CTSTI. on the Savannah. as the sixth month of the Roman year. as on suggestion of a friend he took up the epistle to read it in answer to an appeal he had made to him to explain a voice that was ever whispering in his ears.com which they protested. which began in March. ST. and named August in honour of Augustus. 231 m. a prosperous town in Georgia. xiii. AUGURS. from its mouth. _d_. a German rationalist theologian of note. also a town (10) the capital of Maine. AU`GUSTINE. founded the see. U. 605. began his labours in Kent. Page 193 of 2772 . AUGUSTI. or rather archbishopric. 13. AUGUSTAN AGE. in Numidia. Monica..

his principal works are his "Confessions. the Donatists. proved a wise and beneficent ruler. mendicant. AUGUSTINIANS. joined the Republican party at Caesar's death. (_c_) Nuns. Chennai 6. formed one of a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus. called at first CAIUS OCTAVIUS. called also Black Cenobites. Computer Lecturer. opposing especially the Manichaeans. the first of the Roman Emperors or Caesars. He was especially imbued with the theology of St. 14)." and his treatises on Grace and Free-Will. AUGUSTUS. a portion of them barefooted. AUGUSTUS. (_a_) Canons. nurses of the sick. and he was himself both a good man and a good ruler. (_b_) Friars.C. and the Pelagians. Paul (354-430). and took an active part in the Church controversies of his age...-A.C. under a less severe discipline than monks. and became master of the Roman world. his reign forming a distinguished epoch in the history of the ancient literature of Rome (63 B. AUGUSTUS I.ramakalai@gmail. along with Antony overthrew the Republican party under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. devoted himself to pastoral duties. was voted the title of "Augustus" by the Senate in 27 B. defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. grand-nephew of Julius Caesar. It is safe to say. and patronised the arts and letters. Page 194 of 2772 ." his "City of God. had 200 houses in England and Wales at the Reformation.com bishop in 396.D. the name of several princes of Saxony and Poland in the 16th and 17th centuries. Elector of Saxony. became consul. no Churchman has ever exercised such influence as he has done in moulding the creed as well as directing the destiny of the Christian Church. ultimately CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS. CTSTI. and his heir. a monarch surnamed the "pious" and the "Justinian of Saxony" (1526-1586). a Lutheran prince. whose reign was peaceful comparatively.

like many a monarch of the like loose character. was sacrificed by her father Agamemnon. AULIC COUNCIL. and of bastards.ramakalai@gmail.. was burned in effigy. died an exile at Brussels (1556-1631). is known to history as "The Strong". and lived and died with the emperor. and founded the Dresden Picture Gallery (1670-1733).com AUGUSTUS II. a cake with 5000 eggs and a tun of butter. half-crowns with finger and thumb. son of the preceding. Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. supreme council in the old German Empire. a patron of the fine arts. a port in Boeotia. of sumptuosity. DUC D'. to procure a favourable wind. proved an incompetent king (1696-1763). AUMALE. three hundred and fifty-four of them (Marshal Saxe one of the lot). could break horse-shoes. one of the chiefs of the League. which he held against Henry IV. was convicted of treason. forced himself on Poland. from which there was no appeal. had twice to retire. lived in England for twenty years after. distinguished himself in Algiers. "attained the maximum. DUC D'. nay. Chennai 6. beat Stanislaus Leszcynski in the struggle for the crown of Poland. and having escaped. and where Iphigeneia. AUMALE. became governor of Paris.. baked the biggest bannock on record. it had no constitution.. leagued with the Spaniards." He was. but was reinstated. where the fleet of the Greeks assembled before taking sail for Troy. AULIS. dealt with judicial matters.--of physical strength. and was governor of Algeria. CTSTI. and left his estate and valuables to the French nation Computer Lecturer." says Carlyle. of date from 1495 to 1654. an event commemorated in the "Iphigeneia in Aulis" of Euripides. which he resigned when his father abdicated. fourth son of Louis Philippe. AUGUSTUS III. acknowledged the Republic. Page 195 of 2772 . no man of his means so regardless of expense. "in several things.

RICHARD. AURE`LIUS. drove the barbarians out of Italy. tutor to Edward III. a Roman consul and a Latin historian of the 4th century. known and appreciated for her fairy tales (1650-1705). queen of Palmyra. AURE`LIUS. and an able Roman emperor. now extinct. CTSTI. MARCUS. of Cantal. distinguished as a skilful and successful general.ramakalai@gmail. capital of the dep. was elected emperor. AURELIA`NUS. on the Jourdanne. AUNGERVILLE. son of a peasant of Pannonia. and while on his way to crush a rebellion in Persia was assassinated by his troops (212-275). Chennai 6..com (1822-1897). powerful in physique. 270. COMTESSE D'. AU`ROCHS. VICTOR SEXTUS. now in ruins. See ANTONI`NUS. bishop of Durham. a French authoress. AUREOLA. and left a curious work called "Philobiblon" (1281-1345). LUCIUS DOMITIUS. vanquished Zenobia. carrying her captive to Rome. was a lover and collector of books. subdued a usurper in Gaul. Computer Lecturer. Page 196 of 2772 . affluent of the Dordogne. AURILLAC (14). a German wild ox. Geraud. AUNOY. a wreath of light represented as encircling the brows of the saints and martyrs. built round the famous abbey of St. sent on embassies to various courts. or RICHARD DE BURY.

the Carnatic.. and when he died it crumbled to pieces in the hands of his sons. or Northern Lights. Chennai 6. the murder of two brothers and of the son of one of these. AURORA BOREALIS. See EOS. and though fanatical and intolerant. AUSCULTATION. but as yet only expectant of employment in it. Page 197 of 2772 . now much decayed. extended his empire by subduing Golconda. CTSTI." the hero as a man qualified for a profession. AURUN`GABAD` (50). third son of Shah Jehan. once the capital. Mogul emperor of Hindustan. a city in Illinois.com AURO`RA. understood to be an electric discharge through the atmosphere connected with magnetic disturbance. but the empire was rotten at the core. and rode in a rosy chariot drawn by four white horses. in the Nizam's dominions. name in "Sartor Resartus. ascended the throne by the deposition of his father. among whom he beforehand divided it (1615-1707). charged with opening for the sun the gates of the East. Computer Lecturer. and Bengal. the Roman goddess of the dawn. AU`RUNGZEBE. was a patron of letters. he governed with skill and courage. with the ruins of a palace of Aurungzebe. said to have been the first town to light the streets with electricity. of Chicago. 35 m.S. AUSCULTATOR. a city in Hyderabad. his rule was far-shining. AURORA (19). U. had a star on her forehead.ramakalai@gmail. SW. discerning by the sound whether there is or is not disease in the interior organs of the body.

who was chiefly instrumental in annexing Texas to the States. "the capabilities of the very commonest and most ordinary life. if sufficiently observed and selected. one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories. and thought so by himself. AUSTIN (14). "Sense and Sensibility. as Scott is the father of it" (1775-1816). Her first novel. DECIMUS MAGNUS. CTSTI. but devoted to literature as journalist. on the Colorado River. occupied herself in writing without eye to publication. poet-laureate in succession to Tennyson. Chennai 6. on coming to the throne. to furnish forth prose fiction not merely that would pass. a Roman poet. "Persuasion." her masterpiece. a town in Moravia. and consul of Rome. and only in mature womanhood thought of writing for the press. which she achieved in an inimitably charming manner. 2. writer. Page 198 of 2772 . but that should be of the absolutely first quality as literature. who. at "the battle of the three emperors. a gifted English novelist. daughter of a clergyman in N.com AUSONIA. an ancient name of Italy. Hampshire. tutor to the Emperor Gratian. AUSTEN. "She showed once for all. AUSONIUS. near Bruenn. Computer Lecturer. and the delineation of it. ALFRED. made him prefect of Latium and of Gaul.ramakalai@gmail. and combined with due art. member of a quiet family circle. 1805. her interest being throughout in ordinary quiet cultured life. AUS`TERLITZ (3). He was a good versifier and stylist. JANE. the capital of Texas." Dec. named after Stephen Austin. born in Bordeaux." was published in 1811. AUSTIN. where Napoleon defeated the emperors of Russia and of Austria. bred for the bar. a native of Gaul. but no poet (300-394). and was followed by "Pride and Prejudice." says Professor Saintsbury. She is the mother of the English 19th-century novel. born near Leeds." and others.

AUSTRALASIA (i. 2345 m. wife of the preceding. Carpentaria." "Savonarola... he wrote to his wife of her. only one river. on the S. a Satire. the chief mountain range is in the E. mastered the science of law by the study of it in Germany. CTSTI. it will be with her" (1793-1867) AUSTIN FRIARS. e.ramakalai@gmail. of any consequence. 1835. See AUGUSTINIANS. was introduced to Carlyle when he first went up to London. "If I 'swear eternal friendship' with any woman here. New Zealand. on the N.. like her husband. has written "The Golden Age. a name given to Australia. a continent entirely within the Southern Hemisphere. the Great Australian Bight. the rivers are few. was. professor of Jurisprudence in London University.com and poet. long. his great work.. AUSTIN. JOHN. was unsuccessful as professor. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. and breadth 1971.. and one bight. Southern Asia). for the climate is very parching. coast. Page 199 of 2772 . executed translations from the German. AUSTRALIA. a distinguished English jurist. (_nee_ Sarah Taylor). and the islands adjoining. bordered with ranges of various elevation. its utmost length from E. and either in flood or dried up. between which and the sea is a varying breadth of coast-land. about one-fourth smaller than Europe. MRS. but being too profound in his philosophy. to W. being 2400 m. of the utilitarian school. depressed in the centre. only one great gulf." and his Lectures. AUSTIN. "Falk's Characteristics of Goethe" for one." and several works in prose. though many and spacious harbours." "English Lyrics. J. _b_. the Murray. "The Province of Jurisprudence Determined. were published by his widow after his death (1790-1859). and extends more or less parallel all the way with the E. the interior consists of a low desert plateau. the coast has singularly few inlets.

is divided by the Leitha. and the territory divided into Victoria. its chief seaport.000. including. the cassowary and the emu. and W.ramakalai@gmail. AUSTRIA. all of which have their mouths in other countries. the colonists in 1904 numbering close upon 4. Chennai 6. the eucalyptus and the acacia the most characteristic.. of the possessions of the Franks in Gaul. S. the Danube in chief. capital of which was Metz.000. Australia. speaking different languages.000. minerals abound. that existed from 511 to 843. the natives are disappearing. are shallow and nearly all salt. and composed of 50 different states. which with Tasmania federated in 1900 and became the Commonwealth. manufacturing chiefly in the W. is rich in minerals. the useful animals being likewise all imported. the fauna is no less peculiar. it was celebrated for its rivalry with the kingdom of Neustria. the kangaroo. the dingo. is largely pastoral and agricultural. occupies the centre of Europe. Computer Lecturer.000. has three zones of climate with corresponding zones of vegetation. the flora is peculiar. a thick under-lip characteristic of the House of Hapsburg. fruits. and edible roots being all imported. AUSTRIAN LIP. New South Wales. or the Western Kingdom. Australia. grains. and smaller ones of great beauty. and the population over 40. in the absence of many animals of other countries. CTSTI. 5 of them kingdoms.. is the third country for size in it. which are numerous. of birds. the capital Vienna. both the precious and the useful. AUSTRASIA. as many as 20. and Trans-Leithan on the E. is inhabited by peoples of different races and nationalities. into Cis-Leithan on the W.com while the lakes. Queensland. is watered by rivers. and the duck-bill. but songless. a tributary of the Danube. or AUSTRO-HUNGARY. is a country of every variety of surface and scenery. yet has free communication with the seas on all sides of it. Trieste. has next to no coast-line. or the East Kingdom. Page 200 of 2772 . a kingdom on the E.

dressed in a hideously fantastic robe. dignity. The men who executed it evidently felt something of the inspiration that breathes in the original. AUTOL`YCUS. divided into three groups of two sections each. so that it is not undeservedly called King James's Bible. called the San Benito.. Cambridge. Chennai 6. London. who met for nine months in Stationers' Hall. famed for his cunning and robberies. and they have produced a version that will remain to all time a monument of the simplicity. preliminary to the execution of a heretic. v. of the Seine. and was the work of 47 men selected with marked fairness and discretion. and melody of the English language. CTSTI. its very style has had a nobly educative effect on the national literature.). and a pointed cap. Computer Lecturer. AUTHORISED VERSION OF THE BIBLE was executed between the years 1604 and 1610 at the instance of James I. followed by carts containing coffins with malefactors' bones. prior to being burned alive. the most famous auto-da-fe took place in Madrid in 1680. a village in the dep. a ceremony held by the court of the Inquisition in Spain. to hear a sermon on the true faith. Greek for aborigines. The result was a translation that at length superseded every other. AUTOCHTHONS. who held their sittings for three years severally at Westminster. and has contributed more than anything else to prevent it from degenerating into the merely frivolous and formal. and received thirty pounds each. in the Greek mythology a son of HERMES (q. grace.com AUTEUIL. walked in a procession of monks. and that has since woven itself into the affectionate regard of the whole English-speaking people.ramakalai@gmail. synonym for thief. and Oxford. now included in Paris. or Act of Faith. and maternal grandfather of Ulysses by his daughter Anticlea. Page 201 of 2772 . AUTO-DA-FE. the rest being done for nothing. in which the condemned. the whole being thereafter revised by a committee of six.

Self-law). of Yonne. capital of the dep. with a fine cathedral and rich in antiquities. &c. AUXERRE` (15). the highlands of which separate the basin of the Loire from that of the Garonne. Page 202 of 2772 . of Saone-et-Loire. the charioteer of Achilles. capital of the Burmese empire from 1364 to 1740 and from 1822 to 1835. and part of Haute-Loire. AV`ALON. AUTONOMY (i. they speak a strange dialect. now in ruins from an earthquake in 1839. and supply all the water-carriers and street-sweepers of Paris. born at Marseilles. of Paris. from Chalons. embracing the deps. in the Kantian metaphysics denotes the sovereign right of the pure reason to be a law to itself. of Puy-de-Dome. Cantal. NW. and attained distinction by the production of the tragedy "La Fille d'Eschyle" (1813-1877). 28 m. manufactures serges. e. AUTUN` (15). velvet. an ancient city in the dep. Chennai 6. AVA. an ancient province of France. a French poet and dramatist.com AUTOM`EDON.ramakalai@gmail. and contain a hardy and industrious race of people descended from the original inhabitants of Gaul. drives a large trade in wine. on the Arroux. where Talleyrand was bishop. he was of the school of Lamartine. in the Celtic mythology an island of faerie in the region Computer Lecturer. in 1610. has a fine cathedral in the Flamboyant style. SE. JOSEPH. 90 m. united to the crown under Louis XIII. CTSTI. carpets. an ancient city. AUTRAN`. AUVERGNE`.

driven from their home in the Altai Mts. and all but exterminated in 827. AVELLI`NO (26). the incarnation and incarnated manifestation of a Hindu deity. 6 m. famous for its trade in hazel-nuts and chestnuts.com where the sun sinks to rest at eventide. paper. till they were subdued by Charlemagne. a theory both characteristic of Vishnuism and marking a new epoch in the religious development of India. Chennai 6. of Naples. and the final home of the heroes of chivalry when their day's work was ended on earth. or Descent. so called as forming the first two words of the salutation of the angel in Luke i. AVENTINE HILL. by the Chinese. AVEBURY. CTSTI. has been subject to earthquakes. or ABERY.ramakalai@gmail. AVATAR`. surmised to have been erected and arranged in memory of some great victory. W. manufactures woollens.. a tribe of Huns who. a Bavarian historian. in the middle of a so-called Druidical structure consisting of 100 monoliths. AVE MARIA. E. macaroni. and from which they were enticed back by Menenius Agrippa by the well-known fable of the members of the body and the stomach. the mount to which the plebs sullenly retired on their refusal to submit to the patrician oligarchy. an invocation to the Virgin. chief town in a province of the name in Campania. author of the "Chronicon Bavariae" Computer Lecturer. AVARS. of Marlborough. AVENTI`NUS. invaded the E. and committed ravages in it for about three centuries. Page 203 of 2772 . a village in Wiltshire. of Europe about 553. 28. &c. one of the seven hills of Rome. 59 m.

from its gloomy appearance. Chennai 6. and identified with it.ramakalai@gmail. Page 204 of 2772 . amid vineyards and orange groves. as well as from the mephitic vapours it exhaled. an illustrious Arabian physician. 11/2 m. an Arabian physician and philosopher. occupying the crater of an extinct volcano. much resorted to by the Neapolitans. CTSTI. of authority in philosophy as well as in medicine. his philosophy being of the school of Aristotle with a mixture of Neoplatonism. a valuable record of the early history of Germany (1477-1534). in the S. AVER`ROES. AVERSA (24). earning for himself the title of the "Commentator. AVENZO`AR. or versifier Computer Lecturer. from Naples.com (Annals of Bavaria). at one time surrounded by a dark wood. a deep lake in Italy. a geographer and Latin poet. RUFUS FESTUS. a man of immense learning and extensive practice in his art." being the supreme in medical science for centuries (980-1037). near Naples. AVERNUS. the teacher of Averroes (1073-1103). devoted himself to the study and the exposition of Aristotle." though he appears to have coupled with the philosophy of Aristotle the Oriental pantheistic doctrine of emanations (1126-1198). to be the entrance to the infernal world. an Italian town 8 m. with excellent pastures. his "Canon of Medicine. in circumference. of France. an Arabian physician. a mountainous dep. AVICEN`NA. a Moor by birth and a native of Cordova. and conceived. AVEYRON`. surnamed the prince of physicians. where the Roquefort cheese is produced. AVIE`NUS.

A`VILA (10). Computer Lecturer. JUAN D'. and fruits. of Old Castile. coast of Sicily. and belonged to the Papacy from that time till 1797. A`VON. on an inlet of the Adriatic. a soldier. place of export of the Hybla honey. of Salisbury in Wiltshire. _d_.C. AVILA Y ZINUGA. a port of Albania.. AVILA. purchased by Pope Clement VI. 3000 ft. capital of the dep. birthplace of St. diplomatist. was the seat of the Papacy from 1305 to 1377. rising in Wiltshire. near the confluence of the Durance. above the sea-level. rebuilt since. AVIGN`ON (37). oil. an ancient city beautifully situated on the left bank of the Rhone. the name of several English rivers. in a province of the name. a Spanish priest. and carries on a large trade in wine. when it was appropriated to France. of the 4th century. such as Shakespeare's in Warwickshire. Theresa. France. of various fortune from its foundation by the Phocaeans in 539 B. surnamed the Apostle of Andalusia. in S. of Vaucluse. for his zeal in planting the Gospel in its mountains. a seaport on the E. with a Gothic cathedral and a Moorish castle. Chennai 6. ruined by an earthquake in 1693. AV`OLA (12). it contains a number of interesting buildings. Page 205 of 2772 . grows and manufactures silk in large quantities. and of Bristol. or VALONA. 1569. CTSTI. a town in Spain.com rather. and historian under Charles V. AVLO`NA (6).ramakalai@gmail. at that period.

a trading settlement on the Gold Coast. where Henry II. a town in dep. belonged to Holland till 1871. a thriving town in Peru. studded with islands. numerous in Mexico and the Western States. archbishop of Lund. and compelled them to adopt Christianity. producing hemp. the place. capital of an Ethiopian kingdom in Abyssinia. long and 5 m. a batrachian. believed to be in its preliminary or tadpole state of existence. flax. AX`OLOTL. belonging to Britain. AXHOLME. and now fertile. broad. AYACU`CHO. overshadowed by mountains. then a marsh. AX`UM. in length. a tract of land in NW. 25 m. 17 m. above the sea-level. subdued tribes of Wends. AXIM. where Christianity was introduced in the 4th century.com AVRANCHES` (7). a Danish patriot with Norse blood. born in Zealand. &c. the spot marked by a stone. where the Peruvians and Colombians achieved their independence of Spain Computer Lecturer. its surface is 100 ft. Lincolnshire. and which as the outpost of Christendom fell early before the Mohammedan power. Page 206 of 2772 . LOCH. AXEL. of Manche. once a forest.ramakalai@gmail. and trade in agricultural products. the second in size of Scottish lakes. drained in 1632. lace-making the staple industry. founded by Pizarro in 1539. AWE. rape. ISLE OF. Chennai 6. received absolution for the murder of Thomas a Becket. Africa. in the centre of Argyllshire. one with the ruin of a castle. now in ruins. Normandy. the scenery gloomily picturesque. CTSTI.

CTSTI. AYLOFFE. being also a review of them. in an agricultural district. AYESHA." who is styled by them the "Mother of the Faithful" (see KADIJAH). a highly arbitrary man. and a friend to neither Papist nor Puritan. the dominant people of Peru at the Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. a borough and market-town in Buckinghamshire. NW. born in Sussex (1708-1781). AYLES`BURY (9). for he died in her arms. English antiquary. wrote a "History of the Kings of Castile. as much devoted to Mahomet as he was to her. of London. She was. American continent. Page 207 of 2772 . a lemur found in the woods of Madagascar. and diplomatist. PEDRO LOPEZ D'. SIR JOSEPH. a Spanish soldier. On Mahomet's death she opposed the accession of Ali. AYMA`RAS. he is satirised by Spenser in the "Shepherd's Calendar" (1521-1594). supplies the London market with ducks. Chennai 6. statesman. the daughter of Abubekr. the chief native race of Peru and Bolivia. "A woman who distinguished herself by all manner of qualities among the Moslems. whom he married soon after the death of Kadijah. who defeated her and took her prisoner. tutor to Lady Jane Grey. it is said. and a book of poems entitled the "Rhymes of the Court" (1332-1407)." which was more than a chronicle of wars. but released her on condition that she should not again interfere in State matters (610-677). and ended the rule of Spain in the S. AYA`LA. from which it would appear sprang the Quinchuas. JOHN. the only wife of Mahomet that remained a virgin. AYE-AYE. born in Murcia.com in 1824. AYLMER. 40 m. and favourite wife of Mahomet. bishop of London.

on the N. renowned in the legends of chivalry. famous in early Scottish history. Guiscard. who made his fortune by a Latin panegyric to King James I. SIR ROBERT. JACOB. AYMON. Galloway for 'oo. and number to-day 500. Carrick. and Cunningham. attained a high degree of civilisation. THE COUNT OF DORDOGNE. granted by William the Lion. of Scotland. a clean. a poet of considerable merit.). the father of four sons. concerning which there is an old rhyme: "Kyle for a man. agricultural and pastoral. a peasant of Dauphine. its charter. of the Doon. a native of Fife.. and particularly as paladins of Charlemagne. who in the 17th century professed to discover springs and treasures hid in the earth by means of a divining rod. between the Doon and the Irvine. Alard. with a large coal-field and thriving manufactures. to the S. AY`MAR-VER`NAY. a good harbour and docks for shipping. AYR`ER. Carrick for a coo.com time of the Spanish conquest. Chennai 6. Renaud." AYTON. dating from 1200. with elegant villas in the suburbs. AYR (23). bordered on the W. and Richard. CTSTI. and doubly so among Scottish towns as the birthplace near it of Robert Burns. by the Firth of Clyde. the county town of Ayrshire. Page 208 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. on his accession. a German dramatist in the 16th century. AYRSHIRE (226). was on friendly terms with the eminent literary men Computer Lecturer. v. born at Kinaldie.000. Kyle. well built. a large and wealthy county in the W. ancient town. of the style of HANS SACHS (q. Cunningham for butter and cheese. at the mouth of a river of the same name. its divisions.

AZEGLIO. W. of which the chief are St. AZORES. a native of Edinburgh. fighting for Italian independence. Ben Jonson in particular. along with Sir Theodore Martin. covered with orange groves. the angel of death according to Rabbinical tradition. 800 m. AZ`RAEL. very shallow. they were known to the Carthaginian mariners. SEA OF.com of his time. his poems are written in pure and even elegant English. wounded at Vicenza in 1848. and forming a province of it. MARCHESE D'. Hawk Islands (250). a group of nine volcanic islands in the Atlantic. he was not altogether engrossed with politics. and gradually silting up with mud from the Don. e. and rich in minerals. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. of the "Gaultier Ballads. of Portugal. retired in favour of Cavour.000). are in general mountainous. S. Chennai 6. poet and critic. an opening from the Black Sea. of it. i. some in Latin. being an amateur in art (1798-1866). but fell out of the map of Europe till rediscovered in 1431. cattle-breeding. with fertile plains. entered the Piedmontese Parliament. and good for pulmonary complaints. WILLIAM EDMONDSTOUNE. AZERBIJAN (2. AZOV. and have only recently been collected together (1571-1638). W. he was also editor. professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University. of the river Aras." an admirable collection of light verse (1813-1865). an Italian patriot and statesman. was Victor Emanuel's right-hand man. author of the "Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers". AYTOUN. native of Turin. Michael's and Fayal. the climate is mild. and 900 m. in the latitude of Lisbon.ramakalai@gmail. of Armenian Persia. Page 209 of 2772 . prov.

as in the former case the bread must have been unleavened. and were overthrown by the Spaniards in 1520. and became professor in Muenich. _PL_. and God even in life. AZUNI. and the transcendentalism of Kant.ramakalai@gmail. with its self-sufficiency of the reason. CTSTI. Chennai 6. however. B BAADER. the principal male divinity of the Canaanites and Phoenicians. was patronised by the king of Bavaria. He. what might rather be called a theosophy than a philosophy. and the controversy hinged on the question whether the Lord's Supper was instituted before the Passover season was finished. born at Muenich. identified himself with the liberal movement in politics. of reddish-brown skin. as incomprehensible realities. an Italian jurist. DOMINICO ALBERTO. a German philosopher. or after. and offended the king (1765-1841). who. identified with the sun as the great Computer Lecturer. which regarded God in Himself. Page 210 of 2772 . which occupied the Mexican plateau for some centuries before the Spaniards visited it.com AZ`TECS. made a special study of maritime law. president of the Court of Appeal at Genoa. fell back upon the mysticism of Jacob Boehme. and broad featured. and taught in 16 vols. AZYMITES. lean. a civilised race of small stature. BA`AL (meaning Lord). BAALIM. born in Sardinia. author of "Droit Maritime de l'Europe" (1729-1827). revolting alike from the materialism of Hume. and in the latter leavened. which he studied in England. FRANZ XAVIER VON. the name given to a party in the Church who insisted that only unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist.

e. 35 m. the most western point in Asia. or the Sun).). the god who presided over the labours of the husbandman and granted the increase. incense. CAPE. ALI. Baal-worship. in Anatolia. the most conspicuous of which is the Great Temple to Baal. Heliopolis. but under the zealous preaching of the prophets it was eventually stamped out. now in ruins. CHARLES. tending to the obscuration and denial of the worship of God as Spirit. once a place of great size. the name given to the worship of natural causes. ANTONY.com quickening and life-sustaining power in nature. and dancing. his crowning attribute. and splendour. and at one time threatened to swamp it. BABBINGTON. BAALISM. strength. wealth. spent much time and money over the invention of a calculating machine. NW. an ancient city of Syria. being that of the Canaanites. studied at Cambridge. worshipped on hill-tops with sacrifices. in his later years was famous for his hostility to street organ-grinders (1791-1871). v. BABA. Page 211 of 2772 . in Asia Minor.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. with a town of the name. of Damascus. called by the Greeks. one of the most magnificent ruins of the East. an English Catholic gentleman. CTSTI. BAAL`BEK (i. BABBAGE. a word which he accidentally overheard. was for a time mixed up with the worship of Jehovah in Israel. covering an area of four acres. a mathematician. born in Devonshire. BABA. City of Baal. conspired against Computer Lecturer. the character in the "Arabian Nights" who discovers and enters the den of the Forty Thieves by the magic password "SESAME" (q. wrote on "The Economy of Manufactures and Machinery. and professor there." and an autobiography entitled "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher".

BAB-EL-MANDEB (i. stifled by the soldiery". their doctrines a mixture of pantheistic with Gnostic and Buddhist beliefs. so called from the strong currents which rush through it. convicted of conspiracy. Queen of Scots. a strait between Asia and Africa forming the entrance to the Red Sea. Chennai 6. LEWIS.com Elizabeth on behalf of Mary. and became at length master of it in 1526. BABOEUF. but are increasing in numbers. confessed his guilt. "which died in the birth. after attempting to commit suicide (1764-1797). his dynasty lasted for three centuries. in his Computer Lecturer. the name Arbuthnot gives to Louis XIV. and was executed at Tyburn in 1586. CTSTI. self-styled Gracchus. BABER. insisted on the emancipation of women. or BABU. the Gate of Tears). the founder of the Mogul empire in Hindustan. adverse to polygamy. was guillotined. headed an insurrection against the Directory. BABES IN THE WOOD. left memoirs. BABIS. thrice invaded India. have suffered from persecution.ramakalai@gmail. Irish banditti who infested the Wicklow Mountains in the 18th century. See CHILDREN. Page 212 of 2772 . and often cause wreckage to vessels attempting to pass it. a descendant of Tamerlane. a violent revolutionary in France. FRANCOIS NOEL. e. name applied to a native Hindu gentleman who has some knowledge of English. and were guilty of the greatest atrocities. BABOO. BABOON. concubinage. a modern Persian sect founded in 1843. and divorce.

com "History of John Bull. In that year Cyrus conquered it for Persia. But Nabopolassar in 625 B.C. and is to-day to great centres of population. From very early times it was the seat of a highly developed civilisation introduced by the Sumero-Accadians. or GABRIUS. which flowed through it and by Darius in 519 B. it occupied the rich." BA`BRIUS. are conceived to have a corrupting effect on the religion and morals of the inhabitants. BABY-FARMING. now the Turkish province of Irak-Arabi or Bagdad. by Cyrus in 538 B. Page 213 of 2772 . one of the richest and most magnificent cities of the East. the accumulation of material wealth. who descended on the plain from the mountains in the NW. Semitic tribes subsequently settled among the Accadians and impressed their characteristics on the language and institutions of the country. such as London.C. according to tradition.C. and under his son Nebuchadnezzar.C. was marked by a fierce struggle with the northern empire of Assyria.ramakalai@gmail. Babylonia rose to the zenith of its power. Judah was captive in the country from 599 to 538 B. Computer Lecturer. the gigantic walls and hanging gardens of which were classed among the seven wonders of the world. was taken. The name was often metaphorically applied to Rome by the early Christians. where the overcrowding.. with alterations. Shinar. the capital city of Babylonia. asserted his independence. in which Babylonia eventually succumbed and became an Assyrian province. and "the land of the Chaldees". and the so-called refinements of civilisation. through the self-sacrifice of Zophyrus. BABYLO`NIA. CTSTI. fertile plain through which the lower waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris flow. Babel. the name given by the Greeks to that country called in the Old Testament. Chennai 6. The 8th century B. by diverting out of their channel the waters of the Euphrates. turned the fables of AEsop and of others into verse. a Greek poet of uncertain date. a system of nursing new-born infants whose parents may wish them out of sight.C.. BABYLON.

See BARTOLOMEO. BABYLONISH CAPTIVITY. and Levi. who married Maria Bonaparte. and were called by a number of names. Computer Lecturer. a Greek lyric poet. Thyads. BACCHANALIA. a rival of Pindar. BACCHANTES. BACCIO DELLA PORTO. represented as riding in a car drawn by tame tigers. in honour of Bacchus. those who returned were solely of the tribes of Judah.. nephew of Simonides and uncle of Eschylus.). v. BAC`CHUS. and which continued for 70 years. son of Zeus and Semele. and had loose flowing garments.). till they were allowed to return to their own land by Cyrus. BACCIO`CHI. See DIONYSUS. confined originally to women. CTSTI.. the name given to the deportation of Jews from Judea to Babylon after the capture of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon.com and its history became merged in that of Persia. &c. and promoter of its culture as well as the civilisation which accompanied it. a Corsican officer. BACCHYL`IDES. and was created by Napoleon Prince of Lucca (1762-1841). they wore their hair dishevelled and thrown back. a festival. Benjamin. only a few fragments of his poems extant.ramakalai@gmail. Page 214 of 2772 .C. the god of the vine. such as Maenads. v. those who took part in the festival of Bacchus. FRA. 5th century B. and carrying a THYRSUS (q. originally of a loose and riotous character. he rendered signal service to Zeus in the war of the gods with the GIANTS (q. Chennai 6. who had conquered Babylon.

his works. who first broached. Computer Lecturer. distinguished as being twice as long as it is broad. born at Philadelphia. was a French captive for five years. a devoted Arctic explorer. JOHANN SEBASTIAN. was an etcher as well as painter (1631-1708). though she did not originate. a Dutch painter. famous for his sea-pieces and skill in depicting sea-waves. and finally director of music at the School of St. was in succession a chorister. BACHE. Leipzig. BACK. noted--sixty of them--for musical genius. the theory of the Baconian authorship of Shakespeare's works. superintended the coast survey (1806-1867). discovered instead and traced the Great Fish River in 1839. went in search of Sir John Ross. DELIA. a little rod). others being more or less rounded. of a family of Hungarian origin. BACON. LUDOLPH. born in Eisenach. Thomas. one of the greatest of musical composers. CTSTI. and in 1857 made admiral (1796-1878). BACIL`LUS (lit. an American authoress. a name given to one who has achieved the first grade in any discipline. A. an organist.ramakalai@gmail. a bacterium. was knighted in 1837. Page 215 of 2772 . a director of concerts. DALLAS. Chennai 6. BACHELOR. BACKHUY`SEN. associated with Franklin in three polar expeditions. from their originality and scientific rigour. See BACTERIA. entered the navy. an American physicist. a theory in favour of which she has received small support (1811-1859). born at Stockport. difficult of execution (1685-1750).com BACH. SIR GEORGE.

and gunpowder. a prudent and honourable man and minister. born at Ilchester. JANOS. after study at Gray's Inn. called to the bar when 21. attached himself to Essex. and Lord Chancellor. London. FRANCIS. Lord Bacon. spent his retirement in his favourite studies." "Novum Organum. represented successively Taunton. and Ipswich in Parliament. his great works were his "Advancement of Learning. was a favourite with the queen. the diving-bell. Page 216 of 2772 . the air-pump. Chennai 6. convicted and condemned to imprisonment." but is seen to best advantage by the generality in his "Essays. Privy Councillor and Keeper of the Great Seal under Queen Elizabeth. exceedingly minute organisms of the simplest structure. Somerset. a Franciscan monk. born in the Strand." which are full of practical wisdom and keen observation of life. BACTE`RIA. the father of the inductive method of scientific inquiry. educated at Cambridge. these show such shrewdness of wit as to embolden some (see _SUPRA_) to maintain that the plays named of Shakespeare were written by him (1561-1626). son of Sir Nicholas Bacon. LORD VERULAM. deposed. Privy Councillor. the camera obscura." and "De Augmentis Scientiarum. but pardoned and released. indeed.com BACON. Computer Lecturer. was convicted of venality as a judge. SIR NICHOLAS. BACSANYI. BACON. CTSTI. accused of magic. Lord Keeper. ROGER. he suffered from his liberal political opinions. such as the telescope. like many of his countrymen (1763-1845). and much honoured and trusted by the queen (1510-1579). the father of Francis. a fearless truth-seeker of great scientific attainments. suggested several scientific inventions. became at last in succession Attorney-General. fined and imprisoned.ramakalai@gmail. which served him little. Liverpool. from which he was released only to die. and wrote some eighty treatises (1214-1294). but witnessed against him at his trial. BACON. a Hungarian poet.

of Manchester. rods. and multiply by fission with great rapidity. BADAKANS. in S. a province of ancient Persia. it has been often visited by travellers. BACTRIAN SAGE. the inhabitants. rich in minerals. as happens..). Chennai 6. a picturesque hill country. so much has been contributed by the labours of M. Pasteur. Page 217 of 2772 . a name given to Zoroaster as a native of Bactria. living on the Nilghiri Mountains. and the purpose they serve in nature. BAC`TRIA. a place of great strength. now BALKH (q. v. of Afghanistan. or intermediate shapes. the scene of fearful outrages after its capture. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. called Badakhshans.com being merely cells of varied forms. surrendered to Soult in 1811. to S.ramakalai@gmail. with life or death to the higher forms of being. are of the Aryan family and speak Persian. near the frontier of Portugal. and to the knowledge of which. conspicuous by the part they play in the process of fermentation and in the origin and progress of disease. it is 200 m. fraught. Computer Lecturer. BADAKHSHAN` (100). about 20 m. capital of a Spanish province of the name. and 150 from N. BADAJOZ` (28). and taken after a violent and bloody struggle by Wellington in 1812. a Mohammedan territory NE. to W. CTSTI. the presumed fatherland of the Aryans and the birthplace of the Zoroastrian religion. a Dravidian people of small stature. in the shape of spheres. from Marco Polo onwards. India. from E. BACUP (23). which develop in infusions of organic matter. NE. on the Guadiana.

and jewellery employ a great proportion of the inhabitants. travelled in the East. includes the Black Forest. NE. belonged originally to the Comyns.ramakalai@gmail. 10. a German duchy. BAD`ENOCH. BAD`EN. wood-carving.W. and is a popular summer resort. in N. minerals. after a time settled in Paris. is rich in timber. and mineral springs. BADEN-BADEN (13). much Computer Lecturer. became finally the property of the Earl of Huntly. BA`DEN (4). CTSTI. disguised himself as a Mohammedan under the name of Ali-Bei. was bestowed by Bruce on his nephew. consists of valley. Chennai 6. a town in the duchy of Baden. born at Barcelona. traversed by the Spey. and plain. of Barcelona. a Spaniard. BADRINATH. Switzerland. NW. cotton fabrics. Heidelberg and Freiburg. from Carlsruhe and 22 from Strassburg. there are two university seats. THE GRAND-DUCHY OF (1. BADI`A-Y-LABLICH. a shrine of Vishnu. having acquired a knowledge of Arabic and Arab customs. extends along the left bank of the Rhine from Constance to Mannheim.com BADALO`NA (15). noted for its hot mineral springs. even in Mecca itself. long by 19 broad. a forest-covered district of the Highlands of Scotland.000 ft. India. a town in the canton of Aargau. also a town near Vienna. of Zurich. but was forfeited by them. 14 m. Page 218 of 2772 . long a fashionable resort for its mineral springs. 18 m. mountain. is believed to be the first Christian admitted to the shrine of Mecca.725). and wrote an account of his travels (1766-1818). of Inverness-shire. his disguise was so complete that he passed for a Mussulman. 45 m. high. which were known to the Romans. a seaport 5 m. in the SE.

is the capital of a province. styled the "father of comparative embryology". Petersburg. BAEDEKER. first in Koenigsberg and then in St. BAFFIN BAY. a native of Esthonia. known by his name. and one of the most flourishing cities of Asiatic Turkey. the greatest of modern embryologists. dates. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. from its mouth. BAFFIN. grain. a Computer Lecturer.com frequented by pilgrims for the sacred waters near it. born in Somerset. Page 219 of 2772 . discovered Baffin Bay (1584-1622). professor of zoology. An imposing city to look at. it suffers from visitations of cholera and famine. KARL ERNST VON. open four months in summer to whale and seal fishing. discovered in 1615 by William Baffin. and silk are manufactured. which are believed to be potent to cleanse from all pollution. wool. BAGEHOT. on the Tigris. a strait stretching northward between N. that the embryo when developing resembles those of successively higher types (1792-1876). and connected with the Euphrates by canal. a German printer in Coblenz. CTSTI. and the transit trade. is still considerable. America and Greenland. Formerly a centre of Arabic culture. Passage. WILLIAM. when acting as pilot to an expedition in quest of the N. it has belonged to Turkey since 1638. and horses are exported. It is a station on the Anglo-Indian telegraph route.W. famed for the guide-books to almost every country of Europe that he published (1801-1859). red and yellow leather. BAGDAD (185). KARL. though less than formerly. 500 m. WALTER. and is served by a British-owned fleet of river steamers plying to Basra. cotton. who. BAER. an early English Arctic explorer. the discoverer of the law. an English political economist.

"The English Constitution". an important work. besides other publications." and a mock epic. BAGHE`RIA. 240 m.ramakalai@gmail. BAGLI`VI. BAGNERES. Page 220 of 2772 . his minor pieces are numerous and popular. an Italian fresco-painter of note (1573-1641). wrote "De Fibra Motrice" in defence of the "solidist" theory. BAGGE`SEN. BAGLIO`NI. well-known watering-places. a Danish poet. and 150 m. Computer Lecturer.com banker by profession. "Parthenais oder die Alpenreise. where citizens of the latter have more or less stylish villas. travelled a good deal. wrote in a vigorous style (1826-1877). name of five native states in Central India. to W. from N. an illustrious Italian physician. his chief works. "Adam and Eve". BAGHELKAND. from Palermo. was editor of the _Economist_. in which he was quite at home. 8 m. GIORGIO. from E. a town in Sicily. to S. which traced all diseases to alterations in the solid parts of the body (1667-1706). Chennai 6. wrote. a pastoral epic. and an authority on banking and finance. of Lake Tehad. SE. two French towns on the Pyrenees. JENS EMMANUEL. as it is called. Rewah the most prosperous. a disciple of Ricardo. though from his egotism and irritability he was personally unpopular (1764-1826). wrote mostly in German. BAGIR`MI. CTSTI. a Mohammedan kingdom in Central Africa.

BAHAWALPUR (650). &c.com BAGNES. Chennai 6. FELIX. a group of over 500 low. BAHI`A. burn at Darmstadt. a fine city. BAGRA`TION. Nassau the capital. a town on the Ganges. BAHR. BAeHR. and originally the capital in a province of the name stretching along the middle of the coast. SE. distinguished in many engagements. with a capital of the name. of Patna. commanded the vanguard at Austerlitz. sponges. is connected administratively with the Punjab. CTSTI. of India. flat coral islands in the W. one of the chief seaports of Brazil. is again rising in importance. after falling into decay.. and in 1812. Russian general. fell at Borodino (1765-1812). an Arabic word meaning "river. Indies. name given to convict prisons in France since the abolition of the galleys. against Napoleon. Eylau. 34 m. and on one of which Columbus landed when he discovered America. Page 221 of 2772 . and thousands of rocks. THE (47). a "self-absorbed" talking character in "Dombey & Son. achieved a brilliant success at Smolensk. of which 20 are inhabited." BAHA`MAS. yield tropical fruits." prefixed to the name of many places occupied by Arabs. BAHAR (263). JOE. and Friedland. classical scholar. wrote a "History Computer Lecturer. or San Salvador (200). in the Bay of All Saints.ramakalai@gmail. PRINCE. turtle. belonging to Britain. BAGSTOCK. a feudatory state in the NW.

CTSTI. in S. and ultimately commanded it. was attached to the Niger Expedition in 1854. in some parts 4500 ft. BALFOUR. on which sledges ply for six or eight months in winter. and steamboats in summer. 32 m. cap. including the district watered by the tributaries of the Bahr-el-Arab and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. of it. Chennai 6. of Siberia. born at Kirkwall. it was wrested from Egypt by the Mahdi. the largest 27 m. 1884. it contains several islands. and at its surface 1560 ft. surgeon in the Royal Navy. BAHREIN` ISLANDS (70)." in high repute (1798-1872). Manamah (20). BAIKIE. and it was through it Marchand made his way to Fashoda. long and 10 broad. an old Egyptian prov. W. BAIF.com of Roman Literature. BAHR-EL-GHAZAL. long famous for their pearl-fisheries. by 10 m. a French poet one of a group of seven known in French literature as the "Pleiade. the largest Olkhin. a clear fresh-water lake. 397 m. BAIKAL. Computer Lecturer. a district of French Congo lies W." whose aim was to accommodate the French language and literature to the models of Greek and Latin. a group of islands in the Persian Gulf. especially sturgeon and salmon. it abounds in fish. opening the region up and letting light in upon it at the sacrifice of his life. the third largest in Asia. BAIAE. belonging to Muscat. died at Sierra Leone (1825-1864). under the protection of Britain. above the sea-level. now in ruins and nearly all submerged.ramakalai@gmail. deep. for its climate and its baths. the richest in the world. Page 222 of 2772 . a small town near Naples. famous as a resort of the old Roman nobility. an Orcadian. long and from 13 to 54 wide.

BAILEY. English poet. born at Bothwell.ramakalai@gmail. ethics. produced a series of dramas entitled "Plays of the Passions. "And werena my heart licht I wad dee" is well known (1665-1740). NATHAN. LADY GRIZEL." was acted in the Theatre Royal. stayed afterwards with a sister at Hampstead. an early English lexicographer.com BAILEY. MATTHEW." a work that on its appearance in 1839 was received with enthusiasm. passed through 11 editions in England and 30 in America. a poetess. brother of Joanna. BAILLIE. born in Nottingham. _d_. the "Family Legend. ROBERT. PHILIP JAMES. Chennai 6. BAILLIE. _b_. BAILLIE. resisted Laud's attempt to thrust Episcopacy on the Scotch nation. a liberal-minded man. and became a zealous advocate of the national cause. famous for her songs. was succeeded by "The Angel World. which he was delegated Computer Lecturer. was the basis of Johnson's. he has been rated by some extravagantly high. Edinburgh. an English author. BAILEY. one of which. a Scotch Presbyterian divine. and political economy." "The Mystic. born in Sheffield. she does not stand high either as a dramatist or a writer (1762-1851). whose dictionary. and left a fortune. an heroic Scotch lady. JOANNA. both comedies and tragedies. 1816." "The Universal Hymn. joined a brother in London. author of "Festus. to his native town (1787-1870). very popular in its day. CTSTI. a utilitarian in philosophy." and "The Age". under the auspices of Sir Walter Scott. 1742. Page 223 of 2772 . acquired in business. BAILLIE. child of the Presbyterian manse there. wrote on Morbid Anatomy (1761-1823). SAMUEL. physician. who wrote on psychology. born in Glasgow." besides many others.

and unfairly condemned to death. installed mayor of Paris. his chief works." in five volumes.' Crueller end. his most popular works were. E." "The Sleeping Girl. BAILLIE. born at Paris. "Eve Listening to the Voice. professor of Logic in the university. CTSTI. was based on empiricism and the inductive method. a sculptor." "The Emotions and the Will. JEAN SYLVAIN. he was a royalist all the same. the subject of one of his critical essays (1599-1662). thou tremblest. to the utter exclusion of all _a priori_ or transcendental speculation.' said one. "His Letters and Journals" were published by the Bannatyne Club. 'Bailly. 'Mon ami. "The Senses and the Intellect. Exposed beforehand "for hours long. ROBERT. and twice Lord Rector. born in Bristol. studied under Flaxman. ALEXANDER. as they do. he is of the school of John Stuart Mill. lost favour with the people." says Carlyle. born at Aberdeen. wrote the "History of Astronomy. was imprisoned as an enemy of the popular cause and cruelly guillotined. Computer Lecturer.. tried for complicity in the Rye House Plot. BAILLY. _b_. H. such as hails from Kant and his school. elected president of the National Assembly. who endorsed his philosophy. a zealous Scotch Presbyterian. where he was much esteemed by and exercised a great influence over his pupils. Ancient and Modern." BAILY. amid curses and bitter frost-rain." and the "Graces Seated" (1788-1867). 'it is for cold.com to represent twice over in London. an astronomer." and "Mental and Moral Science"." forming.ramakalai@gmail. and are commended by Carlyle as "veracious. which he connected with physiology. was distracted from further study of the science by the occurrence of the Revolution. "had no mortal. and was made principal of Glasgow University.' said he meekly. Page 224 of 2772 . and barbarously executed the same day (in 1683) for fear he should die afterwards and cheat the gallows of its victim. has written on composition in a very uninteresting style. his psychology. Chennai 6. BAIN.

to the memory of Jean Paul. ironmaster. WILHELMINA.com 1818. along with others. seventy days later. as well as contributed to fish-culture and fisheries (1823-1887). MARGRAVINE OF. BAIRD. who died there. an American naturalist. followed by another of four days. FULLERTON. a Mohammedan festival of three days at the conclusion of the Ramadan. Aberdeenshire.000 to support churches (1802-1876). BAIRAM. sultan of the Ottoman Turks. and at the Cape. served in India. Page 225 of 2772 . he afterwards retired (1757-1829). and on the fall of Sir John Moore at Corunna. BAIRD. _i. simple but massive. wounded. S. BAJAZET` I. JAMES. BAIRD. on the birds and mammals of N. America. in command when the Cape of Good Hope was wrested from the Dutch. born at Newbyth. as was fit. sister of Frederick the Great. Egypt. was present at the taking of Seringapatam. founder of the Baird Lectureship. Chennai 6. CTSTI. entered the army at 15. left "Memoirs" of her time (1709-1758). in vindication of Scotch orthodoxy. bequeathed L500. and the siege of Pondicherry. and accompanied with sacrifices. e_. called the Second Bairam. Computer Lecturer. surnamed ILDERIM. in Bavaria. and with a monument. BAIREUTH. with a large theatre erected by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions.ramakalai@gmail. in commemoration of the offering up of Isaac. the capital of Upper Franconia. SIR DAVID. a distinguished English general of Scotch descent. BAI`REUTH (24). wrote..

visited Cyprus and travelled over India.ramakalai@gmail. Page 226 of 2772 . a Russian port on the Caspian Sea.000 ft.. a word used all over the East to denote a small fee for some small service rendered. in some cases so gushing as to overflow in streams. in a district so impregnated and saturated in parts with petroleum that by digging in the soil wells are formed. wrote an account of it in a book. CTSTI. still subject to eruptions. which wells. commanded an expedition under the Khedive into the Soudan. pushed everything before him in his advance on Europe. are connected by pipes with Computer Lecturer. often referred to by Sir Roger de Coverley. BAKER. as the Jansenists did after him (1513-1580). discovered the Albert Nyanza. BA`JUS. who is said to have shut him in a cage and carried him about with him in his train till the day of his death (1347-1403). a man of enterprise and travel. born in London. SIR RICHARD. a country gentleman. left a record of his travels in five volumes with different titles (1821-1893). born in Kent. reckoned by hundreds. BAKSHISH. where he died (1603-1645)." which he wrote in the Fleet prison. BAKER. Chennai 6. MOUNT. BAKER. where he incurred much obloquy at the hands of the Jesuits by his insistence of the doctrines of Augustine. deputy from the University of Louvain to the Council of Trent. MICHAEL. aimed at Constantinople. but was met and defeated on the plain of Angora by Tamerlane. "Ismailia". 11. from the energy and rapidity of his movements. author of "The Chronicle of the Kings of England.com Lightning. a volcano in the Cascade range. BAKU (107). SIR SAMUEL WHITE.

preservation of the equilibrium existing among the States of Europe as a security of peace. regarded by the zoologist as a possible connecting link between invertebrates and vertebrates. of Sebastopol. and their probable fate. Computer Lecturer. for the "Charge of the Six Hundred. BALA.com refineries in the town. and a leader of the movement. Bala Lake. xxii. but escaped. in Wales. was banished to Siberia. MICHAEL." BALANCE OF POWER. the county town of Merioneth. the largest lake in Wales. Page 227 of 2772 . the difference in value between the exports and the imports of a country. and resorted to by them as holy ground. and with a depth of 100 ft. and said to be in favour of the country whose exports exceed in value the imports in that respect. a Midianitish soothsayer. Chennai 6.. and famous in the war. but was expelled (1814-1876). BA`LAAM. and Carlyle's essay on the "Corn-Law Rhymes" for its application to modern State councillors of the same time-serving type. a worm-like marine animal. 4 m. for long an important consideration with European statesmen.-xxiv. SE. the head-quarters of the British during the Crimean war. CTSTI. BALANCE OF TRADE. among other events. long. a small port 6 m. a district which. an extreme and violent anarchist. native of Moscow. BAKU`NIN. for the account of him see Num. BALACLA`VA. was long ago a centre of attraction to the Parsees or fire-worshippers of the East.ramakalai@gmail. joined the International. BALANOGLOS`SUS. with a large land-locked basin. from the spontaneous ignition of the petroleum.

BALBO`A. being at once ductile and elastic.ramakalai@gmail. discovered the Pacific. who composed in French a number of works bearing on geography (1782-1848). BALDACHINO. took possession of territory in the name of Spain. VASCO NUNEZ DE. an Italian statesmen and publicist. BALBO. are subject in the long-run to mortality. LAKE. 56 m. established a settlement at Darien. BALD`ER. either supported on columns. SW. or projecting from the wall. the faithful old domestic in Scott's "Bride of Computer Lecturer. long. of Pesth. devoted his later years to literature. and to the grief of. 48 m. born at Turin. a tent-like covering or canopy over portals. CTSTI. broad." who is fated to die. and abounds in fish. born at Venice. Page 228 of 2772 . suspended from the roof. works in advocacy of Italian independence (1789-1853). altars. ADRIANO. the sun-god of the Norse mythology. from jealousy of the glory he had acquired and the consequent influence in the State (1475-1517). "the beautiful. a geographer of Italian descent. as on earth. all the gods of the pantheon. Chennai 6. a Castilian noble. wrote a life of Dante. CAESARE. BALDERSTONE. or thrones. and 10 m. CALEB. and dies. in spite of. the largest lake in Hungary. a pathetic symbol conceived in the Norse imagination of how all things in heaven. BAL`ATON. goes under the name of bully. the wise. BALBI. a vegetable gum used as a substitute for gutta-percha. slightly saline.com BALATA. put to death by a new governor. the benignant.

. and was buried on Mount Calvary... or HANS GRUeN. BALDWIN I. author of a Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. king of Jerusalem. a masterpiece.. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Bulgarians (1171-1206). returned to Jerusalem. and was made emperor. BALE. the name of several counts of Flanders. by birth. made himself master of most of the towns on the coast of Syria." the family he serves his pride. crowned Richard Coeur de Lion. persecuted out of the country as an apostate from Popery. or horn suspended from it. died in 1186 (1058-1118). joined the fourth crusade. in Ireland. the last of whom. a friend of Duerer's. a child of some eight years old. born in Suabia.. eight in all. was made bishop by Edward VI. nephew of Baldwin I. born in Suffolk. bishop of Ossory. count of Hainault and Flanders. assuming said title. there were five of this name and title. BALDWIN. BALDUNG. an ornamental belt worn hanging over the shoulder. succeeded his brother Godfrey de Bouillon. a convert from Popery. HANS. died at Acre in 1191. BALDRICK. archbishop of Canterbury." now in Freiburg Cathedral (1300-1347). contracted a disease in Egypt. II. and supported by Cromwell. with a sword. the first Latin emperor of Constantinople. last king of the Latin dynasty. B. his greatest work. which lasted only 57 years (1217-1273). JOHN. led the van in the capture of Constantinople. Page 229 of 2772 . BALDWIN. across the body diagonally. a German artist.ramakalai@gmail.com Lammermoor. a painting of the "Crucifixion. dagger. accompanied him on the crusade. BALDWIN I. Chennai 6.

to his own advantage. BALEARIC ISLES (312). inhabitants in ancient times famous as expert slingers. nephew of Lord Salisbury. Page 230 of 2772 . J. BALFOUR. 1583. Lord President of the Court of Session. author of "The Bohemian Girl. Computer Lecturer. East Lothian. and tobacco. an unprincipled man. 75 m.. long by 40 m. Palma (58). educated at Eton and Cambridge. Chennai 6. BALFOUR OF BURLEY. _d_. BALFOUR. produces cotton." his masterpiece. cap. BALFE. born near Wexford. now with the opposite. Majorca the largest. one of the Samoa Islands. brother of the preceding. coffee. author of a "Defence of Philosophic Doubt" and a volume of "Essays and Addresses". having been one and all systematically trained to the use of the sling from early childhood." BALI. leader of the Covenanters in Scott's "Old Mortality. SIR JAMES. sided now with this party. a group of five islands off the coast of Valencia. 1848. _b_. broad. BALFOUR. in Spain. A. CTSTI. career was cut short by death in attempting to ascend the Wetterhorn (1851-1882). and First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the House of Commons in Lord Salisbury's ministry.ramakalai@gmail. a musical composer. FRANCIS MAITLAND. and that at the most critical period in Scottish history. of Whittinghame. MICHAEL WILLIAM. and world-famous (1808-1870). of Irish birth. a promising biologist. native of Fife.com valuable account of early British writers (1495-1563).

the waters clear. founder of Baliol College. Chennai 6. rosewood. a mountain range extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea. by Greece. in Central America. _d_. &c. the territory between the Adriatic and the AEgean Sea. BALKAN PENINSULA. long and 73 m. by the Save and the Lower Danube. 1269. Page 231 of 2772 . and on the S. after spending some three years in the Tower. but intensely salt. Computer Lecturer. a lake in Siberia. JOHN DE. Oxford.com BALIOL. mean height. died at Doncaster. the capital of British Honduras.. BALKASH. as King Toom Tabard. BALIOL. was driven from the kingdom.. EDWARD. trade in mahogany. above sea-level. properly the range dividing Bulgaria from Roumania. laid claim to the Scottish crown on the death of the Maid of Norway in 1290. died in 1314 in Normandy. invaded Scotland. or BELIZE. and did homage to him for his kingdom. 150 m.. BALIZE. and obliged to renounce all claim to the crown. a guardian to the heir to the Scottish crown on the death of Alexander III. supported by Edward III. e. was supported by Edward I. BALKANS.ramakalai@gmail. i. but rebelled. of Norman descent. and was forced publicly to resign the crown. SIR JOHN DE. Empty King Cloak. BALIOL. broad. satirised by the Scotch. 6500 ft. 1369. on receipt of a pension. was crowned king at Scone. LAKE. in their stinging humorous style. CTSTI. THE. 780 ft. bounded on the N. son of the following. son of the following.

SIR R. a failure in which Scott was seriously implicated (1772-1833). reduced now to a village. birthplace of Zoroaster. born in Dublin. glass-stainer and poet. BALL`ANTYNE. S. the best known of a popular kind on the former science being "The Story of the Heavens". a mystic writer.. born at Lyons. BALL. failed in business. BALLAD." his aim being the regeneration of society (1814-1847). Computer Lecturer. BALLANCHE. long and 120 m. BALLANTINE. 250 m. mathematician and astronomer. CTSTI. a story in verse. captured and executed. his chief work "la Palingenesie Sociale. distinguished counsel in celebrated criminal cases (1812-1887).com BALKH. BALLANTINE. Astronomer-Royal for Ireland. 1840. broad. a district of Afghan Turkestan lying between the Oxus and the Hindu-Kush. _b_. a priest who had been excommunicated for denouncing the abuses of the Church. SERJEANT. BALL. born in Edinburgh (1808-1877). a ringleader in the Wat Tyler rebellion. author of works on astronomy and mechanics. Page 232 of 2772 . Chennai 6. and sung originally to the harp. printed all Sir Walter Scott's works. a native of Kelso. with a capital of the same name. anciently called Bactria.ramakalai@gmail. generally of patriotic interest. JOHN. composed with spirit. PIERRE SIMON. JAMES. became a printer in Edinburgh. JAMES.

BALMAT. an inimitable story-teller and mimic. on a site which took the fancy of both the Queen and the Prince Consort on their first visit to the Highlands.ramakalai@gmail. JACQUES. 521/2 m. a prejudiced Scotch clergyman in "Waverley. it is the seat of both a Roman Catholic and a Church of England bishopric. Chennai 6. of Chamounix. a confidant of Sir Walter's in the matter of the anonymity of the Waverley Novels. a town in Victoria. the Highland residence of Queen Victoria. BALL`ATER. CTSTI.com BALLANTYNE. brother of preceding. NW. very much to the delight of Sir Walter (1774-1821). 9 m. BALLARAT` (40). a castle on the upper valley of the Dee." BAL`MEZ. an able Spanish Journalist. Page 233 of 2772 . from Aberdeen. of Melbourne. author of "Protestantism and Catholicism compared in their Effects on the Civilisation of Europe" (1810-1848). Computer Lecturer. at the foot of Braemar. JOHN. the centre of the chief gold-fields in the colony. about 100 m. BALMAWHAPPLE. stands 668 ft. BALMOR`AL. a clean Aberdeenshire village on the Dee. above sea-level. and now crushed out of the quartz rocks and dug out of deep mines. and since 1851 the second city in the province. a favourite summer resort. the precious metal being at first washed out of the soil. from Ballater. a celebrated Alpine guide (1796-1834).

about the size of England and Wales. on an arm of Chesapeake Bay. engaged in hardware manufacture. so sharp that a smith cut in two by it did not know he was so cut till he began to move. has no tides. of Europe. coadjutor of John Knox in the Scottish Reformation. including textiles. 250 m. HENRY. The staple trade is in bread-stuffs. and a fellow-sufferer with him in imprisonment and exile. CARDINAL. Russian provinces bordering on the Baltic. from the Atlantic. comparatively shallow. an inland sea in the N. iron. grain.. the metropolis of Maryland. for having conspired with Charles the Rash. 900 m. BALTIC PROVINCES. and steel. but noted for its fine architecture and its public monuments. 1579. is picturesquely situated. broad. the exports.com BALMUNG. tobacco. long and from 100 to 200 m. Chennai 6. owing to the inlets being blocked with ice. BALTIC SEA. The industries are varied and extensive. owing to the number of rivers that flow into it and the slight evaporation that goes on at the latitude. flour. a thriving suburb of Birmingham. Page 234 of 2772 . by Louis in an iron cage for eleven Computer Lecturer. BALUE. the sharp-cutting sword of Siegfried. and tobacco. imprisoned. BALTIMORE (550). BALNAVES.ramakalai@gmail. born at Kirkcaldy. waters fresher than those of the ocean. flour. minister of Louis XI. BALSALL. the navigation of it is practically closed from the middle of December to April. afterwards contributed towards formulating the creed of the Scotch Church. _d_. and educated in Germany. when he fell in pieces. not quite so regular in design as most American cities. CTSTI. It is the seat of the John Hopkins University.

a French litterateur and gentleman of rank. containing the tomb of its founder. Saintsbury. the Emperor Henry II. Computer Lecturer. _d_. a manufacturing town in Upper Franconia. the "Comedie Humaine. once the centre of an independent bishopric. a figure of the infant Christ wrapped in swaddling bands. born at Angouleme. the infant in pictures surrounded by a halo and angels. one of the most brilliant as well as prolific novelwriters of modern times. a Soudan state on the banks of the Upper Niger. "he deliberately wrote. HONORE DE. BAMBINO. BALZAC. the natives are negroes of the Mohammedan faith. a magnificent edifice. his productions remarkable for their sense of reality. JEAN LOUIS GUEZ DE. BAMBERG (35). and palm-oil. in France." the whole being a minute dissection of the different classes of society (1799-1850). and are good husbandmen. cotton. and contributed by his "Letters" to the classic form it assumed under Louis XIV. "for the sake of writing. of Afghanistan and extending to the Persian Gulf. native of Tours. See Beluchistan.com years (1421-1491). they show power of observation. the soil fertile. a country lying to the S.. with a cathedral. and subtle and profound delineation of human passion. BAMBAR`RA (2.000). his design in producing them being to make them form part of one great work. BALUCHISTAN. Bavaria. and not because he had anything particular to say. warmth and fertility of imagination. Page 235 of 2772 . dates. yields grain. opened up to trade.ramakalai@gmail. BALZAC. CTSTI. 1685. Chennai 6." says Prof." but in this way did much to improve the language. who devoted his life to the refinement of the French language.

Page 236 of 2772 . full of caves. BAMIAN`. out of the rocks on its N. BAMPTON LECTURES. archbishop of Canterbury. belonging to the Dutch. a market-town in Oxfordshire. of Bambarra. America". an American historian. left property which yields a revenue worth L200 a year. and historian. celebrated for its cross and its cakes. all of ancient date. BANCROFT. canon of Salisbury. an island in the Eastern Archipelago. diplomatist. with an unhealthy climate. high. annual lectures on Christian subjects. represented the Church at the Hampton Court Computer Lecturer. are hewn huge figures of Buddha. one of them 173 ft. his chief work "The History of the United States. _b_. and a faithful account (1800-1891).ramakalai@gmail. W. HUBERT. CTSTI. a fertile but unhealthy negro territory. Chennai 6. rich in tin. on the coast of Northumberland. an ancient fortress E. 1832. above sea-level. born in Massachusetts. a high-lying valley in Afghanistan. BANCA (80)." issued finally in six vols. BANCROFT. a zealous Churchman and an enemy of the Puritans. author of a "History of the Pacific States of N. for the endowment of which John Bampton. 8500 ft. eight in number. BANCROFT. an American statesman. side.com BAMBOROUGH CASTLE. of Belford. GEORGE. BAMBOUK (800). RICHARD. worked by Chinese. now an alms-house. with mineral wealth and deposits of gold. BANBURY..

a group of the Moluccas. did a "Descent from the Cross" in bas-relief. martyrs. BANCROFT. to the cause of Italian independence. born in Venice. in 1844.. county town of Banffshire. married Mrs. and have appeared since only occasionally. a writer of tales. and was chief overseer of the Authorised Version of the Bible (1554-1610). English actor. tried hard to rival Michael Angelo and Cellini.ramakalai@gmail. made his first appearance in Birmingham in 1861. opened with her the Haymarket Theatre in 1880. a Florentine sculptor. BANDA ISLES. BANDIE`RA. BANFF (7). are subject to earthquakes. SIR SQUIRE. BANDELLO. BANDINELLI. Page 237 of 2772 . BANDA ORIENTAL. Wilton. the county itself (64) stretches level along the coast. Computer Lecturer. Massinger. at the mouth of the Deveron. born in London. brothers. fishing and agriculture the great industries. some twelve in number. CTSTI. retired in 1885. an Italian Dominican monk. See URUGUAY. in Milan Cathedral (1487-1559). at which time both retired. some of which furnished themes and incidents for Shakespeare. and other dramatists of their time (1480-1562). though mountainous on the S. his work "Hercules and Cacus" is the most ambitious of his productions. yield nutmegs and mace.com Conference. Chennai 6. belonging to Holland. and SE. on the Moray Firth. an actress.

a controversy in the Church of England provoked by a sermon which Hoadley. 3690 ft. stands high. Computer Lecturer. with the royal palace standing on an island. is manufacturing and trading. in 1717. an episcopal city in Carnarvon. and the capital. BAN`GALORE (180). the Hindu name for the Delta of the Ganges. was elected a peer on the formation of the Upper Hungarian Chamber. on the Menam. from the sea. he is a strong Liberal. became in 1874 provincial prefect of Transylvania. the "Venice of the East". BANGK`OK (500). long. BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY. carried on by Europeans and Chinese. BARON. the centre of the foreign trade. bishop of Bangor. Chennai 6. BANGOR (9). Wales. born at Klausenburg. 1841. above sea-level. the capital of Siam. with large slate quarries. 150 m. N. from the canals which intersect it.ramakalai@gmail. from the beauty of its surroundings. a place of summer resort. a low-caste people in the Ganges valley. discovered by Livingstone. Page 238 of 2772 . and was made Premier in 1893. a lake in Equatorial Africa. and half as wide. CTSTI.com BANFFY. in the courtyard of which several white elephants are kept. a very striking city. _b_. BANGWEO`LO. 20 m. and on the shore of which he died. styled. BANGA. Premier of Hungary. BANGHIS. which offended the sticklers for ecclesiastical authority. preached before George I. the largest town in Mysore.

poetry. a collector. Chennai 6. his health giving way. he excelled in imaginative art (1735-1805). JOHN. "Psyche" and "Achilles Enraged. novelist of Irish peasant life on its dark side. which reasserted and secured Scottish independence. a non-Aryan race in Central India. &c." now in the entrance-hall of Burlington House.com BANIAN DAYS. BAN`NOCKBURN (2). born at Lambeth.. a manufacturing village 3 m. THOMAS. of which it printed 116. first appreciated by the Empress Catharine. he fell into poverty. Michael survived him 32 years (1798-1842). of Irish stories. but was rescued by a public subscription and a pension. BANKS. whether in history. a complete set having been sold for L235. a native of Kilkenny. president of the Royal Society for 41 years (1744-1820). wrote 24 vols. of Robert the Bruce over Edward II. who. Irish author. of Stirling. BANKS. an eminent English sculptor. 1314.ramakalai@gmail. SIR JOSEPH. a club founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish interest. or general literature. a zealous naturalist. left his collection and a valuable library and herbarium to the British Museum. in lands far and wide. days when no meat is served out to ships' crews. BANNATYNE CLUB. it manufactures carpets and tartans. of specimens in natural history. on June 24. BANJARI. BANIM. along with his brother Michael. CTSTI. particularly in botany. the carriers and caravan-conductors of the region.. Computer Lecturer. his finest works. Page 239 of 2772 . all deemed of value. the scene of the victory. SE. dissolved in 1861.

bending to the ground. BANTAM. are negroid rather than negro. a London merchant. and the matter comparatively insignificant. abandoned as unhealthy by the Dutch. Chennai 6. the language differing radically from all other known forms of speech--the inflection. who gave warnings by wailings of an approaching death in it. BANTING SYSTEM.. in a "Letter on Corpulence" in 1863. the Indian fig. not final. and kept guard over it. though.ramakalai@gmail. BANVILLE. chiefly initial. believed to be attached to a family. he recommended lean meat. among the Irish. S. BANTRY BAY. lat. Banting. there are touches here and there of both fine feeling and sharp wit (1823-1891). a deep inlet on the SW. born at Moulins. for one thing. a tree whose branches. and the avoidance of sugar and starchy foods. a place of shelter for ships. well characterised as "_Roi des Rimes_. being in several respects superior. CTSTI. a chief town in Java.com BAN`SHEE. THEODORE DE. the name of most of the races. however. Page 240 of 2772 . with their languages. a dietary for keeping down fat. BANYAN. a French poet." for with him form was everything. and in some parts of the Highlands and Brittany. suggests rather a linguistic than an ethnological distinction. whence the Bantam fowl is thought to have come. BANTU. recommended by a Mr. a fairy. coast of Ireland. till they cover a large area and become a forest. that occupy Africa from 6 deg. take root and form new stocks. to 20 deg. N. Computer Lecturer. the name.

and more so in England than in Scotland. a circular building. which the Templars were accused of worshipping. identified by St. JEAN. debate.. sometimes detached from a church. 4) with that No to the world which precedes or rather accompanies Yea to God. a denomination of Christians. remarkable for the girth of its trunk. chapter vii. a large African tropical tree. and to those who are of age to make an intelligent profession of faith. under which all the spectres that haunted him withered up. BAPTISTE. sometimes called Anabaptists to distinguish them from Paedobaptists. and their expansion. Paul (Rom. where he speaks of the "Baphometic fire-baptism" of his hero. who. BAPTISMAL REGENERATION. insist that the rite of initiation is duly administered only by immersion. BAPHOMET. the Christian rite of initiation into the membership of the Church. a mysterious image. vi. presumed represent Mahomet. Carlyle refers to this cult in "Sartor. they are a numerous body. however they may and do differ on other matters. and alienation all over the Churches of Christendom. but which they may rather be surmised to have invoked to curse them if they failed in their vow." end of Bk. CTSTI. BAPTISTRY. II.com BA`OBAB. Page 241 of 2772 . the most remarkable. Chennai 6. its leaves and seeds are used in medicine. and have included in their membership a number of eminent men. but a misunderstanding of the nature of which has led to endless diversity. the thickness of its branches. particularly in America. that of Pisa. in which the rite of baptism is administered.ramakalai@gmail. BAPTISM. a name given to the French Canadians. the High Church doctrine that the power of Computer Lecturer. BAPTISTS.

her attributes are a tower. a French marshal who fought under Napoleon at Quatre-Bras. ST. it yields sugar. and ultimately synonymous with the uncivilised and people without culture. BARBACAN. a Christian martyr of the 3rd century. she is the patron saint of those who might otherwise die impenitent. 4. ginger. his subjects govern him. Page 242 of 2772 . arrowroot. instead of governing his subjects. particularly literary. generally at the end of the drawbridge in front of the gate. Chennai 6. ACHILLE. subject to hurricanes. CTSTI. BARBARIANS. Dec. or BARBICAN. a fortification to a castle outside the walls. distinguished himself under Louis Philippe in Algeria. beheaded by her own father. BARBA`DOES (182). rather larger than the Isle of Wight. Festival. BARBARA. and aloes. is the most densely peopled of the Windward Islands. presided at the trial of Marshal Bazaine (1795-1878).. BARATARIA. as well as under Louis Napoleon. almost encircled by coral reefs.com spiritual life. a fanatical heathen. who was immediately after the act struck dead by lightning. and of Mantua. BARAGUAY D'HILLIERS`. forfeited by the Fall. this is the sense in which Matthew Arnold uses it. the imaginary island of which Sancho Panza was formally installed governor. a sword. one of the Windward Islands. originally those who could not speak Greek.ramakalai@gmail. and a crown. is bestowed on the soul in the sacrament of baptism duly administered. how. and where in most comical situations he learned how imaginary is the authority of a king. healthy and well cultivated. Computer Lecturer.

CHARLES. at a marble table. till the bad world reach its worst. born at Marseilles. He looked at the peasant one moment. died at Constantinople in 1546. KHAIR-EDDIN. Chennai 6. made admiral under the sultan. Computer Lecturer. held out against Marat and Robespierre. of which he became town-clerk.com BARBAROSSA. ravaged the coast of Italy. a native of Mitylene. CTSTI. and joined the French against Spain. but will be soon. HORUK. the only one in Europe. BARBAROUX. native of the mountainous parts of Barbary. He sits within a cavern near Saltzburg. became viceroy of the Porte. sent "fire-eyed" message to Marseilles for six hundred men "who knew how to die". drew his pistol and shot himself. e. mistook a company approaching for Jacobins. who had adopted him as an ally against Spain. a tailless monkey of gregarious habits. only half-asleep.ramakalai@gmail. of whom there is this tradition. became sovereign of Algiers by the murder of Selim the emir. as a peasant once tumbling into the interior saw him. had to flee. when he will reappear. advocate. Red-beard). was captured and guillotined (1767-1794). Page 243 of 2772 . opposed Andrea Doria. and of which there is a colony on the Rock of Gibraltar. joined the Rolands. and streamed out on the floor. turned corsair. came to Paris "a young Spartan.'" BARBAROSSA (i. that "he is not yet dead. but the shot miscarried.. emperor of Germany. beard had grown through the table. BARBARY APE. leaning on his elbow. asked something about the time it was. was defeated twice by the Spanish general Gomarez and slain (1473-1518). then drooped his eyelids again: 'Not yet time. but only sleeping. the surname of Frederick I. BARBAROSSA." and became chief of the Girondins in the French Revolution. winking. brother and successor of the preceding. declared an enemy of the people. represented Marseilles in the Constituent Assembly and the Convention.

BARBES. imprisoned in 1848. a French bibliographer. an English popular and accomplished authoress. a mining town and important centre in the Transvaal. &c. CTSTI. ARMAND. ANTOINE ALEX. America. 1432. _d_." in which she was assisted by a brother. _nee_ Aiken.. BAR`BECUE. author of a "Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works" (1765-1825). BARBAULD. liberated in 1854. the four states of Morocco.com BARBARY STATES. and one made pope in 1623 under the name Urban VIII. Chennai 6. so called from the Berbers who inhabit the region. BARBERTON.. who deservedly earned for himself the name of the Irreproachable Knight. BARBERI`NI. BARBIER. Algeria. States of N. ANNA LAETITIA. died at the Hague (1809-1870). at which the animals are roasted and dressed whole. formerly common in the SW. an illustrious and influential Florentine family. and VII." "Evenings at Home. 180 m. a feast in the open air on a large scale. BARBAZAN. (1743-1825). and Tripoli. wrote "Hymns in Prose for Children. several of the members of which were cardinals. a French general under Charles VI. of Pretoria. Page 244 of 2772 . expatriated himself voluntarily. Tunis. surnamed the Bayard of Democracy.ramakalai@gmail. a French politician. Computer Lecturer. E.

BARCLAY. author of a journal. dates. historical and anecdotical. with a naval arsenal. and olives. bred a monk in England. and theatres. convents. and its chief port. a French satirical poet. figs. of Scotch birth. author of "Iambics" (1805-1882). born in Paris. has numerous churches.. wrote "The Ship of Fools. and the national spirit in it full grown into life. a poet and prose-writer. between Tripoli and Egypt. and Hannibal belonged. "represents. Hasdrubal. JOHN. Chennai 6. (1689-1771). which closed at Bannockburn. known as the Barcine faction. BARCA. a work consisting of 13." _d_. of Africa." being a long history in rhyme of the life and achievements of Robert the Bruce. the largest town in Spain next to Madrid. ALEX. a Scotch poet and chronicler. and possessing both historical and literary merit. 1195. a man of learning and sagacity. and its largest manufacturing town. CTSTI. called the "Spanish Manchester.000 octosyllabic lines.com BARBIER. Page 245 of 2772 . is the seat of a bishopric and a university. and determinedly opposed to the ascendency of Rome." says Stopford Brooke. a Turkish province in the N. BARCELO`NA (280).." partly a translation and partly Computer Lecturer. produces maize. BARCA (500). BARBIER. of the time of Louis XV. on the Mediterranean. name of a Carthaginian family to which Hamilcar. wrote vigorous political verses." the staple manufacture being cotton. HENRY. archdeacon of Aberdeen. jurisconsult of the parliament. ED. which he ceased to be on the dissolution of the monasteries. "the whole of the eager struggle for Scottish freedom against the English. BARBOUR. his only extant work a poem entitled "The Bruce.ramakalai@gmail. born in Paris. FR.

BARCLAY. as his father had done before him. Page 246 of 2772 . born in France.ramakalai@gmail. his greatest work. leader of the sect of the Bereans (1734-1798). BARCLAY. tempted hard to become a Catholic. JOHN. BARCLAY DE TOLLY." says Stopford Brooke. educated by the Jesuits. WILLIAM. much thought of by Cowper. "An Apology for the True Christian Divinity. commanded the Russians at Dresden and Leipzig. and superseded in command by Kutusow. joined the Society of Friends. the celebrated apologist of Quakerism. All these Barclays were of Scottish descent. and elevated to the rank of prince (1761-1818). his promotion rapid. and patent to the understanding of every truth-loving soul (1645-1690). Petersburg." a Latin romance. _d_. distinguished in successive Russian wars. and of the same family as Robert Barclay the Quaker. wrote the "Argenis. of Scottish descent. Computer Lecturer. he was defeated. JOHN. BARCLAY. he was afterwards Minister of War at St. on Napoleon's invasion of Russia his tactic was to retreat till forced to fight at Smolensk. ROBERT. and led them into France in 1815. and dedicated to Charles II. on the latter's death was made commander-in-chief.. written in Latin as well as in English. Chennai 6. a Russian general and field-marshal. father of John (1). as the same is held forth and preached by the People called in scorn Quakers. "but it was popular because it attacked the follies and questions of the time. BARCLAY." a great work. in spite of his unpopularity as German born. CTSTI. the leading thesis of which is that Divine Truth is not matter of reasoning.com an imitation of the German "Narrerschiff" of Brandt. born in Morayshire. an eminent citizen and professor of Law at Angers. a stanch Catholic. but intuition. "It has no value. translated more than once into English (1582-1621). and its sole interest to us is in its pictures of familiar manners and popular customs" (1475-1552). 1605.

a hill in Leicestershire. from which one can see right across England." says Carlyle. Shakespeare. Wordsworth. Pope." who sues Pickwick for breach of promise. BARDELL`. a widow in the "Pickwick Papers. OF OLNEY. Rogers. OF RYDAL MOUNT.. "If not the remarkablest Assembly. OF MEMORY.com BARD OF AVON. met 4th July 1653. with what we call the Devil and all his angels against it. Burns. and the Little Parliament had to go its ways again. above the sea-level.. Computer Lecturer. derisively called Barebone's Parliament. the business being no less than introducing of the Christian religion into real practice in the social affairs of this nation. OF TWICKENHAM. BARDON HILL. worthless follower of Falstaff's. MRS. Akenside. yet the Assembly for the remarkablest purpose. OF IMAGINATION. CTSTI. resorted to for its mineral waters. Cromwell's Little Parliament. a member of it. BARDOLPH. Cowper. from one Praise-God Barebone. BAR-DURANI. Chennai 6. Page 247 of 2772 . BAREBONE'S PARLIAMENT. at 4000 ft. a village on the Hautes-Pyrenees. In this it failed. Campbell." 12th December in the same year.. BAREGES. the collective name of a number of Afghan tribes between the Hindu-Kush and the Soliman Mountains. OF AYRSHIRE. a drunken.ramakalai@gmail. could not but fail. OF HOPE.. swaggering. "that ever met in the modern world.

a city in NW. See VENGEUR.com BAREILLY (121). in 1596. and by Mercier. an Arctic explorer. voted in the Convention for the execution of the king. famous for its bazaar. THE. of the Caspian. a member of the States-General. an Italian lexicographer. was called by Burke. born in Turin. most inspiring piece of _blaque_ manufactured. BARFRUeSH (603). a town S. 153 m. taught Italian in London. discovered Spitzbergen. BARENTZ. extremity of Nova Zembla. BARI. GIUSEPPE. BAR`GUEST. and died the same year. "the greatest liar in France. BARERE. became a spy under Napoleon. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. BARFLEUR." died in beggary (1755-1841). of Delhi. by any man or nation. notable as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first broke out. where William the Conqueror set out with his fleet to invade England. and the Convention." escaped the fate of his associates. French revolutionary. became secretary of the Royal Academy (1719-1789). a small negro nation on the banks of the White Nile. Page 248 of 2772 . the National Assembly of France. E. of Cherbourg. Chennai 6. the chief town in Rohilkhand. born in Friesland. for some centuries. a seaport 15 m. uttering the oft-quoted words. the Anacreon of the Guillotine. BARETTI. patronised by Johnson.ramakalai@gmail. a goblin long an object of terror in the N. India." he was inventor of the famous fable "his masterpiece. from his flowery oratory. of England." of the "Sinking of the _Vengeur_. E. and doubled the NE. "The tree of Liberty thrives only when watered by the blood of tyrants." "the largest.

NE. BARING-GOULD. friend of Sidney Smith. SABINE." published originally as a series of papers in _Bentley's Miscellany_ (1788-1879). amassed property. being a Christianised version of an earlier legend relating to Buddha. a prince like Buddha. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. a voluminous writer on all manner of subjects. of London. Page 249 of 2772 . born in Yorkshire. SIR FRANCIS. E. BARKIS. and romance. Chennai 6. _b_. RICHARD HARRIS. HENRY. and a man of wide reading. born at Canterbury. a market-town in Essex. founder of the great banking firm of Baring Brothers & Co. died in poverty (1788-1839). a mediaeval legend. value of it said to have been nearly seven millions (1740-1810). especially the latter. BARLEYCORN." an arduous work. is converted by Barlaam to a like ascetic life." in love with Peggotty. Paul's. with the remains of an ancient Benedictine convent. edited Stephens' "Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. celebrated in various departments of literature. a carrier-lad in "David Copperfield. BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT. a classical scholar. in which Josaphat.com BARING.. history. minor canon of St. Devonshire. 7 m. author of "Ingoldsby Legends. BARHAM." BARKER. rector of Lew-Trenchard. theology. JOHN. BARKING. the exhilarating spirit distilled from barley Computer Lecturer. 1834. "Barkis is willin'. his literary name Thomas Ingoldsby.

BARMACIDE FEAST. that he had the whole family invited to a banquet. a long town. JOEL. CTSTI. in Rhenish Prussia. BARLOWE. and it had fatal issues to his kingdom as well as himself. a Persian family celebrated for their magnificence.ramakalai@gmail. the manufacture of ribbons. BARNABAS. one of them. BARLOW. wrote a poem "The Vision of Columbus" (1755-1812). consisting of a series of hamlets. and every man. inventor of the repeating watch. BAR`MEN (116). in extent. and which he enjoyed with such seeming gusto and such good-humour as to earn for himself a sumptuous real one. for his Republican zeal. and his four sons rose along with him to such influence in the government. The caliph. so called from a story in the "Arabian Nights" of a hungry beggar invited by a Barmacide prince to a banquet. ST. Yahya. woman. a French watchmaker. eminent for ability and virtue.com personified. and it is the centre of that industry on the Continent. was in 1792 accorded the rights of citizenship in France. it is gratifying to learn. Chennai 6. 6 m. _d_. was chosen by the world-famous Haroun-Al-Raschid on his accession to the caliphate to be his vizier. BAR`MACIDES. and that in the end met with the cruellest fate. an American poet and diplomatist. Page 250 of 2772 . and child of them massacred at midnight in cold blood.. never forgave himself for this cruelty. 1690. an imaginary feast. the population consists chiefly of Protestants. a Computer Lecturer. which proved a long succession of merely empty dishes. as to excite the jealousy of the caliph so much. the staple industry. a member of the first Christian brotherhood. and was visited with a gnawing remorse to the end of his days.

but is not believed to be his work. lived several years at the Cape. Lameth does it. president of the French Constitutional Assembly in 1780. born at Grenoble. a reckless character in "Measure for Measure. a proselytising order of monks founded at Milan. BARNABY RUDGE. in Durham. BARNARD. born in Connecticut. Festival. American educationist. and characterised in the Acts as "a good man". born in Fife. authoress of "Auld Robin Gray. he is usually represented in art as a venerable man of majestic mien." a defender of the monarchy from the day he gained the favour of the queen by his gallant Computer Lecturer. Page 251 of 2772 . stoned to death at Cyprus. in London (1750-1825). birthplace of John Baliol. where Barnabas was reported to have been bishop. published in 1841. by the three monastic vows. an old tower W. the 5th Earl of Balcarres. Chennai 6. with the Gospel of St. Matthew in his hand. Paul's. bound. HENRY. one of Dickens' novels. the Epistle to the Hebrews has by some been ascribed to him. and by a vow in addition. Barnave speaks it. French lawyer." BARNAVE. Dupont thinks it. not to sue for preferment in the Church. CTSTI. of Darlington." named after a Balcarres herd. 1811. June 11. an epistle extant bears his name. "Whatsoever those three have on hand. and the scene of Scott's "Rokeby.com companion of St.ramakalai@gmail. one of the trio in the Assembly of whom it was said. BARNARD CASTLE. as the rest are." BAR`NARDINE. BARNARD. BARNABITES. JOSEPH MARIE. and after his death. where he was born. where her husband held an appointment. LADY ANNE. in 1530. daughter of Lindsay.

the king-maker. a favourite resort of Londoners. being an Arminian. Grand Pensionary of Holland. took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party. of a distinguished family. was slain. WILLIAM. author of operas and a number of fugitive pieces (1802-1891). name formerly given to an extreme radical party in the United States. Page 252 of 2772 . CTSTI. editor of the _Times_. under whom the paper first rose to the pre-eminent place it came to occupy among the journals of the day (1786-1841). BARNES. JOHN. in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice. Chennai 6. at which Warwick. too. whose ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed." in three vols. author of "Poems of Rural Life in Dorset. native of Dorsetshire. has a large annual horse and cattle fair. born at Bedford. BARNEVELDT. fought for the independence of his country against Spain. BARNETT. burned his barns. was arrested. BARNET (5).ramakalai@gmail. composer. tried. studied law at the Hague. was guillotined (1761-1793). BARNES. Computer Lecturer. and condemned to death as a traitor and heretic. THOMAS. BARN-BURNERS. of the Synod of Dort. to get rid of the rats. a town in Hertfordshire.com conduct to her on her way back to Paris from her flight with the king to Varennes. in 1619. JOHANN VAN OLDEN. a local philologist. almost a suburb of London. convicted by documentary evidence of conspiring with the court against the nation. to which Maurice belonged.. scene of a battle in 1471. with sanction. concluded a truce with Spain. and practised as an advocate there. as imitating the Dutchman who. and died on the scaffold at 71 years of age. wrote on subjects of philological interest (1830-1886).

a great Catholic ecclesiastic.415). of Bombay. Yorkshire. N. the third city in the presidency.com BARNSLEY (35). dying worth five million dollars (1810-1891). in the prov. (1802-1870). BAROCHE. the sovereign of which is called the Guicowar. picked up Tom Thumb in 1844. a work of immense research that occupied him 30 years. with Hindu temples and a considerable trade. imitator of the style of Correggio (1528-1612). priest of the Congregation of the Oratory under its founder. began with the exhibition of George Washington's reputed nurse in 1834. failed of the popehood from the intrigues of the Spaniards.. BARO`DA (2. Chennai 6. cardinal and librarian of the Vatican.ramakalai@gmail. of Sheffield. a manufacturing town in W." being a history of the first 12 centuries of the Church. Computer Lecturer. manufactures textile fabrics and glass. born near Naples. a celebrated Italian painter. BARO`NIUS. BAROCCI. written to prove that the Church of Rome was identical with the Church of the 1st century. PIERRE-JULES. CAESAR. and realised another fortune. a native state of Gujerat. CTSTI. an American showman. and realised a fortune. "Annales Ecclesiastici. 18 m. a war in England of the barons against Henry III. started in 1871 with his huge travelling show. a French statesman. which he lost. engaged Jenny Lind for 100 concerts in 1849. Page 253 of 2772 . and ultimately Superior. BARNUM. minister of Napoleon III. whose political schemes he had frustrated (1538-1607). with a capital (101) of the same name. BARONS' WAR. his great work.

took part in the siege of Toulon. more lavish and showy rather than true and tasteful..." voted in the National Convention for the execution of the king. a town on the Hooghly. BARRE. "he the commandant's cloak. of S. Uist. a small island. 15 m. this artillery officer the commandant.. also a fraud by a ship captain on the owners of a ship.com headed by Simon de Montfort. put an end to the career of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror. with a fine martial strain. a member of the Jacobin Club. 5 m. a healthy resort of the Europeans. BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS. and handsome to the eye.ramakalai@gmail. much in vogue from the 16th to the 18th centuries. born in Dublin. PAUL FRANCOIS. BARRA. named general-in-chief to oppose the reactionaries. the offence of inciting and stirring up riots and quarrels among the Queen's subjects. entered Parliament. ornamentation of a florid and incongruous character. soldier and statesman. ballads by Rudyard Kipling. SW." was a member of the Directory till Bonaparte swept it away (1755-1829). BARRAS. ISAAC. Page 254 of 2772 . the inhabitants of which are engaged in fisheries. BAROQUE. "a man of heat and haste. employed Bonaparte to command the artillery. BAR`RACKPUR (18). born in Provence. above Calcutta. tall. charged with Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. one of the Hebrides. where the lieutenant-governor of Bengal has a residence. served under Wolfe in Canada. supported Pitt. and which lasted from 1258 to 1265. BAR`RATRY. CTSTI.

a writer with a rich vein of humour and pathos. BARRIERE. Viscount de Mirabeau. BARRIE. broken on the wheel in 1593. English actor. and of the Court and the Princess's Theatres. Computer Lecturer. would-be assassin of Henry IV. _b_. _d_. THE GREAT. BARRIER REEF." deemed by some likely to prove the most enduring thing he has yet written. Chennai 6.com authorship of "Junius' Letters". WILSON. of 1200 m. PIERRE.. "Auld Licht Idylls" in 1888. 1802. lessee of the Grand Theatre. born in Essex. produced his Hamlet in 1884. BARRIERE. of France. _b_. 1860. and protect the intermediate channel from the storms of the Pacific. JEAN FRANCOIS. See BARERE. Page 255 of 2772 . 1846. London. and recently "Margaret Ogilvie. and 100 m. produced. among other works. began his literary career as a contributor to journals. BARRERE. so called from his bulk and the liquor he held.. extent. French historian of the Revolution (1786-1868). BARREL MIRABEAU. born at Kirriemuir ("Thrums"). and "A Window in Thrums. in Forfarshire. wide at the S. and growing narrower as they go N." in 1889. BARRETT. off the coast. Leeds.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. brother of the great tribune of the name. JAMES MATTHEW. are from 70 to 20 m. made his _debut_ at Halifax. a slightly interrupted succession of coral reefs off the coast of Queensland.

all more or less distinguished. subsequently Lucasian professor of Mathematics (in which he had Newton for successor). mathematician. JOAO DE. 1st Lord of the name. assisted under Lord Howe at the relief of Gibraltar. appointed professor of Greek at Cambridge. the fifth." and an Irish peerage from George I. and master of Trinity. BATTLE OF THE. ODILON. for his "Dissuasive from Jacobitism". ISAAC.ramakalai@gmail." and a body of sermons remarkable for their vigour of thought and nervousness of Computer Lecturer. 1st Viscount. after a course of 114 m. and fellow of Trinity College. born in London. distinguished in law (1727-1800). he did not live to complete it (1493-1570). and founder of the library. left a "Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy. retired after the _coup d'etat_. contributed to the Revolutions of both 1830 and 1848. a graduate of Cambridge. his great work. JOHN SHUTE. BARROW. BARROW. a river in Ireland rising in the Slievebloom Mts. BARROS. a battle fought within the walls of Paris in 1814 between Napoleon and the Allies. and divine.. falls into Waterford harbour. to return to office in 1872 (1791-1873). BARRINGTON.com BARRIERS. English scholar. "Asia Portugueza. distinguished in the naval service. and soon after Gresham professor of Geometry. left six sons. in a pure and simple style. a distinguished Portuguese historian. which ended in the capitulation of the city and the abdication of Napoleon. Chennai 6. famous as an advocate. a man of great intellectual ability and force of character. Page 256 of 2772 . BARROT. and became an admiral in 1787 (1678-1764). particularly Daines. gained the favour of the Nonconformists by his "Rights of Dissenters. born at Villefort. besides mathematical works." relates. and Samuel. CTSTI. accepted office under Louis Napoleon. the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in the Indies. the fourth.

BARROW. Computer Lecturer. became professor of Painting at the Royal Academy. or BARTH. Howe. entered the French service at 20. son of a fisherman. unhampered by red-tapism of every kind (1651-1702). JAMES. JEAN. BARRY CORNWALL. BARRY. owing to the discovery of extensive deposits of iron in the neighbourhood. BARRY. having had other ships placed under his command. wrote the Lives of Macartney. Lancashire. BART. See PROCTER. served under De Ruyter. born in Cork. besides other public buildings (1795-1860). SIR JOHN. architect. painted the "Death of General Wolfe". died in poverty. and much esteemed in that department. was captured by the English. but was deposed.com expression (1630-1677). CTSTI. his masterpiece is the "Victors at Olympia" (1741-1806). and Peter the Great (1764-1848). for which he was ennobled by Louis XIV. distinguished also as a man of letters. BARROW-IN-FURNESS (51). born at Westminster. of recent rapid growth. which has led to the establishment of smelting works and the largest manufacture of steel in the kingdom. was subsidised as a privateer. Page 257 of 2772 . SIR CHARLES. but escaped. captured his squadron laden with corn. made numerous prizes. born at Dunkirk. painter. the principal landowners in the district being the Dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch.. defeated the Dutch admiral. architect of the new Palace of Westminster. Anson. Chennai 6. a distinguished French seaman. purchased a ship of two guns. a town and seaport in N. secretary to the Admiralty for 40 years. he was one of the bravest of men and the most independent. De Vries.ramakalai@gmail.

born at Marseilles. and customs of Greece (1716-1795). BARTHOLDI. and Encyclopaedist. author of "Nemesis. AUGUSTE-MARSEILLE. CTSTI. Buddhism. educated by the Jesuits. "Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grece. where he founded a medical school. born at Cassis. was much esteemed and honoured by Napoleon. Thiers. an Oriental as well as Greek scholar. his greatest achievement. JULES. Page 258 of 2772 . as well as wrote on the Vedas. and the "Iliad" into verse. HEINRICH.ramakalai@gmail. in Provence. author of "Travels in the East and Discoveries in Central Africa." in five volumes (1821-1865)." long treated as an authority in the history. BARTHELEMY SAINT-HILAIRE. Computer Lecturer. a French baron and politician. manners. 1805. a French historian and antiquary. a French sculptor. had great skill in numismatics. in chief." and the best French translation of the "AEneid. wrote several archaeological works. a celebrated physician. a great African explorer. and subsequently a zealous supporter of M. _b_. suffered greatly during the Revolution. Chennai 6. and Mahomet. born at Paris. an associate of Odilon Barrot in the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848. JEAN JACQUES. physiologist. THE ABBE. BARTHEZ. born at Hamburg. for a time professor of Greek and Roman Philosophy in the College of France. PAUL JOSEPH. is celebrated among physiologists as the advocate of what he called the Vital Principle as a physiological force in the functions of the human organism. his work "Nouveaux Elements de la Science de l'Homme" has been translated into all the languages of Europe (1734-1806). born at Colmar. translated the works of Aristotle.com BARTH. a poet and politician. BARTHELEMY. his principal works. an enemy of the Bourbons. an ardent Imperialist. BARTHELEMY." in verse. and warm supporter of Louis Napoleon (1796-1867). born at Montpellier.

and martyr. BARTHOLOMEW FAIR.. but abolished in 1853. till Charles was coerced to grant liberty of conscience throughout the realm. ST.. to be kept on the saint's day. an apostle of Christ.. sometimes been painted as being flayed alive. Charles IX. an annual market held at Smithfield. 24. and instituted in 1133 by Henry I. an event. BARTLETT. being 150 ft. erected at the entrance of New York harbour. 24th August. with which the names of a number of eminent physicians are associated.ramakalai@gmail. founded in 1123. Aug. has a medical school attached to it. high. day in 1572 memorable for the wholesale massacre of the Protestants in France at the instance of Catharine de Medici.. then regent of the kingdom for her son." and "Liberte eclairant le Monde. _b_. BARTHOLOMEW. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY. an overhanging wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of ancient fortifications.S. Page 259 of 2772 . born at Rhode Island. 1834." the largest bronze statue in the world. CTSTI. Festival. although it extinguished Protestantism proper in France. London. Computer Lecturer. author of "Dictionary of Americanisms. London. when it ceased to be a market and became an occasion for mere dissipation and riot. also as headless. BARTIZAN. Chennai 6. ST. represented in art with a knife in one hand and his skin in the other.. BARTHOLOMEW HOSPITAL. U. an American ethnologist and philologist. which kindled a fire in the nation that was not quenched..com "Lion le Belfort. JOHN H. an hospital in Smithfield. cruelly gloried in by the Pope and the Spanish Court." among other works particularly on ethnology (1805-1886).

BARTON. wrought at his art both in England and in Portugal. for Computer Lecturer.com BARTOLI. the "Prometheus. FRA. Italian engraver. an adherent of Savonarola.ramakalai@gmail. Mark" and "St. "the Maid of Kent. till her communications were taken advantage of by designing people. Chennai 6. in which she gave utterances ascribed by Archbishop Warham to divine inspiration. a celebrated Florentine painter of sacred subjects. PIETRO. FRANCESCO." a poor country servant-girl. Page 260 of 2772 . gained him the friendship of Southey and Charles Lamb. a learned Italian Jesuit. BERNARD. patronised by Napoleon. his chief works. born at Florence. but instinct with poetic feeling and fancy. where he died. his poems. friend of Raphael. as well as more substantial patronage in the shape of a government pension (1784-1849). BARTOLINI. BARTOLI. LORENZO. "Clytie. born at Ferrara (1635-1685). Sebastian" among his best productions (1469-1517). subject from nervous debility to trances. an eminent engraver. "St." after Annibale Caracci." after Carlo Dolci. a clerk nearly all his days in a bank. BARTOLOZ`ZI. and she was led by them to pronounce sentence against the divorce of Catharine of Aragon. born at Florence. he was the father of Madame Vestris (1725-1815). and "Virgin and Child." born in London. mostly on homely subjects. born in Kent. BARTOLOMME`O. engraved a great number of ancient works of art (1635-1700). a Florentine sculptor. BARTON. the "Quaker poet." after Michael Angelo. ELIZABETH. CTSTI. which involved her and her abettors in a charge of treason. produced a great number of busts (1777-1850). DANIELE.

in the NW. which. "Christ in the Garden" and the "Calling of St. a zealous educational reformer. on the Rhine. Andrew. it cited him on two occasions to appear at its bar. ascribed to him. (3) also a book entitled the Apocalypse of Baruch. instinct with the spirit of Hebrew prophecy. COUNCIL OF. his method modelled according to the principles of Rousseau. who was cast with him into prison. and accompanied him into Egypt. CTSTI. (1) the friend of the prophet Jeremiah. and laboured for 12 years to effect the reformation of the Church from within. which led to a rupture with his colleagues (1723-1790). BASAITI. distinguished for his groups of statues of wild animals (1795-1875). Asserting the authority of a general council over the Pope himself. university. and the home for several years of Erasmus. has a cathedral. BASEL. Page 261 of 2772 . was a centre of influence in Reformation times. BASEL (74). (2) a book in the Apocrypha. a French sculptor. just before it enters Germany. but was hampered at every step by the opposition of Pope Eugenius IV. a Venetian painter of the 15th and 16th centuries. BARUCH. affecting to predict the fall of Jerusalem. met in 1431.com which they were all executed at Tyburn (1506-1534). on his Computer Lecturer. JOHANN BERNARD. It effected some compromise with the Hussites. failed from his irritability of temper. however. library. of Switzerland. born at Hamburg." BASEDOW. the people are Protestant and German-speaking. it is now a great money market. Chennai 6. a rival of Bellini.ramakalai@gmail. and has manufactures of silks and chemicals. his best works. Peter and St. established a normal school on this method at Dessau. and museum. BARYE. and his scribe. but obviously written after the event.

BASHKIRTSEFF. but scantily recognised.. noted her impressions. the papal prerogatives and exactions. but of delicate constitution. BASHI-BAZOUKS`. tributary to the British Government. and Nicholas V. who was.. a native hill state in the Punjab. in 1449. and at one time densely peopled. as well as. The Emperor Frederick III. MARIE. and the council gradually melted away. a precocious Russian young lady of good family. undisciplined troops in the pay of the Sultan. irregular. Chennai 6. The decrees of the council were directed against the immorality of the clergy. traversed by the Sutlej. a fertile and pastoral district in NE. in the time of the Crimean war. who travelled a good deal with her mother.000. rendered themselves odious by their brutality in the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876. BASHKIRS. Felix V. which created. it elected a rival pope. Computer Lecturer. Failing to effect its purpose. CTSTI. the indecorousness of certain festivals. Palestine of considerable extent. BA`SHAN. BASHAHR. Russia. more or less. originally a Finnish nomad race (and still so to some extent) of E. Page 262 of 2772 .com refusal declared him contumacious. an immense sensation from the confessions it contains (1860-1884). and dealt with the election of popes and the procedure of the College of Cardinals. they number some 500. supported Eugenius. professing Mohammedanism. the pope died. At length. and ultimately endeavoured to suspend him. was recognised by the whole Church. owing to the secession of his supporters. and left a journal of her life. They were all confirmed by Nicholas V. but are not recognised by modern Roman canonists. when published after her death. Felix resigned. however. the men of it were remarkable for their stature.ramakalai@gmail.

but eventually covered in. studied at Athens. a spacious hall. emperor of the East.com BASIL. Page 263 of 2772 . CTSTI. a work written by James I. fought successfully against the Saracens. Prince Henry. They were first erected by the Romans. on the adoption of Christianity. There were several Basils of eminence in the history of the Church: Basil.. in 1599. had Julian the Apostate for a fellow-student. who flourished in the 4th century. along with his son Leo. in Cappadocia. they were converted into churches.. BASILICA. THE GREAT. founded a monastic body. in a circular apse added to it. originally open to the sky. twice as long as broad. the lifelong friend of Gregory Nazianzen. and with the judge's bench at the end opposite the entrance. first published in 887. compiled by Basil I. Ambrose.C. a code of laws that were in force till the fall of the empire. Royal Gift). whose rules are followed by different monastic communities. the mystic. a conspicuous opponent of the Arian heresy. compiled. bareheaded. and Leo. afterwards. for public business and the administration of justice. and with an emaciated appearance (326-380). and Basil. BASILICON DORON (i. Basil.ramakalai@gmail.. for the instruction of his son. Chennai 6. containing a defence of the royal prerogative. _d_. BASIL I. ST. BASILICA. governed wisely.. the altar being in the apse. bishop of Ancyra. the Macedonian. 886. is represented in Christian art in Greek pontificals. his son and successor. and named after the former. the code of laws. bishop of Caesarea. e. 180 B. and defender of the Nicene Creed. tried in vain to unite the Churches of the East and West. surnamed the Philosopher. before the union of the crowns. his birthplace. though he had raised himself to the throne by a succession of crimes. in 60 books. the friend of St. Computer Lecturer.

BASILI`DES, a Gnostic of Alexandria, flourished at the commencement of the 2nd century; appears to have taught the Oriental theory of emanations, to have construed the universe as made up of a series of worlds, some 365 it is alleged, each a degree lower than the preceding, till we come to our own world, the lowest and farthest off from the parent source of the series, of which the God of the Jews was the ruler, and to have regarded Jesus as sent into it direct from the parent source to redeem it from the materialism to which the God of the Jews, as Creator and Lord of the material universe, had subjected it; which teaching a sect called after his name accepted and propagated in both the East and the West for more than two centuries afterwards.

BAS`ILISK, an animal fabled to have been hatched by a toad from the egg of an old cock, before whose breath every living thing withered and died, and the glance of whose eye so bewitched one to his ruin that the bravest could confront and overcome it only by looking at the reflection of it in a mirror, as PERSEUS (q. v.) was advised to do, and did, when he cut off the head of the Medusa; seeing itself in a mirror, it burst, it as said, at the sight.

BASKERVILLE, JOHN, a printer and typefounder, originally a writing-master in Birmingham; native of Sion Hill, Worcestershire; produced editions of classical works prized for their pre-eminent beauty by connoisseurs in the art of the printer, and all the more for their rarity (1706-1756).

BASNAGES, JACQUES, a celebrated Protestant divine, born at Rouen; distinguished as a linguist and man of affairs; wrote a "History of the Reformed Churches" and on "Jewish Antiquities" (1653-1723).

BASOCHE, a corporation of lawyers' clerks in Paris. See BAZOCHE.

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BASQUE PROVINCES, a fertile and mineral district in N. of Spain, embracing the three provinces of Biscaya, Guipuzcoa, and Alava, of which the chief towns are respectively Bilbao, St. Sebastian, and Vittoria; the natives differ considerably from the rest of the Spaniards in race, language, and customs. See BASQUES.

BASQUE ROADS, an anchorage between the Isle of Oleron and the mainland; famous for a naval victory gained in 1809 over a French fleet under Vice-Admiral Allemand.

BASQUES, a people of the Western Pyrenees, partly in France and partly in Spain; distinguished from their neighbours only by their speech, which is non-Aryan; a superstitious people, conservative, irascible, ardent, proud, serious in their religious convictions, and pure in their moral conduct.

BAS-RELIEF (i. e. low relief) a term applied to figures very slightly projected from the ground.

BASS ROCK, a steep basaltic rock at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, 350 ft. high, tenanted by solan geese; once used as a prison, specially in Covenanting times.

BASS STRAIT, strait between Australia and Tasmania, about 150 m. broad.

BASSANIO, the lover of Portia in the "Merchant of Venice."

BASSANO, a town in Italy, on the Brenta, 30 m. NW. of Padua; printing the chief industry.

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BASSANO, DUC DE, an intriguing French diplomatist in the interest of Bonaparte, and his steadfast auxiliary to the last (1763-1839).

BASSANO, JACOPO DA PONTE, an eminent Italian painter, chiefly of country scenes, though the "Nativity" at his native town, Bassano, shows his ability in the treatment of higher themes (1510-1592).

BASSOMPIERRE, FRANCOIS DE, a marshal of France, born in Lorraine; entered military life under Henry IV., was a gallant soldier, and one of the most brilliant wits of his time; took part in the siege of Rochelle; incurred the displeasure of Richelieu; was imprisoned by his order twelve years in the Bastille; wrote his Memoirs there; was liberated on the death of Richelieu; his Memoirs contain a lively description of his contemporaries, the manners of the time, his own intrigues, no less than those of his friends and enemies (1579-1646).

BASSORAH (40), a port in Asiatic Turkey, on the Shatt-el-Arab; a place of great commercial importance when Bagdad was the seat of the caliphate; for a time sank into insignificance, but has of late revived.

BASTI`A (22), a town in NE. Corsica, the most commercial in the island, and once the capital; was founded by the Genoese in 1383, and taken by the French in 1553; exports wine, oil, fruits, &c.

BASTIAN, ADOLF, an eminent ethnologist, born at Bremen; travelled over and surveyed, in the interest of his science, all quarters of the globe, and recorded the fruits of his survey in his numerous works, no fewer than thirty in number, beginning with "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," in three vols.; conducts, along with Virchow and R. Hartman, the _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_; _b_. 1826.

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BASTIAN, DR. H. C., a physiologist, born at Truro; a materialist in his theory of life; a zealous advocate of the doctrine of spontaneous generation; _b_. 1837.

BASTIAT, FREDERIC, an eminent political economist, born at Bayonne; a disciple of Cobden's; a great advocate of Free Trade; wrote on behalf of it and against Protection, "Sophismes Economiques"; a zealous Anti-Socialist, and wrote against Socialism (1801-1850).

BASTIDE, JULES, French Radical writer, born in Paris; took part in the Revolution of 1848, and became Minister of Foreign Affairs (1800-1879).

BASTILLE (lit. the Building), a State prison in Paris, built originally as a fortress of defence to the city, by order of Charles V., between 1369 and 1382, but used as a place of imprisonment from the first; a square structure, with towers and dungeons for the incarceration of the prisoners, the whole surrounded by a moat, and accessible only by drawbridges; "tyranny's stronghold"; attacked by a mob on 14th July 1789; taken chiefly by noise; overturned, as "the city of Jericho, by miraculous sound"; demolished, and the key of it sent to Washington; the taking of it was the first event in the Revolution. See Carlyle's "French Revolution" for the description of the fall of it.

BASUTOLAND (250), a fertile, healthy, grain-growing territory in S. Africa, SE. of the Orange Free State, under protection of the British crown, of the size of Belgium; yields large quantities of maize; the natives keep large herds of cattle.

BASUTOS, a S. African race of the same stock as the Kaffirs, but superior to them in intelligence and industry.

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BATANGAS, a port in the island of Luzon, one of the Philippine Islands, which has a considerable trade.

BATAVIA (105), the capital of Java, on the N. coast, and of the Dutch possessions in the Eastern Archipelago; the emporium, with a large trade, of the Far East; with a very mixed population. Also the ancient name of Holland; _insula Batavorum_ it was called--that is, island of the Batavi, the name of the native tribes inhabiting it.

BATES, HENRY WALTER, a naturalist and traveller, born at Leicester; friend of, and a fellow-labourer with, Alfred R. Wallace; author of "The Naturalist on the Amazons"; an advocate of the Darwinian theory, and author of contributions in defence of it (1825-1892).

BATH (54), the largest town in Somerset, on the Avon; a cathedral city; a place of fashionable resort from the time of the Romans, on account of its hot baths and mineral waters, of which there are six springs; it was from 1704 to 1750 the scene of Beau Nash's triumphs; has a number of educational and other institutions, and a fine public park.

BATH, MAJOR, a gentleman in Fielding's "Amelia," who stoops from his dignity to the most menial duties when affection prompts him.

BATH, ORDER OF THE, an English order of knighthood, traceable to the reign of Henry IV., consisting of three classes: the first, Knights Grand Cross; the second, Knights Commanders, and the third, Knights Companions, abbreviated respectively into G.C.B., K.C.B., and C.B.; initiation into the order originally preceded by immersion in a bath, whence the name, in token of the purity required of the members by the laws of chivalry. It was originally a military order, and it is only since 1847 that civil Knights, Knights Commanders, and Companions have been admitted as Knights. The first class, exclusive of royal personages and

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foreigners, is limited to 102 military and 28 civil; the second, to 102 military and 50 civil; and the third, to 525 military and 200 civil. The motto of the order is _Tria juncta in uno_ (Three united in one); and Henry VI.'s chapel at Westminster is the chapel of the order, with the plates of the Knights on their stalls, and their banners suspended over them.

BATHGATE (5), largest town in Linlithgowshire; a mining centre; the birthplace of Sir J. Simpson, who was the son of a baker in the place.

BATHILDA, ST., queen of France, wife of Clovis II., who governed France during the minority of her sons, Clovis III., Childeric II., and Thierry; died 680, in the monastery of Chelles.

BATH`ORI, ELIZABETH, a Polish princess, a woman of infamous memory, caused some 650 young girls to be put to death, in order, by bathing in their blood, to renew her beauty; immersed in a fortress for life on the discovery of the crime, while her accomplices were burnt alive; _d_. 1614.

BATHOS, an anti-climax, being a sudden descent from the sublime to the commonplace.

BATH`URST (8), the capital of British Gambia, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western Africa; inhabited chiefly by negroes; exports palm-oil, ivory, gold dust, &c.

BATHURST (10), the principal town on the western slopes of New South Wales, second to Sydney, with gold mines in the neighbourhood, and in a fertile wheat-growing district.

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BATHURST, a district in Upper Canada, on the Ottawa, a thriving place and an agricultural centre.

BATHYB`IUS, (i. e. living matter in the deep), substance of a slimy nature found at great sea depth, over-hastily presumed to be organic, proved by recent investigation to be inorganic, and of no avail to the evolutionist.

BATLEY (28), a manufacturing town in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; a busy place.

BATN-EL-HAJAR, a stony tract in the Nubian Desert, near the third cataract of the Nile.

BATON-ROUGE (10), a city on the E. bank of the Mississippi, 130 m. above New Orleans, and capital of the state of Louisiana; originally a French settlement.

BATON-SINISTER, a bend-sinister like a marshal's baton, an indication of illegitimacy.

BATOUM` (10), a town in Transcaucasia, on the E. of the Black Sea; a place of some antiquity; recently ceded by Turkey to Russia, but only as a mere trading port; has an excellent harbour, and has improved under Russian rule.

BATRACHOMYOMACHIA, a mock-heroic poem, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice," falsely ascribed to Homer.

BATTAS, a Malay race, native to Sumatra, now much reduced in

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numbers, and driven into the interior.

BATTERSEA, a suburb of London, on the Surrey side of the Thames, opposite Chelsea, and connected with it by a bridge; with a park 185 acres in extent; of plain and recent growth; till lately a quite rural spot.

BATTHYA`NI, COUNT, an Hungarian patriot, who fought hard to see his country reinstated in its ancient administrative independence, but failed in his efforts; was arrested, tried for high treason by court-martial, and sentenced to be shot, to the horror, at the time, of the civilised world (1809-1849).

BATTLE, a market-town in Sussex, near Hastings, so called from the battle of Senlac, in which William the Conqueror defeated Harold in 1066.

BATTLE OF THE SPURS, (_a_) an engagement at Courtrai in 1302 where the burghers of the town beat the knighthood of France, and the spurs of 4000 knights were collected after the battle; (_b_) an engagement at Guinegate, 1513, in which Henry VIII. made the French forces take to their spurs; OF THE BARRIERS (see BARRIERS); OF THE BOOKS, a satire by Swift on a literary controversy of the time; OF THE STANDARD, a battle in 1138, in which the English, with a high-mounted crucifix for a standard, beat the Scots at Northallerton.

BATTUE, method of killing game after crowding them by cries and beating them towards the sportsmen.


BAUDELAIRE, CHARLES, French poet of the romantic school, born in

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Paris; distinguished among his contemporaries for his originality, and his influence on others of his class; was a charming writer of prose as well as verse, as his "Petits Poemes" in prose bear witness. Victor Hugo once congratulated him on having "created a new shudder"; and as has been said, "this side of his genius attracted most popular attention, which, however, is but one side, and not really the most remarkable, of a singular combination of morbid but delicate analysis and reproduction of the remotest phases and moods of human thought and passion" (1821-1867).

BAUDRICOURT, a French courtier whom Joan of Arc pressed to conduct her into the presence of Charles VII.

BAUDRY, PAUL, French painter, decorated the _foyer_ of the Grand Opera in Paris; is best known as the author of the "Punishment of a Vestal Virgin" and the "Assassination of Marat" (1828-1886).

BAUER, BRUNO, a daring Biblical critic, and violent polemic on political as well as theological subjects; born at Saxe-Altenburg; regarded the Christian religion as overlaid and obscured by accretions foreign to it; denied the historical truth of the Gospels, and, like a true disciple of Hegel, ascribed the troubles of the 19th century to the overmastering influence of the "ENLIGHTENMENT" or the "AUFKLAeRUNG" (q. v.) that characterised the 18th. His last work was entitled "Disraeli's Romantic and Bismarck's Socialistic Imperialism" (1809-1882).

BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, professor of Philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder; disciple of Wolf; born at Berlin; the founder of AEsthetics as a department of philosophy, and inventor of the name (1714-1762).

BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, a German theologian of the school of Schleiermacher; professor of Theology at Jena; born at Merseburg; an authority on the history of dogma, on which he wrote (1788-1843).

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BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN, head of the Tuebingen school of rationalist divines, born near Stuttgart; distinguished by his scholarship and his labours in Biblical criticism and dogmatic theology; his dogmatic treatises were on the Christian Gnosis, the Atonement, the Trinity, and the Incarnation, while his Biblical were on certain epistles of Paul and the canonical Gospels, which he regarded as the product of the 2nd century; regarded Christianity of the Church as Judaic in its origin, and Paul as distinctively the first apostle of pure Christianity (1792-1861).

BAUSSET, cardinal, born at Pondicherry, who wrote the Lives of Bossuet and Fenelon (1748-1824).

BAUTZEN, a town of Saxony, an old town on the Spree, where Napoleon defeated the Prussians and Russians in 1813; manufactures cotton, linen, wool, tobacco, paper, etc.

BAVARIA (5,590), next to Prussia the largest of the German States, about the size of Scotland; is separated by mountain ranges from Bohemia on the E. and the Tyrol on the S.; Wuertemburg lies on the W., Prussia, Meiningen, and Saxony on the N. The country is a tableland crossed by mountains and lies chiefly in the basin of the Danube. It is a busy agricultural state: half the soil is tilled; the other half is under grass, planted with vineyards and forests. Salt, coal, and iron are widely distributed and wrought. The chief manufactures are of beer, coarse linen, and woollen fabrics. There are universities at Muenich, Wuerzburg, and Erlangen. Muenich, on the Isar, is the capital; Nueremberg, where watches were invented, and Angsburg, a banking centre, the other chief towns. Formerly a dukedom, the palatinate, on the banks of the Rhine, was added to it in 1216. Napoleon I. raised the duke to the title of king in 1805. Bavaria fought on the side of Austria in 1866, but joined Prussia in 1870-71.

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BAVIE`CA, the famous steed of the Cid, held sacred after the hero's death.

BAVOU, ST., a soldier monk, the patron saint of Ghent.

BAXTER, RICHARD, an eminent Nonconformist divine, native of Shropshire, at first a conformist, and parish minister of Kidderminster for 19 years; sympathised with the Puritans, yet stopped short of going the full length with them; acted as chaplain to one of their regiments, and returned to Kidderminster; became, at the Restoration one of the king's chaplains; driven out of the Church by the Act of Uniformity, was thrown into prison at 70, let out, spent the rest of his days in peace; his popular works, "The Saint's Everlasting Rest," and his "Call to the Unconverted" (1615-1691).

BAY CITY (27), place of trade, and of importance as a great railway centre in Michigan, U.S.; the third city in it.

BAYADERE, a dancing-girl in India, dressed in loose Eastern costume.

BAYARD, a horse of remarkable swiftness belonging to the four sons of Aymon, and which they sometimes rode all at once; also a horse of Amadis de Gaul.

BAYARD, CHEVALIER DE, an illustrious French knight, born in the Chateau Bayard, near Grenoble; covered himself with glory in the wars of Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I.; his bravery and generosity commanded the admiration of his enemies, and procured for him the thrice-honourable cognomen of "The Knight _sans peur et sans reproche_"; one of his most brilliant feats was his defence, single-handed, of the bridge over the Garigliano, in the face of a large body of Spaniards; was

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mortally wounded defending a pass at Abblategrasso; fell with his face to the foe, who carried off his body, but restored it straightway afterwards for due burial by his friends (1476-1524).

BAYEUX (7), an ancient Norman city in the dep. of Calvados, France; manufactures lace, hosiery, &c.; is a bishop's seat; has a very old Gothic cathedral.

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, representations in tapestry of events connected with the Norman invasion of England, commencing with Harold's visit to the Norman court, and ending with his death at the battle of Hastings; still preserved in the public library of Bayeux; is so called because originally found there; it is 214 ft. long by 20 in. wide, divided into 72 scenes, and contains a variety of figures. It is a question whose work it was.

BAYLE, PIERRE, a native of Languedoc; first Protestant (as the son of a Calvinist minister), then Catholic, then sceptic; Professor of Philosophy at Padua, then at Rotterdam, and finally retired to the Boompjes in the latter city; known chiefly as the author of the famous _Dictionnaire Historique et Critique_, to the composition of which he consecrated his energies with a zeal worthy of a religious devotee, and which became the fountain-head of the sceptical philosophy that flooded France on the eve of the Revolution; pronounced by a competent judge in these matters, a mere "imbroglio of historical, philosophical, and anti-theological marine stores" (1647-1700).

BAYLEN, a town in the province of Jaen, Spain, where General Castanos defeated Dupont, and compelled him to sign a capitulation, in 1808.

BAYLEY, SIR JOHN, a learned English judge; author of a standard work "On the Law of Bills of Exchange"; _d_. 1841.

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BAYONNE (24), a fortified French town, trading and manufacturing, in the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, at the confluence of the Adour and Nive, 4 m. from the Bay of Biscay; noted for its strong citadel, constructed by Vauban, and one of his _chef-d'oeuvres_, and its 12th-century cathedral church; it belonged to the English from 1152 to 1451.

BAZAINE, FRANCOIS ACHILLE, a marshal of France, born at Versailles; distinguished himself in Algiers, the Crimea, and Mexico; did good service, as commander of the army of the Rhine, in the Franco-German war, but after the surrender at Sedan was shut up in Metz, surrounded by the Germans, and obliged to surrender, with all his generals, officers, and men; was tried by court-martial, and condemned to death, but was imprisoned instead; made good his escape one evening to Madrid, where he lived to write a justification of his conduct, the sale of the book being prohibited in France (1811-1888).

BAZARD, SAINT-AMAND, a French socialist, founder of the _Charbonnerie Francaise_; a zealous but unsuccessful propagator of St. Simonianism, in association with ENFANTIN (q. v.), from whom he at last separated (1791-1832).

BAZOCHE, a guild of clerks of the parliament of Paris, under a mock king, with the privilege of performing religious plays, which they abused.

BEACHES, RAISED, elevated lands, formerly sea beaches, the result of upheaval, or left high by the recession of the sea, evidenced to be such by the shells found in them and the nature of the debris.

BEACHY HEAD, a chalk cliff in Sussex, 575 ft. high, projecting into the English Channel; famous for a naval engagement between the allied

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English and Dutch fleets and those of France, in which the latter were successful.

BEACONSFIELD, capital of the gold-mining district in Tasmania; also a town in Buckinghamshire, 10 m. N. of Windsor, from which Benjamin Disraeli took his title on his elevation to the peerage.

BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF, English novelist and politician, born in London; son of Isaac D'Israeli, litterateur, and thus of Jewish parentage; was baptized at the age of 12; educated under a Unitarian minister; studied law, but did not qualify for practice. His first novel, "Vivian Grey," appeared in 1826, and thereafter, whenever the business of politics left him leisure, he devoted it to fiction. "Contarini Fleming," "Coningsby," "Tancred," "Lothair," and "Endymion" are the most important of a brilliant and witty series, in which many prominent personages are represented and satirised under thin disguises. His endeavours to enter Parliament as a Radical failed twice in 1832; in 1835 he was unsuccessful again as a Tory. His first seat was for Maidstone in 1837; thereafter he represented Shrewsbury and Buckinghamshire. For 9 years he was a free-lance in the House, hating the Whigs, and after 1842 leading the Young England party; his onslaught on the Corn Law repeal policy of 1846 made him leader of the Tory Protectionists. He was for a short time Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Derby in 1852, and coolly abandoned Protection. Returning to power with his chief six years later, he introduced a Franchise Bill, the defeat of which threw out the Government. In office a third time in 1866, he carried a democratic Reform Bill, giving household suffrage in boroughs and extending the county franchise. Succeeding Lord Derby in 1868, he was forced to resign soon afterwards. In 1874 he entered his second premiership. Two years were devoted to home measures, among which were Plimsoll's Shipping Act and the abolition of Scottish Church patronage. Then followed a showy foreign policy. The securing of the half of the Suez Canal shares for Britain; the proclamation of the Queen as Empress of India; the support of Constantinople against Russia, afterwards stultified by the Berlin Congress, which he himself attended; the annexation of Cyprus; the Afghan and Zulu wars, were its salient

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features. Defeated at the polls in 1880 he resigned, and died next year. A master of epigram and a brilliant debater, he really led his party. He was the opposite in all respects of his protagonist, Mr. Gladstone. Lacking in zeal, he was yet loyal to England, and a warm personal friend of the Queen (1804-1881).

BEAR, name given in the Stock Exchange to one who contracts to deliver stock at a fixed price on a certain day, in contradistinction from the _bull_, or he who contracts to take it, the interest of the former being that, in the intervening time, the stocks should fall, and that of the latter that they should rise.


BEAM, an ancient prov. of France, fell to the crown with the accession of Henry IV. in 1589; formed a great part of the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, capital Pau.

BEATIFICATION, religious honour allowed by the pope to certain who are not so eminent in sainthood as to entitle them to canonisation.

BEATON, or BETHUNE, DAVID, cardinal, archbishop of St. Andrews, and primate of the kingdom, born in Fife; an adviser of James V., twice over ambassador to France; on the death of James secured to himself the chief power in Church and State as Lord High Chancellor and Papal Legate; opposed alliance with England; persecuted the Reformers; condemned George Wishart to the stake, witnessed his sufferings from a window of his castle in St. Andrews, and was assassinated within its walls shortly after; with his death ecclesiastical tyranny of that type came to an end in Scotland (1494-1546).

BEATON, JAMES, archbishop of Glasgow and St. Andrews, uncle of the

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preceding, a prominent figure in the reign of James V.; was partial to affiliation with France, and a persecutor of the Reformers; _d_. 1539.

BEATTIE, JAMES, a poet and essayist, born at Laurencekirk; became professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen; wrote an "Essay on Truth" against Hume; his most admired poem, "The Minstrel," a didactic piece, traces the progress of poetic genius, admitted him to the Johnsonian circle in London, obtained for him the degree of LL.D. from Oxford, and brought him a pension of L200 per annum from the king; died at Aberdeen (1735-1803).

BEATRICE, a beautiful Florentine maiden, Portinari, her family name, for whom Dante conceived an undying affection, and whose image abode with him to the end of his days. She is his guide through Paradise.

BEAU NASH, a swell notability at Bath; died in beggary (1674-1761).

BEAU TIBBS, a character in Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," noted for his finery, vanity, and poverty.

BEAUCAIRE (8), a French town near Avignon, on the Rhone, which it spans with a magnificent bridge; once a great centre of trade, and famous, as it still is, for its annual fair, frequented by merchants from all parts of Europe.

BEAUCHAMP, ALPHONSE DE, a historian, born at Monaco; wrote the "Conquest of Peru," "History of Brazil," &c. (1769-1832).

BEAUCLERK, Henry I. of England, so called from his superior learning.

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BEAUCLERK, TOPHAM, a young English nobleman, the only son of Lord Sydney Beauclerk, a special favourite of Johnson's, who, when he died, lamented over him, as one whose like the world might seldom see again (1759-1780).

BEAUFORT, DUKE OF, grandson of Henry IV. of France; one of the chiefs of the Fronde; was surnamed Roi des Halles (King of the Market-folk); appointed admiral of France; did good execution against the pirates; passed into the service of Venice; was killed at the siege of Candia in 1669.

BEAUFORT, HENRY, cardinal, bishop of Winchester, son of John of Gaunt, learned in canon law, was several times chancellor; took a prominent part in all the political movements of the time, exerted an influence for good on the nation, lent immense sums to Henry V. and Henry VI., also left bequests for charitable uses, and founded the hospital of St. Cross at Winchester (1377-1447).

BEAUHAR`NAIS, ALEXANDRE, VICOMTE DE, born at Martinique, where he married a lady who, afterwards as wife of Napoleon, became the Empress Josephine; accepted and took part in the Revolution; was secretary of the National Assembly; coolly remarked, on the news of the flight of the king, "The king's gone off; let us pass to the next business of the House"; was convicted of treachery to the cause of the Revolution and put to death; as the father of Hortense, who married Louis, Napoleon's brother, he became grandfather of Napoleon III. (1760-1794).

BEAUHARNAIS, EUGENE DE, son of the preceding and of Josephine, born at Paris, step-son of Napoleon, therefore was made viceroy of Italy; took an active part in the wars of the empire; died at Muenich, whither he retired after the fall of Napoleon (1781-1824).

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BEAUHARNAIS, HORTENSE EUGENIE, sister of the preceding, ex-queen of Holland; wife of Louis Bonaparte, an ill-starred union; mother of Napoleon III., the youngest of three sons (1783-1837).

BEAUMAR`CHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE, a dramatist and pleader of the most versatile, brilliant gifts, and French to the core, born in Paris, son of a watchmaker at Caen; ranks as a comic dramatist next to Moliere; author of "Le Barbier de Seville" (1775), and "Le Mariage de Figaro" (1784), his masterpiece; astonished the world by his conduct of a lawsuit he had, for which "he fought against reporters, parliaments, and principalities, with light banter, clear logic, adroitly, with an inexhaustible toughness of resource, like the skilfullest fencer." He was a zealous supporter of the Revolution, and made sacrifices on its behalf, but narrowly escaped the guillotine; died in distress and poverty. Of the two plays he wrote, Saintsbury says, "The wit is indisputable, but his chansons contain as much wit as the Figaro plays." He made a fortune by speculations in the American war, and lost by others, one of them being the preparation of a sumptuous edition of Voltaire. For the culmination and decline, as well as appreciation, of him, see the "French Revolution," by Carlyle (1732-1799).

BAUMA`RIS, principal town in Anglesea, Wales, on the Menai Strait, near Bangor, a favourite watering-place, with remains of a castle erected by Edward I.

BEAUMONT, CHRISTOPHE DE, archbishop of Paris, born at Perigord, "spent his life in persecuting hysterical Jansenists and incredulous non-confessors"; but scrupled to grant, though he fain would have granted, absolution on his deathbed to the dissolute monarch of France, Louis XV.; issued a charge condemnatory of Rousseau's "Emile," which provoked a celebrated letter from Rousseau in reply (1703-1781).

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, dramatic poet, born in Leicestershire, of a family of good standing; bred for the bar, but devoted to literature; was

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a friend of Ben Jonson; in conjunction with his friend Fletcher, the composer of a number of plays, about the separate authorship of which there has been much discussion, the dramatic power of which comes far short of that so conspicuous in the plays of their great contemporary Shakespeare, though it is said contemporary criticism gave them the preference (1585-1615).

BEAUMONT, JEAN BAPTISTE ELIE DE, French geologist, born in Calvados; became secretary to the Academy of Sciences; was joint-editor of a geological map of France. He had a theory of his own of the formation of the crust of the earth (1798-1874).

BEAUREGARD, PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT, American Confederate general, born at New Orleans; adopted the cause of the South, and fought in its behalf (1818-1893).

BEAUREPAIRE, a French officer, noted for his noble defence of Verdun against the Prussians; preferred death by suicide to the dishonour of surrender (1748-1792).

BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC, a Huguenot divine, born at Poitou; fled to Holland on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled in Berlin, and became a notability in high quarters there; attracted the notice of the young Frederick, the Great that was to be, who sought introduction to him, and the young Frederick "got good conversation out of him"; author of a "History of Manichaeism," praised by Gibbon, and of other books famous in their day, a translation of the New Testament for one (1659-1738).


BEAUTY AND THE BEAST, the hero and heroine of a famous fairy tale. Beauty falls in love with a being like a monster, who has, however, the

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heart of a man, and she marries him, upon which he is instantly transformed into a prince of handsome presence and noble mien.

BEAUVAIS (19), capital of the dep. of Oise, in France, 34 in. SW. of Amiens, an ancient town, noted for its cathedral, its tapestry weaving, and the feat of Jeanne-Hachette and her female following when the town was besieged by Charles the Bold.

BEAUVAIS, a French prelate, born at Cherbourg, Bishop of Senez, celebrated as a pulpit orator (1731-1790).

BEAUVILLIER, a statesman, patron of letters, to whom Louis XIV. committed the governorship of his sons; died of a broken heart due to the shock the death of the dauphin gave him (1607-1687).

BEBEK BAY, a fashionable resort on the Bosphorus, near Constantinople, and with a palace of the sultan.

BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO, one of the best painters of the Sienese school, distinguished also as a sculptor and a worker in mosaic (1486-1550).

BECCA`RIA, CAESARE BONESANA, MARQUIS OF, an Italian publicist, author of a celebrated "Treatise on Crimes and Punishments," which has been widely translated, and contributed much to lessen the severity of sentences in criminal cases. He was a utilitarian in philosophy and a disciple of Rousseau in politics.

BECHE-DE-MER, a slug, called also the trepang, procured on the coral reefs of the Pacific, which is dried and eaten as a dainty by the Chinese.

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BECHER, JOHANN JOACHIM, chemist, born at Spires; distinguished as a pioneer in the scientific study of chemistry (1635-1682).

BECHSTEIN, a German naturalist, wrote "Natural History of Cage Birds" (1757-1822).

BECHUANA-LAND, an inland tract in S. Africa, extends from the Orange River to the Zambesi; has German territory on the W., the Transvaal and Matabele-land on the E. The whole country is under British protection; that part which is S. of the river Molopo was made a crown colony in 1885. On a plateau 4000 ft. above sea-level, the climate is suited for British emigrants. The soil is fertile; extensive tracts are suitable for corn; sheep and cattle thrive; rains fall in summer; in winter there are frosts, sometimes snow. The Kalahari Desert in the W. will be habitable when sufficient wells are dug. Gold is found near Sitlagoli, and diamonds at Vryburg. The Bechuanas are the most advanced of the black races of S. Africa.

BECHUA`NAS, a wide-spread S. African race, totemists, rearers of cattle, and growers of maize; are among the most intelligent of the Bantu peoples, and show considerable capacity for self-government.

BECKER, KARL, German philologist; bred to medicine; author of a German grammar (1775-1842).

BECKER, NICOLAUS, author of the "Wacht am Rhein," was an obscure lawyer's clerk, and unnoted for anything else (1810-1845).

BECKER, WILLIAM ADOLPHE, an archaeologist, born at Dresden; was professor at Leipzig; wrote books in reproductive representation of ancient Greek and Roman life; author of "Manual of Roman Antiquities"

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BECKET, THOMAS A, archbishop of Canterbury, born in London, of Norman parentage; studied at Oxford and Bologna; entered the Church; was made Lord Chancellor; had a large and splendid retinue, but on becoming archbishop, cast all pomp aside and became an ascetic, and devoted himself to the vigorous discharge of the duties of his high office; declared for the independence of the Church, and refused to sign the CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON (q. v.); King Henry II. grew restive under his assumption of authority, and got rid of him by the hands of four knights who, to please the king, shed his blood on the steps of the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, for which outrage the king did penance four years afterwards at his tomb. The struggle was one affecting the relative rights of Church and king, and the chief combatants in the fray were both high-minded men, each inflexible in the assertion of his claims (1119-1170).

BECKFORD, WILLIAM, author of "Vathek," son of a rich alderman of London, who bequeathed him property to the value of L100,000 per annum; kept spending his fortune on extravagancies and vagaries; wrote "Vathek," an Arabian tale, when a youth of twenty-two, at a sitting of three days and two nights, a work which established his reputation as one of the first of the imaginative writers of his country. He wrote two volumes of travels in Italy, but his fame rests on his "Vathek" alone (1759-1844).

BECKMANN, a professor at Goettingen; wrote "History of Discoveries and Inventions" (1738-1811).

BECKX, PETER JOHN, general of the Jesuits, born in Belgium (1790-1887).

BECQUEREL, ANTOINE CAESAR, a French physicist; served as engineer in the French army in 1808-14, but retired in 1815, devoting himself to

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science, and obtained high distinction in electro-chemistry, working with Ampere, Biot, and other eminent scientists (1788-1878).

BED OF JUSTICE, a formal session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts, the last session being in 1787, under Louis XVI., at Versailles, whither the whole body, now "refractory, rolled out, in wheeled vehicles, to receive the order of the king."

BEDCHAMBER, LORDS or LADIES OF, officers or ladies of the royal household whose duty it is to wait upon the sovereign--the chief of the former called Groom of the Stole, and of the latter, Mistress of the Robes.

BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL, born at Clifton, son of Thomas Beddoes; an enthusiastic student of science; a dramatic poet, author of "Bride's Tragedy"; got into trouble for his Radical opinions; his principal work, "Death's Jest-Book, or the Fool's Tragedy," highly esteemed by Barry Cornwall (1803-1849).

BEDE, or BEDA, surnamed "The Venerable," an English monk and ecclesiastical historian, born at Monkwearmouth, in the abbey of which, together with that of Jarrow, he spent his life, devoted to quiet study and learning; his writings numerous, in the shape of commentaries, biographies, and philosophical treatises; his most important work, the "Ecclesiastical History" of England, written in Latin, and translated by Alfred the Great; completed a translation of John's Gospel the day he died. An old monk, it is said, wrote this epitaph over his grave, _Hac sunt in fossa Bedae ... ossa_, "In this pit are the bones ... of Beda," and then fell asleep; but when he awoke he found some invisible hand had inserted _venerabilis_ in the blank which he had failed to fill up, whence Bede's epinomen it is alleged.

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BEDELL, bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; superintended the translation of the Old Testament into Irish; though his virtues saved him and his family for a time from outrage by the rebels in 1641, he was imprisoned at the age of 70, and though released, died soon after (1571-1642).

BEDFORD (160), a midland agricultural county of England, generally level, with some flat fen-land; also the county town (28), on the Great Ouse, clean and well paved, with excellent educational institutions, famous in connection with the life of John Bunyan, where relics of him are preserved, and where a bronze statue of him by Boehm has been erected to his memory by the Duke of Bedford in 1871; manufactures agricultural implements, lace, and straw plaiting; Elstow, Bunyan's birthplace, is not far off.

BEDFORD, JOHN, DUKE OF, brother of Henry V., protector of the kingdom and regent of France during the minority of Henry VI., whom, on the death of the French king, he proclaimed King of France, taking up arms thereafter and fighting for a time victoriously on his behalf, till the enthusiasm created by Joan of Arc turned the tide against him and hastened his death, previous to which, however, though he prevailed over the dauphin, and burnt Joan at the stake, his power had gone (1389-1435).

BEDFORD LEVEL, a flat marshy district, comprising part of six counties, to the S. and W. of the Wash, about 40 m. in extent each way, caused originally by incursions of the sea and the overflowing of rivers; received its name from the Earl of Bedford, who, in the 17th century, undertook to drain it.

BEDLAM, originally a lunatic asylum in London, so named from the priory "Bethlehem" in Bishopsgate, first appropriated to the purpose, Bedlam being a corruption of the name Bethlehem.

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BEDMAR, MARQUIS DE, cardinal and bishop of Oviedo, and a Spanish diplomatist, notorious for a part he played in a daring conspiracy in 1618 aimed at the destruction of Venice, but which, being betrayed, was defeated, for concern in which several people were executed, though the arch-delinquent got off; he is the subject of Otway's "Venice Preserved"; it was after this he was made cardinal, and governor of the Netherlands, where he was detested and obliged to retire (1572-1655).

BEDOUINS, Arabs who lead a nomadic life in the desert and subsist by the pasture of cattle and the rearing of horses, the one element that binds them into a unity being community of language, the Arabic namely, which they all speak with great purity and without variation of dialect; they are generally of small stature, of wiry constitution, and dark complexion, and are divided into tribes, each under an independent chief.

BEE, THE, a periodical started by Goldsmith, in which some of his best essays appeared, and his "Citizen of the World."

BEECHER, HENRY WARD, a celebrated American preacher, born at Litchfield, Connecticut; pastor of a large Congregational church, Brooklyn; a vigorous thinker and eloquent orator, a liberal man both in theology and politics; wrote "Life Thoughts"; denied the eternity of punishment, considered a great heresy by some then, and which led to his secession from the Congregational body (1813-1887).

BEECHER-STOWE, HARRIET ELIZABETH, sister of the above, authoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," of which probably over a million copies have been sold. Born at Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., in 1812; _d_. 1896.

BEECHY, REAR-ADMIRAL, born in London, son of the following; accompanied Franklin in 1818 and Parry in 1819 to the Arctic regions; commanded the _Blossom_ in the third expedition of 1825-1828 to the same regions; published "Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole"

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BEECHY, SIR WILLIAM, portrait-painter, born in Oxfordshire; among his portraits were those of Lord Nelson, John Kemble, and Mrs. Siddons (1753-1839).

BEEF-EATERS, yeomen of the royal guard, whose institution dates from the reign of Henry VII., and whose office it is to wait upon royalty on high occasions; the name is also given to the warders of the Tower, though they are a separate body and of more recent origin; the name simply means (royal) dependant, a corruption of the French word _buffetier_, one who attends the sideboard.

BEEHIVE HOUSES, small stone structures, of ancient date, remains of which are found (sometimes in clusters) in Ireland and the W. of Scotland, with a conical roof formed of stones overlapping one another, undressed and without mortar; some of them appear to have been monks' cells.

BEEL`ZEBUB, the god of flies, protector against them, worshipped by the Phoenicians; as being a heathen deity, transformed by the Jews into a chief of the devils; sometimes identified with Satan, and sometimes his aide-de-camp.

BEERBOHM TREE, HERBERT, actor, born in London, son of a grain merchant; his first appearance was as the timid curate in the "Private Secretary," and then as the spy Macari in "Called Back"; is lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London, and has had many notable successes; he is accompanied by his wife, who is a refined actress; _b_. 1852.

BEER`SHEBA, a village in the S. of Canaan, and the most southerly, 27 m. from Hebron; associated with Dan, in the N., to denote the limit of

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the land and what lies between; lies in a pastoral country abounding in wells, and is frequently mentioned in patriarchal history; means "the Well of the Oath."

BEESWING, a gauze-like film which forms on the sides of a bottle of good port.

BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VON, one of the greatest musical composers, born in Bonn, of Dutch extraction; the author of symphonies and sonatas that are known over all the world; showed early a most precocious genius for music, commenced his education at five as a musician; trained at first by a companion named Pfeiffer, to whom he confessed he owed more than all his teachers; trained at length under the tuition of the most illustrious of his predecessors, Bach and Haendel; revealed the most wonderful musical talent; quitted Bonn and settled in Vienna; attracted the attention of Mozart; at the age of 40 was attacked with deafness that became total and lasted for life; continued to compose all the same, to the admiration of thousands; during his last days was a prey to melancholy; during a thunderstorm he died. Goethe pronounced him at his best "an utterly untamed character, not indeed wrong in finding the world detestable, though his finding it so did not," he added, "make it more enjoyable to himself or to others" (1770-1827).

BEETS, NICOLAS, a Dutch theologian and poet, born at Haarlem; came, as a poet, under the influence of Byronism; _b_. 1814.

BEFA`NA, an Italian female Santa Claus, who on Twelfth Night fills the stockings of good children with good things, and those of bad with ashes.

BEGG, JAMES, Scotch ecclesiastic, born at New Monkland, Lanark; was a stalwart champion of old Scottish orthodoxy, and the last (1808-1883).

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BEGHARDS, a religious order that arose in Belgium in the 13th century, connected with the Beguins, a mystic and socialistic sect.

BEGUINS, a sisterhood confined now to France and Germany, who, without taking any monastic vow, devote themselves to works of piety and benevolence.

BEGUM, name given in the E. Indies to a princess, mother, sister, or wife of a native ruler.

BEHAIM, MARTIN, a geographer and chartographer, born in Nueremberg; accompanied Diego Cam on a voyage of discovery along W. coast of Africa; constructed and left behind him a famous terrestrial globe; some would make him out to be the discoverer of America (1459-1507).

BEHAR (24,393), a province of Bengal, in the valley of the Ganges, which divides it into two; densely peopled; cradle of Buddhism.

BEHE`MOTH, a large animal mentioned in Job, understood to be the hippopotamus.

BEHIS`TUN, a mountain in Irak-Ajemi, a prov. of Persia, on which there are rocks covered with inscriptions, the principal relating to Darius Hystaspes, of date about 515 B.C., bearing on his genealogy, domains, and victories.

BEHM, ERNST, a German geographer, born in Gotha (1830-1884).

BEHN, AFRA, a licentious writer, born in Kent, for whom, for her

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free and easy ways, Charles II. took a liking; sent by him as a spy to Holland, and through her discovered the intention of the Dutch to burn the shipping in the Thames. She wrote plays and novels (1640-1689).

BEHRING STRAIT, a strait about 50 m. wide between Asia and N. America, which connects the Arctic Ocean with the Pacific; discovered by the Danish navigator Vitus Behring in 1728, sent out on a voyage of discovery by Peter the Great.

BEIRA (1,377), a central province of Portugal, mountainous and pastoral; gives title to the heir-apparent to the Portuguese throne.

BEKE, DR., traveller, born in London; travelled in Abyssinia and Palestine; author of "Origines Biblicae," or researches into primeval history as shown not to be in keeping with the orthodox belief.

BEKKER, IMMANUEL, philologist, born in Berlin, and professor in Halle; classical textual critic; issued recensions of the Greek and Latin classics (1780-1871).

BEL AND THE DRAGON, HISTORY OF, one of the books of the Apocrypha, a spurious addition to the book of Daniel, relates how Daniel persuaded Cyrus of the vanity of idol-worship, and is intended to show its absurdity.

BELA I., king of Hungary from 1061 to 1063; an able ruler; introduced a great many measures for the permanent benefit of the country, affecting both religion and social organisation.

BELA IV., king of Hungary, son of Andreas II., who had in 1222 been compelled to sign the Golden Bull, the _Magna Charta_ of Hungarian

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liberty; faithfully respected the provisions of this charter, and incurred the enmity of the nobles by his strenuous efforts to subdue them to the royal power.

BELCH, SIR TOBY, a reckless, jolly, swaggering character in "Twelfth Night."

BELCHER, SIR EDWARD, admiral, was engaged in several exploring and surveying expeditions; sailed round the world, and took part in the operations in China (1812-1877).

BELFAST (256), county town of Antrim, and largest and most flourishing city in the N. of Ireland; stands on the Lagan, at the head of Belfast Lough, 100 m. N. of Dublin; is a bright and pleasant city, with some fine streets and handsome buildings, Presbyterian, Catholic, and Methodist colleges. It is the centre of the Irish linen and cotton manufactures, the most important shipbuilding centre, and has also rope-making, whisky, and aerated-water industries. Its foreign trade is larger than even Dublin's. It is the capital of Ulster, and head-quarters of Presbyterianism in Ireland.

BELFORT (83), a fortified town in dep. of Haut-Rhin, and is its capital, 35 m. W. by N. of Basel; capitulated to the Germans in 1870; restored to France; its fortifications now greatly strengthened. The citadel was by Vauban.

BELGAE, Caesar's name for the tribes of the Celtic family in Gaul N. of the Seine and Marne; mistakenly rated as Germans by Caesar.

BELGIUM (6,136), a small European State bordering on the North Sea, with Holland to the N., France to the S., and Rhenish Prussia and Luxemburg on the E.; is less than a third the size of Ireland, but it is

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the most densely populated country on the Continent. The people are of mixed stock, comprising Flemings, of Teutonic origin; Walloons, of Celtic origin; Germans, Dutch, and French. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Education is excellent; there are universities at Ghent, Liege, Brussels, and Louvain. French is the language of educated circles and of the State; but the prevalence of dialects hinders the growth of a national literature. The land is low and level and fertile in the N. and W., undulating in the middle, rocky and hilly in the S. and E. The Meuse and Scheldt are the chief rivers, the basin of the latter embracing most of the country. Climate is similar to the English, with greater extremes. Rye, wheat, oats, beet, and flax are the principal crops. Agriculture is the most painstaking and productive of the world. The hilly country is rich in coal, iron, zinc, and lead. After mining, the chief industries are textile manufactures and making of machinery: the former at Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels, and Liege; the latter at Liege, Mons, and Charleroi. The trade is enormous; France, Germany, and Britain are the best customers. Exports are coal to France; farm products, eggs, &c., to England; and raw material imported from across seas, to France and the basin of the Rhine. It is a small country of large cities. The capital is Brussels (480), in the centre of the kingdom, but communicating with the ocean by a ship canal. The railways, canals, and river navigation are very highly developed. The government is a limited monarchy; the king, senate, and house of representatives form the constitution. There is a conscript army of 50,000 men, but no navy. Transferred from Spain to Austria in 1713. Belgium was under French sway from 1794 till 1814, when it was united with Holland, but established its independence in 1830.

BELGRADE (54), the capital of Servia, on the confluence of the Save and Danube; a fortified city in an important strategical position, and the centre of many conflicts; a commercial centre; once Turkish in appearance, now European more and more.

BELGRA`VIA, a fashionable quarter in the southern part of the West End of London.

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BELIAL, properly a good-for-nothing, a child of worthlessness; an incarnation of iniquity and son of perdition, and the name in the Bible for the children of such.

BELIEF, a word of various application, but properly definable as that which lies at the heart of a man or a nation's convictions, or is the heart and soul of all their thoughts and actions, "the thing a man does practically lay to heart, and know for certain concerning his vital relations to this mysterious universe, and his duty and destiny there."

BELINDA, ARABELLA FERMOR, the heroine in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."

BELISA`RIUS, a general under the Emperor Justinian, born in Illyria; defeated the Persians, the Vandals, and the Ostrogoths; was falsely accused of conspiracy, but acquitted, and restored to his dignities by the emperor; though another tradition, now discredited, alleges that for the crimes charged against him he had his eyes put out, and was reduced to beggary (505-565).

BELIZE, British Honduras, a fertile district, and its capital (6); exports mahogany, rosewood, sugar, india-rubber, &c.


BELL, ANDREW, LL.D., educationist, born at St. Andrews; founder of the Monitorial system of education, which he had adopted, for want of qualified assistants, when in India as superintendent of an orphanage in Madras, so that his system was called "the Madras system"; returned from India with a large fortune, added to it by lucrative preferments, and bequeathed a large portion of it, some L120,000, for the endowment of education in Scotland, and the establishment of schools, such as the Madras College in his native city (1753-1832).

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BELL, BESSY, and MARY GRAY, the "twa bonnie lassies" of a Scotch ballad, daughters of two Perthshire gentlemen, who in 1666 built themselves a bower in a spot retired from a plague then raging; supplied with food by a lad in love with both of them, who caught the plague and gave it to them, of which they all sickened and died.

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE, a ceremony at one time attending the greater excommunication in the Romish Church, when after sentence was read from the "book," a "bell" was rung, and the "candle" extinguished.



BELL, GEORGE JOSEPH, a brother of Sir Charles, distinguished in law; author of "Principles of the Law of Scotland" (1770-1843).

BELL, HENRY, bred a millwright, born in Linlithgowshire; the first who applied steam to navigation in Europe, applying it in a small steamboat called the _Comet_, driven by a three horse-power engine (1767-1830).

BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD, born in Glasgow, a lawyer and literary man, sheriff of Lanarkshire; wrote a vindication of Mary, Queen of Scots, and some volumes of poetry (1803-1874).

BELL, JOHN, of Antermony, a physician, born at Campsie; accompanied Russian embassies to Persia and China; wrote "Travels in Asia," which were much appreciated for their excellency of style (1690-1780).

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BELL, PETER, Wordsworth's simple rustic, to whom the primrose was but a yellow flower and nothing more.

BELL, ROBERT, journalist and miscellaneous writer, born at Cork; edited "British Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper," his best-known work, which he annotated, and accompanied with careful memoirs of each (1800-1867).

BELL, SIR CHARLES, an eminent surgeon and anatomist, born in Edinburgh, where he became professor of Surgery; distinguished chiefly for his discoveries in connection with the nervous system, which he published in his "Anatomy of the Brain" and his "Nervous System," and which gained him European fame; edited, along with Lord Brougham, Paley's "Evidences of Natural Religion" (1774-1842).

BELL, THOMAS, a naturalist, born at Poole; professor of Zoology in King's College, London; author of "British Quadrupeds" and "British Reptiles," "British Stalk-eyed Crustacea," and editor of "White's Natural History of Selborne" (1792-1880).

BELL ROCK, or INCHCAPE ROCK, a dangerous reef of sandstone rocks in the German Ocean, 12 m. SE. of Arbroath, on which a lighthouse 120 ft. high was erected in 1807-10; so called from a bell rung by the sway of the waves, which the abbot of Arbroath erected on it at one time as a warning to seamen.

BELL-THE-CAT, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Arran, so called from his offer to dispose by main force of an obnoxious favourite of the king, James III.

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BELLA, STEPHANO DELLA, a Florentine engraver of great merit, engraved over 1000 plates; was patronised by Richelieu in France, and the Medici in Florence (1610-1664).

BELL`AMY, JACOB, a Dutch poet, born at Flushing; his poems highly esteemed by his countrymen (1752-1821).

BELLANGE, a celebrated painter of battle-pieces, born at Paris (1800-1866).

BELLAR`MINE, ROBERT, cardinal, born in Tuscany; a learned Jesuit, controversial theologian, and in his writings, which are numerous, a valiant defender at all points of Roman Catholic dogma; the greatest champion of the Church in his time, and regarded as such by the Protestant theologians; he was at once a learned man and a doughty polemic (1542-1621).

BELLAY, JOACHIM DU, French poet; author of sonnets entitled "Regrets," full of vigour and poetry; wrote the "Antiquites de Rome"; was called the Apollo of the Pleiade, the best poet and the best prose-writer among them (1524-1560).

BELLE FRANCE, (i. e. Beautiful France), a name of endearment applied to France, like that of "Merry" applied to England.

BELLE-ISLE (60), a fortified island on the W. coast of France, near which Sir Edward Hawke gained a brilliant naval victory over the French, under M. de Conflans, in 1759.

BELLEISLE, CHARLES LOUIS AUGUSTE FOUQUET, COUNT OF, marshal of France; distinguished in the war of the Spanish Succession; an ambitious

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man, mainly to blame for the Austrian Succession war; had grand schemes in his head, no less than the supremacy in Europe and the world of France, warranting the risk; expounded them to Frederick the Great; concluded a fast and loose treaty with him, which could bind no one; found himself blocked up in Prague with his forces; had to force his way out and retreat, but it was a retreat the French boast comparable only to the retreat of the Ten Thousand; was made War Minister after, and wrought important reforms in the army (1684-1761). See CARLYLE'S "FREDERICK" for a graphic account of him and his schemes, specially in Bk. xii. chap. ix.

BELLENDEN, JOHN, of Moray, a Scottish writer in the 16th century; translated, at the request of James V., Hector Boece's "History of Scotland," and the first five books of Livy, which remain the earliest extant specimens of Scottish prose, and remarkable specimens they are, for the execution of which he was well rewarded, being made archdeacon of Moray for one thing, though he died in exile; _d_. 1550.

BELLENDEN, WILLIAM, a Scottish writer, distinguished for diplomatic services to Queen Mary, and for the purity of his Latin composition; a professor of belles-lettres in Paris University (1550-1613).

BELLER`OPHON, a mythical hero, son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus; having unwittingly caused the death of his brother, withdrew from his country and sought retreat with Proetus, king of Argos, who, becoming jealous of his guest, but not willing to violate the laws of hospitality, had him sent to Iobates, his son-in-law, king of Lycia, with instructions to put him to death. Iobates, in consequence, imposed upon him the task of slaying the Chimaera, persuaded that this monster would be the death of him. Bellerophon, mounted on Pegasus, the winged horse given him by Pallas, slew the monster, and on his return received the daughter of Iobates to wife.

BELLEROPHON, LETTERS OF, name given to letters fraught with mischief

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to the bearer. See SUPRA.

BELLES-LETTRES, that department of literature which implies literary culture and belongs to the domain of art, whatever the subject may be or the special form; it includes poetry, the drama, fiction, and criticism.

BELLEVILLE, a low suburb of Paris, included in it since 1860; the scene of one of the outrages of the Communists.

BELLIARD, COMTE DE, a French general and diplomatist; fought in most of the Napoleonic wars, but served under the Bourbons on Napoleon's abdication; was serviceable to Louis Philippe in Belgium by his diplomacy (1769-1832).

BELLI`NI, the name of an illustrious family of Venetian painters.

BELLINI, GENTILE, the son of Jacopo Bellini, was distinguished as a portrait-painter; decorated along with his brother the council-chamber of the ducal palace; his finest picture the "Preaching of St. Mark" (1421-1508).

BELLINI, GIOVANNI, brother of the preceding, produced a great many works; the subjects religious, all nobly treated; had Giorgione and Titian for pupils; among his best works, the "Circumcision," "Feast of the Gods," "Blood of the Redeemer"; did much to promote painting in oil (1426-1516).

BELLINI, JACOPO, a painter from Florence who settled in Venice, the father and founder of the family; _d_. 1470.

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BELLINI, VINCENZO, a musical composer, born at Catania, Sicily; his works operas, more distinguished for their melody than their dramatic power; the best are "Il Pirati," "La Somnambula," "Norma," and "Il Puritani" (1802-1835).

BELLMANN, the poet of Sweden, a man of true genius, called the "Anacreon of Sweden," patronised by Gustavus Adolphus (1741-1795).

BELLO`NA, the goddess of fury in war among the Romans, related by the poets to Mars as sister, wife, or daughter; inspirer of the war-spirit, and represented as armed with a bloody scourge in one hand and a torch in the other.

BELLOT, JOSEPH RENE, a naval officer, born in Paris, distinguished in the expedition of 1845 to Madagascar, and one of those who went in quest of Sir John Franklin; drowned while crossing the ice (1826-1853).

BELLOY, a French poet, born at St. Flour; author of "Le Siege du Calais" and numerous other dramatic works (1727-1775).

BELON, PIERRE, a French naturalist, one of the founders of natural history, and one of the precursors of Cuvier; wrote in different departments of natural history, the chief, "Natural History of Birds"; murdered by robbers while gathering plants in the Bois de Boulogne (1518-1564).

BEL`PHEGOR, a Moabite divinity.

BELPHOEBE (i. e. Beautiful Diana), a huntress in the "Faerie Queene," the impersonation of Queen Elizabeth, conceived of, however, as a pure, high-spirited maiden, rather than a queen.

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BELSHAM, THOMAS, a Unitarian divine, originally Calvinist, born at Bedford; successor to the celebrated Priestley at Hackney, London; wrote an elementary work on psychology (1750-1829).

BELSHAZZAR, the last Chaldean king of Babylon, slain, according to the Scripture account, at the capture of the city by Cyrus in 538 B.C.

BELT, GREAT and LITTLE, gateways of the Baltic: the Great between Zealand and Fuenen, 15 m. broad; the Little, between Fuenen and Jutland, half as broad; both 70 m. long, the former of great depth.

BELT OF CALMS, the region in the Atlantic and Pacific, 4 deg. or 5 deg. latitude broad, where the trade-winds meet and neutralise each other, in which, however, torrents of rain and thunder-storms occur almost daily.

BELTANE, or BELTEIN, an ancient Celtic festival connected with the sun-worship, observed about the 1st of May and the 1st of November, during which fires were kindled on the tops of hills, and various ceremonies gone through.

BELTED WILL, name given to Lord William Howard, warden in the 16th and 17th centuries of the Western Marches of England.

BELU`CHISTAN (200 to 400), a desert plateau lying between Persia and India, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea; is crossed by many mountain ranges, the Suliman, in the N., rising to 12,000 ft. Rivers in the NE. are subject to great floods. The centre and W. is a sandy desert exposed to bitter winds in winter and sand-storms in summer. Fierce extremes of temperature prevail. There are few cattle, but sheep are numerous; the camel is the draught animal. Where there is water the soil is fertile,

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and crops of rice, cotton, indigo, sugar, and tobacco are raised; in the higher parts, wheat, maize, and pulse. Both precious and useful metals are found; petroleum wells were discovered in the N. in 1887. The population comprises Beluchis, robber nomads of Aryan stock, in the E. and W., and Mongolian Brahuis in the centre. All are Mohammedan. Kelat is the capital; its position commands all the caravan routes. Quetta, in the N., is a British stronghold and health resort. The Khan of Kelat is the ruler of the country and a vassal of the Queen.

BE`LUS, another name for BAAL (q. v.), or the legendary god of Assyria and Chaldea.

BEL`VEDERE, name given a gallery of the Vatican at Rome, especially that containing the famous statue of Apollo, and applied to picture-galleries elsewhere.

BELZO`NI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a famous traveller and explorer in Egypt, born at Padua, of poor parents; a man of great stature; figured as an athlete in Astley's Circus, London, and elsewhere, first of all in London streets; applied himself to the study of mechanics; visited Egypt as a mechanician and engineer at the instance of Mehemet Ali; commenced explorations among its antiquities, sent to the British Museum trophies of his achievements; published a narrative of his operations; opened an exhibition of his collection of antiquities in London and Paris; undertook a journey to Timbuctoo, was attacked with dysentery, and died at Gato (1778-1823).

BEM, JOSEPH, a Polish general, born in Galicia; served in the French army against Russia in 1812; took part in the insurrection of 1830; joined the Hungarians in 1848; gained several successes against Austria and Russia, but was defeated at Temesvar; turned Mussulman, and was made pasha; died at Aleppo, where he had gone to suppress an Arab insurrection; he was a good soldier and a brave man (1791-1850).

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BEMBA, a lake in Africa, the highest feeder of the Congo, of an oval shape, 150 m. long and over 70 m. broad, 3000 ft. above the sea-level.

BEMBO, PIETRO, cardinal, an erudite man of letters and patron of literature and the arts, born at Venice; secretary to Pope Leo X.; historiographer of Venice, and librarian of St. Mark's; made cardinal by Paul III., and bishop of Bergamo; a fastidious stylist and a stickler for purity in language (1470-1547).

BEN LAWERS, a mountain in Perthshire, 3984 ft. high, on the W. of Loch Tay.

BEN LEDI, a mountain in Perthshire, 2873 ft. high, 41/2 m. NW. of Callander.

BEN LOMOND, a mountain in Stirlingshire, 3192 ft. high, on the E. of Loch Lomond.

BEN NEVIS, the highest mountain in Great Britain, in SW. Inverness-shire, 4406 ft. high, and a sheer precipice on the NE. 1500 ft. high, and with an observatory on the summit supported by the Scottish Meteorological Society.

BEN RHYDDING, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 15 m. NW. of Leeds, with a thoroughly equipped hydropathic establishment, much resorted to.

BENARES (219), the most sacred city of the Hindus, and an important town in the NW. Provinces; is on the Ganges, 420 m. by rail NW. of Calcutta. It presents an amazing array of 1700 temples and mosques with

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towers and domes and minarets innumerable. The bank of the river is laid with continuous flights of steps whence the pilgrims bathe; but the city itself is narrow, crocked, crowded, and dirty. Many thousand pilgrims visit it annually. It is a seat of Hindu learning; there is also a government college. The river is spanned here by a magnificent railway bridge. There is a large trade in country produce, English goods, jewellery, and gems; while its brass-work, "Benares ware," is famous.

BENBOW, JOHN, admiral, born at Shrewsbury; distinguished himself in an action with a Barbary pirate; rose rapidly to the highest post in the navy; distinguished himself well in an engagement with a French fleet in the W. Indies; he lost a leg, and at this crisis some of his captains proved refractory, so that the enemy escaped, were tried by court-martial, and two of them shot; the wound he received and his vexation caused his death. He was a British tar to the backbone, and of a class extinct now (1653-1702).

BENCOOLEN, a town and a Dutch residency in SW. of Sumatra; exports pepper and camphor.

BENDER, a town in Bessarabia, remarkable for the siege which Charles XII. of Sweden sustained there after his defeat at Pultowa.

BENEDEK, LUDWIG VON, an Austrian general, born in Hungary; distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1848-1849; was defeated by the Prussians at Sadowa; superseded and tried, but got off; retired to Graetz, where he died (1804-1871).

BENEDETTI, COUNT VINCENT, French diplomatist, born at Bastia, in Corsica; is remembered for his draft of a treaty between France and Prussia, published in 1870, and for his repudiation of all responsibility for the Franco-German war; _b_. 1817.

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BENEDICT, the name of fourteen popes: B. I., from 574 to 575; B. II., from 684 to 685; B. III., from 855 to 858; B. IV., from 900 to 907; B. V., FROM 964 TO 965; B. VI., from 972 to 974; B. VII., from 975 to 984; B. VIII., from 1012 to 1024; extended the territory of the Church by conquest, and effected certain clerical reforms; B. IX., from 1033 to 1048, a licentious man, and deposed; B. X., from 1058 to 1059; B. XI., from 1303 to 1304; B. XII., from 1334 to 1342; B. XIII., from 1724 to 1730; B. XIV., from 1740 to 1758. Of all the popes of this name it would seem there is only one worthy of special mention.

BENEDICT XIV., a native of Bologna, a man of marked scholarship and ability; a patron of science and literature, who did much to purify the morals and elevate the character of the clergy, and reform abuses in the Church.

BENEDICT, BISCOP, an Anglo-Saxon monk, born in Northumbria; made two pilgrimages to Rome; assumed the tonsure as a Benedictine monk in Provence; returned to England and founded two monasteries on the Tyne, one at Wearmouth and another at Jarrow, making them seats of learning; _b_. 628.

BENEDICT, ST., the founder of Western monachism, born near Spoleto; left home at 14; passed three years as a hermit, in a cavern near Subiaco, to prepare himself for God's service; attracted many to his retreat; appointed to an abbey, but left it; founded 12 monasteries of his own; though possessed of no scholarship, composed his "Regula Monachorum," which formed the rule of his order; represented in art as accompanied by a raven with sometimes a loaf in his bill, or surrounded by thorns or by howling demons (480-543). See BENEDICTINES.

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS, musician and composer, native of Stuttgart; removed to London in 1835; author of, among other pieces, the "Gipsy's

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Warning," the "Brides of Venice," and the "Crusaders"; conducted the performance of "Elijah" in which Jenny Lind made her first appearance before a London audience, and accompanied her as pianist to America in 1850 (1806-1885).

BENEDICTINES, the order of monks founded by St. Benedict and following his rule, the cradle of which was the celebrated monastery of Monte Casino, near Naples, an institution which reckoned among its members a large body of eminent men, who in their day rendered immense service to both literature and science, and were, in fact, the only learned class of the Middle Ages; spent their time in diligently transcribing manuscripts, and thus preserving for posterity the classic literature of Greece and Rome.

BENEDICTUS, part of the musical service at Mass in the Roman Catholic Church; has been introduced into the morning service of the English Church.

BENEFIT OF CLERGY, exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before a secular judge.

BE`NEKE, FRIEDRICH EDUARD, a German philosopher and professor in Berlin of the so-called empirical school, that is, the Baconian; an opponent of the methods and systems of Kant and Hegel; confined his studies to psychology and the phenomena of consciousness; was more a British thinker than a German (1798-1854).

BENENGE`LI, an imaginary Moorish author, whom Cervantes credits with the story of "Don Quixote."

BENETIER, the vessel for holding the holy water in Roman Catholic churches.

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BENEVENTO (20), a town 33 m. NE. of Naples, built out of and amid the ruins of an ancient one; also the province, of which Talleyrand was made prince by Napoleon.

BENEVOLENCE, the name of a forced tax exacted from the people by certain kings of England, and which, under Charles I., became so obnoxious as to occasion the demand of the PETITION OF RIGHTS (q. v.), that no tax should be levied without consent of Parliament; first enforced in 1473, declared illegal in 1689.

BENFEY, THEODOR, Orientalist, born near Goettingen, of Jewish birth; a great Sanskrit scholar, and professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at his native place; author of "Lexicon of Greek Roots," "Sanskrit Grammar," &c. (1809-1881).

BENGAL (76,643), one of the three Indian presidencies, but more particularly a province lying in the plain of the Lower Ganges and the delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra, with the Himalayas on the N. At the base of the mountains are great forests; along the seaboard dense jungles. The climate is hot and humid, drier at Behar, and passing through every gradation up to the snow-line. The people are engaged in agriculture, raising indigo, jute, opium, rice, tea, cotton, sugar, &c. Coal, iron, and copper mines are worked in Burdwan. The manufactures are of cotton and jute. The population is mixed in blood and speech, but Hindus speaking Bengali predominate. Education is further advanced than elsewhere; there are fine colleges affiliated to Calcutta University, and many other scholastic institutions. The capital, Calcutta, is the capital of India; the next town in size is Patna (165).

BENGA`ZI (7), the capital of Barca, on the Gulf of Sidra, in N. Africa, and has a considerable trade.

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BENGEL, JOHANN ALBRECHT, a distinguished Biblical scholar and critic, born at Wuertemberg; best known by his "Gnomon Novi Testamenti," being an invaluable body of short notes on the New Testament; devoted himself to the critical study of the text of the Greek Testament (1687-1752).

BENGUE`LA, a fertile Portuguese territory in W. Africa, S. of Angola, with considerable mineral wealth; has sunk in importance since the suppression of the slave-trade.

BENICIA, the former capital of California, 30 m. NE. of San Francisco; has a commodious harbour and a U.S. arsenal.

BENI-HASSAN, a village in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, above Minieh, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated.

BENI-ISRAEL (i. e. Sons of Israel), a remarkable people, few in number, of Jewish type and customs, in the Bombay Presidency, and that have existed there quite isolatedly for at least 1000 years, with a language of their own, and even some literature; they do not mingle with the Jews, but they practise similar religious observances.

BENIN`, a densely populated and fertile country in W. Africa, between the Niger and Dahomey, with a city and river of the name; forms part of what was once a powerful kingdom; yields palm-oil, rice, maize, sugar, cotton, and tobacco.

BENI-SOUEF`, a town in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 70 m. above Cairo; a centre of trade, with cotton-mills and quarries of alabaster.

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BENJAMIN, Jacob's youngest son, by Rachel, the head of one of the twelve tribes, who were settled in a small fertile territory between Ephraim and Judah; the tribe to which St. Paul belonged.

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, an American journalist, born at Keith, Scotland; trained for the Catholic priesthood; emigrated, a poor lad of 19, to America, got employment in a printing-office in Boston as proof-reader; started the _New York Herald_ in 1835 at a low price as both proprietor and editor, an enterprise which brought him great wealth and the success he aimed at (1795-1872).

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, son of preceding, conductor of the _Herald_; sent Stanley out to Africa, and supplied the funds.

BENNETT, SIR STERNDALE, an English musical composer and pianist, born at Sheffield, whose musical genius recommended him to Mendelssohn and Schumann; became professor of Music in Cambridge, and conductor of the Philharmonic Concerts; was president of the Royal Academy of Music (1816-1873).

BENNETT, WM., a High-Churchman, celebrated for having provoked the decision that the doctrine of the Real Presence is a dogma not inconsistent with the creed of the Church of England (1804-1886).

BEN`NINGSEN, COUNT, a Russian general, born at Brunswick; entered the Russian service under Catherine II.; was commander-in-chief at Eylau, fought at Borodino, and victoriously at Leipzig; he died at Hanover, whither he had retired on failure of his health (1745-1826).

BENTHAM, GEORGE, botanist, born near Plymouth, nephew of Jeremy and editor of his works, besides a writer on botany (1800-1884).

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BENTHAM, JEREMY, a writer on jurisprudence and ethics, born in London; bred to the legal profession, but never practised it; spent his life in the study of the theory of law and government, his leading principle on both these subjects being utilitarianism, or what is called the greatest happiness principle, as the advocate of which he is chiefly remembered; a principle against which Carlyle never ceased to protest as a philosophy of man's life, but which he hailed as a sign that the crisis which must precede the regeneration of the world was come; a lower estimate, he thought, man could not form of his soul than as "a dead balance for weighing hay and thistles, pains and pleasures, &c.," an estimate of man's soul which he thinks mankind will, when it wakes up again to a sense of itself, be sure to resent and repudiate (1748-1832).

BENTINCK, LORD GEORGE, statesman and sportsman, a member of the Portland family; entered Parliament as a Whig, turned Conservative on the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832; served under Sir Robert Peel; assumed the leadership of the party as a Protectionist when Sir Robert Peel became a Free-trader, towards whom he conceived a strong personal animosity; died suddenly; the memory of him owes something to the memoir of his life by Lord Beaconsfield (1802-1848).

BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM HENRY CAVENDISH, Indian statesman, governor of Madras in 1806, but recalled for an error which led to the mutiny at Vellore; but was in 1827 appointed governor-general of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms. Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in 1835, became member for Glasgow in 1837, and died before he made any mark on home politics (1774-1839).

BENTINCK, WILLIAM, a distinguished statesman, first Earl of Portland, born in Holland; a favourite, friend, and adviser of William III., whom he accompanied to England, and who bestowed on him for his services great honours and large domains, which provoked ill-will against

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him; retired to Holland, after the king died in his arms, but returned afterwards (1648-1709).

BENTIVOGLIO, an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B., Guido, cardinal, though a disciple of Galileo, was one of the Inquisitors-General who signed his condemnation (1579-1641).

BENTLEY, RICHARD, scholar and philologist, born in Yorkshire; from the first devoted to ancient, especially classical, learning; rose to eminence as an authority on literary criticism, his "Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris," which he proved to be a forgery, commending him to the regard and esteem of all the scholars of Europe, a work which may be said to have inaugurated a new era in literary historical criticism (1662-1742).

BENUE, an affluent of the Niger, 300 m. long, falling into it 230 m. up, described by Dr. Barth and explored by Dr. Baikic, and offers great facilities for the prosecution of commerce.

BENVOLIO, a cantankerous, disputatious gentleman in "Romeo and Juliet."

BENYOW`SKY, COUNT, a Hungarian, fought with the Poles against Russia; taken prisoner; was exiled to Kamchatka; escaped with the governor's daughter; came to France; sent out to Madagascar; was elected king by the natives over them; fell in battle against the French (1741-1786).

BENZENE, a substance compounded of carbon and hydrogen, obtained by destructive distillation from coal-tar and other organic bodies, used as a substitute for turpentine and for dissolving grease.

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BENZOIN, a fragrant concrete resinous juice flowing from a styrax-tree of Sumatra, used as a cosmetic, and burned as incense.

BEOWULF, a very old Anglo-Saxon romance consisting of 6356 short alliterative lines, and the oldest extant in the language, recording the exploits of a mythical hero of the name, who wrestled Hercules-wise, at the cost of his life, with first a formidable monster, and then a dragon that had to be exterminated or tamed into submission before the race he belonged to could live with safety on the soil.

BERANGER, PIERRE JEAN DE, a celebrated French song-writer, born at Paris, of the lower section of the middle class, and the first of his countrymen who in that department rose to the high level of a true lyric poet; his first struggles with fortune were a failure, but Lucien Bonaparte took him up, and under his patronage a career was opened up for him; in 1815 appeared as an author, and the sensation created was immense, for the songs were not mere personal effusions, but in stirring accord with, and contributed to influence, the great passion of the nation at the time; was, as a Republican--which brought him into trouble with the Bourbons--a great admirer of Napoleon as an incarnation of the national spirit, and contributed not a little to the elevation of his nephew to the throne, though he declined all patronage at his hands, refusing all honours and appointments; has been compared to Burns, but he lacked both the fire and the humour of the Scottish poet. "His poetical works," says Professor Saintsbury, "consist entirely of chansons political, amatory, bacchanalian, satirical, philosophical after a fashion, and of almost every other complexion that the song can possibly take" (1780-1859).

BERAR` (896), one of the central provinces of India, E. of Bombay; it occupies a fertile, well-watered valley, and yields large quantities of grain, and especially cotton.

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BERAT, FREDERIC, a French poet and composer, author of a great number of popular songs (1800-1853).

BERBER, native language spoken in the mountainous parts of Barbary.

BERBER (8), a town in Nubia, on the Nile, occupied by the English; starting-point of caravans for the Red Sea; railway was begun to Suakim, but abandoned.

BER`BERAH, the seaport of Somaliland, under Britain, with an annual fair that brings together at times as many as 30,000 people.

BERBERS (3,000), a race aboriginal to Barbary and N. Africa, of a proud and unruly temper; though different from the Arab race, are of the same religion.

BERBICE, the eastern division of British Guiana; produces sugar, cocoa, and timber.

BERBRUGGER, a French archaeologist and philologist; wrote on Algiers, its history and monuments (1801-1869).

BERCHTA, a German Hulda, but of severer type. See BERTHA.

BERCY, a commune on the right bank of the Seine, outside Paris, included in it since 1860; is the great mart for wines and brandies.

BERE`ANS, a sect formed by John Barclay in 1778, who regard the Bible as the one exclusive revelation of God.

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BERENGER, or BERENGA`RIUS, OF TOURS, a distinguished theologian, born at Tours; held an ecclesiastical office there, and was made afterwards archdeacon of Angers; ventured to deny the doctrine of transubstantiation, a denial for which he was condemned by successive councils of the Church, and which he was compelled more than once publicly to retract, though he so often and openly recalled his retractation that the pope, notwithstanding the opposition of the orthodox, deemed it prudent at length to let him alone. After this he ceased to trouble the Church, and retired to an island on the Loire, where he gave himself up to quiet meditation and prayer (998-1088).

BERENGER I., king of Italy, grandson of Louis the Debonnaire, an able general; provoked the jealousy of the nobles, who dreaded the abridgment of their rights, which led to his assassination at their hands in 934. B. II., king of Italy, grandson of the preceding, was dethroned twice by the Emperor Otho, who sent him a prisoner to Bamberg, where he died, 966.

BERENGER, THOMAS, a French criminalist and magistrate (1785-1866).

BERENI`CE, a Jewish widow, daughter of Herod Agrippa, with whom Titus was fascinated, and whom he would have taken to wife, had not the Roman populace protested, from their Anti-Jewish prejudice, against it. The name was a common one among Egyptian as well as Jewish princesses.

BERESFORD, WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT, an English general, natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford; distinguished himself in many a military enterprise, and particularly in the Peninsular war, for which he was made a peer; he was a member of the Wellington administration, and master-general of the ordnance (1770-1854).

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BERESI`NA, a Russian river, affluent of the Dnieper, into which it falls after a course of 350 m.; it is serviceable as a water conveyance for large rafts of timber to the open sea, and is memorable for the disastrous passage of the French in their retreat from Moscow in 1812.

BEREZOV`, a town in Siberia, in the government of Tobolsk; a place of banishment.

BERG, DUCHY OF, on right bank of the Rhine, between Duesseldorf and Cologne, now part of Prussia; Murat was grand-duke of it by Napoleon's appointment.

BER`GAMO (42), a Lombard town, in a province of the same name, and 34 m. NE. of Milan, with a large annual fair in August, the largest in Italy; has grindstone quarries in the neighbourhood.

BERGASSE, French jurisconsult, born at Lyons; celebrated for his quarrel with Beaumarchais; author of an "Essay on Property" (1750-1832).

BERGEN (52), the old capital of Norway, on a fjord of the name, open to the Gulf Stream, and never frozen; the town, consisting of wooden houses, is built on a slope on which the streets reach down to the sea, and has a picturesque appearance; the trade, which is considerable, is in fish and fish products; manufactures gloves, porcelain, leather, etc.; the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral.

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM (11), a town in N. Brabant, once a strong place, and much coveted and frequently contested for by reason of its commanding situation; has a large trade in anchovies.

BER`GENROTH, GUSTAV ADOLPH, historian, born in Prussia; held a State

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office, but was dismissed and exiled because of his sympathy with the revolutionary movement of 1848; came to England to collect materials for a history of the Tudors; examined in Simancas, in Spain, under great privations, papers on the period in the public archives; made of these a collection and published it in 1862-68, under the title of "Calendar of Letters, Despatches, &c., relating to Negotiations between England and Spain" (1813-1869).

BERGERAC (11), a manufacturing town in France, 60 m. E. of Bordeaux, celebrated for its wines; it was a Huguenot centre, and suffered greatly in consequence.

BERGERAC, SAVINIEN CYRANO DE, an eccentric man with comic power, a Gascon by birth; wrote a tragedy and a comedy; his best work a fiction entitled "Histoire Comique des Etats et Empires de la Lune et du Soleil"; fought no end of duels in vindication, it is said, of his preposterously large nose (1619-1655).

BERGHAUS, HEINRICH, a geographer of note, born at Cleves; served in both the French and Prussian armies as an engineer, and was professor of mathematics at Berlin; his "Physical Atlas" is well known (1797-1884).

BERGHEM, a celebrated landscape-painter of the Dutch school, born at Haarlem (1624-1683).

BERGMAN, TORBERN OLOF, a Swedish chemist, studied under Linnaeus, and became professor of Chemistry at Upsala; discovered oxalic acid; was the first to arrange and classify minerals on a chemical basis (1735-1784).

BERI, a town in the Punjab, 40 m. NW. of Delhi, in a trading centre.

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BERKELEY, a town in Gloucestershire, famous for its cattle.

BERKELEY, GEORGE, bishop of Cloyne, born in Kilkenny; a philanthropic man, who conducted in a self-sacrificing spirit practical schemes for the good of humanity, which failed, but the interest in whom has for long centred, and still centres, in his philosophic teaching, his own interest in which was that it contributed to clear up our idea of God and consolidate our faith in Him, and it is known in philosophy as Idealism; only it must be understood, his idealism is not, as it was absurdly conceived to be, a denial of the existence of matter, but is an assertion of the doctrine that the universe, with every particular in it, _as man sees it and knows it_, is not the creation of matter but the creation of mind, and a reflex of the Eternal Reason that creates and dwells in both it and him; for as Dr. Stirling says, "the object can only be known in the subject, and therefore is subjective, and if subjective, ideal." The outer, as regards our knowledge of it, is within; such is Berkeley's fundamental philosophical principle, and it is a principle radical to the whole recent philosophy of Europe (1684-1753).

BERKSHIRE (238), a midland county of England, with a fertile, well-cultivated soil on a chalk bottom, in the upper valley of the Thames, one of the smallest but most beautiful counties in the country. In the E. part of it is Windsor Forest, and in the SE. Bagshot Heath. It is famous for its breed of pigs.

BERLICHINGEN, GOETZ VON, surnamed "The Iron Hand," a brave but turbulent noble of Germany, of the 15th and 16th centuries, the story of whose life was dramatised by Goethe, "to save," as he said, "the memory of a brave man from darkness," and which was translated from the German by Sir Walter Scott.

BERLIN` (1,579), capital of Prussia and of the German empire; stands on the Spree, in a flat sandy plain, 177 m. by rail SE. of Hamburg. The royal and imperial palaces, the great library, the university, national

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agriculture. the Bermudas. declaring Britain in a state of blockade. They produce a fine arrowroot. its staple trade is in grain. and are a popular health resort for Americans. BER`MONDSEY. France. the numerous canals and railways which converge on it. art. and vessels trading with it liable to capture. born near Grenoble. BERMU`DAS (15). BERLIOZ. abandoned it for music. a decree of Napoleon of Nov. to which he devoted his life. 21. and export onions. on the S. technical and military academies. sent to study medicine in Paris." and the "Damnation of Faust". His best known works are the "Symphonie Fantastique. the chief are woollens. Paganini was so struck that he presented him with 20. They are held by Britain as a valuable naval station. in the dep. and are provided with docks and fortifications. suburb of London.com gallery and museums. spirits. the Spree. BERMOO`THES." "Romeo and Juliet. Its position between the Baltic and North Seas. 677 m. zoological and botanical gardens. SE. BERLIN DECREE. 1806. Page 319 of 2772 . and wool. render it a most important commercial centre. bank of the Thames." which he produced while he was yet but a student at the Conservatoire in Paris. with the "Symphonie. a celebrated musical composer and critic. cattle.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. a busy SE. and the arsenal are all near the centre of the city. machinery. and beer. Manufactures are extensive and very varied. a cathedral and some old churches. and mining. a group of 400 coral islands (five inhabited) in mid-Atlantic. Chennai 6. CTSTI. bronze ware. of Isere. There are schools of science. drapery goods. of New York.000 francs (1803-1869). temperate climate. HECTOR. have a delightful.

in Burgundy. awoke Europe to a second crusade. founded 160 monasteries. JEAN BAPTISTE JULES. adopted by Charles XIII. drew around him disciples who rose to eminence as soldiers of the cross. a distinguished French physiologist. born at St. represented in art as accompanied by a white dog. Julien. defeated Abelard in public debate.. abbot of Clairvaux. a French engineer. CTSTI.. and that there are nervous centres in the body which act independently of the great cerebro-spinal centre (1813-1878).. to the material welfare. founded in 1115 a monastery at Clairvaux. or as contemplating an apparition of the Virgin and the Child. was Majendie's assistant and successor in the College of France. Page 320 of 2772 . content if he could only awake some divine passion in other men. and for vast engineering works executed in the United States. in the construction of canals and forts (1779-1839). entered the monastery of Citeaux. dealt death-blows all round to no end of heretics. born at Dole. distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. prepared the statutes for the Knights-Templar. that of the liver the transformation into sugar of certain elements in the blood. Aug. though between him and Napoleon there was constant distrust. or as bearing the implements of Christ's passion (1091-1174). he studied at Paris. of his adopted country (1764-1844). rose from the ranks. Festival. CLAUDE. as it proved. Computer Lecturer. discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion of ingested fats.ramakalai@gmail. distinguished as such in the service of Napoleon. studied in Paris. king of Sweden. and procured his condemnation. born at Pau. 20. ST. pronounced one of the grandest figures in the church militant. and declined all honours to himself. Chennai 6. BERNARD.com BERNADOTTE. BERNARD. in Champagne. born at Fontaines. BERNARD. became king of Sweden himself under the title of Charles XIV. a marshal of France. joined the Allies as a naturalised Swede in the war against France in alliance with Russia. SIMON.

including "Jerusalem the Golden. was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1516. LORD. Festival. commands a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps. whom his father. BERNE (47). a monk of Cluny. author of "Paul and Virginia. (1380-1444). in Italy. founder of the Observantines. and governor of Calais from 1520. Page 321 of 2772 . a celebrated French writer. of the 11th century. of the Franciscan order. wrote a poem entitled "De Contemptu Mundi. Chennai 6. an ecclesiastic. JOHN BOUCHIER. June 15." BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE. BERNARDINE. and restoration on strict lines. a branch. OF SIENA." &c. CTSTI. wife of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria. writer or translator of romance. since 1848 the capital of the Swiss Confederation. BERNARD OF MORLAIX. BERNERS. born at Havre. in a populous canton of the same name. established 300 monasteries of the said branch." translated by Dr. Computer Lecturer. commonly called Saint-Pierre simply. a busy trading and manufacturing city. AGNES." (1739-1814). translated Froissart's "Huon of Bordeaux." written on the eve of the Revolution. called by Carlyle "the swan-song of old dying France. fill five folio vols.ramakalai@gmail. a fine Swiss town on the Aar.. had convicted of sorcery and drowned in the Danube. of noble family. in the passage of the Alps (923-1008). which almost surrounds it. ST.com BERNARD OF MENTHON. BERNAUER. born at Massa Carrara. written in a mystical vein. displeased at the marriage. founder of the monasteries of the Great and the Little St. Neale. Bernard. his works.

and a model of exactitude (1625-1688). of Jewish descent. promoted afterwards to be Bishop of Orleans (1762-1806). France. an Italian poet. physician for 12 years to Aurungzebe. BERNIER. 1844. published "Travels. a great German general. and completed the victory after the fall of Gustavus. born in Tuscany. THE ABBE. distinguished himself on the Protestant side in the Thirty Years' war. fought under the standard of Gustavus Adolphus. born at Angers. BERNESE ALPS. _b_. BERNHARDT. without sufficient proof.com BERNERS. who excelled in the burlesque. remodelled Boiardo's "Orlando Innamorato" in a style surpassing that of the original. BERNI. FRANCESCO. CTSTI. form the watershed between the Aar and the Rhone. as alleged. BERNHARD. held command of the left wing at the battle of Luetzen. by poison (1604-1639). one of the principal authors of the Concordat. of which she has given proof. a French physician and traveller. the Great Mogul. a chain in the Middle Alps. Computer Lecturer. said to have been prioress of a nunnery. born in Paris. JULIANA. died at Neuburg. BERNIER. Page 322 of 2772 . lived in the 14th century. of which the eastern half is called the Bernese Oberland.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6." a work full of interest. DUKE OF WEIMAR. SARAH. distinguished specially as a tragedienne. but baptized as a Christian. to whom the Italian as a literary language owes much. a dramatic artiste. born in Mayenne. writer on hunting and hawking. of abilities qualifying her to shine in other departments of the profession and of art.

CTSTI. 13. in Computer Lecturer. diplomatist. COUNT. GIOVANNI LORENZO. Chennai 6. an Italian painter. BERNINI. produced his "Apollo and Daphne" at eighteen. and philanthropist of Denmark. BERO`SUS. as well as the line of swiftest descent (1667-1748). these have been collected and published by W. a guardian of civil and political liberty (1735-1797). called the Danish Oracle by Frederick the Great. PIERRE. of whom John is the most celebrated. JOHN. Richter. was architect to the Pope. and DANIEL. BERNSTORFF. though of Dutch origin--JAMES. a mountain in the Swiss canton of Grisons. 3rd century B. a celebrated statesman. COUNT. Petersburg and then at Basel.C. BERNSTORFF. BERNOUIL`LI. valuable fragments of which are preserved by Josephus and Eusebius.ramakalai@gmail. name of a Swiss family of mathematicians. and designed the colonnade of St. translated into Greek certain records of Babylonish history. Danish minister. and obtained the emancipation of the serfs (1711-1772). who. sculptor. high.290 ft. he died wealthy (1598-1680). a nephew of the preceding. also statesman and diplomatist (1712-1772). Page 323 of 2772 . his masterpiece. remarkable for its extensive glaciers. and architect. discovered the exponential calculus and the method of integrating rational fractions. son of the preceding. BERNSTORFF. was professor first at St. Peter's. founded an Agricultural Society and an hospital at Copenhagen. born at Basel..com BERNI`NA. a priest of the temple of Belus in Babylon. born at Naples.

a red-hot Legitimist. BERRI. was professor of Physiology at Paris. BERRI. took to politics after the fall of the Empire. BERT. and is said to have been inspired with such fury as to render him invulnerable and irresistible. Minister of Public Instruction under Gambetta. which brought him into trouble. BER`SERKER. of Indre and Cher. DUC DE. dowager of preceding. Page 324 of 2772 . died of fever soon after. of the spinning-wheel Computer Lecturer. an eminent French barrister. and father of Count de Chambord. goddess in the S. PIERRE ANTOINE. DUCHESSE DE. BERTHA.ramakalai@gmail. forms dep. was member of the National Assembly of 1848. and a duchy in 1630. a French physiologist and statesman. sent governor to Tonquin. a benevolent man. a Norse warrior who went into battle unharnessed. German mythology. and openly protested against the _coup d'etat_ (1790-1868). Chennai 6. CTSTI. whence his name (which means bare of sark or shirt of mail). second son of Charles X. BERRYER. assassinated by a fanatic. giving title to a succession of French princes. distinguished herself by her futile efforts to restore the Bourbon dynasty in the reign of Louis Philippe (1798-1890). born at Auxerre. PAUL. an ancient province of France. wrote a science primer for children entitled "La Premiere Annee d'Enseignement Scientifique" (1833-1886). born at Paris. BERRI.. which became crown property in 1100 under Philippe I.com Germany. Louvel. as he was leaving the Opera House (1778-1820). inimical to the Second Empire.

in behalf of which and its economical management she is often harsh to idle spinners. wife of Ethelbert. BERTHELIER.com principally. CTSTI. and many improvements in the manufactures. on Napoleon's return retired with his family to Bamberg. BERTHOLLET. a French chemist. and his attempt to produce organic compounds. maddened at the sight of Russian troops marching past to the French frontier (1753-1815). BERTHIER. ALEXANDRE. the dyeing trade owes much to his discoveries in the extraction of dyes from coal-tar. born at Paris. prince of Wagram and marshal of France. BERTHELOT. he laid the foundation of thermo-chemistry. so called from her club foot. 1827. Chennai 6. PIERRE EUGENE. a Swiss patriot. became a senator and officer of the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. and rose to distinction in the Revolution.ramakalai@gmail. to whom we owe the discovery of the bleaching properties of chlorine. and was Computer Lecturer. Page 325 of 2772 . professor in the College of France. and mother of Charlemagne. swore fealty to the Bourbons at the restoration of 1814. the employment of carbon in purifying water. served with Lafayette in the American war. ST. distinguished for his researches in organic chemistry. COUNT. wife of Pepin the Short. a famous chemist. native of Savoy. e. BERTHE "au Grand Pied" (i. and of the household as dependent on it. Long Foot). king of Kent. BERTHA. a British princess. at her festival thrift is the rule. &c. and his companion in all his expeditions. born at Versailles. an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition to lord it over Geneva. converted him to Christianity. threw himself from a window. _b_. became head of Napoleon's staff... attached himself to the Bourbons on their return.

BERTIN. PIERRE. BERTIN "l'Aine. HENRI GRATIEN. Minister of Marine under Louis XVI. long a favourite in Paris (1710-1788). friend of Chateaubriand (1766-1841).. invented the marine chronometer to determine the longitude at sea (1727-1807). ROSE. Chennai 6. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. of whom R. BERTRAND DE MOLLEVILLE. a French journalist. BERTRAND and RATON. BER`TRAND. a celebrated actor. Helena. milliner to Marie Antoinette. native of Switzerland. Computer Lecturer. Page 326 of 2772 . which he started in 1799. born at Paris. COMTE. two personages in La Fontaine's fable of the Monkey and the Cat.com created a peer (1744-1822). famed for her devotion to her. eats it. BERTIN. cracks the nut and B. surnamed the _enfant terrible_ of the monarchy (1744-1818). settled in Paris. invented by Taylor in England (1751-1819). and faithful adherent of Napoleon. born at Turin. BERTINAZZI. as well as in his exile at St. conducted his remains back to France in 1840 (1770-1844). a French general. introduced stenography into France. a fiery partisan of royalty. a celebrated clockmaker. to and from Elba. BERTHOUD. accompanied him in all his campaigns." or the Elder. founder and editor of the _Journal des Debats_.

a town on the Scotch side of the Tweed.com BERTON. distinguished himself in Spain. left "Memoirs" (1670-1734). is divided into the Merse. and Lauderdale. was present with him at the battle of the Boyne. a place on the S. dividing the Merse from Mid and East Lothian. and of the Congregation of the Oratory (1576-1629). determined the equivalents of Computer Lecturer. BERWICKSHIRE (32). of hill and dale. hilly and pastoral. wrote a treatise on harmony (1761-1844). NORTH. Baron. fell at the siege of Philippsburg. of interest from its connection with the Border wars. born at Troyes. founder of the order of Carmelites. JAMES FITZ-JAMES. a fertile Scottish county between the Lammermoors. BERWICK-ON-TWEED (13). specially for the golfing links. was made marshal of France. one of the creators of modern chemistry. till in 1482 the English became masters of it. where he gained the victory of Almanza. CARDINAL. composed operas. BERWICK. BERULLE. reckoned since 1835 in Northumberland. at its mouth. in Haddingtonshire. along the banks of the Leader. DUKE OF. his son. a natural son of James II. a richly fertile plain in the S. though at one time treated as a separate county. CTSTI. JOHAN JAKOB. French composer of operas (1726-1780). Chennai 6. BERWICK. the Lammermoors. a celebrated Swedish chemist. BERZE`LIUS. shore of the Forth. a naturalised Frenchman. PIERRE. instituted the chemical notation by symbols based on the notion of equivalents.. Page 327 of 2772 .. Henri. a summer resort.ramakalai@gmail. and the Tweed. Greenlaw the county town. inclusive. defended the rights of his father. during which it frequently changed hands.

wrote a number of novels jointly with James Rice. fortified by Vauban. born at Portsmouth. ANNIE. a Swiss. he ranks next to Linnaeus as a man of science in Sweden (1779-1848). and has an interesting address as a lecturer. 1838. BESANT. of which she is now an active propagandist. discovered silenium. commandant of Paris under Louis XVI. in France. abounds in relics of Roman and mediaeval times. SIR WALTER.000 of the inhabitants. a Bohemian in the pay of the Duke of Guise. 1847. eminent chiefly as a novelist of a healthily realistic type. BESANCON (57). of Doubs. capital of the dep. married to an English clergyman. of Irish descent. employing some 15.com a great number of simple bodies." as well as short stories. born in London. a royalist stunned into a state of helpless dismay at the first outbreak of the Revolution in Paris. a bay on the Asiatic coast.. Page 328 of 2772 . CTSTI. such as cerium and silenium. BESME. Chennai 6. BESANT. assassinated Computer Lecturer. from whom she was legally separated. champion of the cause of Authors _versus_ Publishers.ramakalai@gmail. watchmaking a staple industry. BESENVAL. could do nothing in the face of it but run for his life (1722-1791). manufactures also porcelain and carpets. is an interesting woman. near the mouth of the Dardanelles. and is chairman of the committee. BARON. MRS. _nee_ WOOD. _b_. BESIKA BAY. a very strong place. took a keen interest in social questions and secularism. and shared with Davy the honour of propounding the electro-chemical theory. and is the author of "French Humourists. a man of letters. _b_. drifted into theosophy.

com Coligny. BESS. wool. to the production of thirty times as much steel as before and at one-fifth of the cost per ton (1813-1898). a process which has revolutionised the iron and steel trade all over the world. his greatest work. native of Trebizond. civil engineer and inventor. cardinal. in 1571. between the Dniester and the Pruth. of his many inventions the chief is the process. exports cattle. Chennai 6. like all he did. of patient toil and painstaking accuracy (1784-1846)." on which he spent 10 years. a Protestant gentleman. contributed by his zeal in Greek literature to the fall of scholasticism and the revival of letters. and tallow. to which he was twice over nearly elevated (1395-1472). BESSEMER. CTSTI. discovered--what was a great achievement--the parallax of the fixed star 61 Cygne. "Fundamenta Astronomiae. named after him. joined the latter. FRIEDRICH WILHELM.ramakalai@gmail. and was himself killed by Berteauville. BESSAR`ION. of Russia. and was made cardinal. and director of the Observatory. Page 329 of 2772 . too much of a Grecian to recommend himself to the popehood. tried hard to unite the Churches of the East and the West. JOHN. a government in the SW. and only a definite quantity of carbon is left in combination. SIR HENRY. BESSARA`BIA (1. born at Minden. a marvel.688). of converting pig-iron into steel at once by blowing a blast of air through the iron while in fusion till everything extraneous is expelled. GOOD QUEEN. Herts. a familiar name of Queen Elizabeth. Computer Lecturer. a cattle-breeding province. as has been calculated. professor of Mathematics at Koenigsberg. BESSEL. born at Charlton. leading. a Prussian astronomer of prominent ability.

viewed allegorically. BESSUS. in Egypt. a friend and one of the ablest officers of Napoleon. prince of Transylvania. with a convent containing the Church of the Nativity. and famous in the history of the patriarchs. by whom he was put to death. who assassinated his master after the battle of Arbela. distinguished himself in the Italian campaign. was shot at Luetzen the day before the battle (1768-1813). a satrap of Bactria under Darius. a village 6 m. and much esteemed by him.com BESSEMER PROCESS. BETHENCOURT. rose from the ranks. born at Languedoc. assumed the title of king of Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. 328 B. of humble parentage. a name given to a class of books treating of animals. and at Marengo. N. scene of Jacob's dream. abode of Lazarus and his sisters. village on E. BETHLEN-GABOR. e. See BESSEMER. of Jerusalem. near it is the grotto where St. BESSIERES. JEAN BAPTISTE. of the Mount of Olives. DUKE OF ISTRIA. S. BETHANY. BETHEL (i. BETHLEHEM (3). a Norman baron. marshal of France. of Jerusalem. and held them as a fief of the crown of Castile. the birthplace of Jesus Christ and King David. in 1425 discovered and conquered the Canaries. Chennai 6. a place 11 m. BESTIARY. but was delivered over by Alexander to Darius's brother.C.ramakalai@gmail. house of God). Page 330 of 2772 .

a German statesman. CTSTI. which contains the tombs of the Percys. W. of strong conservative leanings. adopted a liberal policy. BEULE. BEVERLEY (12). of Hull. amassed a fortune. a French statesman and archaeologist. it is believed. with a Gothic minster. became Chancellor of the Austro-Hungarian empire. lived afterwards retired (1791-1874). a manufacturing town in Prussian Silesia. a passionate admirer of Goethe. Page 331 of 2772 . known as the Infant Roscius. BETTY. Minister for Foreign Affairs in Saxony. friendly to Austria. sympathised with France in the Franco-German war. left "Memoirs" (1809-1886). Chennai 6. BEUTHEN (36). BETTINA. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. and as such an interpreter of Shakespeare on. an eastern suburb of London. resigned office in 1871.ramakalai@gmail. and scene of benevolent enterprises. in the centre of a mining district.com Hungary. BETTERTON. a poor district. Computer Lecturer. HENRY. BETHNAL GREEN (129). born at Westminster. a tragic actor. a boy actor. NW. assisted Bohemia in the Thirty Years' war (1580-1629). a parliamentary borough. superintended excavations on the Acropolis of Athens. BEUST. born at Dresden. COUNT VON. THOMAS. held office under Macmahon (1826-1874). the Countess of Arnim. the traditional lines. 8 m.

BEZA. CTSTI. an ambitious writer and a cynical (1788-1842)." born at Grenoble. a great wood-engraver. JOHN. a distinguished wood-engraver.. did a cartoon from the Elgin Marbles for Goethe (1795-1866). a French Protestant theologian. _d_. whose marvellous feats are recorded in Drayton's "Polyolbion. and founder of a college for secular priests at Beverley. a learned man." BEWICK. MARIE HENRI. with coal and iron in the neighbourhood. French critic and novelist. Page 332 of 2772 . born in Northumberland. a famous knight of English mediaeval romance. THOMAS. from which it is distant 55 m. born in Burgundy." the success of which led to the publication of his "History of British Birds. archbishop of York. a port in the Madras presidency. tutor to the Venerable Bede. the most nourishing commercial city on the coast of Syria. and an artist (1753-1828). usually known by his pseudonym "De Stendal. or HAMPTON. WILLIAM. BEYLE. a railway terminus. and the port of Damascus. wrote in criticism "De l'Amour. BEYPUR. SIR. of Computer Lecturer. BEVIS OF SOUTHAMPTON.ramakalai@gmail. BEYROUT (200). a very ancient place. in the truest sense. a man of gigantic stature. 721. was one of the most learned men of his time." in which he established his reputation both as a naturalist. Chennai 6. BEWICK. apprenticed to the trade in Newcastle.com BEVERLEY. THEODORE. showed his art first in woodcuts for his "History of Quadrupeds." and in fiction "La Chartreuse de Parme" and "Le Rouge et le Noir".

the whole conceived from the point of view or belief. settled in Geneva. e. of Montpellier.com good birth. divided into three sections. introduced by the Crusaders into England. BHARTPUR` (68). a town in Burmah. professor of Greek at Lausanne. and a military station. 49 m. became the friend and successor of Calvin. a manufacturing town in the dep. as it was with his own kindred. BEZANTS. the chief centre of trade with China. 30 Computer Lecturer. BHAGAVAD GITA. calculated to allay the scruples of Arjuna. being a series of mystical lectures addressed by Krishna to his royal pupil Arjuna on the eve of a battle. BHAGALPUR` (69). and each section into six chapters. of Herault. 265 m. deputed from Germany to intercede for the Huguenots in France. BHAMO` (6). Page 333 of 2772 . conducted mainly by Chinese. cotton. (i. "De Hereticis a Civili Magistratu Puniendis. yielding wheat. CTSTI. of Calcutta. maize. Chennai 6. a town in Rajputana. died at 86 (1519-1605). from the Chinese frontier. where they were current till the time of Edward III. manufactures silk fabrics and confectionary. on the right bank of the Ganges. wrote a book. and a "History of the Reformed Churches" in France. in a native state of the name. with quarries of building stone. persuaded the king of Navarre to favour the Protestants. only 40 m. Byzantine gold coins of varying weight and value. SW. a town in Bengal. called Upanishads.ramakalai@gmail. a poem introduced into the Mahabharata. BEZIERS (42). Song of Krishna). from which he shrunk." in which he justified the burning of Servetus. which regards the extinction of existence as absorption in the Deity. sugar. NW.

though the people are at a low stage of civilisation. under British protection. carries on an industry in the manufacture of chowries.com m. BHUTAN (20). of Agra. with a capital city (70) of the same name. the country exports horses.000. journeyed round the world. who appears to have lived in the 11th century B. a rude pro-Aryan race of Central India. subsidised by Britain. sketching by the way. a well-governed native state in Central India. and salt. BHILS. BIARD. musk. French _genre_ painter. a large bay in the Gulf of Guinea. Africa. born at Lyons. 6 m. was successful in rendering burlesque groups (1800-1882). under a government that has been always friendly to Britain. CTSTI. BIARRITZ. includes several islands. still untrained to settled life. Indian author of apothegms.. a bathing-place on the Bay of Biscay. an independent state in the Eastern Himalayas. BHOPAL` (952). BHARTRIHARI. has a government like that of Thibet.C. AUGUSTE FRANCOIS. Page 334 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. religion the same. name given to the aborigines of Thibet. BIGHT OF. BIAF`RA. in W. became a place of fashionable resort by the visits of the Empress Computer Lecturer. with magnificent scenery. and to have been of royal rank. and receives into it the waters of the Calabar rivers. BHOD-PA. SW. and applied by the Hindus to all the Thibetan peoples. number 750. Chennai 6. W. of Bayonne.

many wise sayings are ascribed to him. THE (i. from wooden blocks. after which the two came to be regarded by the Church as of equal divine authority and as sections of one book. a collection of sacred writings divided into two parts. printed. and the whole book.C.ramakalai@gmail. both equally divine. CTSTI. and that its final aim is to guide men in the way of life. 385-404.D. the Old Testament and the New. and is known as the Septuagint. and that primarily in a moral power above. Bible of the Poor). one of the seven wise men of Greece. Old and New.C. The Old Testament was translated into Greek at Alexandria by 72 Jews. e. its essence. and the Epistles. not in a speculative or a scientific. BIAS. e. both in the root of it and the fruit of it. Jerome. is faith. and thieves break through and steal. and ultimately a moral principle within. the Prophets. and before the invention of printing by movable types.. the Pentateuch. A. Chennai 6. Page 335 of 2772 . The spirit in which it is composed is the spirit of conviction. was distinguished for his indifference to possessions. and the Hagiographa. the history. in Ionia. 280 B. written in Hebrew. and not so much a book as a library of books). Computer Lecturer.com Eugenie. and the manners of the Jews. and the New. the Old. the Acts of the Apostles. comprehending the Four Gospels. individual and social. and explanatory inscriptions. comprehending three groups of books. a book consisting of some 50 leaves. was translated into Latin in a grotto near Bethlehem by St. It may be permitted to note that the Bible is written throughout. the institutions.. but a spiritual interest. written in Greek. BIBLIA PAUPERUM (i. in the 15th century. which moth and rust can corrupt. with pictures of scenes in the Life of Christ. BIBLE. lived in the 6th century B. bearing on the religion. born at Priene. The one principle of the book is that loyalty to the divine commands is the one foundation of all well-being. and is known as the Vulgate. the Book _par excellence_.

one of the first to resolve the structure of the human body into. MARIE FRANCOIS XAVIER. died at 31 (1771-1802). since used for old soldiers. a hospital. whose name was adopted as a _nom de plume_ by Swift and Steele. a _faineant_. followed by the Lord's Prayer. physician to the Hotel-Dieu. BICKERSTETH. vice-admiral. EDWARD. BICHAT. in which the congregation joins. and zinc. vascular. ware of tin.ramakalai@gmail. BIDDLE. BICKERSTAFF. JOHN. and one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance (1786-1850). "cellular. in India. author of several evangelical works. a colleague of Julius Caesar. and the Computer Lecturer. CTSTI." his great work "Anatomie Generale appliquee a la Physiologie et a la Medecine". Paris. SIR RICHARD. in the S. BICETRE. a Socinian writer in the time of Charles I. originally a Carthusian monastery. made at Bidar. side of Paris. as "Sartor" has it. BICKERTON. BIDDING PRAYER. English clergyman. with a commanding view of the Seine and the city. lead. and now for confirmed lunatics. and muscular tissues. copper. an exhortation to prayer in some special reference. Page 336 of 2772 . a mere cipher.com BIBULUS. and died commander-in-chief at Plymouth in 1792. an eminent French anatomist and physiologist. served in several naval engagements. BIDDERY WARE. Chennai 6. ISAAC. an Irish dramatist of 18th century.

a comet discovered by Biela. Page 337 of 2772 . with a large trade in linen. the Aar is led into it when in flood. BIGELOW. every six years. of which the colours are the reflections of the precious stones. Computer Lecturer. St. but released by Cromwell. so as to prevent inundation below. a bridge in the Norse mythology stretching from heaven to earth. 11. with its twin peaks. BIENNE. regarded as the founder of English Unitarianism. and an island in it. appears. and the centre of the trade. in extensive circulation over the East. an Austrian officer. CTSTI. the presumed author of a collection of Hindu fables of ancient date. or PILPAI. born in Massachusetts (1814-1879). in the Swiss canton of Berne. BIELU`KA.ramakalai@gmail. and was imprisoned. author of a "Confession of Faith concerning the Holy Trinity" (1615-1662). ERASTUS BRIGHAM. much persecuted for his belief. of firm solidity and exquisite workmanship. BIELA'S COMET. Chennai 6. the retreat of Rousseau in 1765. BIFROeST. BIELEFELD (39). on the shores of it are remains of lake-dwellings. BIDPAI.100 ft.com Commonwealth. a manufacturing town in Westphalia. represented in the rainbow. American inventor of weaving machines. and widely translated. in 1826. highest of the Altai Mountains. sometimes unobserved. Pierre. LAKE OF.

which Bonaparte made him free to do. a fluid secreted from the blood by the liver to aid in digestion. WILLEM. birthplace of Dr." BILDERDIJK. CTSTI. capital of the Basque prov. the secretion of which is most active after food. city in the presidency of Bombay. Computer Lecturer. JEAN NICOLAS. BILLAUD-VARENNES. in Spain. BIGGAR. a commercial city of ancient date. BIGLOW. resolute. and content to die there rather than return to France. was president of the Convention.ramakalai@gmail. BILE. now deserted. of Biscay.com BIG-ENDIANS. Chennai 6. specially in Queen Elizabeth's time. unrepentant" member of the Jacobin Club. once the capital of an extensive kingdom. famous at one time for its steel. written by James Russell Lowell. assisted at the fall of Robespierre. in the imaginary kingdom of Lilliput. born at Amsterdam (1756-1831). "a grim. but could not avert his own. Dutch poet. a town in Lanarkshire. egged on the mob during the September massacres in the name of liberty. when a rapier was called a "bilbo. as Little-endians is the name given to the Protestants. John Brown and of the Gladstone ancestry. a name given to the Catholics. BILBA`O (50). imaginary author of poems in the Yankee dialect. BIJAPUR`. Page 338 of 2772 . died at Port-au-Prince (1756-1819). but with remains of its former greatness. of which the former are regarded as heretics by the latter because they break their eggs at the big end. was deported to Surinam.

also a name given to low. born in London. a fish-market in London. BILOCATION. BILLINGSGATE. of appearing in two places at the same time. _d_. delineator of old historical buildings. the ratio usually proposed being 1 to 151/2. BILLINGS. the power or state. and was at last burned as a heretic in 1531. below London Bridge. CTSTI.com BILLAUT." richly illustrated. BILLINGTON. coarse language indulged in there." born at Nevers. architect. ascribed to certain of the saints. 1662. was engaged in the restoration of old buildings. a celebrated singer. was twice arraigned. Chennai 6. kept up her celebrity to the last. and released on promise not to preach. the carpenter poet. _nee_ WEICHSEL. a fabulous island with a fountain possessed of the virtue of Computer Lecturer. ROBERT WILLIAM. born in London.ramakalai@gmail. ADAM. BIMETALLISM. ELIZABETH. called "Maitre Adam. his great work "Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland. of German descent. BILNEY. as well as delineating them (1813-1874). BIMINI. Page 339 of 2772 . martyr. THOMAS. born in Norfolk. the employment of two metals (gold and silver) in the currency of a country as legal tender at a fixed relative value. a priest who adopted the reformed doctrine. died at Venice in 1817. and designated "Virgile au Rabot" (a carpenter's plane). but could not refrain.

ramakalai@gmail. BIOGENESIS. an English divine. or of life in organised bodies generally.. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. born at Wakefield. professor of Physics in the College of France. and physicist. opposite which is the tower associated with the myth of Bishop Hatto. BIOLOGY. born at Paris. translator of Horace and Virgil (1732-1812). by a rival. and contributed numerous memoirs to scientific journals. born at Smyrna. including that of plants. BINGHAM. took part in measuring an arc of the meridian along with Arago. Page 340 of 2772 . BION. BINGEN. an eminent French mathematician. a manufacturing and trading town on the left bank of the Rhine. little of his poetry survives.C. astronomer. JEAN BAPTISTE. in its varied forms and through its successive stages. settled in Sicily. a French litterateur. and opposed to ABIOGENESIS (q.). it is said. in Grand-Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt. wrote works on astronomy (1774-1862). name of the theory that derives life from life.com restoring youth. BIOT. Chennai 6. the science of animal life in a purely physical reference. lost his all in the South-Sea Scheme and died (1668-1723). BINET. v. made observations on the polarisation of light. author of "Origines Ecclesiasticae. JOSEPH. a Greek pastoral poet of 3rd century B." a laborious and learned work. was poisoned. a contemporary of Theocritus.

composed madrigals. had an extensive knowledge of Egyptology. settled in Bristol. BIRCH. acted in Berlin. born in London." and the "Day after the Battle. born in Wolverhampton." is ascribed to him (1563-1623). a musician in the time of Elizabeth. the nest of a species of swift. and esteemed a great luxury by the Chinese. CTSTI. charged.com BIRAGUE. born at Milan. Domine. GOLDING. BIRD'S NEST. keeper of Oriental antiquities in the British Museum. CHARLOTTE." the "Field of Chevy Chase. M. as the chief instigator of the St. archaeologist and Egyptologist. born in Stuttgart. WILLIAM. Computer Lecturer. born in London. Page 341 of 2772 . THOMAS. a great authority in kidney disease.D. wrote largely. BIRCH-PFEIFFER. an English _genre_ painter. BIRD. and contributed articles on that and kindred archaeological subjects (1813-1885). Bartholomew Massacre (1507-1583). EDWARD. SAMUEL.. formed from a marine plant that has been first digested by a bird. Chennai 6. actress.ramakalai@gmail. of which he himself died (1815-1854). BIRD." pronounced his masterpiece (1772-1819). BIRD. "Non Nobis. among his works are the "Choristers Rehearsing. especially by contemporary historians. cardinal and chancellor of France. BIRCH. wrote a history of the Royal Society (1705-1765). RENE DE. antiquary. wrote dramas (1800-1868).

educational institutions. in Cheshire. a town of rapid growth. son of a peasant. and screws are specialties. of London by rail. Of this town Burne-Jones was a native. All kinds of engines and machinery. BIRKBECK. fine gold. is the chief town of the Midlands. a political writer. in the NW. steel pens. was banished to Siberia. opposite Liverpool and a suburb of it. in consociation with Brougham and others interested in the diffusion of useful knowledge (1776-1841). in Perthshire. due to the vicinity of Liverpool. BIRMINGHAM (478). buttons. and Dale were dissenting ministers. Page 342 of 2772 . SIR JOHN. several times imprisoned during the Commonwealth for his obtrusive royalism (1615-1679). of Warwickshire." Computer Lecturer. M. BIRNAM. which in six years after he relinquished in favour of his eldest son (1687-1772). and had his honours restored to him. and a great town-hall. and Priestley. a zealous promoter all over the country of mechanics' institutes. ruled with great cruelty. held the reins of government even after her death. nails. CTSTI. but recalled.D. 112 m. NW. copper.ramakalai@gmail. was founder of the London Institute. a hill near Dunkeld. cutlery and ammunition are made here. Chennai 6. DUKE OF COURLAND. It is a picturesque town with many fine buildings. favourite of the Russian Empress Anne. art gallery and museums. libraries. contains part of a forest mentioned in "Macbeth. on the Mersey. a Yorkshireman. GEORGE. BIRKENHEAD (100). and celebrated all over the world for its metal ware. where the triennial musical festival is held.com BIREN. George Dawson. silver. BIRKENHEAD.. a cathedral. and brass ware. has large shipbuilding-yards and docks.

was killed at the siege of Epernay. Chennai 6. "You will find it in Biron's note-book" (1524-1592). experimented on the inflammable power of gas (1792-1870). extending from Cape Ortegal. Page 343 of 2772 . carried a note-book with him everywhere. marshal of France. made a special study of embryology. but being a man of no principle and discontented with the reward he got for his services. BISCHOF. where.. though a Catholic. favoured the Huguenots. one of the stormiest of seas. BARON DE. served also bravely under Henry IV. born at Perigord. originally an overseer of souls. a bay in the Atlantic. THEODOR LUDWIG WILHELM. born at Hanover. served bravely under Henry IV. intrigued with the Duke of Savoy and with Spain against Henry. distinguished biologist." BIRON. BISHOP. was arrested and sent to the Bastille. a madcap lord in "Love's Labour's Lost. of Physiology at Giessen. after trial. BISCAY. especially of a district. to Cape Finisterre. he was beheaded (1562-1602). and conceived of by High-Churchmen as representing the apostles and deriving his powers by transmission from them. BAY OF.com BIRON. KARL GUSTAV.. was professor of Anatomy at Heidelberg. and so observant was he that it passed into proverb. Bartholomew. son of the preceding. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. winds particularly. and of both at Muenich (1807-1882). born at Nueremberg. broad. in France. in Spain. eventually an overseer of churches. BISCHOFF. under SW. chemist.ramakalai@gmail. and 400 m. and. narrowly escaped at the Massacre of St. DUC DE. BIRON. professor at Bonn. of depth varying from 20 to 200 fathoms.

was for a brief space professor of Music in Edinburgh University. provoked the latter into a declaration of war." are still in favour. manufactures machinery and cotton goods. SIR HENRY ROWLEY. a palatial structure. PRINCE VON. marshalled as army never was before. composer and director of music in Covent Garden Theatre for 14 years. the German empire restored under a Computer Lecturer. Count Bismarck had the satisfaction of seeing the power of France. an archipelago formerly called New Britain. made him the idol of the nation. SW.ramakalai@gmail. and beat the French ignominiously back from the Rhine. EDUARD LEOPOLD. the Germans proved to be a nation of soldiers. and welding them into one under the crown of Prussia. Augustine. produced 60 pieces. woke up into civil life by the events of 1848. born at Schoenhausen. His next feat. a market-town 9 m. St. helpless at his feet. an English composer. of which "Guy Mannering. but the annexation of Sleswig-Holstein by force of arms in 1863 raised him into general favour. of Durham. Chennai 6.com BISHOP. BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO (188). Summoned in 1862 by King William to be his political adviser. it has coal-mines close by. His treatment of Napoleon III. born in London. as once in office there. CTSTI. with Prussia at its head. his influence was at first distrusted. conceived the idea of freeing the several States of Germany from foreign control. and to an advance on the part of the French against Berlin. BISMARCK-SCHOeNHAUSEN. Page 344 of 2772 . BISHOP OF HIPPO. under the protectorate of Germany. the humiliation of Austria at Koeniggraetz in 1866. that still threatened. took a bold stand against revolutionary ideas and measures. To the surprise of nearly all Europe. BISHOP-AUCKLAND (10)." "The Miller and his Men. and the consequent erection of a German Confederation. of New Guinea. NE. where the bishop of Durham has his residence. as well as that of Austria. and eventually held a similar chair in Oxford (1786-1855).

established protection. above. Maltha when viscid. the people of it were of Thracian origin. W. it was because the young king felt he would have a freer hand with a minister more likely to be under his control (1815-1898). of Asia Minor. increased the army. BITLIS (25). and belong now to Portugal. codified the law. presumably of vegetable origin.. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. Chennai 6. a town on the right bank of the Ganges.com Hohenzollern king. a high-lying town in Asiatic Turkey. BITUMEN. intrusted by him to finish a statue he left unfinished at his death. BITHYNIA. with a large negro population. the sea-level.ramakalai@gmail. BISSA`GOS. of Van. born in Sleswig. and concocted the conspiracy which developed into the mutiny of 1857. a group of some 20 volcanic islands off the coast of Senegambia. 12 m. he produced some fine works. stands in a valley 8470 ft. Nothing he did after this--though he reformed the coinage. and repressed Socialism--equalled this great feat. anciently so called. BISSEN. above Cawnpore. but his best known are his "Cupid Sharpening his Arrow" and "Atalanta Hunting" (1798-1868). a country in the NW. Page 345 of 2772 . If he ceased to be chancellor of Germany on the accession of William II. 62 m. yield tropical products. where Nana Sahib lived. BITHUR. Petroleum when less fluid and darker. and for this a grateful nation must ever honour his name. and Asphalt when solid. and himself installed as chancellor of the monarch he had served so well. an inflammable mineral substance. a pupil of Thorwaldsen. with a population of Mohammedans and Armenians. a Danish sculptor. called Naphtha when liquid and light-coloured.

an active and zealous promoter of liberalism. his writings are numerous. a celebrated chemist. of Scotch parents. first in Glasgow. where his lectures were very popular. an operatic composer. and they rank high. "A Daughter of Heth." "Macleod of Dare. professor of Chemistry." the "Madcap Violet. BJOeRNSEN. BIZET. GEORGES.com BITZIUS. about the West Highlands of Scotland. Chennai 6. novelist. composed tales. the discoverer of what has been called latent heat. both in religion and politics. of the capital. his greatest work "Carmen". his songs being highly appreciated by his countrymen.ramakalai@gmail. his discoveries in chemistry were fruitful in results (1728-1799). all of distinguished merit and imbued with a patriotic spirit. the duties of which he continued to discharge till his death (1797-1854). BIZERTA (10). then in Edinburgh. born at Paris. with an excellent harbour. a Norwegian author. fascinating from their charming simplicity and truth. WILLIAM. dramas. was by profession a Protestant pastor. 38 m. born in Glasgow. 1832. composed stories of Swiss life under the _nom de plume_ of Jeremias Gotthelf. a Swiss author. died of heart-disease shortly after its appearance (1838-1875). born at Bordeaux. rich in picturesque description. JOSEPH. and lyrics. BLACK. over 30 in number. a seaport of Tunis. has written several novels. Page 346 of 2772 . he is much admired by Ruskin. BLACK. _b_. sometimes extreme. but what is really transformed energy." "The Strange Adventures of Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. born at Kvikne. started life as a journalist in connection with the _Morning Star_. northernmost town in Africa. his best play "Sigurd the Bastard". NW. the best known and most admired.

BLACK DEATH. Black?" said Carlyle to him one day (1841-1898). though attended with peculiar symptoms. stripped England alone of one-third of its inhabitants. silver. monks of the Dominican order. a plague at Oxford in 1557. BLACK HOLE OF CALCUTTA." "But when are you going to write a book. copper. into which 146 English prisoners were crammed by the orders of Surajah Dowia on the 19th June 1756.ramakalai@gmail." and "A Princess of Thule. the most serious was that of 1348. which carried off 300 victims. name of a district in London where they had a monastery. Computer Lecturer.com a Phaeton. a name given to a succession of fatal epidemics that devastated the world from China to Ireland in the 14th century. as is reckoned. BLACK ART. as Baden-Baden and Wildbad. a wooded mountain chain 4000 ft. &c. cobalt. from the Swiss frontier to Carlsruhe. lead. their sufferings were excruciating. which. BLACK FOREST (488). such as wooden clocks. and only 23 survived till morning. Chennai 6. name given to the presumed power of evoking evil spirits. believed to be the same as the Oriental plague. square. through Wuertemberg and Baden. CTSTI. is remarkable for its picturesque scenery and its mineral wealth. BLACK FRIARS. a confined apartment 13 ft. BLACK ASSIZE. and E. which runs parallel with the Rhine. it possesses many health resorts. the women and children of the region make articles of woodwork. Mr. high (so called from the black pines that cover it). Page 347 of 2772 . where are mineral springs. of it. caught at the assize from the prisoners under trial. and iron are wrought in many places.

CTSTI. It has but one island. or EUXINE. and the Dardanelles.. 4th August 1621. under which many died.com BLACK LANDS. but involved his country in further hostilities with France. in thickness. Page 348 of 2772 . &c. whose badge of office is a black rod surmounted by a gold lion. remarkable for the extreme darkness that prevailed. Chennai 6. an official of the House of Lords. broken in health. an inland sea. in greatest length and 400 m. Easter Monday in 1351. off the mouths of the Computer Lecturer. with the Mediterranean. constituting one-third of the soil. Dneister. returned to England. son of Edward III. so called. GENTLEMAN USHER OF. distinguished himself at Crecy. BLACK MONDAY. Prince of Wales. and a chief source. in greatest breadth. through the Bosphorus. Russia. summons the Commons to the House. of from 3 to 20 ft. Bulgaria. and Asia Minor. it is said. from its exhaustless fertility. a stormy day of great darkness. with the Sea of Azov. guards the privileges of the House. and consisting of a layer of black earth or vegetable mould. and in the SW. BLACK PRINCE. being 700 m. It washes the shores of Turkey. regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy. receives the waters of the Danube. to die (1330-1376). the Sea of Marmora. Rumelia. lying between Europe and Asia. extending between the Carpathians and the Urals. and an intense cold.ramakalai@gmail. communicates in the N. BLACK SATURDAY. of the wealth of the country. name given in Scotland to Saturday. from the colour of his armour. BLACK ROD. Adassi. and the Kizil-Irmak and Sakaria from Asia--three times as much as is received by the Mediterranean. gained the battle of Poitiers. from Europe.. Bug. and Don. BLACK SEA. lands in the heart of Russia. twice the size of Britain.

raised originally for the preservation of the peace in the Highlands. spoke much and wrote much in his day on manifold subjects. the inventor of the spinning-jenny. Austrians (1784). studied German. BLACKIE.ramakalai@gmail. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. CTSTI. founded a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh University. which are numerous. of London. 21 m. JOHN STUART. and Sinope. and afterwards that of Greek in Edinburgh. For three centuries the Turks excluded all other nations from its waters. BLACKHEATH. and Homer's "Iliad" in verse. Computer Lecturer. a common 7 m. two Highland regiments. for long provided the only golfing-course in England. Russia and Turkey keep fleets in it. but the Russians (1774). was a zealous educational reformer. bred to the bar. AEschylus. Its waters are fresher than those of the ocean. executed a metrical translation of Goethe's "Faust. no reefs or shoals. born in Glasgow. once a favourite haunt of highwaymen. of Manchester. the first two are ice-bound in January and February. Trebizond." Part I. but devoted to literary pursuits. among his works. "Self-Culture" is the most likely to survive him longest (1809-1895). filled the chair of Humanity in Aberdeen. and the greatest in the world. Chennai 6. and it has no noticeable tides. Batoum.. In winter it is harassed by severe storms. is the birthplace of Hargreaves. a man of versatile gifts and warm human sympathies. Page 349 of 2772 . Kherson. NW. BLACK WATCH. took an active interest in everything affecting the welfare and honour of Scotland. now a place of holiday resort for Londoners. French and English (1802) secured trading rights. a centre of the cotton industry.com Danube. SE. Among the chief ports are Odessa. so called from the dark colour of the tartan. but other warships are excluded. the 42nd and 73rd. BLACKBURN (120). hence in summer navigation is very safe.

1825. with saving for his country and humanity at large one of the most gifted of his country's sons (1721-1791). 1729. published four long worthless poems." which. Oxford. became highly popular. bred to the bar. though coldly received at first. ALEXANDER. set up as a teacher in Edinburgh. 18 m. became first Vinerian professor of Law at Oxford. Page 350 of 2772 . born in Aberdeen. besides essays and psalms. on his release went to Sweden. adventurer. of Preston. the son of a silk-mercer.ramakalai@gmail. SIR WILLIAM. born in London. had Jeremy Bentham for one of his pupils. born in Wilts. and made himself the butt of all the wits of the period. Chennai 6. physician. born in Annan. _b_. _d_. NW. took to printing. was influential in inducing Burns to abandon his intention to emigrate. CTSTI. convicted of conspiracy. studied medicine." an authority on the subject and a work that has appeared in many editions (1723-1780). RICHARD DODDRIDGE. therefore. blind from early infancy.. novelist. a watering-place on the coast of Lancashire. thrown into prison for debt. was fellow of Pembroke College. BLACKPOOL (23). he is pronounced unrivalled in his day as a writer of rustic comedy. a clergyman. Computer Lecturer. and in 1746 called to the bar. BLACKMORE. and may be credited. and beheaded in 1747." BLACKSTONE.com BLACKLOCK. after occupying a charge for two years. sometimes called the "Brighton of the North. BLACKMORE. SIR RICHARD. was patronised by the king. the best known "Lorna Doone. was supported by his wife. BLACKWELL. THOMAS. has written several novels. &c. the most voluminous of poetasters. author of the well-known "Commentaries on the Laws of England. an eminent jurist and judge. born in Berks.

he was a man of great critical acumen. his principal literary advisers being Professor Wilson and Lockhart. BLAINVILLE. BLACKWOOD. succeeded him as professor of Comparative Anatomy. HENRI MARIE. devoted himself to medicine. _d_. originally a bookseller. and Computer Lecturer. his third son. British admiral. His son JAN edited a valuable atlas called "Atlas Major. and became professor of Rhetoric in Edinburgh University. CTSTI. WILLIAM. held subsequently high naval positions (1770-1832)." in 11 volumes.com BLACKWELL. and particularly on subjects connected with his appointment as a professor (1777-1850). HUGH. conducted it as editor till his death (1776-1834). wrote largely on natural science. JOHN. started _Maga_. was present at Nelson's death. his terrestrial and celestial globes have been admired for their excellence and accuracy (1571-1638). as it was called. 1821. BLACKWOOD. much trusted by Nelson. no less distinguished in the cause of literature (1818-1879). born at Alkmaar. clergyman. in 1817. 1673. were much esteemed at one time for their polished style. and the first to hold a medical diploma in the United States. and procured him a pension of L200 from the king. born in Edinburgh. author of "Lectures on Rhetoric" and "Sermons. and to St." which latter are of the nature of moral essays rather than sermons. BLAEU. Dutch cartographer. was admitted into the Maternity Hospital in Paris. Chennai 6. BLAIR. born in Bristol. ELIZABETH. born in Edinburgh. a lady doctor. became assistant to Cuvier. _b_.ramakalai@gmail. Page 351 of 2772 . distinguished at Aboukir Bay and Trafalgar. Bartholomew's in London. originator of _Blackwood's Magazine_. and has since distinguished herself as a social reformer. WILLEM JANZSOON. a French naturalist. graduated in 1849. held in succession several charges in Scotland. his successor. SIR HENRY.

brother of Louis Blanc (1813-1882). a French Socialist. minister of Athelstaneford." "Marriage of Heaven and Hell. which he destroyed. "one of the fiercest actions ever fought on land or water" (1598-1657). painter. whom he assisted with his drawings. ROBERT. illustrated Young's "Night Thoughts. where. BLAIR. BLANC." He was a man of stainless character but eccentric habits. where he was succeeded by Home. WILLIAM. a French art critic. and had for wife an angel. successful as a soldier under the Commonwealth. annihilated a Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay under the shadow of the Peak of Teneriffe. ROBERT. Page 352 of 2772 . devoted his leisure to poetry. poet. born in London." and "Songs of Experience". sailed under the great guns of Tunis into the harbour. he spent his life a mystic from his very boyhood. beat the Dutch under Van Tromp de Ruyter and De Witt. with rare intervals. and engraver. BLANC. where he fired a fleet of Turkish pirates. started on original lines of his own as illustrator of books and a painter." Blair's "Grave. the author of "Douglas. CTSTI. BLAKE. author of "The Grave. apprenticed to an engraver. BLAKE. and finally. the great English admiral and "Sea King." born at Bridgewater. born at Madrid.com the celebrated Schleiermacher did not think it beneath him to translate some of them into German (1718-1800). JEAN JOSEPH LOUIS. CHARLES. born in Edinburgh." "Gates of Paradise. wrote "Songs of Innocence." a thoughtful and cultured man.ramakalai@gmail. his greatest feat. before he tried seamanship. most vivid feeling and imagination. was an intensely religious man of deep spiritual insight. Chennai 6." and the "Book of Job." His poem has the merit of having been illustrated by William Blake (1699-1743). Catherine Boucher (1757-1828). took first to sea in pursuit of Prince Rupert and the royalist fleet. Computer Lecturer.

a man of a singularly buoyant spirit. BLANCHET. THE ABBE. died of grief over the long absence of her son and his rumoured intention to stay in the Holy Land (1186-1252).. died by suicide (1803-1845)." much esteemed (1707-1784). MONT. Chennai 6. BLANC. author of "Apologues and Tales. a work which gained the favour of the working-classes. wife of Louis VIII. returned to France on the fall of the Empire. of France and mother of St. fled to England. BLANCHARD. Piedmontese physician. almost entirely within France. first in Poland. GIORGIO. and published separately in 1840 "Organisation of Labour.com started as a journalist. founded the _Revue du Progres_. BLANDRATA. a celebrated French aeronaut. then in Computer Lecturer. 15. FRANCOIS. BLANCHE OF CASTILE. sends numerous glaciers down its slopes. regent of France during the minority of her son and during his absence in crusade. who for his religious opinions was compelled to take refuge. wrote an "elaborate and well-written" "History of the French Revolution". BLANCHARD. a prolific periodical and play writer. governed with great discretion and firmness.780 ft. was member of the Provisional Government of 1848. born at Yarmouth. the Mer de Glace the chief." which had already appeared in the _Revue_. Page 353 of 2772 . CTSTI. crushed by calamities. inventor of the parachute. and eventually of the National Assembly. French litterateur. the highest mountain in Europe. threatened with impeachment. LAMAN. died at Cannes (1811-1882). he fell from his balloon and was killed at the Hague (1738-1809). and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1871.ramakalai@gmail. Louis.

bishop of Sebaste. a French republican of extreme views and violent procedure. ADOLPHE. in Armenia. Spenser's name for the ignorant. a brother of the preceding. a great authority on theosophy. Cork. suffered martyrdom in 316. Page 354 of 2772 . B. the patron of wool-combers. BLASPHEMY. a disciple of J. and as wishing ill to anything. a stone in Castle Blarney. where he sowed the seeds of Unitarianism (1515-1590).. slanderous. FRIEDRICH. MME. his principal work. BLANQUI. of difficult access. a celebrated French publicist and economist. BLASIUS.. BLARNEY-STONE.com Transylvania. as the height of "ill-manners. LOUIS AUGUSTE. born at Nice. hence the application of the word. his chief Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. professor at Bonn. BLANQUI. BLAVATSKY. BLEEK. the doctrines of which she professed she derived from the fountain-head in Thibet (1813-1891). Say. eminent German Biblical exegete and critic of the Schleiermacher school. would appear to have posed as a martyr. born in Holstein. defined by Ruskin as the opposite of euphemy. born in Russia. culminating in wishing ill to God. which is said to endow whoso kisses it with a fair-spoken tongue." BLATANT BEAST. CTSTI. Chennai 6. spent nearly half his life in prison (1805-1881). clamour of the mob. and a free-trader. ST. a theosophist. "History of Political Economy in Europe" (1798-1854).

WM. WM. of the country to the Duke of Marlborough." a great work. Computer Lecturer. Wales. figured much in intellectual circles in London. for his military services in the Spanish Succession war. accompanied Colenso to Natal. famous for Marlborough's victory in 1704. when his crew mutinied under his harsh treatment.. BLEEK. COUNTESS OF. BLICHER. an Irish lady celebrated for her beauty and wit. a village in Bavaria. fell into debt. with the Woodstock estate. and set him adrift. African Languages" (1827-1875). with 18 others. author of "Comparative Grammar of the S. an island separated from Lilliput by a strait 800 yards wide.S. others are Introductions to the Old and to the New Testaments (1793-1859). Oxford. served under Captain Cook. BLESSINGTON. but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct (1753-1817).. near Woodstock. and had to flee the country (1789-1849). Page 355 of 2772 . BLIGH. and giving name to it. the gift. after incredible privations. BLEFUSCU. being extravagant. inhabited by pigmies. commanded the _Bounty_ at Tahiti. in which. had her salon at Kensington. BLENHEIM PARK. a naval officer. near Augsburg. CTSTI. a philologist. was afterwards governor of N. Danish poet of rural life (1782-1848).com work. was on intimate terms with Byron. son of preceding. understood to represent France. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. he arrived in England." and wrote several novels. BLENHEIM. in an open boat. "Commentary on the Hebrews. and published "Conversations with Byron. STEEN STEENSEN.

born at Anspach. BLOCH. above the sea-level. France. BLIND HARRY. his "Ichthyology" is a magnificent national work. CTSTI. MRS. capital of the deps." BLINKERT DUNE. of Jewish descent. born at Mannheim. Computer Lecturer.com BLIMBER. CORNELIA. born at Norfolk. a family of Flemish painters and engravers in 16th and 17th centuries. FRANCIS. S. 197 ft. MARCUS ELIESER. found refuge in England. produced at the expense of the wealthiest princes of Germany (1723-1799). and sentenced to prison in consequence of a pamphlet he wrote entitled "German Hunger and German Princes. and otherwise. BLOEMAERT.. Chennai 6. 1826. author of "Topographical History of the County of Norfolk" (1705-1751). of Loire and Cher.ramakalai@gmail. BLOMEFLELD. 35 m. of Orleans. took part in the risings of 1848. and Charles IX. a prim school-matron in "Dombey & Son. and cultivated his literary as well as his political proclivities by contributing to magazines. a dune near Haarlem. and the scene of events of interest in the history of France. a clergyman. Sir William Wallace. KARL." BLIND. composed in verse "The Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland. where he interested himself in democratic movements. a favourite residence of Francis I." but rescued by the mob. _b_. Page 356 of 2772 . on the Loire. BLOIS. a naturalist. a wandering Scottish minstrel of the 15th century. revolutionist and journalist.

Computer Lecturer. Edmunds. Omer. an Irish desperado. statute of Henry VIII. France. _b_. making it a crime involving the heaviest penalties to question any of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church. Chennai 6. active in the Church extension of his diocese (1785-1857). COLONEL. an acrobat and rope-dancer. celebrated for his feats in crossing Niagara Falls on the tight-rope. and received afterwards into royal favour with a pension of L500 per annum. CHARLES. a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion. bishop of London. and released. born at St.. THOMAS.ramakalai@gmail. He was afterwards charged with conspiracy. and committed to the King's Bench. unaccountably pardoned by Charles II. and for carrying off the regalia in the Tower. BLOODY ASSIZES. the judicial massacres and cruel injustices perpetrated by Judge Jeffreys during Circuit in 1685. BLOOD. born at Bury St. discovered the place of Richard's imprisonment in Austria by singing the first part of a love-song which Richard and he had composed together. BLONDEL. it is said. BLONDIN. noted for his daring attempts against the life of the Duke of Ormonde. CTSTI. Greek scholar.com BLOMFIELD. 1824. a troubadour of the 12th century. Page 357 of 2772 . who. BLOODY BONES. BLOODY STATUTE. and by the voice of Richard in responding to the strain. a hobgoblin feared by children.

com BLOOMFLELD. assailant of revealed religion. author of the "Farmer's Boy. ROBERT.. by trade a shoemaker. BLUE MOUNTAINS. CTSTI. 16th June 1815. a contrivance by which a current of air is driven through a flame.ramakalai@gmail. translated into French and Italian. which brought on dejection of mind (1766-1823). Computer Lecturer. Prussian field-marshal." born at Rostock. spent his last days in ill-health struggling with poverty. BLOWPIPE. then in the Prussian. in height. from 5000 to 7000 ft. an English poet. and contributed to decide the fate of the day (1742-1819). familiarly named "Marshal Forwards. distinguished himself at Luetzen and Leipzig. and the flame directed upon some fusible substance to fuse or vitrify it. and met with varying fortune. BLOUNT. born in Suffolk. BLUE NOSE. to W. at the age of 70 commanded the centre of the Allied Army in 1813. defeated by Napoleon at Ligny. born in London. distinguished as a leader of cavalry. pressed forward to Paris at the time of Napoleon's abdication. and full of gloomy ravines and beetling precipices. the highest 4100 ft. with a deep chasm between. was involved in all the controversies of the time. BLUeCHER. a deist." a highly popular production. arrived on the field of Waterloo just as the French were preparing to make their last charge. a nickname given to an inhabitant of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick. died by his own hand (1654-1693). served first in the Swedish army. Page 358 of 2772 . Chennai 6. CHARLES. a range of thickly wooded mountains traversing Jamaica from E. pursued the French across the Rhine. also a chain of mountains in New South Wales of two parallel ranges.

London.com BLUEBEARD. a bedesman of the king. a name given to Christ's Hospital. those of a single session now forming a collection of some 60 folio volumes. who wore blue stockings as a badge. they have been published regularly since the beginning of the 18th century. and had his license to beg. BLUE-STOCKING. who at once despatch the husband to his merited doom. CTSTI. BLUE-BOOKS. as the corresponding documents in France are in _yellow_. Chennai 6. Parliamentary documents bound in _blue_ paper. and she is to prepare for death. BLUFF HAL. Computer Lecturer. at Venice. with injunctions not to unlock any of the doors.. as she lies with her head on the block. and leaves her in charge of the keys of the apartments in his absence. a German politician. in Scotland a beggar. the gift of the king.ramakalai@gmail. BLUM. the owner of a castle. _b_. founded in the reign of Edward VI. formed in the 15th century. an injunction which she fails to respect. marries a beautiful woman. 1807. Page 359 of 2772 . Henry VIII. tried by court-martial and shot for abetting a political movement in Vienna in 1848. born at Cologne. who wore a blue gown. and finds to her horror the remains of his former wives locked up in one of them. of England. from the blue coats worn by the boys. BLUE-GOWN. but is rescued. a proceeding which created a wide-spread sensation at the time all over Europe. a name derived from a learned coterie. a female pedant or _femme savante_. a wealthy seigneur. BLUE-COAT SCHOOL. her disobedience is discovered. or HARRY. by the timely arrival of her brothers.

field-marshal in the Prussian army. but who opened his eyes to see that it is not in sentiment. born at Chelsea. JOHN HENRY. born at Zurich. distinguished in the wars with Denmark. CTSTI. a distinguished German naturalist and ethnologist. Austria. was a great advocate for religious liberty (1752-1840). surnamed "The Unfortunate.." "Manual of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology". D. however fine. an eminent strategist. he made craniology a special study. or ABU-ABDALLAH. 1810. studied at Jena. became professor at Goettingen. Computer Lecturer. BLUNT. "Weep as a woman for a throne you have not been able to defend as a man". LEONARD VON. recklessly throwing away his life on a field of battle. wrote largely on theological and ecclesiastical subjects (1823-1884). while his mother added to his bitterness with the cutting sarcasm. a liberal conservative both in Church and State. died shortly after in Africa. and France. the chief were "Institutiones Physiologicae. Page 360 of 2772 ." and wept as he looked back on the Alhambra. the siren that Calypsowise in "Sartor" seduced Teufelsdroeckh at the commencement of his career." the last Moorish king of Granada. BLUNTSCHLI.D. as he rode off he halted on a hill called "The Last Sigh of the Moor.ramakalai@gmail. JOHANN KASPAR. his works gave a great impulse to scientific research in all directions. an authority in international law. a distinguished jurist. founder and president of the Protestant Union called the _Protestantenverein_ (1808-1881).com BLUMENBACH. an office he filled for 60 years. from 1481 to 1492. born at Gotha. _b_. Chennai 6. expelled from his throne by Ferdinand of Castile and Aragon. that the soul's cravings can find satisfaction." "Manual of Natural History. JOHANN FRIEDRICH. BLUMENTHAL. BOABDIL. BLUMI`NE.

with a murderous onslaught. in her despair. a beautiful woman. a braggadocio in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour. son of an upholsterer of the St. fell in love with Maria. lectured on Dante in Florence. a British heroine. gave himself up to story-telling in prose and verse. an end to her life by poison. born near Florence. signifying respectively strength and stability. early formed a lifelong friendship with Petrarch. BOB`ADIL. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. styled by him Fiammetta. BOANERGES (i. Chennai 6. a French theatrical clown. who. and his great work. the Roman governor. attacked their settlements and destroyed them. along with whom he contributed to the revival and study of classic literature. Sons of Thunder). showed early a passion for literature. and he died the year after (1313-1375). the type of the merry-andrew at country fairs. 61. she put. BOAZ and JACHIN. for whom he wrote several of his works.D. e. GIOVANNI. roused by indignity done to her and her people by the Romans.ramakalai@gmail. daughter of the king. queen of the Iceni. who occupied Norfolk and Suffolk.com BOADICE`A. under the Empire and the Restoration. Petrarch's death deeply affected him. two pillars of brass at the entrance of Solomon's Temple. the celebrated Italian _raconteur_. gathered round her an army. A. Antoine faubourg. applied by Christ to the sons of Zebedee for the vehemence of their zeal. BOCCACCIO. but being attacked and defeated in turn by Suetonius Paulinus. Cowper made her the theme of one of his poems. sent by his father to Naples to pursue a mercantile career. Page 361 of 2772 . CAPTAIN. the "Decameron"." BOBECHE.

published at first in French and then in Latin.000 MSS. which summed up all the political philosophy of his time. and contributed to prepare the way for subsequent speculations.com BOCCHERINI." gave name to the law of the planetary distances. well called the filter of the Rhine. a celebrated troubadour of the 13th century. CTSTI. BOCHART. born at Angers. another name for the Lake of Constance. "An Introduction to the Knowledge of the Starry Heavens. Page 362 of 2772 . founded. pastor at Caen. the violinist. BODENSEE. BODIN. JOHANN ELERT. appears to have lived in poverty and obscurity (1740-1805). Chennai 6. a publicist and diplomatist. enlarged from time to time by bequests. celebrated for a nine-days' discussion with the Jesuit Verin (1599-1667). called Bode's Law. a Protestant divine. or rather restored. his works were numerous. LUIGI. the university library of Oxford. a geographer and an Orientalist. one of his best.000 printed volumes and 30. BODE. born at Lucca. Computer Lecturer. born at Hamburg. SAMUEL. born at Arras. BODEL. born at Rouen. an astronomer. was the precursor of Hobbes and Montesquieu (1530-1596). often munificent. was associated with Manfredi. produced a number of astronomical works. wrote a treatise on sacred geography. was professor of Astronomy and director of Observatory at Berlin. author of "The Republic." in six books. although it was observed by Kepler long before his day (1747-1826). by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1593. It possesses 400. JEAN. BODLEIAN LIBRARY. a celebrated Italian musical composer.ramakalai@gmail.

friend of Erasmus. by study of the masters in literature of Greece and Rome. Computer Lecturer. where he collected a number of valuable books. the first. BOeDTCHER. France. supersedes Truro as capital. Virgil. Tasso. and who aided. BODMER. Chennai 6. lived chiefly in Italy (1793-1874). named after him (1545-1613). bequeathed them and his fortune to the university library of Oxford. a Danish lyric poet. was principal of university at Aberdeen." and "History of Scotland" in excellent Latin (1465-1536). England. a humanist and Scottish historian.ramakalai@gmail. an Italian printer. born at Exeter. where his press was set up in the ducal palace. whence issued magnificent editions of the classics. Horace. born at Copenhagen. which he did more by his republication of the Minnesingers and part of the "Nibelungen Lied" than by his advocacy (1698-1783). an important agricultural centre. CTSTI. Page 363 of 2772 . wrote "History of Bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen. the county town of Cornwall. horses. BOECE. along with others. born near Zurich. in the inauguration of a new era. but he refused to quit Parma and the patronage of the ducal house there (1740-1813). and Italy. He was often tempted to Rome. and sheep. employed on embassies by Elizabeth on the Continent. settled at Parma. has large annual fairs for cattle. SIR THOMAS. last of all. Tacitus. a distinguished Swiss critic. HECTOR.com BODLEY. LUDWIG. BODMIN (5). Homer. to wake up Germany to a sense of its poverty in that line. professor of Philosophy at Paris. JOHANN JACOB. born at Dundee. and. BODONI.

patronised by the Queen and royal family. and a contributor on a large scale to all departments of Greek classical learning. and modest. apocalyptical speech. BOEHME. born at Frankfort." as they all are to the very core. of an imaginatively meditative turn from boyhood as a neat-herd. setting forth the trinity in unity of the Hegelian system. and his philosophy would seem to have anticipated the secret of Hegel. executed a colossal statue of the Queen at Windsor. JACOB. born in Vienna. by the men of the letter. He left writings which embody a scheme of mystical theology. Paul's by the Queen's desire (1785-1869). for which he felt he had no organ to express. classical antiquary. sculptor. author of works on the Carlovingian period of history (1795-1863). spent his whole life in meditation on divine things. who acknowledges him as one of the fathers of German philosophy. saw in the Bible a revelation of these as in no other book. buried in St. a German historian. Page 364 of 2772 . BOEHM. that is. SIR JOSEPH EDGAR. and an authority in different departments of learning (1785-1867). as all of his stamp are. He was subject to persecution. in his way of thinking.com BOECKH. a statue of Bunyan at Bedford. and as it returns to itself in the human soul (1575-1624). professor of Ancient Literature in Berlin. as it comes out in nature. born at Carlsruhe.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. viewing the divine as it is in itself. Chennai 6. &c. and which he conveyed to others in mystical. PHILIP AUGUST. and bore up with the meekness which all men of his elevation of character ever do--"quiet. a classic of the first rank. settled in England. of Hungarian parentage. seemed to have eyes given him to see visions of these things himself. born at Goerlitz. and afterwards in his stall as a shoemaker. a thinker very fascinating to all minds of the seer class. was an eminently learned man. a seated statue of Carlyle on the Thames Embankment.. a celebrated German mystic. gentle. Computer Lecturer. BOEHMER.

" "Libellus de Materia Medica. Africa. BOERHAAVE. settled at length in the Transvaal in a self-governed community by themselves. FRONT DE. born near Leyden. which King Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon. were mere tillers of the soil under a heavy atmosphere. employing verse and prose alternately. the natives. Chennai 6. who in the 17th century squatted in S. Page 365 of 2772 . Europe. innocent of culture. Pindar. gave themselves to agriculture and cattle-rearing. he was cast into prison. Pope Benedict VIII." Computer Lecturer. and son of a pastor. Dutch colonists of an independent republican temper. peasants engaged in tillage). and finally put to death. and his influence was great during the Middle Ages (470-524). "To M." in five parts. and even as far as China--a letter from which bore the simple address. of Consular rank. BOERS (i. and regarded as boors and dullards by the educated classes of Greece. ultimately professor of Medicine and Botany there. his principal works were "Institutiones Medicae. though brave.ramakalai@gmail. and Peter the Great. BOETHIUS. a country of ancient Greece. of the Gulf of Corinth. a great physician. he was canonised as a martyr.com BOEO`TIA. Consul among others. CTSTI." and found him. Boerhaave. his reputation spread over Europe. as well as of Chemistry." and "Institutiones Chemicae" (1668-1738). his integrity and opposition to injustice procured him enemies. wrote in prison his "De Consolatione Philosophiae. a Roman statesman. BOEUF. under Theodoric the Goth. e. and particularly of Athens. born at Rome. a character in "Ivanhoe." "Aphorismi de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis. his character was as noble as his abilities were great. held the highest offices. and yet Hesiod. and patients from far and wide came to consult him--among others. ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS. a profoundly learned man. N. chairs of which he filled and adorned with the greatest distinction. who accused him of treason. and Plutarch were natives of Boeotia. his system was adopted by the profession.

translated the Bible into Dutch. JOHANN. The Erzgebirge separate it from Saxony. two-thirds the size of Scotland. is 8600 ft. almost mountain-encircled. a Congregational minister. born in Berwickshire. and was President of the Synod of Dort (1576-1633). university. and drained by the upper Elbe and its tributaries. Page 366 of 2772 . KARL HEINRICH VON. one of the founders of the London Foreign Missionary. its situation and the want of a railway hinder trade. BOGDANOVITCH. called by his countrymen the "Russian Anacreon". BOHEMIA (5. wrote hymns and an autobiography. iron. above sea-level. his best-known poem "Psyche" (1743-1803). Though the country is fertile and the mountains rich in coal.843). DAVID. 65 m. and precious metals. It is regularly built. Dutch divine. on the river Bogota. and the Computer Lecturer. a Russian poet. situated on a remarkable. the Boehmerwald. the Riesengebirge. with innumerable churches. BOG-TROTTER. now to certain Irish for their agility in escaping over bogs. a mint. library.com BOGATZKY. from Bavaria. Honda. the highest navigable point of the Magdalena. the Foreign Bible. the most northerly province in Austria. of its port. and several schools. plateau. BOGERMANN.ramakalai@gmail. BOGUE. from Prussia. is encircled by mountains. is best known as the author of the "Golden Treasury" (1690-1744). religious writer. and observatory. Chennai 6. and the Religious Tract Societies (1750-1825). a name given to the Scottish moss-troopers. SE. and has a spring-like climate. BOGOTA` (100). salt. CTSTI. capital of the United State of Colombia.

liberated. set out on the first crusade. and were invited. silver. do not amalgamate. Page 367 of 2772 . sulphur. CTSTI. he collected troops and recaptured the city (1056-1111). Chennai 6. BOHLEN. there is a university at Prague. This was followed by the Thirty Years' War. BOHEMIAN. broken up in the Thirty Years' War. besieged and took Antioch. met in secret. the soil fertile. including coal. the capital. linen and woollen manufactures.com Moravian Mountains. first prince of Antioch. In the 16th century the crown was united with the Austrian. by Count Zinzendorf to settle on his estate. a German Orientalist. and porcelain clay. Education is better than elsewhere in Austria. with whom the Czechs. was besieged in turn by the Saracens. who are twice as numerous. and imprisoned for two years. and the latter agitating for the elevation of the province to the same status as that of Hungary. BOHEMOND. calico-printing. of the Slavonic race. the former being riled at the official use of the Czech language. there are iron-works and sugar-refineries. are the chief industries. organised as United Brethren in 1455. BOHEMIAN BRETHREN. The climate is mild in the valleys. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. from Moravia. but in 1608 religious questions led to the election of the Protestant Frederick V. flax and hops the chief products. forests are extensive. The mineral wealth is varied and great. Roman Catholics in religion. Dyeing. The transit trade is very valuable. there is a large and influential German minority of about two millions. professor at Koenigsberg (1796-1840). The glassware is widely celebrated. under the name of Moravians or Herrnhuters. a fraternity of an extreme sect of the Hussites. The people are mostly Czechs. and the restoration of the Austrian House. son of Robert Guiscard. name given to one who lives by his wits and shuns conventionality. VON. the extermination of the Protestants. the most useful metals.

an Italian poet." "L'Art Poetique. Petersburg. BOIGNE." "Telemaque. Count of Scandiano. an enterprising publisher. occupying territory between the Allier and the Loire. born in St. the model of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso. an ancient people of Gaul. CTSTI. BOIARDO. BOILEAU. among other works. _b_. MATTEO MARIA. called the French Mozart (1775-1834). to distinguish him from his brother). Page 368 of 2772 . COUNT DE. born in London. BOeHTLINGK. born in Paris. and was for long the law-giver of Parnassus. and the prince of the Mahrattas. BOII. in which he attached and employed his wit against the bad taste of his time. OTTO. HENRY GEORGE. NICOLAS (surnamed Despreaux. ADRIEN FRANCOIS. of a Sanskrit dictionary in 7 vols. author of "Satires" and "Epistles. to whom he rendered signal service. and statesman. poet and critic.. Chennai 6. East India Company. amassed wealth. and Moliere.ramakalai@gmail." which eclipsed it (1434-1494). but devoted to letters." "Le Lutrin. served under France. issued a series of works identified with his name (1796-1884). a distinguished French musical composer of operas. a French soldier of fortune.com BONN. a German. Racine. which he dealt out generously and for the benefit of his country (1751-1830).. BOIELDIEU. born at Chambery. associating himself with La Fontaine. Russia.1815." and "La Dame Blanche. author of the "Calife de Bagdad. a German. author of "Orlando Innamorato" (1456). did much to reform French poetry. was an Computer Lecturer. as Pascal did to reform the prose. diplomatist. surnamed the "Flower of Chivalry"." reckoned his masterpiece. brought up to the law. author. Sanskrit scholar. courtier." &c.

_d_.ramakalai@gmail. COUNT. he yielded not. 45 m. levelled muskets at him. seat of an archbishop. cousin of Vauban. covered. BOISSIERE. for a time carried away by the revolutionary movement. of Amsterdam. BOIS-GUILLEBERT. stern air he bowed to it. and yielded not". capital of North Brabant. BOISARD. BOISSONADE. a member and president of the Convention in Paris. one of the best French pulpit orators of the 18th century (1715-1786). BOISROBERT. advocate of free trade. THE ABBE.. THE ABBE. "sweeping the members of it before them to the upper-bench . CTSTI. they held up Feraud's bloody head to him. but abandoned politics for letters (1774-1857). but especially of Horace (1636-1711). like a rock in the beating of seas.. shot dead a young deputy. became a senator and commander of Computer Lecturer. BOIS-LE-DUC (27). a French lexicographer (1806-1885). Page 369 of 2772 .com imitator of Pope. a French economist. a French fabulist of remarkable fecundity (1743-1831). patronised by Richelieu (1592-1662). Chennai 6. SE. they menaced him. BOISMONT. Feraud. BOISSY D'ANGLAS. noted for his firmness and coolness during the frenzy of the Revolution: one day the Parisian mob burst in upon the Convention. a French Greek scholar. 1714. with grave. JEAN FRANCOIS. the president sat unyielding. a French poet. one of the first members of the French Academy. and with a fine cathedral.

Bokhara (70). was of the Reformed faith. silk. JOHN. a high-lying.800). nominally independent. daughter of Sir Thoman Bullen (afterwards Earl of Wiltshire). and Karshi. but the Khan is a vassal of the Czar. a French lexicographer (1765-1824). gold and salt are found. was married to him. HENRY ST. her marriage with Henry had important bearings on the English Reformation (1507-1536). after a three years' residence at the French Court became maid of honour to Queen Katherine.ramakalai@gmail. or BULLEN. VISCOUNT. the centre of learning and religious life in Central Asia. ANNE. Computer Lecturer. BOLESLAUS. the name of several dukes of Poland. Chennai 6. In the sands of the Oxus. (1756-1826). attracted the admiration of Henry. who ruled from 992 to 1025. extending between Quetta (Beluchistan) and Kandahar (Afghanistan). sloping upwards at an inclination of 90 ft. second wife of Henry VIII. It has important trade and large slave markets. and firearms are manufactured. cotton-thread. and cultivation possible only near the rivers-the Oxus. charged with adultery and conspiracy. and became queen. cutlery. N.com the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. with numerous colleges and mosques. deep. mud-built city. CTSTI. English statesman. BOKHA`RA (1. narrow gorge. was made a peer by Louis XVIII. BOLINGBROKE. BOISTE. of Afghanistan. and cereals are grown. a Mohammedan State in Central Asia. Zarafshan. orator. a walled. The capital. a mile. is on the plain of the Zarafshan. is traversed by a torrent. was found guilty and beheaded. Rice. the Great. Page 370 of 2772 . 8 or 9 m. of whom the most famous is Boleslaus I. BOLAN` PASS. cotton. The surface is arid. in circumference. and mother of Elizabeth. The people are of Turk and Persian origin. jewellery. BOLEYN.

and his time deprived him of many. after her dismissal of the Whigs. Saintsbury. are Lake Titicaca and many well-watered valleys. he has been called the Washington of S. SIMON. an inland republic of S.500). returned in 1723 to his estates. and the 'Ideal of a Patriot King. fled to France and joined the Pretender. he erected into a republic under the name of Colombia. from wheat and maize to tropical fruits. Argentina.ramakalai@gmail. is chiefly desert. The most important industry is mining: gold." says Prof. The S. on the accession of George I." It was he who suggested to Pope his "Essay on Man" (1678-1751). born at Battersea.' a sort of apologia. In the lower plains coffee. which. The very varied heights afford all kinds of vegetation. Chennai 6. Paraguay. and cinchona are cultivated. devoted himself to the cause of S. but denied a seat in the House of Lords. after his name. he abdicated. general and statesman. seized with the passion for freedom during a visit to Madrid and Paris. however disinterested he may be. silver. Brazil. and tin. BOLIVIA (1. and the author of "Letters" bearing upon politics and literature. CTSTI. surnamed the Liberator. born at Caracas. "The presence of a soldier. with the sage reflection on his lips.com and political writer. America. BOLIVAR. of the rhetorician's most telling weapons. and was preparing to leave the country when he died of fever. Page 371 of 2772 . and surrounded by Peru. The 'Letter to Windham. was impeached and attainted. a man of good birth and liberal education. America (1783-1830). "is a rhetorician pure and simple. "Bolingbroke. if not most. tobacco. and Chili. but puny ephemeral forms of them--the partisan and personal politics of his day. Prime Minister of Queen Anne in the Tory interest. accused of aspiring to the Dictatorship. copper. cotton. in 1819. in the N. an indignity which he resented by working the overthrow of Walpole. was the friend of Pope and Swift. American independence. henceforth called Bolivia.' exhibit him at his best. but the subjects of his rhetoric were not the great and perennial subjects. the singularly shallow form of infidelity called Deism and the like. of the Andes. Trade Computer Lecturer. is always dangerous in a State that is new to freedom". freed from the yoke of Spain Venezuela and New Grenada. achieved in 1824 the same for Upper Peru. occupying lofty tablelands E.

BOLSENA. it lost its sea provinces in the war with Chili. a Jesuit of Antwerp. at the foot of the Lower Apennines. on a fertile plain. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. BOLLAND. settled at Florence (1524-1608). N. and Argentina. libraries.ramakalai@gmail. but La Pay (45) and Cochabamba (14) are larger towns. and art collections. BOLOGNA. on the E. born in Belgium. shore of Lake Bolsena. of the Lives of the Saints called "Acta Sanctorum. a high tableland in Central Asia. 1879-83. but with an unwholesome atmosphere. an ancient walled city of Italy. JOHN. one of the oldest in Europe. and considerable trade. BOLOR-TAGH. of Florence. The capital is Sucre (12)." which was continued by others. called after him "Bollandists. CTSTI. and abounding with fish. a succession of Jesuits who produced the Lives of the Saints. Silver is the chief export. one of the most celebrated sculptors of art in his time. The country has been independent since 1825. now extended to sixty vols. but helped by railways from Chili. JOHN OF. There are some silk and other industries. compiled five vols. a lake with clear water in a hollow crater of a volcano. born at Douai. BOLSE`NA. Peru.com is hampered by want of navigable rivers. a small town in Italy. BOLOGNA (147). manufactured goods are imported. stretching from the Hindu Kush mountains northwards to the Tian Shan." BOLLANDISTS. has many fine buildings. Page 372 of 2772 . a university. 83 m. schools of music and art.

BOMA. N. the chief city. cotton. CTSTI. in the Congo Independent State. Machinery. tea. was founded by the Augustinian canons.960). 6 m. late king of the Two Sicilies. In the S. its position promises to make it the most important commercial centre in the East. as it already is in the Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. a fortress of the island of Aland occupied by Russia. once a great slave mart. an old abbey in Yorkshire. opium. BOLTON ABBEY. a station on the Lower Congo. and has a magnificent harbour and noble docks. embraces 26 British districts and 19 feudatory states.. the western Presidency of India. BOMBASTES FURIOSO. connected with the coast by a causeway.. BOMBAY (822). BOMBAY (26. of it are mountain ranges and tablelands. salt. coal. it is alleged. manufacturing town of Lancashire. The climate is hot and moist on the coast and in the plains. wool. with sugar. S. E. from his calling upon his soldiers to bombard his people during an insurrection. but pleasant on the plateaux.ramakalai@gmail. and wheat are the staple products. nickname of Ferdinand II. given him. oil. stands on an island. an opera by Thomas Rhodes in ridicule of the bombastic style of certain tragedies in vogue. and drugs are exported. It is rapidly surpassing Calcutta in trade. Page 373 of 2772 . and gold are mined. and liquors are imported. the Russians bound not to restore it. and is one of the greatest of seaports. of Skipton.com BOLTON (115). BOMBA. but coal is wanting. destroyed by the Anglo-French fleet in 1854. BOMARSUND. Cotton manufacture has developed extensively and cotton cloths. In the fertile N. iron. of the Nerbudda River the country is flat and fertile.

and its merchandise is mainly in the hands of the Parsees. and was opposed to the law of divorce. BONA. surnamed the Fenelon of Italy.. the episcopal city of Augustine. a seaport in Algeria.com cotton trade of the world. Its prosperity began when the Civil War in America afforded it an opening for its cotton. a violent royalist and ultramontanist. worshipped by women. but the name under which she was worshipped is not known. which led to its alteration. wife of Charles II. CTSTI. It came to England from Portugal as dowry with Catherine of Braganza. is much improved since its occupation by the French in 1832.ramakalai@gmail. BONALD. BON GAULTIER. and that causation was inherent in matter (1758-1840). a Roman goddess of fertility. Chennai 6. name of a celebrated family of Italian origin settled in Computer Lecturer. Her symbol was a serpent. with an excellent harbour and a growing trade. _nom de plume_ assumed by Professor Aytoun and Sir Theodore Martin. an ascetic writer. but revealed. who leased it to the East India Company for L10 a year. the descendants of the ancient fire-worshippers. BONA (30). Page 374 of 2772 . VICOMTE DE. It is the most English town in India. Near it are the ruins of Hippo. her priests vestals and her worship by rites from which men were excluded. It swarms with people of every clime. in the province of Constantine. BONA DEA (the good goddess). on a bay of the Mediterranean. a French publicist. one of feuillant order of monks (1609-1674). He denied that language was innate. BONAPARTE. looked upon the Catholic religion and the royal authority as fundamental to the stability of the social fabric.

and his son. died at Leghorn.ramakalai@gmail.. NAPOLEON I. was chosen general of the Order and papal legate at the Council of Lyons in 1274. 1825. was a mystic in theology. during the session of which he died. 1806. served Computer Lecturer. 1750. died at Montpellier. 1784. ascribed knowledge of the truth to union with God. and prince of Canino. died at Rome. born at Ajaccio. of this union were born eight children: JOSEPH. returned to Europe. and died at Florence. _b_. the Princess Mathilde. in 1803. king of Spain from 1808 to 1813. _b_. became Grand-duchess of Berg and Cleves. died at Trieste. 1775. Page 375 of 2772 . by second marriage. afterwards. 1826. married. born at Ajaccio. married Marat in 1800. v. (q. MARQUIS DE. 1839. surnamed the Seraphic Doctor. MARIE-ANNE-ELIZA. died at Florence. such as existed between man and his Maker prior to the Fall. father of Napoleon III. Jerome. Chennai 6. LUCIEN. died in 1860. became president of the Council of the Five Hundred. CAROLINE-MARIE. CHARLES. his real name John Fidenza. 1782. died in Viterbo. then queen of Naples. ST. Prince Camille Borghese. married Hortense de Beauharnais. _b_. BONCHAMP. 1822. his writings were admired by Luther (1221-1274). his daughter. marshal of France in 1850. BONAVENTURA. called Jerome. 1777. entered the Franciscan Order. married Princess Clothilde. 1778. king of Holland (from 1806 to 1810). Prince Napoleon. married Felix Bacciochi. LOUIS. _b_. became king of Naples. 1846. the principal members of it were: CHARLES MARIE. _b_. married General Leclerc. 1780. MARIE PAULINE. born in Tuscany. French general. a state which could be recovered only by a life of purity and prayer. 1836. MARIE-LAETITIA RAMOLINO. married. _b_. 1840. 1767. and a celebrated hymn writer.. of which marriage was born Prince Victor Napoleon in 1862. 1820. BONAR. became Duchess of Guastalla. born in Anjou. cardinal. Princess Catherine of Wuertemburg. retired to United States after Waterloo. _b_. 1785.com Corsica. born at Edinburgh (1808-1889). _b_. king of Westphalia (from 1807 to 1813). 1844. who became prince of Lucca. 1744. HORATIUS. a clergyman of the Free Church of Scotland. daughter of Victor Emmanuel.). CTSTI. died at Florence. 1801.

the name of nine popes. ordered the release of 5000 prisoners which his party. ULRICH. cotton. relented over the blood already shed. a distinguished American astronomer (1789-1815). fruits. Chennai 6. became one of the chiefs of the Vendean army. BONDU (30). GEORGE PHILLIPS. exhibited when she was 19. brought up in poverty from ill-fortune.. born at Bordeaux.ramakalai@gmail. BONHOMME." considered her masterpiece.com in the American war. WILLIAM. a celebrated enamel painter. taught by her father. fell at the battle of Cholet." "Ploughing with Oxen. I. during the siege of Paris her studio was spared by order of the Crown Prince. born at Truro (1755-1834). BOND. who with his son. Computer Lecturer. Page 376 of 2772 . pope from 530 to 532. a country of Senegambia. _d_. CTSTI. 1793. a name of contempt given by the nobility of France to the peasants in the 14th century. and when dying. yields maize. discovered a satellite of Neptune and an eighth satellite of Saturn (1826-1865). BONER. her best-known works are the "Horse Fair" and the "Hay Harvest in Auvergne. BONHEUR. through the Empress Eugenie she received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. ROSA. JACQUES. pope from 418 to 422. a book of fables. II. author of "Der Edelstein" (The Jewel). B. a German fabulist and Dominican monk of the 14th century. B. assumed the title of First Bishop of Christendom. BONIFACE. a dependency of France. a celebrated French animal painter. especially in miniature on ivory. was about to massacre. in their revenge. 1822. _b_.. HENRY. BONE.

BONIN`. imitated for Computer Lecturer. IV. with a monument to his memory. born in Devonshire. the Apostle of Germany.ramakalai@gmail. immortalised by Lord Byron in his "Prisoner of Chillon". born at Bayonne. VIII. a strenuous assertor of the papal supremacy over all princes. his masterpieces (1801-1828). with a famous university. twice imprisoned by Charles III. ST. VI. painted the "Ducal Palace" and "Grand Canal" at Venice. BONIFACE. whom he sought to convert (680-755). a Duke of Savoy. a Prussian town on the Rhine. the birthplace of Beethoven. V. it is a stronghold of the old Catholics. RICHARD. and since 1878 subject to it. and adopted Protestantism (1496-1571). and a cause of much turmoil in Europe. VII. provoked a war with Philip the Fair of France. Page 377 of 2772 . Chennai 6. was. he was released at the Reformation. and though liberated by the citizens died on his way to Rome. who arrested him at Anagni. a Genevese patriot and historian. an eminent English landscape painter of exceptional precocity.. pope from 608 to 614. B. CTSTI. IX. BONINGTON. of Cologne. B. pope from 1294 to 1303. BONIVARD. B. BONN (38). his real name Winfried. pope from 974 to 985.. with 53 companions... consecrated Pepin le Bref.. a French painter. B. from 607 to 608.. III. of Japan. B. pope for 10 months. B. BONNAT.. pope in 896. the second time for six years in the Castle of Chillon. an old Roman station. for his sympathy with the struggles of the Genevese against his tyranny. born near Nottingham.. FRANCOIS DE. the first pope to wear the Triple Crown.. JOSEPH LEON. SE. pope from 1389 to 1405. pope from 617 to 625. was made Primate of Germany.com B. massacred by the barbarians of Friesland. a group of rocky islands SE.

brought home a large collection of plants. was chaplain to Wolsey. thousands of species of them new to Europe. _b_. and bore the indignities done him with manly fortitude (1495-1569). Page 378 of 2772 . a gold coin of James V. his studies as a naturalist gave a materialistic cast to his philosophy.. 1833. BONNEVAL. American scientific explorations. companion of Alexander von Humboldt in his S. bishop of London. Computer Lecturer. "Christ at the Cross" in the Palais de Justice. a French botanist and traveller. born at Geneva. Viscount Dundee. EDMUND. died in the Marshalsea Prison: he does not deserve all the odium that has been heaped on his memory. born at Rochelle. fell into disgrace under Edward VI. Chennai 6. CTSTI. Graham of Claverhouse. he gave to material impressions a dominant influence in determining its manifestations (1720-1793). AIME. CLAUDE-ALEXANDRE. BONNET. went out again to America. was restored by Mary. born at Worcester. BONNET-PIECE. still less that of its sovereign Author. BONPLAND.ramakalai@gmail. of Scotland. Paris. arrested by Dr. sided with Henry VIII. kept prisoner there for about nine years. See ACHMED PASHA. COMTE DE. Francia in Paraguay as a spy. though he did not deny the existence of mind. whom he served in her Anti-Protestant zeal. he was faithful as a bishop. CHARLES DE. Swiss naturalist and philosopher. BONNER. consistent in his conduct.com a time the religious paintings of the old masters. but since 1862 has followed a style of his own. against the Pope. BONNIE DUNDEE. was again deposed and imprisoned for refusing to take the oath of supremacy under Elizabeth. is his work. so called from the king being represented on it as wearing a bonnet instead of a crown. affected to welcome Elizabeth to the throne.

the brightest star in which is Arcturus. born at Lincoln. English mathematician. Page 379 of 2772 . CHARLES VICTOR DE. a Buddhist priest in China. BOONE. BONTEMPS. born at Berne. (1745-1832). wrote several works bearing on plants (1773-1858). a Swiss publicist and judge. long. BARTON. of Corrientes. wrote on anthropology. translated along with his ox to become a constellation in the northern sky. Burmah. settled in the prov. Chennai 6. inventor of the plough in the Greek mythology. CTSTI. so constructed that. a missile of hard curved wood used by the Australian aborigines of 21/2 ft. Computer Lecturer. though thrown forward.ramakalai@gmail. a French personification of a state of leisure and freedom from care. BOOLE. psychology. characters and Hamlet's ghost (1681-1733)." an original work. a son of Ceres. &c. 1822. BOOTH. ROGER. a deadly weapon. BOOMERANG. &c. BONSTETTEN.com released. a famous American backwoodsman. BOOeTES (the ox-driver or waggoner). it takes a whirling course upwards till it stops. Japan. BONZE. mathematical professor at Cork. where he died. when it returns with a swoop and falls in the rear of the thrower. English actor. DANIEL. _d_. and "Differential Equations" (1815-1864). acted Shakespearean. author of "Laws of Thought. aged 84.

and became the mother to him of six children. a French mathematician and physicist. a man of singular self-devotion to the religious and social welfare of the race. FRANZ. "A Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit. (1791-1867). Old Slave. his greatest work. and was shot by his captors (1839-1865). and in which the N. Greek. published "In Darkest England". KATHARINA. in the dep. W. was professor of Oriental Literature and General Philology at Berlin. CTSTI. SE. of Landes. Zend. of Celebes. Chennai 6.com BOOTH. proved "a pious and faithful wife" to Luther. Page 380 of 2772 . Gothic. as he says of her. was at Luther's instance released from her convent. subject to the Dutch. America. JOHN WILKES. three sons and three daughters (1499-1552). BOPP. founder and general of the Salvation Army. born at Dax. Computer Lecturer. son of an actor. BORA." q. a celebrated German philologist and Sanskrit scholar. who. born in Nottingham. born at Mayence. magnetic pole of the earth is situated. 1839. with eight others. served in both army and navy.ramakalai@gmail. discovered by Sir John Boss in 1830. WILLIAM. BORDA. originally a nun. BOOTON. born in Meissen. the wife of Luther. BOOTH. of the Gulf of Boothia. _b_. assassinated Lincoln. BOOTHIA. an island in the Malay Archipelago. translated portions of the "MAHABHARATA. v. one of those employed in measuring an arc of the meridian to establish the metric system in France (1733-1799). a peninsula of British N. and German". Lithuanian. Latin.

There are schools of science.ramakalai@gmail. Bores are common in the estuary of the Ganges and other Asiatic rivers. art. born at Treviso. the Black Prince. in England. the shifting boundary between Scotland and England before the Union. BORDERS. BORGHESE. BORDER MINSTREL.. of the dep. theology. BORE. due to a strong tidal wave travelling up a gradually narrowing channel. potteries. museum. an Italian painter. THE. in those of Brazil. a centre of endless fighting and marauding on the opposite sides for centuries. name of a family of high position and great wealth in Rome: Camillo. glass and chemical works. having become Pope in 1605 under the title of Paul V.com BORDEAUX (256). sister of Napoleon. of Gironde. The cod-fishing industry has its base here. "The Gondolier presenting the Ring of St. Page 381 of 2772 . and Prince Borghese having married Pauline Bonaparte. There are sugar-refineries. the birthplace of Rosa Bonheur and Richard II. the Computer Lecturer. and at the mouth of the Severn. and son of the Titan Astraeus and of Aurora. and rich picture-gallery. and navigation. his father. a great industrial and commercial city. Chennai 6. Sir Walter Scott. A cathedral dates from the 11th century. BOREAS. having had his seat here as governor of Aquitaine. a library. medicine. a pupil of Titian and Giorgione. BORDONE. foundries. the god of the north wind.. and chief seat of the wine trade in France and the third seaport on the Garonne. a watery ridge rushing violently up an estuary. who separated himself from her on the fall of her brother (1775-1832). CTSTI. Mark to the Doge" (1500-1570). his most celebrated picture. cap.

FRANCESO. born at Rome.. is a masterpiece. he is reputed to have been just as a ruler in his own domain. an Italian savant skilled in numismatics (1781-1860). her father annulled her first marriage.. Notwithstanding the execration in which his memory is held. BORGHESI. revolting. Page 382 of 2772 . and gave her to a nephew of the king of Naples. was celebrated for her beauty and her patronage of letters. BORGU. BORGIA. was beatified by Urban VIII. which have made his name a synonym for every action that is most crafty. and cruel. CAESAR. fourth son of Pope Alexander VI. and canonised by Clement IX.. though she has been accused of enormities as well as her brother (1480-1523). in the Borghese gallery. fertile and densely-peopled state in Africa. sister of Caesar Borgia. LUCRETIA. born in St. CTSTI. third general of the Order of the Jesuits. traversed by the Niger. author of "Observations on the Antiquities of Cornwall" and Computer Lecturer. and has a rich collection of paintings. a post he filled with great zeal as well as prudent management. antiquary and naturalist. an honour he relinquished to become a soldier. 1507. COUNT. WILLIAM. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. who was murdered by her brother's assassins. 1671 (1510-1572).com palace of the family one of the finest in Rome. BORGIA. was made cardinal at the age of 17. BORGIA. BORLASE. Cornwall. Chennai 6. and a patron of art and literature. when she married the Duke of Ferrara. a portrait of him by Raphael. subject to the Royal Niger Company. in which capacity it is alleged he gave himself up to deeds of inhumanity. in one of the chief towns of which Mungo Park lost his life. Just.

BERTRAND. its forests abound with valuable timber. Malay.). an island belonging to Denmark. BORNU (5. disgusted with the state of things in Germany. is placed by Dante in the "Inferno. bordered all round with wide plains and low marshy ground.. the population is Dyak. teak. has no volcanoes. cattle-breeding. rich in vegetation and in minerals. and in the north part by the British. in the Baltic. but temperate in the high. famed for a breed of horses.." BORNE. the third largest in the globe. and S.000 ft. he and Heine were at deadly feud (1787-1837). BORNHOLM (35). climate hot and unhealthy in the low ground. one of the most celebrated troubadours of the 12th century. a Mohammedan State in the Central Soudan. &c. LUDWIG. agriculture. Australia and New Guinea being larger. Computer Lecturer. born in Perigord. aggravated the quarrel between Henry II. ebony. Kinabalu the highest (13. has no good harbour. was vicar in his native parish (1696-1772). called Shuwas. the ruin of a magnificent Buddhist temple in Java.ramakalai@gmail. its length 800 m. BORNEO (1. went to Paris after the Revolution there of 1830. BORO BUDOR. and fishing the occupation of the inhabitants. Chennai 6. and Chinese. population mostly negroes.com "Natural History of Cornwall". a political writer.000). in gold and precious stones. CTSTI. was disappointed with the result. possessed in great part by the Dutch. the ruling race of Arab descent. of England and his sons. of Jewish parentage. Page 383 of 2772 . born at Frankfort. and turned Radical. BORN. of Lake Tehad. covered with mountains in the interior.800). an island in the Malay Archipelago. all tropical crops and spices are cultivated. and its breadth 700. W.

BORORO. exercising police. conspicuous by his self-sacrificing offices during a plague in the city of which he was the archbishop (1538-1584). supervision. &c. Its charter may be held from the Crown or granted by Parliament. BOROUGH. a Polish dwarf. cardinal and archbishop of Milan. is in its modern sense primarily a town that sends a representative to Parliament. Page 384 of 2772 . BORROME`AN ISLANDS. CARLO. Chennai 6. BORROME`O. in Scotland BURGH. CTSTI. Sept. a village 70 m. W. attained the age of 98. enriched with fine paintings and other works of art. and contributed to the Tridentine Catechism. of which three were converted into gardens by Count Borromeo in 1671.ramakalai@gmail. BOROWLASKI. and in Scotland sometimes from "common good" and petty customs. processions. four islands in Lago Maggiore. of Moscow. BORODINO. and deriving its income from rates levied on property within its bounds. on one of which stands a palace of the Borromeos. BOROUGH ENGLISH. a prominent member of the Council of Trent. the scene of a bloody battle between Napoleon and the Russians. a large Brazilian nation between Cuyaba and Goyaz. ST. with representations of battles. descent of lands to a youngest son. sanitary. COUNT. 7. and sometimes educational. but it is further an area of local government. chariot races.com ornamented with figures of Buddha and scenes in his life. though only three feet in height. 1812. Computer Lecturer. of perfect symmetry.

celebrated for its beautiful scenery. a valley in the Lake District. JEAN BAPTISTE. advocated the molecular theory of physics. in his fondness for open-air life. a British admiral. associated much with the gipsies. W. 13 m. of Edinburgh. a ruined peel tower.com BORROMEO. entered the Order of the Jesuits. BORROW. wrote "Lavengro.ramakalai@gmail. with which Computer Lecturer." his masterpiece (a gipsy designation applied to him. BORY DE SAINT-VINCENT. Cathagena. showed early a passion for adventure and a facility in languages. a French traveller and naturalist (1780-1846). born at Ragusa. Page 385 of 2772 . he wrecked and ruined a fine French fleet. BOSCAWEN. where. GEORGE HENRY. after a "sea hunt" of 24 hours. entitled "The Bible In Spain". eager to elude his grasp (1711-1761). SE. BORTHWICK CASTLE. ROGER JOSEPH. and a famous book. CTSTI. Cape Finisterre. traveller and philologist." which he was). of equal status in the Church. and the Bay of Lagos. which is chiefly autobiography (1803-1831). BOSCOVICH. Chennai 6. BORROWDALE. known from his fearlessness as "Old Dreadnought". meaning "word-master. nephew and successor of the preceding. was appointed agent for the Bible Society in Russia and Spain. where Queen Mary and Bothwell spent four days together in June 1567. discovered the equator of the sun and the period of its rotation. and similar character (1584-1631). FREDERIGO. was professor in Pavia. EDWARD. and afterwards at Milan. born in Norfolk. wrote an account of those in Spain. an Italian mathematician and astronomer. distinguished himself in engagements at Puerto Bello. Cumberland.

and about 30 fathoms deep. or rather of the Crown. and the first attempt at a philosophy of history. broad. BOSNA-SERAI (38). BARON. wrote largely. according to the Greek myth. capital of Bosnia. BOSNIA (1. crossed into Europe with Europa on his back. under Austria-Hungary. and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. BOSIO. and seat of authority. a marshal of France. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. It derives its name from the channel which. BOS`QUET. Computer Lecturer. a province in NW. one of the greatest of French pulpit orators. born at Dijon.com his name is associated. subject to Turkey. distinguished in Algiers and the Crimea. PIERRE FRANCOIS JOSEPH. outspoken champion of the truth. was wounded at the storming of the Malakoff (1810-1861). CTSTI. patronised in France (1769-1845). long and from 3 to 1/2 m. the inhabitants of Servian nationality. a celebrated Italian sculptor. a channel 17 m. his "Discourse on Universal History" is on approved lines. Zeus. BOS`SUET. Page 386 of 2772 . of the Balkan Peninsula. strongly defended by forts.200). took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican clergy. the great aim of his life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith. and to Fenelon for his defence of her and her Quietists. bishop of Meaux. as against the claims of the Pope. JACQUES BENIGNE. and one of the ablest defenders of the doctrines of the Catholic Church. BOS`PHORUS (Ox-ford). surnamed the "Eagle of Meaux. in the form of an ox. died insane (1701-1787). extending from the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea." of the see of which he became bishop. conceived a violent dislike to Madame Guyon. proved himself more a time-server than a bold.

There is a large cattle and sheep market. and the first battle was fought at Bunker Hill. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. and wool." says Professor Saintsbury. BOSSUT. corn. French mathematician. also canvas and sail-cloth works. The most unfortunate incident of his life was his controversy with Fenelon" (1627-1704). which is a conspicuous landmark and beacon at sea. "was more of a speaker than a writer. was a native. cotton. and very wealthy. now included in it. of Lincoln. machinery. Though he is always aiming at the sublime. on the Witham.. Sugar. cattle. born near Lyons. _confrere_ of the Encyclopaedists. exports coal. wool.com his Funeral Orations are monuments of the most sublime eloquence. while his "Politique founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right of kings. His excellence lies in his wonderful survey and grasp of the subject. while most American men of letters have been associated with it. With an excellent harbour and eight converging railways it is an emporium of trade. 30 m. one of the best-built and best-appointed cities of the Union. and tobacco exported. the martyrologist. and imports timber and general goods. not far off. boot and shoe making is one of many varied industries. The many educational institutions and its interest in literature and art have won for it the title of American Athens. edited Pascal's works (1730-1814). Page 387 of 2772 .. in the contagious enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point. and Emerson. Fox. or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous. farm produce. BOSTON (19). Poe. and in his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons. CHARLES. and chemicals are imported. a Lincolnshire seaport.. "Bossuet. he scarcely ever oversteps it. Chennai 6. The Boston riots of 1770 and 1773 were the heralds of the revolution. hides.. It has a spacious church. is the capital of Massachusetts and the chief city of New England.. his chief work "L'Histoire Generale des Mathematiques". BOSTON (561). Among famous natives were Franklin. CTSTI.. on Massachusetts Bay. SE.

first in innocence. Auchinleck. three English ships laden with tea. in Ayrshire. aggravated by the death of his wife (1740-1795). the insurgent American colonists who. Page 388 of 2772 . fell in with Johnson on a visit to London in 1763. boarded. THOMAS. He succumbed in the end to intemperate habits. a Scottish divine.ramakalai@gmail. born at Duns." BOSWELL. in 1782. 16. born at Edinburgh. and fourth as in glory. Boswell's "Life" of him appeared five years after. an event which terminated the Wars of the Roses and led to the accession of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of Computer Lecturer. but acquitted (1775-1822). who had impugned his character. disguised as Indians. BOSWORTH. showed early a penchant for writing and an admiration for literary men. the "Journal" of which he afterwards published. BOSWELL. made a tour with him to the Hebrides in 1773. and "The Crook in the Lot. a work unique in biography. the former an account of the state of man. "making it black with unexpected tea. an antiquary. settled in London." both at one time much read and studied by the pious Presbyterian burghers and peasantry of Scotland. and such as no man could have written who was not a hero-worshipper to the backbone. lost both crown and life in 1485. and was called to the English bar. on Dec. the biographer of Johnson. with an income of L1600 a year. BOSTON TEA-PARTY. and conceived for him the most devoted regard. educated at Edinburgh. He was a shrewd man and a quaint writer. third as redeemed. JAMES. CTSTI. succeeded. Johnson dying in 1784. near which Richard III. for which the latter was tried. mortally wounded in a duel with James Stuart of Dunearn. and hurled several hundred chests of it into Boston harbour. to his father's estate. SIR ALEXANDER. Chennai 6.com BOSTON. author of the "Fourfold State. a town in Leicestershire. 1773." a popular exposition of Calvinism. son and heir of the preceding. second as fallen. became minister of Ettrick. exercised a great influence on the religious views of the most pious-minded of his countrymen (1676-1732).

BOTHWELL. and was kept captive there at Malmoee. became professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford. Flemish painters of the 17th century. insane. by Sir Joseph Banks. divided into E. one of the envoys sent in 1560 to convey Mary. was made Duke of Orkney. born in Derbyshire. and married to her at Holyrood.com England in the person of Henry VII. JOSEPH. carried off Mary to Dunbar Castle. though when tried. on the Clyde. was once an English convict settlement. of Sweden. of Sydney. Page 389 of 2772 . Chennai 6. so called. BOTH. the former a landscape and the latter a figure painter. an inlet in New South Wales. was a great favourite with the queen. was believed to have murdered Darnley.ramakalai@gmail. S. BOTANY BAY. 8 m. discovered by Captain Cook in 1770. JAMES HEPBURN. as is believed (1525-1577). CTSTI. had to flee to France for an act of conspiracy. a prov. Earl of. Computer Lecturer. SE. an Anglo-Saxon scholar. scene of a battle between Monmouth and the Covenanters in 1679. from the variety and beauty of its flora. parted with her at Carberry Hill. after ten years of misery he died. pardoned. Queen of Scots. BOSWORTH. 5 m. JOHN AND ANDREW. from France home. BOTHNIA. by a gulf of the name. and W. fled to Norway. BOTHWELL. was the author of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Dictionary (1789-1876). worked frequently on the same canvas. of Glasgow. was acquitted. was recalled by Mary on her marriage with Darnley. a village in Lanarkshire. was made Privy Councillor the year after.

discovered the ruins of Nineveh. is distinguished for his attention to details and for delicacy. a very low type of men. the figure of Spring. remarking that "no one has ever yet drawn. and it is a rose on the petticoat of one of his figures. Chennai 6. near the coast. SANDRO.com BOTOCUDOS. BOTTA. a celebrated painter of the Florentine school. born in Piedmont. son of the preceding. though he was no less fascinated with classical--mythological conceptions. published in the "Memoire de l'Ecriture Cuneiform Assyrienne" and "Monuments de Ninive" (1802-1870).." he adds. sacred to the Buddhists as the tree under which Buddha sat when the light of life first dawned on him. was the author of some poems (1766-1837). in his experiments on porcelain. and could in a measure paint both Aphrodite and the Madonna" (1447-1515). and at a very low stage of civilisation.ramakalai@gmail. PAUL EMILE. in 1843. he understood. roses as he has done. particularly in the drawing of flowers.. the best-known examples of his art are on religious subjects. CTSTI. and are said to have no numerals beyond _one_. CARLO GIUSEPPE. born at Turin. See BUDDHA. or ALESSANDRO. which Ruskin has reproduced on the title-page of his recent books. a species of Ficus.. an Italian political historian. Computer Lecturer. his most important work is his "History of Italy from 1789 to 1814". Page 390 of 2772 . invented the celebrated Meissen porcelain (1682-1719). BO-TREE. "the thoughts of heathens and Christians equally. made further explorations. are demon-worshippers. Assyriologist. BOTTICELLI. BOTTA. or is likely to draw. a pupil of Fra Lippo Lippi. when consul at Mosul. began as a goldsmith's apprentice. a wandering wild tribe in the forests of Brazil. BOeTTGER. an alchemist who.

BOTTOM. BOUCHER DE PERTHES. author of popular Irish pieces. Page 391 of 2772 . CHEVALIER DE. MARSHAL DE. distinguished in several famous battles. French naturalist and anthropologist. born at Tours. born in Ardennes (1783-1868). as "The Colleen Bawn" and "The Shaughraun" (1822-1890). field-marshal of France. especially classical (1760-1835). born at Paris (1703-1770). one of the heroes of the war of Greek independence (1789-1823). BOUCICAUT. BOUCICAULT. distinguished for his defence of Namur (1695) and of Lille (1708).com BOeTTIGER." whom. BOUCHARDON. Chennai 6. was taken captive by the English at Agincourt. BOUFFLERS. marshal of France. one of the bravest and noblest of French soldiers. MARQUIS DE. German archaeologist. BOUCHER. DION. died in England (1364-1421). a French painter. a celebrated French sculptor (1698-1762). with his ass's head. BOTZARIS. was a voluminous writer on antiquities. CTSTI. BOUFFLERS. Titania falls in love with under the influence of a love-potion. a weaver in the interlude in "Midsummer-Night's Dream. a dramatic writer. KARL AUGUSTE. and his masterly retreat Computer Lecturer. courtier and author (1737-1815).ramakalai@gmail.

adamantine man". died in London. BOUGAINVILLE. PIERRE. born in Paris.. MARQUIS DE. belonged Computer Lecturer.. "last refuge of royalty in all straits". born at Carlisle.. Page 392 of 2772 . and quitted France. BOUHOUR. in the West Indies and during the Revolution. wrote on optics and the figure of the earth (1698-1758).ramakalai@gmail. sharp-discerning. a distinguished French painter. BOUILLE. headlong audacity. as well as portraits. with suppressed-explosive resolution. LE PERE. born in Auvergne. landscape painter. failed. ADOLPHE. voyaged round the world. originally a German duchy. his subjects both classical and religious. CTSTI. born in Brittany. SAM. born at Paris (1628-1702)." as described by him in "Un Voyage autour du Monde" (1729-1811). See for the part he played in it. distinguished in the Seven Years' War. favoured the flight of Louis XVI. nay. and left "Memoirs of the French Revolution" (1759-1800). choleric. CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. BOUGUER. BOUGUEREAU. which occupied him two years and a half. French litterateur. did his utmost for royalty. a French navigator." BOUILLON.com from Malplaquet (1645-1711). his "Travels" had a remarkably stimulating effect on the imaginations of the "philosophies. with valour. born at Rochelle in 1825. LOUIS ANTOINE DE. BOUGH. district in Belgium. Chennai 6. muzzled and fettered by diplomatic pack-threads. and settled in Edinburgh for 20 years (1822-1878).. an intrepid. a French general. stubbornly-endeavouring man. a "quick. French physicist.

JEAN NICOLAS. accused of peculation. was a faithful adherent of Napoleon (1761-1840). a French general. BOULAY DE LA MEURTHE. BOULDER. the port of Cairo. a French historian. a promenade between Paris and St. author of a "History of Mahomet" (1658-1722). and the dangerous popular enthusiasm which he excited.com to Godfrey. on the Nile. BOULAN`GER. the crusader. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. a French dramatist. a large mass or block of rock found in localities often far removed from the place of its formation. JEAN MARIE. born at Rennes. vice-president of the Republic from 1849 to 1851 (1797-1858). from his sentimentality "poete lacrymal" (1763-1842). Henri. much Computer Lecturer. BOULAK (20). BOULOGNE. took part in the redaction of the Civil Code. of note for the political intrigues with which he was mixed up during the last years of his life. a French statesman. though the boulevard is not always on the line of a rampart. fled the country. Page 393 of 2772 . the rampart of a fortified city converted into a promenade flanked by rows of trees and a feature of Paris in particular. BOUILLY. born near Tours. BOULEVARD. a son. who pledged it to raise funds for the crusade. Cloud. nicknamed. distinguished as an orator. and committed suicide at Brussels (1837-1891). Chennai 6. BOIS DE. and transported thither on the ice of the Glacial Age. BOULAINVILLIERS.

on the 28th April 1789. it rivals that of the Champs Elysees. on a barren heath near his native place. a French general. Computer Lecturer. who returned to Otaheite after setting the captain (Bligh) adrift with others in an open boat. 5 m. suffered disastrously in the Franco-German War. 1816. afterwards retired. to the seizure at length of certain of the offenders and the execution of others. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER (46). and established with him a manufactory of steam-engines at Soho. SW. MATTHEW." MUTINY OF THE. is connected by steamer with Folkestone. SW. 27 m. contributed to the improvement of the coinage (1728-1809). BOURBAKI. of Calais. where Napoleon collected in 1803 a flotilla to invade England. _b_. of Pas-de-Calais. Those who escaped founded a colony on Pitcairn Island. of Paris. CTSTI. born at Pau. on the English Channel. served for a time under Gambetta. in the dep. an eminent engineer. born at Birmingham. "BOUNTY. a mutiny which took place on the ship _Bounty_. and likely to become a naval station. Page 394 of 2772 . is the centre of an important coasting trade. BOULTON. and attempted suicide. CHARLES DENIS SOTER. Chennai 6. served in the Crimean War and in Italy. from which it is separated by the Bois-de-Boulogne. entered into partnership with James Watt. and a favourite watering-place. on the part of 25 of the crew. and a favourite place of recreation. a fortified seaport in France. a town on the right bank of the Seine. Bligh reached England after a time. one of the principal ports for debarkation from England. bound from Otaheite to the West Indies. BOULOGNE-SUR-SEINE (32).ramakalai@gmail. the chief station of the North Sea fisheries.com frequented by people of fashion. reported the crime.

and who severally ruled their territories under a more or less overweening sense of their rights as born to reign.. called the "king of preachers. injustice Francis did him. BOURDALOUE. BOURBON. by Benvenuto Cellini (1489-1527). members of which occupied for generations the thrones of France. eldest son of Louis XIII. the latter ending with Francis II.. a family of French origin. and free from ornament. a French painter. perhaps imaginary. BOURBONNAIS. The branches of the family ruling in Spain and Naples began with Philip VI. both of which trace back to Henry IV. a French Jesuit. the former branch still (1899) in power.. one of the most earnest and powerful of his sermons. and lived in royal state.. laid siege to Rome. Two branches. SEBASTIAN.com BOURBON. Chennai 6. acquired immense wealth by the death of an elder brother and by his marriage. the former ending with Charles X. the one entitled "The Passion.ramakalai@gmail.. offended at some. second son of Louis XIII. united to the crown in 1531. being the duchy of Bourbon. ancient province in the centre of France. styled the Constable de Bourbon. and took Francis captive. Naples. one beginning with Louis XIV. BOURDON. hailing from Bourbonnais. carefully reasoned. was for his daring in the field named Constable of France by Francis I. Page 395 of 2772 . His sermons are ethical in their matter from a Christian standpoint. and fell in the assault. parted from Charles. called the Orleans. grandson of Louis XIV. LOUIS. CHARLES DE. one of the most eloquent pulpit orators of France. and the latter ending with Louis Philippe and his line. he clandestinely entered the service of the Emperor Charles V.. his Computer Lecturer. but fearless and uncompromising (1632-1704). Moulins. did not suffer by comparison with Bossuet. with Philip of Orleans. and the other.. it is said. and preacher of kings". mortally wounded. held sway in France. CTSTI. born at Bourges. born at Montpellier. in 1860. and his family. defeated the French at Pavia. his contemporary. cap. though junior.. and Spain." is deemed the greatest.

_b_. Page 396 of 2772 . and often consulted on the matter (1712-1779). to the derangement of others as well as herself (1615-1680). a French town in the dep.ramakalai@gmail. where he died in 1791. BOURGELAT. member of the Convention. BOURIGNON. was an authority on horse management." and distinct from the romantist and naturalistic. professional people. painter to George III. and L10. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. and founder of veterinary colleges at Lyons in 1762. born at Lyons. 1852.000 to build a gallery for them (1756-1811). a French revolutionist. born at Amiens. BOURGEOIS. SIR FRANCIS. brought herself into trouble by the wild fancies she promulgated. but applied by the Socialists to the capitalists as distinct from the workers. on which he bestows great pains. BOURGET. a Flemish visionary and fanatic. as distinguished from the nobles and the peasants. of Cher.. his novels are what he calls "psychological. BOURGES (43). a subtle analyst of character. CTSTI." executed for the church of Notre Dame (1616-1671).com _chef-d'oeuvre_ "The Crucifixion of St. PAUL. Peter. BOURDON DE L'OISE. the name given in France to the middle class. resolved religion into emotion. a famous French veterinary surgeon. and merchants. and Bourdaloue. an eminent French novelist and essayist. ANTOINETTE. banished to Guiana. BOURGEOISIE. birthplace of Louis XI. left his collection to Dulwich College. with a clear and elegant style.

capital of a State of the same name. secretary of Napoleon. 37 m. as in ploughing a field. and a zealous propagator of their principles. and he appears to have wrought at his trade while prosecuting his mission. founder of the Primitive Methodists. on Poole Bay. deserted on the eve of Waterloo to Louis XVIII. but dismissed for being implicated in disgraceful money transactions. the Revolution of 1830 and the loss of his fortune affected his mind. a town in Hants. BOURRIENNE. held high commands under Napoleon. BOURNEMOUTH (38). growth. a French marshal. where Mungo Park lost his life as he was going up the Niger. a town in Central Africa. he was a carpenter by trade. Page 397 of 2772 . SW. of Southampton. commanded under Ney on Napoleon's return from Elba. gave evidence against Ney to his execution. BOURNE. BOUSTROPHE`DON. held the post for five years.com BOURMONT. joined the Bourbons at the Restoration. CTSTI. with a fine sandy beach. and has been of rapid. LOUIS ANTOINE FAUVELET. at the Revolution joined the Bourbons on the frontiers. COMTE DE. is of recent. refused allegiance to Louis Philippe on his accession. commanded the expedition against Algiers.. BOUSSA. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. and a school friend. LOUIS AUGUSTE VICTOR. and was dismissed the service (1773-1846). an ancient mode of writing from right to left. a great health resort. served the royal cause in La Vendee. HUGH. wrote "Memoirs" disparaging to Napoleon (1769-1834). and then from left to right. which he did extensively both in Britain and America (1772-1852). and he died a lunatic at Caen. Chennai 6. born at Sens.

wrote an interesting account of it in his "Mission to Ashanti" (1791-1824). abbot of Inchcolm. BOWDICH. and by his captures of the enemy's ships. Bowdlerism (1754-1825). BOWDLER." translated the "Mecanique Celeste" of Laplace. BOWDOIN. Page 398 of 2772 . author of "Discourse on the Constitution of the United States" (1727-1790). at the moment when Nelson was wounded (1761-1797). born at Bristol. a gallant British naval commander. born at Salem. published "Practical Navigation. American mathematician.com BOUTERWEK. THOMAS EDWARD. edited expurgated editions of Shakespeare and Gibbon in the interest of moral purity. a disciple of Kant. FRIEDRICH. distinguished himself in several engagements. BOWER. born in Boston. wrote "History of Poetry and Eloquence among the Modern Races" (1766-1828). Massachusetts. Chennai 6. in 1437 from 1153 (1385-1449). an American statesman.ramakalai@gmail. BOWDITCH. and penetrated as far as Coomassie. RICHARD. CTSTI. Scottish chronicler. accompanied with an elaborate commentary (1773-1838). WALTER. an English traveller. JAMES. and expounder of their doctrines. NATHANIEL. BOWEN. a German philosopher and professor of Philosophy at Goettingen. a practical scientist. an English physician. THOMAS. killed by grape-shot at the storming of Santa Cruz. added in consequence a new term to the English language. sent on a mission to Guinea. continued Fordun's History down to the death of James I. then of Jacobi. a zealous advocate of American independence. of French extraction. Computer Lecturer.

WILLIAM. wrote on the origin of printing. became governor of Hong-Kong. M. The term of office was limited in 1279 to 24 hours. generally out of the choir. "of nature's aspect to human feeling. to act as bishop and do all his episcopal duties. Nicholas' Day. at the instance of the English Government visited the Continental States to report on their commercial relations. a boy chosen on 6th December. also the landed aristocracy of Roumania. CTSTI. first editor of _Westminster Review_. remarkable for a successful run such as is said to have brought the author L7000. Computer Lecturer." BOWLING.com BOWLES. "BOX AND COX. his sonnets. except celebrate mass. BOY BISHOP. printer and scholar. the old nobility of Russia. Page 399 of 2772 . friend and disciple of Bentham as well as editor of his works. BOYARS. a typical British sailor in "Roderick Random. St. and their appearance is believed to have inaugurated a new era in English poetry. born in London. born at Exeter." a farce by J. born in Northamptonshire. as developed in the Lake School (1762-1850). a poet. ordered the bombardment of Canton. SIR JOHN. which caused dissatisfaction at home (1792-1872). he was treated as bishop. BOWYER. TOM.ramakalai@gmail. BOWLING." were much admired by Coleridge. which varied. linguist and political writer." as Professor Saintsbury has it. whose undue influence in the State was broken by Peter the Great. Chennai 6. For the term of his office. Morton. and if he died during his tenure of it was buried with episcopal honours. by their "linking. WILLIAM LISLE. and published an edition of the Greek New Testament with notes (1699-1777).

BOYDELL. afterwards professor in the University of Paris." with 96 plates in illustration of Shakespeare. author of "Recreations of a Country Parson. preached before Cromwell after the battle of Dunbar. called "Boyd's Bible" (1585-1653). returned to Scotland in consequence of the persecution of the Huguenots. ZACHARY. and rector of the University. became minister of Barony Parish. regent of a Protestant college at Samur. which continued for long text-books on those Computer Lecturer. author of the "Last Battell of the Soule in Death" and "Zion's Flowers. BOYD. ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON. with whom the population of the district in 1880 refused to have any dealings on account of disagreements with the tenantry." being mainly metrical versions of Scripture. famous for his "Shakespeare Gallery." a naval song sung by ships' crews at one time before going into action (1710-1779). French anatomist and surgeon. and of Reminiscences of his life." with 196 plates in illustration (1719-1804).. K. wrote works on anatomy and surgical diseases. published a collection of the "Cathedral Music of the Old English Masters". bred for the bar. and the encouragement he gave to native artists. Page 400 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. attendant on Napoleon. an English engraver and print-seller. WILLIAM. chiefly of church music." which was widely read. composer. CTSTI. H. an Irish landlord's agent in Connemara. composed "Hearts of Oak. CAPTAIN. a Scottish divine. B. BOYCOTT. known to fame as A. died at Bournemouth by mischance of swallowing a lotion instead of a sleeping-draught (1825-1899). BOYD.com BOYCE. in France. BARON. a Scottish clergyman and writer. BOYER. but entered the Church. he issued also Hume's "History of England. Glasgow. JOHN. born in London.

and for its connection with an astronomical contrivance by one Graham to illustrate the planetary system (1676-1731). born at Port-au-Prince of a negress and a Creole father. devoted his life and contributed greatly to science. THE HON. born at Lismore. where he spent the rest of his life and died (1776-1850). of the Orrery family. BOYER. retired to Paris. distinguished among Irish patriots and landlords for what he did to improve his estates and develop manufactures and the mechanical arts in Ireland. CTSTI.com subjects. was a man of very conservative opinions (1757-1833). that had there been one like him in every province in Ireland rebellion would have been impossible (1566-1643). JEAN PIERRE. was driven from power by a revolution in 1843. refused the presidentship of the Royal Society. CHARLES. as well as pneumatics. was one of the originators of the "Royal Society". Chennai 6. the lectureship founded by the Hon. founded by his will an endowment for the "Boyle Lectures" in defence of Christianity against its opponents and rivals. RICHARD. distinguished for the connection of his name with the Bentley controversy. and declined a peerage (1626-1691). also for the honours conferred upon him for his patriotism. being a student of theology. Robert Boyle in 1691. a distinguished natural philosopher. especially chemistry. BOYLE. Page 401 of 2772 . when Cromwell saw how his estates were managed he remarked. fourth Earl of Orrery. the lecturer must deliver eight lectures in defence of Computer Lecturer. BOYLE. BOYLE. BOYLE LECTURES. held the presidency for 25 years from 1818.ramakalai@gmail. but suspected of consulting his own advantage more than that of the country. and held for a tenure of three years. secured the independence of the country. the endowment being L50 per annum. first and great Earl of Cork. president of Hayti. ROBERT.

of the Low Countries.. born in Perthshire. CTSTI." and the first attempt of the kind. Johnson's familiar name for Boswell. Page 402 of 2772 . a Belgian prov. BRADAMANTE. and some of the most eminent men have held the post. inhabitants Walloons. being his nickname when a boy for a little brother. It comprises three provs. commanded a body of troops against the French in America. _d_. British general. BOZ. in mediaeval times was an important prov. and one of the heroines in "Orlando Furioso".ramakalai@gmail. also Belgian. inhabitants Dutch. that the volume of a gas is inversely as the pressure. Breda. Brussels. Brabant. entered the Coldstream Guards. the whole mostly a plain. cap. EDWARD. and S. on 30th July 1690. Chennai 6. BOYNE. an English "justice itinerant. defeated the forces of James II. the N. cap. or Dutch Brabant." a "Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England.. BRACTON. cap. BRADDOCK. is now divided between Holland and Belgium. author of "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae. 1268. Antwerp. a river in Ireland. fell in an attempt to invest Fort Computer Lecturer. and became major-general in 1754. a _nom de plume_ under which Dickens wrote at first. inhabitants Flemings. Antwerp. gives name to the battle in which William III. BOYLE'S LAW. BOZZY. BRABANT. HENRY DE.com Christianity." a writer on English law of the 13th century. sister to Rinaldo. had a lance which unhorsed every one it touched. which flows through Meath into the Irish Sea.

born in London. and opposed to the Protectorate. born in Gloucestershire. BRADLEY. had for associate in the advocacy of his views Mrs. for Northampton thrice over. and lost nearly all his men (1695-1755). and did the same service for railways. had a chequered career. bred for the bar. Annie Besant. died respected by all parties in the House of Commons. W. and astronomer-royal at Greenwich. and has an important wool market. born in London.com Duquesue. CHARLES. elected M. a social reformer on secularist lines. which he did in 1886. MISS (Mrs. published maps illustrative of certain canal systems. BRADSHAW. became president of Computer Lecturer. GEORGE. contributed largely to magazines. _b_. on a tributary of the Aire. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. in Wilts. Chennai 6. John Maxwell).000 astronomical observations (1693-1762). BRADSHAW. of Leeds. it is the chief seat of worsted spinning and weaving in England. which developed into the well-known "Railway Guide" (1830-1863). Page 403 of 2772 . professor of Astronomy at Oxford. a popular novelist. a thorough republican." "Aurora Floyd. discovered the aberration of light and the nutation of the earth's axis. BRADDON. BRADFORD (216). born at Stockport. CTSTI.." and some 50 other novels. 9 m. authoress of "Lady Audley's Secret. made 60. wrote the "Impeachment of the House of Brunswick" (1833-1891). but not allowed to sit till he took the oath. astronomer.ramakalai@gmail. Also the name of a manufacturing town on the Avon. a friend of Milton. 1837. and iron-works and machinery-making are its other industries. JOHN. coal and iron mines are at hand. president of the High Court of Justice for trial of Charles I. JAMES.P. BRADLAUGH. an engraver of maps in Manchester.

34 m. died of the black death shortly after his consecration (1290-1348). Computer Lecturer.com the Council on Cromwell's death. the residence of the Primate. the eighth duke of Braganza having ascended the throne in 1640. CTSTI. BRAGI. the heroine of "Waverley. with a mild expression of face. and resorted to for summer country quarters. in Portugal. BRAGA (23). was present at Crecy and at the taking of Calais. of Aberdeenshire. archbishop of Canterbury. of Oporto. Portugal. a Scottish Highland district SW.. THOMAS. NE. represented as an old man with a long flowing beard and unwrinkled brow. the capital of Minho. BRAGANZA. surnamed "Doctor Profundus" from his treatise "De Causa Dei" against Pelagianism. his body was exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration (1586-1659). much frequented by tourists. the Norse god of poetry and eloquence. BRADWARDINE. called the House of Braganza. the name of a baron and his daughter." BRAEMAR`. on the liberation of Portugal from the yoke of Spain. Page 404 of 2772 . JACK. was buried in Westminster. Chennai 6. capital of Traz-os-Montes. a city. BRADWARDIN. gives name to the ruling dynasty of Portugal.ramakalai@gmail. BRAG. a pretender who ingratiates himself with people above him. received in Valhalla the heroes who fell in battle. chaplain to Edward III. son of Odin and Frigga.

See TRIMURTI. but a subject of meditation. composed operas. v. TYCHO. on the king's death. and. a river which rises in Tibet. spent his life in the study of the stars. and abounding in legends and speculations. however.) is the preserver AND SIVA (q. was particularly effective in rendering the national songs. of Jewish parents. e. had an observatory provided for him on an island in the Sound by the king. son of Brahma).) the destroyer. where he made observations for 20 years. one of the sacred caste of the Hindus that boasts of direct descent from. of which VISHNU (q. Chennai 6. were only dramas interspersed with songs. Scott described him as "a beast of an actor. where he continued his work and had Kepler for assistant and pupil (1546-1601). BRAHMAN. BRAHMANAS. and therefore of high-priestly rank. discovered a new star in Cassiopeia. to Prague. compelled to retire under persecution at the hand of the nobles. or BRAHMIN. and at another the creator of all things. born in London. and known all over Europe. a Swedish astronomer. BRAHMAPUTRA (i. in the Hindu religion and philosophy at one time the formless spirit of the Universe. v. Page 405 of 2772 .com BRAHAM. which. and as such is not an object of worship. the custodians and mediators of religion. CTSTI. with prescriptions bearing upon ritual. BRAHE. of noble birth. killing that he may make alive. circles round the E. but an angel of a singer" (1774-1856). of the Himalayas. a celebrated tenor singer. accepted an invitation of the Kaiser Rudolf II. Brahma. BRAHMA. the most so in Europe of his day. after a course of some 1800 Computer Lecturer. JOHN. he was. treatises on the ceremonial system of Brahminism.ramakalai@gmail. from which all beings issue and into which they all merge. or immediate relationship with.

like an inland sea. the appearance of compositions of his an event in the musical world. born in Edinburgh. particularly Assam. distinguished for his heroism on the occasion of great fires both in Edinburgh and London (1790-1861). director of the London fire brigade. JOHANNES. i. principles. of great promise from a boy. called the Sampo in Tibet. and the Brahmaputra in British India. e. See CASTE. BRAIDWOOD. Computer Lecturer. the first incarnation of the universal spirit. and Sudras--all the rest being outcasts or pariahs. and religious organisation which developed among the Aryans in the valley of the Ganges under the influence of the Brahmans. born at Hamburg. or that social. In this way Brahma. a distinguished composer. Chennai 6. JAMES. founded on theistic. settled in Vienna. e. the creed and ritual of the Brahmans. had four sons. and Siva. originated in 1830 by Rammohun Roy. 1833. Kshatriyas. and in the lower part of its course overflows the land. BRAHMS. CTSTI. church of God). a secession from traditional Hinduism. from whom issued the four castes of India--Brahmans. which triple incarnation constitutes a trimurti or trinity. joins the Ganges. or rather monotheistic. or the universal spirit. Page 406 of 2772 . According to the religious conception of this class.com m.ramakalai@gmail. political. brings down twice as much mud as the Ganges. BRAHMO-SOMAJ (i. as well as a profession of a sense of the brotherhood of man no less than the unity of God. it has numerous tributaries. Vaisyas. takes form or incarnates himself successively as Brahma. BRAHMINISM. approaches Beethoven as no other does.. has no living rival. and developed by Chunder Sen. Brahma. and the rational ideas and philosophy of Europe. unitarian. Vishnu. the Dihong in Assam. _b_. distinguished as a performer as well as a composer.

name given to Fingal's dog. laid the foundation of St. MATTHEW. invented printing in relief for the blind (1809-1852). BRAN. civil engineer. author of many mechanical inventions. 18 of which were patented. American missionary to the Red Indians. born in Yorkshire. SIR FREDERICK. JOHN. BRAMAH. president of the British Association in 1888. in public debate with such a dialectician as Thomas Hobbes on the questions of necessity and free-will (1594-1663). Peter's at Rome. BRAINERD. who has a sister. DONATO. 1818. and previously of Association of Engineers. an ungainly maiden at forty-five. of a fretful temper. his Life was written by Jonathan Edwards.com BRAILLE. BRAMWELL. archbishop of Armagh. Yorkshire. CTSTI. in whose house he died (1718-1747). Computer Lecturer. JOSEPH. BRAMBLE. named after him (1748-1814). nowise to his credit.ramakalai@gmail. yet generous and kind. was foolhardy enough once to engage. among others the hydraulic press. Chennai 6. Page 407 of 2772 . BRAMHALL. and of anything but a sweet temper. _b_. which he did not live to complete (1444-1514). a blind Frenchman. a high-handed Churchman and imitator of Laud. BRAMANTE. MISS TABITHA. a gouty humorist in "Humphrey Clinker". architect. born in Barnsley. born in Connecticut. an engineer.

the opposition to his views were such that he was forced to leave Copenhagen. into gold. in quest of which voyages of discovery were undertaken as recently as the beginning of the 18th century. author of "Manual of Chemistry" and other works (1788-1866). THE HOUSE OF. most of it a sandy plain. antiquary. with fertile districts and woodlands here and there. ISLAND OF.com BRAND. chemist.ramakalai@gmail. BRANDES. with the support of a strong party in his favour. and the nucleus of the Prussian kingdom. an illustrious German family dating from the 10th century. his views of the present tendency of literature in Europe provoked at first much opposition in Denmark. an island reported of by St. born at Strassburg. such as silver. up to which time it was believed to exist. he returned to it in 1862. in the great northern plain of Germany. is a central Prussian province. CTSTI.. chanced on the discovery in 1669 of phosphorus while in quest of a solvent to transmute metals. though they were received with more favour afterwards. BRANDENBURG. Brandan as lying W. born in Durham. 1692. JOHN. born at Copenhagen. from which descended the kings of Prussia. and that figured on charts as late as 1755. SEBASTIAN. ST. BRANDAN. Page 408 of 2772 . of the Canary Islands. Chennai 6. a satirical writer. BRANDE. after a stay in Berlin. BRANDT. a literary critic. wrote a "Popular Antiquities" (1744-1784). but. born in London. BRANDENBURG (2. BRANDT. a Swedish chemist. GEORGE. _d_. of Jewish parents.542). author of Computer Lecturer.

whom he fleeced. a French chronicler. JOSEPH. from her fondness for brandy. 1807. distinguished in the Peloponnesian war. and vivid delineations of the characters of the most celebrated of his contemporaries (1527-1614). a vulgar. evil-spoken family in Miss Burney's "Evelina. with a small body of helots and mercenaries. SAMPSON. BRANDY NAN. of the flower of the Athenian army at Amphipolis. inlaid in a slab of stone. Indian chief who sided with the British in the American war. PIERRE DE BOURDEILLES. BRASSES. a nickname for Queen Anne. in 422 B.C. a Spartan general. and wrote Memoirs remarkable for the free-and-easy. a brave and good man. Chennai 6. BRANDYWINE CREEK. the defeat at the expense of his life.. a knavish attorney in "Old Curiosity Shop". BRANTOME. Page 409 of 2772 . sepulchral tablets of a mixed metal.com the "Narrenschiff" or "Ship of Fools. called latten. born in Perigord." of which there have been many translations and not a few imitations (1458-1521). THE. BRASS. and insculpt with figures and inscriptions of a Computer Lecturer. affected feeling for his clients. a small river in Delaware. CTSTI. contemporary of Montaigne. led the life of a knight-errant. BRANGTONS. faithful. BRASIDAS.ramakalai@gmail." BRANT. scene of a victory of the British over the Americans in 1777. his most celebrated action. _d_.

born in Cheshire. CTSTI. forests tenanted by an endless variety of Computer Lecturer. BRASSEY. German archaeologist. Great stretches of the interior are uninhabitable swamp and forest lands. an inflammatory disease in sheep. he lived in the reigns of Charles II. and George I.000). BRAZIL (14.. See AGES. James II. works numerous. "That man is a lion. who. Chennai 6.. famous for Simon Aleyn. BRAY. born at Gotha. in Surrey. BRAVEST OF THE BRAVE. due to a change in food from succulent to dry. the upper basin of the Paraguay. AUGUSTE EMIL. that succeeded the weak Silver Age. in the Greek mythology the age of violence. almost equal to Europe. so called from his fearlessness in battle. contracted for the construction of railways in all parts of the world (1805-1870). the oldest in England is at Stoke d'Abernon. and the name given to the mutton of sheep affected with it. William III. Napoleon had on one occasion said. Page 410 of 2772 . the largest South American State. THOMAS. with the valleys of the Parana and San Francisco. and the maritime highlands.." BRAXY. its vicar from 1540 to 1588. the tablelands of Matto Grosso. and comprises the Amazon basin. and of value (1809-1856). Queen Anne. a great railway contractor. occupies the eastern angle of the continent. never scrupled to change his principles. a Berkshire village. BRAZEN AGE. to retain his living.ramakalai@gmail.com monumental character. BRAUN. Marshal Ney.

_b_. of the Haute-Pyrenees. explorer. 1832. which has been harassed ever since by desultory civil war. and an empire in 1822. gold. Discovered in 1500. a gorge in the dep. expelled by the French in 1808. BRAZZA. and annexed by Portugal. Vegetable products are indescribably rich and varied. The language is Portuguese. acquired land N. an island in the Adriatic. Pedro II. a French philologist. BRAZIL-WOOD.ramakalai@gmail. and Indian. the coasts are often humid and unhealthy. is richly wooded. _b_. the Portuguese king. noted for its wines. BRECHE-DE-ROLAND. born in Rome. PIERRE SAVORGNAN DE. Chennai 6. and copper. BREAL. 1852. Computer Lecturer. belonging to Austria. and fruit are exported. of the Congo for France. the other seaports. mulatto. the religion. but the upper levels have a fine climate. and obtained a governorship. a South Sea island tree producing a fruit which. The vast mineral wealth includes diamonds. The population at the seaports is mostly white. translator into French of Bopp's "Comparative Grammar".. Almost all the country is within the tropics. is used as bread. fled to his colony. yields marble. and government unsettled.com brilliant-plumed birds and insects. CTSTI. which. The emperor. the colouring principle being named Brasilin. BREADFRUIT-TREE. a wood found in Brazil. of great value for dyeing red. was driven out in 1889. which was made a kingdom 1815. timber of all kinds. Page 411 of 2772 . Bahia and Pernambuco. and a republic established on the federal system. when roasted. The capital is Rio Janeiro. BRAZZA (22). MICHEL. born at Landau. education is very backward. Roman Catholic. Most of the trade is with Britain and America. inland it is negro. mercury. cotton. coffee and sugar are the chief crops. rubber.

com according to tradition. Page 412 of 2772 . his chief work "Illustrirtes Thierleben" (1829-1884). BREHM. ALFRED EDMUND. who had been a leather-breeches maker at Charing Cross. a famous inventor of astronomical instruments (1747-1823). a French chronometer-maker. a place of historical interest. so called from its rendering in Gen. 7. BREGNET." BREECHES REVIEW. of Montrose. Charles II. BREHON LAWS. resided here for a time during his exile. and whether it was at first traditional. a town in Forfarshire. so called at one time. after Hamburg. from one Place. German naturalist. on the S. the chief seaport of Germany. BRECHIN. existed from prehistoric times till Cromwell's conquest. in which "aprons" is rendered "breeches. Brabant. Charlemagne's Paladin of the name of Roland cleft with one stroke of his sword when he was beset by the Gascons. BREDA (23). Esk. is on the Computer Lecturer. the Geneva Bible. high. the capital of N. 85 ft. and issued hence his declaration prior to his restoration. the only one of the kind in Scotland besides being at Abernethy. BREECHES BIBLE.ramakalai@gmail. a body of judge-created laws that for long formed the common law of Ireland. W. born at Neuchatel. an authority in it. BREMEN (126). Chennai 6. iii. many manuscript redactions of portions exist still. with a cathedral and an old round tower near it. CTSTI. fortified town. the _Westminster_. The origin of the code is unknown.

with a large hospice for emigrants. BRENNER PASS. as the gold was being weighed out he threw his sword and helmet into the opposite scale. invested the Capitol for so long that the Romans offered him a thousand pounds' weight of gold to retire.ramakalai@gmail. pass on the central Tyrolese Alps. BREMER. it is the head-quarters of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company. crossed by a railway. who. between Innsbruck and Botzen. distinguished in the Burmese and Chinese wars (1786-1850). CTSTI. the port of Bremen. from its mouth." are perhaps her best stories. and Austria. Page 413 of 2772 . BRENDAN. was one of the principal cities of the Hanseatic League. Its export and import trade is very varied. in his ninety-fourth year. high. died in 577. 6853 ft. "The Neighbours. a Gallic chief. with a territory less than Rutlandshire. after taking and pillaging Rome. tobacco. half the total of emigrants sail from its docks. on the estuary of the Weser. and is a free city. 50 m. Textiles. BREMER. Chennai 6." and "Strife and Peace.. founded for the accommodation of large vessels in 1830. and paper industries add to its prosperity. adding _Vae Computer Lecturer. ST. which facilitates trade between Venice..C. born in Finland. 300 B.com Weser. founded a monastery at Clonfert. FREDRIKA. rear-admiral. celebrated for his voyages in quest of "a land beyond human ken" and his discovery of "a paradise amid the waves of the sea". BRENNUS. Germany. SIR JAMES. a highly popular Swedish novelist. born at Tralee. has been called the Jane Austen of Sweden. BREMERHAVEN." "The President's Daughter. an Irish saint.

of Frankfort. was a roving genius (1778-1849). a Roman temple excavated in 1822. brother of Goethe's Bettina von Arnim. "Woe to the conquered. rises in the Tyrol. leather.ramakalai@gmail. on the Brent. BRENTFORD.com victis_. of Milan. and has a large woollen industry and grain market. BRENTA. Chennai 6. E. an Italian river. North Sea. and now a classical museum." an insolence which so roused Camillus. BRESLAU (335). market-town in Middlesex. one of the Shetland Isles. near Lerwick. waters Bassano. BRENTANO. 10 m. and totally routed the whole host. and one of the authors of the Wuertemberg Confession. by rail SE. there are a cathedral. CLEMENS. and library. poet of the romanticist school. 50 m. an art gallery and library. the capital of Silesia. an important commercial and manufacturing centre. a city of Lombardy. W. and wine. is on the Oder. the reformer of Wuertemberg. JOHANN. second city in Prussia. it stands in the centre of the Baltic. has two cathedrals. and has a first-class fortress. CTSTI. BRESSAY. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. with one of the Computer Lecturer. that he turned his back and offered battle to him and to his army. BRENZ. as well as a catechism extensively used (1499-1570). 150 m. and debouches near Venice. BRESCIA (43). Page 414 of 2772 . on the Mella and Garza. university. and Danube trade. of London. that figures in history and literature. its manufactures are woollens. silks.

BRETHREN OF THE COMMON LIFE. "Handbuch der Dogmatik. has large shipbuilding yards and arsenal. 1827. of France." and an edition of Melanchthon's works. waxcloth. JULES ADOLPHE. composed. "Graf Esau" (1739-1810). his theological writings are of permanent value.com best natural harbours in the world. BRETON DE LOS HERREROS. much regarded for his sound judgment in critical matters. born at Gera. 1788. HENRY GOTTFRIED VON. born at Courrieres." founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote.ramakalai@gmail. BREST (76). first made a marine arsenal by Richelieu. and paper manufactures. in Pas-de-Calais. and one of the safest. BRETON. CTSTI. BARON DE. served in the army." "Wallers Leben und Sitten. its industries are chiefly related to naval equipment. led a bohemian life. "Almanach der Heiligen auf das Jahr. Computer Lecturer. KARL GOTTLIEB. held political posts. Spanish poet and dramatist. one of the chief naval stations in France. besides satirical writings. BRETEUIL. a German rationalistic theologian. flowing style (1800-1873). with a magnificent harbour. a German satirical writer. a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God. Page 415 of 2772 . with leather. wrote comedies and satires in an easy." and the comic epic. BRETSCHNEIDER. Chennai 6. BRETSCHNEIDER. an ex-secretary of Louis XVI. a strongly-fortified naval station in the extreme NW. his chief works. (1733-1807). a French _genre_ and landscape painter.

edited the "Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. g." which gives those for special occasions. and the other. Peter. Computer Lecturer. BREWER. specially distinguished for his discoveries in light." his work the sole authority on Henry's early reign (1810-1879). and the leader in war. SIR DAVID. CTSTI.. and for his optical inventions." which gives the services connected with the celebration of the Eucharist. "HELLISH" B. "VELVET" B.com BRETWALDA.. Jacob Arteveld. wrote largely on scientific and other subjects. London. Peter. a Life of Newton. author of "Calendar of Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. (1510-1570). e. the father. a commission entitling an officer in the army to a nominal rank above his real rank. his studies in optics. as well as Lives of Euler. historian. a book containing the daily services in the Roman Catholic Church and corresponding to the English Prayer-Book.ramakalai@gmail. born at Jedburgh. and the "Pontifical. BREWER OF GHENT. a title apparently of some kind of acknowledged supremacy among the Anglo-Saxon kings. a son. differs from the "Missal. BREWSTER. a family of Butch painters. BREVET`. an eminent Scottish natural philosopher." in the pages of which Carlyle served his apprenticeship.. from his fondness for horrible subjects (1559-1637).'s Reign. called "OLD" B. a father and two sons. JOHN SHERREN. connected with most scientific associations of his time. BREVIARY. either from his dress or from the vivid freshness of his colours (1560-1625). BREUGHEL. Chennai 6. such as the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope. Page 416 of 2772 . professor of English Literature in King's College. John.

and others of the class. and made great efforts for the civilisation of the country. v. Nov. had been a clergyman of the Church of England. i. and afterwards of Edinburgh. it is said. BRIAN BOROIHME. an Irish chief. above sea-level. BRICE. BRICE'S. Martin. from Grenoble. Chennai 6. CTSTI. a day in 1002 on which a desperate attempt was made to massacre all the Danes in England and stamp them wholly out. who early in the 10th century established his rule over a great part of Ireland. e. bred originally for the Church. Heaven and Earth. who conveyed them to Plymouth. and disciple of St. with a trade in cutlery. WILLIAM. SE. 42 m. the twenty-fifth battle in which he defeated them. a Uranid with 50 heads and 100 arms. Andrews.. the highest town in France. 4300 ft.. one of THE GIANTS (q. Computer Lecturer. BRIAREUS. but whom Zeus delivered to aid him against the Titans. bishop of Tours in the beginning of the 5th century. in 1620. according to another account. Festival.ramakalai@gmail. BRIANCON. Massachusetts. whom Poseidon cast into the sea and buried under Etna. Andrews by James David Forbes. being. Sweyn. ST.). and for a time a probationer (1781-1868). Principal of the United Colleges of St. died defeating the Danes at Clontarf. being succeeded at St. ST. an attempt which was avenged by the Danish king. 19. who years before defeated him as candidate for the Natural Philosophy chair in Edinburgh. son of Ouranos and Gaia. BREWSTER.com Kepler. Page 417 of 2772 . leader of the Pilgrim Fathers in the _Mayflower_.

a thriving manufacturing town and seaport of Connecticut. Page 418 of 2772 . an American politician in "Martin Chuzzlewit. 3 m. a Roundhead in "Peveril of the Peak. N. 58 m.S. MAJOR RALPH. Bridget's well. ST. a manufacturing town in New Jersey." BRIDE OF THE SEA. 1 (453-523).com BRICK. a character in "Tristram Shandy. entered a monastery at 14. a covered way in Venice leading from the Ducal Palace to the State prison. 38 m. S. founded monasteries. Chennai 6. U. BRIDGET.. near it. Festival. BRIDGETON." BRIDGET. BRIDGE OF SIGHS.ramakalai@gmail. so called from a ceremony in which her espousals were celebrated by the Doge casting a ring into the Adriatic. Patrick and St. CTSTI. NE. takes rank in Ireland with St.. of Computer Lecturer. MRS. born at Dundalk. whence the name. a village on Allan water. of Stirling. an Irish saint. London. Columba.. BRIDGE OF ALLAN. BRIDGENORTH. with a mild climate and mineral waters. Feb. and over which culprits under capital sentence were transported to their doom. Also the name of a Swedish saint in the 14th century. and 72 monasteries of the Order. Venice. from New York. founded a new Order. a house of correction in Blackfriars. so called from St. JEFFERSON. BRIDEWELL." BRIDGEPORT (48).

8TH EARL OF. though he was a supporter of Pitt. of Flamborough Head. called "Bridgewater Treatises. Chennai 6. BRIDLINGTON. BRIDGMAN. U. with a chalybeate spring. 6 m. BRIDLEGOOSE. BRIDGETOWN (21). a seaport town in Somersetshire. Computer Lecturer. bequeathed L8000 for the best work on natural theology. FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON.. CTSTI. SW. 3RD DUKE OF. dumb. &c. a college." who decided cases by the throw of dice. SW. of Bristol.com Philadelphia. BRIDGEWATER. BRIDGEWATER. LAURA." all to be found in Bohn's Scientific Library (1758-1829). capital of Barbadoes. he did not take part in politics. 29 m. a deaf. Page 419 of 2772 . JUDGE.ramakalai@gmail. embarking in it all his wealth. born in New Hampshire. in which he was aided by the skill of Brindley. educated for the Church. died unmarried (1736-1803). seat of the government.S. celebrated for his self-sacrificing devotion to the improvement and extension of canal navigation in England. which his trustees expended in the production of eight works by different eminent men. it has suffered frequently from hurricane and fever. noted for the surprising development of intellectual faculty notwithstanding these drawbacks. and blind child. BRIDGWATER. a judge in Rabelais' "Pantagruel. the bishop. FRANCIS EGERTON.. Dickens gives an account of her in his "American Notes" (1829-1889). a watering-place in Yorkshire.

a favourite resort for tourists. (19). a seaport and an episcopal city in the dep. lake in the Swiss canton of Bern.com BRIDPORT. consisting of a number of regiments. BRIENNE. called brigadier. a thriving. 2 m. ST. BRIGADE. VISCOUNT. LAKE OF. Page 420 of 2772 . distinguished in several engagements (1797-1814). and of great depth in certain parts. BRIGANTES. BRIGHAM YOUNG. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. broad. SE. a British admiral. or battalions. 8 m. squadrons. a distinguished English mathematician. over 800 ft. a powerful British tribe that occupied the country between the Humber and the Roman Wall. long.ramakalai@gmail. 25 m. the chief of the Mormons (1801-1877). elected king of Jerusalem. HENRY. BRIGGS. of Breslau. made an important improvement on the system of logarithms. town in Prussian Silesia. BRIEG (20). which was accepted by Napier. Chennai 6. JEAN DE. a body of troops under a general officer. then emperor of Constantinople. above sea-level. first Savilian professor at Oxford. abounding in fish. of Cotes-du-Nord. Town of. third. descendant of an old French family.. 1237. France. and is the system now in use (1561-1631). BRIEUC. _d_. BRIENZ. the inventor. commercially speaking.

Richard Bright. and again in 1881.com BRIGHT. originally built for George IV. took a fancy to it. of London. an animated and eloquent orator. took an early interest in political reform. he was a strong opponent of protection. CTSTI. Page 421 of 2772 . and the 1870 Irish Land Act. so called from Dr. at his death Mr. son of a Lancashire cotton spinner. 50 m.ramakalai@gmail. English statesman. and later of the Crimean war. he advocated financial reform and the reform of Indian administration. JAMES FRANCK. he joined the Anti-Corn-Law League on its formation in 1839. entering Parliament in 1843. but was interrupted by illness. BLIGHT'S DISEASE. of Quaker birth and profession. a fine parade extends along the whole length of the sea front. the principal building is the Pavilion or Marine Palace." a book of superior literary merit. a place of fashionable resort ever since George IV. he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Gladstone pronounced one of the noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another (1811-1889). Chennai 6. he was closely associated with the 1867 Reform Act. engaged in manufacture. he was a man of lofty and unblemished character. JOHN. has many handsome edifices. in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow University. and strenuously opposed Home Rule in 1886. a much-frequented watering-place in Sussex. _b_. Irish Church Disestablishment 1869. 1832. public library and public gallery. who first Computer Lecturer. Master of University College. Oxford. S. historian. his Ministerial career began in 1868. schools of science and art. and on the outbreak of the American Civil War supported the North. in 1873. the game laws. and soon was associated with Cobden in its great agitation. BRIGHTON (128). of which it is virtually a suburb. a splendid aquarium. BRIGHT. a disease in the kidneys. he seceded from Gladstone's Government on the Egyptian policy in 1882. due to several diseased conditions of the organ. Also the name of a suburb of Melbourne. author of "English History for the Use of Public Schools. though his business interests suffered severely. born near Rochdale. a museum.

BRIL BROTHERS. MARQUISE DE. as the greatest service he could render to his country. and for Palestine in mediaeval. landscape painters. devoted his skill and genius to the construction of canals. brother. and three days by steam from Alexandria. distinguished as a critic in the department of belles-lettres. BRILLAT-SAVARIN. employed in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the Vatican at Rome. under the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater. notorious for her gallantries and for poisoning her father. bred a millwright. _b_. JAMES. Computer Lecturer. was the greater artist.com investigated its nature. published posthumously. of whom Paul. a French gastronomist. 1834. was tortured and beheaded. a seaport of Southern Italy. BRIN`DISI (15). CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. BRINVILLIERS. a mechanician and engineer. the younger." a book full of wit and learning. BRINDLEY. BRINK. a Dutch writer. Page 422 of 2772 . it was the port of embarkation for Greece in ancient times. born at Antwerp. was professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825). and two sisters for the sake of their property. regarded rivers as mere "feeders to canals" (1716-1772). See AQUA TOFANA. an art which one of her paramours taught her (1630-1676). author of "Physiologie du Gout. MATTHEW AND PAUL. has risen in importance since the opening of the Overland Route as a point of departure for the East. born in Derbyshire. JAN TEN. Chennai 6. his best pictures are in Rome. it is 60 hours by rail from London. the poison she used appears to have been the Tofana poison. on the Adriatic coast.

BRISBANE. and in 1807 the island of Curacoa. from the sea. N. catalogued over 7000 stars. British general. and Adelaide. and what it led to. Computer Lecturer. in Saldanha Bay. BRISE`IS. the name of a noble family which supplied several marshals to France. as Homer relates. and railway communication with Sydney. is the chief trading centre and seaport of the Colony. CTSTI.com BRISBANE (49). a naval officer of distinction under Lords Hood and Nelson. three ships of the line among them. the theme of the "Iliad" being the "wrath of Achilles" on this account. prosperity began when the colony was opened to free settlement in 1842. served under Lord Howe and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829). BRISBANE. on the Brisbane River. 25 m. in consequence. Chennai 6. 500 m. SIR JAMES. succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society (1773-1860). it has steam communication with Australian ports and London. was made governor of St. was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the colony. capital of Queensland. captured in 1796 Dutch warships. BRISSAC. of Sydney. SIR THOMAS MACDOUGALL. gave name to the capital of Queensland. Vincent (1769-1829). Melbourne. to its prolongation. naval officer. who fell to the lot of Achilles among the spoil of a victory. BRISBANE. a young virgin priestess.ramakalai@gmail. saw service as a soldier. a man of science and an astronomer. but whom Agamemnon carried off from him. Ayrshire. whereupon he retired to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further part in the war. brother of the preceding. born near Largs. it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city incorporated in 1859. ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES. Page 423 of 2772 . for ten long years.

and as such dangerous to shipping. W. and a great seaport. between S. son of a pastry-cook. he went to America. tried and guillotined (1754-1793). joined the Girondists. boots and shoes. bred to the bar. of London. formed a Radical administration in 1898. was arrested. it forms a county in itself. a French revolutionary. Page 424 of 2772 . and inhabited by Celts. an inlet in SW. 6 m. by a charter of Edward III. Wales and Devon and Cornwall. is subject to very high tides. became one of the leaders. a library and many educational institutions. HENRI. two colleges. as Gaul also was. of England. which was short-lived. 1835. and with a depth of from 5 to 40 fathoms. fell under suspicion like the rest of the party. liberated. but resigned after a few months. after holding presidentships in the Chamber became premier in 1885. JEAN PIERRE. Indian. CTSTI. BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE. with Irish. in length. a name for Britain as old as the days of Caesar. spent some time in the Bastille. BRISTOL (286). or rather of a party of his own. is the largest town in Gloucestershire. it manufactures tobacco. 8 m. became an outspoken disciple of Rousseau. BRISTOL CHANNEL. from 5 to 43 in breadth. BRISSOT DE WARVILLE. American trade.com BRISSON. from its mouth. French publicist and journalist. W. _b_. it has a cathedral. named after him Brissotins. and 118 m. and S.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. took to letters. consists of Computer Lecturer. a railway bridge spanning the Menai Strait. born at Chartres. designed by Robert Stephenson. returned on the outbreak of the Revolution. on the Avon. numerous rivers flow into it. the seventh in England. sat in the National Assembly. BRITANNIA. midway between the Jacobins and them. and completed in 1850.

Chennai 6. being 800 m. rain is abundant. an association. BRITANNICUS. to Alaska on the N.. name applied to Andrew Marvell from his corresponding incorruptible integrity in life and poverty at death. chemical. and from the United States on the S. &c. books. BRITISH MUSEUM.ramakalai@gmail. and cereals do well. antiquities.. of men of all departments of science for the encouragement of scientific research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge. economic. BRITISH ASSOCIATION. Computer Lecturer. founded as far back as 1700. geographical. it is divided into eight sections--mathematical. geological. BRITISH COLUMBIA (98). the name given to John Bull when roused by opposition. biological. mechanical.com hollow tubes of wrought-iron plates riveted together. long and four times the size of Great Britain. ethnology. rich in timber and minerals. now in this. extending between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific." representing chastity with a resistless magic spear. the son of Claudius and Messalina. a western fertile prov. in Montagu House as it happened. for the public benefit till 1759. a national institution in London for the collection of MSS. now in that selected central city of the country. and took five years in erecting. of Sir David Brewster's suggestion.. BRITISH LION. BRITISH ARISTIDES. BRITOMART. poisoned by Nero. and objects of natural history. CTSTI. which holds its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished scientist. prints and drawings. Page 425 of 2772 . and anthropological. though not opened. is a lady knight in the "Faerie Queene. of British America.

Pelham. the "Antiquities in Normandy" did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects (1771-1857). BROADS. a third of its inhabitants still retain their Breton language. and works of value. comprising the peninsula opposite Devon and Cornwall. born in Wiltshire in humble position. a district of the city that has of late years extended immensely. a stamp like an arrow-head to indicate government property.. his principal works. perhaps to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements distinctive of the Christian system. 1744 to Mar. a coalition of great weight under Mr. of Norfolkshire. JOHN. author of "Beauties of Wiltshire. a southern suburb of London. so called from the powerful parties represented in it.162). and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or form. that section of the Church which inclines to liberal opinions in theology. are "Antiquities of Great Britain" and "Cathedral Antiquities of England".ramakalai@gmail. topographer and antiquary. BRIXTON." instalment of a work embracing all the counties of England and Wales. are a series of inland lakes in the E. his chief work is 14 volumes. stretching westward between the Bays of Cancale and Biscay. BROAD ARROW. from Nov. Page 426 of 2772 . on the Surrey side. BROAD CHURCH.com BRITTANY (3. CTSTI. THE NORFOLK. land of the Bretons. was in former times a duchy. BRITTON. they are Computer Lecturer. an old French prov. Chennai 6. BROAD BOTTOM MINISTRY. 1755. which look like expansions of the rivers.

the highest peak (3740 ft." inhabited by giants. dry-stone circular towers. called also Picts' towers and Duns." and a great many other important works (1772-1823). Computer Lecturer. began business in Amsterdam. a mineralogist and geologist. famous for a "SPECTRE" so called." BROCA. Gobin manufactory (1773-1810). BROCKHAUS. found on the edge of straths or lochs in the N. but which is only the beholder's shadow projected through. anthropologist. born at Dortmund.com favourite holiday resorts on account of the expanse of strange scenery. born in Paris. director of the St. BROB`DINGNAG. and open to the sky. in comparison with whom Gulliver was a pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked from the lazy finger of a maid. FRIEDRICH ARNOLD. an eminent French surgeon. and one of the chief French evolutionists. with thick Cyclopean walls.. a German publisher. long an object of superstition. keen air. Page 427 of 2772 . BROCKEN. publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon. a man of scholarly parts. and was the author of a number of medical works (1824-1880). or BLOCKSBERG.ramakalai@gmail. fishing and boating attractions. Chennai 6.) of the Harz Mts. CTSTI. BROCHANT DE VILLIERS. and W. the mists. a single doorway. and magnified by. BROCHS. abundant vegetation. but settled in Leipzig. of Scotland. PAUL. held a succession of important appointments. each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple". properly a native of the country. an imaginary country in "Gulliver's Travels. cultivated to the summit.

George's Hospital. _b_. was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard. celebrated for the action between his ship _Shannon_. 1821 BROGLIE. and an enemy of the Second Empire. VICTOR FRANCOIS. in which he boarded the latter and ran up the British flag. was summoned by royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak of the Revolution. 38 guns. had to "mount and ride". and the American ship _Chesapeake_. SIR BENJAMIN. born in Banff. BRODIE. SIR PHILIP BOWES VERE. was medical adviser to three sovereigns. rear-admiral. a Conservative politician and litterateur. BRODIE. a forest in Brittany famous in Arthurian legend. born in Wiltshire. retired after the _coup d'etat_ (1785-1870). a French statesman. 49 guns. CTSTI. took command of the Emigrants in 1792. did numerous busts and statues (1815-1881). Page 428 of 2772 . one of the most brilliant naval actions on record. author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th century". DUC DE. and died at Muenster (1718-1804). could not persuade his troops to fire on the rioters. surgeon. professor of surgery. a Liberal politician. and likely to be long remembered in the naval annals of the country (1776-1841). DUC DE. BROGLIE. son of the following. BROGLIE. born at Ipswich. WILLIAM. in June 1813. born at Paris. president of the Royal Society (1783-1862). being "a firm disciplinarian".com BROCOLIANDO. Computer Lecturer. was an Orleanist. marshal of France. negotiated a treaty with England for the abolition of slavery. a Scottish sculptor. BROKE. held office under Louis Philippe. for 30 years surgeon in St. Chennai 6. ALBERT. CHARLES VICTOR. distinguished in the Seven Years' War.ramakalai@gmail.

and were characterised by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study. his plays are numerous. of London. a market-town in Kent. and spirit. author of "Travels and Researches in Greece. Page 429 of 2772 . now a fashionable district.ramakalai@gmail. 1652. BROMINE. a liquid which remains after the separation of salt. SE. _d_. BROMPTON. RICHARD. and where there is a home called Warner's College for clergymen's widows. an English comic playwright. BROMLEY (21). Computer Lecturer. in Prussian Posen." where by excavations he made important discoveries. now called S. district of London. a cavalier. Kensington. a busy town on the Brahe. BROeNDSTED. 10 m. BROME. contemporary with Ben Jonson. originally his servant. a Danish archaeologist. whim. once a rustic locality. and a rival. it suffered much in times of war. some festive. CTSTI. his great work "Travels and Archaeological Researches in Greece" (1780-1842). BROME. where the bishops of Rochester had their palace. ALEXANDER. being a frontier town. with several public buildings and the Oratory. and some political (1626-1666). in Kensington. and of his songs some are amatory. an elementary fluid of a dark colour and a disagreeable smell. writer of songs and lampoons instinct with wit. SW.com BROMBERG (41). extracted from bittern. PETER OLAF. Chennai 6.

where she lived most of her days. when weapons and tools were made of bronze. to Haworth. author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic arts (1770-1847). and her fame was established. French botanist. but very ephemeral productions. removed with her father. Computer Lecturer. poet rather than novelist. first. and in some cases overlapping these two. son of the succeeding. two years younger. the first to discover and explain the function of the pollen in plants (1801-1876). four years younger. on the western slope of Etna. at the age of four. ALEXANDRE. Ellis. revived painting on glass. and her success was instant. Emily. a French chemist and zoologist. CTSTI. introduced a new classification of reptiles. BRONTE. and Anne. BRONGNIART. spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher. and Acton Bell. Nicholls. on her return. which gave title of duke to Nelson. Yorkshire. director of the porcelain works at Sevres. collaborateur with Cuvier. "Jane Eyre. In 1854 she married her father's curate. which she did not live to develop. prepared and published a volume of poems under the pseudonyms respectively of "Currer. wrote "Wuthering Heights." then "Shirley. born at Thornton. but her constitution gave way. BRONZE AGE. showing still greater genius. she set to novel writing." which proved a failure.ramakalai@gmail. the name of three ladies. the age in the history of a race intermediate between the Stone Age and the Iron." a remarkable production. also wrote two novels. Page 430 of 2772 . Mr. BRONTE (16). Chennai 6. born at Paris." and then "Villette. in conjunction with her sisters. in the same county. a town in Sicily.com BRONGNIART." appeared. EMILY (Ellis). a moorland parish. daughters of a Yorkshire clergyman of Irish extraction: CHARLOTTE. and she died (1816-1855). Charlotte. ANNE (Acton). Nothing daunted. ADOLPHE.

was wounded in the Burmese war. swept the seas of pirates. and Queen's chaplain. Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the community. U. returned in consequence to England. BROOKE." "History of English Poetry. CTSTI. Bloomsbury. wrote.. author of the "Fool of Quality. rajah of Sarawak. Page 431 of 2772 . from conscientious motives seceded from the Church. arrived at Sarawak. by George Ripley in 1840. finally returned to England and died. born in Donegal. a poem called "Universal Beauty. and wrote an account of it.com BRONZI`NO. wrote the "Life of Robertson of Brighton. after other clerical appointments became incumbent of Bedford Chapel. preacher and writer. Irish dramatist and novelist. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. his famous picture. and the only one of his works that survives. HENRY. Chennai 6. BROOKE. the former rajah being deposed in his favour. conceived the idea of suppressing piracy and establishing civilisation in the Indian Archipelago. but continued to preach in Bloomsbury. assisted the governor in suppressing an insurrection." a book commended by John Wesley and much lauded by Charles Kingsley. from Boston. brought the province under good laws. 8 m. born in co. born at Benares. sailed in a well-manned and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object. "Descent of Christ into Hell" (1502-1572). entered the Indian army. Cavan. educated in England. a great admirer of Michael Angelo. BROOK FARM." and "Life of Milton." all works in evidence of critical ability of a high order." and a play called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783)." a "Primer of English Literature. a Florentine painter. an abortive literary community organised on Fourier's principles. painted both in oil and fresco. in Borneo. BROOKE. among other things. 1832. SIR JAMES. was appointed governor of Labuan.S. for which he was rewarded by the English government. being succeeded in Sarawak by a nephew (1803-1868). _b_." "Theology in the English Poets. STOPFORD. and was made rajah.

manufactures include glass. clothing. as well as by some 12 lines of ferry boats plied by steam. and storehouse. born in Edinburgh. RICHARD. writing the "Essence of Parliament. who believed and persuaded others to believe that the English people were the ten lost tribes of Israel (1757-1824)." and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor in 1870. as well as in Syria and Egypt. wrote among other subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and prehistoric man (1709-1777).com BROOKLYN (806). and educated at the High School and University of that city. CHARLES DE. was on the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_. a mile broad. BROTHERS. though ranking as a city. born in London. it is now incorporated in Greater New York. and connected with it by a magnificent suspension bridge. novelist and journalist. and does an enormous shipping trade. on Long Island. the city is really a part of New York. CTSTI. separated from New York by the East River. BROSSETTE. LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX. he was the author of several works (1816-1874). extensive docks and warehouses. Chennai 6. and tobacco. there is a naval yard. of water front. friend of Boileau. BROSSES. parks. sent to Russia to inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry and labouring classes there. a French archaeologist.ramakalai@gmail. dock. BROUGHAM. BROOKS. born in Newfoundland. Page 432 of 2772 . has 10 m. the largest in the world. was admitted to Computer Lecturer. a suburb of New York. born at Dijon. metallic wares. and the fourth in the Union. chemicals. HENRY. CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY. and his editor and commentator (1671-1743). a fanatic. his report published in his "Russians of the South". a French litterateur. born at Lyons. and pleasure grounds. formed a connection with _Punch_ in 1851. has many fine buildings.

1820.. BROUGHTY FERRY (9). near Dundee. LORD. and a favourite place of residence of Dundee merchants. he associated with the Whig opposition. political. CTSTI. BROUSSA (37). Chennai 6. he joined the English bar in 1808. and philosophical themes. excluded from promotion in Scotland by his liberal principles. by his eloquence in the cause of Queen Caroline. became Lord Chancellor in 1830. speedily acquired a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in Crown libel actions. 1840. Page 433 of 2772 . and Sidney Smith. threw himself into the agitation for the abolition of slavery. a man of versatile ability and untiring energy. at the foot of Mt. _b_. her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well". where he died (1778-1868). and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge." "Red as a Rose is She. along with Horner. but four years afterwards his political career closed. novelist. a watering-place. Jeffrey. BROUGHTON. BROUGHTON. RHODA. 12 m. with villas. the cause of education." &c. abounds in mosques. BROUGHTON. an English seaman. won universal popular favour. the capital of the Turkish empire till the taking of Constantinople in 1453. entering Parliament in 1810. wrote also "Cometh Up as a Flower. he was a supporter of many popular institutions. WILLIAM ROBERT. and law reform. one of the founders of the _Edinburgh Review_. Computer Lecturer. See HOBHOUSE. historical. companion of Vancouver. and is celebrated for its baths.ramakalai@gmail. of Asiatic Turkey.com the Scotch bar in 1800. also of London University. but his violence and eccentricity hurt his influence. spent his last days at Cannes. discovered a portion of Oceania (1763-1822). from the Sea of Marmora. a city in the extreme NW. and. Olympus. a writer on scientific.

anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism (1821-1893). was severely wounded at Inkerman. as familiar with it. a French materialist. Page 434 of 2772 . CTSTI. British general. a Dutch painter. JOSEPH VICTOR. a French Huguenot who returned to France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes." "Edgar Huntly.ramakalai@gmail.". his subjects nearly all of a historical character. Chennai 6. and disease into too much or too little (1772-1838). 1698. born in England. of Quaker connection. in 1816. CHARLES BROCKDEN. mostly of low. BROUSSEL. annulled her marriage. AMY. whose arrest. BROUWER. a member of the Parlement of Paris. BROWN. the Pope. when in command of the Light Division (1790-1863). BROWN. his best-known fictions are "Wieland. one of which is "Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III. resolved life into excitation. an English painter. born in Philadelphia.com BROUSSAIS. Computer Lecturer. FORD MADOX. BROWN. in 1648. but declared her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876). he depicted with great spirit (1605-1638). born at Calais. was the cause of. the organisation of the Fronde." &c. born near Elgin. vulgar life. SIR GEORGE. (1771-1810). and was broken on the wheel. which. the first wife of the Duc de Berri. BROUSSON. died in France. an American novelist. founder of the "physiological school" of medicine. or pretext for. BROWN. distinguished both in the Peninsular and in the Crimean war.

was a pupil of James Syme. in the interest of emancipation. Computer Lecturer.. entrenched himself armed in it. and by none more than by John Ruskin. a self-educated Scotch divine. nor the grief to how many greater souls than mine that had been possessed in patience through his love" (1810-1882). with six others. educated in Edinburgh High School and at Edinburgh University." and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787). author of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on the Old and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). CTSTI. was surrounded. BROWN.ramakalai@gmail. born at Bunkle. an American sculptor. seized. became a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington. did a number of statues. BROWN.. See BROUSSAIS. author of "Dictionary of the Bible. author of "Horae Subsecivae..com BROWN. M." "Pet Marjorie. M. son of a poor weaver. Chennai 6. tried. JOHN. JOHN. settled in Kansas.. Page 435 of 2772 . JOHN." and other works. and commenced quiet practice in Edinburgh. great-grandson of the preceding.D. he was "the best and truest friend of all my life. a colossal one of Washington among them (1814-1886). reduced diseases into two classes.. HENRY KIRKE. left an orphan at 11. near Abernethy. the eminent surgeon. and resolutely opposed the project of making it a slave state. born at Carpow. BROWN. seized on the State armoury at Harper's Ferry in hope of a rising. BROWN." "Rab and his Friends. and those due to deficiency of excitation. those resulting from redundancy of excitation. Perthshire.D. a man of considerable learning. and deep piety. founder of the Brunonian system of medicine. born at Biggar. American slavery abolitionist. JOHN." "John Leech. much beloved by all who knew him. of Haddington. Nothing can tell the loss to me in his death. Berwickshire. who says of him. and hanged (1800-1859). was a fine and finely-cultured man.

MOUNT (16.). the highest of the Rocky Mts. and finally president of. whose life was devoted. America. the Linnean Society. died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874). grandson of John Brown of Haddington. son of an Episcopal clergyman. work of 20 years' hard labour. JONES. especially in its relation to English history. with the zeal of a mediaeval alchemist. BROWN.D. chemist. spent his life at Venice in the study of Italian history. BROWN. he was a man of most minute and accurate observation. his great work. where Ruskin found him and conceived a warm friendship for him (1803-1883). as figured in the pages of _Punch_. in N. a brilliant conversationist Computer Lecturer. and drawn by Richard Doyle. a youth of great promise both as an artist and poet. BROWN.. three middle-class Englishmen on their travels abroad. Page 436 of 2772 . a distinguished botanist. Chennai 6. M. accompanied an expedition to survey the coast of Australia in 1801. which he classified and described in his "Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae". which he did not live to see realised: a man of genius. became librarian to. styled by Humboldt _botanicorum facile princeps_. ROBERT. BROWN. CTSTI. to a reconstruction of the science of atomics. SAMUEL. which he prosecuted with unwearied industry. born in Haddington. AND ROBINSON. died at Venice." left unfinished at his death. OLIVER MADOX.000 ft.com BROWN.ramakalai@gmail.. much of which died along with him. out of the fear of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858). son of Ford Madox. BROWN. returned after four years' exploration. RAWDON. "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern Italy. born at Montrose. with 4000 plants mostly new to science. and of a wide range of knowledge. historical scholar. where he spent a great part of his life.

CHARLES FARRAR. colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart. his lectures. BROWNE. born in Rutland. U.. Ainsworth.) in Cornwall. Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856)." born in Maine. but their wives plural (1834-1867). Carlyle. and a devoted student." and two volumes of "Essays.com and an associate of the most intellectual men of his time. which he called the "muscular. he was obliged from ill-health to resign his professorship after 10 years (1778-1820). founder of the Brownists. Chennai 6. carrying with him a whimsical panorama as affording texts for his numerous jokes. and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success. among the number De Quincey. BROWNE. and Smollett. born in London. "Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth sense. professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. he was skilful as an etcher and an architectural draughtsman (1815-1882)." as well as the works of Lever. his first literary effort was as "showman" to an imaginary travelling menagerie. and Emerson." "Lectures on the Atomic Theory. Page 437 of 2772 . born in Kirkcudbrightshire. illustrated Dickens's works. artist. he spent some time among the Mormons. bred to medicine. all improvised on the spur of the moment. were published posthumously. travelled over America lecturing. to the injury of his health and the shortening of his life. "Pickwick" to begin with. BROWN.S. under the pseudonym of "Phiz. Scottish psychologist. and defined their religion as singular. HABLOT KNIGHT. known by the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward. the highest peak (1368 ft." He was a man of precocious talent. CTSTI. Fielding. THOMAS. the first Computer Lecturer. wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory of Christianity. a humorist and satirist.ramakalai@gmail. ROBERT. BROWN WILLY. BROWNE. and the Abbotsford edition of Scott. which he brought with him to London.

was an imitator of Spenser. and the first to found a Church of his own on Congregational principles. though his project of secession proved a failure.ramakalai@gmail. and was partial to houses where it was observed. or Urn-Burial. in the whole range of English"." and "Hydriotaphia. steer. "the greatest prose writer perhaps." among them. BROWNE.. contemplative. He meditated much on death and the hereafter. and his presence an evidence that the internal economies were approved of. often truly great. "Steer hither... a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk".." a collection of eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque. "rich in various knowledge. the latter" (1605-1682). where he was imprisoned for assaulting a constable. believed in Scotland to render obliging services to good housewives. BROWNIE. as he favoured good husbandry. with some opening exquisitely beautiful verses.. and he returned to the English Church. Computer Lecturer.com seceder from the Church of England.." Professor Saintsbury says. physician and religious thinker. imaginative. author of "Britannia's Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe. a good-natured household elf. his principal works are "Religio Medici. CTSTI. with a strong tinge of the fantastic. BROWNE WILLIAM. when all things are taken together.. SIR THOMAS. Page 438 of 2772 . was knighted by Charles II. and on the former in its relation to." on the story of Ulysses and Circe. "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest favourite. and a sort of key to the others. English pastoral poet. and died there. which he did at Norwich. He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast. died in jail at Northampton. born at Tavistock. or leading on to." adds the professor. "was. Chennai 6. and a parallel has been instituted between him and Keats (1590-1645). resided at Norwich for nearly half a century. and magnificent in his style and diction." "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors. exuberant in conceptions and conceits. born in London." says Coleridge. he may be accounted the father of the Congregational body in England (1540-1630). "all of the very first importance in English literature." "a man.

ranks high. creative power. v. with some of his "Dramatic Romances and Lyrics." "a novel in verse." which appeared the day he died at Venice. ROBERT. went to Torquay for her health." and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh. CTSTI. witnessed the death by drowning of a brother. and more analytic than poetic." and in 1844 "The Cry of the Children". and his restful faith "it is all right with the world" (1812-1889). early given to write verses. lies buried in Westminster Abbey. Durham. finishing up with "Asolando. his longest poem. "Timor mortis non conturbabat. which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861). 'the fear of death did not trouble him. among the poetesses of England.' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the century. which developed early. she took an interest all through life in public affairs. appeared. wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese. published in 1838 "The Seraphim..' In the browner shades of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang.) published in 1833. which was followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835. her work is marked by musical diction. and imagination. Love and Death. ELIZABETH BARRETT. "Sordello" in 1840. Page 439 of 2772 . prepared himself for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary. a woman of great natural abilities. BROWNING. v.com BROWNING.). his first poem "PAULINE" (q.ramakalai@gmail. in which he was not idle. that gave her a shock the effect of which never left her. who immediately took her abroad." and in 1860 "Poems before Congress"." in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows. Chennai 6. but Love and Life. 'James Lee. poet. _nee_ BARRETT." and in 1868 "THE RING AND THE BOOK" (q. of Browning it has been said by Professor Saintsbury." in 1855 his "Men and Women. knowledge. born at Carlton Hall. born in Camberwell. settling in Florence. poetess.. was a poet of great subtlety. if not highest. suffered from injury to her spine. and strong faith." His creed was an optimism of the brightest. one of the two greatest in the Victorian era. Computer Lecturer.' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra. fell in with and married Robert Browning in 1846. sensibility.. of a genius and learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of. after a time. deep insight. this was succeeded by a succession of others. not like most poets.

com BROWN-SEQUARD. rival with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on Computer Lecturer. _d_. practised in New York. a French admiral. BRUCE.ramakalai@gmail. JAMES. stayed two years in Abyssinia. studied in Paris. the general accuracy of which. called the "Abyssinian. BRUCE. BRUCE. Robert de Bruis. 1697. his poems singularly plaintive and pathetic. and for relief from the chagrin wrote an account of his travels in five quarto vols. who came over with the Conqueror. and became a professor in the College de France. and published works on the subject. a French architect. died of consumption. descended from a Norman knight. BRUAT. _b_. in the parish of Portmoak." born at Kinnaird House. a family illustrious in Scottish history. made a special study of the nervous system and nervous diseases. born in Paris. in poor circumstances. Page 440 of 2772 . his title to the authorship of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention (1746-1767). Chennai 6. CTSTI. and who acquired lands first in Northumberland and then in Annandale. of American parentage. physiologist. born in Mauritius. and returned home by way of France. a Scotch poet. Stirlingshire. born near Loch Leven. BRUANT.. MICHAEL. elated with his success. studied for the Church. felt hurt that no honor was conferred on him. as far as it goes. architect of the Invalides and the Salpetriere. has been attested by subsequent explorers (1730-1794). commanded the French fleet at the Crimea (1796-1885). BRUCE. 1818. set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source of the Nile: believed he had discovered it. ROBERT. traveller.

returned and landed in Carrick. French dramatist. Page 441 of 2772 . and obliged to flee to Rathlin. small town in Bavaria. where he died in the thirty-third year of his reign (1274-1329). Chennai 6. after which. BRUCE. suffering from leprosy.ramakalai@gmail. spent his last two years at Cardross Castle. an alkaloid. with Comyn for rival. ROBERT. and was that same year crowned king at Scone. an abbe converted by Bossuet. through Marjory his wife.com the death of Margaret. son of the preceding. CTSTI. BRUeCKENAU. against whose claim Edward I. 1306. being only a twenty-fifth of the strength. but joined the national party and became one of a regency of four. BRUCE. cleared the English out of all the fortresses except Stirling. of Kissingen. decided in favour of Baliol (1210-1295). served under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one instance. the independence of Scotland was acknowledged as well as Bruce's right to the crown. NW. DAVID AUGUSTIN DE. born at Augsburg. the Maiden of Norway. 17 m. allied in action to strychnine. on the Clyde. ROBERT. Ireland. king of Scotland. with mineral springs good for nervous and skin diseases. earl of Carrick. author of "Historia Critica Philosophiae" (1696-1770). BRUCIN. though much weaker. and actively engaged in propagating the faith. was defeated by an army sent against him. and on 24th June 1314 defeated the English under Edward II. born at Aix. stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at Dumfries. managed to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays Computer Lecturer. in 1328. and a pastor there. at Bannockburn. BRUCKER. did homage for a time to Edward. historian of philosophy. BRUEYS. sued for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304). son of the preceding.

BRUeHL. so that when the Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to flee from Dresden and seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763). _b_. whence its name "Bridges". e. in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance. 1827. BRUGSCH. and shipbuilding yards. having once had a population of 200. textile and chemical. quarrelled with the prince. HEINRICH KARL. the foggy month). the church of Notre Dame. BEAU. BRUMMELL. though many of them are now. afterwards George IV. connecting it with Ostend. Page 442 of 2772 . sugar-refineries. fled from his creditors to Calais. in Belgium. who encouraged his master. has a number of fine churches. became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo.com (1650-1725). one of these canals. HEINRICH. as well as some of the streets. born at Berlin.. as well as distilleries. little disturbed by traffic. a German Egyptologist. Chennai 6. the 18th (i. settled at Computer Lecturer. born in London. minister of Augustus III. on his return from Egypt. one specially noteworthy. the day when Napoleon. intersected by canals crossed by some 50 bridges. CTSTI. the bear personified in the German epic of "Reynard the Fox. overthrew the Directory and established himself in power." BRUMAIRE. reduced to destitution. in his day the prince of dandies. his works on the subject are numerous. in a decayed and a decaying place. BRUIN. where. an unprincipled man. cap. patronised by the Prince of Wales. and indulged himself. COUNT VON. and of great value. of W.. of considerable depth. was associated with Mariette in his excavations at Memphis. king of Poland. the 9th November 1799.ramakalai@gmail. he lived some years in the same reckless fashion. it has several manufactures. BRUGES (49).000. Flanders.

BRUNEL. settled in England. BRUNCK. an able French Hellenist. designed and constructed the _Great Eastern_.com length in Caen. and brutally murdered and his body thrown into the Rhone (1763-1815). and was attacked by a mob of Royalists at Avignon as he was setting out for Paris. BRUNE. built the Duomo of the Cathedral. Page 443 of 2772 . where he died insane (1778-1805). of France. was the first to apply the screw propeller to steam navigation. SIR ISAMBARD. MARIE. bred a goldsmith. the first to cross the Atlantic. saw service in the Vendean war and in Italy. engineer. BRUNEL. and critic. was engineer of the Great Western Railway. returned to his native city. and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo (1377-1444). BRUNELLESCHI. distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland. submitted to Bourbons in 1814. emigrated to the United States. became block-maker to the Royal Navy. was appointed to a post of command in the S. joined Napoleon on his return from Elba. son of the preceding. designed the _Great Western_ steamship. entered the French navy. Computer Lecturer. edited several classical works. ISAMBARD KINGDOM. Italian architect. French marshal. was chief engineer of New York. on his release. constructed bridges and naval docks (1806-1859). assisted his father in his engineering operations. played a perilous part in the French Revolution. born in Florence. classical scholar. but had to surrender after Waterloo. born at Strassburg. CTSTI. Chennai 6. the Pitti Palace. born in Rouen. was imprisoned.ramakalai@gmail. constructed the Thames tunnel. G. and. in particular the Thames tunnel. begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849). studied at Rome. had to sell his library in order to live (1729-1803).

about one-half of the population Czechs. about the 7th century. 93 m. promises to be one of the chief monuments that the really "higher" criticism has yet furnished. connected with the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ and now editor. who played an important part among the Guelfs. who had married her rival Chriemhilda. queen of Neustria. BRUNI. 1849. and dragged to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse. beautifully situated. which at her death she seized possession of for a time. but was overthrown by Clothaire II. Page 444 of 2772 . of Vienna. his chief work. and was obliged to flee to Paris. N. born at Dresden.com BRUNETIERE. who. which she accomplished by the hand of Hagen. Computer Lecturer. and meditated the death of Siegfried.ramakalai@gmail. Italian humanist. was deceived by Siegfried into marrying Gunther. did much by his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of Greek (1369-1444). Fredegunde's son. CTSTI. BRUNNOW. according to Prof. BRUNETTO-LATINI. COUNT VON. capital of Moravia. was papal secretary. Saintsbury. with large manufactures. BRUeNN (95). Also a queen of Austrasia. and was twice ambassador at the English Court (1797-1875).. _b_. represented Russia in several conferences. where he had Dante for a pupil (1220-1294). settled in Florence. Austrian city. an Italian writer. a very sound and sensible critic. BRUNHILDA. the other division of the Frankish world. had a lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde. hence called Aretino. a masculine queen in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to marry the man that could beat her in feats of strength. entitled "L'Evolution des Genres de l'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise". French critic. woollens the staple of the country. and wrote a history of it. a Russian diplomatist. begun in the form of lectures in 1890. LEONARDO. Chennai 6. born at Arezzo.

is mountainous. ST. 6. who he thought should. the capital. Page 445 of 2772 . BRUNONIAN SYSTEM. founder of the Carthusian Order of Monks. and regarded God as the living omnipresent soul of the universe. once a member Computer Lecturer. _d_. went for more freedom to Paris. JOHN. German duchy. See BROWN. where each lived in cells apart. and promoter of it among the clergy. attacked the scholastic philosophy. retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble with six others. quitted his monastery. a system which regards and treats diseases as due to defective or excessive excitation. and after seven years spent in prison was burned as a heretic. a busy commercial town. archbishop of Cologne. in fact. he was a pantheist. had to leave France as well. in Italy. a N. and they met only on Sundays. Oct. represent and encourage it (928-965). was for heterodoxy obliged to flee from it. GIORDANO. attached himself to Calvin for a time. born at Cologne. before all. mostly in the upper basin of the Weser. CTSTI. born at Nola. spent two years in England in friendship with Sir Philip Sidney. 1600. as the Earth-Spirit does in Goethe's "Faust"--a definition of Nature in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor Resartus". and contains part of the Harz Mts. made up of eight detached parts. Germany generally.ramakalai@gmail. BRUNSWICK (404). Festival. BRUNO THE GREAT. the first house of which was established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). third son of Henry the Fowler. as sthenic or asthenic. propagated his views in Germany and Italy... BRUNSWICK (101). a bold and fervid original thinker.com BRUNO. BRUNO. Chennai 6. chancellor of the Empire. a Dominican monk. and Nature as the living garment of God. was arrested by the Inquisition. a great lover of learning. climate and crops are those of N.

meaning stupid). emitted a violent.C. in the heart of the country. BRUNSWICK. S. sentenced his two sons to death for conspiring to restore the monarchy. university and art schools. of Antwerp. blustering manifesto. The old town is narrow and crooked. Chennai 6. and compelled him to retreat in 1792. There are many parks. two days before the battle of Waterloo (1771-1815). commanded the Prussian and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution. was beaten by Davout at Auerstaedt. on the Senne. affected idiocy (whence his name. CTSTI.. headed a revolt. a cathedral. museum and library. The new town is well built. and squares. it saved his life when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death. fell repelling an attempt to restore the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns. Prussian general. and one of the finest in Europe. a ship-canal and numerous railways foster commerce. and sewing-machines. DUKE OF. FREDERICK WILLIAM. raised troops against France. fell fighting at Ligny. but picturesque. CHARLES WILLIAM. and fell into comparative decay after the decay of the League. leather. one of the sons of the Computer Lecturer. but when Tarquin's son committed an outrage on Lucretia. BRUNSWICK. art-gallery. it has a cathedral. in the 6th century B. of Berlin. he threw off his disguise.com of the Hanseatic League. an irregularly built city. but a Revolutionary army under Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy. on the Oker. SW. is the capital of Belgium. and expelled the tyrant. and paper. ribbons. and manufactures textiles. took part in the Peninsular war. Page 446 of 2772 . the founder of Republican Rome. DUKE OF. The manufactures include linen. brother of Queen Caroline.ramakalai@gmail. being embarked for England. 27 m. boulevards. BRUTUS. the town-hall a magnificent building. BRUSSELS (477). and mortally wounded (1735-1806). 140 m. It is Paris in miniature. LUCIUS JUNIUS. which. was elected one of the two first Consuls of Rome.

much beloved by Caesar and Caesar's friend. bred to the bar and practised at it.com banished king. but defeated. was 50 years editor of the _New York Evening Post_. Page 447 of 2772 . a descendant of the preceding.ramakalai@gmail. born in Salem. exclaiming as he did so. "The Holy Roman Empire." a work of high literary merit. _b_. bred to the bar." published in 1821. was defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus. Chennai 6. thou art but a name!" (85-42 B. Fellow of Oriel College. forced to flee from Rome after the event. for a time professor of Civil Law at Oxford. entered Congress in 1890 as an extreme Free Silver man. Oxford. joined the conspirators. American poet. some of the later his best (1794-1878). historian and politician. 1838. but escaped capture by falling on a sword held out to him by one of his friends. WILLIAM JENNINGS. wrote short poems all through his life. BRUYERE. BRYAN.). author of "Characteres de Theophraste. BRUTUS. entered Parliament in 1880. lost his seat from his uncompromising views on that question. was member of Mr. "The Age. was twice nominated for the Presidency in opposition to Mr McKinley. 1860. a French writer. Illinois. Computer Lecturer. American statesman. and was recognised by Caesar among the conspirators as party to his death." a satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696). but persuaded by Cassius and others to believe that Caesar aimed at the overthrow of the republic. born at Belfast. MARCUS JUNIUS. Gladstone's last cabinet. BRYANT.C. his chief literary work. WILLIAM CULLEN. and son of Cato Uticensis's sister. "O Virtue. CTSTI. BRYCE. JAMES. the chief. his poems were popular in America. _b_.

BUCEN`TAUR. was built near its grave. an association. wrote novels and poems. the Egyptian Diana. worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers. BUCEPH`ALUS (i. called to the bar. originally a Dominican.com BRYDGES. CTSTI. SIR SAMUEL EGERTON. but devoted to literature. SW. BUCER MARTIN. giving the head the title of earl or duke. the horse which Alexander the Great. while he tried to reconcile them. on the Hydaspes. born at Strassburg. ministered as pastor and professor in his native place. a German Reformer. and on which he rode through all his campaigns. Computer Lecturer. it died in India from a wound. differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli. chiefly English and French. in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it. with their head-quarters in the Caribbean Sea. Page 448 of 2772 . while yet a youth. was M. adopted the Reformed faith. an Egyptian goddess. Bucephala. in Kent.P. a glen 18 m. and edited old English writings of interest (1762-1837). ox-head). BUCCLEUCH. for Maidstone for six years. lived afterwards and died at Geneva. on the eastern branch of the Nile. BUBASTIS. of Selkirk. e. English antiquary. of piratical adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries. Chennai 6. invited by Cranmer to England. broke in when no one else could. American continent.ramakalai@gmail. The town. with a stronghold of the Scott family. BUCCANEERS. the wife of Ptah. born at Wootton House. and a city in Lower Egypt. the state galley. organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S. which they were carrying home across the sea.

driven from one place to another. Page 449 of 2772 . was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary. born at Cambuslang. vice-provost of the College at Fort William. in St. professor for three years in the College at St. of Aberdeenshire. The Comyns were earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309. died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him. near Glasgow. chaplain in Barrackpur under the East India Company. abounds in magnificent rock scenery. BUCHANAN. was buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard. where he died. LEOPOLD VON. escaped to France. and became professor of Divinity at Cambridge. where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the Psalms. who esteemed him highly. one of the first to awaken an interest in India as a missionary field. in 1566 principal of St. imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for satires against the monks. born at Killearn. BUCHAN. wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853). GEORGE. a German geologist. Stirlingshire. between the rivers Deveron and Ythan. a district in the NE. and had several offices of State conferred on him." and his book "De Jure Regni." against the tyranny of peoples by kings. a most distinguished scholar and humanist. educated at St. returned to Scotland. it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury him. wrote a "History of Scotland. imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the Inquisition. CLAUDIUS. and when he found there was not.'s illegitimate sons. in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI.. Barbe. adopted the volcanic theory of the earth. became tutor to James V. CTSTI.com he accepted the invitation.ramakalai@gmail. BUCH. when dying. Leonard's College. he ordered her to distribute what Computer Lecturer. came back to Scotland. but his bones were exhumed and burned a few years later (1491-1551). Chennai 6. Andrews. a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt. wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815). Calcutta. Andrews and Paris. BUCHANAN.

named after a Mrs. Chennai 6. has written magazine articles. the "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution".ramakalai@gmail. a fanatical sect who appeared in the W. it is the emporium of trade between the Balkan and Austria. JOSEPH. and a collaborateur in an important historical work. grain. hides. BUCHANITES. Buchan. JAMES. joined the St. Page 450 of 2772 . which involved him in some trouble. became a Christian Socialist. who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. from the Black Sea. educated at Glasgow University. born in Warwickshire. made President in 1856. BUCHAREST (220). retired after his Presidentship into private life (1791-1868).com there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as they saw good (1506-1582). some of them of very high merit. at the time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head. ROBERT. a French historian. figured in political life after the Revolution Computer Lecturer. 180 m. his first work. is a meanly built but well-fortified town. CTSTI. xii. with the reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe. _b_." a volume of verse published by him in 1863. the fifteenth in order. BUCHANAN. "Undertones. and Socialist. besides novels. in a fertile plain. politician.1841." which attacks the Christian religion. statesman of the United States. BUCHEZ. and he has since written a goodly number of poems. favoured the South. metal. and coal are the chief articles in its markets. and one in particular. BUCHANAN. Simonian Society. capital of Roumania. a writer in prose and verse. the last "The Wandering Jew. of Scotland in 1783. textiles. was ambassador in London in 1853. a tributary of the Danube. picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza. there is a Catholic cathedral and a university.

com of 1848. midland county. BUeCHNER.. physician and materialist. Force and Matter. lying E. born in Falmouth.ramakalai@gmail. BUCHON. LUDWIG. JAMES SILK. BUCKINGHAM. DUKE OF. became minister of Charles II. in the Civil War. born at Darmstadt. where his cause was warmly taken up. W. a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man (1627-1688). DUKE OF. and gave offence to the East India Company by his outspokenness. which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899)." i. provoked by his conduct wars with Spain and France. was at the battle of Worcester. served under Charles I. born in Leicestershire. by his writings and speeches paved the way for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855). e. fell into disfavour with the people. and had to retire into private practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy. conducted a journal in Calcutta. had to return to England. GEORGE VILLIERS. Page 451 of 2772 . rose under favour of the former to the highest offices and dignities of the State.. of Bedford and Hertford. traveller and journalist. BUCKINGHAM. but retired to private life after the establishment of the Empire (1796-1865). CTSTI. wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846). GEORGE VILLIERS. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185). English S. Chennai 6. a learned Frenchman. favourite of James I. was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton. and Charles I. is full of beautiful and varied Computer Lecturer. BUCKINGHAM. son of the preceding. on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628). lectured at Tuebingen University. wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff. of Oxford.

ramakalai@gmail. was inspector of salmon fisheries. born at Tiverton. visited the East for his health. in delicate health from his infancy. bred to medicine. BUCKLE. an advanced thinker. in Kent. BUCKLE. wrote "Curiosities of Natural History. dairy produce. wood. cattle and poultry feeding. but failed. and he remained in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856). and water. thought himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England. a distinguished geologist.com scenery. such as the _Field_. and edited _Land and Water_. of London. editor of the _Times_. had a predilection from boyhood for natural science. and sheep rearing the sources of wealth. 1854. _b_. Page 452 of 2772 . is a Fellow of All Souls' College. the Ouse flows through the N. son of the succeeding. devoted to the study of animal life." "Familiar History of British Fishes. which he started in 1866 (1826-1880). and the Thame through the centre. his theory as regards the development of civilisation is.. BUCKLAND.. born in Lee. BUCKLAND. born near Bath. The Chiltern Hills cross the county. his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects. GEORGE EARLE. 60 m. that national character depends on Computer Lecturer. exerted himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in Genesis. awoke in Oxford University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology. too ambitious for his powers. HENRY THOMAS. where he distinguished himself. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3). naturalist. Chennai 6. FRANCIS (FRANK). his intellect gave way in 1850. Agriculture is the prevailing industry. and died at Damascus. was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel." &c. CTSTI. became editor in 1884. contributed largely to the journals. hill. tried it. The Thames forms the southern boundary. WILLIAM. on the Ouse. dale. having previously belonged to the editorial staff. NW." in connection with that of Europe. studied at Oxford.

where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be held every year. born in London. a twin city. to preach what they. as Sakyamuni. of an intensely contemplative nature. solitary of the Sakyas.com material environment. soul with soul. London (1802-1870). his tribe. the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B. BUDDHA. born a Hindu." as Mahomet in his way did after him. the Enlightened. and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones. the light of truth rose full-orbed upon him. could get no good out of them. which he continued to do for 40 years. BUDASTIS. however. when at the end of ten years. he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862). nothing could detain him.ramakalai@gmail. the two cities being connected by a suspension bridge. retired into solitude at the age of 30. who did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life. CTSTI. like Christ's. and that progress depends upon the emancipation of rationality. leaving behind him disciples. Chennai 6. now he said to himself. the former on a rocky elevation and the latter on level ground. consulted religious books. in his contemplation of the vanity of existence. GAUTAMA. Computer Lecturer. on the Danube. e. Buda (Ger.. till. and became a preacher to others of what had proved salvation to himself. as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone with the universe. or SAKYA-MUNI. and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as Buddha. JOHN BALDWIN. the capital of Hungary. believed was a gospel to every creature. a great commercial centre. the son of a king. an ancient town in Lower Egypt. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left. BUDA-PESTH (506). Page 453 of 2772 . an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements at work. i. e. "I know it all. i. who went forth without sword. by-and-by.C. like Christ's. he abstracted himself more and more from everything external. from which. BUCKSTONE. an able comic actor and popular dramatist. for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre.

and the centre of export and import trade. cloth and boot manufacture are the leading industries. capital of the Argentine Republic. often a highly beggarly one. as it is called. printing. set itself solely to the work of salvation. so called from the place of the inventor's abode. which Buddha. which erelong became a formality. stands on the right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate. in such form as it has assumed. several Protestant churches. a university and military school. improving in appearance. CTSTI. BUENOS AYRES (543). with a cathedral. it at one time overran the whole of India. cigar-making. as all faiths of the kind. 150 m. it is. never attempted to do. but his followers. it is the principal Argentine port.ramakalai@gmail. under the name of Tripitaka. understood to be the religion of 340 millions of the human race. the climate does not correspond with the name it bears. BUDE-LIGHT. NW. who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulae. a great deal of the foreign trade is Computer Lecturer. the end of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being. it is a progressing city. the religion of Buddha. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising religion. Chennai 6. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith. was the Buddhist Nirvana. or of this high order. from the Atlantic. Buddha wrote none himself. Page 454 of 2772 . libraries and hospitals. a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand burner. or triple basket. a religion which. BUDWEIS (28). when finished. knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the spirit giveth life. 133 m. and the "way" to which was the mortification of all private passion and desire which mortification. of Vienna. Buddha is not answerable for this. ever tend to do. but in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form. eschewing all speculation about God and the universe. and though it is now in small favour there.com BUDDHISM. a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau.

studying the English language. a great French naturalist. and healthy city. is a well-built. his motto was _Ense et aratro_. "By sword and plough" (1784-1849). a city of New York State. tanneries. BUFFALO (256). breweries. _b_. 1833. at the E. helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558). and he has been measured by some according to his own standard. was made governor. born at Montbard. Page 455 of 2772 . assisted. spent some time in England. in Burgundy. devoted from early years to science. born at Limoges. &c. served under Louis Philippe. traction. though more to the display of it. of New York. by Daubenton and others. studied law at Dijon.com conducted through Monte Video. retired from service till 1830. cattle. and more than assisted. marshal of France. electric power for lighting. BUGEAUD. Computer Lecturer. The saying "Style is the man" is ascribed to him. Norwegian philologist. 300 m. served under Napoleon. GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC. his father one of the _noblesse de robe_. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between the years 1749 and 1767. and flour-mills represent the industries. is supplied from Niagara. while immense iron-works. COMTE DE. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780). Chennai 6. and created duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the battle of Isly in 1844. due NW. CTSTI. end of Lake Erie. BUGGE. a convert of Luther's and coadjutor. handsome.. contributed to the conquest of Algiers. but it monopolises all the inland trade. THOMAS. BUFFON. JOHANN. the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain. and coal.ramakalai@gmail. and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi. produced 15 vols. BUGENHAGEN. a German Reformer. professor at Christiania.

with hills and fertile plains in the N. consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel. wine and tobacco.. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in 1878. an Italian cabinet-maker. much in fashion in Louis XIV. Turkey is the southern boundary. the chief import is live stock. BULL. VARNA (28). Davids. and "Defensio Fidei Nicenae. Chennai 6. or with metals of another colour. an edict of the Pope. on the Black Sea. rich in minerals. born at Wells.ramakalai@gmail. and duchy in the E." in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN CREED (q. of Austria-Hungary. are staple industries. BULL. The climate is mild. is the seat of a university. the Danube the northern. breeds cattle and horses. Servia the western. bishop of St. and Computer Lecturer. a small prov. with Eastern Roumelia (3. a stanch Churchman. inventor of the work which bears his name (1642-1732). BULGARIA. GEORGE. v.'s reign.). manufactures of woollens. SOFIA (50). and denied or modified by Arians.154). CTSTI. BUHL. the capital.com BUHL. Socinians. BUKOWINA (640).. mountains and forests in the S. Page 456 of 2772 . wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul and James on the matter of justification. the chief export is cereals. so called from a leaden seal attached to it. constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland. ornamental work for furniture. CHARLES ANDRE. the people industrious. attar of roses. which takes its name from the inventor (see INFRA). and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885. is the principal port. while the Black Sea washes the eastern shores.

Norway. Henry II. July 1861 and August 1862. a Swiss Reformer. with marked distinction in the 60th King's Royal Rifles. from Washington. Ashanti. Page 457 of 2772 . Egypt. held distinguished State appointments." in which the Church of England figures as his mother. CTSTI. friend and Computer Lecturer. good-natured. honest-hearted.. was a wise man at making money.com Sabellians (1634-1709). but a fool in spending it (1810-1880). born in Aargau. conceived of as well-fed. BULLER. and was for a short time Under-Secretary for Ireland. pupil of Paganini. South Africa. BULL. has held staff appointments. a Liberal in politics.S. a politician. a French architect and sculptor. entered Parliament at 24. BULLANT. as well as wrought at the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578). and Catherine de Medicis. "The History of John Bull. a humorous impersonation of the collective English people. 1839. U. the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire. where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate. GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY. HEINRICH. died in his prime. and the Soudan. BULL. pupil of Thomas Carlyle. a celebrated violinist. BULLER.ramakalai@gmail. JOHN. 25 m. CHARLES. justice-loving. universally beloved and respected (1806-1848). _b_. and plain-spoken. built the tombs of Montmorency. born in Bergen. OLE BORNEMANN. BULL RUN. Chennai 6. a stream in Virginia. born in Calcutta.. served in China. BULLINGER.

" a "Life of Byron. a famous pianist.. a beadle in "Oliver Twist. pupil of Liszt (1830-1894). BUMBLE. BULWER. was a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575). heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816). assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession.ramakalai@gmail. BULLS AND BEARS. born near Geneva. BARON VON. See BEAR. a French litterateur. was party to the conclusion of several important treaties.com successor of Zwingli. HENRY LYTTON. the bull being one who buys in the hope that the value may rise. _b_. BUeLOW. and the bear one who sells in the hope that it may fall. and has done important diplomatic work in connection with it. originator of the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ (1803-1877). MR. a Prussian general. and contributed to the victory at Waterloo." Computer Lecturer. in the Stock Exchange. BUeLOW. having been secretary to several embassies and charge d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war. (1801-1872). served the Liberal interest. served his country in the war with Revolutionary France. BULOZ. an experienced and successful diplomatist. FRIEDRICH WILHELM. Page 458 of 2772 . early entered the Foreign Office." &c. 1850. BERNARD VON. BUeLOW. wrote several works. defeated the French under the Empire in several engagements. CTSTI. GUIDO VON. Foreign Secretary of the German empire. Chennai 6. "An Autumn in Greece.

ramakalai@gmail. Congress. BARON VON. born at Korbach. studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de Sacy at Paris. was partial to English institutions. to the Prussian embassy at Rome.com BUNAU. and much esteemed in England. now included in Boston. Page 459 of 2772 . studied at Marburg and Goettingen. BUNSEN. (1791-1860). commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son. a diplomatist and man of letters. author of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762). BUNCOMBE. BUNDELKHAND (2. a German historian. between the Chambal and the Jumna.000). Chennai 6. BUNSEN. the magnesian light." "Hippolytus and his Age." i. settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg. Provinces. wrote the "Church of the Future. under Niebuhr. and the burner called after him. e." &c. became acquainted with Niebuhr at Berlin. a distinguished German chemist. India. has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense. a territory in NW. a district in N." regarded as an oracle by Captain Cuttle. whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe. with hydrate of iron and the Computer Lecturer. ROBERT WILLIAM. an eminence 112 ft.S. discovered the antidote to arsenic. recommended himself to the king. born at Goettingen. invented the charcoal pile. Carolina. for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the U. JACK.. BUNSBY. the scene on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of Independence. became secretary. and succeeded Niebuhr. became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England. to please one's constituency. CTSTI. in Waldeck. BUNKER HILL.

. at once architect. near Bedford. painter. and causes at the top a non-luminous flame. that he dreamed his world-famous dream. he was early visited with religious convictions. _b_." continue to be read (1628-1688). JOHN. RICHARD. took the chief role in "Hamlet. and ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world. "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War. one of the greatest. BUNYAN. born at Florence. the whole finished the year after. BURBAGE. and it was towards the close of it. after a time of resistance to them. Chennai 6.. an imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years. English tragedian. which burns with the gas." "Richard III. to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ. here two-thirds of it were written. associate of Shakespeare. and published at the end of it." &c. born in London. and brought. 1811. (1562-1618). and in the precincts of Bedford jail. Page 460 of 2772 . but except this. it came out eventually in two parts." "King Lear. not more than two of these. extended. largely used in chemical operations. a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield.com SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q." born in Elstow. an Italian artist. like Michael Angelo." noted for Computer Lecturer. but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress. BURCHELL. and sculptor (1536-1608). in the spring of 1676. being. his masterpiece.). the son of a tinker. MR. his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment. encouraged by the success of it--for it leapt into popularity at a bound--Bunyan wrote some sixty other books. BUNSEN BURNER.ramakalai@gmail. v. BUONTALENTI. and bred himself to that humble craft. CTSTI. a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the bottom of it to let in air. author of the "Pilgrim's Progress.

received the freedom of the city of London in 1874. born at Bale.com his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to believe. GEORGE. born at Lausanne. pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim--the first Christian to risk such a venture. acquired a proficiency in Arabic. became secretary to the London Missionary Society. he resolutely opposed the government measures of the day.ramakalai@gmail. and acquired through her a large fortune. returned to Egypt. traveller. many of which have since been adopted. a wealthy London banker.P. and got himself into serious trouble. BURDETT-COUTTS. THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA. Chennai 6. was prosecuted for a libel. Congregational minister. William Lehman Computer Lecturer. advocated radical measures of reform. and imprisoned three months. and in 1881 married Mr. the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts. author of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance". becoming M. _b_. and assumed Arabic customs. BURCKHARDT. daughter of Sir Francis. BURCKHARDT.. JOHN LUDVIG. Page 461 of 2772 . and died a member of it (1770-1844). his travels were published after his death. BURDETT. 1818. CTSTI. which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well as patriotic objects. married Sophia. a popular member of Parliament. Swiss historian and archaeologist. BARONESS. joined the Conservative party in 1835. fined L1000 for condemning the Peterloo massacre. inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts. was made a peeress in 1871. author of "Village Sermons. and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817). sent out from England by the African Association to explore Africa. her grandfather. and died at Cairo just as he was preparing for his African exploration. SIR FRANCIS." which were once widely popular (1752-1832). travelled by way of Syria. BURDER.

ancient cap. Chennai 6. HANS. and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies. after a victory or two. it has linen and woollen industries. _b_. and a very unhappy one in later years. N. the "Heiress" in the latter his best (1723-1792). a German lyric poet.com Ashmead-Bartlett. amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531). and "The Wild Huntsman. SIR JOHN." which was translated by Sir Walter Scott. a name for government by bureaux." as well as songs. of Old Castile. and once a university seat. hence bureaucracy. was the birthplace of the Cid. BUREAU. an American. JOHN. and an old castle. Balaclava. led a wild life in youth. and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain. and Inkerman in the Crimea. painter and engraver. BUeRGER. 1804. devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama. a name given to a department of public administration. served under Abercromby in Egypt. author of the ballads "Lenore. celebrated for his woodcuts. GOTTFRIED AUGUST. was present at the battles of Alma. BURGOYNE. English general. CTSTI. BURGOS (34). of Madrid by rail. joined the Royal Engineers. born at Augsburg. on the Arlanzon. Computer Lecturer. died in poverty (1747-1794). who obtained the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts. BURGOYNE. defended his conduct with ability and successfully afterwards. and.ramakalai@gmail. was governor of the Tower (1782-1871). 225 m. field-marshal. Page 462 of 2772 . boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period. fell into disfavour. BURGKMAIR. being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga.

author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom". a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will.com BURGUNDY was. and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections." to which he was to the last chief contributor. and a place of great extent. a scholastic doctor of the 14th century." and another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful. born at Dublin. prior to the 16th century. Chennai 6. and sometime after planned the "Annual Register. entered Parliament in 1765. and brocades. called after him Buridan's Ass. Catholic emancipation. SIR JOHN BERNARD. and probably the greatest that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797). 280 m. CTSTI. "A Vindication of Natural Society. annexed to France as a province in the 6th century. NE. born in London. distinguished himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side.ramakalai@gmail. "a rhetorician (i. he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution. though there is no evidence of it in his works. silks. Computer Lecturer. but still famous. in particular by his speeches on the American war. born in Artois. for its muslins. BURKE. of Irish descent. e." says Professor Saintsbury. BURIDAN. orator and philosophic writer. JEAN. wrote in early life two small but notable treatises. a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE. EDMUND. and educated at Dublin University. is now in comparative decay. between a bottle of hay and a pail of water." which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects of the time. and economical reform. BURHANPUR (32). BURKE. of Bombay. of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass. his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings. Page 463 of 2772 . a town in the Central Provinces of India. an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose of suasion). in the Nimar district. as formerly. "He was. the country is still noted for its wines." a weighty appeal. of France. and E. and famous as the reputed author. genealogist. was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in the Deccan.

ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. born in Suffolk. till his death. managed to escape the Marian persecution. concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870). BURKITT. BURLEIGH. Computer Lecturer. Page 464 of 2772 . Biblical expositor. Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities. got off. author of "Expository Notes on the New Testament. he held for forty years. WILLIAM CECIL. but on the way back both he and his companion Wells perished. whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox. BURLINGAME. BURKE. whom the citizens mobbed. a number of works on aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892). becoming informer. and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598). besides editing successive editions of it. and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts. after intoxicating them with drink. ROBERT O'HARA. conducted an expedition across Australia. a great statesman. WILLIAM. who. executed in 1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation.com produced. an office which. WILLIAM. CTSTI. after terrible sufferings from privation and drought (1820-1861). and appointed him chief-secretary of state. Australian explorer. native of Ireland. American diplomatist. bred to the legal profession." once held in high esteem (1650-1703). His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without respect of persons. sent ambassador to China. ANSON. born in Lincolnshire. a notorious murderer. BURKE. to the glory of the queen and the good of the country. born in Galway. and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset. he had an accomplice as bad as himself. LORD.

and Siam. which is at Computer Lecturer. pierced by an Arab spear. but is mostly hot and trying. Salween. copper. a traveller of daring adventure. was annexed in 1886. China. and Sittang Rivers. editor of _Punch_. cap. of Welsh descent. rice is the chief crop. the heights on the Chinese frontier reach 15. and for his travels next year in Asia Minor and Persia. killed. and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it.000 ft. SIR EDWARD. at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge. and was seized by Britain in 1826 and 1854. cap. and his account of them in "On Horseback through Asia Minor". and with Gordon in the Soudan. BURN. the mines. of which he published a spirited account. and became a Roman Catholic. whose deltas are flat fertile plains. travelled in South and Central America. and bounded landward by Bengal.com BURMA (9. artist. the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785). observant wit: _b_. and bamboo. having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885). lying E. CTSTI. 1836. entitled "Happy Thoughts. the forests yield teak. English vicar. born at Bedford. iron. a tall. the climate varies with the elevation. COLONEL. an expert at the burlesque. gum. an empire nearly as large as Spain. studied for the Church. he was a daring aeronaut. Upper Burma. Rangoon. was chiefly distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary. and rubies. born in Westmoreland. Mandalay. Chennai 6. FRANCIS COWLEY. of the Bay of Bengal. compiled several law digests. BURNABY.ramakalai@gmail. Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue. BURNE-JONES." which give evidence of a most keen. Tibet. BURNAND. Page 465 of 2772 . the country is mountainous. and author of a series of papers. drained by the Irawadi. born at Birmingham. silver. came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. RICHARD. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam. a vast province of British India. lead. powerful man.606).

born at Montrose. was murdered. but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715). master of the Charterhouse. and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715). GILBERT. and a man of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity. born in Manchester." an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles." the "History of His Own Times". if not the foremost. a broad Churchman in creed. of the artists of his day. Swift.com once mystical in conception and realistic in execution. and wrote on art (1784-1868).ramakalai@gmail. his father a cousin of Robert Burns. Chennai 6. appointed Resident at Cabul. novelist. author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth. wrote the "History of the Reformation. he was one of the foremost. SIR ALEXANDER. along with his brother and others. THOMAS. imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment. BURNET. the most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times. was an officer in the Indian army. took an active part in supporting the claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne. BURNETT." and other stories of Computer Lecturer. that of Salisbury. CTSTI." a work which Pope. engraver and author. distinguished for the services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the native languages. Page 466 of 2772 . FRANCES HODGSON. professor of Divinity in Glasgow. resident for a time in America. bishop of Salisbury. JOHN. born in Yorkshire. born at Edinburgh. engraved Wilkie's works. he was a Whig in politics. BURNES. BURNET. and used to spend their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898). was rewarded with a bishopric. William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford. BURNET. born at Fisherrow. London. of an old Aberdeen family. by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection (1805-1841). afterwards preacher at the Rolls Chapel." eloquent in descriptive parts. wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's.

500 (1757-1817). Page 467 of 2772 . became a platform orator in the interest of Socialism. foundries. rear-admiral. bred to be an engineer. imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. N. purchased by the British Museum for L13. 1849. CTSTI. EUGENE. with cotton mills." and the father of Madame d'Arblay. Computer Lecturer. a great classical scholar. son of preceding. a Frenchman. BURNOUF.com Lancashire manufacturing life. BURNEY. BURNS. 27 m. a friend of Johnson's. politician and Socialist. musical composer and organist. &c. got into trouble in consequence. CHARLES. born in Paris. an illustrious Orientalist. pathos. accompanied Cook in his last two voyages. JAMES. a refugee of the Commune from Paris. and popular among the working class. characterised by shrewd observation. born at Vauxhall. BURNEY. BURNLEY (87). JOHN. breweries. and descriptive power. author of "The History of Music. settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814). wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852). born at Shrewsbury. brother of preceding. left a fine library. edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata Purana. CHARLES. of humble parentage. an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. BURNEY. and has been twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament. 1858. wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821). Chennai 6. made a special study of Buddhism." a book embodying Hindu mythology. of Manchester. professor of Sanskrit in the College of France. was four times elected member of the London County Council for Battersea. _b_.

intelligent peasant.com BURNS. meditated emigrating to Jamaica. he was invited to Edinburgh... and died. about 103 m.. but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given. when friends and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay. In them. which he thinks "by far the best that Britain has yet produced. and took a farm.. born at Alloway.. and was about to set sail. soon sank to the dust. devoted to the study of languages. as the heart unfolds itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence. And that spirit. but failing. its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom. "he has found a tune and words for every mood of man's heart. and died in 1796. CTSTI. near Ayr. BURRITT. which might have soared could it but have walked. who tried farming in a small way. "His sun shone as through a tropical tornado. we may almost say. a copper-mine in S." he says. NE. realised a few pounds thereby. forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast. born in Connecticut.. son of an honest. a blacksmith. ELIHU. and money came in. BURRARD INLET. in British Columbia. but did not prosper. driven desperate in his circumstances. best known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great Computer Lecturer. accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries." he adds. soon after he married. To the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more venerable. Page 468 of 2772 . in hut and hall. in 1759.. tried farming himself on his father's decease in 1784." BURRA-BURRA. but took to rhyming by preference. the _name_. of which he knew many. both ancient and modern. Chennai 6. an inlet of river Fraser. ROBERT.. the _voice_ of that joy and that woe. Australia. is the name and voice which Burns has given them.ramakalai@gmail. of Adelaide." See Carlyle's "Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. aged 37. fell into bad health. He is at his best in his "Songs. and published a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end. without ever having lived.. and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon. celebrated Scottish poet. his poems were reprinted.

and opposed his tyrannical acts. was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1809-1881). born in Hertfordshire. JOHN HILL. BURTON. with a great liking for country life and natural objects. SIR RICHARD FRANCIS. an able man. translated the "Arabian Nights". BURROUGHS. manufactures porcelain and glass. formed in 1813.ramakalai@gmail. bred for the bar. travelled in Brazil. and broken up by the Government in 1819. a cultured man. "Life of Hume. historian and miscellaneous writer. characterised by Lord Rosebery as a "dispassionate historian". weary of his expostulations. Chennai 6. till Nero. BURRUS. wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals. Palestine. and wrote "The City of the Saints". his works on his travels numerous.com part of Europe. a farmer. Napier. born in New York.". popular author." "The Book-Hunter. CTSTI. _b_. wrote an account of his visit in his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage. got rid of him by poison." &c. BURSCHENSCHAFT. a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire. on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879). BURSLEM (31). Page 469 of 2772 . and discovered Lake Tanganyika. on which he has written largely and _con amore_." "History of Scotland. a Roman general. and the "mother of the potteries". visited Utah. penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke. &c. and Computer Lecturer.. traveller. accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife. BURTON. served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education." "The Scot Abroad. JOHN. an association of students in the interest of German liberation and unity. 1837. born at Aberdeen. and Western Africa. visited Mecca and Medina as an Afghan pilgrim.

a manufacturing town in Lancashire. a town in Staffordshire.ramakalai@gmail. a market-town in Suffolk. Lincolnshire. CTSTI. BUSBY. distinguished English schoolmaster. among others Dryden. Scholar of Christ Church. Page 470 of 2772 . NW.000. spending his time in it for some 50 years in study. of Ipswich. author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy. Computer Lecturer. was head-master of Winchester School. martyred by the Danes in 870. Chennai 6. a mountain ridge in the prov. 10 m. king of East Anglia." BUSA`CO. of Beira. and South (1606-1695). ROBERT. EDMUNDSBURY (16). or ST. &c. the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes. born at Lutton. See ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. famous for its abbey. named from Edmund. BURTON. EDMUNDS. of Manchester. lived chiefly in Oxford. an English clergyman. BURY (56). Portugal. where Wellington with 40. in whose honour it was built.000 troops beat Massena with 65. had a number of eminent men for his pupils. from every manner of source (1576-1640). RICHARD. Locke. originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture. a book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic. brews and exports large quantities of ale. Oxford. BURY ST.com show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890). but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works. NW." which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind. BURTON-ON-TRENT (46). familiar and unfamiliar. of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. 26 m. dye-works. born in Leicestershire.

born in Wales. by a winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute. in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush. but Hercules snapped the bonds he was bound with. seized Hercules and bound him to the altar. BUTE. and a synonym for tragedy. Chennai 6. his "Erdbeschreibung. about 16 m. BUSIRIS. the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf. one of the originators of the Volunteer movement. BUSHIRE (27). at one time numerous. an island in the Firth of Clyde. CTSTI. ANTON FRIEDRICH. and How to Use it" (1815-1882).ramakalai@gmail. N. with his seat at Mount Stuart. a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage.com BUeSCHING. aborigines of South-west Africa. a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in sacrifice. author of "The Rifle. BUSKIN." the first geographical work of any scientific merit. at one time caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings." and there associated with other desperadoes. nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property. a rude. BUSHRANGERS." Computer Lecturer. HANS. or BOSJESMANS. and separated from the mainland on the N. Page 471 of 2772 . BUSK. and sacrificed him. gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793). and a great trading centre. long and from 3 to 5 broad. nomadic race. but now fast becoming extinct. of Arran. BUSHMEN. a celebrated German geographer.

BUTLER. devoting himself to literature and science (1712-1792). SAMUEL. spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement. devoted to archaeological studies. admitted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1868. BUTE. Chennai 6. Natural and Revealed. THIRD EARL OF. and is often obscure (1692-1752). to establish a conformity between the divine order in revelation and the order of nature. and second. 1849. in Computer Lecturer. his leading idea being the supremacy of the king. became preacher at the Rolls. his great work.ramakalai@gmail. born a Dissenter. and interested in university education." the first three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral science. in virtue of his merits alone. born of an old Scotch family. Secretary of State. to show that the objections to revealed religion are equally valid against the constitution of nature. born in London. Omer. a master of burlesque." the aim of which is twofold--first. born in Northampton. wrote "Lives of the Saints" (1710-1773). and finally bishop of Durham. an eminent English divine. was very unpopular as a statesman. ALBAN. MARQUIS OF. "The Analogy of Religion.. BUTLER. to the Constitution and Course of Nature. made dean of St. born at Strensham. where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons.com BUTE. wrote "Historical Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832). Paul's. CTSTI. statesman. in Berks. was raised. BUTLER. to the see of Bristol. born in Bute. son of the second marquis. conformed to the Church of England. JOHN STUART. over whom he had a great influence. an English barrister. hagiographer. head of the college at St. Page 472 of 2772 . his style is far from interesting. JOSEPH. _b_. born at Wantage. and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime Minister under George III. BUTLER. CHARLES.

CTSTI. good sense. Computer Lecturer." a poem of about 10. BUTT. CLARA. is absolutely without obscurity. made her _debut_ in London at the Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend. was an especial favourite with Charles II. born near Clonmel. the second soon after.ramakalai@gmail. distinguished for his scholarship at Dublin University. but it is too long. born in Sussex. Page 473 of 2772 . It is often as terse as Pope's best work. learning. and ingenious drollery. author of "Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848). yet is hard reading." he adds. it appeared in three parts. and the third in 1678. ever since which appearances she has been much in demand as a singer. _b_. It is justly famed. the author of "Hudibras. in accordance with the new criticism. and." says Stopford Brooke. and few who take it up read it through. BUTT. professor of Moral Philosophy at Dublin. BUTTMANN.000 octosyllabic lines." and in "Orfeo" at the Lyceum. Irish patriot. who was never weary of quoting from it. ISAAC. BUTLER. Ireland. best known by his "Greek Grammar" (1764-1829).. became editor of the _Dublin University Magazine_. professor of Philology in Berlin. the first in 1663. operatic singer. entered Parliament. in which he subjects to ridicule the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the Civil War and the Commonwealth. "It represents. WILLIAM ARCHER. "for wit. the son of a small farmer. a philosophical writer. "the fierce reaction that (at the Restoration) had set in against Puritanism. PHILIPP. 1872. Chennai 6. and retired (1813-1879). but could not control it. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. its wit wearies us at last. and it undoes the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its exaggeration" (1612-1680). a German philologist.com Worcestershire. and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party. it is sparkling with wit.

grandson of the preceding. a celebrated Hebraist. admiral. was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727. born in Essex. was known by the title. stalactite cavern. BUXTON. VISCOUNT TORRINGTON. JOHN. is also famous for its rock crystals. having failed to compel the French to raise the blockade of Minorca. BUXTORF.com BUXTON. a philanthropist. till. "Master of the Rabbis" (1564-1629). and made his fortune. was conspicuous for his interest in benevolent movements. _b_. Australia. in Computer Lecturer. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. entered life as a brewer. GEORGE. BYBLIS. BUXTON. represented Weymouth in Parliament from 1818 to 1837. commanded the squadron that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape Passaro.ramakalai@gmail. 1837. once governor of S. admiral. worn out with sorrow. CTSTI. a Liberal in politics. BYNG. a high-lying town in Derbyshire. he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845). professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle. and won the navy over to his interest. Chennai 6. a philanthropist and Evangelical Churchman. an office he held till his death (1663-1733). fourth son of the preceding. and a resort for invalids. educated at Harrow and Cambridge. and member for King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868. BYNG. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. in love with her brother Caunus. in the Greek mythology a daughter of Miletus. and fine scenery. favoured the Prince of Orange. born in Westphalia. was recalled. such as the amelioration of criminal law and the abolition of slavery. member of a family of Orientalists. Page 474 of 2772 . noted for its calcareous and chalybeate springs. whom she pursued into far lands. a tall man of energetic character. she was changed into a fountain. was made a baronet in 1840.

his vacations in London. O ye Muses. and Catherine Gordon of Gight. made a great impression on his age. now superseded. an heiress. but the like interest in them is happily now passing away. and which he bore like a man and a Christian (1704-1757). JOHN. threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece. poet and stenographer. Chennai 6. author of the pastoral. it is believed. BYRON. born in London." "Bride of Abydos. and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank. and embarking in it. CTSTI. wrote "Hours of Idleness. spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother. produced the "Giaour. which called forth a severe criticism in the _Edinburgh Review_. invented a system of shorthand. was Happily Spent". See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824)." "awoke one morning and found himself famous". son of Captain Byron of the Guards. Aberdeenshire." and other work. His poems." a poor first attempt. a fate it is now believed he did not deserve. who in a year left him never to return. where his mother had taken a house. from the character of the passion that breathed in them. and he never came back. died at Missolonghi in a fit. when a storm raised against him on account of his private life drove him from England. and which he satirised in "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. risked his all in the emancipation of the latter. when at the latter. GEORGE GORDON. under the breath. Page 475 of 2772 . and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge. finished "Childe Harold. born near Manchester." "Hebrew Melodies. "My Time.ramakalai@gmail. wrote first part of "Childe Harold. his poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763). and being tried and condemned as guilty of treason. the earth is looking green again once more. on the Continent. Computer Lecturer. and which he had the sole right of teaching for 21 years. In his school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth." and soon afterwards left England and spent two years in foreign travel. now a widow. spending. was shot at Portsmouth. but she had not returned his affection. if not already past. SIXTH LORD. or anyhow. of a new spring-time.com deference to popular clamour. at the age of 36. moved from place to place." completed several short poems. contributed as "John Shadow" to the _Spectator_. an English poet. BYROM. the promise of such. and wrote "Don Juan".

dramatist. Pontus. of which he wrote a classical account on his safe return home. BYRON. it has been described by Mr. CTSTI. the empire included Syria. BYRSA. accompanied Anson in his voyage round the world. the Roman empire was divided between his two sons. ending in their debasement. the ancient name of Constantinople. wrote "Our Boys" (1834-1884). grandfather of the poet. a decorative style of art patronised by the Romans after the seat of empire was removed to the East.C. the Eastern section falling to the share of the former. when. or the Greek Empire. HENRY JAMES. BYZANTINE ART. naval officer. but was wrecked in his ship the _Wager_. Asia Minor. died in England (1723-1786). Chennai 6.D. Computer Lecturer. and Ancient Greece. who established the seat of his government at Byzantium. called also the Eastern. suffered almost unexampled hardships. and commanded the squadron in the West Indies during the American war. he rose to the rank of admiral. founded by Greek colonists in 667 B." BYZANTINE EMPIRE. till Constantinople was taken by the Turks in 1453.ramakalai@gmail. BYZANTIUM.. Page 476 of 2772 . JOHN. Fairholt as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon classic forms. Arcadius and Honorius. dates from 395 A. nicknamed from his misfortunes "Foul-weather Jack". a celebrated citadel of Carthage. Egypt in Africa. and it lasted with varied fortune for ten centuries after the accession of Arcadius. by the death of Theodosius. the Lower.com BYRON. born in Manchester.

by means of which the Rabbis affected to interpret the pretended mystic sense of the words. v. CTSTI. born at Montpellier (1828-1889). a small square structure in the grand mosque of Mecca. with a mysterious black stone. CAB`ALA. built in it. a name applied to a junto of five ministers of Charles II. and Lauderdale. wrote charmingly. ALEXANDRE. CABANEL. and a sense that there is more in Scripture than meets the ear.). a popular Spanish authoress. and very accents of the Hebrew Scriptures. on which all pilgrims who visit the shrine imprint a kiss. CABALLERO. a collector of folk tales.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. The name comes from a Hebrew word suggesting "to receive. peasant life (1797-1877). the eyes of innumerable praying men being turned towards it from all the quarters of the compass five times a day. the initials of whose names go to make up the word. a science which really owes its existence to a dissatisfaction in the rabbinical mind with the traditional literal interpretation. Buckingham. in power from 1668 to 1673." and denotes "that which is received" or tradition. told stories of Spanish.com C CAABA. probably an aerolite." CABAL`. letters. of German descent. the _nom de plume_ of Cecilia Boehl. a French painter. Ashley. born in Switzerland. Page 477 of 2772 . Chennai 6. FERNAN. a secret science alleged to have been divinely imparted to Moses and preserved by tradition. a secret intriguing faction in a State. derived from CABALA (q. an ancient Arab temple. Arlington. "the Keblah of all Moslem. their names were Clifford. particularly Andalusian.

" in description of a communistic Utopia. attended him in his last illness. Louis broken-hearted (1788-1856). 1498. son of the preceding. settled in Bristol. born at Genoa. CABOT. provoked prosecution. and held that the brain secretes thought just as the liver secretes bile (1757-1808). in which he defended the Jacobins. a Venetian pilot. and especially with that of DEMETER and DIONYSUS (q. CABET. GEORGE WASHINGTON.ramakalai@gmail. and discovered part of the mainland of N. born either in Venice or Computer Lecturer. CABEL. at Labrador. born in Dijon. SEBASTIAN. has written interestingly on. CABLE. wrote a history of the First Revolution. which became the text-book of a communistic sect called "Icarians. his materialism was of the grossest. a journalist. ETIENNE. author of the "Voyage en Icarie. but failed." a body of whom he headed to carry out his schemes in America. GIOVANNI. first in Texas and then at Nauvoo.. and created an interest in. a pronounced materialist in philosophy. in the dep. and published an account of it. and fled to England. certain mysterious demonic beings to whom mystic honours were paid in Lemnos and elsewhere in Greece. Chennai 6. Page 478 of 2772 .). a celebrated French medical man. CABI`RI. CABOT. in connection with nature-worship. born at Ryswick (1631-1698). born in Cosnac. CTSTI. of Charente Inferieure.com CABANIS. v. about 1497: _d_. a leader of the Carbonari. 1844. entered the service of Henry VII. treated the soul as a nonentity. _b_. born at New Orleans. America. Creole life in America. a French communist. and friend of Mirabeau. died at St. a celebrated painter of the Dutch school. PIERRE JEAN GEORGE.

in a mild climate. continued his course. Italian fresco-painter. and of which he is accounted by some the discoverer. and to open up to England trade with Russia (1474-1557). took up arms in his behalf. Page 479 of 2772 . was the first to notice the variation of the magnetic needle. the name also of its capital (14). used as a penal settlement by Spain. famous for its bacon and sausages. of Estremadura. accompanied his father to N. a Spanish province in the N. did altar-pieces. CABRE`RA. in height. _d_. a great highway of trade. on which he planted the Portuguese flag. sailing for the Indies. 6000 ft. his best work. CTSTI. of a province of the name in Afghanistan. 1500. on the high route between Central Asia and the Punjab.ramakalai@gmail. drifted on the coast of Brazil. America. and a depot for European goods. CABRAL. one of the Balearic Isles. Catalonia. died in England. a zealous supporter of the claims of Don Carlos. and established a factory at Calicut in 1501 (1460-1526). CACERAS (350). a Spanish general. as the province is for cattle-rearing.com Bristol. produces wild olives. to plant colonies in Brazil with no success. Computer Lecturer. first in Spain then in England. "Deposition from the Cross." at Novara. for which he was imprisoned and banished. sought service as a navigator. CABUL`. PEDRO ALVAREZ. born at Tortosa. returned to Spain. cap. a Portuguese navigator. Chennai 6. or KABUL (50). on an elevated plateau of great fertility. CACCIA. 1625. CABRERA. attempted under Charles V. but failed. he was an unscrupulous adversary (1810-1877).

LETTRE DE. a mythological brigand of gigantic stature who occupied a cave in Mount Aventine. Chennai 6. was answered by an armed force. a Venetian in the service of Portugal.ramakalai@gmail. CA`CUS. abolished in 1790. in 1450. a register of the landed proprietors of a district. Page 480 of 2772 . in the reign of Henry VI. CACHET.. discovered the Cape de Verde Islands in 1457. Computer Lecturer. the citizens retaliating. he had to flee. wrote the first book giving an account of modern voyages. a warrant issued in France before the Revolution.com CACHAR (313). CADASTRE. represented by Virgil as breathing smoke and flames of fire. stole the oxen of Hercules as he was asleep. CADEMOSTO. and the extent of their estates. CTSTI. CADE. but was overtaken and slain. published posthumously (1432-1480). under the royal seal. an Irish adventurer. dragging them to his cave tail foremost to deceive the owner. with maps illustrative called Cadastral Maps. headed an insurrection in Kent. could not prevent his followers from plundering. demanded of the king redress of grievances. entered the city. which he defeated. a great tea-growing district in Assam. name given in Canada to a hole in the ground for hiding provisions when they prove cumbersome to carry. encamped with his following on Blackheath. CACHE. JACK. for the arrest and imprisonment of a person. strangled by Hercules in his rage at the deception quite as much as the theft. often obtained to gratify private ends.

ramakalai@gmail. born in Brittany. Page 481 of 2772 . is the oldest specimen extant of English poetry. who speared each other to death. was told by the oracle at Delphi to follow a cow and build a city where she lay down. the story goes. slew the dragon. CAD`MUS. v.). at the NW. which devoured them. whither he had retired. on a secret mission from Charles X. and carries on a large export trade. the fragment of a hymn by whom. CADUCEUS. called Gades by the Romans. sowed its teeth. arrived at the spot where the cow lay down. a brave man. it is 7 m. condemned and executed. he sent. in Andalusia. with a view to its sacrifice. CADOUDAL. came over from London. all but five. it was the symbol of peace. became the forefathers of Thebes. having seen in him "a mind cast in the true mould". from Xeres and 50 m. CAEDMON.. who. his companions to a well guarded by a dragon. which sprang up into a body of armed men. GEORGES. extremity of the Isle of Leon. in Boeotia. chief of the CHOUANS (q.com CADIZ (62). the son of a farmer. after a short trial. an English poet of the 7th century. tried hard and took up arms to restore the Bourbons in the teeth of the Republic. CTSTI. entwined with two serpents. one of the chief commercial ports in Spain. on the throne (1769-1804). in the quest of his sister Europa. was in the hands of the god possessed of magical virtues. was suspected of evil designs against the person of Bonaparte. from Gibraltar. originally a simple olive branch. and. arrested. having confessed his intention to overthrow the Republic and establish Louis XVIII. founder of Thebes. a semi-mythological personage. who would fain have enlisted him. but was defeated. wrote a poem on the beginning of things at the call of a voice Computer Lecturer. and separated from the rest of the island by a channel crossed by bridges. the winged rod of Hermes.C. Chennai 6. to whom is ascribed the introduction of the Greek alphabet from Phoenicia and the invention of writing. preserved by Bede. founded by the Phoenicians about 1100 B.. refused to serve under Bonaparte.

it survives in the titles of the Kaiser of Germany and the Czar of Russia. the story of Genesis and Exodus. which he subdued after Computer Lecturer. early provoked the jealousy of Sulla. many other tales in the sacred Scriptures. it is a well-built town. and was by an edict of proscription against him obliged to quit the city. CAESAR. saying as he slept. come sing me some song". and a noble collection of pictures. the burial-place of William the Conqueror. CAIUS JULIUS. and the native place of Charlotte Corday. SE. was appointed to the government of Gaul. and of heaven and hell to come. and thereupon he began to sing. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. on the death of Sulla returned to Rome. lace the chief manufacture. a large library. it is a very ancient place. CAESALPINUS. and the story of Christ and the Apostles. on the Usk.). and finally to the consulship. was elected to one civic office after another.C. "Caedmon. about 80 m. Chennai 6. was forerunner of Harvey and Linnaeus.com from heaven. then dictator. NE. though the title was applied to succeeding emperors and to the heirs-apparent of the Western and the Eastern Empires. a small old town in Monmouthshire. was professor of botany at Pisa. and contains relics of Roman times. of Cherbourg. and has fine old public buildings. celebrated by Tennyson in connection with Arthurian legend. United with Pompey and Crassus in the First Triumvirate (60 B. CAESAR. which the emperors of Rome from Augustus to Nero of right inherited. and gave hints on their classification (1519-1603). as Stopford Brooke reports. discovered sex in plants. a fine old Norman town. capital of Calvados. born at Arezzo. CAER`LEON. Italian natural philosopher. of Newport. name of an old Roman family claiming descent from the Trojan AEneas. by birth and marriage connected with the democratic party. pronounced the greatest man of antiquity. CAEN (45). 21/2 m. Page 482 of 2772 .

born in Palermo. in the fifty-sixth year of his age. CAGLIARI. assumed name of an arch-impostor. though a place of note in the days of the Crusades.ramakalai@gmail.). conceived and executed vast schemes for the benefit of the city. and wrung large sums from his dupes wherever they went. CAGLIARI (44). and is on the site of an ancient Carthaginian town. built in honour of Augustus Caesar by Herod the Great. was thereupon elected dictator and consul for five years.). which. pursued Pompey. 44 B. this roused Caesar. and so by His sacrifice perfect their faith in Him. high. and crossing the Rubicon with his victorious troops. the cap of Sardinia. whence Christ. CAGLIOSTRO. on the S. early acquired a smattering of chemistry and medicine. Page 483 of 2772 . his successes awoke the jealousy of Pompey. whence they were expelled by the Spaniards. who became an accomplice. he soon saw all Italy lying at his feet (49 B.).C. by means of which he perpetrated the most audacious frauds. a Syrian seaport. on assuring Himself that His disciples were persuaded of His divine sonship. married a pretty woman named Lorenza Feliciani. the summit of which is 300 ft. PAOLO. after which they absconded to Paris and lived in Computer Lecturer. at the source of the Jordan.100 B. and the chief port. was a colony of Jews from the time of Tiberius till 1492. and became the idol of its citizens. _b_. his real name being Giuseppe Balsamo.. when detected in one place were repeated with even more brazen effrontery in another. Also C. of Joppa.C. and defeated him at Pharsalia (48 B. turned to go up to Jerusalem. v. COUNT ALESSANDRO DI. professed supernatural powers.com nine years to the dominion of Rome. Chennai 6.C. returned to Rome (47 B.C. proper name of PAUL VERONESE (q. when he was assassinated on the Ides (the 15th) of March.). CTSTI. distinguishing himself in Egypt and elsewhere. N. lies on the slopes of a hill. coast. who had fled to Greece. and he was recalled. now in ruins. of poor parents.C. who had gone over to the aristocratic side. 30 m. CAESAREA. PHILIPPI.

born at Milan. CTSTI. it has been supposed. owing. his wife having retired into a convent (1743-1795). a race in the SW. the High-Priest of the Jews who condemned Christ to death as a violator of the law of Moses. CAIAPHAS. CAILLE. here he was thrown into the Bastille for complicity in the DIAMOND NECKLACE AFFAIR (q. he was consigned to the tender mercies of the Inquisition. of Toulouse. of Lot. LUIGI. v. studied at the Cape of Good Hope." of white marble. Page 484 of 2772 . it is argued. before unknown. and committed to the fortress of San Leone. CAGNOLA. the "Arco della Pace. N. his greatest work. from which. See CARLYLE'S "MISCELLANIES" for an account of his character and career. 71 m. Chennai 6. treated as outcasts in the Middle Ages. CAHORS (13).com extravagance. MARQUIS OF. hard to persuade to reconcile themselves to a settled life. a group of small islands connected with the Bahamas. but annexed to Jamaica since 1874. astronomer. CAICOS. in his native city. they were by their manner of life in course of time freed. of France. registered stars of the Southern Hemisphere. with interesting Roman and other relics of antiquity.). of France of uncertain origin. on his wife turning informer. CAGOTS. where he died at 52. a wild savage race in the woods of Brazil. in the S. calculated the table of eclipses for 1800 years (1713-1762). Italian architect.ramakalai@gmail. CAIAPOS. a town in the dep. the execution of which occupied him over 30 years (1762-1833). to some taint of leprosy. numbering 9000. LOUIS DE LA. Computer Lecturer.

a chief of the Jacquerie. CAIN. born in Cheshire. the first-born of Adam and Eve. of Manx blood.000 marks offered by the Geographical Society of Paris. EDWARD." a popular song in France during the Revolution. a peasant insurrection in France in 1358. Page 485 of 2772 . born in Nantes. travelled in Egypt. his most recent novel. born in Poitou. and therefore of the race. which he did in 1828. CAILLIE. French traveller in Africa. according to Genesis.com CAILLET. and Ethiopia. and much challenged in England. said to have been a phrase of Benjamin Franklin's. it has been translated into most of the languages of Europe. THOMAS HENRY HALL. collecting minerals and making observations (1787-1869). the "Christian. and the murderer of his brother Abel. taken prisoner and tortured to death. in Central Africa." his greatest but most ambiguous work. such as the "Deemster" and the "Manxman". _b_. eminent novelist. 1853. CAILLIAUD. French mineralogist. began life as architect and took to journalism. which he was in the habit of using in answering inquirers about the progress of the American revolution by his friends in France. interpreter of Kant and Computer Lecturer. author of a number of novels bearing on Manx life. the temptation was a prize of 10. though less so in America. RENE. CAIRD. brother of the following. CA IRA. Chennai 6. CTSTI. where the verdict is divided. which he received with a pension of 1000 besides (1799-1839). the first European to penetrate as far as Timbuctoo. Nubia.ramakalai@gmail. CAIN. "It will go on.

loosely thrown together. of Egypt. born in co.ramakalai@gmail. representing Belfast. made a special study of the philosophy of religion. and wrote eloquently on it. of Alexandria. HUGH MACCALMONT.com Hegel. an eloquent Scotch preacher. Ireland. so called from being found. Louth. more especially the Christian version of it (1820-1898). and it would seem sometimes in execration of some foul deed. JOHN. called to the English bar. EARL. 120 m." and edited the lectures and sermons of his brother. Principal of Glasgow University. born at Greenock. professor successively in Dublin. became Lord Chancellor under Disraeli's government in 1868. Page 486 of 2772 . and largest city in Africa. Galway. CAIRN. covers an extensive area on a broad sandy plain. famous for a sermon entitled "The Religion of Common Life" preached before the Queen at Crathie in 1855. so named. succeeded Jowett as master of Balliol. among other places. on the right bank of the Nile. in Aberdeenshire. lawyer and politician. born in co. just above the Delta. a political economist of the school of John Stuart Mill with modifications. CAIRNGORM. though not always. and presents a strange Computer Lecturer. generally by way of a sepulchral monument. Down. and London. Ireland. has written on the "Evolution of Religion. JOHN ELLIOT. entered Parliament. Chennai 6. author of works on political economy (1823-1875). CAIRD. _b_. CTSTI. SE. 1825. CAIRO (400). a heap of stones often. on one of the Scottish Grampians. CAIRNES. cap. CAIRNS. and again in 1874. took an active interest in philanthropic movements (1819-1885). a yellowish-brown variety of rock-crystal.

born in Gaeta.. employed in medicine. The most modern part of the city consists of broad boulevards. has flagstone quarries. wrote a Commentary on the Bible. it is a centre of Mohammedan learning. half Egyptian. having been used to test the innocence of people charged with witchcraft. represented the Pope at the Diet of Augsburg. the townsfolk are half Arab. gateways. still represent the brightest period of Saracenic art. and latticed houses. the inhabitants are to a great extent of Scandinavian origin. as. a fertile prov. of which Wick is the chief seat. not Gaelic. bare.500). a district under British protection on the coast of Upper Guinea. of Scotland. CAITHNESS (37). embraced in the SW. There is a rich museum. Italians. by 28 m. seed of an African bean. CALABRIA (1. fishing the chief industry.ramakalai@gmail. with a bold and rocky coast. a level. and university with 2000 students. and since 1882 the centre of British influence in Egypt. Jews. county in the NE. with European-built villas. Turks. These. except in the W. being poisonous. palaces. peninsula of Computer Lecturer. The modern city is the fourth founded in succession on the same site. known as the Ordeal Bean. is the language spoken. CAJETAN. general of the Dominicans. though much spoiled by time and tourists. Extensive railway communication and the Nile waterway induce a large transport trade. and on the "Summa Theologiae" of Aquinas. and 400 mosques. CALABAR`. the country flat and the climate unhealthy.. narrow streets.. and somewhat barren. 43 m. hotels. old walls. but there is little industry. and remains of the former cities are included in it. and English. Chennai 6. &c. and has all the advantages of modern civic appliances.com agglomeration of ancient and modern elements. CARDINAL. Page 487 of 2772 . CTSTI. The population is mixed. while Copts. and S. CALABAR BEAN. and tried in vain to persuade Luther to recant. and Greeks are numerous.

is inhabited by a race of somewhat fiery temper. opposed the execution of Charles I. and Aberdeen universities (1671-1732).com Italy. and a variety of minerals. a Presbyterian divine. EDMUND. CALAVE`RAS. E. and the protectorate of Cromwell. got the process revised. born in London. Voltaire. a tradesman of Toulouse. Chennai 6. took up her case. to his immortal honour. as well as cotton and tulle manufactures. proved to the satisfaction of the legal authorities in France the innocence of the victims. of San Francisco. honorary degrees were conferred by the Edinburgh. across. a grandson of the preceding. for the high esteem in which he was held.ramakalai@gmail. while the widow escaped into Switzerland. an eminent Nonconformist minister in London. Glasgow. CALAS. and has considerable export trade. Computer Lecturer. after the Restoration. accept (1600-1666). on the Strait of Dover. whose son committed suicide. an inland county of California. on whom. CALAMY. against which he vigorously protested with his pen. was in possession of the English from 1347 to 1558. and Louis XV. was tried. where it is 21 m. and sentenced to torture and death on the wheel (1762). but zealously opposed to Episcopacy. and who was charged with murdering him to prevent his going over to the Catholic Church. yields grains and fruits. convicted. Page 488 of 2772 . favourable to Royalty. made chaplain to Charles II. which he could not. on conscientious grounds. with tunny and anchovy fisheries. and the last town held by them on French soil. refused a bishopric. JEAN. a fortified seaport in France. is much subject to earthquakes. to grant a sum of money out of the royal bounty for the benefit of the family. EDMUND. and traversed by the Apennines. CALAIS (56). is the chief landing-place for travellers from England to the Continent. CALAMY. after which his property was confiscated. CTSTI. and his children compelled to embrace the Catholic faith.

g. and the effective force acting on the body. town hall. and many other English Buildings have earned for it the name "city of palaces". The nature of the method and the necessity for it may be indicated by a simple example. bank. given the force at every point.com rich in minerals. about 80 m. e. though being improved. on the left bank of the Hooghly. while the integral calculus is a process of summation or _integration_ of these differentials. If we know the successive positions of the moving body at successive short intervals of time. a device by means of which Troy was surprised and taken. but the native quarters. timber yards. an esplanade. and jute mills. the change of speed. CALCUTTA (900). e. the largest and westernmost branch of the Ganges delta.ramakalai@gmail. St. museum. Page 489 of 2772 . CALCULUS. warehouses. ships of 5000 tons enter Computer Lecturer. is the capital of Bengal and the Indian Empire. gas. the rules of the integral calculus assist us in calculating the position and velocity of the body at any future time. iron-works. extensive railway and steamboat communications make it the chief emporium of commerce in Asia. the soothsayer who accompanied Agamemnon to the siege of Troy. add to the amenities. are still squalid. or the motion of a planet in its orbit. enjoined the sacrifice of Iphigenia to propitiate the gods. in mathematics. from the sea. CALCHAS. there are extensive dockyards. and tramway services. Chennai 6. Conversely. Expressed somewhat crudely. is the method by which we discuss the properties of continuously varying quantities. the curvature of the path). numerous quays. the rules of the differential calculus enable us to calculate the speed. foretold the length or the war. the motion of a train in a track. the change of direction of motion (i. Bishop's College (now an engineering school) High Court. and the initial position and velocity. and the residence of the Governor-General. the differential calculus has to do with the _differentials_ (increments or decrements) of varying quantities. and advised the construction of the wooden horses. CTSTI. Paul's cathedral. the houses of mud or bamboo. university. with copper and gold mines. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL. the Government buildings. an excellent water-supply.

returned on the death of the king. to establish Episcopacy in Scotland. DAVID. founded in 1686. Calcutta was captured by Surajah Dowlah. and the "Black Hole" massacre perpetrated in 1756. a sentence which was afterwards found to be unjust. though professionally untrained. CTSTI. and reprimanded for not following up a victory which he had gained. CALDERWOOD. CALDECOTT. which were full of life. the population are two-thirds Hindus. he suffered from ill-health. became minister of Crailing. and wrote a "History of the Kirk" (1575-1650). CALDERON DE LA BARCA. served bravely in several naval engagements. entered the army. and then banished for resisting the attempts of James VI. "Altare Damascenum. RANDOLPH. was tried by court-martial. and has suffered frequently from cyclones. Page 490 of 2772 . wrote a book. a Scotch ecclesiastic. being a searching criticism of the claims of the Episcopacy. attained afterwards the rank of admiral (1745-1818). Chennai 6. and has been ranked by the more competent critics among the foremost of the class in both ancient and modern times (1600-1681). took holy orders. and died in Florida. whither he had gone to recruit (1846-1886). Computer Lecturer.com the docks. and 41/2 per cent. SIR ROBERT. British naval officer. CALDER. born in Chester. whither he had retired. and became a canon of Toledo. he was a dramatist of the first order. his abilities as an artist were promptly and generously recognised by the Academy. less than a third Mohammedan. first imprisoned.ramakalai@gmail. born at Madrid. but to the last continued to write poems and plays. Christian. and served in Italy and Flanders. artist. producing the while dramas which were received with great enthusiasm. the great Spanish dramatist. graceful humour. exercised his art chiefly in book illustrations. and instinct with a kindly. became the capital of India in 1772. born at Dalkeith." in Holland.

40 m. for the passage of ships between the Atlantic and the North Sea. whence the cotton cloth first imported from the place got the name "calico. and champion of the slave-holding States. regarding slavery as an institution fraught with blessing to all concerned. begun 1803. His chief work is a treatise on the "Nature of Government" (1789-1850). a canal across the NW.000. Page 491 of 2772 . and any State had a right to withdraw from its conditions. 60 m. of Irish descent. an American statesman. chief town on the Malabar coast. CALHOUN. the first port at which Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. CALIBAN. so called as the day on which the feast days and unlucky days of the month were announced.com CALEDONIA. finished 1823. JOHN CALDWELL. leader of "the States rights" movement. the Roman name for Scotland N. has 28 locks.300. CALEDONIAN CANAL. Carolina. cost L1. of which consist of natural lakes. of Scotland. was constructed for the benefit of coasting vessels to save the risks they encountered in the Pentland Firth. CAL`GARY. in NW." of the grossest animality of nature. the first day of the Roman month. long. territory of Canada. all through his public life in high civic position. in the Madras Presidency of India." Computer Lecturer. since applied poetically to the whole of Scotland. CALENDS. CTSTI. the capital of Alberta. of the Wall of Antoninus. born in S. executed by Telford. CALICUT (66). in vindication of the doctrine that the Union was a mere compact. a slave in Shakespeare's "Tempest.

and winters severe. the most south-westerly State in the American Union. and progress has since been steady and rapid. iron. Chennai 6. through which falls the Merced River. shipbuilding. coal. was named his successor. dry. ruled with wisdom and magnanimity at first. and pearl and whale fisheries support some coast towns. having ingratiated himself with Tiberius. and seaward. The Yosemite Valley. sulphur. youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina. as Sacramento is the capital of the State. Union. the largest city. occupies the Pacific seaboard between Oregon and Mexico. 37 to 41. eastward by the great Central. an extensive. wished Rome had only one head. lead. It is the second largest State. would entertain people at a banquet and then throw them into the sea. and many other minerals abound. the rainfall is excessive. Captured from Mexico in 1847. and fishing. silk-growing. and scarcely habitable peninsula. while he lived in the unbridled indulgence of every lust. stretching southward from the State. declared himself a god. in Mexican territory. the chief port being San Francisco. and Southern Pacific railroads. born at Antium. and had divine honours paid to him. The industries include brandy and sugar manufactures. In the N. copper. in the Sierra Nevada.208).D. is the most wonderful gorge in the world. that he might shear it off at a blow. the original lawlessness gradually gave way to regular administration. silver.ramakalai@gmail. mountainous. and brought thousands of adventurers from all over the world. agriculture is carried on in some of the valleys.com CALIFORNIA (1. CALIGULA. Wheat is the most important product. till a conspiracy was formed against him on his return from an expedition Computer Lecturer. had his horse installed as consul in mockery of the office. CTSTI. in the S. and a delightful climate. but after an illness due to his dissipation. gave way to the most atrocious acts of cruelty and impiety. the discovery of gold next year raised great excitement. Page 492 of 2772 . All products are exported. CALIFORNIA. Mineral wealth is great: it is the foremost State for gold and quicksilver. Roman emperor from A. Constituted a State in 1850. larger by a quarter than the United Kingdom. there is little rain. the grape and all manner of fruits grow luxuriantly. and is bounded landward by Nevada and Arizona. LOWER (30).

CALISTO.. a Lutheran theologian of an eminently tolerant type. a port in Peru. established by Abubekr at Mecca.. his friends. changed by Juno into a she-bear. which is less than it was before the annexation of the nitrate fields to Chile. however.ramakalai@gmail. when he was assassinated (12-41). C. 7 m. I. and he retained the position he held in the Lutheran Church (1586-1656). from Lima. England. III. CALIXTUS.. It was at Bagdad that Moslem civilisation achieved its final development. for the liberal spirit in which he had learned in consequence to treat both Catholics and Calvinists. II. C. stood by him. CTSTI. and France. travelled for four years in Germany. if not in the world. as supreme in both civil and religious matters. or rather apostasy. king of Arcadia. GEORGE. Pope from 1455 to 1458. born at Computer Lecturer. its prosperity depends on trade. established by the Fatimites (909-1171). which might embrace both. CALLCOTT. Page 493 of 2772 . CALIXTUS. Pope from 218 to 222. transferred to Bagdad by the Abassides (632-1258). born at Sleswick. established at Cordova by Abderrahman (756-1031). (3) the Caliphate of Egypt. and for considering the Apostles' Creed a broad enough basis for Christian union and communion. Belgium.com into Gaul. JOHN WALL. daughter of Lycaon. The principal caliphates are: (1) the Caliphate of the East. pope from 1119 to 1124. and placed by Jupiter among the stars. CALIPH. (2) the Caliphate of Cordova. Chennai 6. an eminent musical composer. CALLA`O (32). the name of three popes: C. the title adopted by the successors of Mahomet. accused of heresy. with a fine harbour the safest on the coast.

only a few epigrams and hymns remain. brother. but professedly on a charge of treason. CALLIMACHUS. from Stornoway. CALLIS`THENES. who accompanied Alexander the Great to India. born in Cyrena. the muse of epic poetry and eloquence. CALLIC`RATES. along with Ictinos. landscape painter. was keeper of the library there. was a pupil of Haendel's. which are said to have been on a variety of subjects and very numerous. SIR AUGUSTUS WALL. and is celebrated for his glee compositions (1766-1821). and was put to death by his order for remonstrating with him on his adoption of the manners and style of the potentates of the East. taught grammar and belles-lettres at Alexandria. Computer Lecturer. and flourished in the 3rd century B. See MUSES. 4th century B. Ovid. Greek poet. is represented with a tablet and stylus. author of "Little Arthur's History of England" (1779-1842). CALLIM`ACHUS.ramakalai@gmail. the whole in cruciform arrangement. and sometimes with a paper roll. CTSTI. CALLI`OPE. of his writings. Chennai 6. was admired by Catullus.C. wife of Sir Augustus. in height. inventor of the Corinthian order. Greek architect. LADY MARIA. a district in the W. a disciple of Aristotle. architect of the Parthenon in Athens. noted for its circles of standing stones.C. 10 m. Page 494 of 2772 . CALLERNISH. and Propertius.com Kensington. of the island of Lewis. from 10 to 17 ft. was knighted for his eminent skill as an artist (1779-1841).

obnoxious to the people. born at Nancy. could do nothing but convoke the Notables in 1787. genius for persuading. CALONNE. CALOMAR`DE. but known in England by his "Historical. born in Lorraine. before all things for borrowing". engraver and etcher. CALMS.. DUKE. on the confines of the trade winds." the first published book of its kind of any note. and much referred to at one time as an authority.com CALLIS`TRATUS. was dismissed. his etchings.ramakalai@gmail. a Spanish statesman. minister of Ferdinand VII. a violent enemy of liberal principles and measures. and a "Universal History" in 17 vols. Chennai 6. and a reactionary. THE. and which lasts for weeks at a time." referring to the Computer Lecturer. a man of "fiscal genius." says Carlyle. (1672-1757). arrested for treachery. which are much admired. and had to quit Paris and France. "his task to raise the wind and the winds. Critical. as also those of the gipsies with whom he associated in his youth (1593-1633). after four years of desperate attempts at financial adjustment. an Athenian orator. CTSTI. AUGUSTINE. such as those of the sieges of Breda and Rochelle. JACQUES. who kindled in Demosthenes a passion for his art. executed many of them at the instance of the Grand-duke of Tuscany and Louis XIII. Page 495 of 2772 . could give no account of his administration that would satisfy them.. CALLOT. escaped into France by bribing his captors (1773-1842). tracts of calm in the ocean. succeeded Necker in 1783 as comptroller-general of the finances in France.. a learned Benedictine and biblical scholar. "and he did it. amounted to 1600 pieces. his Spartan sympathies brought him to grief. CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE. of France. he wrote also a "Commentary on the Bible" in 23 vols. and Chronological Dictionary of the Bible. and led to his execution as a traitor. CALMET. born at Douay. French financier under Louis XVI.

daughter of the consul Piso. in N.). a city 38 m. a bitter enemy of George Calixtus (1612-1686). alive to the danger of conspiracy. a fiery Lutheran polemic. CALORIUS. v.ramakalai@gmail. Gibraltar. CALVADOS (428). and if rejected. CALOTYPE. by means of the action of light on nitrate of silver. a process of photography invented by Fox Talbot in 1840. CALPURNIA. CTSTI. skirted by dangerous rocks of the same name. who. Page 496 of 2772 . ABRAHAM. CALTAGIRONE (28). of France. CALORIC. of Catania. the last wife of Julius Caesar. which if accepted when offered. was an emblem of peace. CAL`UMET. with a fertile soil and a moist climate. SW.com Revolution he provoked. the name given by physicists to the presumed subtle element which causes heat. a declaration of war. Computer Lecturer. was permitted by Napoleon to return to France. the staple industry is pottery and terra-cotta ware. urged Caesar to stay at home the day he was assassinated. where he died in embarrassed circumstances (1734-1802). Chennai 6. CALPE. among the American Indians a pipe for smoking. one of the PILLARS OF HERCULES (q. a maritime dep.

Computer Lecturer. looked down upon from the city. after having mastered Latin as a boy at Paris. Peter's.S. CALVIN. Fellow of Christ's Church. identified with a hill on the N. CHARLES STUART. erected for devotion. CALVERLEY. flavoured by the author's scholarship (1831-1884). Page 497 of 2772 . "St. became acquainted with the Scriptures. CALVARY. where he founded a school. Chennai 6. professed the Protestant faith. had to flee for his life from France. GEORGE and CECIL. Bologna (1555-1619). making after this for Strassburg. born at Noyon. Domenichino. proceeded to Paris. the great Reformer. Oxford. and Albani. became the centre of a dangerous religious excitement. though recalled after three years. where he studied Hebrew and wrote his great epoch-making book. Michael" in St. which allowed of no license in faith any more than conduct. father and son.ramakalai@gmail. from whence issued many eminent artists. as witness the burning of Servetus for denying the doctrine of the Trinity. of Maryland. he chanced to pass through Geneva.. his parodies among the most amusing of the century. CTSTI. was arrested as by the hand of God to stay and help on God's work in the place. of Jerusalem. wrote "Fly-Leaves" and "Verses and Translations". on his return he proposed and established his system of Church government. for twenty years he held sway in Geneva. or CAUVIN. but proceeded with such rigour that he was expelled.com CALVAERT. in Picardy. the place of the crucifixion. founders. CALVERT. under charter from James I. a clever English parodist. and acquired a permanently theological bent. a painter. the "Institutes of the Christian Religion". among others Guidi Reni. and for so long he was regarded as the head of the Reformed Churches in Scotland. also name given to effigies of the crucifixion in Catholic countries. born at Antwerp. JOHN. with a cliff on which criminals were cast down prior to being stoned. was sent to study at the university of Orleans. Lords Baltimore. his masterpiece. settled at Bologna. U. DENIS. devoted for a time to the law. retired to Basel.

who interpose between the legitimate ministers and the crown. CHARLES. bred to the legal profession. "it is beyond all question the first serious work of great literary merit not historical in the history of French prose. Saintsbury. an Argentine publicist. took a prominent part as a lawyer in the national Convention. CTSTI." he found time to write Commentaries on nearly all the books of the Bible. who by her fascinating charms detained Ulysses beside her for 7 of the 10 years of his wanderings home from Troy." CALYPSO. born at Montpellier. Considering that the whole of it was written before the author of it was seven-and-twenty. CALVINISM... CALVO. in the Greek mythology a nymph. she died of grief on his departure. the theological system of Calvin. the chief characteristic of which is that it assigns all in salvation to the sovereign action and persistent operation of Divine grace. queen of the island of Ogygia.com Switzerland." published in Basel in 1535-36." says Prof. His greatest work was his "Institutes. Page 498 of 2772 . a name of recent origin in Spain for a clique of private counsellors at court. Theoretical and Practical. Duke of Parma. It was written in Latin. daughter of Atlas. after the Revolution of the 18th Computer Lecturer. as ever in the "Great Taskmaster's" eye. it is perhaps the most remarkable work of its particular kind to be anywhere found. author of "International Law. "In the translated form.. and France. CAMARILLA. born at Buenos Ayres in 1824. and four years after translated by himself into French. Chennai 6. Holland. was a man of masculine intellect and single-hearted devotion to duty. the merits of it being those of full maturity and elaborate preparation rather than of youthful exuberance" (1509-1564).ramakalai@gmail. CAMBACERES. JEAN JACQUES REGIS DE. Besides his "Institutes.

Fenelon was archbishop here. a city in the dep. to which the Welsh belong. most of the country is inundated in the rainy season. a branch of the Mekong flows backward and forms the Great Lake. foreign trade is done through the port Kampot. once a flourishing port. gutta-percha. of Nord. and French Cochin-China. a town and seaport N. country of the Kymry. in France. a small kingdom in Indo-China. and maize are grown in the tracts thus irrigated. in the N. famous for its fine linen fabrics. CAMBRAI (17). the oldest round church in England. the ancient name of Wales. Chennai 6. The capital is Pnom-Penh (35). occupying an area as large as Scotland in the plains of the Lower Mekong. 28 m. tobacco. founded in the 12th Computer Lecturer. CAMBRIDGE (44). on a gulf of the same name. there are some fine buildings. and timber are also produced. was made by him High Chancellor of the Empire as well as Duke of Parma. The kingdom was formerly much more extensive. of London.com Brumaire. there are iron-works at Kompong Soai. CAMBAY (31). county town of Cambridgeshire. Holy Sepulchre. on the Mekong. of Bombay. in the cathedral of which is a monument to his memory.500). spices. was sincerely attached to Napoleon. an ancient city. hence called _cambrics_. it has been under French protection since 1863. The glory of the city is the University. with interesting archaeological remains. and rice. in consequence of which the place.ramakalai@gmail. a Celtic race. CAMBO`DIA (1. The coast-line is washed by the Gulf of Siam. has fallen into decay. which is fast silting up. stands in flat country. on the Cam. CAMBRIA. cotton. Annam. and a Roman Catholic church. the landward boundaries touch Siam. Page 499 of 2772 . his "Projet de Code" formed the basis of the _Code Napoleon_ (1753-1824). remarkable ruins of ancient grandeur are numerous. was chosen second consul. are stretches of forest and hills in which iron and copper are wrought. on the Scheldt. CTSTI. NE.

Jesus. 1352. Among its eminent men have been Bacon. Computer Lecturer. and Tennyson.ramakalai@gmail. Wordsworth. 1800. Pembroke. Catherine's. CAMBRIDGESHIRE (188). seventh and youngest son of George III. Thackeray. 1473. 1448. the centre of the book-making trade. here Longfellow resided for many years. 1326. Milton. Cromwell. Magdalene. and Downing. an inland agricultural county. seat of Harvard University. CAMBRIDGE (70). the Gog-Magog in the S. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY contains 17 colleges: Peterhouse. with a range of chalk-hills. which shares with Oxford the academic prestige of England. son of the preceding and cousin to the Queen. culture. as Oxford on classical. which he continued to be till. libraries. 1348. Pitt. Christ's. Newton. Page 500 of 2772 . FIRST DUKE OF. was made viceroy of Hanover. Sidney Sussex. SECOND DUKE OF. Clare College. museums. 1347.. 1511. CAMBRIDGE. served as volunteer under the Duke of York. in 1837. and was succeeded by Lord Wolseley. U. Trinity.. and carried a marshal's baton. _b_. with its colleges housed in stately buildings. 1584. nine-tenths of its surface under cultivation. 1350. chapels. born in Hanover. Queens'. a suburb of Boston. St John's.. Each college is a corporation by itself. marshy in the N. 1441. became commander-in-chief in 1856 on the resignation of Viscount Hardinge. Emmanuel. Trinity Hall. Spenser. the crown fell to the Duke of Cumberland (1774-1850). is rich in Roman remains. famed for its butter and cheese. 1496. retired in 1895.. CAMBRIDGE. 1598. 1819.S. Chennai 6. 1546. Gonville and Caius. &c. Corpus Christi. and capable of holding landed or other property. one of the oldest towns in New England. Dryden. King's.. 1519. very flat. St. served in the army. governed by statutes sanctioned by the crown.com century. CTSTI. It lays emphasis on mathematical. 1505. founded 1257.

born at Nantes. and as a statesman the policy and action of the government towards the American colonies. sword. opposed. the terminus of six railways. though surrounded by the enemy and summoned to surrender. served under the Republic and the Empire. Chennai 6. but afterwards suffered serious reverses. and was taken prisoner. magically obedient to the wish of the rider. and ring. Computer Lecturer. "The Guard dies. CAMBY`SES. _d_. who had a wonderful steed of brass. CAMBYSES.. fought to the last. commanded a division of the Old Guard at Waterloo. KING. is credited with the saying. succeeded his father.C. the great Cyrus. the prosecution of Wilkes as illegal. as judge in the case. he was created earl in 1786 (1713-1794). sc. refused. invaded and subdued Egypt. identified with Genghis Khan. _La Garde meurt. CAMBUS`CAN. CAMDEN (58). Page 501 of 2772 . accompanied Napoleon to Elba in 1814. French general. chief-justice of the King's Bench in George I. CAMDEN.com CAMBRONNE. et ne se rend pas_. a ranting character in a play called "The Lamentable Tragedy". from which not only his subjects suffered. together with a magical mirror. king of Persia. and in the end gave himself up to dissipation and vindictive acts of cruelty. opposite Philadelphia.'s reign. on the left bank of the Delaware. a busy town in New Jersey. 4. CTSTI. and ultimately Lord Chancellor of England.. U. a distinguished British lawyer and statesman. king of Tartary. CHARLES PRATT. Act ii.S. 54 B. but does not surrender" (1770-1842). referred to by Falstaff in I Henry IV.ramakalai@gmail. FIRST EARL OF. but the members of his own family.

Page 502 of 2772 . King Arthur held his court. the upper cut in relief and the under forming the ground.ramakalai@gmail. born at Bamberg. the first and most famous born in London. an optical instrument or contrivance. and sometimes identified with the Muses. played a prominent part in the religious struggles of his time. WILLIAM. friend and biographer of Melanchthon. where. second master. a learned English antiquary. his most widely known work. and eventually head-master in Westminster School. written in Latin. a distinguished scholar. CAMEO. by means of which the images of external objects are exhibited distinctly on a surface in the focus of the lens. CAMERA OBSCURA. Chennai 6. it is presumed." a historical and topographical account of the British Isles. in the Roman mythology a set of nymphs endowed with semi-prophetic powers. and "Annals of Elizabeth's Reign. he has been surnamed the Strabo and the Pausanias of England (1551-1623). Computer Lecturer. during which time he gave proof of his antiquarian knowledge. active as a German Reformer." both. CAMERA LUCIDA. collaborated with him in drawing up the Augsburg Confession (1500-1574). a place in Somerset. an optical contrivance. CAMENAE. and where entrenchments of an old town are still to be seen. CAMELOT. CAMERARIUS. consists generally of two or three different colours. a precious stone cut in relief. CTSTI. as all the rest of his works. author of "Britannia.com CAMDEN. which led to his appointment as Clarencieux king-at-arms. by means of which the image of an object may be made to appear on a light or white surface.

born in Falkland. along the coast. a Scotch Covenanter of the 17th century. CAMEROON. the highest peak nearly 14. born in Glasgow. and after a brave fight slain. NW. he was on the track of important discoveries." but he fell in disfavour with the people for his doctrine of passive obedience. v. a learned divine. and fixed on the Netherbow Port. CAMERON. contended like him for the faith to which the nation by covenant had bound itself. was surprised by a body of dragoons at AIRDS MOSS (q. who did not explicitly concede to the nation this right. of the estuary. Edinburgh. (3) also a German colony.). known as the oil river. CAMERONIANS (1). his head and hands cut off. African explorer. wrote "Across Africa" (1844-1894). CAMERON. Fife. at the head of the Canongate. Chennai 6. a volcanic group. took to arms along with sixty others in defence of his rights. (1) a river in W.ramakalai@gmail. RICHARD. CTSTI. born near Weymouth. now the Scottish Rifles.com CAMERON. but his explorations were cut short by the natives. and he died of a wound inflicted by an opponent of his views (1579-1625).. Computer Lecturer. VERNEY LOVETT. falling by a wide estuary into the Bight of Biafra. for long the 26th Regiment of the British line. who held several professorial appointments on the Continent. from the quantities of palm-oil exported. originally raised in defence of Scottish religious rights. in 1680. a ringleader of the persecuted Presbyterians. Page 503 of 2772 . Africa. was for a time Principal of Glasgow University. extending 199 m. his knowledge was so extensive that he was styled a "walking library. and even declined to take the oath of allegiance to sovereigns such as William III. traversed Africa all the way from east to west (1873-75). (2) Also a British regiment. JOHN. (2) a mountain range.000 ft. and his successors. a Presbyterian body in Scotland who derived their name from Richard Cameron.

but whom he was not allowed to marry.. the poet of Portugal.). left Lisbon." or the Lusitanians. recalled from exile. were partly persuaded and partly compelled into submission by Marshal Villars in 1704. and remembered for generations after as one of the noblest heroic figures in Roman history. and gained a succession of victories over rival Italian tribes. in which others joined. a rival town. i. Computer Lecturer. a _chemise_). the title of the poem is properly "The Lusiads. who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV. lamented by the whole nation. saved Rome from destruction by the Gauls under Brennus. CAMISARDS.com CAMILLA. it has been translated into most European languages.C. arrived at Goa. born at Lisbon. joined the army. the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). died neglected and in poverty. a blouse over their armour. Page 504 of 2772 . CAMOENS. one of the heroines in the "AEneid. studied at Coimbra. Chennai 6. was banished to Macao. CAMILLUS. and in consequence of. retired into voluntary exile at Ardea on account of the envy of his enemies in Rome. (2) also a sister of the HORATII (q. v. volunteered service in India. in 365 B. and consoled himself by writing his "Lusiad". fell in passionate love with a lady of high rank in Lisbon. whom the Horatii slew. a famous patrician of early Rome. the Portuguese. (1) a virgin queen of the Volsci.). e.ramakalai@gmail. and got into trouble with the Portuguese authorities. under Jean Cavalier their chief." noted for her preternatural fleetness on the racecourse. was five times elected dictator. CTSTI. after. took Veii. not inaptly. called. coming home he lost everything but his poem. died at eighty of the plague. v. as she with him. killed by her brother because she wept at the death of her affiance. one of the CURIATII (q. and is their national epic. Huguenots of the Cevennes. MARCUS FURIUS.. and into English alone no fewer than six times (1524-1580). the "Epos of Commerce". after a ten years' siege. so called because they wore a _camiso_ (Fr. and her grace. and fought against the Moors.

THE. poem by Addison in celebration of Marlborough's victory at Blenheim. an ancient prov. after the Revolution opened a boarding-school at St. and Gaeta. and oil in great abundance. Salerno. an Italian philosopher of the transition period. a secret society in Naples with wide ramifications. the chief towns of which now are Naples. and spent 27 years of his life in a Neapolitan dungeon. fell back upon the ancient systems. wine. born at Paris. CAMPANELLA. he retired to France. co-extensive with ancient Latium. and a trade in wine. of Italy. and fruit. Capua was the capital. Page 505 of 2772 . and enjoyed the protection of Richelieu. faithful friend and confidante of Marie Antoinette. and had their revenge in the expulsion eventually of the Bourbons from Italy. it was a Computer Lecturer. of great fertility. he was the author of sonnets as well as philosophical works (1568-1639). infested with malaria. wrote the "Private Life of Marie Antoinette" (1752-1822). originally a Dominican monk. to suppress it. at the reform of philosophy. and devoted himself to the study of nature. when steps were taken by Francis II. CAMPAGNA. in Salerno. was persecuted all along by the Church. CTSTI. with a cathedral. and yields corn. released. DE.com CAMORRA. which at one time had by sheer terrorism considerable political influence in the country. CAMPANIA. MME. (1) an unhealthy flat district round Rome. aimed. became under Napoleon matron of an institution for daughters of officers of the Legion of Honour. in the W. the members of it joined the revolutionary party. Germain.ramakalai@gmail. (2) a town in Italy. CAMPAN. opposed scholasticism. oil. TOMMASO. Chennai 6. born in Calabria. CAMPAIGN. like him. contemporary of Bacon.

CAMPBELL. Principal of Aberdeen University. a celebrated Scottish Highland clan. with a pension of L2000. born in Glasgow. a tower for bells constructed beside a church. entered the army. the leaning tower of Pisa being one. very common in Italian cities. served in China and the Punjab. was made field-marshal. CAMPBELL. a Scotch divine. JOHN. and over half a million members. the members of which have played an important role in English and Scottish history. GEORGE. Page 506 of 2772 . CTSTI. born in Antrim. the sect has upwards of 5000 meeting-houses in America. in which he employed the words "immercer" and "immersion" for "baptist" and "baptism" (1788-1866)." and an able reply to Hume's argument against miracles. and that of Florence one of the most famous. and created Lord Clyde. he was one of the bravest soldiers of England (1792-1863). LORD CLYDE. was a Whig in Computer Lecturer. Campbell executed a translation of the New Testament. relieved Lucknow. disowned creeds. commanded the Highland Brigade in the Crimea. entitled "Dissertation on Miracles" (1709-1796). destined for the Church.ramakalai@gmail. Lord Chancellor of England. ALEXANDER.com favourite resort of the wealthy families of ancient Rome. an Anti-Calvinistic Baptist. CAMPBELL. and owned no authority in religion but the Bible. and founded a sect called the "Disciples of Christ". wrote "Philosophy of Rhetoric. CAMPBELL. commanded in India during the Mutiny. did journalistic work and law reports. and quelled the rebellion. CAMPANILE. CAMPBELL. born at Cupar-Fife. a son of the manse. SIR COLIN. and rose rapidly. was called to the bar. Chennai 6. emigrated to America in 1807. but not attached to it. won the day at Alma and Balaclava. but took the study of law. son of a carpenter named Macliver.

born in Argyll. and settled in London. CAMPBELTOWN." a collection all his own. a town in Kintyre. which was great. he wrote in prose as well as verse. THOMAS. where he did writing. a Scotch clergyman. is a great fishing centre.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. and a remarkable one for the enthusiasm and the patriotic devotion it displays (1822-1885). he was elected Rector of Glasgow University in 1827. born in Glasgow. and before his death a testimonial and address in recognition of his worth was presented to him by representatives of nearly every religious community in Scotland (1801-1872). and again in the following year: buried in Westminster (1777-1844). Argyllshire. his favourite theme was the self-evidencing character of revelation. in particular "The Last Man". and has over 20 whisky distilleries. Computer Lecturer. while the doctrine for which he was deposed. "Ye Mariners of England. CAMPBELL. JOHN MACLEOD. deposed from the ministry of the Scotch Church in 1831 for his liberal theological sentiments. where he wrote the well-known lines. wrote the "Lives of the Chancellors" and the "Lives of the Chief Justices" (1779-1861). held a succession of offices both on the Bench and in the Cabinet. with a fine harbour. the success of the work. CAMPBELL.com politics. he continued afterwards to ply his vocation as a minister of Christ in a quiet way to some quiet people like himself. born at Islay. "Popular Tales of the West Highlands. a saintly man. CTSTI. among other works. married. enabled him to travel on the Continent." and "The Exile of Erin". author of. orally collected. after settling in London a pension of L200 was awarded him through the influence of Fox. whose character alone should have protected him from such an indignity. lecturing. is being now adopted as the central principle of Scotch theology." "Hohenlinden. CAMPBELL. and some more poetry. the Fatherhood of God. studied with distinction at the University. poet. JOHN FRANCIS. Page 507 of 2772 . when a student of law in Edinburgh wrote "The Pleasures of Hope".

German educationist. held sundry professorships. made a special study of the facial angle in connection with intelligence. JOACHIM HEINRICH. disciple of Basedow. Holland. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer.com CAMPE. the last time in connection with the divorce between Henry VIII. distinguished in the annals of Italian art at Cremona in the 16th century. whom he would fain have befriended. born at Leyden. and author of educational works (1746-1818). a Dutch anatomist. manufactures cigars. CTSTI. he was an artist as well as a scientist. with the effect of mortally offending the former and being of no real benefit to the latter. a tract of sandy hills on the coast of N. twice visited England as legate. famous for his moonlight pieces. a family of painters. a Mexican seaport on a bay of the same name. near which Admiral Duncan defeated the Dutch fleet under Van Winter in 1797. and a patron of art (1722-1789). CAMPER. CAMPERDOWN. CAMPINE. his mission served only to embitter the relations of Henry with the see of Rome (1474-1539). being now rendered fertile by irrigation.ramakalai@gmail. CAMPEGGIO. a vast moor of swamp and peat to the E. of Antwerp. cardinal. LORENZO. Page 508 of 2772 . a Dutch landscape painter of the 17th century. CAMPEACHY (12). and Catherine. PETER. CAMPI. CAMPHUYSEN.

CAMPOS (13). and executed. CAMPO-FORMIO. was conservator of the national records. of which he was innocent. CANAAN. a learned French jurisconsult. by which the Belgian provinces and part of Lombardy were ceded to France. EDMUND. had a Scotch factory under Scotch law. a trading city of Brazil. was in 1886 beatified by Pope Leo XIII. in Venetia. CAMPO SANTO (_Holy Ground_). CAMUS. of the island of Walcheren. civil and ecclesiastical. (1540-1581). Italian and Spanish name for a burial-place. Page 509 of 2772 . where a treaty was concluded between France and Austria in 1797. of Computer Lecturer. bishop of Belley. born in London. member of the National Convention.com CAMPION. and certain Venetian States to Austria in return. in the prov. CTSTI. CAMUS. originally the coast land. but eventually the whole. and did good service in preserving them (1740-1804). Chennai 6. CAMPVERE. was arrested for sedition. now called VERE. a renegade from the Church of England. a determined enemy of the Court party in France. born at Paris. became a keen Catholic propagandist in England. on the NE. a violent enemy of the mendicant monks (1582-1663). voted for the execution of the king as a traitor and conspirator.ramakalai@gmail. of Rio Janeiro. a village near Udine. a Jesuit.

nearly as large as Europe. a civilised race with towns for defence. in the rich soil of Manitoba. elm. agriculture and forestry are the most important industries. through one of which the Canadian Pacific railroad runs. gold. the federal capital. the climate is varied. are of great value. and Ontario are the largest lakes. both on the coasts and inland. and between these a vast extent of prairie and undulating land. very wet west of the Rockies. elsewhere drier than in Europe. the Dominion Parliament meets at Ottawa. Erie. cold.000). Prince Edward Island. and St. Superior. and the western prairie. but there are several gorges. the chief rivers are the Fraser. Huron. from which they were never wholly rooted out. the twelve provinces. Ontario. CTSTI. of the Jordan. and poplar in immense quantities. Manitoba. Winnipeg. and Athabasca. stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific. and steps are taken to prevent the wealth of timber ever being exhausted. but bracing and exhilarating winters. Page 510 of 2772 . iron. the finest wheat is grown without manure. Assiniboia. the chief trade is done with England and the United States.ramakalai@gmail. from the United States to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. year after year. with rivers and lakes innumerable. worshippers of the fertilising powers of nature. New Brunswick. of the Rocky Mountains. constituting the finest system of inland waterways in the world. the forests yield maple. Alberta. each with its own Parliament. but as yet not much wrought. dependent on agriculture.000 ft. the peninsulas of Labrador and Nova Scotia. Athabasca. and the original inhabitants of Palestine. many of them of enormous size and navigable. Nova Scotia. CANAANITES. it comprises a lofty and a lower tableland W. Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan. Mackenzie. Great Slave. nearly every Computer Lecturer. with hot summers. fisheries. Quebec. are united under the Dominion Government. Manitoba.. ash. Athabasca. very cold in the north. CANADA (5. long. Keewatin. Chennai 6.com Palestine W. Lawrence. Great Bear. coal. the Governor-General is the Viceroy of the Queen. which with Newfoundland forms British North America. the corn-growing land is practically inexhaustible. oak. and copper are widely distributed. and E. the Rocky Mountains rise to 16. pine. occupies the northern third of the continent. British Columbia.

a Venetian painter. CANALETTO. the islands are a health resort of growing favour. Computer Lecturer. the largest town is Montreal. the ancient name of Crete. now the name of the capital. Hudson Bay. ANTONIO. and tobacco are exported. African coast. Page 511 of 2772 . and Newfoundland passed to England. and wild. taken possession of by France in 1534. the rest of French territory was ceded to England in 1763. except Newfoundland. a Greek statesman. farther up there are zones where wheat and cereals are cultivated. CANALETTO. the rainfall is low.com province has its university. the various provinces. Toronto. bananas. more than any other statesman (1790-1877). were finally confederated in 1871.ramakalai@gmail. that of Toronto being the most important. constituted at different times. did much to free and consolidate Greece. in the centre of the N. a group of mountainous islands in the Atlantic. famous for his pictures of Venice and handling of light and shade (1697-1768). Nova Scotia. on the lower levels the climate is delightful. BERNARDO BELLOTTO. sugar. settlement began at Quebec in 1608. and water often scarce. and Halifax are all larger than the capital. and dates grow. CANARY ISLANDS (288). Quebec. nephew and pupil of preceding. the name of an ungraceful and indecent dance practised in the Paris dancing saloons. Chennai 6. and sugar. coast. by the treaty of Utrecht. 1703. belonging to Spain. with rocky coasts. CANCAN. distinguished for his perspective and light and shade (1720-1780). CTSTI. picturesque scenery. Hamilton. off the NW. wine. CANDIA (12). CONSTANTINE. CANARIS.

but not how to profit by your victory. national manners. love. where Hannibal. for his services in organising the Free Church of Scotland. next to Chalmers. ambition. and silk. oil.C. on NW. CANDLISH. Page 512 of 2772 . coast.com CANDIDE. it is a sweeping satire. a slanderess in Sheridan's "Rivals. CANINA. one of his officers. MRS. a philosophic romance by Voltaire. Italian architect. "You know how to conquer. Hannibal. CANDOLLE. CANDOUR. wrote on the antiquities of Rome. LUIGI. See DE CANDOLLE. CANNAE. an old Roman custom in honour of the goddess Februa." CANEA (12). all come in for a sneer. Chennai 6. a festival in commemoration of the purification of the Virgin. (1795-1856). a Scottish ecclesiastic.. near the mouth of the Aufidus. wool. was twitted by Maherbal. chief commercial town in Crete. &c." CANDLEMAS. "All for the best in the best of all possible worlds". CTSTI. but failing to follow up his success by a march on Rome. who addressing him said. was an able debater and an eloquent preacher (1806-1873).ramakalai@gmail.. defeated the Romans in 216 B. ancient town in Apulia. and written in ridicule of the famous maxim of Leibnitz. trades in wax. distinguished. loyalty." Computer Lecturer. political government. in a great battle. held on February 2. born in Edinburgh. fruit. ROBERT SMITH. celebrated with lighted candles. Etruria. and "religion. human weakness.

and the title became extinct (1812-1862). CHARLES JOHN. became a member of the Liverpool ministry. born in London. satirised the Whigs by his pen in his "Anti-Jacobin". 1856. Chennai 6. was not equal to the opposition he provoked. after service in cabinet offices. a Spanish navigator. perished on his second voyage to India (1460-1526).ramakalai@gmail. entered Parliament as a protege of Pitt. on the death of Liverpool was made Prime Minister. CTSTI. CANNING. in the SE.com CANNES (15). sculptor. in succession to Lord Dalhousie. on the death of Pitt became minister of Foreign Affairs. and architect (1601-1667). a liberal policy. EARL. SEBASTIAN DEL. the first to sail round the world. a distinguished British statesman and orator. a celebrated artist. and after a period of unpopularity became popular by adopting. was made Governor-General of India. became viceroy on the transfer of the government to the crown in 1858. having been painter. and once more minister of Foreign Affairs. surnamed the Michael Angelo of Spain. Page 513 of 2772 . died in London without issue. a French watering-place and health resort on the Mediterranean. to the disgust of his old colleagues. was rewarded by an under-secretaryship. of France. ALONZO. whom he strenuously supported. Computer Lecturer. GEORGE. studied for the bar. under Portland distinguished himself by defeating the schemes of Napoleon. held this post at the time of the Mutiny in 1857. married a lady of high rank. CANO. and moderation. CANNING. grandson of the succeeding. firmness. born at Granada. where Napoleon landed on his return from Elba. and died at the age of 57 (1770-1827). CANO. with a fortune. distinguished himself during this trying crisis by his discretion.

waiting for Pope Gregory VII. is to be publicly venerated by the whole Church. Page 514 of 2772 . is the solemn declaration by the Pope that a servant of God. abounding in Roman remains. termed Saint. the largest and deepest in the world. being 300 m. in January 1077. long. CANONISATION. CANON OF COLORADO. a town in Apulia. and honoured by a special festival. and costly process. renowned for his virtue and for miracles he has wrought.ramakalai@gmail. of Bologna. CTSTI. and the beatification and canonisation of a saint are promoted by a long. Chennai 6. his first great work. stood three days in the cold. was the group of "Theseus and the Minotaur. A preparatory stage is beatification. in the Romish Church. on the site of ancient Canusium. revered and worshipped by the son of the sandy desert as a friend and guide to him. in perpendicular height. with a wall from 3000 to 6000 ft. in the courtyard of the castle of which the Emperor Henry IV. CANOVA. to remove from him the sentence of excommunication." distinguished by a Computer Lecturer. a great Italian sculptor. CANOSSA. bareheaded and barefooted.com CANON. tedious. as he wanders over the waste at night alone. CANOPUS. much resembling a suit at law. the name given to the body of Scripture accepted by the Church as of divine authority. CANOSA (18). the blue vault of heaven with its stars. a gorge in Arizona through which the Colorado River flows. gave early proof of his genius. a town NW. and which established his fame. ANTONIO. born in Venetia." which was by-and-by succeeded by his "Cupid and Psyche.

of Spain. was shut up in Metz with Bazaine. an Italian painter. CANT. Computer Lecturer. had himself crowned king. born at Pesaro. who acting as regent for the heir. CTSTI. an able statesman. his works were numerous. a pupil of Guido and a rival. and sincere when one cants without knowing it. and a tool. 100 years old. CANROBERT. but was driven to resign at length. was a supporter of Napoleon III. CANTARINI. CANTABRI. fought in Italy against Austria.. and erelong by "Perseus with the Head of Medusa. which he made a generous use of (1757-1822). died in 1411. FRANCOIS. where he wrote a history of his time.com tenderness and grace quite peculiar to him. and feeling what one in his heart and reality does not. ANDREW. Page 515 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. the original inhabitants of the N. the latter being of the darker and deeper dye. retired to a monastery on Mount Athos. who had an equal zeal for the Scotch covenant and the cause of Charles Stuart (1610-1664). insincere and sincere. JOHN. and brought him a large fortune. served for some 20 years in Algeria. marshal of France. became a member of the senate under the Republic (1809-1895). first under. CANT. A son of his was Principal of Edinburgh University from 1675 to 1685." perhaps the triumph of his art. and then in succession to St. a Scotch Presbyterian minister. SIMONE. commanded in the Crimea. insincere when one cants knowing it. affectation of thinking. and made prisoner. CANTACUZE`NUS. presumed to be the ancestors of the Basques. but only an imitator from afar (1612-1648). of which there are two degrees. Chennai 6. emperor of the East. believing. Arnaud.

it contains many interesting monuments. SE. 597 by St. the aim of the author presumed by some to present a contrast between the morals of the south and those of the north. is the ecclesiastical capital of England. a body of tales by Chaucer. chapter-house. CANTERBURY TALES. and agreed to tell each a tale going and each another coming back. conceived of as related by a small company of pilgrims from London to the shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. murdered in the north transept. believed to be an allegory in which the Bridegroom represents Christ and the Bride His Church. and called in Hebrew the Song of Songs. and other buildings occupy the site of the old monastic houses.com CANTERBURY (23). statues. the present building belongs to various epochs.ramakalai@gmail. her sole beloved. the author of the best tale to be treated with a supper. Page 516 of 2772 . who cannot be persuaded to transfer to the king the affection she has for a shepherd in the northern hills of Galilee. CANTICLES. trade is chiefly in hops and grain. and is by some still. It was for long. the cloisters. of London. on the east side of which are the Canterbury Plains or Downs. and tombs. the cathedral was founded A. by rail 62 m. None of the tales on the homeward journey are given. dating as far back as the 11th century. recent criticism inclines. about the canonicity and interpretation of which there has been much debate. CANTERBURY (128).D. there is an art gallery. on the Stour. if there is any unity in it at all. a great pasture-land for sheep of over three million acres. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. in justification possibly of the secession. a book in the Bible erroneously ascribed to Solomon. Kit Marlowe was a native. in E. to the conclusion that it represents a young maiden seduced into the harem of Solomon. 1170. though. in the centre of the South Island. Kent. as regards the latter. They started from the Tabard Inn at Southwark. CTSTI. a district in New Zealand. among the latter that of Thomas a Becket. the city is rich in old churches and ecclesiastical monuments. Augustin.

porcelain. silk. CAESARE. discovered the means of making artificial magnets and the compressibility of water (1718-1772). silk. though the care of governing Denmark and Norway lay on his shoulders as well. a "Universal History" in 35 vols. and metal work are famous. of Nova Scotia at its eastern extremity.ramakalai@gmail. CANUTE. 10 and 13 centuries old respectively. and next year. sugar. died in England. tea. and he had to flee. &c. wisely. is covered with forests of pine. born at Stroud. but at length liberated. long and 85 broad. or CNUT.800). oak. and two pagodas. &c. called the Great. CANTON. returned in 1015. equitably. though London held out for a time. ivory. Page 517 of 2772 .. the fancy goods. NW. and was buried in Winchester Minster. CTSTI. and well. literary as well as historical. 90 m. on the death of his sole rival became undisputed king of England. Chennai 6. it is surrounded by walls. stands on a river almost on the seaboard. carried all before him. cassia. and exports timber and fish. and ruled it as an Englishman born. the insular portion of the prov. great part of the population live in boats on the river. of Hong-Kong. chief commercial city and port of Southern China. and is a healthy town. invaded England. but with a heavy rainfall. mostly Buddhist. 100 m. CANTU. king of Denmark. an ingenious experimentalist in physics. 125 temples. JOHN. (1807-1895). every one is familiar with the story of the rebuke he administered to the courtiers by showing how regardless the waves of the sea were of the authority of a king (994-1035). THE DANE. among a number of other works. wrote. the claim was repudiated by the Saxons. and particularly in electricity. CAPE BRETON (92). and after a success or two was elected king by his fleet. exports. son of Sweyn. its river communication with the interior has fostered an extensive commerce. has narrow crooked streets. an Italian historian. born in Lombardy. Computer Lecturer.com CANTON (1. imprisoned by the Austrian government for his bold advocacy of liberal views.

goats' hair. comprises the extremity of the African continent south of the Orange River and Natal. much dreaded at one time by sailors. Chennai 6. and German origin. two-thirds of the country is arid plain. the remainder are of Dutch. In recent years great tracts to the N. Cape Town is the capital. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. have been formally taken under British protection. ostrich feathers. divides the country into two slopes. CAPE HORN." from the experience of the first Computer Lecturer. steep. the Cape was taken possession of by the Dutch in 1652.527). Discovered by the Portuguese Diaz in 1486. Sheep and ostrich farming are the chief industries. appointed by the crown. the climate is dry and healthy. education is well cared for. extremity of the Fuegean Islands. the northern slope long and gradual to the Orange River. however.. and the policy of extending British sway from the Cape to Cairo is explicitly avowed. and W. CTSTI. the southern shorter and terraced to the sea. capital of the Gold Coast colony. who flourish under British rule. frowning rock at the SE. but hot in summer. CAPE COLONY (1. discovered by Diaz in 1486. only requires irrigation to render it very fertile. assisted by an executive council of five and a parliament of two houses. The government is in the hands of a governor. railway and telegraph communication is rapidly developing. French. a cape in South Africa. hides. local government is in vogue all over the country.com CAPE COAST CASTLE (11). chiefly Kaffirs. Kimberley and Port Elizabeth the only other large towns. which. two-thirds of the people are of African race. from whom it was captured by Great Britain in 1805. wool. the university of the Cape of Good Hope was founded in 1873. Various steps towards self-government culminated in 1872. Page 518 of 2772 . running E. roads are good. diamonds from Kimberley and copper from Namaqualand are the chief exports. called at first "Cape of Storms. and is nearly twice the size of the United Kingdom.ramakalai@gmail. a black. the Nieuwveld Berge. the prevalent vegetation is heath and bulbous plants. English. but there are many small towns.

" a strange medley of curious learning. from Cape Verde. with a thriving commerce. museum and art gallery. CTSTI. EDWARD. CAPELL. a group of mountainous. capital of Cape Colony. Page 519 of 2772 .com navigators. with Table Mountain rising behind it. CAPERCAILZIE. a large game-bird found in fir woods in mountainous districts.ramakalai@gmail. with handsome buildings and extensive Government gardens. with an excellent harbour. Edmunds. is a regularly built. with notes and various readings (1713-1781). oftenest visited. an inspector of plays. an encyclopaedist.. and a graving dock. spent 20 years in editing the text of Shakespeare. CAPELLA. born in North Africa in the 5th century. paved. belonging to Portugal. Computer Lecturer. and highly esteemed for table. altered in consideration of the promised land reached beyond. The Government buildings and law courts. and cattle-breeding is the chief industry. in three vols. These islands are unhealthy. and is a port of call for vessels of all nations. bank and exchange. born at Bury St. author of a work called the "Satiricon. well drained. on the SW. Chennai 6. on the W. Vincent. It has docks. a reddish star of the first magnitude in the northern constellation of Auriga. CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (110). 350 m. volcanic islands. are its chief architectural features. the largest and most productive Santiago and St. of which 10 are inhabited. flat-roofed. the wood-grouse. and lit. CAPE TOWN (84). of Africa. and with a good water supply. CAPELLA. imposing town. situated at the head of Table Bay. coast.

GIOVANNI DA. CAPGRAVE. CAPO D'ISTRIA. Augustine friar.com CAPERNAUM. wrote "Chronicle of England. side of the Sea of Galilee. JOHN. Page 520 of 2772 . in 987. CAPITULARIES. born in Corfu. having been officially designated as a Capet at his trial." and voluminously both in French and English (1393-1464). CAPITOL. from which criminals guilty of treason were precipitated. CTSTI. terminated at its southern extremity by Tarpeian Rock. entered the Russian diplomatic service. of the third dynasty of French kings. which ruled till 1589. which ruled till 1848. though the name is applied both to the Valois dynasty. as distinct from the laws for the separate peoples comprising it. hence the saying. played a prominent part in the insurrection of the Computer Lecturer. with sanction of the nobles. the exact site of which is uncertain. COUNT OF. a rabid adversary of the Hussites. one of the seven hills of Rome. which continued to rule France till 1328.ramakalai@gmail. aided John Hunniades in 1456 in defending Belgrade against the Turks (1385-1456). collections of royal edicts issued by the Frankish kings of the Carlovingian dynasty. the most famous being those issued or begun by Charlemagne and St. the surname of Hugh. CAPISTRANO. Chennai 6. for the whole Frankish empire. the founder. an Italian Franciscan. "The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitol. the centre of Christ's labours. Louis XVI. and the Bourbon. and where victors who were voted a triumph were crowned." to denote the close connection between glory and disgrace. Louis. a temple and citadel erected by Tarquin on the Capitoline Hill. and under that name sentenced to the guillotine. CAPET. a town on the N.

or rather near which. in 1890 succeeded Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor. where. CAPPADOCIA. from the luxurious life they led. a fortified city in Campania.C. Hannibal. where he died. born at Bologna. barren island off the N. CAPUA (11). 27 m. a favourite retreat of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius. CARDINAL. after which it was taken by the Romans. Computer Lecturer. retired with his army to spend the winter after the battle of Cannae. of the bay of Naples. and the modern city built in its stead. assassinated at Nauplia from distrust of his fidelity (1776-1831). an ancient country in the heart of Asia Minor. the home of Garibaldi. legate of Pius VII. a plateau with pastures for immense flocks. N. entered the army in 1849. resigned in 1894 (1831-1899). held chief posts in the Austrian and Franco-German wars. at the invitation of the citizens. CTSTI. 216 B. a port of a small island in the government of Trieste. connected with the mainland by a causeway half a mile in length. COUNT. in a place of the same name. concluded the "Concordat" of 1801 (1733-1810). and his burial-place. made President of the Greek Republic. and noted for its fine air and picturesque scenery. of varied political fortune. CAPRIVI. of Naples. Page 521 of 2772 . destroyed by the Saracens in 840.ramakalai@gmail. born in Berlin..com Greeks against Turkey. a small. and where. CAPRARA. with a capital of the same name on the eastern side. CAPO D'ISTRIA. Chennai 6. coast of Sardinia. in France. CAPRE`RA. CAPRI. a small island at the entrance from the S. his soldiers were enervated. on the Volturno.

assisted him in the frescoes of the gallery. so called from a cowl they wear. and extravagances.com CAPUCHINS. familiar to us through Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet. they were a mendicant order. it contains the tomb of Bolivar. founded in 1526. "Three Marys weeping over Christ". a family of painters. CARACAS or CARRACAS (72). or imitation of the styles of the best masters (1555-1619). his reign (211-217) was a series of crimes. though they exist still in Austria and Switzerland. CARACALLA. brother of above. CAPYBA`RA. son of Septimius Severus. cousin and pupil. Jerome" his greatest work Computer Lecturer. a celebrated Ghibelline family of Verona at mortal feud with that of the Montagues. did "St. born at Bologna: LUDOVICO. and great part of the city was destroyed. AGOSTINO. a work which occupied him four years (1560-1609). the founder of a new school of painting. CAPULETS. the largest rodent extant. stands at an altitude 3000 ft. Chennai 6. he put to death 20. Roche distributing Alms. follies.ramakalai@gmail. the water-hog. a Roman emperor." and his chief. subject to earthquakes. in appearance like a small pig. CTSTI. of Venezuela. monks of the Franciscan Order. the "Communion of St. went to Rome and painted the celebrated Farnese gallery.000 perished. in consequence of which it is known as the Eclectic School.000 persons. and were twice over suppressed by the Pope. the principle of which was eclecticism. above the level of the sea. Page 522 of 2772 . born at Lyons. the cap." Romeo being of the latter and Juliet of the former. among others the jurist Papinianus. CARACCI or CARRACCI. in one of which (1812) 12. ANNIBALE. and was assassinated himself by one of his guards.

disdained the ideal and the ideal style of art. a large unfurnished inn. and kept generally to crass reality. Page 523 of 2772 . king of the Silures. famous for his valour and the chastity and constancy of his wife.. after the works of the great masters (1500-1570). CTSTI. an eminent Italian engraver. which hastened his end. often in its grossest forms.ramakalai@gmail. the latter in the proportion in which they exist in water. when the Emperor Claudius was so struck with his dignified demeanour. CARAFFA. a man of a violent temper. taken captive. and oxygen. with a court in the middle for the accommodation of caravans and other travellers at night in the East. starch. engraved on gems and medals as well as copper-plate. &c.com (1557-1602). CARAVAGGIO. hydrogen.. CARBOHYDRATES. a class of substances such as the sugars. a distinguished Neapolitan family. a knight of the Round Table. CARAGLIO. Computer Lecturer. born at Verona. Chennai 6. a painting by him of "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" is in the National Gallery. that he set him and all his companions at liberty.D. CARADOC. one of them. Paul IV. consisting of carbon. London (1569-1609). an Italian painter. a British chief. 50 A. maintained a gallant struggle against the Romans for nine years. which gave birth to a number of distinguished ecclesiastics. CARACTACUS. and led in triumphal procession through Rome. CARAVANSERAI. but was overthrown by Ostorius.

CARDIFF (129). a county in S. Italian physician and mathematician. having had at the beginning of the century only 2000 inhabitants. on the equipment of which he lavished large sums of money (1797-1868).ramakalai@gmail. his favourite regiment. few of them belonging to the Church of England. _charcoal burners_). made discoveries in algebra. and has also three daily papers. he is said to have starved himself to death so as to fulfil a prophecy he had made as to the term of his life (1501-1576). studied and wrote on all manner of known subjects. a town that has risen more rapidly than any other in the kingdom. numbering hundreds of thousands. on the river Taff. Wales. Computer Lecturer. Page 524 of 2772 . county town of Glamorganshire. a British officer. JEROME. low-lying on the coast. they were broken up by Austria. included Lord Byron. a number of churches. and distinguished himself in the famous charge of the Six Hundred. CARDIGAN. originated in Italy and extended itself into France. was far-famed as a physician. and mountainous in the interior. Wales. born at Pavia. CTSTI. EARL OF. Silvio Pellico.com CARBONARI (lit. it has a university. the object of which was the overthrow of despotic governments. and absorbed by the Young Italy party. in the beginning of the 19th century. was the author of "Cardan's Formula" a formula for the solution of cubic equations. level towards the coast. and Mazzini among them. the sea outlet for the mineral wealth and products of the district. commanded the Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimean war. believed in astrology. but with fertile valleys. left a candid account of himself entitled "De Vita Propria". CARDIGANSHIRE (62). a secret society that. Chennai 6. S. which he led. the 11th Hussars. CARDAN.

ramakalai@gmail. SIR ROBERT. Computer Lecturer. did their chief work in Spain. composed "Sally in Our Alley". present at her deathbed rode off post-haste on the occurrence of the death with the news to Edinburgh to announce it to King James (1560-1639). chiefly masks and lyrics (1589-1639). his poems. HENRY. brothers. 1743. Chennai 6. CAREY. an Italian poet and critic. excelled in ballads. English poet and musician. GIOSUE. but are the chief guards or sources of the material means of life. Florentine artists. Page 525 of 2772 ." he adds. CAREW. and the governing powers and princes of economy. Justice (the spirit which rules and divides rightly). and Temperance (the spirit which stops and refuses rightly)." CARDINALISTS. Fortitude (the spirit that persists and endures rightly). under four general heads. 1837." and are defined by Ruskin as "Prudence or Discretion (the spirit which discerns and adopts rightly). of the 17th century." &c. THOMAS. CARDUCCI." "Commentaries on Petrarch. CTSTI. CAREY. name given to the partisans in France of Richelieu and Mazarin. author of "Hymn to Satan. _b_. "are not only the means of protecting and prolonging life itself.com CARDINAL VIRTUES. CARDUCCI." "Odi Barbari.. These cardinal and sentinel virtues. _d_. warden of the Border Marches under Elizabeth. these have been "arranged by the wisest men of all time. English courtier poet.

WILLIAM. celebrated Baptist missionary. now confined to the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea. and is the turning-point of the Gulf Stream. Computer Lecturer. since 1849 crownland of Austria. distributing Bibles and tracts by thousands in native languages. but have lost their distinctive physique by amalgamation with other tribes. suffered at the Cross of Edinburgh for daring to excommunicate the king. as well as preparing grammars and dictionaries. Page 526 of 2772 . in the castle of which. CARIBS. bordering on the Archipelago.ramakalai@gmail. a SW. CARISBROOKE. a village in the Isle of Wight. Klagenfurt. an inland sea of the Atlantic. tall. Glasgow. CARGILL. Chennai 6. a Scotch Covenanter. they give name to the Caribbean Sea. and of ruddy-brown complexion. died with the faith and courage of a martyr (1619-1681). CARIA. rears cattle and horses. subject to hurricanes. the principal river is the Drave. originally inhabiting the West Indies. they are a fine race. near Italy. country in Asia Minor. founder of the Baptist Missionary Society.com CAREY. was minister of the Barony Parish. fought at Bothwell Brig. born in Perthshire. manufactures hardware and textile fabrics. CARINTHIA (361). founded the mission at Serampore and directed its operations. CARIBBEAN SEA. it corresponds to the Mediterranean in Europe. a race of American Indians. lying between the Great Antilles and South America. CTSTI. was 29 years Oriental professor in the College of Fort William. of which the Maeander is the chief river. capital. DONALD. is a mountainous and a mineral country. born in Northamptonshire. and its first missionary. as far as the mouth of the Amazon. Calcutta (1761-1834).

his wife included. his first work. Page 527 of 2772 . on the Eden. and a cathedral founded by William Rufus and dedicated to Henry I. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. some 30 in number. CARLI. WILLIAM. was imprisoned 13 months before his trial. CARLISLE. and in that interest did not suffer in vain (1790-1843). wrote as his chief work on political economy. numismatist. Irish novelist. CARLETON. although he time after time suffered imprisonment for it. his principal organ was "The Republican. Chennai 6. "Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry. as well as those who associated themselves with him. he was a martyr for the freedom of the press. her novels. it was at one time a Roman station.com now in ruins. and propagandist of his views with a zeal which no prosecution could subdue. born at Capo d'Istria. and the foundation of his reputation. with an old castle of historical interest. a disciple of Tom Paine's." followed by others of a like class (1794-1860). president of the Council of Commerce at Milan (1720-1795). and became eventually Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Palmerston (1802-1864)." the first twelve volumes of which are dated from his prison. supported the successive Whig administrations of his time. a Whig in politics. GEORGE FREDERICK WILLIAM HOWARD. born in Devonshire. CARLILE. and economist. Italian archaeologist. EMILIA. RICHARD. English Radical and Freethinker. Swedish novelist. CARLISLE (39). treat of the everyday life of the lower and middle classes (1807-1883). Charles I. a great railway centre. county town of Cumberland. EARL OF. CARLEN. Computer Lecturer.

the brother of Ferdinand VII. born at Valladolid. where he died. CARLOS. DON. _d_. was seized. and brother of Charlemagne. and abdicated in favour of his son (1785-1855). CARLOS. his cause was taken up by a large party. but from incapacity. DON. of Spain. and heir to the throne. (1830). he urged. of Spain. a name given in France to the partisans of Charles X. the German poet (1545-1568). Chennai 6. king of Austrasia. and convicted. son of Pepin le Bref. Burgundy. and the struggle kept up for years. had. CARLOS.. king of Austrasia from 741 to 747. 884.ramakalai@gmail. DON. and retired into a monastery. though sentence against him was never pronounced. Computer Lecturer. excluded by his father from all share in the government. though set aside in her favour by her father. CARLOMAN. and Provence in 768. and heir to his rights. the story of Don Carlos has formed the subject of tragedies. died shortly after. and brother of Pepin le Bref. _d_. and especially in Spain to those of Don Carlos (1833). king of France conjointly with his brother Louis III. Ferdinand's daughter who by the Salic law. CARLOMAN. grandson of the preceding. CTSTI. son of Charles Martel. 771. son of Philip II. abdicated. no right to the throne.com CARLISTS. on whose death he laid claim to the crown as heir. tried. especially one by Schiller. confessed to a priest a design to assassinate some one. believed to be his father. against Isabella. Page 528 of 2772 . or worse. defeated at length he retired from the contest. and those of his grandson (1873-1874). CARLOMAN.

took refuge in London. Chennai 6. and Louis V. on the Baltic. associated for a time with Luther. and gave name to the dynasty. 1848. population nearly trebled in the season. 32 in number. which had become _faineant_. or KARLINGS. of Belgrade. _b_. but Computer Lecturer. and arsenal. a great railway centre. CARLOVINGIANS. naval station. it is built on five rocky islands united by dykes and bridges. CTSTI. strongly fortified. CARLSBAD (10). Charlemagne was the greatest of the race. Ireland. its streets. the name of the second dynasty of Frankish kings. Pepin le Bref the first. a Swedish town. 30 m. CARLSTADT. in succession to the Merovingian. also the county town. CARLSCRONA (21). radiating so from the duke's palace in the centre. the water varying from 117 deg. CARLOWITZ. a celebrated watering-place in Bohemia. of aristocratic resort. very much to the curtailment of the territories of the former. the springs being the hottest in Europe. an inland county in Leinster. a German Reformer. the last.com revived the struggle in 1870. with a spacious harbour. CARLSRUHE (73). a town on the Danube. where a treaty was concluded in 1699 between Turkey and other European powers. CALLOW (40).ramakalai@gmail. NW. built in the form of a fan. the inhabitants are engaged in industries which minister to the tastes of the visitors and their own profit. but fared no better than his grandfather. bore sway from 762 to 987. Page 529 of 2772 . to 165 deg. the capital of the Grand-Duchy of Baden..

Page 530 of 2772 . then at Kirkcaldy. removed to Edinburgh. and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia. as erected on the site of Carlton House. "the loneliest nook in Britain. a woman of deep piety and warm affection. CTSTI. in Dumfriesshire. and an autobiographical. educated at the parish school and Annan Academy. left an "Autobiography. CARLTON CLUB. a man of great force. and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews. and Home. Musselburgh.com parted from him both on practical and dogmatical grounds." written in 1831. Adam Smith. and occupied by George IV. son of James Carlyle. demolished in 1828. so called. which shows its author to have been a man who took things as he found them. entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14. where he wrote his "French Computer Lecturer. succeeded Zwingli as professor at Basel (1483-1541). THOMAS. and afterwards a small farmer. a radically spiritual book. from his noble head and imposing person. in the Arts classes. a stone-mason." which was not published till 1860. the Conservative club in London. enrolled as a student in the theological department. Chennai 6." where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus. formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving. when he was Prince of Wales. born in the village of Ecclefechan. removed to Craigenputtock. surnamed Jupiter Carlyle. ALEXANDER. distinguished himself early in mathematics. removed to London in 1834. Annandale. from 1747 to his death. CARLYLE." proved "epoch-making" in British literature. Dumfriesshire. minister of Inveresk. CARLYLE. wrote a "Life of Schiller". cultured pagan (1722-1805). and enjoyed them to the full as any easy-going. born in Dumfriesshire. the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies. penetration. a leader of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland. and integrity of character. the author of "Douglas". though all too exclusively treated as a speculative. friend of David Hume. a descendant of John Knox. became a teacher first in Annan Academy. and a symbolical. married Jane Welsh. threw up both school-mastering and the church. and of Margaret Aitken.ramakalai@gmail.

"that is a Judgment Day. "a book. CARMEL. the most serious question of the time." and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets".." which to the last he regarded. lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born. the social life affects the individual life to the very core. John Sterling. in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell.com Revolution" (1837). Page 531 of 2772 . "who alone of all our masters of literature." says Froude. CARMARTHENSHIRE (30). contains part of the coal-fields in the district. the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man. the Plain of Esdraelon. concluded (1858-1865) his life's task. the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship. of Prussia." "the last and grandest of his works. a Red-republican song and dance. and at present. seeing. on the right bank of the Towy. has written. a NW. as would seem. and terminates in a rocky Computer Lecturer. CTSTI.. delivered three courses of lectures to the _elite_ of London Society (1837-1840)." afterwards printed in 1840. "The man. the last. what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear. in 1840 appeared "Chartism." says Emerson. as he all along taught and felt. called Frederick the Great. with "The History of Friedrich II." in 1843 "Past and Present. in Palestine. all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question." and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend. if the will to hear had been in them ." according to Ruskin. extension of the limestone ridge that bounds on the S. without thought of himself. and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century. a county in S. as he had left instructions to be. and the largest in the Principality. a river which traverses the county. for its moral verdict on men and nations. capital Carmarthen. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. and the manners of modern times". as a subject of the realm. a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures. prosecuted from first to last. and just for the love of God" (1795-1881). in "sore travail" of body and soul. his greatest disciple. CARMAGNOLE. Wales.

Wales. Page 532 of 2772 . the _nom-de-plume_ of Elizabeth. has taken an active interest in the elevation and welfare of her sex. CTSTI. CARMELITES. held office under Lord Derby and Disraeli. its highest point is 1742 ft. wrote the "Druses of Mount Lebanon" (1831-1890). CARMONTEL. Earl of. and took to literature for consolation.com promontory 500 ft. forms the southern boundary of the Bay of Acre. i. an old prov. a French dramatist. in the dep. at length mendicant. CARNAC. was a good classical scholar. Conservative statesman. queen of Roumania. in 1156. in the Madras Presidency of India that extended along the Coromandel coast from Cape Comorin. lost an only child. The Order is said to have existed from the days of Elijah. CARNATIC. many of them undecipherable by the antiquary. in which Edward II. particularly Celtic. HENRY HOWARD. CARNARVON.ramakalai@gmail. and a capital of the same name on the Menai Strait. a maritime county in N. 1843. with interesting historical records. called the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. originally an association of hermits on Mount Carmel. e. high. CARMEN SYLVA. the Virgin. in consecration to whom it was founded by a pilgrim of the name Berthold. author of little pieces under the name of "Proverbes" (1717-1806). a monastic order.. a seaside fishing-village in the Bay of Quiberon. above the sea-level. Computer Lecturer. was born. of Morbihan. N. the first Prince of Wales. France. CARNARVON. with the noble ruins of a castle. 600 m. with the highest mountains and grandest scenery in the Principality. Chennai 6. a Calabrian. _b_.

on the alleged ground of the absence of any criterion of certainty in matters of either science or morality. ANDREW.ramakalai@gmail. MARIE FRANCOIS. made a large fortune by his iron and steel works at Pittsburg. he propounded this doctrine in the ears of the Conscript Fathers. See DR. both in America and his native country. though in some parts it yields wine and fine fruit. second only to those of Almaden. CARNOT. the son of a weaver. Chennai 6. a crownland of the Austrian empire. considered the most important contribution to physical science since the time of Newton (1796-1832). Page 533 of 2772 . ironmaster.com CARNEADES. conceded that truth and virtue were admirable qualities. CARNEGIE. in his "Reflexions sur la Puissance du Feu" enunciates the principle of Reversibility. out of which he has liberally endowed institutions and libraries. CARNIOLA (500). son of Nicolas. on the Adriatic.). S. akin to the Saturnalia of the Romans. where he came from (213-129 B. CARNIVAL. his whole philosophy a polemic against the dogmatism of the Stoics. in Spain. sent once on an embassy to Rome. 1835. LEONARD SADI. but he denied the reality of them.. KNOTT'S "PHYSICS. of Austria. a Greek philosopher. and the soil is not grain productive. of Carinthia. CTSTI. _b_. U. born at Cyrene.S. civil engineer and statesman.C. the surface is mountainous. upon which Cato moved he should be expelled from the senate-house and sent back to Athens. founder of thermo-dynamics. contains quicksilver mines." CARNOT. born at Computer Lecturer. in Roman Catholic countries the name given to a season of feasting and revelry immediately preceding Lent. SW. born in Dunfermline.

on the Atlantic. one of the original 13 States of N. in Burgundy. voted for the death of the king. S. to W. Carolina. from E. CAROLINA. born at Nolay. nephew of the preceding. N.com Limoges. a popular lecturer on philosophy. of the Philippine Islands. an Italian author and poet. the "organiser of victory". and pessimism (1826-1887). a member of the National Convention. well-watered subsoil in the high lands. produces rice and cotton in large quantities and of a fine quality.ramakalai@gmail. became member of the Committee of Public Safety. 480 m. was assassinated at Lyons by an anarchist in 1894. of N. CAROLINA. and central. of Virginia. 2000 m. belonging to Spain. French mathematician and engineer. Page 534 of 2772 . ANNIBALE. once divided into eastern. to W. materialism. defender of Antwerp in 1814.. wrote on mysticism. from N. CARO. from E. a stretch of lagoon islands. became President in 1887. Chennai 6. born at Poitiers. MARIE. inland from the coast. and there is plenty of fish and turtle in the Computer Lecturer. 100 m. CTSTI. NORTH. and 180 m. Finance Minister in 1879 and 1887. CARO. is well watered. about the size of England. America. the soil of the western is fertile. and organiser of the armies of the Republic. S. CAROLINE ISLANDS (36). is rich in minerals and natural products. NICOLAS. the mountains are covered with forests. a French philosopher. surnamed _le philosophe des dames_. CARNOT. Minister of War under Napoleon. notable for his classic style (1507-1566). and afterwards Minister of the Interior (1753-1823). to S.. has a fertile. SOUTH. of New Guinea and E. and the manufactures are numerous. is alluvial with swamps. whence his name. western.

. several of the public monuments of Paris. CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK. an Italian critic says of him. and the facade of the Opera House (1827-1875). Computer Lecturer. then Prince of Wales. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. which. CTSTI. particularly the whole of the N. in a semicircle round the greater part of Hungary. on the day of the coronation sought admission to Westminster Abbey. the highest of them Negoi.. was allowed to go abroad after a time. but rejected it and claimed her rights as queen. Page 535 of 2772 . on the accession of her husband she was offered a pension of L50. and their sides clothed with forests. executed 1822.000 if she stayed out of the country. CARPEAUX. born at Valenciennes. "He had truth in his heart" (1450-1522).ramakalai@gmail. they are rich in minerals. his fertile imagination. both on the Danube. in two great masses. principally of beech and pine. adorned by his art. long. 8517 ft. particularly in his early pieces. but the door was shut against her. 880 m. CARPATHIANS. queen of George IV. was charged with adultery. and his rich colouring. a range of wooded mountains in Central Europe. CARON. Chennai 6. VITTORE. married George. but almost immediately after her husband abandoned her. a Venetian painter of great celebrity. in 1795. extend from Presburg to Orsova. she retired to a mansion at Blackheath. and have nearly all of them sacred subjects. under the first Empire. sculptor. and daughter of the Duke of Brunswick. JEAN BAPTISTE. head of the Belford conspiracy in 1820 under the Restoration. and E. CARPACCIO. for his truth of delineation. but after a long trial acquitted. reckoned highly imaginative. gave birth to the Princess Charlotte the year following. she died a fortnight after (1768-1821). his works are numerous.com lagoons.

GIROLAMO DA. her philanthropic efforts extended to India.com CARPENTARIA. headed an embassy from Pope Innocent IV. born at Ferrara. author. she visited four times. a philanthropist. Page 536 of 2772 . among other numerous works. travelled from Lyons to beyond Lake Baikal and back. is said to have slain Roland at Roncesvalles. MARY. daughter of Dr. CARPI. a Franciscan monk. CARPENTER. Italian painter and wood engraver. deep gulf in the N. Lant Carpenter. born at Exeter. in her zeal. of the "Principles of General and Comparative Physiology" (1838). biologist. which had a quieting effect on the panic in Europe (1182-1252). CTSTI. contributed to mental physiology. Chennai 6. inaugurated deep-sea soundings. born in Umbria. to the Emperor of the Mogul Tartars to persuade him out of Europe. and receives several rivers. and a chief promoter of the Industrial Schools Act. Unitarian minister. wrote a report of his journey in Latin. a legendary hero of the Moors of Spain.ramakalai@gmail. CARPI. Computer Lecturer. and advocated the theory of a vertical circulation in the ocean (1813-1877). UGO DA. which he threatened. held several high professional appointments in London. contains several islands. a broad. CARPINI. took an active part in the establishment of reformatory and ragged schools. of Australia. WILLIAM BENJAMIN. which. CARPIO. Italian painter and architect. and she was the founder of the National Indian Association (1807-1877). brother of the preceding. is said to have invented engraving in chiaroscuro (1486-1530). was a corpulent man of 60. GULF OF. CARPENTER. successful imitator of Correggio (1501-1556).

Italy. who believed in the transmigration of the soul and its final emancipation from all external bonds and obligations. ARMAND. born at Rouen. and employ as quarrymen alone regularly over 3000 men. See NOYADES.ramakalai@gmail. beheaded. and a life in conformity therewith. the southern division of Ayrshire. caused thousands of victims to be drowned. 30 m. a Gnostic of Alexandria of the 2nd century. are 400 in number. French publicist. and highly esteemed. was guillotined himself after trial by a Revolutionary tribunal (1756-1794). sent on a mission to La Vendee. with a picturesque castle. a man of high character. CARRARA (11). JEAN BAPTISTE. author of works on aesthetics and art in its relation to culture and the ideal. a town in N.com CARPOC`RATES. Chennai 6. these quarries have been worked for 2000 years. CARRIER. CARRICK. a German philosopher and man of letters. famous for its quarries of white statuary marble. Page 537 of 2772 . born near Aurillac. the working of which is its staple industry. of Leghorn. See AYRSHIRE. and courage. NW. CARRIERE. born in Hesse. of Belfast Lough. or shot. CTSTI. advocated the compatibility of the pantheistic with the Computer Lecturer. a town and seaport N. was the founder of a sect called after his name. by means of concentrated meditation on the divine unity. which he conducted with great ability. from Belfast. MORITZ. 91/2 m. died of a wound in a duel with Emile de Girardin (1800-1836). CARRICKFERGUS (9). one of the most blood-thirsty of the French Revolutionists. an attorney by profession. editor of the _National_. CARREL.

one of the oldest towns in it. sent to Utrecht to study theology.).com deistic view of the world (1817-1893). Page 538 of 2772 . with a capacious harbour. was held in high esteem by his countrymen for his personal character as well as his public services. was of service to the States in expeditions in Indian territories from his knowledge of the habits of the Indians (1809-1878). brought back to Germany a taste for art. American trapper. DODGSON (q. and became his political adviser. near Glasgow. CTSTI. was chief promoter of the Treaty of Union. CARSON. was made Principal of Edinburgh University. WILLIAM. the author of "Alice in Wonderland. KIT. L. born in Sleswig. born at Cathcart." with its sequel. died in poverty at Rome (1754-1798). quarrelled the Academy. Chennai 6. was admitted to the Berlin Academy. the name given in Scotland to alluvial lands bordering on a river. a naval port of Spain. LEWIS. v. accompanied him to England as chaplain in 1688. pseudonym of C. CARSTENS. recommended himself to the regard of the Prince of Orange. born in Kentucky." rose at once into fame. and had no small share in bringing about the Revolution.ramakalai@gmail. "Through the Looking-Glass. treated classical subjects. CARROL. was a most sagacious man (1649-1715). on the appearance of his great picture. afterwards studied the masters at Rome." CARSE. CARTAGENA (86). CARSTAIRS. "The Fall of the Angels. founded by the Computer Lecturer. a Scotch ecclesiastic. ASMUS JAKOB. Danish artist. controlled Church affairs in Scotland. on the Mediterranean. was the means of reviving it.

in which capacity he was brought into contact with Swift. born near Rugby. an accomplished lady. PHILIP. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. CARTER. some of her papers appear in the _Rambler_ (1717-1806). Johnson. orator. Pitcairn's Island among the number. historian. and others. first as an enemy but at length as a friend. a great Greek and Italian scholar. his foreign policy has been in general approved of. and discovered several islands. entered Parliament in the Whig interest. Page 539 of 2772 . THOMAS. CARTE. and diplomatist." which has proved a rich quarry of facts for subsequent historians (1686-1754). emphatic man" (1690-1763). _d_. friend of Dr. CTSTI. and proved a successful viceroy. English sailor and explorer. after service as diplomatist abroad. born at Deal. was a "fiery.com Carthaginians. ELIZABETH. 1796. eminent British statesman. Computer Lecturer. in Parliament was head of the party opposed to Sir Robert Walpole and of the subsequent administration. had the satisfaction of seeing. CARTERET. his first speech was in favour of the Protestant succession. a devoted Jacobite. which he was instrumental in securing. wrote a "History of England. explored in the Southern Seas. the elder Pitt installed in office before he retired. CARTERET. JOHN. Sir Joshua Reynolds. CARTE-BLANCHE. a blank paper with a signature to be filled up with such terms of an agreement as the holder is authorised to accept in name of the person whose signature it bears. was once the largest naval arsenal in Europe. EARL GRANVILLE. translated Epictetus and Algarotti's exposition of Newton's philosophy. Also capital (12) of the Bolivar State in Colombia. was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.

CARTHUSIANS. which even ventured to compete with.. Chennai 6. born in Paris. Malo.com CARTHAGE. an ancient maritime city.C. founded by St. near the site of Tunis.. CARTOUCHE. and founded by Phoenicians in 850 B. at the instance of Francis I. they amassed considerable wealth. who was broken on the wheel alive in the Place de Greve (1698-1721). took possession of Canada in the name of France. a French navigator. the power of Rome.. Bruno in 1086. each member of which had originally a single cell.C. in a series of protracted struggles known as the Punic Wars. and became a place of great importance till burned in A. 698 by Hassan. though it rose again as a Roman city under the Caesars. and at one time threatened. it became the capital of a wide-spread trading community. originally the centre of a colony.ramakalai@gmail. drawings or designs made on stiff paper for a fresco or other paintings. in the last of which it was taken and destroyed by Publius Cornelius Scipio in 146 B. CARTIER. CTSTI. transferred by tracing or pouncing to the surface to be painted. and spent their time in study and contemplation. America in quest of a North-West passage. CARTOONS. after a siege of two years. under Hannibal. born at St. the Arab. to overthrow. Page 540 of 2772 .D. a notorious captain of a band of thieves. made three voyages to N. eventually one consisting of two or three rooms with a garden. by planting the French flag on the soil (1494-1554). all of them opening into one corridor. but were given to deeds of benefaction. of Africa. on a peninsula in the N. in consequence of which they figure not so much in the outside world as many other orders do. Computer Lecturer. the most famous of which are those of Raphael. the struggle during the early part of its history was virtually a struggle for the ascendency of the Semitic people over the Aryan race in Europe. a monastic order of a very severe type.

translator of Dante.000 was made him by Parliament in consideration of his services and in compensation for his losses. Chennai 6. blew up his ship and perished along with his son. Page 541 of 2772 . CARUS. born in Corsica.. his invention. and the advocacy of radical political reform much in advance of his time (1740-1824). his translation is admired for its fidelity as well as for its force and felicity (1772-1844). is now universally adopted. CARTWRIGHT. but left both services for political reasons. at first violently opposed. Secretary of State under Pope Paul IV. bred for the Church.com CARTWRIGHT. the corresponding male figures are called Atlantes. HENRY FRANCIS. a French naval officer. Italian statesman. at the battle of Aboukir. LOUIS. born at Leipzig. CARYATIDES. wrote "Galateo. JOHN. brother of the preceding. who. KARL GUSTAV. born in Nottinghamshire. took to the study of agriculture. born at Gibraltar.ramakalai@gmail. after securing the safety of his crew. EDMUND. a celebrated German physiologist. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. CARY. a many-sided man. draped female figures surmounting columns and supporting entablatures. to his ruin for the time being. a grant of L10. inventor of the powerloom and the carding machine. or. CASABIANCA. the Art of Living in the World" (1503-1556). CASA. advocate of the theory that health of body and mind depends on the equipoise of antagonistic principles (1789-1869). who would not leave him (1755-1798). served in the navy and the militia. he had a turn for versifying as well as mechanical invention (1743-1823).

. invited thither by Henry IV. and above 100 m. who insinuated himself into the good graces for a time of all the distinguished people of the period. CASANOVA DE SEINGALT. BARTOLOMEO DE LAS. a town on the Po. inland. CASAUBON. MERIC.ramakalai@gmail. distinguished for his exertions in behalf of the Christianisation and civilisation of the Indians of S. died in Bohemia after endless roamings and wrigglings. ISAAC. manufactures silk twist. Page 542 of 2772 . painted landscapes and battle-pieces (1727-1806). "the smell of brimstone behind him". CASCADE MOUNTAINS. gave him two prebends. leaving. CASAS. of Venetian origin. son of preceding. born in London. as Carlyle would say. who pensioned him.com CASA`LE (17). they are nearly parallel with the coast. of the Cagliostro type. CASANOVA. a clever Venetian adventurer and scandalous impostor. brazen-faced account of his career of scoundrelism (1725-1798). has been ranked with Lepsius and Scaliger as a scholar (1559-1614). became professor of Theology at Oxford. held a church living under the Charleses. painter. a range in Columbia that slopes down toward the Pacific from the Western Plateau. Chennai 6. professor of Greek at Geneva and Montpellier. Computer Lecturer. born in Geneva. CASAUBON. Voltaire. being a Protestant he removed to London on Henry's death. and others. an eminent classical scholar and commentator. and afterwards of belles-lettres at Paris. a Spanish prelate. accompanied his father to England. wrote a long detailed. including even Frederick the Great. and edited his father's works (1599-1671). of which the Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary. CTSTI. America (1474-1566). where James I.

defeated the Tartars on the Vistula. Casimir III. and watered by the Jhelum. with beautiful scenery and a delicious climate. recovered Silesia from Bohemia in two victories. occupied by interesting ruins. a native Indian State. succeeded Carnot in 1894. in a valley of the Himalayas. CASIMIR-PERIER. the most eminent. which spreads out here and there near it into lovely lakes. CASINO. because. after distinguishing himself in wars against the Teutonic Knights. music. wide. the name of five kings of Poland. with a "Rock" 300 ft. dancing. resigned 1895. CASHMERE or KASHMIR (2. limiting both the royal authority and that of the nobles (1309-1370). from Naples. president of the French Republic. high. shawl weaving and lacquer-work are the chief occupations of the inhabitants. it was formerly the seat of the kings of Munster. 49 m. 1847. bordering upon Tibet. 120 m. long and 80 m. NE. called the Great. Ireland. owing to misrepresentation.543). CTSTI. a club-house or public building in Continental towns provided with rooms for social gatherings. CASHEL. forming the basin of the Upper Indus. one of the architects of St. noted for a magnificent palace. Computer Lecturer. _b_. &c.. billiards. Chennai 6. was elected king in 1333. the office had become irksome to him. hemmed in by deep-gorged woods and snow-peaked mountains. of Cork. 20 m. CASIMIR. built after plans supplied by Vanvitelli. formed a code of laws. a man of moderate views and firm character. was premier in 1893. a bishop's see.ramakalai@gmail. born in Paris.com CASERTA (35). and annexed part of Lithuania. a town in Tipperary. Page 543 of 2772 . a town in Italy. Peter's at Rome.

_b_. an obstinate Imperialist. editor of _Le Pays_ and the journal _L'Autorite_. son of preceding. CASSAGNAC.S. the sister of Alexander the Great. which are not so salt as the ocean. CASSANDER. a French journalist. edited _Le Pays_. with the Caucasus Mts. the waters. allied himself with the Greek cities. CASSAGNAC. born at Dessau. married Thessalonica. CASPARI. Indians" (1782-1867).. CASS. thus securing himself against all rival claimants. invaded Macedonia and ascended the throne. a Syro-Maronite religious. partly in Europe and partly in Asia. from N. an eminent American statesman. king of Macedonia. deep in the S. especially salmon and sturgeon. a member of the Democratic party. though in favour of slave-holding. embroiled himself in duels and lawsuits without number (1806-1880). CTSTI. a semi-official organ. 1843. is the fragment of a larger sea which extended to the Arctic Ocean. and from 270 to 130 m. passed over in the succession by his father Antipater. abound in fish.. at first an Orleanist. wrote a "History of the U. Page 544 of 2772 . and openly hostile to Great Britain. KARL PAUL.. a friend of Union. left his son Philip as successor Computer Lecturer. being 600 m. GRANIER DE. but put Alexander's mother to death. which all died a natural death. started several journals. PAUL. CASPIAN SEA. shallow in the N. and a learned Orientalist (1710-1791). the largest in the world. professor at Christiania (1814-1892). on the W. Chennai 6. LEWIS.com CASIRI. an inland sea. and the Elburz on the S. German theologian.ramakalai@gmail. to S. became a supporter of the Empire. in breadth.

CASSEL (72). which were treated by her countrymen as the ravings of a lunatic. founded two monasteries in Marseilles. and six advocates-general. CTSTI. as she had rejected his suit. CASSIANUS. and a French defeat under Moreau in 1799. Chennai 6. a beautiful Trojan princess. also a town near Milan. it consists of a president and vice-president. second. born in Manchester. opposed the extreme views of Augustine in regard to grace and free-will. and not being able to go the length of Pelaganism. the publisher. of Italy.C. came to Constantinople. but. CASSATION. it consists of three sections: first.com (354-297 B. CASSANO. CASSELL. one to decide in criminal cases. v. and third. and became a pupil of Chrysostom. one to determine if the appeal should be received. adopted SEMI-PELAGIANISM. an Eastern ascetic.ramakalai@gmail. an interesting town. appointed in the case of appeal to revise the forms of a procedure in an inferior court. it is the birthplace of Bunsen. Computer Lecturer. COURT OF. (360-448). a self-made man. scene of a French victory under Vendome in 1705. 49 judges. whom Apollo endowed with the gift of prophecy. a court of highest and last appeal in France. 120 m. q. a town in the S. who ordained him. one to decide in civil cases. who knew the value of knowledge and did much to extend it (1817-1865). and human depravity. JOHN.). CASSANDRA. Page 545 of 2772 . daughter of Priam and Hecuba. JOANNUS. capital of Hesse-Cassel. a public prosecutor called the _procureur-general_. doomed to utter prophecies which no one would believe. as happened with her warnings of the fate and the fall of Troy. from Frankfort-on-Main. her name is applied to any one who entertains gloomy forebodings.

soon after the deed was done fled to Syria. Chennai 6. repulsed on the right. CTSTI.C. in Paris. presumed to have been the Scilly Islands or Cornwall. a Latin statesman and historian. and left letters of great historical value (468-568). after completing in 1793 a great topographical map of France begun by his father.com CASSINI. connects the Rio Negro. CASSIODO`RUS. Computer Lecturer. father and son and grandson. a constellation well north in the northern sky of five stars in the figure of a W. with the Orinoco. chief conspirator against Caesar. like a canal. joined his forces with those of Brutus at Philippi. which the Phoenician sailors visited to procure tin. islands in the Atlantic. in his lamentation over him. born in Calabria. of Italian origin. and became in succession directors of the observatory of Paris. and lived there nearly 30 years. the planets. retired into a monastery about 70. _d_. prime minister of Theodoric the Great and his successor. an affluent of the Amazon. which. and called his freedmen to kill him. mother of Andromeda. which they adjoin. withdrew into his tent. a remarkable river in Venezuela. CAIUS. 42 B. won over Brutus to join in the foul plot. queen of Ethiopia. the last of whom died in 1864. made himself master of it.ramakalai@gmail. Page 546 of 2772 . Brutus. CASSITER`IDES. they settled. and the moon. CASSIQUIA`RI. called him the "last of the Romans". thought all was lost. placed after death among the constellations. wrote a history of the Goths. distinguished for their observations and discoveries affecting the comets. CASSIUS. CASSIOPE`IA. name of a family of astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries.

rank in society of an exclusive nature due to birth or origin. and members of the lowest rise socially to the highest. who unsuccessfully opposed Caesar on his second invasion of Britain. or the agricultural caste. 52 B. after this he served under Wellington in several engagements. CASTALIA. distinguished for his victory over the French under Dupont. a British warlike chief.com CASSIUS. bishop of Albi. from the hands of Brahma. promoted an agrarian law. named after a nymph. who drowned herself in it to escape Apollo. SPURIUS. _i. e_.C. if required. and those who have not. made a league with the Latins.. called Sudras. and was commander of the Spanish army. of the former there are three grades. Among them there are originally two great classes. and became tributary to Rome. or the soldier caste. CTSTI. such as prevails among the Hindus especially. notwithstanding which distinction often members of the highest class sink socially to the lowest level. from the mouth of Brahma. Brahmans. surrendered after defeat. those who have passed through a second birth. in 1808. CASSIVELLAUNUS. Kshatriyas. or the priestly caste.ramakalai@gmail. which conceded to the plebs a share in the public lands. the first passed. and Vaisyas. Chennai 6. first time 502 B.. subdued the Sabines. procured the canonisation of St. Computer Lecturer. whom he compelled to surrender and sign the capitulation of Baylen. Page 547 of 2772 . ready. a Spanish general. while the latter are of one rank and are menial to the other. CASTE. a fountain at the foot of Parnassus sacred to the Muses. to invade France in 1815 (1758-1852). earth-born all. CASTANOS. thrice chosen consul. the twice-born and the once-born. CASTANET. from the feet of Brahma.C. Louis (1256-1317). a Roman.

bounded by Computer Lecturer. 35 m. CASTIGLIONE. 79. which led to a rupture. wrote a history of the "Republican Movement in Europe" among other works of political interest. an eloquent man and a literary. as well as Rome. of Naples. on N. 1832. till he gave expression to some heretical views. 115 m. and made way for the return of monarchy. EMILIO. CASTILE. arsenal. born in Cadiz. he ventured to pronounce the Song of Solomon a mere erotic poem (1515-1563). CASTELLIO. a port on the coast of Italy. _b_. RENE-RICHARD. but not being equal to the exigency in the affairs of the State. a central district of Spain. an accomplished Italian. CASTELAR. has a cathedral.800) in the N. Protestant theologian. a town of Sicily. of Messina. had spent much of his time in courts in England and Spain.500) in the S. divided by the mountains of Castile into Old Castile (1." a manual for courtiers. CASTIGLIONE. Page 548 of 2772 . SW. CTSTI.com CASTEL. COUNT.ramakalai@gmail. called by the Italians in admiration of it "The Golden Book". SE. slope of Etna.D. resigned.. and manufactures. It takes its name from a castle built on it by the Emperor Frederick II. appointed dictator of Spain in 1873.: the former consisting of a high bare plateau. author of "II Cortegiano. famed for hazel nuts. Chennai 6. the scene of Pliny's death from the eruption of Vesuvius in A. born in Mantua.. CASTELLAMARE (15). and was a courtly man (1478-1529). and New Castile (3. a Spanish republican. French poet and naturalist (1758-1832). though under protest. a protege of Calvin's for a time.

succeeded his father as Marquis of Londonderry in 1821. became War Minister (1805). represented the country in a congress after Napoleon's fall. his name has been unduly defamed. and is rich in minerals. and united to the crown of Spain in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. Both were at one time occupied by the Moors. Chennai 6. visionary projects. the immigration depot of New York where immigrants land. CASTLEFORD (14). a place in which the dwellers live amid luxurious delights. especially bottles. to the enervation of soul and body. also tableland. and Computer Lecturer. and contains besides the quicksilver mines of Almaden. and were created into a kingdom in the 11th century.. after which he entered the Imperial Parliament. SW. till the ill-fated Walcheren expedition and a duel with Canning obliged him to resign. SE. CASTLES IN SPAIN. has a richer soil. breeds horses and cattle. and the soul of the coalition against Napoleon. and committed suicide the year following. and yields richer produce. yields wheat and good pasturage. CTSTI. and on the S. with a variable climate. entered political life as a member of the Irish Parliament. became Foreign Secretary in 1812. CASTLEREAGH. of Leeds. report themselves. a poem of Thomson's.com mountains on the N. with extensive glass-works. the latter. and are advised where to settle or find work. Page 549 of 2772 . co-operated with Pitt in securing the Union. CASTLETOWN. and his services to the country as a diplomatist have been entirely overlooked (1769-1822). a town 10 m. LORD. of Douglas. 11 m.ramakalai@gmail. CASTLE OF INDOLENCE. a seaport in the Isle of Man. CASTLE GARDEN.

the beloved wife of Don Pedro. but on his Computer Lecturer. CASTRES (22). the former in horsemanship. got acquainted with Lope de Vega. GUILLEN DE.com the former capital. the heroine in Thackeray's "Esmond. CASTRO. of Tarn. E. died prematurely. the Dioscuri. he began life as a soldier. famed for their mutual affection. translated the "KALEVALA" (q. CASTLEWOOD. whereupon it was agreed they should spend a day in Hades time about. CASTRO. put to death out of jealousy of Spain by the latter's father." CASTOR AND POLLUX. author of the play of "The Cid. the Gemini. v. INEZ DE. rising and setting together. Page 550 of 2772 . born in Finland. great. and left accounts of the races he visited and their languages. v. and took to dramatic composition (1569-1631)." which gained him European fame. and the latter in boxing. an eminent philologist. were raised eventually to become stars in the sky. and one of the first places in France to embrace Calvinism. was a Roman station. Chennai 6. MATHIAS ALEXANDER. travelled all over Northern Europe and Asia.) the epic of the Finns. a Spanish dramatist.ramakalai@gmail. the twin sons of Zeus by Leda. worn out with his labours (1813-1852). heir of the Portuguese throne. this name is also given to the electric phenomenon called ST. 46 m.). of Toulouse. CTSTI. a town in the dep. a royal heiress of the Spanish throne in the 14th century. so that when the former was slain the latter begged to be allowed to die with him. ELMO'S FIRE (q. twin signs in the zodiac. CASTREN. professor of the Finnish Language and Literature in Helsingfors.

accession dug out of her grave, arrayed in her royal robes, and crowned along with him, after which she was entombed again, and a magnificent monument erected over her remains.

CASTRO, JUAN DE, a Portuguese soldier, born at Lisbon, distinguished for his exploits in behalf of Portugal; made viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, but died soon after in the arms of Francis Xavier (1500-1548).

CASTRO, VACA DE, a Spaniard, sent out by Charles V. as governor of Peru, but addressing himself to the welfare of the natives rather than the enrichment of Spain, was recalled, to pine and die in prison in 1558.

CASTROGIOVANNI (18), a town in a strong position in the heart of Sicily, 3270 ft. above the sea-level; at one time a centre of the worship of Ceres, and with a temple to her.

CASTRUCCIO-CASTRACANI, Duke of Lucca, and chief of the Ghibelline party in that town, the greatest war-captain in Europe in his day; lord of hundreds of strongholds; wore on a high occasion across his breast a scroll, inscribed, "He is what God made him," and across his back another, inscribed, "He shall be what God will make"; _d_. 1328, "crushed before the moth."

CATACOMBS, originally underground quarries, afterwards used as burial-places for the dead, found beneath Paris and in the neighbourhood of Rome, as well as elsewhere; those around Rome, some 40 in number, are the most famous, as having been used by the early Christians, not merely for burial but for purposes of worship, and are rich In monuments of art and memorials of history.

CATALANI, ANGELICA, a celebrated Italian singer and prima donna, born near Ancona; began her career in Rome with such success that it led

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to engagements over all the chief cities of Europe, the enthusiasm which followed her reaching its climax when she came to England, where, on her first visit, she stayed eight years; by the failure of an enterprise in Paris she lost her fortune, but soon repaired it by revisiting the capitals of Europe; died of cholera in Paris (1779-1840).

CATALONIA (1,900), old prov. of Spain, on the NE.; has a most fertile soil, which yields a luxuriant vegetation; chief seat of manufacture in the country, called hence the "Lancashire of Spain"; the people are specially distinguished from other Spaniards for their intelligence and energy.

CATAMAR`CA (ISO), NW. prov. of the Argentine Republic; rich in minerals, especially copper.

CATA`NIA (123), an ancient city at the foot of Etna, to the S., on a plain called the Granary of Sicily; has been several times devastated by the eruptions of Etna, particularly in 1169, 1669, and 1693; manufactures silk, linen, and articles of amber, &c., and exports sulphur, grain, and fruits.

CATANZA`RO (20), a city in Calabria, 6 m. from the Gulf of Squillace, with an old castle of Robert Guiscard.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, Kant's name for the self-derived moral law, "universal and binding on every rational will, a commandment of the autonomous, one and universal reason."

CATEGORIES are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant. The Logical, so derived, that group

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our notions, are ten in number: Substance or Being, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Position, Possession, Action, Passion. The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: (1) as regards _quantity_, Totality, Plurality, Unity; (2) as regards _quality_, Reality, Negation, Limitation; (3) as regards _relation_, Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; (4) as regards _modality_, Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. John Stuart Mill resolves the categories into five, Existence, Co-existence, Succession, Causation, and Resemblance.

CATESBY, MARK, an English naturalist and traveller, wrote a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas (1680-1750).

CATESBY, ROBERT, born in Northamptonshire, a Catholic of good birth; concerned in the famous Gunpowder Plot; shot dead three days after its discovery by officers sent to arrest him (1573-1605).

CATH`ARI, OR CATHARISTS, i. e. purists or puritans, a sect of presumably Gnostic derivation, scattered here and there under different names over the S. and W. of Europe during the Middle Ages, who held the Manichaean doctrine of the radically sinful nature of the flesh, and the necessity of mortifying all its desires and affections to attain purity of soul.

CATHARINE, ST., OF ALEXANDRIA, a virgin who, in 307, suffered martyrdom after torture on the wheel, which has since borne her name; is represented in art as in a vision presented to Christ by His Mother as her sole husband, who gives her a ring. Festival, Nov. 25.

CATHARINE I., wife of Peter the Great and empress of Russia, daughter of a Livonian peasant; "a little stumpy body, very brown,... strangely chased about from the bottom to the top of the world,... had

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once been a kitchen wench"; married first to a Swedish dragoon, became afterwards the mistress of Prince Menschikoff, and then of Peter the Great, who eventually married her; succeeded him as empress, with Menschikoff as minister; for a time ruled well, but in the end gave herself up to dissipation, and died (1682-1727).

CATHARINE II. THE GREAT, empress of Russia, born at Stettin, daughter of Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst; "a most-clever, clear-eyed, stout-hearted woman"; became the wife of Peter III., a scandalous mortal, who was dethroned and then murdered, leaving her empress; ruled well for the country, and though her character was immoral and her reign despotic and often cruel, her efforts at reform, the patronage she accorded to literature, science, and philosophy, and her diplomatic successes, entitle her to a high rank among the sovereigns of Russia; she reigned from 1763 to 1796, and it was during the course of her reign, and under the sanction of it, that Europe witnessed the three partitions of Poland (1729-1796).

CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, wife of Henry II. of France, and mother of his three successors; on the accession of her second son, Charles IX.--for the reign of her first, Francis II., was very brief--acted as regent during his minority; joined heart and soul with the Catholics in persecuting the Huguenots, and persuaded her son to issue the order which resulted in the massacre of St. Bartholomew; on his death, which occurred soon after, she acted as regent during the minority of her third son, Henry III., and lived to see both herself and him detested by the whole French people, and this although she was during her ascendency the patroness of the arts and of literature (1519-1589).

CATHARINE OF ARAGON, fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and wife of Henry VIII., her brother-in-law as widow of Arthur, from whom, and at whose instance, after 18 years of married life, and after giving birth to five children, she was divorced on the plea that, as she had been his brother's wife before, it was not lawful for him to have her; after her divorce she remained in the country, led an austere

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religious life, and died broken-hearted. The refusal of the Pope to sanction this divorce led to the final rupture of the English Church from the Church of Rome, and the emancipation of the nation from priestly tyranny (1483-1536).

CATHARINE OF BRAGANZA, the wife of Charles II. of England, of the royal house of Portugal; was unpopular in the country as a Catholic and neglected by her husband, on whose death, however, she returned to Portugal, and did the duties ably of regent for her brother Don Pedro (1638-1705).

CATHARINE OF SIENNA, born at Sienna, a sister of the Order of St. Dominic, and patron saint of the Order; celebrated for her ecstasies and visions, and the marks which by favour of Christ she bore on her body of His sufferings on the Cross (1347-1380). Festival, April 30. Besides her, are other saints of the same name.

CATHARINE OF VALOIS, daughter of Charles VI. of France, and wife of Henry V. of England, who, on his marriage to her, was declared heir to the throne of France, with the result that their son was afterwards, while but an infant, crowned king of both countries; becoming a widow, she married Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, whereby a grandson of his succeeded to the English throne as Henry VII., and the first of the Tudors (1401-1438).

CATHARINE PARR, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. and the daughter of a Westmoreland knight; was of the Protestant faith and obnoxious to the Catholic faction, who trumped up a charge against her of heresy and treason, from which, however, she cleared herself to the satisfaction of the king, over whom she retained her ascendency till his death; _d_. 1548.

CATHARINE THEOT, a religious fanatic, born in Avranches; gave

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herself out as the Mother of God; appeared in Paris in 1794, and declared Robespierre a second John the Baptist and forerunner of the Word; the Committee of Public Safety had her arrested and guillotined.

CATHAY, the name given to China by mediaeval writers, which it still bears in Central Asia.

CATHCART, EARL, a British general and diplomatist, born in Renfrewshire; saw service in America and Flanders; distinguished himself at the bombardment of Copenhagen; represented England at the court of Russia and the Congress of Vienna (1755-1843).

CATHCART, SIR GEORGE, a lieutenant-general, son of the preceding; enlisted in the army; served in the later Napoleonic wars; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; was governor of the Cape; brought the Kaffir war to a successful conclusion; served in the Crimea, and fell at Inkerman (1794-1854).

CATHEDRAL, the principal church in a diocese, and which contains the throne of the bishop as his seat of authority; is of a rank corresponding to the dignity of the bishop; the governing body consists of the dean and chapter.

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES, a famous leader of the Vendeans in their revolt against the French Republic on account of a conscription in its behalf; a peasant by birth; mortally wounded in attacking Nantes; he is remembered by the peasants of La Vendee as the "Saint of Anjou" (1759-1793).

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, the name given to the emancipation in 1829 of the Roman Catholics of the United Kingdom from disabilities which precluded their election to office in the State, so that they are

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eligible now to any save the Lord Chancellorship of England and offices representative of royalty.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES, the name, equivalent to encyclical, given to certain epistles in the New Testament not addressed to any community in particular, but to several, and given eventually to all not written by St. Paul.

CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a title given by the Pope to several Spanish monarchs for their zeal in the defence of the Catholic faith.

CATILINE, or LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA, a Roman patrician, an able man, but unscrupulously ambitious; frustrated in his ambitious designs, he formed a conspiracy against the State, which was discovered and exposed by Cicero, a discovery which obliged him to leave the city; he tried to stir up hostility outside; this too being discovered by Cicero, an army was sent against him, when an engagement ensued, in which, fighting desperately, he was slain, 62 B.C.

CATINAT, NICOLAS, a marshal of France, born in Paris; one of the greatest military captains under Louis XIV.; defeated the Duke of Savoy twice over, though defeated by Prince Eugene and compelled to retreat; was an able diplomatist as well as military strategist (1637-1712).

CATLIN, GEORGE, a traveller among the North American Indians, and author of an illustrated work on their life and manners; spent eight years among them (1796-1872).

CATO DIONYSIUS, name of a book of maxims in verse, held in high favour during the Middle Ages; of unknown authorship.

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CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO MAJOR, surnamed Censor, Priscus, and Sapiens, born at Tusculum, of a good old family, and trained to rustic, frugal life; after serving occasionally in the army, removed to Rome; became in succession censor, aedile, praetor, and consul; served in the second Punic war, towards the end of it, and subjugated Spain; was a Roman of the old school; disliked and denounced all innovations, as censor dealt sharply with them; sent on an embassy to Africa, was so struck with the increasing power and the threateningly evil ascendency of Carthage, that on his return he urged its demolition, and in every speech which he delivered afterwards he ended with the words, _Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam_, "But, be that as it may, my opinion is Carthage must be destroyed" (234-149 B.C.).

CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO THE YOUNGER, or UTICENSIS, great-grandson of the former, and a somewhat pedantic second edition of him; fortified himself by study of the Stoic philosophy; conceived a distrust of the public men of the day, Caesar among the number; preferred Pompey to him, and sided with him; after Pompey's defeat retired to Utica, whence his surname, and stabbed himself to death rather than fall into the hands of Caesar (95-46 B.C.).

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, an insignificant, abortive plot, headed by one Thistlewood, to assassinate Castlereagh and other ministers of the crown in 1820; so called from their place of meeting off the Edgeware Road, London.

CATRAIL, an old Roman earthwork, 50 m. long, passing S. from near Galashiels, through Selkirk and Roxburgh, or from the Cheviots; it is known by the name of the "Devil's Dyke."

CATS, JACOB, a Dutch poet and statesman, venerated in Holland as "Father Cats"; his works are written in a simple, natural style, and abound in wise maxims; he did service as a statesman; twice visited England as an envoy, and was knighted by Charles I. (1577-1660).

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CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a group of mountains, of steep ascent, and with rocky summits, in New York State, W. of the Hudson, none of them exceeding 4000 feet; celebrated as the scene of Rip Van Winkle's long slumber; belong to the Appalachians.

CATTEGAT, an arm of the sea, 150 m. in length and 84 of greatest width, between Sweden and Jutland; a highway into the Baltic, all but blocked up with islands; is dangerous to shipping on account of the storms that infest it at times.

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, artist, born in Norfolk; illustrated Britton's "English Cathedrals," "Waverley Novels," and the "Historical Annual" by his brother; painted mostly in water-colour; his subjects chiefly from English history (1800-1868).

CATTLE PLAGUE, or RINDERPEST, a disease which affects ruminants, but especially bovine cattle; indigenous to the East, Russia, Persia, India, and China, and imported into Britain only by contagion of some kind; the most serious outbreaks were in 1865 and 1872.

CATULLUS, CAIUS VALERIUS, the great Latin lyric poet, born at Verona, a man of wealth and good standing, being, it would seem, of the equestrian order; associated with the best wits in Rome; fell in love with Clodia, a patrician lady, who was the inspiration, both in peace and war, of many of his effusions, and whom he addresses as Lesbia; the death of a brother affected him deeply, and was the occasion of the production of one of the most pathetic elegies ever penned; in the civic strife of the time he sided with the senate, and opposed Caesar to the length of directing against him a coarse lampoon (84-54 B.C.).

CAUCA, a river in Colombia, S. America, which falls into the

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Magdalena after a northward course of 600 m.

CAUCASIA, a prov. of Russia, geographically divided into Cis-Caucasia on the European side, and Trans-Caucasia on the Asiatic side of the Caucasus, with an area about four times as large as England.

CAUCASIAN RACE, a name adopted by Blumenbach to denote the Indo-European race, from the fine type of a skull of one of the race found in Georgia.

CAUCASUS, an enormous mountain range, 750 m. in length, extending from the Black Sea ESE. to the Caspian, in two parallel chains, with tablelands between, bounded on the S. by the valley of the Kur, which separates it from the tableland of Armenia; snow-line higher than that of the Alps; has fewer and smaller glaciers; has no active volcanoes, though abundant evidence of volcanic action.

CAUCHON, bishop of Beauvais, infamous for the iniquitous part he played in the trial and condemnation of Joan of Arc; _d_. 1443.

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, mathematician, born in Paris; wrote largely on physical subjects; his "Memoir" on the theory of the waves suggested the undulatory theory of light; professor of Astronomy at Paris; declined to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III., and retired (1789-1857).

CAUCUS, a preliminary private meeting to arrange and agree on some measure or course to propose at a general meeting of a political party.

CAUDINE FORKS, a narrow mountain gorge in Samnium, in which, during the second Samnite war, a Roman army was entrapped and caught by the Samnites, who obliged them to pass under the yoke in token of

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subjugation, 321 B.C.

CAUDLE, MRS., an imaginary dame, a conception of Douglas Jerrold, famous for her "Curtain Lectures" all through the night for 30 years to her husband Mr. Job Caudle.

CAUL, a membrane covering the head of some children at birth, to which a magical virtue was at one time ascribed, and which, on that account, was rated high and sold often at a high price.

CAULAINCOURT, ARMAND DE, a French general and statesman of the Empire, a faithful supporter of Napoleon, who conferred on him a peerage, with the title of Duke of Vicenza, of which he was deprived at the Restoration; represented Napoleon at the Congress of Chatillon (1772-1827).

CAUS, SALOMON DE, a French engineer, born at Dieppe; discovered the properties of steam as a motive force towards 1638; claimed by Arago as the inventor of the steam-engine in consequence.

CAUSALITY, the philosophic name for the nature of the relation between cause and effect, in regard to which there has been much diversity of opinion among philosophers.

CAUTERETS, a fashionable watering-place in the dep. of the Hautes-Pyrenees, 3250 ft. above the sea, with sulphurous springs of very ancient repute, 25 in number, and of varying temperature.

CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGENE, a distinguished French general, born in Paris; appointed governor of Algeria in 1849, but recalled to be head of the executive power in Paris same year; appointed dictator, suppressed

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the insurrection in June, after the most obstinate and bloody struggle the streets of Paris had witnessed since the first Revolution; stood candidate for the Presidency, to which Louis Napoleon was elected; was arrested after the _coup d'etat_, but soon released; never gave in his adherence to the Empire (1802-1857).

CAVALCASELLE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian writer on art; joint-author with J. A. Crowe of works on the "Early Flemish Painters" and the "History of Painting in Italy"; chief of the art department under the Minister of Public Instruction in Rome; _b_. 1820.

CAVALIER, JEAN, leader of the CAMISARDS (q. v.), born at Ribaute, in the dep. of Gard; bred a baker; held his own against Montreval and Villars; in 1704 concluded peace with the latter on honourable terms; haughtily received by Louis XIV., passed over to England; served against France, and died governor of Jersey (1679-1740).

CAVALIERS, the royalist partisans of Charles I. in England in opposition to the parliamentary party, or the Roundheads, as they were called.

CAVALLO, a distinguished Italian physicist, born at Naples (1749-1809).

CAVAN (111), inland county S. of Ulster, Ireland, with a poor soil; has minerals and mineral springs.

CAVE, EDWARD, a London bookseller, born in Warwickshire; projected the Gentleman's Magazine, to which Dr. Johnson contributed; was the first to give Johnson literary work, employing him as parliamentary reporter, and Johnson was much attached to him; he died with his hand in Johnson's (1691-1754).

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CAVE, WILLIAM, an English divine; author of works on the Fathers of the Church and on primitive Christianity, of high repute at one time (1637-1713).

CAVENDISH, the surname of the Devonshire ducal family, traceable back to the 14th century.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey; never left him while he lived, and never forgot him or the lesson of his life after he was dead; this appears from the vivid picture he gives of him, though written 30 years after his death (1500-1561).

CAVENDISH, LORD FREDERICK, brother of the ninth Duke of Devonshire, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Liberal; was made Chief-Secretary for Ireland in 1882, but chancing to walk home one evening through the Phoenix Park, he fell a victim, stabbed to the heart, of a conspiracy that was aimed at Mr. Burke, an unpopular subordinate, who was walking along with him, and came to the same fate. Eight months after, 20 men were arrested as concerned in the murder, when one of the 20 informed; five of them were hanged; the informer Carey was afterwards murdered, and his murderer, O'Donnel, hanged (1836-1882).

CAVENDISH, HENRY, natural philosopher and chemist, born at Nice, of the Devonshire family; devoted his entire life to scientific investigations; the first to analyse the air of the atmosphere, determine the mean density of the earth, discover the composition of water, and ascertain the properties of hydrogen; was an extremely shy, retiring man; born rich and died rich, leaving over a million sterling (1731-1810).

CAVENDISH, SPENCER COMPTON, ninth Duke of Devonshire, for long known in public life as Marquis of Hartington; also educated at Trinity

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College, and a leader of the Liberal party; served under Gladstone till he adopted Home Rule for Ireland, but joined Lord Salisbury in the interest of Union, and one of the leaders of what is called the Liberal-Unionist party; _b_. 1833.

CAVENDISH, THOMAS, an English navigator, fitted out three vessels to cruise against the Spaniards; extended his cruise into the Pacific; succeeded in taking valuable prizes, with which he landed in England, after circumnavigating the globe; he set out on a second cruise, which ended in disaster, and he died in the island of Ascension broken-hearted (1555-1592).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, English courtier and cavalier in the reigns of James I. and Charles I.; joined Charles II. in exile; returned at the Restoration; was made Duke of Newcastle; wrote on horsemanship (1592-1676).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, first Duke of Devonshire; friend and protector of Lord William Russell; became a great favourite at court, and was raised to the dukedom (1640-1707).

CAVIARE, the roe (the immature ovaries) of the common sturgeon and other kindred fishes, caught chiefly in the Black and Caspian Seas, and prepared and salted; deemed a great luxury by those who have acquired the taste for it; largely imported from Astrakhan.

CAVOUR, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DE, one of the greatest of modern statesmen, born the younger son of a Piedmontese family at Turin; entered the army, but was precluded from a military career by his liberal opinions; retired, and for 16 years laboured as a private gentleman to improve the social and economic condition of Piedmont; in 1847 he threw himself into the great movement which resulted in the independence and unification of Italy; for the next 14 years, as editor of _Il

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Risorgimento_, member of the chamber of deputies, holder of various portfolios in the government, and ultimately as prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, he obtained a constitution and representative government for his country, improved its fiscal and financial condition, and raised it to a place of influence in Europe; he co-operated with the allies in the Crimean war; negotiated with Napoleon III. for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, and so precipitated the successful war of 1859; he encouraged Garibaldi in the expedition of 1860, which liberated Sicily and Southern Italy, and saw the parliament of 1861 summoned, and Victor Emmanuel declared king of Italy; but the strain of his labours broke his health, and he died a few months later (1810-1861).

CAWNPORE (188), a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. SW. of Lucknow, and 628 NW. of Calcutta; the scene of one of the most fearful atrocities, perpetrated by Nana Sahib, in the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

CAXTON, WILLIAM, the first English printer, born in Kent, bred a mercer, settled for a time in Bruges, learned the art of printing there, where he printed a translation of the "Recuyell of the Historyes of Troyes," and "The Game and Playe of Chesse"; returning to England, set up a press in Westminster Abbey, and in 1477 issued "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," the first book printed in England, which was soon followed by many others; he was a good linguist, as well as a devoted workman (1422-1491).

CAYENNE (10), cap. and port of French Guiana, a swampy, unhealthy place, rank with tropical vegetation; a French penal settlement since 1852.

CAYLA, COUNTESS OF, friend and confidante of Louis XVIII. (1784-1850).

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CAYLEY, ARTHUR, an eminent English mathematician, professor at Cambridge, and president of the British Association in 1883 (1821-1895).

CAYLEY, CHARLES BAGOT, a linguist, translated Dante into the metre of the original, with annotations, besides metrical versions of the "Iliad," the "Prometheus" of AEschylus, the "Canzoniere" of Petrarch, &c. (1823-1883).

CAYLUS, COUNT, a distinguished archaeologist, born in Paris; author of a "Collection of Antiquities of Egypt, Etruria," &c., with excellent engravings (1692-1765).

CAYLUS, MARQUISE DE, born in Poitou, related to Mme. de Maintenon; left piquant souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV. and the house of St. Cyr (1672-1729).

CAZALES, a member of French Constituent Assembly, a dragoon captain, a fervid, eloquent orator of royalism, who "earned thereby," says Carlyle, "the shadow of a name" (1758-1805).

CAZOTTE, author of the "Diable Amoureux"; victim as an enemy of the French Revolution; spared for his daughter's sake for a time, but guillotined at last; left her a "lock of his old grey hair" (1720-1792).

CEAN-BERMUDEZ, a Spanish writer on art; author of a biographical dictionary of the principal artists of Spain (1749-1834).

CEARA (35), cap. of the prov. (900) of the name, in N. of Brazil.

CE`BES, a Greek philosopher, disciple and friend of Socrates,

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reputed author of the "Pinax" or Tablet, a once popular book on the secret of life, being an allegorical representation of the temptations that beset it.

CECIL, ROBERT, EARL OF SALISBURY, succeeded his father, Lord Burleigh, as first Minister under Elizabeth, and continued in office under James I., whose friendship he sedulously cultivated before his accession, and who created him earl (1565-1612). See BURLEIGH, LORD.

CECILIA, ST., a Roman virgin and martyr, A.D. 230, patron saint of music, especially church music, and reputed inventor of the organ; sometimes represented as holding a small organ, with her head turned heavenwards as if listening to the music of the spheres, and sometimes as playing on an organ and with a heavenly expression of face. Festival, Nov. 22.

CECROPS, the mythical first king and civiliser of Attica and founder of Athens with its citadel, dedicated by him to Athena, whence the name of the city.

CEDAR RAPIDS (25), a manufacturing town in Iowa, U.S.; a great railway centre.

CELADON, poetical name for a languid swain, all sighs and longings.

CELAENO, name of one of the HARPIES (q. v.).

CELEBES (1,000), an island in the centre of the Eastern Archipelago, third in size, in the shape of a body with four long limbs, traversed by mountain chains, and the greater part of it a Dutch possession, though it

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contains a number of small native states; it yields among its mineral products gold, copper, tin, &c.; and among its vegetable, tea, coffee, rice, sugar, pepper, &c.; capital. Macassar.

CELESTE, MME., a dancer, born in Paris; made her _debut_ in New York; in great repute in England, and particularly in the States, where she in her second visit realised L40,000 (1814-1882).

CELESTIAL EMPIRE, China, as ruled over by a dynasty appointed by Heaven.

CELESTINE, the name of five Popes: C. I., Pope from 422 to 432; C. II., Pope from 1143 to 1144; C. III., Pope from 1191 to 1198; C. IV., Pope for 18 days in 1241; C. V., Pope in 1294, a hermit for 60 years; nearly 80 when elected against his wish; abdicated in five months; imprisoned by order of Boniface VIII.; _d_. 1296; canonised 1313.

CELESTINES, an order of monks founded by Celestine V. before he was elected Pope in 1354; they followed the rule of the Benedictine Order, and led a contemplative life.

CELLINI, BENVENUTO, a celebrated engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith, a most versatile and erratic genius, born at Florence; had to leave Florence for a bloody fray he was involved in, and went to Rome; wrought as a goldsmith there for 20 years, patronised by the nobles; killed the Constable de Bourbon at the sack of the city, and for this received plenary indulgence from the Pope; Francis I. attracted him to his court and kept him in his service five years, after which he returned to Florence and executed his famous bronze "Perseus with the Head of Medusa," which occupied him four years; was a man of a quarrelsome temper, which involved him in no end of scrapes with sword as well as tongue; left an autobiography, from its self-dissection of the deepest interest to all students of human nature (1500-1571).

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CELSIUS, a distinguished Swedish astronomer, born at Upsala, and professor of Astronomy there; inventor of the Centigrade thermometer (1701-1744).

CELSUS, a celebrated Roman physician of the age of Augustus, and perhaps later; famed as the author of "De Medicina," a work often referred to, and valuable as one of the sources of our knowledge of the medicine of the ancients.

CELSUS, a philosopher of the 2nd century, and notable as the first assailant on philosophic grounds of the Christian religion, particularly as regards the power it claims to deliver from the evil that is inherent in human nature, inseparable from it, and implanted in it not by God, but some inferior being remote from Him; the book in which he attacked Christianity is no longer extant, only quotations from it scattered over the pages of the defence of Origen in reply.

CELTIBE`RI, an ancient Spanish race occupying the centre of the peninsula, sprung from a blending of the aborigines and the Celts, who invaded the country; a brave race, divided into four tribes; distinguished in war both as cavalry and infantry, and whom the Romans had much trouble in subduing.

CELTS. The W. of Europe was in prehistoric times subjected to two invasions of Aryan tribes, all of whom are now referred to as Celts. The earlier invaders were Goidels or Gaels; they conquered the Ivernian and Iberian peoples of ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland; their successors, the Brythons or Britons pouring from the E., drove them to the westernmost borders of these countries, and there compelled them to make common cause with the surviving Iberians in resistance; in the eastern parts of the conquered territories they formed the bulk of the population, in the W. they were in a dominant minority; study of

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languages in the British Isles leads to the conclusion that the Irish, Manx, and Scottish Celts belonged chiefly to the earlier immigration, while the Welsh and Cornish represent the latter; the true Celtic type is tall, red or fair, and blue-eyed, while the short, swarthy type, so long considered Celtic, is now held to represent the original Iberian races.

CENCI, THE, a Roman family celebrated for their crimes and misfortunes as well as their wealth. FRANCESCO CENCI was twice married, had had twelve children by his first wife, whom he treated cruelly; after his second marriage cruelly treated the children of his first wife, but conceived a criminal passion for the youngest of them, a beautiful girl named BEATRICE, whom he outraged, upon which, being unable to bring him to justice, she, along with her stepmother and a brother, hired two assassins to murder him; the crime was found out, and all three were beheaded (1599); this is the story on which Shelley founded his tragedy, but it is now discredited.

CENIS, MONT, one of the Cottian Alps, over which Napoleon constructed a pass 6884 ft. high in 1802-10, through which a tunnel 71/2 m. long passes from Modane to Bardonneche, connecting France with Italy; the construction of this tunnel cost L3,000,000, and Napoleon's pass a tenth of the sum.

CENSORS, two magistrates of ancient Rome, who held office at first for five years and then eighteen months, whose duty it was to keep a register of the citizens, guard the public morals, collect the public revenue, and superintend the public property.

CEN`TAURS, a savage race living between Pelion and Ossa, in Thessaly, and conceived of at length by Pindar as half men and half horses, treated as embodying the relation between the spiritual and the animal in man and nature, in all of whom the animal prevails over the spiritual except in Chiron, who therefore figures as the trainer of the heroes of Greece; in the mythology they figure as the progeny of

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Centaurus, son of IXION (q. v.) and the cloud, their mothers being mares.

CENTRAL AMERICA (3,000), territory of fertile tableland sloping gradually to both oceans, occupied chiefly by a number of small republics, lying between Tehuantepec and Panama in N. America; it includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, St. Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and a few adjoining fractions of territory.

CENTRAL INDIA (10,000), includes a group of feudatory States lying between Rajputana in the N. and Central Provinces in the S.

CENTRAL PROVINCES (12,944), States partly British and partly native, occupying the N. of the Deccan, and lying between the Nerbudda and the Godavary.

CEOS, one of the Cyclades, a small island 13 m. by 8 m., yields fruits; was the birthplace of Simonides and Bacchylides.

CEPHALONIA (80), the largest of the Ionian Islands, 30 m. long, the ancient Samos; yields grapes and olive oil.

CEPHALUS, king of Thessaly, who having involuntarily killed his wife Procris, in despair put himself to death with the same weapon.

CERAM` (195), the largest of S. Moluccas; yields sago, which is chiefly cultivated and largely exported.

CERBERUS, the three-headed or three-throated monster that guarded the entrance to the nether world of Pluto, could be soothed by music, and

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tempted by honey, only Hercules overcame him by sheer strength, dragging him by neck and crop to the upper world.

CERES, the Latin name for DEMETER (q. v.); also the name of one of the asteroids, the first discovered, by Piazzi, in 1801.

CERI`GO (14), an Ionian island, the southernmost, the ancient Cythera; yields wine and fruits.

CERINTHUS, a heresiarch of the first century, whom, according to tradition, St. John held in special detestation, presumably as denying the Father and the Son.

CERRO DE PASCO, a town in Peru, 14,200 ft. above the sea-level, with the richest silver mine in S. America.

CERUTTI, a Jesuit, born at Turin; became a Revolutionary in France; pronounced the funeral oration at the grave of Mirabeau in 1789.

CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE, the author of "Don Quixote," born at Alcala de Henares; was distinguished in arms before he became distinguished in letters; fought in the battle of Lepanto like a very hero, and bore away with him as a "maimed soldier" marks of his share in the struggle; sent on a risky embassy, was captured by pirates and remained in their hands five years; was ransomed by his family at a cost which beggared them, and it was only when his career as a soldier closed that he took himself to literature; began as a dramatist before he devoted himself to prose romance; wrote no fewer than 30 dramas; the first part of the work which has immortalised his name appeared in 1605, and the second in 1615; it took the world by storm, was translated into all the languages of Europe, but the fortune which was extended to his book did not extend to himself, for he died poor, some ten days before

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his great contemporary, William Shakespeare; though carelessly written, "Don Quixote" is one of the few books of all time, and is as fresh to-day as when it was first written (1547-1616).

CERVIN, MONT, the French name for the Matterhorn, 705 ft., the summit of the Pennine Alps, between Valais and Piedmont.

CESAREWITCH, the eldest son and heir of the Czar of Russia.

CE`SARI, GIUSEPPE, sometimes called ARPINO, an eminent Italian painter; painted a series of frescoes in the Conservatorio of the Capitol, illustrative of events in the history of Rome (1568-1640).

CESAROTTI, an Italian poet, translator of the "Iliad" and "Ossian" into Italian (1730-1808).

CESTUS, a girdle worn by Greek and Roman women, specially the girdle of Aphrodite, so emblazoned with symbols of the joys of love that no susceptible soul could resist the power of it; it was borrowed by Hera to captivate Zeus.

CETINJE, the capital of Montenegro, in a valley 2000 ft. high; smallest of capital cities, with a population under 2000.

CETTE (36), a seaport, trading, and manufacturing town, on a tongue of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 m. SW. of Montpellier, with a large safe harbourage.

CE`UTA (12), a port opposite Gibraltar belonging to Spain, on the coast of Morocco, guarded by a fort on one of the Pillars of Hercules,

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overlooking it; of importance as a military and convict station.

CEVENNES, a range of low mountains on the eastern edge of the central plateau of France, separating the basin of the Rhone from those of the Loire and Garonne; average height from 3000 to 4000 ft.; the chief scene of the dragonnades against the Huguenots under Louis XIV.

CEYLON (3,008), a pear-shaped island about the size of Scotland, separated from India, to which it geographically belongs, and SE. of which it lies, by Palk Strait, 32 m. broad; comprises a lofty, central tableland with numerous peaks, the highest Tallagalla, 8000 ft., and a broad border of well-watered plains. It was an ancient centre of civilisation; the soil is everywhere fertile; the climate is hot, but more equitable than on the mainland; the chief products are tea, cinnamon, and tobacco; the forests yield satin-wood, ebony, &c.; the cocoa-nut palm abounds; there are extensive deposits of iron, anthracite, and plumbago; precious stones, sapphires, rubies, amethysts, &c., are in considerable quantities; the pearl fisheries are a valuable government monopoly. The chief exports are tea, rice, cotton goods, and coals. Two-thirds of the people are Singhalese and Buddhists, there are 6000 Europeans. The island is a crown colony, the largest in the British Empire, administered by a governor with executive and legislative councils; the capital and chief port is Colombo (127).

CHABAS, FRANCOIS, a French Egyptologist, born in Briancon; his works have contributed much to elucidate the history of the invasion and repulsion of the Hyksos in Egypt (1817-1882).

CHABOT, a member of the National Convention of France, a "disfrocked Capuchin," adjured "Heaven," amid enthusiasm, "that at least they may have done with kings"; guillotined (1759-1794).


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CHAD, LAKE, a shallow lake in the Sahara, of varied extent, according as the season is dry or rainy, at its largest covering an area as large as England, and abounding in hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, &c., as well as waterfowl and fish.

CHADBAND, REV. MR., a character in "Bleak House."

CHADWICK, SIR EDWIN, an English social reformer, born in Manchester, associated with measures bearing upon sanitation and the improvement of the poor-laws, and connected with the administration of them (1801-1890).

CHAERONEA, a town in Boeotia, where Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians, and extinguished the liberties of Greece.

CHALAIS, COUNT DE, a favourite of Louis XIII., accused of conspiracy against Richelieu, arrested at Nantes, and beheaded (1599-1626).

CHALAZA, one of the two filaments attached to the ends of the yoke of an egg to steady it in the albumen.

CHALCEDON, a city of Bithynia, at the entrance of the Thracian Bosphorus, where the fourth Council of the Church was held in 451, which defined the orthodox conception of Christ as God-man.

CHALCIDICE, the 3-fingered peninsula of the Balkan territory stretching into the AEgean Sea.

CHALCIS, the ancient capital of Euboea or Negropont.

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CHALDEA, ancient name for Babylonia.

CHALIER, a Piedmontese, head of the party of the Mountain at Lyons; his execution the signal for an insurrection at Lyons against the Convention (1747-1793).

CHALLENGER EXPEDITION, a scientific expedition sent out by the British Government in the _Challenger_ in 1872 in the interest of science, and under the management of scientific experts, to various stations over the globe, to explore the ocean, and ascertain all manner of facts regarding it open to observation, an expedition which concluded its operations in 1876, of which as many as 50 volumes of reports have been compiled.

CHALLIS, JAMES, an astronomer, born in Essex, noted the position of the planet Neptune before its actual discovery (1803-1882).

CHALLONER, RICHARD, a Roman Catholic bishop, born at Lewes; a zealous Catholic, author of "Garden of the Soul," a popular devotional book, as well as several controversial books (1691-1781).

CHALMERS, ALEXANDER, a miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; settled in London; edited the "British Essayists" in 45 vols., and author of "A General Biographical Dictionary."

CHALMERS, GEORGE, an English publicist, born at Fochabers, author of "An Account, Historical and Topographical, of North Britain" (1742-1825).

CHALMERS, THOMAS, a celebrated Scotch ecclesiastic and pulpit

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orator, born at Anstruther, Fife; studied for the Church, and entered the ministry; after he did so was for some years more engrossed with physical studies and material interests than spiritual, but he by-and-by woke up to see and feel that the spiritual interest was the sovereign one, and to the promotion of that he henceforth devoted himself body and soul; it was for the sake of the spiritual he took the interest he did in the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, and that the Church might have scope and freedom to discharge its spiritual functions was one chief ruling passion of his life, and it is no wonder he bent all his energies on a movement in the Church to secure this object; he was not much of a scholar or even a theologian, but a great man, and a great force in the religious life of his country; though the first pulpit-orator of his day, and though he wrote largely, as well as eloquently, he left no writings worthy of him except the "Astronomical Discourses" perhaps, to perpetuate his memory; he was distinguished for his practical sagacity, and was an expert at organisation; in his old age he was a most benignant, venerable-looking man: "It is a long time," wrote Carlyle to his mother, just after a visit he had paid him a few days before he died--"it is a long time since I have spoken to so _good_ and really pious-hearted and beautiful old man" (1780-1847).

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (25), capital of the French dep. of Marne, 100 m. E. of Paris, where Attila was defeated by the Romans and Goths in 451; Napoleon III. formed a camp near it for the training of troops.

CHALONS-SUR-SAONE (24), a trading centre some 80 m. N. of Lyons; manufactures machinery, glass, paper, and chemicals.

CHAINS, chief town of the French dep. of Haute Vienne, where Richard Coeur de Lion was mortally wounded in 1199 by a shot with an arrow.

CHAM, the pseudonym of the French caricaturist Amedee de Noe, famous for his humorous delineations of Parisian life (1819-1884).

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CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, an association of merchants to promote and protect the interests of trade, particularly of the town or the district to which they belong.

CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES, a French legislative assembly, elected now by universal suffrage.

CHAMBERLAIN, RIGHT HON. JOSEPH, born in London, connected as a business man with Birmingham; after serving the latter city in a municipal capacity, was elected the parliamentary representative in 1876; became President of the Board of Trade under Mr. Gladstone in 1880, and chief promoter of the Bankruptcy Bill; broke with Mr. Gladstone on his Home Rule measure for Ireland, and joined the Liberal-Unionists; distinguished himself under Lord Salisbury as Colonial Secretary; _b_. 1836.

CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM, an English writer, born in Kendal, author of a cyclopaedia which bears his name, and which formed the basis of subsequent ones, as Johnson confessed it did of his Dictionary (1680-1750).

CHAMBERS, GEORGE, an English marine painter, born at Whitby; _d_. 1840.

CHAMBERS, ROBERT, brother of the succeeding and in the same line of life, but of superior accomplishments, especially literary and scientific, which served him well in editing the publications issued by the firm; was the author of a great many works of a historical, biographical, and scientific, as well as literary interest; wrote the "Vestiges of Creation," a book on evolutionary lines, which made no small stir at the time of publication, 1844, and for a time afterwards, the authorship of which he was slow to own (1802-1871).

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CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, born at Peebles; apprenticed to a bookseller in Edinburgh, and commenced business on his own account in a small way; edited with his brother the "Gazetteer of Scotland"; started, in 1832, _Chambers's Edinburgh Journal_ to meet a demand of the time for popular instruction in company with his brother founded a great printing and publishing establishment, from which there has issued a number of valuable works in the interest especially of the propagation of useful knowledge of all kinds; was a distinguished Edinburgh citizen, and did much for the expansion and improvement of the city (1800-1883)

CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, architect, born at Stockholm, of Scotch origin; architect of Somerset House; was of the Johnson circle of wits (1726-1796)

CHAMBERY (19), chief town of dep. of Savoy, in a beautiful district; is the ancient capital, and contains the castle, of the dukes of Savoy; manufactures cloth, wines, soap, and textile fabrics; is also a summer resort.

CHAMBEZE, a head-stream of the Congo, N. of lake Nyassa.

CHAMBORD, spacious chateau in the dep. of Loire-et-Cher, France, built by Francis I.; after being long a residence for royalty and people of distinction, was presented in 1821 to the Duc de Bordeaux, the Comte de Chambord.

CHAMBORD, COMTE DE, Duc de Bordeaux, son of the Duc de Berri and grandson of Charles X., born at Paris; exiled in 1830, he retired to the chateau of Frohsdorf, in Austria, where he died without issue; his father and grandfather being dead, the monarchical party resolved to attempt a restoration in his behalf in 1872, but he refused to adopt the tricolor flag of the Revolution, and the scheme was abandoned, a like opportunity

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offering itself twice before being let slip (1820-1883).

CHAMBRE ARDENTE, a name given to certain courts of justice established to try certain cases that required to be sharply dealt with; they were held at night, and even when held in the daytime with lighted torches; a court of the kind was instituted for trial of the Huguenots in 1530, and again in 1680 and 1716.

CHAMFORT, a French wit and litterateur, born in Auvergne; took to the Revolution, but offended the leaders, and being threatened with arrest committed suicide, "cutting and slashing with frantic, uncertain hand, gaining, not without difficulty, the refuge of death"; he was a born cynic, and was famous for his keen insight into human nature and his sharp criticisms of it, summed up in a collection of maxims he left, as well as for his anecdotes in incisive portraiture of character. "He was a man," says Professor Saintsbury, "soured by his want of birth, health, and position, and spoilt by hanging on to the great persons of his time. But for a kind of tragi-comic satire, a _soeva indignatio_, taking the form of contempt for all that is exalted and noble, he has no equal in literature except Swift" (1741-1794).

CHAMILLARD, Minister of Finance and of War under Louis XIV.; "distinguished himself by his incapacity" (1651-1721).

CHAMISSO, ADALBERT VON, a German naturalist and litterateur born in France, but educated in Berlin; is famous for his poetical productions, but especially as the author of "Peter Schlemihl," the man who lost his shadow, which has been translated into nearly every European language; he wrote several works on natural history (1781-1838).

CHAMOUNI, OR CHAMONIX, a village in the dep. of Haute-Savoie, 33 m. SE. of Geneva, in a valley forming the upper basin of the Arve, famous for its beauty and for its glaciers; it is from this point that the

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ascent of Mont Blanc is usually made.

CHAMOUSSET, a French philanthropist, born in Paris; the originator of mutual benefit societies (1717-1773).

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province of France, 180 m. long by 150 broad, annexed to the Crown 1286, and including the deps. of Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne, and Ardennes; the province where the wine of the name is principally manufactured.

CHAMP-DE-MARS, a large space, of ground in Paris, between the front of the Ecole Militaire and the left bank of the Seine; the site of recent Expositions, and the scene of the Federation Fete, 14th July 1790.

CHAMPLAIN`, a beautiful lake between the States of New York and Vermont; it is 100 m. in length, and from 1 m. at its S. end to 14 m. at its N. end broad.

CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE, a French navigator, born at Brouage, in Saintonge, was founder of Quebec, and French Governor of Canada; wrote an account of his voyages (1570-1635).

CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANCOIS, a celebrated French Egyptologist, born in Figeac, dep. of Lot; early gave himself to the study of Coptic and Egyptian antiquities; was the first to decipher the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt, a great discovery; conducted a scientific expedition to Egypt in 1828, and returned in 1830 with the fruits of his researches; a chair of Egyptology was in consequence instituted in the College of France, and he was installed as the first professor; his writings on the science, of which he laid the foundation, are numerous (1790-1832).

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CHAMPS-ELYSEES, a Parisian promenade between the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de Triomphe.

CHANCELLOR, RICHARD, an English seaman, voyaging in northern parts, arrived in the White Sea, and travelled to Moscow, where he concluded a commercial treaty with Russia on behalf of an English company; wrote an interesting account of his visit; after a second visit, in which he visited Moscow, was wrecked on the coast of Aberdeenshire in 1556.

CHANDERNAGORE (25), a small town and territory on the Hooghly, 22 m. N. of Calcutta, belonging to France.

CHANDLER, RICHARD, a learned Hellenistic archaeologist, born in Hants; travelled in Asia Minor and Greece, along with two artists, to examine and describe the antiquities; the materials collected were published in his "Ionian Antiquities," "Travels in Asia Minor," &c. (1738-1810).

CHANDOS, an English title inherited by the Grenville family, of Norman origin.

CHANDOS, JOHN, a celebrated English general in the 14th century; was present at Crecy, governor of English provinces in France ceded by treaty of Bretigny; defeated and took prisoner Du Guesclin of Auray; served under the Black Prince, and was killed near Poitiers, 1369.

CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS, French general, born at Autun; distinguished himself in Algeria, was exiled after the _coup-d'etat_, returned in 1870, served in the Franco-German war; surrendered at Metz, at the close of the war came back, and assisted in reorganising the army (1793-1877).

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CHANNEL, THE ENGLISH, an arm of the Atlantic between France and England, 280 m. long and 100 m. wide at the mouth; the French call it _La Manche_ (the sleeve) from its shape.

CHANNEL ISLANDS (92), a group of small islands off the NW. coast of France, of which the largest are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark; formerly part of the Duchy of Normandy, and now all that remains to Britain of her French dominions, being subject to it since 1066; have a delightful climate mild and bright, and varied and beautiful scenery; the soil is fertile; flowers and fruit are grown for export to Britain, also early potatoes for the London market; Guernsey pears and Jersey cows are famous; valuable quarries of granite are wrought; the language is Norman-French.

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, a Unitarian preacher and miscellaneous writer, born at Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.; a man of the most liberal sentiments, who shrank from being classed with any sect; ranked high in point of moral character; was a vigorous thinker, and eloquent with the pen; "a man of faithful, long-continued striving towards what is Best" (1780-1842).

CHANSON DE GESTES (i. e. Songs of Deeds), poems of a narrative kind much in favour in the Middle Ages, relating in a legendary style the history and exploits of some famous hero, such as the "Chanson de Roland," ascribed to Theroulde, a trouvere of the 9th century.

CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS, an English sculptor, born in Derbyshire; was apprenticed to a carver and gilder in Sheffield; displayed a talent for drawing and modelling; received a commission to execute a marble bust for the parish, church, which was so successful as to procure him further and further commissions; executed four colossal busts of admirals for Greenwich Hospital; being expert at portraiture, his busts were likenesses; executed busts of many of the most illustrious men of the time, among them of Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and

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Wellington, as well as of royal heads; made a large fortune, and left it for the encouragement of art (1781-1841).

CHANZY, a French general, born at Nouart, Ardennes; served in Algeria; commanded the army of the Loire in 1870-71; distinguished himself by his brilliant retreat from Mans to Laval; was afterwards Governor-General in Algeria; died suddenly, to the regret of his country (1823-1883).

CHAOS, a name in the ancient cosmogomy for the formless void out of which everything at first sprang into existence, or the wide-spread confusion that prevailed before it shaped itself into order under the breath of the spirit of life.

CHAPELAIN, a French poet, protege of Richelieu, born at Paris; composed a pretentious poem on Joan of Arc, entitled "Pucelle," which was laughed out of existence on the appearance of the first half, consisting of only 12 of the 24 books promised, the rest having never passed beyond the MS. stage (1595-1674).

CHAPMAN, GEORGE, English dramatic poet, born at Hitchin, Hertfordshire; wrote numerous plays, both in tragedy and comedy, as well as poems, of unequal merit, but his great achievement, and the one on which his fame rests, is his translation into verse of the works of Homer, which, though not always true to the letter, is instinct with somewhat of the freshness and fire of the original; his translation is reckoned the best yet done into English verse, and the best rendering into verse of any classic, ancient or modern (1559-1634).

CHAPPELL, musical amateur, collector and editor of old English airs, and contributor to the history of English national music; was one of the founders of the Musical Hungarian Society, and the Percy Society (1809-1888).

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CHAPTAL, a distinguished French chemist and statesman, born at Nogaret, Lozere; author of inventions in connection with the manufacture of alum and saltpetre, the bleaching and the dyeing of cotton; held office under Napoleon, and rendered great service to the arts and manufactures of his country (1756-1832).

CHARCOT, JEAN MARTIN, a French pathologist; made a special study of nervous diseases, including hypnotism, and was eminent for his works in connection therewith (1823-1893).

CHARDIN, SIR JOHN, traveller, born in Paris; author of "Travels in India and Persia," valuable for their accuracy (1643-1713).

CHARENTE (360), a dep. of France, W. of the Gironde, capital Angouleme; with vast chestnut forests; produces wines, mostly distilled into brandy.

CHARENTE-INFERIEURE (456), a maritime dep. of France, W. of the former; includes the islands of Rhe, Oleron, Aix, and Madame; capital, La Rochelle.

CHARIVA`RI, a satirical journal, such as the English _Punch_; originally a discordant mock serenade.

CHARLEMAGNE i. e. Charles or Karl the Great, the first Carlovingian king of the Franks, son and successor of Pepin le Bref (the Short); became sole ruler on the death of his brother Carloman in 771; he subjugated by his arms the southern Gauls, the Lombards, the Saxons, and the Avares, and conducted a successful expedition against the Moors in Spain, with the result that his kingdom extended from the Ebro to the

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Elbe; having passed over into Italy in support of the Pope, he was on Christmas Day 800 crowned Emperor of the West, after which he devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and proved himself as great in legislation as in arms; enacted laws for the empire called capitularies, reformed the judicial administration, patronised letters, and established schools; kept himself in touch and _au courant_ with everything over his vast domain; he died and was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle (742-814).

CHARLEROI (21), a manufacturing town in Hainault, Belgium, 35 m. SE. of Brussels.

CHARLES II., surnamed THE BALD, son of Louis "le Debonnaire"; after conquering his brother Lothaire at Fontenoy in 841, became by the treaty of Verdun king of France, 843; was unable to defend his kingdom against the Normans; went to Italy, and had himself crowned emperor at Rome: _d_. 877.

CHARLES III., surnamed THE SIMPLE, became king of France in 893; his reign one long struggle against the Normans, which ended by conceding Normandy to Rollo; was conquered by Hugh Capet, a rival for the crown, at Soissons, and dethroned in 922; died in captivity, 929.

CHARLES IV., THE FAIR, third son of Philip the Fair, king of France from 1322 to 1328; lost to France Guienne, which was taken from him by the English; was the last of the Capetians; _d_. 1328.

CHARLES V., THE WISE, son of John II., king of France from 1361 to 1380; recovered from the English almost all the provinces they had conquered, successes due to his own prudent policy, and especially the heroism of Du Guesclin, De Clisson, and De Boucicaut; France owed to him important financial reforms, the extension of privileges to the universities, and the establishment of the first national library, into which were gathered together thousands of MSS.; the Bastille was founded

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in his reign.

CHARLES VI., THE WELL-BELOVED, king of France from 1380 to 1422, was son and successor of Charles V.; began his reign under the guardianship of his uncles, who rifled the public treasury and provoked rebellion by their exactions; gained a victory at Rossbach over the Flemings, then in revolt, and a little after dismissed his uncles and installed in their stead the wise councillors of his father, whose sage, upright, and beneficent administration procured for him the title of "Well-Beloved," a state of things, however, which did not last long, for the harassments he had been subjected to drove him insane, and his kingdom, torn in pieces by rival factions, was given over to anarchy, and fell by treaty of Troyes almost entirely into the hands of the English conquerors at Agincourt (1368-1422).

CHARLES VII., THE VICTORIOUS, son of Charles VI., became king of France in 1422; at his accession the English held possession of almost the whole country, and he indolently made no attempt to expel them, but gave himself up to effeminate indulgences; was about to lose his whole patrimony when the patriotism of the nation woke up at the enthusiastic summons of Joan of Arc; her triumphs and those of her associates weakened the English domination, and even after her death the impulse she gave continued to work, till at the end of 20 years the English were driven out of France, and lost all they held in it except the town of Calais, along with Havre, and Guines Castle (1403-1461).

CHARLES VIII., king of France, son and successor of Louis XI.; during his minority the kingdom suffered from the turbulence and revolts of the nobles; married Anne of Brittany, heiress of the rich duchy of that name, by which it was added to the crown of France; sacrificed the interests of his kingdom by war with Italy to support the claims of French princes to the throne of Naples, which, though successful in a military point of view, proved politically unfruitful (1470-1498).

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CHARLES IX., second son of Henry II. and Catharine de' Medici, became king of France in 1560; the civil wars of the Huguenots and Catholics fill up this reign; the first war concluded by the peace of Amboise, during which Francis of Guise was assassinated; the second concluded by the peace of Longjumeau, during which Montmorency fell; the third concluded by the peace of St. Germain, in which Conde and Moncontour fell, which peace was broken by the massacre of St. Bartholomew, into the perpetration of which Charles was inveigled by his mother and the Guises; incensed at this outrage the Huguenots commenced a fourth war, and were undertaking a fifth when Charles died, haunted by remorse and in dread of the infinite terror (1550-1574).

CHARLES X., brother of Louis XVI. and Louis XVIII., the latter of whom he succeeded on the throne of France in 1824; was unpopular in France as Duc d'Artois in the time of the Revolution, and had to flee the country at the outbreak of it, and stayed for some time as an exile in Holyrood, Edinburgh; on his accession he became no less unpopular from his adherence to the old regime; at an evil hour in 1830 he issued ordinances in defiance of all freedom, and after an insurrection of three days in the July of that year had again to flee; abdicating in favour of his son, found refuge for a time again in Holyrood, and died at Goertz in his eightieth year (1757-1837).

CHARLES V., (I. of Spain), emperor of Germany, son of Philip, Archduke of Austria, born at Ghent; became king of Spain in 1516, on the death of his maternal grandfather Ferdinand, and emperor of Germany in 1519 on the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I., being crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520; reigned during one of the most important periods in the history of Europe; the events of the reign are too numerous to detail; enough to mention his rivalry with Francis I. of France, his contention as a Catholic with the Protestants of Germany, the inroads of the Turks, revolts in Spain, and expeditions against the pirates of the Mediterranean; the ambition of his life was the suppression of the Protestant Reformation and the succession of his son Philip to the Imperial crown; he failed in both; resigned in favour of his son, and retired into the monastery of St. Yuste, in Estremadura,

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near which he built a magnificent retreat, where, it is understood, notwithstanding his apparent retirement, he continued to take interest in political affairs, and to advise in the management of them (1500-1558).

CHARLES VI., emperor of Germany from 1711 to 1740, as well as king of Spain from 1703, was son of the Emperor Leopold I., and father of Maria Theresa.

CHARLES XII., king of Sweden, son of Charles XI., a warlike prince; ascended the throne at the age of 15; had to cope with Denmark, Russia, and Poland combined against him; foiled the Danes at Copenhagen, the Russians at Narva, and Augustus II. of Poland at Riga; trapped in Russia, and cooped up to spend a winter there, he was, in spring 1709, attacked by Peter the Great at Pultowa and defeated, so that he had to take refuge with the Turks at Bender; here he was attacked, captured, and conveyed to Demotica, but escaping, he found his way miraculously back to Sweden, and making peace with the Czar, commenced an attack on Norway, but was killed by a musket-shot at the siege of Friedrickshall; "the last of the Swedish kings"; "his appearance, among the luxurious kings and knights of the North" at the time, Carlyle compares to "the bursting of a cataract of bombshells in a dull ballroom" (1697-1718).

CHARLES I., king of England, third son of James I., born at Dunfermline; failing in his suit for the Infanta of Spain, married Henrietta Maria, a French princess, a devoted Catholic, who had great influence over him, but not for good; had for public advisers Strafford and Laud, who cherished in him ideas of absolute power adverse to the liberty of the subject; acting on these ideas brought him into collision with the Parliament, and provoked a civil war; himself the first to throw down the gauntlet by raising the royal standard at Nottingham; in the end of which he surrendered himself to the Scots army at Newark, who delivered him to the Parliament; was tried as a traitor to his country, condemned to death, and beheaded, 30th January, at Whitehall (1600-1649).

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CHARLES II., king of England, son of Charles I., horn at St. James's Palace, London; was at The Hague, in Holland, when his father was beheaded; assumed the royal title; was proclaimed King by the Scots; landed in Scotland, and was crowned at Scone; marching into England, was defeated by Cromwell at Worcester, 3rd September 1651; fled to France; by the policy of General Monk, after Cromwell's death, was restored to his crown and kingdom in 1660, an event known as the Restoration; he was an easy-going man, and is known in history as the "Merry Monarch"; his reign was an inglorious one for England, though it is distinguished by the passing of the Habeas Corpus Act, one of the great bulwarks of English liberty next to the Magna Charta (1630-1685).

CHARLES, a French physicist, born at Beaugency; was the first to apply hydrogen to the inflation of balloons (1746-1823).

CHARLES, ARCHDUKE, of Austria, son of the Emperor Leopold II. and younger brother of Francis II., one of the ablest generals of Austria in the wars against the French Republic and the Empire; lost the battle of Wagram, after which, being wounded, he retired into private life (1771-1847).

CHARLES ALBERT, king of Sardinia, succeeded Charles Felix in 1831; conceived a design to emancipate and unite Italy; in the pursuit of this object he declared war against Austria; though at first successful, was defeated at Novara, and to save his kingdom was compelled to resign in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel; retired to Oporto, and died of a broken heart (1798-1849).

CHARLES EDWARD, the Young Pretender, grandson of James II. of England, born at Rome, landed in Scotland (1745); issued a manifesto in assertion of his father's claims; had his father proclaimed king at Edinburgh; attacked and defeated General Cope at Prestonpans; marched at the head of his adherents into England as far as Derby; returned, and defeated the king's force at Falkirk, but retired before the Duke of

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Cumberland, who dispersed his army at Culloden; wandered about thereafter in disguise; escaped to France, and died at Florence (1721-1789).

CHARLES MARTEL (i. e. "Charles the Hammer"), son of Pepin d'Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne; became mayor of the Palace, and as such ruler of the Franks; notable chiefly for his signal victory over the Saracens at Poitiers in 732, whereby the tide of Mussulman invasion was once for all rolled back and the Christianisation of Europe assured; no greater service was ever rendered to Europe by any other fighting man (689-741).

CHARLES OF ANJOU, brother of St. Louis, king of Naples; lost Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers (1220-1285).

CHARLES OF VALOIS, third son of Philip the Bold, one of the greatest captains of his age (1270-1324).

CHARLES THE RASH, last Duke of Burgundy, son of Philip the Good, born at Dijon; enemy of Louis XI. of France, his feudal superior; was ambitious to free the duchy from dependence on France, and to restore it as a kingdom, and by daring enterprises tried hard to achieve this; on the failure of the last effort was found lying dead on the field (1433-1477).

CHARLES'S WAIN, the constellation of Ursa Major, a wagon without a wagoner.

CHARLESTON (56), the largest city in S. Carolina, and the chief commercial city; also a town in Western Virginia, U.S., with a spacious land-locked harbour; is the chief outlet for the cotton and rice of the district, and has a large coasting trade.

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CHARLET, NICOLAS TOUSSAINT, a designer and painter, born in Paris; famous for his sketches of military subjects and country life, in which he displayed not a little humour (1792-1845).

CHARLEVILLE (17), a manufacturing and trading town in the dep. of Ardennes, France; exports iron, coal, wines, and manufactures hardware and beer.

CHARLEVOIX, a Jesuit and traveller, born at St. Quentin, explored the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi (1682-1761).

CHARLOTTE, PRINCESS, daughter and only child of George IV. of England, married to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, afterwards king of Belgium; died after giving birth to a still-born boy, to the great grief of the whole nation (1796-1817).

CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH OF BAVARIA, second wife of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., called the Princess Palatine (1652-1722).

CHARLOTTENBURG (76), a town on the Spree, 3 m. W. of Berlin, with a palace, the favourite residence of Sophie Charlotte, the grandmother of Frederick the Great, and so named by her husband Frederick I. after her death; contains the burial-place of William I., emperor of Germany.

CHARLOTTETOWN (13), the capital of Prince Edward Island.

CHARMETTES, a picturesque hamlet near Chambery, a favourite retreat of Rousseau's.

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CHARNAY, a French traveller; a writer on the ancient civilisation of Mexico, which he has made a special study; _b_. 1828.

CHARON, in the Greek mythology the ferryman of the ghosts of the dead over the Styx into Hades, a grim old figure with a mean dress and a dirty beard, peremptory in exacting from the ghosts he ferried over the obolus allowed him for passage-money.

CHARONDAS, a Sicilian law-giver, disciple of Pythagoras; is said to have killed himself when he found he had involuntarily broken one of his own laws (600 B.C.).

CHARRON, PIERRE, a French moralist and theologian, as well as pulpit orator, born in Paris; author of "Les Trois Verites," the unity of God, Christianity the sole religion, and Catholicism the only Christianity; and of a sceptical treatise "De la Sagesse"; a friend and disciple of Montaigne, but bolder as more dogmatic, with less _bonhommie_ and originality, and much of a cynic withal (1541-1603).

CHARTERHOUSE, a large London school, originally a Carthusian monastery, and for a time a residence of the dukes of Norfolk.

CHARTIER, ALAIN, an early scholarly French poet and prose writer of note, born at Bayeux; secretary to Charleses V., VI., and VII. of France, whom Margaret, daughter of James I. of Scotland and wife of Louis XI., herself a poetess, once kissed as he lay asleep for the pleasure his poems gave her; was a patriot, and wrote as one (1390-1458).

CHARTISM, a movement of the working-classes of Great Britain for greater political power than was conceded to them by the Reform Bill of 1832, and which found expression in a document called the "People's Charter," drawn up in 1838, embracing six "points," as they were called,

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viz., Manhood Suffrage, Equal Electoral Districts, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Abolition of a Property Qualification in the Parliamentary Representation, and Payment of Members of Parliament, all which took the form of a petition presented to the House of Commons in 1839, and signed by 1,380,000 persons. The refusal of the petition gave rise to great agitation over the country, which gradually died out in 1848.

CHARTRES (23), the capital of the French dep. of Eure-et-Lois, 55 m. SW. of Paris; gave title of Duke to the eldest of the Orleanist Bourbons.

CHARTREUSE, LA GRANDE, a monastery founded by St. Bruno in 1084 in the dep. of Isere, 14 m. NE. of Grenoble; famous as the original place of the manufacture of the Chartreuse liqueur, held in much repute; it was honoured by a visit of Queen Victoria in 1887; Ruskin was disappointed with both monks and monastery.


CHASE, SALMON PORTLAND, Chief-Justice of the United States; a great anti-slavery advocate and leader of the Free-Soil party; aimed at the Presidency, but failed (1773-1808).

CHASI`DIM, a party among the Jews identified with the Pharisees, their supreme concern the observance of their religion in its purity.

CHASLES, MICHEL, an eminent French mathematician, and held one of the first in the century; on the faith of certain autographs, which were afterwards proved to be forgeries, he in 1867 astonished the world by ascribing to Pascal the great discoveries of Newton, but had to admit he was deceived (1793-1880).

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CHASLES, PHILARETE, a French litterateur, born near Chartres, a disciple of Rousseau; lived several years in England, and wrote extensively on English subjects, Shakespeare, Mary Stuart, Charles I., and Cromwell among the chief (1799-1873).

CHASSE, DAVID HENDRIK, BARON, a Dutch soldier; served France under Napoleon, who called him "General Baionnette," from his zealous use of the bayonet; fought at Waterloo on the opposite side; as governor of Antwerp, gallantly defended its citadel in 1832 against a French and Belgian force twelve times larger than his own (1765-1849).

CHASSEPOT, a French breech-loading rifle named from the inventor.

CHASSEURS, picked bodies of light cavalry and infantry in the French service, called respectively _Chasseurs-a-cheval_ and _Chasseurs-a-pied_.

CHASTELARD, PIERRE DE BOSCOSEL DE, grandson of Bayard; conceived an insane passion for Queen Mary, whom he accompanied to Scotland; was surprised in her bedchamber, under her bed, and condemned to death, it being his second offence (1540-1562).

CHAT MOSS, a large bog in Lancashire, 7 m. W. of Manchester, which is partly reclaimed and partly, through the ingenuity of George Stephenson, traversed by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANCOIS RENE DE, eminent French litterateur, born in St. Malo, younger son of a noble family of Brittany; travelled to N. America in 1791; returned to France on the arrest of Louis XVI., and joined the EMIGRANTS (q. v.) at Coblenz; was wounded at the siege of Thionville, and escaped to England; wrote an "Essay on Revolutions Ancient and Modern," conceived on liberal lines; was tempted back again to France in 1800; wrote "Atala," a story of life in the wilds

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of America, which was in 1802 followed by his most famous work, "Genie du Christianisme"; entered the service of Napoleon, but withdrew on the murder of the Duc d'Enghien; though not obliged to leave France, made a journey to the East, the fruit of which was his "Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem"; hailed with enthusiasm the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814; supported the Bourbon dynasty all through, though he wavered sometimes in the interest of liberty; withdrew from public life on the elevation of Louis Philippe to the throne; he was no thinker, but he was a fascinating writer, and as such exercised no small influence on the French literature of his day; he lived in a transition period, and hovered between legitimism and liberty, the revolution and reaction, and belonged to the Romantic school of literature--was perhaps the father of it in France (1766-1848).

CHATEAUX EN ESPAGNE, castles in Spain, visionary projects.

CHATELET, MARQUISE DE, a learned Frenchwoman, born at Paris, with whom Voltaire kept up an intimate acquaintanceship (1706-1749).

CHATELLERAULT (18), a town in the dep. of Vienne, 24 m. NE. of Poitiers; gave title to the Scottish regent, the Earl of Arran; manufactures cutlery and small-arms for the Government.

CHATHAM (59), a town in Kent, on the estuary of the Medway, a fortified naval arsenal; is connected with Rochester.

CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, EARL OF, a great British statesman and orator, born in Cornwall; determined opponent of S