The Comprehensive Dictionary THE NUTTALL ENCYCLOPAEDIA A

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A'ALI PASHA, an eminent reforming Turkish statesman (1815-1871).


AALBORG (19), a trading town on the Liimfiord, in the N. of Jutland.

AAR, a large Swiss river about 200 m. long, which falls into the Rhine as it leaves Switzerland.

AARGAU, a fertile Swiss canton bordering on the Rhine.

AARHUUS (33), a port on the E. of Jutland, with a considerable export and import trade, and a fine old Gothic cathedral.

AARON, the elder brother of Moses, and the first high-priest of the Jews, an office he held for forty years.

ABACA, Manila hemp, or the plant, native to the Philippines, which yield it in quantities.

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ABACUS, a tablet crowning a column and its capital.

ABADDON, the bottomless pit, or the angel thereof.

ABARIM, a mountain chain in Palestine, NE. of the Dead Sea, the highest point being Mount Nebo.

ABATEMENT, a mark of disgrace in a coat of arms.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN, a French Protestant theologian and a mathematician, a friend of Newton, and much esteemed for his learning by Rousseau and Voltaire (1679-1767).

ABBADIE, two brothers of French descent, Abyssinian travellers in the years 1837-1848; also a French Protestant divine (1658-1727).

ABBAS, uncle of Mahomet, founder of the dynasty of the Abbasides (566-652).

ABBAS PASHA, the khedive of Egypt, studied five years in Vienna, ascended the throne at eighteen, accession hailed with enthusiasm; shows at times an equivocal attitude to Britain; _b_. 1874.

ABBAS THE GREAT, shah of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sophis, great alike in conquest and administration (1557-1628).

ABBAS-MIRZA, a Persian prince, a reformer of the Persian army, and a

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leader of it, unsuccessfully, however, against Russia (1783-1833).

ABBASIDES, a dynasty of 37 caliphs who ruled as such at Bagdad from 750 to 1258.

AB`BATI, NICCOLO DELL', an Italian fresco-painter (1512-1571).

ABBE, name of a class of men who in France prior to the Revolution prepared themselves by study of theology for preferment in the Church, and who, failing, gave themselves up to letters or science.

ABBEVILLE (19), a thriving old town on the Somme, 12 m. up, with an interesting house architecture, and a cathedral, unfinished, in the Flamboyant style.

ABBOT, head of an abbey. There were two classes of abbots: Abbots Regular, as being such in fact, and Abbots Commendatory, as guardians and drawing the revenues.

ABBOT, GEORGE, archbishop of Canterbury in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., and one of the translators of King James's Bible; an enemy of Laud's, who succeeded him (1562-1633).

ABBOT OF MISRULE, a person elected to superintend the Christmas revelries.

ABBOTSFORD, the residence of Sir Walter Scott, on the Tweed, near Melrose, built by him on the site of a farm called Clarty Hole.

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ABBOTT, EDWIN, a learned Broad Church theologian and man of letters; wrote, besides other works, a volume of sermons "Through Nature to Christ"; esteemed insistence on miracles injurious to faith; _b_. 1838.

ABDAL`LAH, the father of Mahomet, famed for his beauty (545-570); also a caliph of Mecca (622-692).

ABDALRAH`MAN, the Moorish governor of Spain, defeated by Charles Martel at Tours in 732.

ABDALS (lit. servants of Allah), a set of Moslem fanatics in Persia.

ABD-EL-KA`DIR, an Arab emir, who for fifteen years waged war against the French in N. Africa, but at length surrendered prisoner to them in 1847. On his release in 1852 he became a faithful friend of France (1807-1883).

ABDE`RA, a town in ancient Thrace, proverbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants.

ABDICATIONS, of which the most celebrated are those of the Roman Dictator Sylla, who in 70 B.C. retired to Puteoli; of Diocletian, who in A.D. 305 retired to Salone; of Charles V., who in 1556 retired to the monastery St. Yuste; of Christina of Sweden, who in 1654 retired to Rome, after passing some time in France; of Napoleon, who in 1814 and 1815 retired first to Elba and then died at St. Helena; of Charles X. in 1830, who died at Goritz, in Austria; and of Louis Philippe, who in 1848 retired to end his days in England.

ABDIEL, one of the seraphim, who withstood Satan in his revolt

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against the Most High.

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Turkey from 1861, in succession to Abdul-Medjid (1830-1876).

ABDUL-AZIZ, sultan of Morocco, was only fourteen at his accession; _b_. 1880.

ABDUL-HA`MID II., sultan of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz, and his successor; under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment, and the Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred; _b_. 1842.

ABD-UL-MED`JID, sultan, father of the two preceding, in whose defence against Russia England and France undertook the Crimean war (1823-1861).

ABDUR-RAH`MAN, the ameer of Afghanistan, subsidised by the English; _b_. 1830.

A'BECKET, GILBERT, an English humourist, who contributed to _Punch_ and other organs; wrote the "Comic Blackstone" and comic histories of England and Rome (1811-1856).

A'BECKET, A. W., son of the preceding, a litterateur and journalist; _b_. 1844.

ABEL, the second son of Adam and Eve; slain by his brother. The death of Abel is the subject of a poem by Gessner and a tragedy by Legouve.

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ABEL, SIR F. A., a chemist who has made a special study of explosives; _b_. 1827.

ABEL, HENRY, an able Norwegian mathematician, who died young (1802-1828).

AB`ELARD, PETER, a theologian and scholastic philosopher of French birth, renowned for his dialectic ability, his learning, his passion for Heloise, and his misfortunes; made conceivability the test of credibility, and was a great teacher in his day (1079-1142).

ABELLI, a Dominican monk, the confessor of Catharine de Medici (1603-1691).

ABENCERRA`GES, a powerful Moorish tribe in Grenada, whose fate in the 15th century has been the subject of interesting romance.

ABEN-EZ`RA, a learned Spanish Jew and commentator on the Hebrew scriptures (1090-1168).

ABERA`VON (6), a town and seaport in Glamorganshire, with copper and iron works.

ABERCROMBIE, SIR RALPH, a distinguished British general of Scottish birth, who fell in Egypt after defeating the French at Aboukir Bay (1731-1801).

ABERDEEN (124), the fourth city in Scotland, on the E. coast,

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between the mouths of the Dee and Don; built of grey granite, with many fine public edifices, a flourishing university, a large trade, and thriving manufactures. Old Aberdeen, on the Don, now incorporated in the municipality, is the seat of a cathedral church, and of King's College, founded in 1404, united with the university in the new town.

ABERDEEN, EARL OF, a shrewd English statesman, Prime Minister of England during the Crimean war (1784-1860).--Grandson of the preceding, Gov.-Gen. of Canada; _b_. 1847.

ABERDEENSHIRE (281), a large county in NE. of Scotland; mountainous in SW., lowland N. and E.; famed for its granite quarries, its fisheries, and its breed of cattle.

ABERNETHY, a small burgh in S. Perthshire, with a Pictish round tower, and once the capital of the Pictish kingdom.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT, an apparent motion in a star due to the earth's motion and the progressive motion of light.

ABERYST`WITH (16), a town and seaport in Cardiganshire, Wales, with a university.

AB`GAR XIV., a king of Edessa, one of a dynasty of the name, a contemporary of Jesus Christ, and said to have corresponded with Him.

ABHORRERS, the Royalist and High Church party in England under Charles II., so called from their abhorrence of the principles of their opponents.

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ABIGAIL, the widow of Nabal, espoused by David.

ABICH, W. H., a German mineralogist and traveller (1806-1886).

ABINGDON (6), a borough in Berks, 6 m. S. of Oxford.

ABIOGENESIS, the doctrine of spontaneous generation.

ABIPONES, a once powerful warlike race in La Plata, now nearly all absorbed.

ABLE MAN, man with "a heart to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute" (Gibbon).

ABNER, a Hebrew general under Saul; assassinated by Joab.

ABO, the old capital of Finland and seat of the government, on the Gulf of Bothnia.

AB`OMEY, the capital of Dahomey, in W. Africa.

ABOU`KIR, village near Alexandria, in Egypt, on the bay near which Nelson destroyed the French fleet in 1799; where Napoleon beat the Turks, 1799; and where Abercrombie fell, 1801.

ABOUT, EDMOND, spirited French litterateur and journalist (1828-1885).

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ABRAHAM, the Hebrew patriarch, ancestor of the Jews, the very type of an Eastern pastoral chief at once by his dignified character and simple faith.

ABRAHAM, THE PLAINS OF, a plain near Quebec.

ABRAHAM-MEN, a class of lunatics allowed out of restraint, at one time, to roam about and beg; a set of impostors who wandered about the country affecting lunacy.

ABRAN`TES, a town in Portugal, on the Tagus; taken by Marshal Junot, 1807, and giving the title of Duke to him.

ABRAXAS STONES, stones with cabalistic figures on them used as talismans.

ABRUZ`ZI, a highland district in the Apennines, with a pop. of 100,000.

ABSALOM, a son of David, who rebelled against his father, and at whose death David gave vent to a bitter wail of grief. A name given by Dryden to the Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II.

ABSOLUTE, THE, the philosophical name for the uncreated Creator, or creating cause of all things, dependent on nothing external to itself.

ABSYRTUS, a brother of Medea, whom she cut in pieces as she fled with Jason, pursued by her father, throwing his bones behind her to detain her father in his pursuit of her by stopping to pick them up.

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ABT, FRANZ, a German composer of song-music (1819-1885).

ABU, a mountain (6000 ft.) in Rajputana, with a footprint of Vishnu on the top, and two marble temples half-way up, held sacred by the Jains.

AB`UBEKR, as the father of Ayesha, the father-in-law of Mahomet, the first of the caliphs and the founder of the Sunnites; _d_. 634.

AB`U-KLEA, in the Soudan, where the Mahdi's forces were defeated by Sir H. Stewart in 1885.

A`BUL-FARAJ, a learned Armenian Jew, who became bishop of Aleppo, and wrote a history of the world from Adam onwards (1226-1286).

ABUL-FAZEL, the vizier of the great Mogul emperor Akbar, and who wrote an account of his reign and of the Mogul empire; he was assassinated in 1604.

ABUL-FEDA, a Moslem prince of Hamat in Syria, who in his youth took part against the Crusaders, and wrote historical works in Arabic (1273-1331).

ABU-THA`LEB, uncle of Mahomet, and his protector against the plots of his enemies the Koreish.

ABY`DOS, a town on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, famous as the home of Leander, who swam the Hellespont every night to visit Hero in Sestos, and as the spot where Xerxes built his bridge of boats to cross

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into Europe in 480 B.C.; also a place of note in Upper Egypt.

ABYSSIN`IA, a mountainous country SE. of Nubia, with an area of 200,000 sq. m., made up of independent states, and a mixed population of some four millions, the Abyssinians proper being of the Semite stock. It is practically under the protectorate of Italy.

ACACIA, a large group of trees with astringent and gum-yielding properties, natives of tropical Africa and Australia.

ACADEMY, a public shady park or place of groves near Athens, where Plato taught his philosophy and whence his school derived its name, of which there are three branches, the _Old_, the _Middle_, and the _New_, represented respectively by Plato himself, Arcesilaos, and Carneades. The _French Academy_, of forty members, was founded by Richelieu in 1635, and is charged with the interests of the French language and literature, and in particular with the duty of compiling an authoritative dictionary of the French language. Besides these, there are in France other four with a like limited membership in the interest of other departments of science and art, all now associated in the _Institute of France_, which consists in all of 229 members. There are similar institutions in other states of Europe, all of greater or less note.

ACADIA, the French name for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

ACANTHUS, a leaf-like ornament on the capitals of the columns of certain orders of architecture.

ACAPUL`CO, a Mexican port in the Pacific, harbour commodious, but climate unhealthy.

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ACARNA`NIA, a province of Greece N. of Gulf of Corinth; its pop. once addicted to piracy.

ACCA`DIANS, a dark, thick-lipped, short-statured Mongol race in Central Asia, displaced by the Babylonians and Assyrians, who were Semitic.

ACCA-LAURENTIA, the wife of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who saved the lives of Romulus and Remus.

ACCIAIOLI, a Florentine family of 15th century, illustrious in scholarship and war.

ACCOLADE, a gentle blow with a sword on the shoulder in conferring knighthood.

ACCOL`TI, a Tuscan family, of 15th century, famous for their learning.

ACCOR`SO, the name of a Florentine family, of 12th and 13th centuries, great in jurisprudence.

ACCRA (16), capital and chief port in British Gold Coast colony.

ACCRINGTON (39), a manufacturing town 22 m. N. of Manchester.

ACCUM, FRIEDRICH, a German chemist, the first promoter of gas-lighting (1769-1838).

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ACCUMULATOR, a hydraulic press for storing up water at a high pressure; also a device for storing up electric energy.

ACERRA (14), an ancient city 9 m. NE. of Naples; is in an unhealthy district.

ACETIC ACID, the pure acid of vinegar; the salts are called _acetates_.

ACETONE, a highly inflammable liquid obtained generally by the dry distillation of acetates.

ACET`YLENE, a malodorous gaseous substance from the incomplete combustion of hydro-carbons.

ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of 12 towns in the Peloponnesus, formed especially against the influence of the Macedonians.

ACHAE`ANS, the common name of the Greeks in the heroic or Homeric period.

ACHAI`A, the N. district of the Peloponnesus, eventually the whole of it.

ACHARD, a Prussian chemist, one of the first to manufacture sugar from beetroot (1753-1821).

ACHARD`, LOUIS AMEDEE, a prolific French novelist (1814-1876).

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ACHA`TES, the attendant of AEneas in his wandering after the fall of Troy, remarkable for, and a perennial type of, fidelity.

ACHELO`UeS, a river in Greece, which rises in Mt. Pindus, and falls into the Ionian Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of Oceanus, and the father of the Sirens.

ACHEN, an eminent German painter (1556-1621).

ACHENWALL, a German economist, the founder of statistic science (1719-1772).

ACH`ERON, a river in the underworld; the name of several rivers in Greece more or less suggestive of it.

ACH`ERY, a learned French Benedictine of St. Maur (1609-1685).

ACH`ILL, a rocky, boggy island, sparsely inhabited, off W. coast of Ireland, co. Mayo, with a bold headland 2222 ft. high.

ACHILLE`ID, an unfinished poem of Statius.

ACHIL`LES, the son of Peleus and Thetis, king of the Myrmidons, the most famous of the Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and whose wrath with the consequences of it forms the subject of the Iliad of Homer. He was invulnerable except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him as she dipt his body in the Styx to render him invulnerable.

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ACHILLES OF GERMANY, Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery, tough old gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very blazing, far-seen character," says Carlyle (1414-1486).

ACHILLES TENDON, the great tendon of the heel, where Achilles was vulnerable.

ACHMED PASHA, a French adventurer, served in French army, condemned to death, fled, and served Austria; condemned to death a second time, pardoned, served under the sultan, was banished to the shores of the Black Sea (1675-1747).

ACH`MET I., sultan of Turkey from 1603 to 1617; A. II., from 1691 to 1695; A. III., from 1703 to 1730, who gave asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden after his defeat by the Czar at Pultowa.

ACHIT`OPHEL, name given by Dryden to the Earl of Shaftesbury of his time.

ACHROMATISM, transmission of light, undecomposed and free from colour, by means of a combination of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint glass, or by a single glass carefully prepared.

ACIERAGE, coating a copper-plate with steel by voltaic electricity.

A`CI-REA`LE (38), a seaport town in Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, in NE. of Catania, with mineral waters.

A`CIS, a Sicilian shepherd enamoured of Galatea, whom the Cyclops

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Polyphemus, out of jealousy, overwhelmed under a rock, from under which his blood has since flowed as a river.

ACK`ERMANN, R., an enterprising publisher of illustrated works in the Strand, a native of Saxony (1764-1834).

ACLAND, SIR HENRY, regius professor of medicine in Oxford, accompanied the Prince of Wales to America in 1860, the author of several works on medicine and educational subjects, one of Ruskin's old and tried friends (1815).

ACLINIC LINE, the magnetic equator, along which the needle always remains horizontal.

ACNE, a skin disease showing hard reddish pimples; ACNE ROSACEA, a congestion of the skin of the nose and parts adjoining.

ACOEMETAE, an order of monks in the 5th century who by turns kept up a divine service day and night.

ACONCA`GUA, the highest peak of the Andes, about 100 m. NE. of Valparaiso, 22,867 ft. high; recently ascended by a Swiss and a Scotchman, attendants of Fitzgerald's party.

ACONITE, monk's-hood, a poisonous plant of the ranunculus order with a tapering root.

ACONITINE, a most virulent poison from aconite, and owing to the very small quantity sufficient to cause death, is very difficult of detection when employed in taking away life.

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ACORN-SHELLS, a crustacean attached to rocks on the sea-shore, described by Huxley as "fixed by its head," and "kicking its food into its mouth with its legs."

ACOUSTICS, the science of sound as it affects the ear, specially of the laws to be observed in the construction of halls so that people may distinctly hear in them.

ACRASIA, an impersonation in Spenser's "Faerie Queen," of intemperance in the guise of a beautiful sorceress.

ACRE, ST. JEAN D' (7), a strong place and seaport in Syria, at the foot of Mount Carmel, taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip Augustus and Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, held out against Bonaparte in 1799; its ancient name Ptolemais.

ACRES, BOB, a coward in the "Rivals" whose "courage always oozed out at his finger ends."

ACROAMATICS, esoteric lectures, i. e. lectures to the initiated.

ACROLEIN, a light volatile limpid liquid obtained by the destructive distillation of fats.

ACROLITHS, statues of which only the extremities are of stone.

ACROP`OLIS, a fortified citadel commanding a city, and generally the nucleus of it, specially the rocky eminence dominating Athens.

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ACROTE`RIA, pedestals placed at the middle and the extremities of a pediment to support a statue or other ornament, or the statue or ornament itself.

ACTA DIURNA, a kind of gazette recording in a summary way daily events, established at Rome in 131 B.C., and rendered official by Caesar in 50 B.C.

ACTA SANCTORUM, the lives of the saints in 62 vols. folio, begun in the 17th century by the Jesuits, and carried on by the Bollandists.

ACTAEON, a hunter changed into a stag for surprising Diana when bathing, and afterwards devoured by his own dogs.

ACTINIC RAYS, "non-luminous rays of higher frequency than the luminous rays."

ACTINISM, the chemical action of sunlight.

ACTINOMYCOSIS, a disease of a fungous nature on the mouth and lower jaw of cows.

ACTIUM, a town and promontory at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf (Arta), in Greece, where Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra, Sept. 2, 31 B.C.

ACTON, an adventurer of English birth, who became prime minister of Naples, but was driven from the helm of affairs on account of his

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inveterate antipathy to the French (1737-1808).

ACTON, LORD, a descendant of the former, who became a leader of the Liberal Catholics in England, M.P. for Carlow, and made a peer in 1869; a man of wide learning, and the projector of a universal history by experts in different departments of the field; _b_. 1834.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, a narrative account in the New Testament of the founding of the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of Peter and Paul, written by Luke, commencing with the year 33, and concluding with the imprisonment of Paul in Rome in 62.

ACUN`HA, TRISTRAM D', a Portuguese navigator, companion of Albuquerque; NUNA D', his son, viceroy of the Indies from 1528 to 1539; RODRIQUE D', archbishop of Lisbon, who in 1640 freed Portugal from the Spanish domination, and established the house of Braganza on the throne.

ACUPRESSURE, checking hemorrhage in arteries during an operation by compressing their orifices with a needle.

ACUPUNCTURE, the operation of pricking an affected part with a needle, and leaving it for a short time in it, sometimes for as long as an hour.

ADAIR, SIR ROBERT, a distinguished English diplomatist, and frequently employed on the most important diplomatic missions (1763-1855).

ADAL, a flat barren region between Abyssinia and the Red Sea.

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ADALBE`RON, the archbishop of Rheims, chancellor of Lothaire and Louis V.; consecrated Hugh Capet; _d_. 998.

ADALBERT, a German ecclesiastic, who did much to extend Christianity over the North (1000-1072).

ADALBERT, ST., bishop of Prague, who, driven from Bohemia, essayed to preach the gospel in heathen Prussia, where the priests fell upon him, and "struck him with a death-stroke on the head," April 27, 997, on the anniversary of which day a festival is held in his honour.

ADA`LIA (30), a seaport on the coast of Asia Minor, on a bay of the same name.

ADAM (i. e. man), the first father, according to the Bible, of the human race.

ADAM, ALEX., a distinguished Latin scholar, rector for 40 years of the Edinburgh High School, Scott having been one of his pupils (1741-1809).

ADAM, LAMBERT, a distinguished French sculptor (1700-1759).

ADAM, ROBERT, a distinguished architect, born at Kirkcaldy, architect of the Register House and the University, Edinburgh (1728-1792).

ADAM BEDE, George Eliot's first novel, published anonymously in 1859, took at once with both critic and public.

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ADAM KADMON, primeval man as he at first emanated from the Creator, or man in his primeval rudimentary potentiality.

ADAM OF BROMEN, distinguished as a Christian missionary in the 11th century; author of a celebrated Church history of N. Europe from 788 to 1072, entitled _Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum_.

ADAMAS`TOR, the giant spirit of storms, which Camoens, in his "Luciad," represents as rising up before Vasco de Gama to warn him off from the Cape of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the resultant success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope.

ADAMAWA, a region in the Lower Soudan with a healthy climate and a fertile soil, rich in all tropical products.

ADAMITES, visionaries in Africa in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia in the 14th and 15th, who affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went naked.

ADAMNAN, ST., abbot of Iona, of Irish birth, who wrote a life of St. Columba and a work on the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written (625-704).

ADAMS, DR. F., a zealous student and translator of Greek medical works (1797-1861).

ADAMS, JOHN, the second president of the United States, and a chief promoter of their independence (1739-1826).

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ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, his eldest son, the sixth president (1767-1848).

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH, an English astronomer, the discoverer simultaneously with Leverrier of the planet Neptune (1819-1892).

ADAMS, PARSON, a country curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with a head full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but in absolute ignorance of the world, which in his simplicity he takes for what it professes to be.

ADAMS, SAMUEL, a zealous promoter of American independence, who lived and died poor (1722-1803).

ADAM'S BRIDGE, a chain of coral reefs and sandbanks connecting Ceylon with India.

ADAM'S PEAK, a conical peak in the centre of Ceylon 7420 ft. high, with a foot-like depression 5 ft. long and 21/2 broad atop, ascribed to Adam by the Mohammedans, and to Buddha by the Buddhists; it was here, the Arabs say, that Adam alighted on his expulsion from Eden and stood doing penance on one foot till God forgave him.

ADA`NA (40), a town SE. corner of Asia Minor, 30 m. from the sea.

ADANSON, MICHEL, a French botanist, born in AIX, the first to attempt a natural classification of plants (1727-1806).

AD`DA, an affluent of the Po, near Cremona; it flows through Lake Como; on its banks Bonaparte gained several of his famous victories over

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ADDINGTON, HENRY, Lord Sidmouth, an English statesman was for a short time Prime Minister, throughout a supporter of Pitt (1757-1844).

ADDISON, JOSEPH, a celebrated English essayist, studied at Oxford, became Fellow of Magdalen, was a Whig in politics, held a succession of Government appointments, resigned the last for a large pension; was pre-eminent among English writers for the purity and elegance of his style, had an abiding, refining, and elevating influence on the literature of the country; his name is associated with the _Tatler, Spectator_, and _Guardian_, as well as with a number of beautiful hymns (1672-1749).

A`DELAAR, the name of honour given to Cort Sivertsen, a famous Norse seaman, who rendered distinguished naval services to Denmark and to Venice against the Turks (1622-1675).

ADELAIDE (133), the capital of S. Australia, on the river Torrens, which flows through it into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. SE. of Port Adelaide; a handsome city, with a cathedral, fine public buildings, a university, and an extensive botanical garden; it is the great emporium for S. Australia; exports wool, wine, wheat, and copper ore.

ADELAIDE, eldest daughter of Louis XV. of France (1732-1806).

ADELAIDE, PORT, the haven of Adelaide, a port of call, with a commodious harbour.

ADELAIDE, QUEEN, consort of William IV. of England (1792-1849).

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ADELAIDE OF ORLEANS, sister of Louis Philippe, his Egeria (1771-1841).

ADELBERG, a town of Carniola, 22 m. from Trieste, with a large stalactite cavern, besides numerous caves near it.

ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a distinguished German philologist and lexicographer, born in Pomerania (1732-1806).

A`DEN (42), a fortified town on a peninsula in British territory S. of Arabia, 105 m. E. of Bab-el-Mandeb; a coaling and military station, in a climate hot, but healthy.

AD`HERBAL, son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, killed by Jugurtha, 249 B.C.

ADI GRANTH, the sacred book of the Sikhs.

ADIAPH`ORISTS, Lutherans who in 16th century maintained that certain practices of the Romish Church, obnoxious to others of them, were matters of indifference, such as having pictures, lighting candles, wearing surplices, and singing certain hymns in worship.

AD`IGE, a river of Italy, which rises in the Rhetian Alps and falls into the Adriatic after a course of 250 m.; subject to sudden swellings and overflowings.

ADIPOCERE, a fatty, spermaceti-like substance, produced by the decomposition of animal matter in moist places.

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ADIPOSE TISSUE, a tissue of small vesicles filled with oily matter, in which there is no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin and gives smoothness and warmth to the body.

ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS, a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in the State of New York; source of the Hudson.

ADJUTANT, a gigantic Indian stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft. in height, which feeds on carrion and offal, and is useful in this way, as storks are.

ADLER, HERMANN, son and successor of the following, born in Hanover; a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred Scriptures; was elected Chief Rabbi in 1891; _b_. 1839.

ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS, chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover (1803-1890).

ADLERCREUTZ, a Swedish general, the chief promoter of the revolution of 1808, who told Gustavus IV. to his face that he ought to retire (1759-1815).

ADME`TUS, king of Pherae in Thessaly, one of the Argonauts, under whom Apollo served for a time as neat-herd. _See_ ALCESTIS.

ADMIRABLE DOCTOR, a name given to Roger Bacon.

ADMIRAL, the chief commander of a fleet, of which there are in

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Britain three grades--admirals, vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the first displaying his flag on the main mast, the second on the fore, and the third on the mizzen.

ADMIRALTY, BOARD OF, board of commissioners appointed for the management of naval affairs.

ADMIRALTY ISLAND, an island off the coast of Alaska.

ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group NE. of New Guinea, in the Pacific, which belong to Germany.

ADOLF, FRIEDRICH, king of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles divided themselves into the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party, and the Hats, or the war-party (1710-1771).

ADOLPH, ST., a Spanish martyr: festival, Sept. 27.

ADOLPH OF NASSAU, Kaiser from 1291 to 1298, "a stalwart but necessitous Herr" Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of Edward Longshanks.

ADOLPHUS, JOHN, an able London barrister in criminal cases, and a voluminous historical writer (1766-1845).

ADONA`I, the name used by the Jews for God instead of Jehovah, too sacred to be pronounced.

ADONA`IS, Shelley's name for Keats.

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ADO`NIS, a beautiful youth beloved by Aphrodite (Venus), but mortally wounded by a boar and changed by her into a flower the colour of his blood, by sprinkling nectar on his body.

ADOPTIONISTS, heretics who in the 8th century maintained that Christ was the son of God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with Him in character and will.

ADOR`NO, an illustrious plebeian family in Genoa, of the Ghibelline party, several of whom were Doges of the republic.

ADOUR, a river of France, rising in the Pyrenees and falling into the Bay of Biscay.

ADOWA`, a highland town in Abyssinia, and chief entrepot of trade.

ADRAS`TUS, a king of Argos, the one survivor of the first expedition of the Seven against Thebes, who died of grief when his son fell in the second.

ADRETS, BARON DES, a Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty; died a Catholic (1513-1587).

A`DRIA, an ancient town between the Po and the Adige; a flourishing seaport at one time, but now 14 m. from the sea.

A`DRIAN, name of six popes: A. I., from 772 to 795, did much to embellish Rome; A. II., from 867 to 872, zealous to subject the

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sovereigns of Europe to the Popehood; A. III., from 884 to 885; A. V., from 1054 to 1059, the only Englishman who attained to the Papal dignity; A. V., in 1276; A. VI., from 1222 to 1223. See BREAKSPEARE.

ADRIAN, ST., the chief military saint of N. Europe for many ages, second only to St. George; regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and protector against the plague.

ADRIANO`PLE (60), a city in European Turkey, the third in importance, on the high-road between Belgrade and Constantinople.

ADRIA`TIC, THE, a sea 450 m. long separating Italy from Illyria, Dalmatia, and Albania.

ADULLAM, David's hiding-place (1 Sam. xxii. 1), a royal Canaanitish city 10 m. NW. of Hebron.

ADULLAMITES, an English political party who in 1866 deserted the Liberal side in protest against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced. John Bright gave them this name. See 1 Sam. xxii.

ADUMBLA, a cow, in old Norse mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost, "licking the rime from the rocks--a Hindu cow transported north," surmises Carlyle.

ADVOCATE, LORD, chief counsel for the Crown in Scotland, public prosecutor of crimes, and a member of the administration in power.

ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF, body of lawyers qualified to plead at the

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Scottish bar.

ADVOCATES' LIBRARY, a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh, founded in 1632; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds the privilege of receiving a copy of every book entered at Stationers' Hall.

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI, the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman Catholic Church appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization.

AEACUS, a Greek king renowned as an administrator of distributive justice, after death appointed one of the three judges in Hades. _See_ MINOS and RHADAMANTHUS.

AEDILES, magistrates of ancient Rome who had charge of the public buildings and public structures generally.

AEE`TIS, king of Colchis and father of Medea.

AEGE`AN SEA, the Archipelago.

AEGEUS, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into the AEgean Sea, so called after him, in the mistaken belief that his son, who had been to slay the Minotaur, had been slain by him.

AEGI`NA, an island 20 m. SW. of Athens, in a gulf of the same name.

AEGIR, the god of the sea in the Norse mythology.

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AEGIS (lit. a goat's skin), the shield of Zeus, made of the hide of the goat AMALTHEA (q. v.), representing originally the storm-cloud in which the god invested himself when he was angry; it was also the attribute of Athena, bearing in her case the Gorgon's head.


AEL`FRIC, a Saxon writer of the end of the 10th century known as the "Grammarian."

AELIA`NUS, CLAUDIUS, an Italian rhetorician who wrote in Greek, and whose extant works are valuable for the passages from prior authors which they have preserved for us.

AEMI`LIUS PAULUS, the Roman Consul who fell at Cannae, 216 B.C.; also his son, surnamed Macedonicus, so called as having defeated Perseus at Pydna, in Macedonia.

AENE`AS, a Trojan, the hero of Virgil's "AEneid," who in his various wanderings after the fall of Troy settled in Italy, and became, tradition alleges, the forefather of the Julian Gens in Rome.


AE`NEID, an epic poem by Virgil, of which AEneas is the hero.

AENESIDEMUS, a sceptical philosopher, born in Crete, who flourished shortly after Cicero, and summed up under ten arguments the contention against dogmatism in philosophy. See "SCHWEGLER," translated by

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Dr. Hutchison Stirling.

AEOLIAN ACTION, action of the wind as causing geologic changes.


AEO`LIANS, one of the Greek races who, originating in Thessaly, spread north and south, and emigrated into Asia Minor, giving rise to the AEolic dialect of the Greek language.

AEOLOTROPY, a change in the physical properties of bodies due to a change of position.

AE`OLUS, the Greek god of the winds.

AEON, among the Gnostics, one of a succession of powers conceived as emanating from God and presiding over successive creations and transformations of being.

AEPYOR`NIS, a gigantic fossil bird of Madagascar, of which the egg is six times larger than that of an ostrich.

AE`QUI, a tribe on NE. of Latium, troublesome to the Romans until subdued in 302 B.C.

AERATED BREAD, bread of flour dough charged with carbonic acid gas.

AERATED WATERS, waters aerated with carbonic acid gas.

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AES`CHINES, a celebrated Athenian orator, rival of Demosthenes, who in the end prevailed over him by persuading the citizens to believe he was betraying them to Philip of Macedon, so that he left Athens and settled in Rhodes, where he founded a school as a rhetorician (389-314 B.C.).

AES`CHYLUS, the father of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished himself as a soldier both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a poet; wrote, it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are extant--the "Suppliants," the "Persae," the "Seven against Thebes," the "Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon," the "Choephori," and the "Eumenides," his plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in Sicily (525-456 B.C.).

AESCULA`PIUS, a son of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, whom, for restoring Hippolytus to life, Zeus, at the prayer of Pluto, destroyed with a thunderbolt, but afterwards admitted among the gods as god of medicine and the healing art; the cock, the emblem of vigilance, and the serpent, of prudence, were sacred to him.

AESON, the father of Jason, was restored to youth by Medea.

AE`SOP, a celebrated Greek fabulist of the 6th century B.C., of whose history little is known except that he was originally a slave, manumitted by Iadmon of Samos, and put to death by the Delphians, probably for some witticism at their expense.

AESO`PUS, a celebrated Roman actor, a friend of Pompey and Cicero.

AESTHETICS, the science of the beautiful in nature and the fine arts.

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AE`TIUS, a Roman general, who withstood the aggressions of the Barbarians for twenty years, and defeated Attila at Chalons, 451; assassinated out of jealousy by the Emperor Valentinian III., 454.

AETO`LIA, a country of ancient Greece N. of the Gulf of Corinth.

AFFRE, archbishop of Paris, suffered death on the barricades, as, with a green bough in his hand, he bore a message of peace to the insurgents (1793-1848).

AFGHAN`ISTAN` (5,000), a country in the centre of Asia, between India on the east and Persia on the west, its length about 600 m. and its breadth about 500 m., a plateau of immense mountain masses, and high, almost inaccessible, valleys, occupying 278,000 sq. m., with extremes of climate, and a mixed turbulent population, majority Afghans. The country, though long a bone of contention between England and Russia, is now wholly under the sphere of British influence.

AF`GHANS, THE, a fine and noble but hot-tempered race of the Mohammedan faith inhabiting Afghanistan. The Afghans proper are called PATHANS in India, and call themselves Beni Israel (sons of Israel), tracing their descent from King Saul.

AFRA`NIUS, a Latin comic poet who flourished 100 B.C.; also a Roman Consul who played a prominent part in the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey, 60 B.C.

AFRICA, one of the five great divisions of the globe, three times larger than Europe, seven-tenths of it within the torrid zone, and containing over 200,000,000 inhabitants of more or less dark-skinned

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races. It was long a _terra incognita_, but it is now being explored in all directions, and attempts are everywhere made to bring it within the circuit of civilisation. It is being parcelled out by European nations, chiefly Britain, France, and Germany, and with more zeal and appliance of resource by Britain than any other.

AFRICA`NUS, JULIUS, a Christian historian and chronologist of the 3rd century.

AFRIDIS, a treacherous tribe of eight clans, often at war with each other, in a mountainous region on the North-Western frontier of India W. of Peshawar.

AFRIKAN`DER, one born in S. Africa of European parents.

AFRIT`, a powerful evil spirit in the Mohammedan mythology.

AGA`DES, a once important depot of trade in the S. of the Sahara, much decayed.

AGAG, a king of the Amalekites, conquered by Saul, and hewn in pieces by order of Samuel.

AGAMEM`NON, a son of Atreus, king of Mycenae and general-in-chief of the Greeks in the Trojan war, represented as a man of stately presence and a proud spirit. On the advice of the soothsayer Calchas sacrificed his daughter IPHIGENIA (q. v.) for the success of the enterprise he conducted. He was assassinated by AEgisthus and Clytaemnestra, his wife, on his return from the war. His fate and that of his house is the subject of AEschylus' trilogy "Oresteia."

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AGAMOGENESIS, name given to reproduction without sex, by fission, budding, &c.

AGANIPPE, a fountain in Boeotia, near Helicon, dedicated to the Muses as a source of poetic inspiration.

AG`APE, love-feasts among the primitive Christians in commemoration of the Last Supper, and in which they gave each other the kiss of peace as token of Christian brotherhood.

AGAR-AGAR, a gum extracted from a sea-weed, used in bacteriological investigations.

AGA`SIAS, a sculptor of Ephesus, famous for his statue of the "Gladiator."

AGASS`IZ, a celebrated Swiss naturalist, in the department especially of ichthyology, and in connection with the glaciers; settled as a professor of zoology and geology in the United States in 1846 (1807-1873).

AG`ATHE, ST., a Sicilian virgin who suffered martyrdom at Palermo under Decius in 251; represented in art as crowned with a long veil and bearing a pair of shears, the instruments with which her breast were cut off. Festival, Feb. 5.

AGA`THIAS, a Byzantine poet and historian (536-582).

AGATH`OCLES, the tyrant of Syracuse, by the massacre of thousands of

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the inhabitants, was an enemy of the Carthaginians, and fought against them; was poisoned in the end (361-289 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, an Athenian tragic poet, a rival of Euripides (447-400 B.C.).

AG`ATHON, ST., pope from 676 to 682.

AG`DE (6), a French seaport on the Herault, 3 m. from the Mediterranean.

A`GEN (21), a town on the Garonne, 84 m. above Bordeaux.

AGES, in the Greek mythology four--the Golden, self-sufficient; the Silver, self-indulgent; the Brazen, warlike; and the Iron, violent; together with the Heroic, nobly aspirant, between the third and fourth. In archeology, three--the Stone Age, the Bronze, and the Iron. In history, the Middle and Dark, between the Ancient and the Modern. In Fichte, five--of Instinct, of Law, of Rebellion, of Rationality, of Conformity to Reason. In Shakespeare, seven--Infancy, Childhood, Boyhood, Adolescence, Manhood, Age, Old Age.

AGESAN`DER, a sculptor of Rhodes of the first century, who wrought at the famous group of the Laocoon.

AGESILA`US, a Spartan king, victorious over the Persians in Asia and over the allied Thebans and Athenians at Coronea, but defeated by Epaminondas at Mantinea after a campaign in Egypt; _d_. 360 B.C., aged 84.

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AGGAS, RALPH, a surveyor and engraver of the 16th century, who first drew a plan of London as well as of Oxford and Cambridge.

AGGLUTINATE LANGUAGES, languages composed of parts which are words glued together, so to speak, as cowherd.

AGINCOURT`, a small village in Pas-de-Calais, where Henry V. in a bloody battle defeated the French, Oct. 25, 1415.

A`GIS, the name of several Spartan kings, of whom the most famous were Agis III. and IV., the former famous for his resistance to the Macedonian domination, _d_. 330 B.C.; and the latter for his attempts to carry a law for the equal division of land, _d_. 240 B.C.


AG`NADEL, a Lombard village, near which Louis XII. defeated the Venetians in 1509, and Vendome, Prince Eugene in 1705.

AGNA`NO, LAKE OF, a lake near Naples, now drained; occupied the crater of an extinct volcano, its waters in a state of constant ebullition.

AGNELLO, COL D', passage by the S. of Monte Viso between France and Italy.

AGNES, an unsophisticated maiden in Moliere's _L'Ecole des Femmes_, so unsophisticated that she does not know what love means.

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AGNES, ST., a virgin who suffered martyrdom, was beheaded because the flames would not touch her body, under Diocletian in 303; represented in art as holding a palm-branch in her hand and a lamb at her feet or in her arms. Festival, Jan. 21.

AGNES DE MERANIE, the second wife of Philip Augustus by a marriage in 1193, declared null by the Church, who, being dismissed in consequence, died broken-hearted in 1201.

AGNES SOREL, surnamed _Dame de beaute_, mistress of Charles VII. of France (1409-1450).

AGNE`SI, MARIA GAETANA, a native of Milan, a woman of extraordinary ability and attainments, prelected for her father in mathematics in the University of Bologna under sanction of the Pope; died a nun at her birthplace (1718-1799).

AG`NI, the god of fire in the Vedic mythology, begets the gods, organises the world, produces and preserves universal life, and throughout never ceases to be fire. One of the three terms of the Vedic trinity, Soma and Indra being the other two.

AGNOLO, a Florentine artist, friend of Michael Angelo and Raphael, distinguished for his carvings in wood (1460-1543).

AGNOSTICISM, the doctrine which disclaims all knowledge of the supersensuous, or denies that we know or can know the absolute, the infinite, or God.

AGNUS DEI, the figure of a lamb bearing a cross as a symbol of Christ, or a medal with this device; also a prayer in the Mass beginning

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with the words, "Lamb of God."

AGONIC LINE, line along which the needle points due north and south.

AGORA, the forum of a Grecian town.

AGOS`TA, a city on east coast of Sicily.

AGOULT, COUNTESS OF, a French authoress under the pseudonym of Daniel Stern (1805-1876).

AGOUST, CAPT. DE, a "cast-iron" captain of the Swiss Guards, who on May 4, 1788, by order of the Court of Versailles, marched the Parliament of Paris out of the Palais de Justice and carried off the key. See CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION," BK. I. CHAP. VIII.

AGOU`TI, a rodent, native of Brazil, Paraguay, and Guiana; very destructive to roots and sugar-canes.

A`GRA (168), a handsome city on the Jumna, in NW. Province of India, famous for, among other monuments, the Taj Mahal, a magnificent mausoleum erected near it by the Emperor Shah Jehan for himself and his favourite wife; it is a centre of trade, and seat of manufactures of Indian wares.

AG`RAM, (37), a Hungarian town, the capital of Croatia, with a fine Gothic cathedral and a university; is subject to earthquakes.

AGRARIAN LAWS, laws among the Romans regulating the division of lands.

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AGRIC`OLA, a Roman general, father-in-law of Tacitus, who conquered Great Britain in 80, recalled by the Emperor Domitian in 87, and retired into private life (37-93).

AGRICOLA, JOHANN, a follower and friend of Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians (1492-1566).

AGRICOLA, RUDOLPHUS, a learned and accomplished Dutchman, much esteemed by Erasmus, and much in advance of his time; his most important work, "Dialectics," being an attack on the scholastic system (1442-1485).

AGRIGEN`TUM, an ancient considerable city, now Girgenti, on the S. of Sicily, of various fortune, and still showing traces of its ancient grandeur.

AGRIPPA, H. CORNELIUS, a native of Cologne, of noble birth, for some time in the service of Maximilian, but devoted mainly to the study of the occult sciences, which exposed him to various persecutions through life (1486-1535).


AGRIP`PA, M. VIPSANIUS, a Roman general, the son-in-law and favourite of Augustus, who distinguished himself at the battle of Actium, and built the Pantheon of Rome (63-12 B.C.).

AGRIPPI`NA, the daughter of Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and thus the granddaughter of Augustus; married Germanicus, accompanied him in his

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campaigns, and brought his ashes to Rome on his death, but was banished from Rome by Tiberius, and _d_. in 33.

AGRIPPINA, the daughter of Germanicus and the former, born at Cologne, and the mother of Nero. Her third husband was her uncle, the Emperor Claudian, whom she got to adopt her son, and then poisoned him, in order to place her son on the throne; but the latter, resenting her intolerable ascendancy, had her put to death in 59.

AGTELEK, a village NE. of Pesth, in Hungary with vast stalactite caverns, some of them of great height.

AGUA`DO, A. M., an enormously wealthy banker of Spanish-Jewish descent, born in Seville, and naturalised in France (1784-1842).

AGUAS CALIENTES (31), a high-lying inland trading town in Mexico.

AGUE-CHEEK, SIR ANDREW, a silly squire in "Twelfth Night."

AGUESSEAU`, D', a French magistrate under Louis XIV. and Louis XV., of unimpeachable integrity and unselfish devotion, a learned jurist and law reformer, and held high posts in the administration of justice (1668-1751).

AGUILAR, GRACE, a Jewess, born at Hackney; authoress of "Magic Wreath," "Home Influence," "Vale of Cedars"; of a delicate constitution, died young (1816-1847).

A`GULHAS, CAPE (i. e. the Needles), the most southerly point of Africa, 100 m. ESE. of the Cape, and along with the bank of the whole

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south coast, dangerous to shipping.

A`HAB, a king of Israel fond of splendour, and partial to the worship of Baal (918-896 B.C.).

AHASUE`RUS, a traditionary figure known as the Wandering Jew; also the name of several kings of Persia.

AHAZ, a king of Judah who first brought Judea under tribute to Assyria.

AHLDEN, CASTLE OF, a castle in Lueneburg Heath, the nearly lifelong prison-house of the wife of George I. and the mother of George II. and of Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.

AHMADABAD (148), a chief town of Guzerat, in the Bombay Presidency, a populous city and of great splendour in the last century, of which gorgeous relics remain.

AHMED, a prince in the "Arabian Nights," noted for a magic tent which would expand so as to shelter an army, and contract so that it could go into one's pocket.

AH`MED SHAH, the founder of the Afghan dynasty and the Afghan power (1724-1773).

AHMEDNUG`AR (41), a considerable Hindu town 122 m. E. of Bombay.

AHOLIBAH, prostitution personified. See EZEK. XXIII.

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AHOLIBAMAH, a grand daughter of Cain, beloved by a seraph, who at the Flood bore her away to another planet.

AH`RIMAN, the Zoroastrian impersonation of the evil principle, to whom all the evils of the world are ascribed.

AIDAN, ST., the archbishop of Lindisfarne, founder of the monastery, and the apostle of Northumbria, sent thither from Iona on the invitation of King Oswald in 635.

AIGNAN, St., the bishop of Orleans, defended it against Attila and his Huns in 451.

AIGUILLON, DUKE D', corrupt minister of France, previously under trial for official plunder of money, which was quashed, at the corrupt court of Louis XV., and the tool of Mme. Du Barry, with whom he rose and fell (1720-1782).

AIKIN, DR. JOHN, a popular writer, and author, with Mrs. Barbauld, his sister, of "Evenings at Home" (1747-1822).

AIKMAN, W., an eminent Scotch portrait-painter (1682-1731).

AILLY, PIERRE D', a cardinal of the Romish Church, and eminent as a theologian, presided at the council of Constance which condemned Huss (1350-1420).

AILSA CRAIG, a rocky islet of Ayrshire, 10 m. NW. of Girvan, 2 m. in

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circumference, which rises abruptly out of the sea at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde to a height of 1114 ft.

AIMARD, GUSTAVE, a French novelist, born in Paris; died insane (1818-1883).

AIME, ST., archbishop of Sens, in France; _d_. 690; festival, 13th Sept.

AIN, a French river, has its source in the Jura Mts., and falls into the Rhone; also a department of France between the Rhone and Savoy.

AINMILLER, a native of Muenich, the reviver of glass-painting in Germany (1807-1870).

AI`NOS, a primitive thick-set, hairy race, now confined to Yezo and the islands N. of Japan, aboriginal to that quarter of the globe, and fast dying out.

AINSWORTH, R., an English Latin lexicographer (1660-1743).

AINSWORTH, W. H., a popular English novelist, the author of "Rookwood" and "Jack Sheppard," as well as novels of an antiquarian and historical character (1805-1882).

AIN-TAB (20), a Syrian garrison town 60 m. NE. of Aleppo; trade in hides, leather, and cotton.

AIRD, THOMAS, a Scottish poet, author of the "Devil's Dream," the

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"Old Bachelor," and the "Old Scotch Village"; for nearly 30 years editor of the _Dumfries Herald_ (1802-1876).

AIRDRIE (19), a town in Lanarkshire, 11 m. E. of Glasgow, in a district rich in iron and coal; is of rapid growth; has cotton-mills, foundries, etc.

AIRDS MOSS, a moor in Ayrshire, between the rivers Ayr and Lugar.

AIRE, a Yorkshire river which flows into the Ouse; also a French river, affluent of the Aisne.

AIRY, SIR G. B., an eminent English astronomer, mathematician, and man of science, astronomer-royal from 1836 to 1881, retired on a pension; was the first to enunciate the complete theory of the rainbow.

AISNE, a French river which, after a course of 150 m., falls into the Oise near Compiegne; also a department in the N. of France.

AISSE, MLLE., a Circassienne brought to France about 1700; left letters on French society in the eighteenth century, sparkling with wit and full of interest.

AITON, WM., a botanist, born in Lanarkshire, the first director of the Royal Gardens at Kew (1731-1793).

AITZEMA, LEO, historian of Friesland (1600-1669).

AIX (22), a town, the ancient capital of Provence, 20 m. N. of

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Marseilles, the seat of an archbishop and a university; founded by the Romans 123 B.C.; near it Marius defeated the Teutons.

AIX, ISLE OF, island in the Atlantic, at the mouth of the Charente.

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE` (103), in Rhenish Prussia, one of the oldest cities in Germany, made capital of the German empire by Charlemagne; derives its name from its mineral springs; is a centre of manufacturing industries and an important trade; is celebrated for its octagonal cathedral (in the middle of which is a stone marking the burial-place of Charlemagne), for treaties of peace in 1668 and 1748, and for a European congress in 1818.

AIX-LES-BAINS`, a small town near Chambery, in the dep. of Savoy, and much frequented by invalids for its waters and baths.

AJAC`CIO (18), the capital of Corsica, the birthplace of the Bonaparte family, of Cardinal Fesch, and Bacciochi.

AJALON, VALLEY OF, in Palestine, scene of a battle between Joshua and five Canaanitish kings, during which the sun and moon stood still at the prayer of Joshua, to enable him to finish his victory.

A`JAN COAST, a district on the E. coast of Africa, from Cape Guardafui to the mouth of the Juba, under the protectorate of Germany.

A`JAX the name of two Greek heroes in the Trojan war, and the synonym of a fiery and impetuous warrior: AJAX, the son of Telamon of Sparta, one of the bravest of the Greeks, who, on the death of Achilles, contended with Ulysses for his arms, but was defeated, in consequence of which he lost his reason and put an end to his life; and AJAX, the son of Oileus, swift of foot, like Achilles, who suffered

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shipwreck on his homeward voyage, as a judgment for an outrage he perpetrated on the person of Cassandra in the temple of Athena in Troy.

AJMERE` (68), a city in a small territory in the heart of Rajputana, under the rule of the Viceroy; well built, and contains some famous edifices.

AJODHYA, an ancient city of Oudh, 77 m. E. of Lucknow, once, on religious grounds, one of the largest and most magnificent cities of India, now in ruins; the modern town is an insignificant place, but has an annual fair, attended by often 600,000 pilgrims.

AK`ABA, a gulf forming the NE. inlet of the Red Sea.

AKAKIA, DOCTOR, a satire of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which so excited the anger of Frederick the Great, the patron of the Academy, that he ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman, after 30,000 copies of it had been sold in Paris!

AKAKIA, MARTIN, physician of Francis I., born at Chalons-sur-Marne, his real name being Sans-Malice; _d_. 1551.

AK`BAR, the great Mogul emperor of India, who, after a minority of a few years, assumed the reins of government at the age of eighteen, and in ten or twelve years, such was his power of conquest, had the whole of India north of the Vindhya Mts. subject to his rule. He was wise in government as well as powerful in war, and one of the most large-minded and largest-hearted rulers recorded in history. He reigned half a century (1542-1605).

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AKENSIDE, MARK, an English physician, who wrote, among other productions and pieces, the "Hymn to the Naiads," especially a poem entitled the "Pleasures of Imagination," much quoted from at one time, and suggested by the study of Addison on the Imagination in the _Spectator_ (1721-1770).

AKERS, B. P., an able American sculptor (1825-1861).

AKERMAN` (55), a fortified town in Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Dniester.

AKIBA, BEN JOSEPH, a famous Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, a great authority in the matter of Jewish tradition, flayed alive by the Romans for being concerned in a revolt in 135.

AKKAS, a wandering race of negro dwarfs in Central Africa, with large heads and slender necks, who live by hunting.

AKRON (27), a town in Ohio, U.S., seat of manufactures and centre of traffic.

AKSAKOF`, a Russian litterateur and advocate of Panslavism (1823-1886).

AKSU (20), a trading town in E. Turkestan, 250 m. NE. of Yarkand.

AK`YAB (37), the capital of Aracan, in British Burmah, 90 m. SE. of Calcutta.

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AL RAKIM, the dog that guarded the SEVEN SLEEPERS (q. v.), and that stood by them all through their long sleep.

ALABA`MA (1,513), one of the United States of N. America, traversed by a river of the name, a little larger than England, highly fertile and a great cotton-growing country, and abounding in iron, coal, and marble, bounded on the W. by the Mississippi, on the N. by Tennessee, and the E. by Georgia.

ALABAMA, THE, a vessel built in Birkenhead for the Confederates in the late American Civil War, for the devastation done by which, according to the decision of a court of arbitration, the English Government had to pay heavy damages of three millions of money.

ALACOQUE, MARIE, a French nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the Sacred Heart (1647-1690).

ALAD`DIN, one of the chiefs of the Assassins in the 13th century, better known by the name of the Old Man of the Mountain.

ALADDIN, a character in the "Arabian Nights," who became possessed of a wonderful lamp and a wonderful ring, by rubbing which together he could call two evil genii to do his bidding.

ALADINISTS, free-thinkers among the Mohammedans.

ALAGO`AS (397), a maritime province of Brazil, N. of Pernambuco, with tropical products as well as fine timber and dye-woods.

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ALAIN DE L'ISLE, a professor of theology in the University of Paris, surnamed the _Doctor universel_ (1114-1203).


ALAIS` (18), a town at the foot of the Cevennes, in the centre of a mining district; once the stronghold of French Protestantism.

ALAMAN`NI, LUIGI, an Italian poet and diplomatist, born at Florence (1495-1556).

ALAND ISLES, a group of 300 small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, of which 80 are inhabited; fortified by Russia.

ALANS, a barbarous horde from the East, who invaded W. Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries, but were partly exterminated and partly ousted by the Visigoths.

ALAR`CON Y MENDO`ZA, JUAN RUIZ DE, a Spanish dramatist born in Mexico, who, though depreciated by his contemporaries, ranks after 200 years of neglect among the foremost dramatic geniuses of Spain, next even to Cervantes and Lope de Vega; he was a humpback, had an offensive air of conceit, and was very unpopular; he wrote at least twenty dramas, some of which have been translated into French; _d_. in 1639.

AL`ARIC I., the king of the Visigoths, a man of noble birth, who, at the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th century, ravaged Greece, invaded Italy, and took and pillaged Rome; died at Cosenza, in Calabria, in 412, at the early age of thirty-four.

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ALARIC II., king of the Visigoths, whose dominions included all Gaul and most of Spain; defeated by the Franks at Poitiers, and killed by the hand of Clovis, their king, in 567.

ALARIC COTIN, Voltaire's nickname for Frederick the Great, the former in recognition of him as a warrior, the latter as a would-be litterateur, after an indifferent French poet of the name of Cotin.

ALAS`CO, JOHN, the uncle of Sigismund, king of Poland, and a zealous promoter in Poland of the Reformation, the friend of Erasmus and Zwinglius (1499-1560).

ALAS`KA (32), an immense territory belonging to the U.S. by purchase from Russia, extending from British N. America to Behring Strait; it is poor in resources, and the inhabitants, who are chiefly Indians and Eskimos, live by hunting and fishing, and by the export of salmon; seal fishery valuable, however.

ALASNAM, a hero related of in the "Arabian Nights" as having erected eight statues of gold, and in quest of a statue for a ninth unoccupied pedestal, finding what he wanted in the person of a beautiful woman for a wife.

ALAS`TOR, an avenging spirit, given to torment families whose history has been stained by some crime.

A`LAVA (97), the southernmost of the three Basque provinces of Spain, largest, but least populous; rich in minerals, and fertile in soil.

ALAVA, RICARDO DE, a Spanish general, born in Vittoria, joined the

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national party, and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and became eventually ambassador to London and Paris (1771-1843).

ALBA LONGA, a city of Latium older than Rome.

ALBACETE (229), a province in Spain, with a capital (30) of same name, 173 m. SE. of Madrid.

ALBAN LAKE, near Alban Mount, 6 m. in circuit, occupying the basin of an extinct volcano, its surface 961 ft. above the sea-level.

ALBAN MOUNT, a small mountain overlooking Alba Longa.

ALBAN, ST., the first martyr in Britain to the Christian faith in 303; represented in art as carrying his head between his hands, having been beheaded.

ALBA`NI, an Italian painter, a disciple of Caracci, born at Bologna; surnamed the Anacreon of painting; his pictures more distinguished for grace than vigour.

ALBA`NI, an illustrious Roman family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the Church, one, Clement XI., having been Pope.

ALBANI, MME., _nee_ Emma la Jeunesse, a well-known and highly popular operatic singer of French-Canadian descent; _b_. 1847.

ALBA`NIA, a region in Balkan peninsula, on the Adriatic, extending from Servia to Greece.

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ALBANO, LAKE OF, a small crater-like lake 15 m. SE. of Rome, near which rises the Castel Gandolfo, where the Pope has a villa.

ALBANY, the old Celtic name for the Scottish highlands.

ALBANY, a town in W. Australia, on King George Sound, 261 m. SE. of Perth, a port of call for Australian liners; also the capital (94) of the State of New York, on the Hudson River, a well-appointed city; seat of justice for the State, with a large trade and numerous manufactures.

ALBANY, COUNTESS OF, wife of English pretender, Prince Charles Stuart, a dissolute woman (1753-1824).

ALBANY, THE DUKE OF, a title formerly given to a member of the royal family, and revived in the present reign.

ALBANY, DUCHESS OF, daughter of Prince Waldeck Pyrmont and widow of Prince Leopold of England; _b_. 1861, widow since 1884.

ALBATEGNI, a distinguished Arabian astronomer, born in Mesopotamia in the 9th or 10th century of our era; his observations extended over 50 years; he so improved the methods and instruments of observation as to earn the title of the Ptolemy of the Arabs.

ALBATROSS, the largest and strongest of sea-birds, that ranges over the southern seas, often seen far from land; it is a superstition among sailors that it is disastrous to shoot one.

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ALBERO`NI, an Italian of humble birth, became a Cardinal of the Church and Prime Minister to Philip V. of Spain, wrought hard to restore Spain to its ancient grandeur, was defeated in his project by the quadruple alliance of England, France, Austria, and Holland, and obliged to retire (1664-1752).

ALBERT, archbishop of Mainz, a dignity granted him by Pope Leo X. at the ransom of L15,000, which he was unable to pay, and which, as the Pope needed it for building St. Peter's, he borrowed, the Pope granting him the power to sell indulgences in order to repay the loan, in which traffic Tetzel was his chief salesman, a trade which roused the wrath of Luther, and provoked the German Reformation (1450-1545).

ALBERT, the last Grandmaster of the Teutonic knights, who being "religious in an eminent degree and shaken in his belief" took zealously to Protestantism and came under the influence of Luther, who advised him to declare himself Duke of Prussia, under the wing of Sigismund of Poland, in defiance of the Teutonic order as no longer worthy of bed and board on the earth, and so doing, became founder of the Prussian State (1490-1568).

ALBERT, markgrave of Brandenburg, defined by Carlyle "a failure of a Fritz," with "features" of a Frederick the Great in him, "but who burnt away his splendid qualities as a mere temporary shine for the able editors, and never came to anything, full of fire, too much of it wildfire, not in the least like an Alcibiades except in the change of fortune he underwent" (1522-1557).

ALBERT, PRINCE, second son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819, an accomplished man with a handsome presence, who became the consort of Queen Victoria in 1840, and from his prudence and tact was held in the highest honour by the whole community, but died at Windsor of typhoid fever, Dec. 14, 1861, to the unspeakable sorrow of both Queen and country.

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ALBERT, ST., bishop of Liege, was assassinated by the emissaries of the Emperor Henry VI. in 1195. Festival, Nov. 21.


ALBERT I., emperor of Germany from 1298 to 1308, eldest son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, "a most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, tough, and unbeautiful man, whom his nephew at last had to assassinate, and did assassinate, as he crossed the river Reuss with him in a boat, May 1, 1308."

ALBERT II., a successor, "who got three crowns--Hungary, Bohemia, and the Imperial--in one year, and we hope a fourth," says the old historian, "which was a heavenly and eternal one," for he died the next year, 1439.

ALBERT III., elector of Brandenburg. See ACHILLES OF GERMANY.

ALBERT MEDAL, a medal of gold and of bronze, instituted in 1866, awarded to civilians for acts of heroism by sea or land.

ALBERT THE BEAR, markgrave of Brandenburg, called the Bear, "not from his looks or qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong hand, and could pick what way was straightest among crooked things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg for one there, a conspicuous country ever since," says Carlyle, "and which grows more so in our late times" (1100-1175).

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ALBI. Page 56 of 2772 . and 2500 feet above sea-level. long by 40 broad.com ALBERT NYAN`ZA. NE. supreme in knowledge of the arts and sciences of the time. one of the greatest of the scholastic philosophers and theologians of the Middle Ages. and regarded by his contemporaries in consequence as a sorcerer (1190-1280). which sprung up about Albi. an able professor of anatomy and therapeutics at Leyden Computer Lecturer. ALBER`TA (26). the south abounding in cattle ranches. teacher of Thomas Aquinas. 150 m. ALBINOS. of France. and eyes too weak to bear full light. a fertile region with large forests in British America. a lake in Equatorial Africa. which was carried on by Simon de Montfort in the 13th century. discovered by Sir Samuel Baker in 1864. in the 12th century. ALBIGEN`SES. a religious sect. rivals of the Medicis and the Albrizzi. persons or animals with preternaturally pale skin and fair hair. an illustrious Florentine family. of Toulouse. and by the Inquisition afterwards. as heretical. against which Pope Innocent III. to the Church. CTSTI. proclaimed a crusade. a town of some antiquity and note in S. of France. to their utter annihilation. ALBERTI. also with pupils of a red or pink colour. on the E. in the Nile basin.ramakalai@gmail. ALBINUS. 22 m. Chennai 6. slope of the Rocky Mountains. and the mountainous districts in minerals. odious. ALBER`TUS MAGNUS. in the S.

CTSTI. a bold defender of the faith against the Moor and a plain-spoken man in the interest of Christianity (1310-1367). of Badajoz. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. the ancient name of Great Britain. ALBOR`NOZ.com (1696-1770). ALBOIN. a wonderful horse of Mahomet. incurred the resentment of his wife. an impersonation of the lightning as his steed. Swiss mountain pass in the canton of Grisons. king of the Lombards in the 6th century. 1811) of General Beresford over Marshal Soult. from 561 to 573. invaded Italy as far as the Tiber. ALBUFE`RA. scene of a victory (May 16. Page 57 of 2772 . and set up his capital in Pavia. a lake on the coast of Spain. ALBUE`RA. archbishop of Toledo. a powerful Florentine family. a Spanish statesman. S. ALBORAK. ALBRECHT. of Valencia. a Spanish village 12 m. ALBRIZZI.ramakalai@gmail. rivals of the Medicis and the Alberti. AL`BULA. ALBION. 7595 ft. who had him assassinated for forcing her to drink wine out of the skull of her father. high. a white cliff. SE. 7 m. near which Marshal Suchet gained a victory over the English in 1811. See ALBERT.

the birthplace of Cervantes.ramakalai@gmail. The Order of Alcantara.C. long the seat of a famous university founded by Cardinal Ximenes. ALCAN`TARA. The Indians long remembered his benign rule. and used to visit his tomb to pray him to deliver them from the oppression of his successors (1453-1513). after securing a footing in India for Portugal that he sought for. built in honour of Trajan in 104. ALCA`LA DE HENA`RES (14). and was suppressed in 1835. a glairy substance a constituent of plants and animals. a town of Spain. high. ALCAE`US OF MITYLENE. where his recall at the instance of jealous rivals at home gave him such a shock that he died of a broken heart just as he was leaving. with a bridge of six arches. the founder of the Portuguese power in India. a religious and military order. ALCESTE. CTSTI. who. near Portugal. Page 58 of 2772 . on the Tagus. long and 210 ft. of Madrid. Computer Lecturer. was established in 1176 here. ALBYN.com ALBUMEN. ancient Celtic name of Scotland. for defence against the Moors. 670 ft. 21 m. and found nearly pure in the white of an egg or in the serum of the blood. a Greek lyric poet. the chief character in Moliere's _Misanthrope_. ALBUQUERQUE`. ALFONSO D'. a contemporary and an alleged lover of Sappho. settled in Goa. and much admired by Horace. an aristocrat by birth. a celebrated Portuguese patriot and navigator. flourished about 600 B. E. Chennai 6. a town in Spain.

the father of Nausicaa. ALCME`NE. a king of the Phaeacians. and its end in poverty. but failed. and died by assassination in exile (450-404 B. the early analysis of substances which has in modern times developed into chemistry. He involved his country in a rash expedition against Sicily. who gave herself up to death to save her husband. possessed of a handsome person. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. brilliant abilities. the grandson of Alcaeus. Hercules descended to the lower world and brought her back. and related to Pericles. and of the elixir of life. CTSTI. ALCMAN. served and betrayed it by turns in the Peloponnesian war. an Athenian of high birth. a patronymic of Hercules. its middle in toil. the wife of Admetus. but was of a wayward temper and depraved. who had been shipwrecked on his shore. She is the subject of one of the tragedies of Euripides. of Valencia. and which aimed chiefly at the discovery of the philosopher's stone. who figures in the Odyssey as the host of Ulysses.). ALCI`RA (18).com ALCES`TIS. whom Socrates tried hard to win over to virtue. it has been defined to be "an art without art. born at Sardis. ALCIN`OUS. and great wealth. the wife of Amphitryon and the mother of Hercules. which has its beginning in falsehood. on an island 22 m. an early Greek lyric poet. Chennai 6. of a universal solvent.C. a walled town in Spain. ALCHEMY. ALCI`DES. SW." ALCIBI`ADES. Page 59 of 2772 .

the grandson of Nestor. her works mostly addressed to the young (1832-1888). acute or chronic. paper. and the intoxicating principle of all spirituous liquors. Page 60 of 2772 . invited by Charlemagne to introduce scholarly culture into the empire and establish libraries and schools of learning.com ALCMEONIDAE. of which Pericles and Alcibiades were members. Chennai 6. ALCOHOL. 1500.. ALCOHOLISM. pure or highly rectified spirit obtained from fermented saccharine solutions by distillation.ramakalai@gmail. ALCOCK. N. of the deleterious action of alcohol on the human system. a town in Spain. was one of those men whose work lies more in what they influence others to do than in what they do themselves (735-804). ALCOY (30). CTSTI. who acted as a nurse to the wounded during the Civil War. a disciple of Bede. AL`CUIN. See KORAN. ALCOTT. LOUISA MARY. staple manufacture. a popular American authoress. ALCORAN`. a powerful Athenian family. an eminent ecclesiastic of the reign of Edward IV. the results. distinguished for his love of learning and learned men. of Alicanti. who professed to be descended from Alcmaeon. JOHN. Computer Lecturer. a learned Englishman. _d_.

Chennai 6. and remarkable for the correctness of the text and the beauty and clearness of the printing. separated from Cape de la Hogue by the dangerous Race of Alderney. of a suffocating odour. became archbishop of York. ALDINE EDITIONS. very volatile liquid.ramakalai@gmail. a permanent camp. issued from the press of Aldus Manutius in Venice in the 16th century. ALDOBRANDINI. AL`DERSHOT. CTSTI. a limpid. AL`DRED. legendary character. it is the sun in the Arabian mythology. ALDINGAR. obtained from the oxidation of alcohol. and offered to substantiate the charge by combat. and crowned Computer Lecturer. the bull's-eye. for instruction in military manoeuvres. the steward of Eleanor. chiefly of the classics. editions. one of the Channel Islands.. wife of Henry II. made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. a Florentine jurisconsult (1500-1558). who accused her of infidelity. Page 61 of 2772 . SW. 3 or 4 m. celebrated for its breed of cows. who had perished in shipwreck. ALDEHYDE. a star of the first magnitude in the eye of the constellation Taurus. AL`DERNEY (2). on a moorland 35 m. daughter of AEolus. ALDE`BARAN.com ALCY`ONE. when an angel in the form of a child appeared and certified her innocence. long by 2 broad. who threw herself into the sea after her husband. bishop of Worcester in the reign of Edward the Confessor. established in 1855. and was changed into the kingfisher. SIR. of London.

who made them subject to the Franks. _d_. ALEC`TO. published partly in his lifetime and partly after his death (1522-1607). and for long gave no small trouble to Rome. a southern province of Portugal. ALEMAN`.ramakalai@gmail. AL`DRICH. established a printing-office in Venice in 1488. was a skilful musician. an accomplished ecclesiastic. which in 6 years ran through 26 editions. and invented the italic type. 1063. who collected an immense body of interesting facts in natural history. Chennai 6.com the last of the Saxon and the first of the Norman kings of England. long in use in Oxford University (1647-1710). or ALDO MANUZIO. and composed many services for the Church. wrote a system of logic. for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent. hence the modern names in French for Germany and the Germans. first by Maximinus. a famous Italian naturalist of Bologna. soil fertile to Computer Lecturer. born at Bassano. died in Mexico in 1610. Page 62 of 2772 . ULYSSES. ALEMTE`JO (369). but whose incursions were arrested. was translated several times into French. author of the celebrated romance _Guzman de Alfarache_. dean of Oxford. ALDROVAN`DI. one of the three Eumenides or Furies. Franciso de Bologna. issued the celebrated Aldine Editions of the classics. than to him (1447-1515).. an Italian printer. though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder. ALEMAN`NI. ALDUS MANUTIUS. a confederacy of tribes which appeared on the banks of the Rhine in the 3rd cent. and finally by Clovis in 496. CTSTI. a Spanish novelist.

a title borne by several members of the house of Valois--e. CHARLES OF VALOIS. which descends round the south of the Jungfrau into the valley of the Upper Rhone. till he settled as a theological professor in Germany. born in Edinburgh. cost Caesar no small trouble to take. SE. Chennai 6. ALESSI. once one of the greatest trading centres in the world. of Gaul. a strong place in the E. THE.com the east. once famous for its lace. architect of the monastery and church of the ESCURIAL. of Turin. JEAN IV.000 Gauls. the centre of 8 railways. 55 m. ALETSCH GLACIER. W. 105 m. g. Page 63 of 2772 . in Northern Italy.. ALEP`PO (130). a strongly fortified and stirring town on the Tenaro. one of the finest in the East. who fell at Crecy (1346). a town in the dep. of Orne. Computer Lecturer. who fell at Agincourt (1415). ALESSANDRIA (78). architect. born at Perugia. as situated on a hill and garrisoned by 80. ALENCON (17). the largest of the glaciers of the Alps. ALE`SIA. converted to Protestantism by Patrick Hamilton. of Paris. CTSTI. a noted Reformer. was driven first from Scotland and then from England. ALESIUS. q.ramakalai@gmail. ALENCON. or ALANE. which. (1500-1572). a city in Northern Syria. v. and took an active part in the Reformation there (1500-1563). COUNTS AND DUKES OF.

com ALEU`TIAN ISLANDS (2) a chain of volcanic islands. but finally assented to. followed by 30. ALEXANDER. son of Philip by Olympias.. Pacific from Alaska in N. 356 B. is defined to have been the right of Greek intelligence to override and rule the merely glittering barbarity of the East. ascended the throne on the death of his father. hurrying on farther. stretching over the N. an able man. contributed to bring about the condemnation of Arius at the Council of Nice. cut off during a journey to Cairo (1799-1845). daughter of Neoptolemus. at the age of 20. Page 64 of 2772 . Feb 26. and being instructed by him in all kinds of serviceable knowledge. He is said to have slept every night with his Homer and his sword under his pillow. to Kamchatka. till the Macedonians refusing to advance. of Jewish birth. when he suddenly fell ill of fever. subdued the principal cities of Syria. king of Epirus. routed the Persians at Arbela. the king of Macedonia. in Asia. overran Egypt. CTSTI. 150 in number. and in eleven days died at the early age of 32. whose election Barbarossa at first opposed. had himself proclaimed generalissimo of the Greeks against the Persians. ST.000 foot and 5000 horse.C. and in 2 years after his accession crossed the Hellespont. ALEXANDER III. he swept everything before him. America. after subduing Greece. festival. had the philosopher Aristotle for tutor. SOLOMON. he returned to Babylon. and the inspiring idea of his life. born at Pella. all unconsciously to himself belike. ALEXANDER. pope... took the Computer Lecturer. patriarch of Alexandria from 311 to 326. first Protestant bishop of Jerusalem. Chennai 6. ALEXANDER THE GREAT.. successor to Adrian IV. with these conquered the army of Darius the Persian at Granicus in 334 and at Issus in 333. and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris.ramakalai@gmail.

who was forced to kiss his hand to Louis XIV. ALEXANDER II... Alexander V. and canonised him. pope from 1653 to 1667. successor of William the Lion. Pope from 1159 to 1181. fought the French at Pultusk and Computer Lecturer. sided with him against the barons. Alexander II... called Borgia from his mother. son and successor of Paul I. Alexander VII. Page 65 of 2772 ..ramakalai@gmail. and married Joan. pope from 1409 to 1410. took part in the European strife against the encroachments of Napoleon... and on the conclusion of peace gave his daughter in marriage to Haco's successor Eric. _d_.. a vigorous prince. not without suspicion of poison.. 1249. king of Scotland. a just and wise ruler. lived a licentious life and had several children. and stood stoutly in defence of the independent rights of both Crown and Church against the claim of supremacy over both on the part of England.. pope from 108 to 117.. pope from 1061 to 1073.. son of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret. aided the English barons against John. obtained the popehood by bribery in 1492 in succession to Innocent VIII. Chennai 6. ALEXANDER III. and VI. sister of Edgar Atheling.. married a daughter of Henry III. as also St.. was present at the battle of Austerlitz. _d_. subdued a rising in the North. Alexander VIII. accidentally killed by falling over a cliff near Kinghorn when hunting in 1285. of Scotland. a Spaniard by birth.. king of Norway. six of the name were popes: Alexander I. In addition to Alexanders III. Bernard. the sister of Henry III.com part of Thomas a Becket against Henry II. CTSTI. emperor of Russia. successfully resisted the invasion of Haco. surnamed on that account _The Fierce_. pope from 1689 to 1691. in 1503. his father. _d_. ALEXANDER VI. Alexander IV. ALEXANDER I. after a career of crime. among others the celebrated Lucretia and the infamous Caesar Borgia.. ALEXANDER I. pope from 1254 to 1261. 1124. son of the preceding..

_b_. the _Doctor irrefragabilis_ of the Schools. an English ecclesiastic. conquered the Swedes. the Danes. son and successor of Nicholas I. owing to the spread of Nihilism. son of the preceding. fell heir to the throne while the siege of Sebastopol was going on. was defeated at Friedland. ALEXANDER I. His later years were clouded with great anxiety. on the conclusion of a peace applied himself to reforms in the state and the consolidation and extension of the empire. which was ended by the peace of San Stephano. ALEXANDER NEVSKY. which ended in the capture of Paris and the abdication of Napoleon in 1814. had an interview with Napoleon at Tilsit in 1813. His reign is distinguished by a ukase decreeing in 1861 the emancipation of the serfs numbering 23 millions. and he was killed by a bomb thrown at him by a Nihilist (1818-1881).. Page 66 of 2772 . CTSTI. emperor of Russia. freed Russia from tribute to the Mongols. grand-duke of Russia. Computer Lecturer.. by the extension of the empire in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The present Czar is his son and successor (1845-1894). his reign not distinguished by any very remarkable event. ALEXANDER OF HALES. Chennai 6.. ALEXANDER II.ramakalai@gmail. who in his "Summa Universae Theologiae" formulated. ALEXANDER III. 1876. revised by the treaty of Berlin.. Under his reign Russia rose into political importance in Europe (1777-1825).com Eylau. and showed a marked disposition to live on terms of peace with the other Powers. entered into a coalition with the other Powers against France. and the Teutonic Knights on the banks of the Neva. by severe rigour of Aristotelian logic. king of Servia. and by the war with Turkey in the interest of the Slavs in 1877-78. a member of the Franciscan order. followed in the footsteps of his father. is one of the saints of the Russian Church. emperor of Russia.

a world-famous city. Charles XII. a Roman emperor. an MS. a wise. at one time a place of great commerce. 7 m. in 1222. _d_. accessible to vessels of the largest size. Alexandria. the chief port of Egypt. in an expedition against him. ALEXAN`DRIA (230).ramakalai@gmail. who were causing trouble on the frontiers of the empire. from its intimate connection with both East and West. a Norman poet of the 16th century. but setting out against the Germans. ALEXANDER SEVE`RUS. but that has very materially decayed since the opening of the Suez Canal. which belonged to the library of the Computer Lecturer. 3 m. N. Chennai 6. to an insurrection among his troops not far from Mainz (205-235). virtuous. fell a victim. called after him Alexandrines. who wrote a poem on Alexander the Great in twelve-syllabled lines. which was at its height on the first encounter of these elements.. ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. conquered Artaxerxes. a town on the Potomac. ALEXANDRIA (14). king of Persia. S. gave birth in early times to a speculative philosophy which drew its principles from eastern as well as western sources. CTSTI. which was burned by the Caliph Omar in 640. at one time a great centre of learning. Page 67 of 2772 . of Sweden. also a thriving town (7) on the river Leven. of Washington.com the theological principles and ecclesiastical rites of the Romish Church. along with his mother. and pious prince. founded by Alexander the Great in 332 B. and in possession of the largest library of antique literature in the world. of Dumbarton.C. ALEXANDER OF THE NORTH. on parchment of the Septuagint Scriptures in Greek in uncial letters. ALEXANDER OF PARIS.

emperor of the East. ALEXIUS COMNE`NUS. ALEXIS PETROVITCH. Chennai 6. said to have contained 700. ALEXAN`DROPOL (22). ALEXANDRINE PHILOSOPHY. conspired against his father as he had broken the heart of his mother. represented in art with a staff and in a pilgrim's habit. ALEXANDRI`NA LAKE.. ALEXIS. ALEXANDRINES.ramakalai@gmail. the library burned by the Caliph Omar in 642. See ALEXANDER OF PARIS. was condemned to death.com patriarchs of Alexandra. sometimes lying on a mat. began life as a soldier. was Computer Lecturer. ST. combining eastern with western forms of thought. the first czar who acted on the policy of cultivating friendly relations with other European states (1630-1677). the patron saint of beggars and pilgrims. and a fortress of great strength.000 volumes. a Gnostic philosophy. Page 68 of 2772 . son of Peter the Great. after his trial by secret judges he was found dead in prison (1695-1718). a lake in Australia into which the river Murray flows. with a letter in his hand. the largest town in the Erivan district of Russian Armenia. czar of Russia. dying. CTSTI. the father of Peter the Great. ALEXIS MICHAELOVITCH. ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY.

the All-Father or uncreated supreme in the Norse mythology. spent his youth in dissipation before he devoted himself to the dramatic art. Chennai 6. ALFONSINE TABLES." founder of the kingdom of Portugal. ALFA. astronomical tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X. the "Conqueror. on the success of his first drama "Cleopatra. where he died and was buried. an esparto grass valuable for making paper. and returned to Florence. as his father before him. an Italian dramatist. and to stave off the doom that impended all through his reign of thirty-seven years (1048-1118). ALFARA`BI. was at Paris when the Revolution broke out. 49 minutes. originally only count. an Arabian philosopher of the 10th century. the wife of Charles Edward Stuart. AL`FADUR. was the first king. CTSTI. in 1252 to correct the anomalies in the Ptolemaic tables. and was the first to attempt an encyclopedic work. had Avicenna for a disciple. Tragedy was his _forte_ as a dramatist (1749-1803). on whose death he married her. they divided the year into 365 days.. ALFIE`RI. raised him to the throne at the period of the first crusade. in a period of anarchy. while the crusaders who passed through his territory proved more troublesome than either. 5 hours. 16 seconds. in that capacity took up arms against the Moors. Page 69 of 2772 .com a great favourite with the soldiers. ALFONSO I. He managed to hold the empire together in spite of these troubles. wrote on various subjects. when the empire was infested by Turks on the one hand and Normans on the other.ramakalai@gmail. and defeating them had himself proclaimed king on the field of battle." met at Florence with the Countess of Albany. who. a title confirmed to him by the Computer Lecturer.

first one son and then another rose against him and drove him from the throne. surnamed the Great. ALFONSO X. various readings. or the Astronomer. left two great works. fought against and gained numerous victories over the Moors." It was a saying of his. old books to read. king of Asturias. ALFORD. Page 70 of 2772 . but on a fresh incursion of the Moors he came forth from his retreat and triumphantly beat them back. "old wood to burn. a learned English Jesuit. "Britannia Illustrata" and "Annales Ecclesiastici et Civiles Britannorum. celebrated as an astronomer and a philosopher. DUKE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA. 1844. Chennai 6. died of chagrin at Seville two years later. and the remark that "the universe seemed a crank machine. ALFORD.. and it was a pity the Creator had not taken advice. ALFONSO III. old wine to drink.com Pope and made good by his practically subjecting all Portugal to his sway (1110-1185).ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. however." ALFRED. His fame connects itself with the preparation of the Alfonsine Tables. king of the West Saxons. and the most celebrated Computer Lecturer.. after various successes over the Moors. His great work. 910. with notes. his works and writings were numerous. ascended the throne in 866. and old friends to converse with" (1226-1284). was an edition of the Greek New Testament. MICHAEL. HENRY. son of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. king of Castile and Leon. and comments (1810-1871). vicar of Wymeswold and afterwards Dean of Canterbury. _b_. died in Zamora. the members of his family rose against him and compelled him to abdicate. the Wise. and included poems and hymns. ALFRED THE GREAT.

hilly. a clever Italian author. the administration of government. his greatest work is an alto-relievo. which he never showed any disposition to break. whom." according to Wilhelmina. it does not appear Frederick got much good out of him. Page 71 of 2772 . with these he fought nine battles with varied success. and driven to seek refuge on the island of Athelney. &c. stemless. CTSTI. who at the time of his accession infested the whole country north of the Thames. the southernmost province of Portugal. vines. ALGAR`VE (240). oranges. His literary works were translations of the "General History" of Orosius. England owes much to him both as a man and a ruler.com and greatest of all the Saxon kings. and the encouragement of learning. which yield olives. then king. and after defeating him formed a treaty with him." and the "Cura Pastoralis" of Pope Gregory. ALGARO`TTI. ALGAE. After this Alfred devoted himself to legislation. Not long after this he left his retreat and engaged Gunthrum at Edington. His troubles were with the Danes. Chennai 6. they are flowerless. "one of the first _beaux esprits_ of the age. Frederick's sister. in 878. born at Venice. for his wit. FRANCESCO. for the want of the due practical faculty. sea-weeds and plants of the same order under fresh water as well as salt. Frederick the Great was attached to and patronised. the largest existing. being a man of letters himself. and it was he who in the creation of a fleet laid the first foundation of her greatness as monarch of the deep. Except his wit. ALGAR`DI. all executed for the edification of his subjects (849-901).ramakalai@gmail. till after a lull of some years he was surprised by Gunthrum. all the faculty he had having evaporated in talk (1712-1764). of Pope Leo restraining Attila from marching on Rome (1602-1654). but traversed with rich valleys. Boethius's "Consolations of Philosophy. born at Bologna. Computer Lecturer. the "Ecclesiastical History" of Bede. and cellular throughout. an Italian sculptor of note.

of which Algiers. the Romans. across the bay. for centuries a stronghold of the Moors. called the "silver city. ALGESI`RAS (12). the Vandals. which last were in the 16th century supplanted by the Turks. ALGE`RIA. and the population numbers about four millions. and Constantine are the respective capitals. was for centuries under its Bey the head-quarters of piracy in the Mediterranean. CTSTI. which only began to cease when Lord Exmouth bombarded the town and destroyed the fleet in the harbour.. and the Sahara beyond. which is fertile. Page 72 of 2772 . 5 m. of Africa. It has been successively under the sway of the Carthaginians. belongs to France. rendered habitable here and there by the creation of artesian wells. a town and port in Spain on the Bay of Gibraltar. the fortifications strengthened.. but it was only with the conquest of it by the French in 1830 that this state of things was brought to an end. in the N. Since it fell into the hands of the French the city has been greatly improved. founded by the Arabs in 935. the Arabs." from the glistening white of its buildings as seen sloping up from the sea. its extent nearly equal in area to that of France. ALGIERS` (75). presenting a striking appearance.com ALGEBRA. of which only a quarter of a million is French. the country being divided into the Tell along the sea-coast. and its neighbourhood has become a frequent resort of Computer Lecturer. and the Berbers. after a siege of twenty months. stretches between Morocco on the W. and letters to represent number and quantity." on which alfa grows wild. At the end of this period it became a nest of pirates. a universal arithmetic of Arabian origin or Arabian transmission.ramakalai@gmail. Oran. and Tripoli and Tunis on the E. the Byzantines. The country is divided into Departments. the capital of Algeria. on the southern slopes of which are marshy lakes called "shotts. Chennai 6. in which symbols are employed to denote operations. the Atlas Highlands overlooking it on the S. but taken from them by Alfonso IX. against whom a succession of expeditions were sent from several countries of Europe.

20 m. full of affection and fiery daring. erected on the crest of a hill which overlooks Granada. the Sheiks yearly commemorate his death. a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. to Newfoundland. has suffered from neglect. ALHAM`BRA (Red Castle)." Became Caliph in 656. brave as a lion. the cousin of Mahomet. originally occupying nearly the whole region from the Churchill and Hudson Bay southward to N. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. a double star in the constellation Perseus. ALGONQUINS. wide. one of the three aboriginal races of N. bad usage. American Indians. Page 73 of 2772 . of the Cape of Good Hope. ALGINE. founded by Muhammed II. in 1213. and for thickening soups and jellies. of the Rocky Mts. of changing brightness. A`LI. "a noble-minded creature. ALI. died by assassination in the Mosque at Bagdad.ramakalai@gmail. and one of his first followers at the age of sixteen. an inlet at the E. of Cape Colony. yet with a grace. and from the E. E.com English people in winter. the language they speak has been divided into five dialects. 425 m. decorated with gorgeous arabesques by Usuf I. See BABA. used as size for textile fabrics. Something chivalrous in him. (1345). ALGO`A BAY. on which Port Elizabeth stands. an ancient palace and stronghold of the Moorish kings of Granada. a viscous gum obtained from certain sea-weeds. and earthquake. AL`GOL. Carolina." ALI BABA. See Carlyle's "Heroes.

best known for his "Essay on the Nature and Principles of Taste" (1757-1839). ALIGARH` (61). ALICAN`TE (40). a passage 5 or 6 times the length of the body. Chennai 6. stomach. alternately gained the favour of the Porte and lost it by the alliances he formed with hostile powers. when his head was severed from his body and sent to Constantinople (1741-1822). extends from the mouth to the anus. and notorious for his cruelty as well as craft. the family name of Dante. ARCHIBALD. Page 74 of 2772 . in a province of the same name on the Mediterranean. pharynx.com A`LI PASHA. ALISON. pasha of Janina. fauces. until the Sultan sentenced him to deposition. able man. a bold and crafty Albanian.ramakalai@gmail. a town with a fort between Agra and Delhi. ALIGHIE`RI. the garrison of which mutinied in 1857. lined throughout with mucous membrane. with a spacious harbour and strongly fortified. an affluent on the right bank of the Congo. oesophagus. and small and large intestines. Computer Lecturer. he offered violent resistance but being overpowered at length surrendered. and includes mouth. ALIMENTARY CANAL. of which he was a native. the third seaport-town in Spain. CTSTI. and sent Hassan Pasha to demand his head. an Episcopal clergyman in Edinburgh. in French territory. AL`IMA.

Page 75 of 2772 . contain as a rule carbon. who were provided with forces in superior numbers. ALKALOIDS.. the capital of N. in 1846. AL`KAHEST. PULTENEY. his great work being a "Modern History of Europe from the French Revolution to the Fall of Napoleon. SIR ARCHIBALD. son of the preceding. strontia. and a philanthropist (1790-1859). NW. professor of medicine in Edinburgh University. viz. many of them are poisonous and invaluable in medicine. earths not soluble in water. a village in the Punjab. W. and cheese. and baryta. ALKALIES. are soluble in water. ALKMAAR` (14). the presumed universal solvent of the alchemists. Holland. ALIWAL`. and properly four in number. ALISON." afterwards extended to the "Accession of Louis Napoleon" (1792-1867). where Sir Harry Smith gained a brilliant victory over the Sikhs. and ammonia. grain. as well as toxicologically. to alkalies. CTSTI. similar in their properties. lithia. hydrogen. ALKALINE EARTHS. a lawyer who held several prominent legal appointments. combining with acids form salts. bodies which. potash. viz. and nitrogen.ramakalai@gmail. and a historian. magnesia. with a large trade in cattle. bodies of vegetable origin. oxygen. 25 m.. Chennai 6. brother of the preceding. lime. of Amsterdam. soda.com ALISON. Computer Lecturer. on the Sutlej.

" now in the National Gallery at Edinburgh (1744-1796). DAVID. HENRIK VAN. born at Edinburgh. AL`LAH. many of his paintings being on national subjects. and in succession to Wilkie. trained his troops in European war tactics. the Arab name for God. a distinguished Scottish historical painter. president of the Royal Scottish Academy. CTSTI. Page 76 of 2772 . on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna. SIR WILLIAM. ADMINISTRATION OF. ALLAHABAD` (175). ALLAN. ALLARD`. the reputed author of the first German version of "Reynard the Fox." ALL THE TALENTS. Computer Lecturer. died at Peshawar (1785-1839). and on the railway between that city and Bombay. Chennai 6. a French general. who patronised his work. entered the service of Runjeet Singh at Lahore. birds. a Scottish portrait and historical painter. and reptiles. he was a friend of Scott. ALLAN. the Adorable. a membrane enveloping the foetus in mammals. and served him against the Afghans. the City of God. born at Alloa. illustrated Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd". his greatest work is the "Origin of Painting. ALLANTOIS. adopted by the Mohammedans as the name of the one God. a ministry formed by Lord Grenville on the death of Pitt in 1806. painted "Circassian Captives" and "Slave-Market at Constantinople" (1782-1850). a central city of British India. from Calcutta. 550 m.ramakalai@gmail.com ALKMER.

a figurative mode of representation. extending from Pennsylvania to N. opposite Pittsburg. in King's Co. Page 77 of 2772 . ALLEGHA`NY MOUNTAINS. Chennai 6.. a Puritan writer. and to some extent still. ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION. do not exceed 2400 ft. on the Ohio. ALLEN. a range in the Appalachian system in U. Carolina. Computer Lecturer. author of a book once. Ireland.ramakalai@gmail. and Kildare. a dreary expanse of bogs of peat E. ALLEGRI. in which a subject of a higher spiritual order is described in terms of that of a lower which resembles it in properties and circumstances. ALLEGORY. the name of an Italian composer. much in favour among religious people. the author of a still celebrated _Miserere_ (1580-1652). in particular the Old Testament story. an expansion of the waters of the Shannon. AL`LEINE. the family name of Correggio. JOSEPH. born at Rome. CTSTI. LOUGH OF. entitled "Alarm to the Unconverted" (1632-1674). assigning a higher than a literal interpretation to the Scripture record of things.com ALLEGHA`NY (105). the principal subject being so kept out of view that we are left to construe the drift of it from the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject. in height. run parallel with the Atlantic coast. of the Shannon. of which it is a kind of suburb. BOG OF. a manufacturing city in Pennsylvania.S. and form the watershed between the Atlantic rivers and the Mississippi.

ALLEYN. born in Kingston. one of the early champions of American independence. son of a Spitalfields weaver. the points turned downwards. an eagle with expanded wings. and a prolific writer. where the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brennus. a stream flowing into the Tiber 11 m.com ALLEN. and without beak or feet.S. ALLENTOWN (34). WM. between England. an able upholder of the evolution doctrine and an expounder of Darwinism. a celebrated actor in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. man of letters. THE TRIPLE. in heraldry. an M. Chennai 6. ETHAN. from Rome. ALLE`RION. EDWARD.C. NW. taken prisoner in a raid into Canada. of Philadelphia.ramakalai@gmail. and a devoted promoter of its principles (1770-1843). JOHN. Holland. a member of the Society of Friends. GRANT. and Sweden Computer Lecturer. Page 78 of 2772 . and a contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_ (1771-1843). ALLEN. ALLEN. AL`LIA. was a contemporary of Shakespeare (1566-1626). the founder of Dulwich College. Canada.D.. a distinguished chemist and philanthropist. wrote a defence of deism and rational belief (1738-1789). and was voluntarily along with his wife one of its first beneficiaries and inmates. 1848. the great centre of the iron trade in the U. CTSTI.. 387 B. ALLEN. of Scotch birth. ALLIANCE. a town on the Lehigh River. 50 m. in 1668.

of English origin. ALLIER. born in Ireland (1812-1898). and Prussia against Liberal ideas. from which Russia withdrew in 1886. the "See of St. the TRIPLE. his most celebrated works are "Day and Night Songs" and "Lawerence Bloomfield in Ireland". ALLIES. ALLMAN. is dangerous when attacked. Austria." ALLIGATOR. the QUADRUPLE. and though timid. an eminent naturalist. in defence of the step.com against Louis XIV. between France. and the Empire to maintain the treaty of Utrecht. CTSTI. and Russia. Computer Lecturer.D. in France. Peter. ALLINGHAM. born in Ireland. the HOLY. the name generally given to the confederate Powers who in 1814 and 1815 entered France and restored the Bourbons.. Under it the signatories in 1887 guarantee the integrity of their respective territories. the Rock of the Church. England. near Nevers.ramakalai@gmail. is slow in turning. between Germany. at the instigation of Bismarck. between Russia. Page 79 of 2772 .. Holland. Austria. M. a N. a confluent of the river Loire. among others. subsists on fish. numerous in the Mississippi and the lakes and rivers of Louisiana and Carolina. American fresh-water crocodile. was for a time editor of _Fraser's Magazine_ (1824-1889). GEORGE J. and its attacks can be easily evaded. however. a poet and journalist. in 1815. and wrote. THOMAS WILLIAM. an English clergyman who turned Roman Catholic. also the department through which it flows. in 1718.. in 1872. Emeritus Professor of Natural History in Edinburgh. WILLIAM. Chennai 6. ALLIES. when Italy stepped into her place.

on the Doon." ALL-SAINTS' DAY.ramakalai@gmail. ALLOWAY KIRK. a ruin S. ALLSPICE. the assumed scene of Tam o' Shanter's adventure. Chennai 6. a thriving seaport on north bank of the Forth. in opposition to homoeopathy. a feast dedicated to all the Saints. below Stirling. famous for its ale. CTSTI. who occupied the country between the Rhone and the Lake of Geneva. in Clackmannan. ALLOPATHY. ALLOWAY. or Jamaica pepper. the 1st of November. from Ayr. such as may be presumed to be still suffering in Purgatory. Page 80 of 2772 . corresponding to Dauphine and Savoy. the birthplace of Burns. a Celtic race troublesome to the Romans. of Ayr. the treatment of disease by producing a condition of the system different from or opposite to the condition essential to the disease to be cured. 6 m. ALL-SOULS' DAY. celebrated as the scene of the witches' dance in "Tam o' Shanter. a festival on the 2nd November to pray for the souls of the faithful deceased. Computer Lecturer. ALLOTROPY. ALLOB`ROGES. the berry of the pimento. although composed of identical elements.com ALLOA (12). the capability which certain compounds show of assuming different properties and qualities. 2 m.

AL-MAMOUN. DIEGO D'. Page 81 of 2772 . but being conquered by Vaca de Castro. Sept. the 7th Abbaside caliph. of late years extended so as to include statesmen and military people. Chennai 6. with rich mines of quicksilver. _b_. 1854.--DIEGO D'. founded Bagdad. a kind of European peerage. the 2nd Abbaside caliph and the first of the caliphs to patronise learning. 20. where select balls used to be given. published annually by Perthes at Gotha. a great promoter of science and learning. afterwards known as Willis's Rooms. a town on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena.ramakalai@gmail. 833. where the allied English. half-way between Eupatoria and Sebastopol. whose genius was much admired by Coleridge (1779-1843). admission to which was a certificate of high social standing. in Spain. a confederate of Pizzaro in the conquest of Peru. ALMANSUR. led to his imprisonment and death (1475-1538). but a quarrel with the brothers of Pizzaro about the division of the spoil on the capture of Cuzco. ALMACK'S. WASHINGTON. ABU GIAFAR. CTSTI. a suite of assembly rooms. the capital of Chile. the son of HAROUN-EL-RASCHID. an American painter and poet. was himself put to death (1520-1542). who avenged his death by killing Pizzaro. as well as statistical information. his son. French.com ALLSTON. and made it the seat of Computer Lecturer. ALMADEN (9). ALMA`GRO. a river in the Crimea. ALMA. and Turkish armies defeated the Russians under Prince Menschikoff. ALMANACH DE GOTHA.

by Washington Irving. ALMERIA (37). superseded by Albuquerque. had overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain. distinguished himself in the Indian seas. an important and flourishing place. a strong fortress in the province of Beira. a firm and wise governor. recalling all their manners and vices. ALMEIDA. the Almighty whom the Americans are charged with worshipping. under the Moors. a distinguished artist of Dutch descent. ALMAVIVA. ALMANSUR.com the caliphate. and killed on his way home by the Kaffirs at the Cape in 1510. ALMIGHTY DOLLAR. a character in Beaumarchais' _Marriage de Figaro_. a personification of wit. when he was repulsed and totally defeated by the kings of Leon and Navarre in 948. talent. and at one time a nest of pirates more formidable than those of Algiers. Chennai 6. and made Ceylon tributary to Portugal. 1836. CTSTI. FRANCESCO. Page 82 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. who is duped by his valet Figaro. it would seem. on the Spanish frontier of Portugal. ALMEIDA. first applied to them. next to Granada.--LORENZO. settled in London. _b_. 775. AL`MA-TAD`EMA. and intrigue. the first Portuguese viceroy of India. famous for his highly-finished treatment of classic subjects. his son. a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century. acting under him. LAURENCE. ABU MOHAMMED. representative of one of the old noblesse of France. _d_. a chief town and seaport in the S. of Spain.

the heart of certain tropical trees. and then S. which contains a famous painting by Rubens. a high-lying town at the foot of the Himalayas. ALMO`RA. Computer Lecturer. Page 83 of 2772 . Africa. with a cathedral. from 1055 to 1147. Africa and Spain from 1129 to 1273. CTSTI. one of the grandest in Belgium. from Brussels. ST. 85 m.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. ALOE. Spain. 19 m. a Belgian town on the Dender. ALOST (25). N. on the Aln. in particular a purgative from the juice of the leaves of several species. ALNWICK. the seat of the Duke of Northumberland. ALMORAVIDES. a Moslem dynasty which ruled in N. a Moslem dynasty which subdued first Fez and Morocco. the county town of Northumberland. Roche beseeching Christ to arrest the Plague at Alost. one of the most magnificent structures of the kind in England.com ALMOHADES. which yields a fragrant resinous substance and admits of high polish. a genus of succulent plants embracing 200 species. of Bareilly. "St. ALOES WOOD.. NW. at the north entrance is Alnwick Castle. the majority natives of S. See GONZAGA." ALOYSIUS. and during the Border wars a place of great strength. valuable in medicine.

ceded by Italy. forming part of Dauphine.com ALOYSIUS. Nice. made up of the territory of Nice. in appearance resembles a sheep. climate severe. HAUTES-A. Page 84 of 2772 . where he overtook her and was wedded to her. and who pursued her under the sea as far as Sicily. to which he himself fell a victim. cap. cap. CTSTI. ALPINE PLANTS. members of which have successfully addressed themselves to attempts of the kind on loftier mountains. and of Monaco and Var. Gap. MARITIMES. traversed by the Cottian Alps. added Armenia and Georgia to his dominions (1030-1072). E. is covered with a long soft silky wool.. Computer Lecturer. bordering on Italy and the Mediterranean. an Italian nobleman. Digne. France: the BASSES-A. who joined the Society of Jesus. of the Basses-A. ALPES. ALP-ARSLAN (Brave Lion).ramakalai@gmail. plants whose natural habitat approaches the line of perpetual snow.. also the name of the river-god enamoured of the nymph Arethusa. but is larger in size. bounded by Hautes-Alpes on the N.. 1591. and has a long erect neck with a handsome head. flowing west. first of all in the Alps. ALPHE`US. cap.. sterile in the N. a sultan of the Seljuk dynasty in Persia. Chennai 6. A. a gregarious ruminant of the camel family. ALPINE CLUB. in NE. ALPACA. ST. part of Provence. canonised for his devotion to the sick during the plague in Rome. a club of English gentlemen devoted to mountaineering.. June 21. fertile in the S. and Var on the S. three departments in SE. with its source in Arcadia. and particularly the tablelands of Chile and Peru.. of which textile fabrics are woven. a river in the Peloponnesus. a native of the Andes.

and extend from the 44th to the 48th parallel of latitude. the vastest mountain system in Europe. m. the Cottian. including the Pennine and Bernese.com ALPS. above the snow-line. and the Eastern. the highest being Mont Blanc. the Dauphine. the Julian.000 sq. their peaks mostly covered with perpetual snow. within the frontiers of France. which at one time enjoyed the privilege of a debtors' sanctuary. These giant masses occupy an area of 90. is a great wine-producing country. Middle_. ALPUJAR`RAS. In respect of range or extent. and the High. and W. including the Dolomite. the Middle. its cotton manufacture the most important in Germany. extend from the Brenner and Hungarian plain to the Danube. they have been distributed into _Fore. Middle_. and _Eastern:_ the Western. till abolished in 1697. is under a governor general bearing the title of "Statthalter"..ramakalai@gmail. Page 85 of 2772 . from the Sierra Nevada in Spain. a territory originally of the German empire. and _High:_ the Fore rising to the limit of trees. ALSA`TIA. and the Graian. the Middle. Computer Lecturer. become a haunt of all kinds of nefarious characters. Whitefriars. extend from Mont Blanc to the Brenner Pass. by the peace of Frankfort. form the boundary between France.. yields cereals and tobacco. but restored to Germany after the Franco-German war in 1870-71. and the Dinaric. Germany. ALRUNA-WIFE. THE. to the line of perpetual snow. Chennai 6. ceded to Louis XIV. and had. London. According to height. including the Maritime. a rich and lovely valley which stretches S. extend from the Mediterranean to Mont Blanc. and Italy on the S. CTSTI. the household goddess of a German family.640). they have been distributed into _Western.. and Switzerland on the N. ALSACE-LORRAINE` (1. by the peace of Westphalia in 1648.

related by Carlyle in his "Miscellanies. the hair-narrow hell-bridge of the Moslem. stretching W. his "Battle of Arbela" adorns the Muenich Picture Gallery (1488-1538). v. CTSTI. KARL AUGUST.). was chief of a division. one of the finest in the Baltic. ALTDOR`FER. AL`TENBURG (33). abounding. inspired with his spirit. ALSTEN. of France. native of Hanover. its castle is the scene of the famous "PRINZENRAUB" (q. AL`TEN. Norway. bore arms under Sir John Moore. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. a German painter and engraver. a distinguished officer. who introduced into France the cultivation of madder. and 4 m. now ceded to Germany. with seven snow-capped hills. ALBRECHT.ramakalai@gmail.com ALSEN (25). a distinguished pupil of Albert Duerer. capital of Saxe-Altenburg. called the Seven Sisters. to the profit of Russia." ALTHEN. Page 86 of 2772 . from the Desert of Gobi. under Wellington. an island off the coast of Northland. who entered the British service. in Central Asia. AL-SIRAT. a Persian refugee. in silver and copper. a Danish island adjacent to Sleswig. of Leipsic. boundary of Asiatic Russia. as well as other metals. which every Mohammedan must pass to enter Paradise. and as a painter. which became one of the most important products of the S. S. in the Peninsular war. and closed his military career at the battle of Waterloo (1763-1840). ALTAI` MOUNTAINS. and forming the S.

an old town in the canton Uri. ALUMBRA`DO. DUKE OF. and stirring up the Dutch to such fury as was needful for exploding Spain and Computer Lecturer. _d_. by Charles Kingsley. a general of the armies of Charles V. AL`TORF. Saxons. associated with the story of William Tell. figures carved out of a tablet so as to project at least one half from its surface. a novel. a town and seaport of Sleswig-Holstein. end of the Lake of Lucerne. a place of transit trade. at the S. ALURED OF BEVERLEY. close to Hamburg. a Comtist doctrine which inculcates sacrifice of self for the good of others as the rule of human action. in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages. Chennai 6. his annals comprise the history of the Britons. and as good as forming one city with it.ramakalai@gmail. written in sympathy with the Chartist movement. an English chronicler of the 12th century. his career as a general was uniformly successful. and Philip of Spain. but as a governor his cruelty was merciless. CTSTI. especially as the viceroy of Philip in the Low Countries. ALTO-RELIEVO. "very busy cutting off high heads in Brabant. now belonging to Germany. ALVA. ALTO`NA (148). ALTRUISM. a member of a Spanish sect that laid claim to perfect enlightenment.com ALTON LOCKE. on the right bank of the Elbe. Page 87 of 2772 . 1129. and Normans up to his own time. and healthier.

a Portuguese who. he conceived so great an aversion. that he would never model a bust of him (1768-1827). Page 88 of 2772 . but to whom. and patronised by Napoleon. who presented him with a gold medal. as a reward for his valiant services in the interest of Spain. count of Savoy. surnamed the Great from his wisdom and success as a ruler (1249-1323). AMADEUS. DON JOSE. subject to an almost total drying-up at times. AMADEUS I.. CTSTI. but was not acknowledged by the Church (1383-1451). AMADEUS VIII. ALVARA`DO. elected king of Spain in 1870. LAKE. born near Cordova. and retired into a monastery on the death of his wife. ALVAREZ.. a lake in the centre of Australia. FRANCESCO. the most distinguished of Spanish sculptors. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico. increased his dominions.ramakalai@gmail. 2nd son of Victor Emmanuel of Italy. an eminent Venetian general. 1st duke of Savoy. of Spain. but abdicated in 1873 (1845-1890). visited Abyssinia and wrote an account of it.com him" (1508-1582). Computer Lecturer.. he was elected Pope as Felix V. ALVAREZ. was a generous man as well as a brave.. was appointed Governor of Guatemala by Charles V. and comrade of Cortez. for his treatment of his country. AMADE`US V. ALVIANO. distinguished himself in the defence of the republic against the Emperor Maximilian (1455-1515). Chennai 6. in the 15th century. PEDRO DE.

a spongy substance. AMALEKITES. of the Gulf of Salerno. AMA`LIA. collected about her court the most illustrious literary men of the time. and governed by Doges of its own. surnamed the Knight of the Lion. 24 m. AMALFIAN LAWS. consisting of slices of certain fungi beaten together. king of the Visigoths. of Naples. AMAIMON. which gave much trouble to the Israelites in the wilderness. Chennai 6. written partly in Spanish and partly in French by different romancers of the 15th century. the Duchess of Weimar. were as good as annihilated by King David. used as tinder. a port on the N. used as a styptic. the first four books were regarded by Cervantes as a masterpiece. the mother of the grand-duke. a celebrated romance in prose. as well as a model knight-errant. AMAL`FI. Computer Lecturer. a warlike race of the Sinaitic peninsula. CTSTI. 581. Page 89 of 2772 . and. Amadis.com AM`ADIS DE GAUL. after being steeped in saltpetre. married a daughter of Clovis. SE. AMADOU. a code of maritime law compiled at Amalfi. of whom Don Quixote is the caricature. stands for a type of a constant and deferential lover.ramakalai@gmail. ANNA. of great importance in the Middle Ages. AMALARIC. _d_. a devil who could he restrained from working evil from the third hour till noon and from the ninth till evening. The hero of the book.

an Italian patriot. king of Egypt. and cultivated alliances with Greece. CTSTI.C. AMALTHE`A. who was much attached to her (1739-1807)." _d_. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. one of the leaders in the crusade against the Albigenses. the goat that suckled Zeus. AMA`SIA (25). AMA`SIS. Page 90 of 2772 . and took part in its emancipation. dethroned the reigning monarch and assumed the crown. a Hindu Buddhist. took part in an insurrection. "Kill them all. once the capital of the kings of Pontus. Andrea and Niccolo. AMALRIC. AMA`RA SINHA. AMA`TI. a town in Asia Minor. born at Palermo. a shepherdess in one of Virgil's pastorals. AMA`RI. who. when his followers asked him how they were to distinguish heretics from Catholics. 1225. proved an able ruler. reigned from 570 to 546 B. God will know His own.com headed by Goethe. any young rustic maiden. devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily. he is famous for throwing light on the true character of the Sicilian Vespers (1806-1889). MICHELE. a celebrated family of violin-makers. AMARYL`LIS. answered. one of whose horns became the cornucopia--horn of plenty. left a valuable thesaurus of Sanskrit words.ramakalai@gmail. originally a simple soldier. was an Orientalist as well.

falls by a delta into the Atlantic. generally yellow and semi-transparent. the inhabitants of which are mainly engaged in the preparation of cochineal. they cohabited with men of the neighbouring nations. its current affects the ocean 150 m. becomes electric by friction. out. a fossil resin. its waters increased by an immense number of tributaries. the Greek word for it being _electron_. at Cremona. in the 16th and 17th centuries. from the Pacific. 20 of which are above 1000 m. "an honest man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth" (_Wotton_). rises in the Andes about 50 m. AMBASSADOR. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. and by steamers as far as the foot of the Andes. has been fished up for centuries in the Baltic. and gives name to electricity. one 2000 m. that they might be able to wield the bow in war. America and the largest on the globe. the cause of which was at one time unknown. AMAUROSIS. AMBER. slew all the male children they gave birth to. CTSTI. from certain extinct coniferous trees. traverses the continent at its greatest breadth. AMAZONS.. or sent them to their fathers. AMATITLAN (10). derived. is navigable 3000 m. up. Page 91 of 2772 . burnt off the right breasts of the females. AMAZON. its basin nearly equal in extent to the whole of Europe.com brothers. to perpetuate the race. in length. and after a course of 4000 m. a river in S. a fabulous race of female warriors. wide. a weakness or loss of vision. a town in Guatemala. who had a queen of their own. it is presumed. its mouth 200 m. Computer Lecturer. and excluded all men from their community. and is now used in varnishes and for tobacco pipes.

an ashy-coloured odorous substance used in perfumery. The Conspiracy of A. E. AMBERLEY.S. and the Guises. CARDINAL. LORD. of Tours. a painter of Nuernberg in the 16th century. is said to have died immensely rich (1460-1510). who. a small market-town near the head of Lake Windermere.. a town on the Loire. with a castle.com AMBERGER." which. Chennai 6. Page 92 of 2772 . wrote an "Analysis of Religious Belief. the conspiracy of Conde and the Huguenots in 1560 against Francis II. a small fish without eyes. and as the Pope's legate in France effected a great reform among the religious orders. the popular Prime Minister of Louis XII. Computer Lecturer. presumed to be a morbid fragment of the intestines of the spermaceti whale. once the residence of the French kings. AMBOISE.. being often found floating on the ocean which it frequents.ramakalai@gmail. 14 m. GEORGE DE. The Edict of A.. reduced the Public burdens. his principal work being the history of Joseph in twelve pictures. his father took steps to secure the suppression of. as such. as merely sceptical. (1563) conceded the free exercise of their worship to the Protestants. in the Wordsworth or so-called Lake District. AMBLESIDE. a disciple of Holbein. AMBLYOPSIS. CTSTI. U. found in the Mammoth Cave. AMBOISE (5). AMBERGRIS. son of Lord John Russell. without success. Catharine de Medici.

ramakalai@gmail. and his country. in the Malay Archipelago. a pride in it. wrote several hymns. his attributes are a _scourge_. now used to denote a satisfactory apology or reparation. AMBRO`SIA. and a zealous opponent of the Arian heresy. his writings fill two vols. AM`BROSE. and only admitted him to Church privilege after a severe penance of eight months. the fragrant food of the gods of Olympus. Page 93 of 2772 . JOHANN. to beg pardon on his knees of his God. it belongs to the Dutch. born at Treves. and led into court with a rope round his neck held by the public executioner. like a true workman. the first who used the Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian. which are reckoned his most valuable legacy to the Church. originally a mode of punishment in France which required the offender. his king. a celebrated printer in Basel in the 15th century. covered as his hands were with the blood of an infamous massacre. he improved the Church service. distinguished for her conjugal affection. who have diligently fostered its capabilities. _d_. AMENDE HONORABLE. one of the Fathers of the Latin Church. and a _beehive_. 7. Computer Lecturer. He is the Patron saint of Milan. Dec. as a stern puritan refused to allow Theodosius to enter his church. bishop of Milan. AMERBACH. Festival. from the tradition that a swarm of bees settled on his mouth when an Infant without hurting him (340-397). ST. 1515. a character in one of Fielding's novels. folio. Chennai 6. CTSTI. taking. AMELIA. spared no expense in his art. with a chief city of the name. from his severity. and rich before all in spices.com AMBOYNA (238). stripped to his shirt. fabled to preserve in them and confer on others immortal youth and beauty. the most important of the Moluccas..

and an exhaustless wealth of minerals. RUSSIAN. Chennai 6. varies from 3400 m. consists of seven political divisions: Guatemala. British Honduras.. parallel with the coast. a rich fauna and flora. which is largely indented with gulfs. belongs by purchase to the United States. is bounded on the N. and Dutch West Indies. of which a fourth are negroes. the West Indian Republics. but is a good deal smaller than Asia. is a plateau with terraces descending to the sea on each side. French. and a lower range. in length. by the Pacific.. and half-caste. the Appalachian. m. in breadth. to 28 m. on the S. Mexico. and seas. CENTRAL. and is about six times as large as Ireland. bounded throughout by the Atlantic on the E. British. now called Alaska. 9000 m. and has now a population of 80 millions.. AMERICA. AMERICA. contains 161/2 millions of sq. by the United States. British Honduras.. contains over 81/2 millions sq. consists of a plain in the centre throughout its length. on the E. extends from Mexico on the north to Panama on the south. CTSTI. has a magnificent system of rivers. is larger than Europe and Africa together. San Salvador. United States. is less than half the size of Asia. the largest in the world. and Costa Rica. and on the W.. the Rocky. Computer Lecturer. AMERICA. large lakes. on the E. AMERICA. Honduras. bays.com AMERICA. including both North and South. Nicaragua. NORTH. m. by the Arctic Ocean. occupies one-third of the continent. the divisions are British North America. and the Pacific on the W. Page 94 of 2772 . and the Spanish. BRITISH N. aborigines. by the Atlantic. and rich in all kinds of tropical vegetation. on the W. is 4560 m. in length.ramakalai@gmail. and comprises the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. Central American Republics. a high range of mountains. Mosquitia. was discovered by Columbus in 1492.

Computer Lecturer. while the river system is the vastest and most serviceable in the globe. which the first cartographers called America. historian of early British typography. a race with a red or copper-coloured skin. was in 1492 (1451-1512). coarse black straight hair. the Patagonians being of the race.com AMERICA. these visits were made between 1499 and 1505. America where Spanish is the spoken language. abounds in extensive plains. to be found still as far south as Patagonia. limited to America. the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. and afterwards of Portugal. after his name. four times visited the New World. George Washington. AMERICAN FABIUS. SPANISH. Page 95 of 2772 . black deep-set eyes. high cheek-bones. AMERICAN INDIANS.ramakalai@gmail. though the designation is often applied to all the countries in N. AMERICA. SOUTH. and a long plain with minor ranges extending therefrom eastward. AMERI`GO-VESPUC`CI. and it can match the world for the rich plumage of its birds and the number and splendour of its insect tribes. Chennai 6. but the Amazon and the Plate Rivers make up for the defect of seaboard. while Columbus's discovery. AMES. till lately belonging to Spain. the vegetable and mineral wealth of the continent is great. JOSEPH. which go under the names of Llanos. Selvas. and seems for most part fast dying out. the coast is but little indented. under the auspices first of Spain. as is known. and consists of a high mountain range on the west. CTSTI. and tall erect figure. a Florentine navigator. just discovered by Columbus. who. lies in great part within the Tropics. and Pampas. in a work which must have involved him in much labour (1689-1759).

Chennai 6. AMHERST. AMICE.ramakalai@gmail. LORD. are 11 in number. belonging to Britain. authoritative.com AMHA`RA. a flowing cloak formerly worn by pilgrims. a group of small coral islands NE. AMMANA`TI. the old capital of Picardy. with a cathedral begun in 1220. BARTOLOMEO. and Padua (1511-1592). a British officer who distinguished himself both on the Continent and America. Gothic pure. and which has been translated into English by Mrs. the central and largest division of Abyssinia. also a strip of linen cloth worn over the shoulder of a priest when officiating at mass. which teems with suggestive thoughts bearing on the great vital issues of the day. clear of Roman tradition and of Arabian taint. possesses other buildings of interest. and executed several works in Rome. and afterwards of ethics at Geneva. AM`IEL. on the Somme. AMIENS` (88). Venice. Computer Lecturer. and particularly along with General Wolfe in securing for England the superiority in Canada (1717-1797). who is known to the outside world solely by the publication of selections from his Journal in 1882-84. Page 96 of 2772 . a professor of aesthetics. CTSTI. and is celebrated for a treaty of peace between France and England concluded in 1802. was an admirer of Michael Angelo. described as the "Parthenon of Gothic architecture. are wooded. a Florentine architect and sculptor of note. and only a few feet above the sea-level. AMIRAN`TES. was the birthplace of Peter the Hermit. Humphrey Ward." and by Ruskin as "Gothic. unsurpassable. and unaccusable". of Madagascar.

of nitrogen and hydrogen. a philosopher of Alexandria. a genus of fossil shells curved into a spiral form like the ram-horn on the head of the image of Ammon. specially valuable as a record of contemporary events. Longinus. he became Latin secretary to Henry and a prebendary of Salisbury. Page 97 of 2772 . AM`MON. at a great age. AMMONIO. and a continual trouble to them. 243. AMMONIA.com AMMIA`NUS MARCELLI`NUS. and wrote a history of the Roman Empire. 1517. a pungent volatile gas. and Plotinus were among his pupils. identified in Greece with Zeus. of the Jordan. represented with the head of a ram. till subdued by Judas Maccabaeus.ramakalai@gmail. who had a temple at Thebes and in the Lybian Desert. AMMONITES. AMMONITES. _d_. AMMO`NIUS SACCAS. was much resorted to as an oracle of fate. obtained from sal-ammonia. _d_. AMMIRATO. CTSTI. 390. at continual feud with the Jews. sent to England by the Pope. an Egyptian deity. author of a history of Florence (1531-1601). Computer Lecturer. and in Rome with Jupiter. and founder of Neo-Platonism. Origen. an Italian historian. a Semitic race living E. Chennai 6. a Greek who served as a soldier in the Roman army. held in high esteem by Erasmus. _d_. ANDREA. a Latin poet born in Lucca.

CTSTI. and denounced the judgment of God as Lord of Hosts upon one and all for their idolatry. of the Jordan. on a small island in the Strait of Fukien. THOMAS. a French mathematician and physicist. ANDRE MARIE. AMOEBA. being a mere mass of protoplasm. AMOMUM.com AMNION. AMOS. AMORITES. raised his voice in solitary protest against the iniquity of the northern kingdom of Israel. one of the open ports of China. in Judah. remarkable for their pungency and aromatic properties. with the effect that it is constantly changing its shape. name given to the innermost membrane investing the foetus in the womb. has one of the finest harbours in the world. a minute animalcule of the simplest structure." and other semi-insane productions. Esq. and a large export and import trade. NE. born at Computer Lecturer. sugar. near Bethlehem. seemingly of tall stature. subdued by Joshua at Gibeon. gold-leaf. a powerful Canaanitish tribe. AMPERE`. the chief exports are tea. he was a fanatical Unitarian (1691-1789). AMOY` (96). Chennai 6. who in the 8th century B. absorbs its food at every point all over its body by means of processes protruded therefrom at will. AMORY. an eccentric writer of Irish descent. paper. a poor shepherd of Tekoa. such as the cardamom and grains of paradise. which nothing could avert.. &c.ramakalai@gmail.C. Page 98 of 2772 . a genus of plants. author of the "Life of John Buncle.

and a historian and critic of literature. it was originally instituted for the conservation of religious interests. a genus of limbless lizards. a daughter of Oceanus or Nereus. the decisions of which were several times enforced by arms. son of the preceding. a feat often alluded to as an instance of the miraculous power of music. AMPHISBAENA. as Zeus proved himself to the household to be when he visited Alcmene. a son of Zeus and Antiope. CTSTI. and husband of Alcmene. of which there were three. a council consisting of representatives from several confederate States of ancient Greece. and by Zeus the mother of Hercules. to settle any differences that might arise between them. Computer Lecturer. distinguished for his discoveries in electro-dynamics and magnetism. who became by him the mother of Iphicles. the wife of Neptune. Chennai 6. who is said to have invented the lyre. Page 99 of 2772 . the real host. attained to the rank of a member of the French Academy (1800-1864). and built the walls of Thebes by the sound of it. the man who provides the feast. AMPHIC`TYONIC COUNCIL. AMPERE. the king of Tiryns. that met twice a year. twelve in number at length. and gave rise to what were called _sacred wars_. a serpent fabled to have two heads and to be able to move backward or forward. JEAN JACQUES. sitting alternately at Thermopylae and Delphi. and the influence of these on electro-telegraphy and the general extension of science (1775-1836).com Lyons. AMPHIT`RYON.ramakalai@gmail. two from each. and goddess of the sea. eminent as a litterateur. AMPHITRYON THE TRUE. AMPHI`ON. AM`PHITRITE. mother of Triton.

he is said to have executed the order of the Caliph Omar for burning the library of Alexandria. who appointed him grand-almoner. he was the translator. the houses built on piles of wood driven into the marshy ground. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. a large eastward-flowing river. it was much esteemed by Montaigne (1513-1593). is a largely manufacturing place. Chennai 6.com AM`RAN RANGE. was of humble birth. conquered Egypt among other military achievements.. birthplace of Spinoza. AMYOT. pronounced the "scientific frontier" of India towards Afghanistan. a great trading city and port at the mouth of the Amsel. AMSTERDAM (456). which. among other works. after a course of 3060 m. Computer Lecturer. JACQUES. as well as an emporium of trade. a place of pilgrimage in Cashmere. a sacred city of the Sikhs in the Punjab. which remains to-day one of the finest monuments of the old literature of France. AMUR`. CTSTI. grand-almoner of France and bishop of Auxerre. AMRIT`SAR (136). was tutor of Charles. AMURNATH. resting on 90 islands connected by 300 bridges. E. a Mohammedan general under the Caliph Omar. Page 100 of 2772 . AM`RU. the capital of Holland. partly in Siberia and partly in China. manufactures cashmere shawls. on the Zuyder Zee. falls into the Sea of Okhotsk. of Lahore. 663. is second to Delhi in Northern India. one special industry being the cutting of diamonds and jewels. on account of a cave believed to be the dwelling-place of Siva. of Plutarch into French. 32 m. and a great centre of trade.

ANAC`REON. a celebrated Greek lyric poet. ANACON`DA. See BAPTISTS. Chennai 6. and though it spread in various parts of Germany. a fanatical sect which arose in Saxony at the time of the Reformation.ramakalai@gmail. a gigantic serpent of tropical America. OF THE GUILLOTINE. A. Francesco Albani. lived chiefly at Samos and Athens.C. a Scythian philosopher of the 6th century B. he stands for a Scythian savant living among a civilised people.com AMYOT. as well as for a wise man living among fools. ANACREON OF PAINTERS. A. Haefiz. and of the retreat of the 10. in his roamings in quest of wisdom. a French Jesuit missionary to China.. a native of Teos. ANACHARSIS CLOOTZ. after the battle of Cunaxa in 401 B. Barere. came at length to grief by the excesses of its adherents in Muenster. Computer Lecturer. arrived at Athens. ANABAPTISTS. See CLOOTZ. CTSTI. an account by Xenophon of the ill-fated expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes. OF PERSIA. ANACHARSIS. and a learned Orientalist (1713-1794). but was put to death on his return home by his brother.).000 Greeks under Xenophon who accompanied him. not many fragments of them are preserved (560-418 B. JOSEPH. ANAB`ASIS. his songs are in praise of love and wine. and became the friend and disciple of Solon. in Asia Minor. Page 101 of 2772 .C.C. who.

Chennai 6. the highest point in the Anamalah Mts. called also sons of Anak. ANASTA`SIUS. 7000 ft. I. Page 102 of 2772 . SE. therefore." given to her in allusion to her arising out of the sea.. ANAM`ALAH MOUNTAINS. Aphrodite. the project definable as an insane attempt to realise a social system on the basis of absolute individual freedom. the birthplace of several Popes. of mean elevation. ANAG`NI.ramakalai@gmail. and in possession. a name meaning "emerging. ANAMU`DI. of Palestine. a race of giants that lived in the S. one of the names of Mexico prior to the conquest of it by the Spaniards. a small town 40 m. the name of a famous painting of Apelles so representing her. ANAHUAC`. Ghats in Travancore. AN`AKIM. and of the training of the individual so as to become a law to himself. Computer Lecturer.. 7580 ft. the professed aim of which is that of the emancipation of the individual from the present system of government which makes him the slave of others. a plateau in Central Mexico. of Rome. CTSTI. of the right to the control of all his vital interests. a range of the W. ANARCHISM. ANADYR. a river in Siberia. the most eminent. a projected social revolution.com ANADYOM`ENE. which flows into Behring Sea. the name of four popes: A.

. emperor of the East. April 15. pope from 911 to 913. settled in Lampsacus. made air the first principle of Computer Lecturer. ST. a "mosaic" work by Burton. ANAXIM`ENES. ANAXIMANDER. also of Miletus. ANAXAR`CHUS. A. conceived of "as a purely immaterial principle. the Greek name for Asia Minor. a formative power in the origin and organisation of things". desires. festival.. pope from 496 to 498. and the first sovereign to be so treated by the Pope (430-515). pleasures." ANAXAG`ORAS. _d_. ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. a Greek philosopher of Miletus. was the first to assign to the _nous_.ramakalai@gmail. a Greek philosopher of the school of Democritus and friend of Alexander the Great. of which in turn the _taedium_ is not obscurely hinted. through all employments. described by Professor Saintsbury as "a wandering of the soul from Dan to Beersheba.). Chennai 6.com pope from 398 to 401. ANATO`LIA. indeterminate and eternal (611-547 B. in Ionia. transplanted it there. 425 B.. Page 103 of 2772 . CTSTI. and finding them barren except for study. excommunicated for his severities to the Christians. II. removed to Athens and took philosophy along with him. ANASTASIUS.C. derived the universe from a material basis.C. e.. III.. a martyr under Nero. i. IV. A. A. ANASTASIUS I. a Greek philosopher of Clazomenae. but being banished thence for impiety to the gods. pope from 1153 to 1154.

fruit of a W. the presumed original of the horse. ANCENIS (4). ANCHOVY. due to a belief in ANIMISM (q. ANCAEUS. Indian plant. a Portuguese Jesuit. the worship of ancestors that prevails in primitive nations. distinguished both in tragedy and comedy.. was buried in Sicily. of Lampsacus. of Nantes.. Chennai 6. a French dramatic poet. having left a flagon of wine to pursue a boar. whom his son bore out of the flames of Troy on his shoulders to the ships. his wife also a distinguished writer (1792-1875). ANCHOVY PEAR. who.com things. 23 m. the father of AEneas.ramakalai@gmail.). Page 104 of 2772 . ANCELOT. Computer Lecturer. _d_. A. ANCESTOR-WORSHIP. of the taste of the mango. a small fish captured for the flavour of its flesh and made into sauce. was killed by it.C. CTSTI. a son of Neptune. ANCHI`SES. v. called the Apostle of the New World (1538-1597). born at Teneriffe. preceptor and biographer of Alexander the Great. a town on the Loire. 500 B. NE. ANCHITHERIUM. a fossil animal with three hoofs. ANCHIETA.

of Altorf. a profligate minister of France during the minority of Louis XIII. second to that of Venice. ANCILLON. fertile in grains. 20 m. is haunted by the recollection of them. grandson of Numa. CTSTI. a central Swiss village in Uri. and of French descent (1766-1837). HANS CHRISTIAN. FREDERICK. fruits. and who. and vines. divided into Great and Little. of Evreux. ANCRE. NE. since 1858 used as a penal settlement. a world-famous story-teller of Danish Computer Lecturer. MARSHAL. a port of Italy in the Adriatic. Chennai 6. a Prussian statesman. ANDERMATT. when he reaches land. extended the city and founded Ostia. and rich in minerals. ANDALUSIA (3. ANDERSEN. 4th king of Rome. LES.370). a region in the S. of Spain watered by the Guadalquivir. ANCUS MARCIUS.com ANCIENT MARINER. 18 m.ramakalai@gmail. ANCO`NA (56). the hero of a poem by Coleridge. ANDAMANS. a mariner doomed to suffer dreadful penalties for having shot an albatross. Page 105 of 2772 . a small town on the Seine. ANDELYS. surrounded by coral reefs. and feels compelled to relate the tale of them as a warning to others. volcanic islands in the Bay of Bengal. founded by Syracusans. S. philosophic man of letters.

JOHN. one of the chief reformers of religion in Sweden (1480-1552). near Edinburgh. and by a national festival on his seventieth birthday (1805-1875). often in double and triple chains. SIR EDMUND. Navarro de Viano of New York. Computer Lecturer. S. son of a poor shoemaker. CTSTI. in 1890 married M. Lord Chief-Justice of Common Pleas under Elizabeth. and the founder of the Andersonian College in Glasgow (1726-1796). was some time before he made his mark. professor of physics in Glasgow University.. sat as judge at the trial of Mary. a celebrated actress. S. divided into the Southern or Chilian as far as 231/2 deg. the Central as far as 10 deg. ANDERSON. a native of Roseneath. native of California. Chennai 6. ANDERSON. ANDERSON. native of Hermiston. famous for his learning and his antiquarian knowledge (1662-1728). 1605.. JAMES.com birth.. ANDERSON. ANDES. _b_. _d_. ANDERSON. JAMES. a distance of 4500 m. a Scotch lawyer. LAWRENCE. was honoured at length by the esteem and friendship of the royal family.ramakalai@gmail. and the Northern to their termination. a writer on agriculture and promoter of it in Scotland (1739-1808). MARY. Anderson's Reports is still a book of authority. which extend. Queen of Scots. 150 of them actively volcanic. along the west of South America from Cape Horn to Panama. born at Odense. ANDERSON. Page 106 of 2772 . 1859. an unbroken range of high mountains.

com ANDOCIDES. ANDREA DEL SARTO.S.C. an orator and leader of the oligarchical faction in Athens. ANDOR`RA (6). a Hungarian statesman. tried and hanged as a spy in the American war in 1780. under the protection of France and the Bishop of Urgel. played a prominent part in diplomatic affairs on the Continent to the advantage of Austria (1823-1890). ANDOVER. king of Hungary from 1205 to 1235.. who are a primitive people and of simple habits. ANDRAL. professor in Paris University (1797-1876). of London. a distinguished French pathologist. AN`DRASSY. 66 m. the first time for profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries (467-393 B. Pyrenees. was four times exiled. enclosed by mountains. became Prime Minister in 1867. U. from Boston. also a town 23 m. was exiled from 1848 to 1851. a brave British officer. Chennai 6. cattle-rearing is the chief occupation of the inhabitants.). JOHN. GABRIEL. founded in 1807. ANDRE. Page 107 of 2772 . a monument is erected to him in Westminster Abbey.. famous for its theological seminary. a small republic in the E. in Catalonia. ANDRE II. SW. took part in the fifth crusade.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. COUNT. See SARTO. Computer Lecturer. an old municipal borough and market-town in Hampshire.

contributed greatly to free modern art from Byzantine influence (1270-1345). Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. ST. an eminent French general and statesman. represented in art as an old man with long white hair and a beard. and leaning on a transverse cross. a theologian. born at Pisa. advocated the recall of the Bourbons on the fall of Napoleon. ANDREW. and the name of the hero. a sculptor and architect.. but of his sermons the criticism of a Scotch nobleman. JOSEPH.. ANDREW. the highest Order in Russia. when he preached at Holyrood once. was one of the Hampton Court Conference. one of the Apostles.. ST. who Computer Lecturer. ambassador at London. and Constantinople. THE CROSS OF. became patron saint of Scotland. was not inappropriate: "He rather plays with his subject than preaches on it" (1555-1626).. in succession bishop of Ely. eminent as a scholar. and zealous High Churchman in the reign of Elizabeth and James I. Vienna. ANDREWS. and Winchester. and of the translators of the Authorised Version of the Bible. CTSTI. an English prelate. such having. it is said. Chichester. LANCELOT. and a preacher. ANDREOSSY. ST. holding the Gospel in his right hand. cross like a X. RUSSIAN ORDER OF. ANDREWES. an eminent French engineer and mathematician (1633-1688). he was fervent in devotion. Page 108 of 2772 . served under Napoleon. a novel by Fielding. been the form of the cross on which St. born in Essex.com ANDREA PISANO. suffered martyrdom by crucifixion. Andrew suffered. COUNT. ANDREOSSY. ANDREW. FRANCOIS.

ANDRONI`CUS. Alexis II. COMNENUS. an eminent physicist. CTSTI.. dethroned him. sent into the arena to attack him. is the subject of tragedies by Euripides and Racine respectively. born at Strassburg... I. the name of four Byzantine emperors: A. lived to see the empire devastated by the Turks (1282-1328). the wife of Hector and the mother of Astyanax. A. IV. A.. she had been demanded by Neptune as a sacrifice to appease the Nereids for an insult offered them by her mother. usurped the throne. at the fall of Troy. but was given up by him to Hector's brother. born and professor in Belfast (1813-1885). a French litterateur and dramatist. ANDREWS. Achilles' son. fought stoutly against the Turks without staying their advances (1328-1341).com is a footman. dethroned his father.. Soter V. fell to Pyrrhus. and was immediately stripped of his possessions himself (1377-1378).. ANDRIEUX.ramakalai@gmail. and permanent secretary to the Academy (1759-1822). ANDROM`EDA. but saved by a lion. professor in the College of France. 1183. ANDRO`CLUS. A. THOMAS. Page 109 of 2772 . a Roman slave condemned to the wild beasts. Computer Lecturer. a beautiful Ethiopian princess exposed to a sea monster. receiving as his reward the hand of the maiden. ANDROM`ACHE. II. killed his ward. which Perseus slew. Chennai 6. III. ST. and who recognised him as his benefactor. grandson of the preceding. famous for her conjugal devotion. and the brother of Richardson's Pamela. and was put to death. out of whose foot he had long before sucked a thorn that pained him.

course. on the coat of an artery. ANDROS (22). a British bard at the beginning of the 7th century.com ANDRONICUS. who took part in the battle of Cattraeth. ANEURISM. ANGARA. ANEROID. noted for the manufacture of porous clay water-cooling vessels. ANDRONICUS OF RHODES. on the Guadalquivir. ANDUJAR (11). containing blood. and made it the subject of a poem. and to whom we owe the preservation of many of Aristotle's works. a tributary of the Yenisei. fertile soil and productive of wine and silk. LIVIUS. Chennai 6.). which passes through Lake Computer Lecturer. Page 110 of 2772 . ANEMOMETER. a tumour. with internal spring-work and an index. ANEU`RIN. a town of Andalusia. a barometer.C.ramakalai@gmail. an instrument for measuring the force. the oldest dramatic poet in the Latin language (240 B. ANDROUET DU CERCEAU`. an eminent French architect who designed the Pont Neuf at Paris (1530-1600). and velocity of the wind. a disciple of Aristotle in the time of Cicero. air-tight. the most northern of the Cyclades. CTSTI. affected by the pressure of the air on plates exposed to its action. air-exhausted metallic box. consisting of a small watch-shaped.

ANGELICO. and finally to Rome. a devotional service in honour of the Incarnation. and finish. ANGELICA DRAUGHT. whence he removed to Florence. born at Mugello. of Paris.ramakalai@gmail. a theological seminary. 160 m. born in St. voracious fish of the shark family. Petersburg.com Baikal. a distinguished patron of the fine arts. FRA. devoted his life to religious subjects. became a Dominican monk at Fiesole. Thomas Aquinas. ANGELIC DOCTOR. Chennai 6. SW. where he died. on the Maine. ANGEL. and conceived in virgin purity and child-like simplicity of soul. beauty. a faithless lady of romance. CTSTI. and a medical school. bought by the British Computer Lecturer. ANGERSTEIN. ANGERS` (77). in Tuscany. ANGEL`ICA. an Italian painter. something which completely changes the affection. his work in the form of fresco-painting is to be found all over Italy (1387-1455). Page 111 of 2772 . whose collection of paintings. an old English coin. a hideous. which he treated with great delicacy. with the archangel Michael piercing the dragon on the obverse of it. ANGEL-FISH. for whose sake Orlando lost his heart and his senses. with a fine cathedral. JOHN. AN`GELUS. birthplace of David the sculptor. the ancient capital of Anjou.

formed the nucleus of the National Gallery (1735-1822). it allures other fishes into its maw. an affection of the heart of an intensely excruciating nature. big-mouthed head and a tapering body. ANGLES. MARQUIS OF. i. sprung from the Church of England. a fish with a broad. Chennai 6. Page 112 of 2772 . eldest son of the first Earl of Uxbridge. as well as America. EAST territory in England occupied in the 6th century by the Angles. and rich in minerals.com Government. the Peninsula. at which he lost a leg. the term _Anglo-Catholic_ being applied to the High Church section. ANGI`NA PEC`TORIS. Holland. corresponding to counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. ANGLIA. famous as a cavalry officer in Flanders. e. a German tribe from Sleswig who invaded Britain in the 5th century and gave name to England. ANGLER. as it burrows in the sand. separated from the mainland by the Menai Strait. by which. though not subject to her jurisdiction. Island of the Angles. an island forming a county in Wales. fertile. flat. the body of Episcopal churches all over the British Empire and Colonies. ANG`LICAN CHURCH. CTSTI. the pain of which at times extends to the left shoulder and down the left arm. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. was some time viceroy in Ireland. both covered with appendages having glittering tips. and especially at Waterloo. and for his services at which he received his title. AN`GLESEA (50). where he was very popular (1768-1854). ANGLESEY.

subject to Portugal. Page 113 of 2772 . DUC D'. 83 m. ANGOULEME` (31). of Bordeaux. ANGOULEME. a district on the W. in a district noted for its silky. the name usually assigned to the early inflected form of the English language. Chennai 6. up the Orinoco. ANGO`LA (2.com ANGLO-SAXON. left Memoirs of his life (1575-1650). NE. coast of Africa. capital of the province of Guayana. the eldest son of Charles X. daughter of Louis XVI. a city in the centre of Anatolia. ANGOULEME. a Computer Lecturer. in Venezuela. with a fine cathedral. ANGOULEME. and wife of the preceding (1778-1851). Paul de Loando.. CHARLES DE VALOIS. gained great reputation as a military commander. the capital of the Azores. 240 m. the capital of which is St. natural son of Charles IX. the birthplace of Marguerite de Valois and Balzac. ANGO`RA (20). also a medicinal bark exported thence. CTSTI.. after the Revolution of 1830 gave up his rights to the throne and retired to Goritz (1778-1844). ANGOSTU`RA. between the Congo and Benguela.400). an old French city on the Charente. on the island of Terceira. DUCHESSE D'. AN`GRA. cats and dogs as well as goats. long-haired animals.ramakalai@gmail. DUC D'.

and extensively used in the production of dyes. ANGUIER. of the Orange River. surrounded and split up by Prussian Saxony. at the Isle of Ruegen. a duchy of Central Germany. or Snake Island.com fortified place. ANICHINI. PRINCE OF. ANG`STROM. Chennai 6. obtained chiefly from coal-tar. served and distinguished himself in the war of the Spanish Succession and in Italy. a Prussian field-marshal. distinguished for his studies on the solar spectrum. which Michael Angelo pronounced the perfection of the art. a port in SW. rich in minerals.ramakalai@gmail. one of the Lesser Antilles. a colourless transparent oily liquid. of Porto Rico. the name of two famous French sculptors in the 17th century. AN`GRA PEQUE`NA. was wounded at Cassano. ANHALT-DESSAU. and watered by the Elbe and Saale. AN`HALT (293). N. and the Saxons and Austrians at Kesseldorf (1676-1747). Computer Lecturer. E. an Italian medallist of the 16th century. and the nucleus of the territory belonging to Germany. LEOPOLD. _b_. ANGUIL`LA (2). ANILINE. Page 114 of 2772 . defeated Charles XII. a Swedish physicist and professor at Upsala. CTSTI. Africa. 1814. executed a medal representing the interview of Alexander the Great with the High Priest of the Jews. belonging to Britain.

connected by railway with Stettin. 1792. the seed of which is used as a carminative and in the preparation of liqueurs. annexed to the crown of France under Louis XI. above Rome. ANISE. in 1480. 4 m. ANIMAL MAGNETISM. AN`IO. an affluent of the Tiber. of France. belonged to England till wrested from King John by Philip Augustus in 1203. ANIMISM. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. ANJOU`.ramakalai@gmail. ancient Rome was supplied with water from it by means of aqueducts. an umbelliferous plant. for which he was executed after being publicly flogged on three successive days. a name given to the alleged effects on the animal system.com ANIMAL HEAT. the heat produced by the chemical changes which go on in the animal system. ANKLAM (12). an old Hanse town in Pomerania. correspondent with it in attributes. an ancient province in the N. a belief of a ghost-soul existing conjointly with and subsisting apart from the body. Chennai 6. the intensity depending on the activity of the process. ANKARSTROeM. March 15. the assassin of Gustavus III. a belief that there is a psychical body within the physical body of a living being. its physical counterpart. in other words. of Sweden. of certain presumed magnetic influences acting upon it. at a masked ball. and that when the connection between them is dissolved by death the former lives on in a ghostly form. Page 115 of 2772 . in certain passive states.

a city of Michigan. which led to the perpetration of great cruelties. her reign was marred by the evil influence of her paramour Biren over her. capital of Shoa. as shown in her portraits. AN`NA IVANOV`NA. in Abyssinia. empress of Russia in succession to Peter II. U. under a French protectorate since 1885. an empire.. E. "which. and is rich in minerals. retired into a convent and wrote the life of her father. having failed in a political conspiracy. ANNA COMNE`NA. along the east coast of Indo-China.000). under the title of the "Alexiad" (1083-1148). Chennai 6. on river Annan. Alexius I. with an observatory and a flourishing university. which yields tropical products. seaport of Nova Scotia. Computer Lecturer. on the Huron." Carlyle says. and where Carlyle was a schoolboy. above the sea-level. stands 8200 ft.com ANKOBAR. AN`NAN (3). AN`NAM (6. Page 116 of 2772 . niece of Peter the Great. on the Bay of Fundy.. of the size of Sweden. of Washington. from 1730 to 1740. CTSTI. 28 m. birthplace of Edward Irving. ANNAP`OLIS (3).S. also the capital (7) of Maryland. ANN ARBOR (10). and at length mathematical schoolmaster. "was comparable to a Westphalian ham" (1693-1740). a burgh in Dumfries. a Byzantine princess. it has a rich well-watered soil. who.ramakalai@gmail. was famed for her big cheek.

mother of the Virgin Mary. Duke of Brittany. but being disappointed. S. Chennai 6.. with Cardinal Mazarin for minister. of Geneva. the daughter of Philip III. CTSTI. and mother of Louis XIV.. a Spanish isle in the Gulf of Guinea. Joachim. ANNE OF AUSTRIA. the daughter of Francis II. France. _d_. of Spain. ANNE. became regent on the death of her husband.. wife of Louis XIII. festival.. during the minority of her son. and where Francis of Sales was bishop. the duchy was added to the crown of France (1476-1514). the capital of Haute-Savoie. ANNE OF CLEVES. literary and scientific. though without any patronage on the part of the Queen (1665-1714).. then to Louis XII. paper the chief Computer Lecturer. a wife of Henry VIII.. soon divorced her. triumphed over the Fronde. daughter of James II.com ANNE. a town in Ardeche.. that flourished under it. July 26. in France. retired to a convent on the death of Mazarin (1610-1666). ANNECY (11). 22 m. first to Charles VIII. ANNONAY (14).ramakalai@gmail. her reign distinguished by the part England played in the war of the Spanish succession and the number of notabilities. by the union of Scotland with England during her reign in 1707 became the first sovereign of the United Kingdom. ST. by her marriage. ANNOBON. daughter of Duke of Cleves. 1577. ANNE OF BRITTANY. who fell in love with the portrait of her by Holbein. Page 117 of 2772 . QUEEN. at which the Counts of Geneva had their residence. on a lake of the name. and the patron saint of carpentry. wife of St.

ANNUNCIATION DAY. ST. a quarrel with whom about investiture ended in a compromise.. wrote "Precis de l'Histoire Universelle" and a "Histoire de France" in 14 vols. ANSELM. a French historian in holy orders.). God-fearing man. was by appointment of the Pope the first archbishop of Hamburg (801-864). a Frenchman born. but returned at the request of Henry I. archbishop of Canterbury. an able. monk and abbot. CTSTI. continued by Bouillet in 6 more (1723-1806). See CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. LOUIS PIERRE. ANSBACH (14). the capital of the old margraviate of the name. of Nuernberg. and the margraves of which were HOHENZOLLERNS (q. ST. and a calmly resolute upholder of the teaching and authority of the Church (1033-1109). v. a festival on the 25th of March in commemoration of the salutation of the angel to the Virgin Mary on the Incarnation of Christ. a manufacturing town in Bavaria. Page 118 of 2772 . brother of the preceding..com manufacture.ramakalai@gmail. an enthusiastic Orientalist. the first to preach Christianity to the pagans of Scandinavia. high-principled.. quarrelled with Rufus and left the country. in Piedmont. gained the favour of King Rufus. and which influenced his own system so much (1731-1805). a native of Aosta. ANQUETIL`." Computer Lecturer. who appointed him to succeed Lanfranc. ANQUETIL`-DUPERRON. 25 m. visited England frequently. SW.. Chennai 6. to whom we owe the discovery and first translation of the Zend-Avesta and Schopenhauer his knowledge of Hindu philosophy. ANSCHAR or ANSGAR.

C. sailed round the world. and John Goodsir the anatomist. and after three years and nine months returned to England. during war on the part of England with Spain. ANTAR. two contiguous royal burghs on the Fife coast.com ANSON. Chennai 6. to the loss of the fruit of all the victories gained over them by Athens (387 B. a _terrae filius_ or son of the earth. in the centre of the island. a weakness which Hercules discovered to his discomfiture when wrestling with him. ANTAL`CIDAS. above the sea-level. the capital of Madagascar. a Spartan general." witnesses Carlyle. a celebrated British naval commander. ANSTRUTHER. an Arab chief of the 6th century. and distinguished as a poet. ANTANANARI`VO (100). Computer Lecturer. Thomas Chalmers. LORD. but with L500. one of the pleasantest little books in the world's library at this time" (1697-1762). his fleet reduced to one vessel. a subject of romance. Anson's "Voyage Round the World" contains a highly interesting account of this. The fable has been used as a symbol of the spiritual strength which accrues when one rests his faith on the immediate fact of things. on a well-nigh inaccessible rocky height 5000 ft. ANTAEUS.). or romance all fact.000 of Spanish treasure on board.ramakalai@gmail. "written in brief. Page 119 of 2772 . CTSTI. on a voyage of adventure with a fleet of three ships. who was strong only when his foot was on the earth. perspicuous terms. the former the birthplace of Tennant the poet. lifted in air he became weak as water. a mythical giant. celebrated for a treaty which he concluded with Persia whereby the majority of the cities of Asia Minor passed under the sway of the Persians. EAST AND WEST. "a real poem in its kind.

small cloven hoofs.ramakalai@gmail. ANTHRAX. with a light and elegant figure. Chennai 6. a class of apes. Sophia in Constantinople. without tails. CTSTI. breeds rapidly. which they thrust into the ant-hills and then withdraw covered with ants. a well-known American classical scholar and editor of the Classics (1797-1867). very like the latter in appearance. ANTELOPE. 22 m. a stronghold of the Moors from 712 to 1410.com ANT-EATERS. ANTHE`LIA. ANTHE`MIUS. ANTHON. slender. luminous rings witnessed in Alpine and Polar regions. with semi-erect figures and long arms. N. a disease. ANTEQUE`RA (27). due to the invasion of a living organism which. and gibbon. have a tubular mouth with a small aperture. under certain conditions. Computer Lecturer. of Malaga. an animal closely allied to the sheep and the goat. 534. and generally a very short tail. called also splenic fever. CHARLES. the architect of the church of St. especially in cattle. a town in Andalusia. including the gorilla. graceful limbs. _d_. and a long tongue covered with a viscid secretion. a family of edentate mammals. ANTHROPOID APES. Page 120 of 2772 . chimpanzee. orang-outang. seen round the shadow of one's head in a fog or cloud opposite the sun.

ANTI`BES (5) a seaport and place of ancient date on a peninsula in the S. ANTIG`ONE`.com ANTHROPOLOGY. Chennai 6. was defeated and slain at Ipsus. the Duchess of Angouleme. made himself master of all Asia Minor. one of the generals of Alexander the Great. near Cannes and opposite Nice. excited the jealousy of his rivals. Page 121 of 2772 . See THE PARTING SCENE IN CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION.ramakalai@gmail. John defined to involve that form of opposition which denies the doctrine of the Incarnation. king of Thebes. returned to Thebes on his death. Creon's son. ANTICOSTI. surnamed the Cyclops or One-eyed. in Phrygia. led about her father when he was blind and in exile. the science of man as he exists or has existed under different physical and social conditions. who had usurped the throne. the ascription of human attributes to the unseen author of things. was condemned to be buried alive for covering her brother's exposed body with earth in defiance of the prohibition of Creon. daughter of Louis XV. and with hardly a permanent inhabitant. but is by St. killed himself on the spot where she was buried. a name given in the New Testament to various incarnations of opposition to Christ in usurpation of His authority. a barren rocky island in the estuary of St Lawrence. ANTICHRIST. ANTHROPOMORPHISM. She has been immortalised in one of the grandest tragedies of Sophocles. of France. 301 Computer Lecturer. ANTIGONE." ANTIG`ONUS. THE MODERN. frequented by fishermen. CTSTI. out of love for her. or that Christ has come in the flesh. the daughter of Oedipus.

CTSTI. America to S. and the Venezuelan Islands--the Leeward as far as Dominica. the Windward Islands. but recovered it. ANTINOMY. the seat of the government. ANTIMONY. all-emancipating free spirit of Christ. and the LESSER A. forming the Leeward Islands. ANTIGONUS. on the N.. of the sea.. twice deprived of his kingdom.. Jamaica.ramakalai@gmail. America. in the transcendental philosophy the contradiction which arises when we carry the categories of the understanding above experience and apply them to the sphere of that which transcends it.C. an archipelago curving round from N.C. a Bithynian youth of extraordinary beauty. a brittle white metal. of value both in the arts and medicine. the Windward as far as Trinidad. a slave of the Computer Lecturer. being Cuba. put to death in 77 B. the GREATER A. and the Venezuelan along the coast of S. America. grandson of the preceding.C. Page 122 of 2772 . one of the Leeward Islands.com B. ANTIGONUS GONATAS. ANTINOMIANISM. the doctrine that the law is superseded in some sense or other by the all-sufficing. ANTIGUA.). on the E. the last king of the Jews of the Asmonean dynasty. Chennai 6. ANTIN`OUS. and embracing the Caribbean Sea. king of Macedonia. Hayti. attempted to prevent the formation of the Achaean League (275-240 B. and Porto Rico. the most productive of them belongs to Britain. ANTILLES.

EPIPHANES. defeated the confederate Greek Computer Lecturer. and accordingly a busy centre of trade. on the Orontes. and famous in the early history of the Church as the seat of several ecclesiastical councils and the birthplace of Chrysostom. CTSTI.. a Macedonian general. extended and consolidated the empire. e. Page 123 of 2772 . A. king from 164 to 162. he enrolled him among the gods.. SOTER. ANTIP`AROS (2). provoked the Maccabaean revolt. A. and died delirious. e. i. governed Macedonia with great ability during the absence of Alexander. EUPATOR. declared war against Rome. king from 261 to 246. afterwards called Caesarea. and the grief of the emperor knew no bounds. W. erected a temple and founded a city in his honour. e. being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. king from 175 to 104. one of the Cyclades. failed against Egypt. lying on the high-road between the E. with a stalactite cavern. while artists vied with each other in immortalising his beauty. fell heir of all Syria.. i. gave harbour to Hannibal. III.. king from 281 to 261 B. ANTI`OCHUS. king from 223 to 187. IV. was defeated at Thermopylae and by Scipio at Magnesia. queen of the Amazons and mother of Hippolytus. i.ramakalai@gmail. _The Sleep of Antiope_. and the W. became a great favourite of his and accompanied him on all his journeys. II. A.C. God. I. called the Queen of the East. THEOS. Saviour. Illustrious. _chef-d'oeuvre_ of Correggio in the Louvre. son of one of Alexander's generals. killed in attempting to pillage the temple at Elymais. once a city of great splendour and extent. He was drowned in the Nile. ANTIP`ATER. AN`TIOCH (23). an ancient capital of Syria. Chennai 6. tyrannised over the Jews. A. There was an Antioch in Pisidia.com Emperor Hadrian. of Paros. ANTI`OPE. V. the Great. name of three Syrian kings of the dynasty of the Seleucidae: A...

a pope elected by a civil power in opposition to one elected by the cardinals. high. a Greek painter.200 ft. ANTIPYRIN. ANTIPYRETICS. in Ecuador.C. Andes. medicines to reduce the temperature in fever. ANTIPOPE. high. the highest village in the world. of Germany opposed to the Jews on account of the undue influence they exercise in national affairs to the alleged detriment of the natives. of which the chief are quinine and salicylate of soda. a volcano of the N. ANTISEPTICS. first and last. who speaks of him in terms of honour. CTSTI. Page 124 of 2772 . preceptor of Thucydides. was the first to formulate rules of oratory (479-411 B. an Athenian orator and politician. 13. to prevent or arrest putrefaction. a febrifuge prepared from coal-tar. and used as a substitute for quinine. ANTISA`NA.com states at Cranon. reigned supreme on the death of Perdiccas (397-317 B. Chennai 6.000 ft. ANTISE`MITES. or one self-elected and usurped. 19. a party in Russia and the E. particularly in surgery. AN`TIPHON.ramakalai@gmail. substances used. ANTIPH`ILUS. Computer Lecturer.). also a village on its flanks. contemporary and rival of Apelles. there were some 26 of such.).C.

and offered a determined opposition to the Revolution. ANTONELLI. taken from Bolivia after the war of 1879. the master of Diogenes. acting as his foreign minister there. from the Taurus Mts. a Greek philosopher. a rising port in Chile. a town of Latium on a promontory jutting into the sea.. ANTOMMAR`CHI. were taken to form a rostrum in the Forum at Home. Napoleon's attached physician at St. the chief adviser and Prime Minister of Pope Pius IX. it was the birthplace of Caligula and Nero. Chennai 6. "I see your pride looking out through the rent of your cloak. introduced from Holland oil-painting into Italy (1414-1493).C. and founder of the Cynic school. but so ostentatiously as to draw from Socrates the rebuke. CARDINAL. Italian painter of the 15th century." ANTI-TAURUS. of Messina. O Antisthenes. Helena. affected to disdain the pride and pomp of the world. left immense wealth (1806-1876). wrote "The Last Moments of Napoleon" (1780-1838). Computer Lecturer. subdued in 333 B. ANTIVA`RI. ANTONEL`LO. a fortified seaport lately ceded to Montenegro. Page 125 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. a mountain range running NE. CTSTI. the beaks of its ships. long antagonistic to Rome. exports silver ores and nitrate of soda. came back with him to Rome.com ANTIS`THENES. accompanied the Pope to Gaeta. a disciple of Socrates. ANTIUM.. and was the first to carry staff and wallet as the badge of philosophy. captured in a naval engagement. ANTOFAGAS`TA (7).

C. but Computer Lecturer.com ANTONI`NUS. and afterwards killed himself (83-30 B. where from the age of thirty he spent 20 years of his life. grandson of the preceding and warm partisan of Caesar. an earthen rampart about 36 m. ITINERARY OF.C. Chennai 6.D. resisting devils without number. MARCUS (Mark Antony). of Stoic principles. during which time the Empire enjoyed unbroken peace. a famous Roman orator and consul. Marcus Aurelius. in Scotland. erected in the year 140 A. from the Forth to the Clyde. CTSTI. and so became the founder of monachism.). Page 126 of 2772 . ANTONI`NUS PIUS. in a lonely ruin by himself. formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus." and has left in his "Meditations" a record of his religious and moral principles (121-180).). a Roman emperor. was surnamed the "philosopher. a valuable geographical work supposed of date 44 B.ramakalai@gmail. slain in the civil war between Marius and Sulla. as a barrier against invasion from the north. was defeated by Octavius in the naval battle of Actium. being also of the Stoic school and one of its most exemplary disciples. ANTONI`NUS. ST. a famous anchorite of the Thebaid. ANTO`NIUS. successor to the following. ANTO`NIUS. MARCUS. after the murder of the latter defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. left his retreat for a while to institute monasteries.. AN`TONY. WALL OF. and who surpassed him in virtue.C. fell in love with the famous Cleopatra. Roman emperor. ANTONI`NUS. in length. who reigned with justice and moderation from 138 to 161. having sided with the latter (143-87 B.

with a beautiful Gothic cathedral. highest where many were high. AN`YTUS. a maritime county in the NE. in Ireland. on quitting the body. exports butter. ANTONY OF PADUA. the spire 402 ft. 17 (251-351). festival. COUNT D'. on the Scheldt.ramakalai@gmail. of Ulster. whose office." but veered round to royalism. one of the firebrands of the French Revolution. has a large picture-gallery full of the works of the Dutch and Flemish artists. linen the chief manufacture. which he at length intrigued on behalf of--to death by the stiletto (1765-1812). ANTWERP (240). banished in consequence from Athens. "rose into furor almost Pythic. June 13 (1195-1234) ANTRAIGUES. the burial-place of Rubens. from the sea. Page 127 of 2772 . like that of Hermes. a Minorite missionary to the Moors in Africa.com returned to die. Computer Lecturer. high. the most vehement accuser of Socrates. festival. the fishes came in myriads to listen. ANWARI. ANT`RIM (471). inhabitants mostly Protestant. preached to the fishes. a Persian lyric poet who flourished in the 12th century. ANU`BIS. and shamed the pagans into conversion. says the fable. an Egyptian deity with the body of a man and the head of a jackal. soil two-thirds arable. it was to see to the disposal of the souls of the dead in the nether world. Chennai 6. a large fortified trading city in Belgium. 50 m. who listened to him when no one else would. CTSTI. Jan. after Socrates' death.

III.com AOS`TA (5). Page 128 of 2772 . APEL`LES. and W. and possessed the power of conferring beauty. on others." BK. like Duerer." AP`ENNINES. sprung from sea-foam. bred. by means of her magic girdle.ramakalai@gmail. of many in modern time to whom the universe. in a fertile Alpine level valley. forming about the middle of the peninsula a double chain which supports the tableland of Abruzzi. Chennai 6. nearly through the whole length of Italy. at Ephesus. thinks Carlyle. with all its serious voices. CHAP. the birthplace of Anselm. seems to have become a weariness and a humbug See "PAST AND PRESENT. a man conscious. fit symbol. of mastery in his art. according to the Moslem tradition. the Greek goddess of love and beauty. dwellers by the Dead Sea who. with spurs at right angles. CTSTI. APH`IDES. wife of Hephaestos and mother of Cupid. as comes out in his advice to the criticising shoemaker to "stick to his last. APES. Computer Lecturer. v. the cestus. were transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's message to them by the lips of Moses. of Turin. a family of insects very destructive to plants by feeding on them in countless numbers. as queen of beauty had the golden apple awarded her by Paris. N. long a source of trouble to the republic. the most celebrated painter of antiquity. lived at the court of Alexander the Great. III.). of the United States. his great work "APHRODITE ANADYOMENE" (q. a branch of the Alps extending. APHRODI`TE. but where goitre and cretinism prevail to a great extent. APA`CHES. if not born. a town of Italy. a fierce tribe of American Indians on the S. DEAD SEA.

the second with Augustus. THE. after the close of the Hebrew canon. and hostile to the privileges conceded them in Alexandria. APOCRYPHA. and his mummy regarded as an object of worship. The word Apocrypha means hidden writing. must be black all over the body. the figure of an eagle on the back.ramakalai@gmail. have a white triangular spot on the forehead. Chennai 6. the incarnation of Osiris. a town in Saxe-Weimar with extensive hosiery manufactures.C. the first of whom was contemporary with Sulla. Page 129 of 2772 . and under the tongue the image of a scarabaeus. the name of three famous Roman epicures.com API`CIUS. and it was given to it by the Jews to distinguish it from the books which they accepted as canonical. has mineral springs. the sacred live bull of the Egyptians. and ascribed to one and another of the early prophets of Israel. was at the end of 25 years drowned in a sacred fountain. APOCALYPTIC WRITINGS. APOL`DA (20). and the third with Trajan. A`PIS. and an enemy of the Jews. for most part. forecasting the judgments ordained of God to overtake the nation. denied the proper humanity of Computer Lecturer. are instinct. CTSTI. had his body embalmed. bishop of Laodicea. with the wisdom which rests on the fear of God and loyalty to His law. an Alexandrian grammarian of the 1st century. APOLLINA`RIS. and predicting its final deliverance at the hands of the Messiah. which though without the unction of the prophetic books of the canon. writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B. A`PION. a literature of sixteen books composed by Jews..

an Athenian who wrote a well-arranged account of the mythology and heroic age of Greece.com Christ. the Greek name for the Hebrew Abaddon. and medicine. and (3).). APPLLODO`RUS (1). Paul. (2) a celebrated architect of Damascus. APOL`LOS. v.ramakalai@gmail. 97. Chennai 6. the destroying angel. an Athenian painter. twin brother of Artemis. a Jew of Alexandria. poetry." a rather prosaic account of the adventures of the Argonauts. who. a Pythagorean philosopher. 408 B. a power to work miracles. who became an eloquent preacher of Christ. a grammarian and poet. and on account of his eloquence rated above St. the god _par excellence_ of the Greeks. art. whither Leto had fled from the jealous Hera. 390.D. APOLLONIUS OF RHODES. was worshipped after his death.. _d_. flourished in the 3rd century B. professed to have a divine mission. his favourite oracle at Delphi. APOLLYON. it is said. _d_. born in the island of DELOS (q. 129. CTSTI. Page 130 of 2772 .. identified with the sun and all that we owe to it in the shape of inspiration.C. _d_. APOLOGETICS. and has been compared to Christ.C. APOLLONIUS OF TYANA. by affirming that the Logos in Him took the place of the human soul. as well as by maintaining that His body was not composed of ordinary flesh and blood. the first to paint figures in light and shade. A. having become acquainted with some sort of Brahminism. and. author of the "Argonautica. APOLLO. son of Zeus and Leto. a defence of the historical verity of the Christian Computer Lecturer.

Barnabas Polycarp. Page 131 of 2772 . OF THE ENGLISH. picture of St. conscientiously however. of Switzerland. in favour of paganism. St. painted by Albert Duerer. APPALA`CHIANS. and St. their utmost height. Lawrence. OF THE INDIAN. Columba. and includes the Alleghanies and the Blue Mountains. APOSTLES. Augustine.ramakalai@gmail. APOSTOLIC FATHERS. St. APPENZELL` (67). APOSTATE. Father Mathew. enclosed by St. Irenaeus. APOSTLE OF GERMANY. which is manufacturing and Protestant. abound in coal and iron. John. CTSTI. OF THE FRENCH. OF THE PICTS. OF THE NORTH. OF THE SCOTS. Mark. abjured the Christian religion established by Constantine. OF IRELAND. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. Boniface. America that stretches NE. do not reach the snow-line. St. Denis. Paul. from his having. Chennai 6. OF THE INDIES. St. Patrick. St. an epithet applied to the Emperor Julian. Ignatius. Ninian. and Hermas. and Inner Rhoden. the derivation of episcopal power in an unbroken line from the Apostles. a canton in the NE. a qualification believed by High Churchmen to be essential to the discharge of episcopal functions and the transmission of promised divine grace. THE FOUR. OF THE GAULS. St. Gall. St. OF TEMPERANCE. St. in the museum at Muenich. OF THE GENTILES. John Eliot. Ulfilas. OF THE GOTHS. Peter. Paul. which is agricultural and Catholic. a mountainous system of N. from the tablelands of Alabama to the St. Fathers of the Church who lived the same time as the Apostles: Clemens. divided into Outer Rhoden. also the name of Computer Lecturer. under 7000 feet.com religion in opposition to the rationalist and mythical theories. Ansgar. A. Francis Xavier.

a magnificent highway begun by Appius Claudius. Grant in 1865. APPLETON (11). 312 B. APRAXEN. U. is a health resort. the county town of Westmorland. COUNT. AP`PIAN. APPLETON. Chennai 6. "To the most Beautiful. from Rome to Brundusium. AP`PIAN WAY. to Aphrodite. AUGUSTUS. and finished by Augustus.S. APPLEBY.C. on the Fox River. an Alexandrian Greek. wrote in 2nd century a history of Rome in 24 books. on the Eden. on promise that he would have the most beautiful woman of the world for wife. CH. Athena. EDWARD. and Aphrodite.S. founder and editor of the _Academy_ (1841-1879). CTSTI. U.com the capital. a golden apple inscribed with the words. Lee surrendered to Gen.. a city of Wisconsin. a village in Virginia. APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE. as referee. of which 11 remain. and awarded by Paris of Troy.ramakalai@gmail. Page 132 of 2772 . APPLEGATH. a celebrated naval commander under Peter the Great Computer Lecturer.. APPLE OF DISCORD." thrown in among the gods of Olympus on a particular occasion. inventor of the vertical printing-press (1788-1871). contended for by Hera. where Gen..

which extends as far N. a curious New Zealand bird with rudimentary wings. 11th sign of the Zodiac. APU`RE.797). Page 133 of 2772 . plumage like hair. the month of "opening of the light in the days. into which it falls by six branches. in 17th century. v. and no tail. was charged at one time with sorcery. of N.com and his right-hand man in many enterprises (1671-1728). the exquisite apologue or romance of PSYCHE and CUPID (q. among other stories. CTSTI. as Monte Gargano. APRIL." AP`TERYX. the fourth month of the year. and the scene of the last stages in the second Punic war. Chennai 6. chief tributary of the Orinoco. and of the voices of the birds. 21. of Italy. AQUA TOFA`NA. APU`LIA (1. an ancient province in SE. Tofana's poison. lived in the 2nd century. it is alleged. AQUAVIVA. having captivated a rich widow. poisoned.). his most celebrated work was the "Golden Ass. 600 people. and of the life of the leaves. some solution of arsenic with which a Sicilian woman called Tofana.ramakalai@gmail. and of the hearts of men. the Water-bearer." which contains. African birth. a general of the Jesuits of high authority (1543-1615). which the sun enters Jan. APULE`IUS. AQUA`RIUS. a student of Plato. a river in Venezuela. Computer Lecturer.

till 1453 an appanage of the English crown. his rival. became a Dominican monk despite the opposition of his parents. AQUI`NAS. in Pontus. capital of the province of Abruzzo Ulteriora. a Judaised Greek of Sinope. A`QUILA. is a masterly production." the greatest of his many works. studied at Naples. and went with him to Paris. was from the time of Henry II. GASPAR." from his stubborn silence at study. a division of ancient Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees. of Trieste. His writings. sat at the feet of Albertus Magnus. the Angelic Doctor. or Doctor of the Schools. Chennai 6. an Italian village. where several councils of the Church were held. a friend of Luther who aided him in the translation of the Bible. His "Summa Theologiae. on the Alterno.ramakalai@gmail. prelected at his Alma Mater and elsewhere with distinguished success. founded by Barbarossa.D. an Italian of noble birth. and to this day of standard authority in the Romish Church.com A`QUILA (20). constitute the high-water mark of scholastic philosophy and the watershed of its divergence into the PHILOSOPHICO-SPECULATIVE THOUGHT on the one hand. q. and the ETHICO-PRACTICAL OR REALISM OF MODERN TIMES on the other. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. THOMAS. once a place of great importance. v. Page 134 of 2772 . executed a literal translation of the Old Testament into Greek in the interest of Judaism versus Christianity in the first half of the 2nd century A. (1226-1274). fell sick and died. AQUILEIA. and being invited to assist the Council at Lyons. W. A`QUILA. which fill 17 folio vols. 22 m. was known among his pupils as the "Dumb Ox. along with those of Duns Scotus. a busy place. AQUITAINE`..

and fertile valleys. See ARABIA. and the Dahna between. said sometimes to be 600 ft. being one-third the size of the whole of Europe. AHMED PASHA. sandy..com ARABELLA STUART. ARABIA (12. the most westerly peninsula of Asia and the largest in the world. is divided into eight territories. and therefore few wild animals. v. leader of an insurrectionary movement in Egypt in 1882. yet the birthland of a race that threatened at one time to sweep the globe.. was shut up in the Tower of London. suspected of aspiring to the crown on the death of Queen Elizabeth. the W. the Great Arabian. a perfect Sahara. consisting of imaginary.ramakalai@gmail..). has no forests. ARABIA FELIX. has no lakes or rivers. the climate being hot and arid. Computer Lecturer. and S. contains YEMEN and EL HEJAZ (q. stony. but exclusive of the forms of men and animals. only wadies. and of a religion that has been a life-guidance to wide-scattered millions of human beings for over twelve centuries of time. deep. a cousin of King James I. ARA`BI. ARABIAN DESERT. ARABESQUE. he claimed descent from the Prophet. banished to Ceylon. where she died bereft of reason in 1615 at the age of 38. (_b_) a ring of deserts. a trading country with no roads or railways. often fantastic. the victim all her days of jealousy and state policy. mathematical or vegetable forms. consisting of (_a_) a central plateau with pastures for cattle. generally fertile on the W. in the S. Page 135 of 2772 . coast of Arabia. the Nefud in the N.. only caravan routes. _b_. CTSTI. an ornamentation introduced by the Moors.000). Chennai 6. and (_c_) stretches of coast land. oftenest dry. and is subject to Turkey. 1839.

" Such is Carlyle's opinion of the race from whom Mahomet sprang. released her and spared her life. trades in cattle and corn. taciturn rather." ARACAN. but eloquent. yet most meditative. a people of wild.ramakalai@gmail. The thread on which they are strung is this: A Persian monarch having made a vow that he would marry a fresh bride every night and sacrifice her in the morning. something most agile. See ARAKAN. and whom Athena changed into a spider because she had proudly challenged her ability to weave as artistic a work. gifted when they do speak. it is said. as given in his "Heroes. Computer Lecturer. the vizier's daughter obtained permission to be the first bride. manufactures tobacco. a Lydian maiden. who excelled in weaving. and first translated into French by Galland in 1704. a collection of tales of various origin and date. Page 136 of 2772 . an earnest. not a loquacious people. ARABS. ARAD (42). THE. active. In words too. brilliant. of Jewish kindred indeed. at the end of which term the king. as in action. deep-hearted. strong feelings. on the right bank of the Maros. and began a story which broke off at an interesting part evening after evening for a thousand and one nights. but with that deadly terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something graceful. truthful kind of men. CTSTI. and previously hanged herself in her despair.com ARABIAN NIGHTS. a fortified town in Hungary. swift-handed. ARACH`NE. seat of a bishop. which is not Jewish. she had failed in the competition. enthusiastic in their character. traceable in their present form to the middle of the 15th century. and iron restraint over these. or the Thousand and One Nights. Chennai 6. "a noble-gifted people.

produces and exports large quantities of rice. Saragossa. and at his death received a public funeral (1786-1853). author of a "Voyage Round the World" (1790-1855). a low. a territory in the NE. AR`AGON (925). ARAKAN (671). CTSTI. the Mohammedan sheol or borderland between heaven and hell for those who are from incapacity either not morally bad or morally good. on the E. with beautiful fertile valleys. a litterateur and a traveller. of France. rather barren.ramakalai@gmail. broad. a brother of the preceding. as well as sugar and hemp. Page 137 of 2772 . which it joins after a course of 1000 m. 400 m. and are of the Buddhist Computer Lecturer. JACQUES. ARAGO. nominated Director of the Observatory in 1830. refused to take the oath to Louis Napoleon after the _coup d'etat_. was a kingdom till 1469. was member of the Provisional Government in 1848. and divided as you proceed southward into the provinces of Huesca. augmented by subsidiary streams. mountainous in the N. of Spain. traversed by the Ebro. an affluent of the Tocantins.com ARAF. but was retained. elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at the early age of twenty-three. entered the Polytechnic School of Paris when seventeen. an eminent physicist and astronomer.. in the S. born in the S. AR`AGO. would rather resign his post at the Observatory. a place of pilgrimage as the spot where Adam received his wife after 200 years separation from her on account of their disobedience to the Lord in deference to the suggestion of Satan. of Mecca.. in Brazil. a granite hill E. a strip of land in British Burmah. Chennai 6. FRANCOIS. ARAFAT`. marshy country. long and from 90 to 15 m. The natives belong to the Burman stock. of the Bay of Bengal. ARAGUAY. and Teruel.

and one of the highest of the Pyrenees. ARAMA`IC. THE SEA OF. ARAN ISLANDS. and is said to be drying up. E. a Pyrenean valley. larger than the Irish Sea. also to those that dwelt at the mouths of the Euphrates and the Tigris. and improperly Chaldee. a generic name given to the Semitic tribes that dwelt in the NE. three islands with antique relics across the mouth of Galway Bay. the territories lying to NE. to which they form a breakwater. an eminent Spanish statesman. of the Caspian. 150 m. to whose fate a novel of Bulwer Lytton's and a poem of Hood's have lent a romantic and somewhat fictitious interest. and was succeeded by Computer Lecturer. VAL D'. ARANDA. has no outlet. suppressed brigandage.ramakalai@gmail. shallow. ARAMAEA. COUNT OF. CTSTI. and curtailed the power of the Inquisition. long and 145 broad. convicted of murder years after the act and executed 1759. ARAM. EUGENE. was Prime Minister of Charles IV. ARAL. a lake in Turkestan.. the language of Palestine in the days of Christ. ARAMAE`ANS. a Semitic dialect that has now almost entirely died out. ARAN. source of the Garonne. though there is a sprinkling of Mohammedans among them. the inhabitants of which spoke a Semitic dialect called Aramaic. Chennai 6. of Palestine. 265 m. an English school-usher of scholarly attainments.com faith. of Palestine. banished the Jesuits. Page 138 of 2772 .

is within Russian territory. of Madrid. where Alexander the Great finally defeated Darius. also a Greek poet. in Chile. attained to eminence as a man of letters (1819-1882). promoter of the Achaean League. by his order (271-213 B. a town near Mosul.C. quoted by St Paul in Acts xvii. high. S. and borders on both Turkey and Persia. ARBE`LA. 17. Chennai 6. long the spring resort of the Spanish Court. JANOS. a popular Hungarian poet of peasant origin. of Valdivia. ARAUCA`NIA (88). tall conifer trees. ARA`TUS. natives of and confined to the southern hemisphere. ARANJU`EZ (8). the country of the Araucos. CTSTI. 331 B. a mountain in Armenia on which Noah's ark is said to have rested. born in Cilicia. 28. ARAUCA`RIA. the Araucos being an Indian race long resistant but now subject to Chilian authority. and interesting as the only one that has proved itself able to govern itself and hold its own in the presence of the white man. author of two didactic poems. native of Sicyon. ARBROATH (22). Page 139 of 2772 . was poisoned.C. a thriving seaport and manufacturing town on the Computer Lecturer.000 ft. of Concepcion and N. a town 28 m. AR`ANY.com Godoy (1719-1798). it is said. in which he was thwarted by Philip of Macedon. SE. AR`ARAT.ramakalai@gmail.). in Greece.

which has to do with extinct organisms or fossil remains. a Greek philosopher. denied that we had any accurate criterion of truth. it is thought. luxurious prince. favourable for invalids suffering from pulmonary complaints. with the picturesque ruins of an extensive old abbey. of Dundee. ARCHAEOLOGY. of the "Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus" and the "History of John Bull" (1667-1735). of Bordeaux. a member of the Platonic School and founder of the New Academy. long by 40 broad. much esteemed by them for his wit and kind-heartedness. JOHN. joint-author with Swift.ramakalai@gmail. and rustic simplicity and bliss. a mountain-girt pastoral tableland in the heart of the Morea. 34 m.com Forfarshire coast. a popular watering-place. born in Kincardineshire. ARCA`DIUS." ARBUTHNOT. and denounced all dogmatism in opinion. leaving the government in other hands (377-405). ARCESILA`US. a weak. Chennai 6. of which Cardinal Beaton was the last abbot. ARCA`DIA. Page 140 of 2772 . N. SW. CTSTI. born in Spain. conceived by the poets as a land of shepherds and shepherdesses. with a fine beach and a mild climate. the first emperor of the East. the friend of Swift and Pope and other lights of the time. It is the "Fairport" of the "Antiquary. as distinct from palaeontology. 50 m. and was the seat of the worship of Artemis and Pan. a physician and eminent literary man of the age of Queen Anne and her two successors. AR`CACHON (7). 17 m. the study or the science of the monuments of antiquity. who held in opposition to the Stoics that perception was not knowledge. Computer Lecturer.

Page 141 of 2772 . son of Herod. died at Vienne. the inventor of iambic verse (714-676 B. and tar." who in the disguise of a reverend hermit. 1824. Chennai 6. Azrafil.. tallow. a purple dye obtained from lichens. is connected with the interior by river and canal.). WM. is accessible to navigation from July to October. portrait-painter. and has a large trade in flax. and patron of art and literature. ARCHIMA`GO. 1856.C. a general of Mithridates. of a satiric and often bitter vein. a sorcerer in Spenser's "Faerie Queene.. with whom Euripides found refuge in his exile. 400 B. a celebrated lyric poet of Greece.ramakalai@gmail. timber. AR`CHIL. Computer Lecturer. ARCHER. _d_. Azrael.com ARCHANGEL (19). conquered by Sulla twice over. the judge of which is called the dean. born in Edinburgh. an ecclesiastical court of appeal connected with the archbishopric of Canterbury. the angel of the resurrection. ARCHANGELS. ARCHIL`OCHUS. the oldest seaport of Russia. and by the help of Duessa or Deceit. ARCHER. AR`CHES.C. on the White Sea. dramatic critic. on the Dvina. the angel who fights. Michael. of these. COURT OF. the angel who reveals. born in Perth. there are four: Gabriel. seduces the Red-Cross Knight from Una or Truth. king of Macedonia. the angel of death. JAMES. ARCHELA`US. deposed by Augustus. according to the Koran. also the Ethnarch of Judea. near its mouth. CTSTI.

). well skilled in all the mechanical arts and sciences of the day. He is credited with the boast: "Give me a fulcrum. a soldier. was drowned in the Adriatic Sea. the tenure of office was first for life.ramakalai@gmail. When Syracuse was taken by the Romans. notwithstanding the order of the Roman general that his life should be spared. famous as a statesman.. or the group of islands included in it. Page 142 of 2772 . resting immediately on the capital. he was unconscious of the fact.com ARCHIME`DES OF SYRACUSE. and was so excited over the discovery that. of which there were nine at a time. ARCHITRAVE. CTSTI. his body lay unburied on the shore till a sailor humanely cast a handful of sand on it. it is said. each over a separate department. the lowest part of an entablature. originally the AEgean Sea. shouting "_Eureka! Eureka!_ I have found it! I have found it!" (287-212 B. a man of superlative inventive power. his contemporary. he darted off stark naked on the instant through the streets. Chennai 6. in its original form a hollow spiral placed slantingly to raise water by revolving it. ARCHIPEL`AGO. by a Roman soldier. and slain. and influential in that capacity over the minds of Plato. now the name of any similar sea interspersed with islands. and Aristotle. ARCHIMED`ES SCREW. and I will move the world. 4th century B.C. a Pythagorean in philosophy.C." He discovered how to determine the specific weight of bodies while he was taking a bath. AR`CHON. a geometrician. the greatest mathematician of antiquity. and finally for one. a philosopher. a chief magistrate of Athens. and a man. then for ten years. ARCHY`TAS OF TARENTUM. otherwise he would have had to wander on this side the Styx Computer Lecturer. while busy on some problem.

a forest. _munera pulveris_. ARDECHE. gives name to a department traversed by the Cevennes Mountains. flat shores. its diameter 40 deg.ramakalai@gmail. a town 17 m. hero of a poem by Tennyson. a large forest at one time in England. source in the Cevennes. ARDENNES. in France. captured by Clive in 1787. an affluent of the Rhone. also department of France (325). and dies broken-hearted. ARCIS`-SUR-AUBE (3). of Troyes. constellation Booetes. ARDEN. scene of a defeat of Napoleon. married happily to another. a circular ocean round the N. on his return from the sea. Chennai 6. 65 m. ENOCH. and a current flows out of it into the Atlantic. on the borders of Computer Lecturer. in the Presidency of Madras. March 1814. SW. CTSTI. N.. the name of two districts. Pole. the Gulf Stream penetrates it. who believed him dead. after long absence.. covered with ice-fields. N. who finds. star of the first magnitude and the chief in the N. including numerous islands.com for a hundred years. Page 143 of 2772 . AR`COT. E. ARCTIC OCEAN. such the virtue of a little dust. with low. birthplace of Danton. a tract of rugged woodland on the confines of France and Belgium. as Horace calls it. of the Severn. ARCTU`RUS. once the capital of the Carnatic. and S. of Madras. does not disclose himself. also chief town (11) in the district. his wife. ARDEN.

inventor of a system of stenography extensively used on the Continent (1817-1882). which gave name to the celebrated council held there. a prose work of Milton's. was fond of war for its own sake. Saintsbury as "a magnificent search for the Dead Truth. in Greece. a tribunal of 31 members. above the sea. who used to pander to his passion. LEOPOLD. in a fruitful valley of the Andes. A`RES. a city in Peru. a place in Perthshire." AREOP`AGUS.ramakalai@gmail. inland. ARENDS. Computer Lecturer. a celebrated fountain in the island of Ortygia. the Greek god of war in its sanguinary aspects. identified by the Romans with Mars. AR`DOCH. wrote a treatise on diseases. ARETAE`US. Page 144 of 2772 . 30 m. AREOPAGITICA. is much subject to earthquakes. a Greek physician of 1st century. the goddess of strife. Chennai 6. still extant. from Crieff. charged with judgment in criminal offences. ARETHU`SA. and was almost destroyed by one in 1868. their causes. AREQUI`PA (35). near Syracuse. 7 m. and whose sentences were uniformly the awards of strictest justice. and cures. 8000 ft. the hill of Ares in Athens. symptoms. founded by Pizarro in 1536. CTSTI. transformed from a Nereid pursued thither from Elis. a Russian of literary ability. with the remains of a Roman camp. described by Prof. and had for sister Eris. was the son of Zeus and Hera.com Belgium. the most complete in Britain.

settled in Venice. Computer Lecturer." a licentious satirical writer. an ancient Tuscan city. and recorded observations to prove that the solar system was moving through space (1799-1874). sure-footed. and Vasari. the birthplace of Maecenas. strong-limbed. a sheep of Siberia. as invented by him. PIETRO.000 stars. and swift. the hypochondriac rich patient in Moliere's "Le Malade Imaginaire. a distinguished astronomer. Guido." ARGAND. as large as a moderately-sized ox. born at Arezzo. ARGELAN`DER. which. MARQUIS D'. ARGAN`. a French soldier who turned to letters. AR`GALI. AREZZO (44). Michael Angelo. where he died after an uncontrollable fit of laughter which seized him at the story of the adventure of a sister (1492-1557). Page 145 of 2772 . called the "Scourge of Princes. inventor of the argand lamp. moved from one centre of attraction to another. alternately attached to people and repelled from them by his wit. of Florence. so that the waters of the river henceforth mingled with those of the fountain. Chennai 6. born at Memel. a Swiss physician and chemist. SE. in Tuscany.ramakalai@gmail. introduced a circular wick (1755-1803). ARETI`NO. and eventually subject to it. Petrarch. author of sceptical writings. AR`GENS. he fixed the position of 22. 38 m. born at Geneva. CTSTI. of which the best known is entitled "Lettres Juives" (1704-1771). with enormous grooved curving horns.com by the river-god Alphaeus. professor at Bonn.

a new element lately discovered to exist in a gaseous form in the nitrogen of the air. the Greek heroes.com ARGENSON. Jason in the end brought away with him to be his wife. but it proved successful with the assistance of Medea. RENE-LOUIS. its area ten times that of Great Britain and Ireland. the north-eastern peninsula of the Morea of Greece. a confederation like that of the United States of 14 states and 9 territories. by Bolivia and Paraguay. and Germans. Page 146 of 2772 . the fifty-oared ship of the ARGONAUTS (q. AR`GO. French statesman.000 foreigners. or ARGENTINA (4. AR`GONAUTS.'s reign (1694-1757). occupying the eastern slopes of the Andes and the vast level plain extending from them to the Atlantic. which was guarded by a dragon that never slept. Italians. is 12 m. and one of the 13 provinces of Greece. Chennai 6. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. who left "Memoirs" of value as affecting the early and middle part of Louis XV. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. whom. ARGONAUTICA. with the fleece. AR`GOLIS. v. sailors in the _Argo_. English.000). a perilous venture. while the population includes 600. broad.). Computer Lecturer. bounded on the N. who. under the command of Jason. French. long by 5 m. AR`GON. Spaniards. the title of a poem on the Argonautic expedition by Apollonius of Rhodes. the daughter of the king. sailed for Colchis in quest of the golden fleece. MARQUIS D'.

appointed by Hera to watch over Io. her favourite bird. a noble family or clan of the name of Campbell. AR`GUS. Page 147 of 2772 . under such excitement. so called from the eye-like markings on its plumage. ARGYLL. AR`GOS (9). their first patent of nobility dating from 1445. ARGYLL (74). ARGUS. fought against Montrose. but Hermes killed him after lulling him to sleep by the sound of his flute. and Duke. at Scone. after the Restoration committed Computer Lecturer. of which one half was always awake. that immediately after he dropped down dead. and their earldom from 1453." a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes. FOREST OF. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL. whereupon Hera transferred his eyes to the tail of the peacock. a pheasant. however. disgusted with the execution of Charles I. Marquis. the members of which have held successively the title of Earl.com ARGONNE`. of France.. "a long strip of rocky mountain and wild wood" in the NE. he was the only creature that recognised Ulysses under his rags on his return to Ithaca after twenty years' absence. Chennai 6. surnamed the "All-seeing. moorlands. sided with the Covenanters. 1ST MARQUIS OF. and lochs. but paled before the power of Sparta. within the borders of which the Duke of Brunswick was outwitted by Dumouriez in 1792. Also the dog of Ulysses.ramakalai@gmail. consisting of deeply indented mainland and islands. crowned Charles II. with scenery often picturesque as well as wild and savage. CTSTI. of Scotland. a large county in the W. the capital of Argolis. a beautiful Oriental game-bird. and abounding in mountains. ARGYLL. played for long a prominent part in the history of Greece. immortalised by Homer.

was a member of the Cabinets of Aberdeen. escaped to Holland. as Marquis of Lorne took a great interest in the movement which led to the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843. gave to Theseus a clue by which to escape out of the labyrinth after he had slain the Minotaur. Chennai 6." in vindication of Theism. opposed the return of the Stuarts. and Gladstone. fought under Marlborough. according to one tradition. ARGYLL. ARGYLL. for which Theseus promised to marry her. ARGYLL. was captured and executed in 1685. Artemis killed her. daughter of Minos. of late has shown more Conservative tendencies. met death nobly (1598-1661). _b_. 1824. ARIAD`NE. and according to another. ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL.com to the Tower.ramakalai@gmail. took her with him to Naxos and left her there. released at the Restoration and restored to his estates. CTSTI. and was condemned to death. 9TH EARL OF. 2ND DUKE OF. wrote.). GEORGE JOHN DOUGLAS CAMPBELL. was tried and condemned. made a descent on Scotland. among other works. Palmerston. Page 148 of 2772 .. a Whig in politics. the heresy of ARIUS (q. a book in 1866 entitled "The Reign of Law. fought for Charles II. 8TH DUKE OF. Computer Lecturer. proved rebellious at last. takes a deep interest in the scientific theories and questions of the time. v. Dionysos found her and married her. was taken prisoner. placing her at her death among the gods. favoured the Union. JOHN CAMPBELL. son of the preceding. where. and hanging her wedding wreath as a constellation in the sky. and another in the same interest in 1884 entitled "The Unity of Nature". ARIANISM. ruled Scotland under Walpole (1678-1743). was created an English peer. king of Crete. defeated Mar at Sheriffmuir.

his great Computer Lecturer. the first of the signs of the Zodiac." a spirit of the air whom Prospero finds imprisoned by Sycorax in the cleft of a pine-tree. returning in a ship from a musical contest in Sicily laden with prizes. NE. LUDOVICO. at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pyrenees. ARIES. ARIEGE. of Peru. on their landing. a lyrist of Lesbos. is no longer within the limits of the sign. ARI`CA. ARI`ON. who. Chennai 6. of Naples. arriving there before the sailors. Page 149 of 2772 . and liberates on condition of her serving him for a season. a city with a fine cathedral. owing to the precession of the equinoxes. in Lombardy. the sailors plotted to kill him. and carried to Corinth. above the sea-level. the Ram. which being conceded. ARIEL. S. whereupon he leapt over the bulwarks. though the constellation itself. and was almost destroyed in 1832. ARIOS`TO. were apprehended and punished. born at Reggio. was received on the back of one of them. the chief outlet for the produce of Bolivia. when he begged permission to play one strain on his lute. a department of France. and does. has a trade in wine and butter. spent his life chiefly in Ferrara. lived chiefly at the court of Periander. has extensive forests and is rich in minerals.ramakalai@gmail. which she willingly engages to do. an outcast angel. CTSTI. dolphins crowded round the ship. in Shakespeare's "Tempest. 1500 ft. an idol of the Moabites. Corinth. suffers again and again from earthquakes. A`RIEL. a seaport connected with Tacna. an illustrious Italian poet.com ARIA`NO (12). mostly in poverty. which the sun enters on March 21.

and threatened to overrun it. ARISTI`DES. companions of Orpheus.C. a celebrated Greek grammarian and critic. this done. ARIOVISTUS. the guardian divinity of the vine and olive.). CTSTI. in 1516. Page 150 of 2772 .com work "ORLANDO FURIOSO" (q. who turns up here and there in Greek tradition. a German chief. published the first edition. the madness of Roland induced by the loss of his lady-love through her marriage to another (1474-1532).C. the work is so called from the chief subject of it. surnamed The Just. and especially Homer (158-88 B. first taught the management of bees. who devoted his life to the elucidation and correct transmission of the text of the Greek poets. Chennai 6. set upon his bees and destroyed them. whereupon the nymphs.). her husband. but was forced back over the Rhine by Caesar. a Greek astronomer. ARISTE`AS. ARISTAE`US. a sort of Wandering Jew of Greek fable. was made archon Computer Lecturer. which reconciled him to the loss of the first ones. a son of Apollo. who first conceived the idea of the rotundity of the earth and its revolution both on its own axis and round the sun. ARISTARCHUS OF SAMOTHRACE. and the third in 46 cantos. invaded Gaul. of hunters and herdsmen. in 1532. there issued from the carcasses of the victims a swarm of bees. in 40 cantos. v. ARISTAR`CHUS OF SAMOS. and was thought to be endowed with a soul that could at will leave and enter the body.).ramakalai@gmail. an Athenian general and statesman. some of which stung Eurydice to death. in promulgating which idea he was accused of impiously disturbing the serenity of the gods (280 B. who advised him to sacrifice four bullocks to appease the manes of Eurydice. In this extremity Aristaeus applied to Proteus. covered himself with glory at the battle of Marathon.

son of John Hyrcanus. in the discharge of the duties of which office he received his surname. died at Rhodes. CTSTI. celebrated for his struggle with the Spartans.C. ARISTION. assassinated 50 B. drowned by Herod in the Jordan.com next year. last of Asmonaean dynasty. first of the Asmonaean dynasty in Judea to assume the name of king. Also a Greek sculptor.C. Page 151 of 2772 . in insisting too exclusively upon pleasure as the supreme good and ultimate aim of life. Chennai 6. 86 B.. A. and distinguished himself at Plataea. was buried at the public charges. while he escaped and was snatched up by the gods. whom he had sacrificed to ensure the fulfilment of an oracle to the advantage of his house. and his resistance to them on Mount Ira for 11 years.C.C. carried on for 20 years a war with Sparta. III. in his teaching laid too much emphasis on one principle of Socrates. king of Messenia. A. ARISTODE`MUS.. a pronounced Helleniser. ARISTOM`ENES. and left the State to provide for his children. 724 B.C. twice carried captive to Rome. _d_. ARISTIP`PUS OF CYRENE. put to death by order of Sylla. a mythical king of Messenia. Computer Lecturer. ARISTOBU`LUS I. 34 B. a philosopher. founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. till at length finding resistance hopeless he put an end to his life on the tomb of his daughter. was banished by ostracism at the instance of his rival. II... was reconciled to Themistocles.. a disciple of Socrates. Themistocles.C. which at length fell to the enemy. fought bravely at Salamis. recalled three years after the invasion of Xerxes. 4th century B. apart from the rest. managed the finances of the State with such probity that he died poor. tyrant of Athens.ramakalai@gmail. which he did from 104-102 B.

ramakalai@gmail. and founder of Arianism. and then by a Computer Lecturer. which denied the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father in the so-called Trinity. in Euboea. a doctrine which hovered for a time between acceptance and rejection throughout the Catholic Church. on Alexander's expedition into Asia. _d_. of which the progress of modern science goes to establish the value. or literary creed and practice of the country. and one of the oldest writers on music. CTSTI. contemporary of Aristotle. became the preceptor of Alexander the Great. which were very keen.C." the only one of his many works extant. who held him in high honour. wrote 54 plays. social.com ARISTOPHANES. after the death of Plato. as it was presumed.C. was condemned first by a local synod which met at Alexandria in 321.). a native of Stagira. AR`ISTOTLE. author of the "Elements of Harmony. A`RIUS. philosophical. amend. king of Macedon. a Greek philosopher. remained in Plato's society there for 20 years. and. the "Acharnians" and the "Frogs" at Euripides.C.. and held up to ridicule such men as Socrates and Euripides. is often referred to as the incarnation of the philosophic spirit (385-322 B. and hence named the Stagirite. where he died. lived in the 5th century B. He was the oracle of the scholastic philosophers and theologians in the Middle Ages. a presbyter of Alexandria in the 4th century. came in his 17th year to Athens. after 13 years he left the city and went to Chalcis. as well as Cleon the tanner. is the author of a great number of writings which covered a vast field of speculation. the religious. of which 11 have come down to us. Chennai 6. from which circumstance his school got the name of Peripatetic. returned to Athens and began to teach in the Lyceum. political. ARISTOX`ENUS OF TARENTUM. and the "Knights" at Cleon. against all of whatever rank who sought in any way to alter. deprived of his parents while yet a youth. the great comic dramatist of Athens. of these the "Clouds" aim at Socrates. where it was his habit to walk up and down as he taught. at the request of Philip. Page 152 of 2772 . 384 B. directed the shafts of his wit. in Thrace. then only 13 years old.

ARKANS`AS (1. which the Emperor Constantine attended in person. Computer Lecturer. fell in with Mr. the gold pot with the manna. Strutt of Derby. of Louisiana and W. one of the Southern States of America.000 ft.128). Lancashire. Chennai 6. contained the two tables of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments. of Mexico and W. of the Mississippi. SIR RICHARD. Page 153 of 2772 . Imperial Caesars were impotent without the cotton and cloth of England. with the help of a clockmaker. and Aaron's rod. and it was this man. high. ARIZO`NA (59). after three years he was recalled by Constantine. his writings burned. fertile in the lowlands. prospered in business and died worth half a million. a little larger than England. by poison. ARK OF THE COVENANT. and the possession of them voted to be a crime.ramakalai@gmail. and copper. ARKWRIGHT. the lid supported the mercy-seat. who ordered him to be restored. much of the surface a barren plateau 11. a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold. of New Mexico. who entered into partnership with him. N. and had to flee. said his enemies (280-336). was about to be readmitted into the Church when he died suddenly. was mobbed for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages. rich in metals." says Carlyle. silver. took interest in the machinery of cotton-spinning. nearly four times as large as Scotland. rich in mines of gold. CTSTI. "French Revolutions were a-brewing. through which the canon of the Colorado passes. bred to the trade of a barber. to resist the same in any way. alleged his friends--by the judgment of God. the author was banished to Illyricum. grows cotton and corn. born at Preston. a territory of the United States N. with a cherub at each end. See CANON. invented the spinning frame. "that had to give to England the power of cotton" (1732-1792). and the shekinah radiance between.com General Council at Nice in 325. 21/2 cubits long and 11/2 in breadth.

served under Charles I.com ARLBERG.ramakalai@gmail. completely dispersed and shattered by a storm in retreat on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Hawkins. seconded by Drake. mounted with 2430 cannon. VISCOUNT D'. AR`LINGTON. and these nearly all _hors de combat_. Computer Lecturer. was defeated in the Channel on July 20 by Admiral Howard. AR`LON (8). AR`LINCOURT. CTSTI. where Constantine built a palace. of Spain against England. ARMA`DA. a French romancer. on the Rhone. a city. a prominent member of the famous Cabal. and Frobisher. pierced by a tunnel. ARLES (14). born near Versailles (1789-1856). a prosperous town in Belgium. with ruins of an amphitheatre and other Roman works. or Christ and Antichrist. 46 m. one of the three that penetrate the Alps.000 soldiers. a mountain mass between the Austrian provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol. ARMAGEDDON. HENRY BENNET. Chennai 6. an armament fitted out in 1588 by Philip II. being impeached when in office. of Marseilles. named the Invincible.. and nearly four miles in length. of the whole fleet only 53 ships found their way back to Spain. the English losing only one ship. capital of Luxemburg. and accompanied Charles II. one of the oldest in France. consisting of 130 war-vessels. and manned by 20. Page 154 of 2772 . the seat of several Church Councils. lost favour and retired into private life (1618-1685). N. EARL OF. a name given in Apocalypse to the final battlefield between the powers of good and evil. in his exile.

celebrated for its wine and brandy. 12 m. Ararat. in which the Euphrates and Tigris have their sources.. the wealthier of them especially in banking. from the 5th to the 9th century the capital of Ireland. in France. a country in Western Asia. ARMENIANS. and are. from early times have emigrated into adjoining. anciently independent. played a prominent part in the War of Independence in 1820. and a town (18) in it. Ireland. countries. 33 m. of Kurdistan Mts. the chief manufacture linen-weaving. of the Caspian Sea and N. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. now divided between Turkey. of Gers. and Persia. like the Jews. W. Page 155 of 2772 . a faction in France in time of Charles VI. at mortal feud with the Bourguignons. of Lille. Napoleon Bonaparte. ARMED SOLDIER OF DEMOCRACY. ARME`NIA. occupying a plateau interspersed with fertile valleys. mainly engaged in commercial pursuits. SW. early converted to Christianity of the Eutychian type.com ARMAGH (143). Computer Lecturer. and even remote. a district. of Belfast. ARMATO`LES. a people of the Aryan race occupying Armenia. CTSTI. long by 20 m. N. ARMENTIERES (27). ARMAGNAC. Russia. warlike marauding tribes in the mountainous districts of Northern Greece. which culminates in Mt. now in dep. a county in Ulster. as it is the ecclesiastical still. ARMAGNACS. 32 m. broad. part of Gascony. a manufacturing and trading town in France.

a district of Gaul from the Loire to the Seine. killed in some family quarrel in his 37th year. near Detmold (where a colossal statue has been erected to his memory). produced the hydraulic accumulator and the hydraulic crane. which he got the Government to adopt. and who in turn. or HERMANN. ARMOR`ICA. See ARMINIUS. Page 156 of 2772 . a Scotch doctor and poet. JOHN. as Circe did Ulysses. as well as of Wilkes and Smollett. a learned Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism. ARMIN`IUS. _The Almida Palace_. in which she enchanted Rinaldo. CTSTI. ARMSTRONG. one of the Crusaders. an assertion of the free-will of man in the matter of salvation against the necessitarianism of Calvin (1560-1609). and author of "The Art of Preserving Health" (1709-1779). ARMINIUS. in 9 A. the Deliverer of Germany from the Romans by the defeat of Varus. practised medicine in London. overpowered her by his love and persuaded her to become a Christian. by her charms. Chennai 6. invented the Armstrong gun.ramakalai@gmail.D. born at Newcastle. has become a synonym for any merely visionary but enchanting palace of pleasure. when the spell was broken.com ARMI`DA. JACOBUS. ARMSTRONG. the Roman general. friend of poet Thomson. established the Elswick engine works in the suburbs of his native city. WILLIAM GEORGE. LORD. devoted his attention to the improvement of heavy ordnance." who bewitched Rinaldo. and in 1887 raised to the Computer Lecturer.. ARMINIANISM. born in Roxburghshire. a beautiful enchantress in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered. knighted in 1858.

ANTOINE. a German poet and patriot. his songs and eloquent appeals went straight to the heart of the nation and contributed powerfully to its liberation. turned soldier to rescue.ramakalai@gmail. ARNAULD. whose memory is much revered by the whole German people. an inveterate enemy of the Jesuits. CTSTI. associated here with a circle of kindred spirits. ERNST MORITZ. the "great Arnauld." a work which. and did rescue. died at Brussels (1612-1694). and acted pastor to them till his death (1641-1721). a Lutheran theologian. sister of the preceding and abbess of the Port Royal. his co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution of the Count of Savoy. defended Jansenism against the Bull of the Pope. among others Pascal. a victim of the persecutions of the Jesuits to very death (1624-1684). the author of "True Christianity. AR`NAUD. Chennai 6. which seemed withering away under the influence of a lifeless dogmatism (1553-1621). has contributed to infuse a new spirit of life into the profession of the Christian religion. Computer Lecturer." a French theologian. ARNDT. _La Mere Angelique_ as she was called. MARIE ANGE`LIQUE. Page 157 of 2772 . _b_. became religious director of the nuns of Port Royal des Champs. his "Geist der Zeit" made him flee the country after the battle of Jena. a pastor of the Vaudois. doctor of the Sorbonne. he accompanied them in their exile to Schomberg. ARNAULD. but when the Vaudois were exiled a second time. 1810. and his "Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland?" strikes a chord in the breast of every German all the world over (1710-1860). ARNDT. in Germany and elsewhere. HENRI. expelled from the Sorbonne and banished the country. one of the first to rouse his countrymen to shake off the tyranny of Napoleon. JOHN.com peerage.

and sentenced to imprisonment. and wrote a book in its defence." ARNOLD. entitled "Disputations against the Heathen. ARNIM. then in his 60th year. in the beginning of the 4th century. during over 40 years. ARN`HEIM (51). LUDWIG ACHIM VON. a river of Italy. ARNOBIUS. accused in the latter capacity of purloining State documents. Cibber was his sister (1719-1778). Chennai 6. a German poet and novelist (1781-1831). a musical composer of versatile genius. a native of Frankfort. Page 158 of 2772 . visited him at Weimar. died in exile at Nice (1824-1881). the capital of Guelderland. an African rhetorician who. and has a large transit trade. at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe. THOMAS AUGUSTINE. and of great value. wife of Ludwig Arnim. ambassador of Germany. embraced Christianity. a succession of pieces in every style from songs to sonatas and oratorios. rises in the Apennines. ARNIM. COUNT. ARNO. ARNIM. an American military general. is situated on the right bank of the Rhine.com ARNE. BENEDICT. sister of Clemens Brentano. and corresponded with him afterwards. still extant. part of which correspondence appeared subsequently under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child" (1785-1859). first at Rome and then at Paris. entered the ranks of Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. among others the world-famous chorus "Rule Britannia". subject to destructive inundations. Mrs. BETTINE VON. produced. CTSTI. flows westward past Florence and Pisa into the Mediterranean.

SIR EDWIN. poet and journalist. head-master of Rugby. an Italian monk. and edited Thucydides. and the avarice of the clergy. a man of culture. he wrote a "History of Rome" based on Niebuhr. headed an insurrection against the Computer Lecturer. poet and critic.. inspector of schools for 35 years from 1851." "St. Paul and Protestantism. and Holland. wrote two separate reports thereon of great value.com the colonists under Washington during the War of Independence. 1832." and other works in prose and verse. MATTHEW. and served in them against his country." "Light of the World. Page 159 of 2772 . died suddenly at Liverpool. commissioned twice over to visit France. professor of Poetry in Oxford from 1857 to 1867." &c. by his moral character and governing faculty effected immense reforms in Rugby School. escaped to the English ranks on the discovery of the plot. was liberal in his principles and of a philanthropic spirit. and professor of Modern History at Oxford. ARNOLD. "Essays on Criticism. "It is." of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift. and disciple of Abelard. author of the "Light of Asia. He was more eminent as a poet than a critic. author of "Poems. the corruptions of the Church. _d_. eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby. THOMAS. negotiated with the English general Clinton to surrender an important post entrusted to him. ARNOLD. of which he is reckoned the apostle. promoted to the rank of general. ARNOLD. his "Life and Correspondence" was edited by Dean Stanley (1795-1842)." "Culture and Anarchy. CTSTI. influential as he was in that regard. _b_." "Literature and Dogma. "by his verse and not his prose he must be judged." and is being now judged (1822-1888). in England in 1801. familiar with Indian literature. and especially literary culture. Germany. ARNOLD OF BRESCIA. to inquire into educational matters there.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. declaimed against the temporal power of the Pope. at Gravesend. distinguished himself in several engagements." says Swinburne.

ARPI`NO (ARPINIUM). who. ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED. DR. AR`PAD. broke the lines of the Austrians at Sempach in 1386 and decided the fate of the battle. a spirituous liquor. of Rome. the national hero of Hungary. Computer Lecturer. Arouet l. _d_. which collapsed under the Pope's interdict. of Padua. 907. an ancient town in Latium. S. CTSTI. 36 m. a peasant of the canton of Unterwald. Page 160 of 2772 . author of the "Elements of Physics" and of several hygienic inventions (1788-1874). which became extinct in 1301. the family name of Voltaire. especially that distilled from the juice of the cocoa-nut tree and from fermented rice.com Pope in Rome. ARNOTT. and his ashes thrown into the Tiber. (jeune). birthplace of Cicero and Marius. by the voluntary sacrifice of his life. where Petrarch died and was buried. a village 12 m. was founder of the Arpad dynasty. a town in Bengal. from Patna. the Decius of Switzerland. AROU`ET. AR`RAH. SW. ARRACK. j. established for the Magyars a firm footing in the country. a native of Arbroath. famous for its defence by a handful of English and Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny. at last was burned alive in 1156. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. NEIL. his name formed by an ingenious transposition he made of the letters of his name. ARQUA.

. &c. 2866 ft. to which he had been sentenced." whereupon he followed her example. AR`RIAN. by a revolt which proved successful against the Seleucidae. pearls. the last of the Seleucidae. long celebrated for its tapestry." an account of voyages round the Euxine and round the Red Sea. largest island in the Firth of Clyde. export mother-of-pearl. belonging to Holland. FLAVIUS. of Pas-de-Calais. of New Guinea.ramakalai@gmail. "It is not painful. the birthplace of Damiens and Robespierre. a Roman matron. highest summit Goatfell. a French town in the dep. Page 161 of 2772 . tortoise-shell.C. Chennai 6. the founder of the dynasty of the Arsacidae. whose seat is Brodick Castle. and died at an advanced age. CTSTI. who wrested the throne from Antiochus II. W. 100. AR`SACES I. a Bithynian. a dynasty of 31 Parthian kings. wrote a "History of Alexander the Great. a friend of Epictetus the Stoic. _b_. the same as the CUNEIFORM (q. saying.).. ARRU ISLANDS (15). 250 B.C. who. ARRAS (20). ARSACIDAE. AR`RIA. thrust a poniard into her own breast. to encourage her husband in meeting death. a mountainous island. in Buteshire.com ARRAN (4). Computer Lecturer. with a margin of lowland round the coast. and then handed it to him. nearly all the property of the Duke of Hamilton. ARROW-HEADED CHARACTERS. 250 B. a group of 80 coralline islands. v. edited his "Enchiridion"." and "Periplus.

implying skill.C.com ARSIN`OE. Computer Lecturer.. and the Mechanical: the Liberal. restored the old religion of the Magi. a Swedish naturalist. king from 359 to 338 B. Chennai 6.C.A. v. the name of several Persian monarchs: A.D. THE. II. undivided man. OCHUS. heart as well as brain. MNEMON. 223 to 232. A. frontier of Greece.). entertained Themistocles at his court. in Egypt slew the sacred bull Apis and gave the flesh to his soldiers. implying the possession of a soul. slew all his kindred on ascending the throne. III. son of Xerxes I. king from 465 to 424 B. A. for which his eunuch Bagsas poisoned him. ARTAXER`XES. king from 405 to 359 B.C. vanquished and killed his brother Cyrus at Cunaxa in 401. implying scholarship. discriminated from the mechanical by the word spiritual. "Ichthyologia. Page 162 of 2772 . founder of the dynasty Sassanidae. entitling the holder to append M. gulf forming the NW... ARTE`DI. to his name. called the "Long-handed. GULF OF. who had revolted against him. the Liberal. ARTS. graduation in which is granted by universities. IV. the Fine. the name of several Egyptian princesses of antiquity. CTSTI." published by Linnaeus after his death (1703-1735)." from his right hand being longer than his left. as holding of the entire. son of the preceding. concluded a peace with Greece after a war of 52 years. his own great work. king from A. There are three classes of these." ARTA. and promoted education. I.ramakalai@gmail. assisted Linnaeus in his "Systema Naturae"... A. imposed in 387 on the Spartans the shameful treaty of ANTALCIDAS (q. and the Fine. also a prude in Moliere's "Misanthrope. amended the laws. grandson of Sassan. the Mechanical.

twin sister of Apollo. 355 B. chosen chief in a revolt against Count Louis of Flanders. the moon the type of her and the laurel her sacred tree." AR`TEMIS. was the Diana of the Romans. F. represented as a huntress armed with bow and arrows. a promontory N. was guardian of flocks. 480 B. and became king. expelled him. wells made by boring for water where it is lower than its source. ARTEVELDE. A. a virgin goddess. queen of Halicarnassus. BROWNE. of Euboea. so as to obtain a constant supply of it. joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. defeated Louis II. in the Greek mythology the daughter of Zeus and Leto. ARTESIAN WELLS.C. ARTEMI`SIA. raised a tomb over the grave of her husband Mausolus.C. was massacred in a popular tumult (1300-1345).com AR`TEGAL. a wealthy brewer of Ghent. born in the Isle of Delos. ARTEMI`SIUM. also queen. presided over the birth of animals.ramakalai@gmail. regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world. and fought with valour at Salamis. son of the preceding. AR`TEVELDE. II. JACOB VAN. Page 163 of 2772 . See C.C. made a treaty with Edward III. 440 B. CTSTI. ARTEMUS WARD.. and got mixed up with deities in other mythologies. but with the help of France Louis retaliated and defeated Computer Lecturer. the impersonation and champion of Justice in Spenser's "Faerie Queene. and one of the great divinities of the Greeks. PHILIP VAN. near which Xerxes lost part of his fleet. Chennai 6. as lord-superior of Flanders.

supplanted by King John. a lawyer by profession. with the Fife hills swelling gradually into the Grampians behind it on the N. THE THIRTY-NINE. a lion-shaped hill 822 ft. who is supposed to have lived at the time of the Saxon invasion in the 6th century. majestic.com the Flemings. Page 164 of 2772 . originally Forty-Two. to the rendering of which Tennyson devoted so much of his genius. ARTHUR. ARTFUL DODGER. black. twenty-first president of the United States. a young thief. DUKE OF BRITTANY. and covering with a vapoury mantle the jagged. an expert in the profession in Dickens' "Oliver Twist. which every clergyman of the Church of England is bound by law to subscribe to at his ordination. whose exploits and those of his court have given birth to the tradition of the Round Table.. ARTHUR SEAT. rough crags and rude precipices at our feet ('where not a hillock rears its head unsung'). a British prince of wide-spread fame. and slew him in 1382. as the accepted faith of the Church. CTSTI.. Computer Lecturer. with Edinburgh at their base." AR`THUR. that stretch far and wide.. a creed framed in 1562. venerable masses of stone-work. from the top of which the prospect is unrivalled. and a prominent member of the Republican party (1830-1886). and show like a city of fairyland"--such the view Carlyle had in a clear atmosphere of 1826. ARTICLES.. heir to the throne of England by the death of his uncle Richard I. close to Edinburgh on the E. ARTHUR. PRINCE.ramakalai@gmail. everlasting ocean. "the blue. CHESTER ALAN. Chennai 6. clustering proudly over her rugged foundations. whatever it may be now.

of Pas-de-Calais. THOMAS. ARTOIS. MONSEIGNEUR D'..C. and parts of the Somme and the Nord. the date of the marbles themselves is 263 B. successively bishop of Ely. (q. which he prints in small caps. Computer Lecturer. an ancient province of France. with a castle of great magnificence. united to the crown in 1659.." ARTISTS. archbishop of York. according to a definition of Ruskin. Lord Chancellor. comprising the dep. that he may bestow a delight which it is gracious to bestow. Chennai 6.. ancient Grecian marbles collected at Smyrna and elsewhere by the Earl of Arundel in 1624. CTSTI. Albert Duerer. on the Arun. ARUNDEL. now in the possession of the University of Oxford. AR`TOIS. and archbishop of Canterbury. E. ARUNDEL MARBLES. "a person who has submitted to a law which it was painful to obey.ramakalai@gmail. AR`UNDEL (2).C. v. but a munificent benefactor of the Church (1353-1414). PRINCE OF. ARUNS. brother of Louis XVI. famed. 9 m. a persecutor of the Wickliffites. so called by his countrymen. as described in Carlyle's "French Revolution. the seat of the Earls of Arundel. who fell in single combat with Brutus." for "breeches of a new kind in this world".). a municipal town in Sussex. of Chichester. Page 165 of 2772 . son of Tarquinus Superbus. the most important of which is one from Paros inscribed with a chronology of events in Grecian history from 1582 to 264 B. and afterwards CHARLES X.com ARTIST.

ARVA`TES. Chennai 6. from which sprung the Greeks. an affluent of the Congo on the right bank below the Stanley Falls. ASAFOE`TIDA. used in medicine. with Roman remains. or Indo-Europeans. CTSTI. of the Caspian Sea and N. Latins. on the one hand. from Oran. of the Hindu-Kush. E. a seaport in Algeria.ramakalai@gmail. and southward into Persia and the valley of the Ganges. a fetid inspissated sap from an Indian umbelliferous tree. FRATRES. a musician of the temple at Jerusalem. a college of twelve priests in ancient Rome whose duty it was to make annual offerings to the Lares for the increase of the fruits of the field. AR`ZEW. a race that is presumed to have had its primitive seat in Central Asia. a community of origin that is attested by the comparative study of their respective languages. ARVE. and to have branched off at different periods north-westward and westward into Europe. Computer Lecturer. an affluent of the Arve from the Mer de Glace. 22 m.com ARUWI`MI. and the Persians and Hindus on the other. a river that flows through the valley of Chamouni and falls into the Rhone below Geneva. AR`YANS. ASAPH. Teutons. Slavs. ARVEYRON. Celts. Page 166 of 2772 . exports grain and salt.

was founder of Alba Longa.. the son of AEneas. lamp-wick. a town in Flintshire. NW. belonging to Britain. 500 m. AS`BURY. and 900 m. of St. rising to nearly 3000 ft. steam-pipes. ASCENSION. paper. from the coast of Africa. assiduous Methodist preacher and missionary. which has been manufactured into cloth. as well as an author of children's stories (1812-1885). his wife. a bare volcanic island in the Atlantic. sent to America. and horse under his arm. an incombustible mineral of a flax-like fibrous texture. from Chester. 20 m. and particularly as a collector of folk-lore. a coaling and victualling station for the navy. &c.. one of the five cities of the Philistines. gas-stoves. a Dane. Page 167 of 2772 . a giant conquered by Bevis of Southampton. CTSTI. though so huge as to carry Bevis.com ASAPH. Helena. ASBJOeRN`SEN. Chennai 6. FRANCIS. a zealous. distinguished as a naturalist. seat of a bishopric. AS`CAPART.ramakalai@gmail. ASBES`TOS. AS`CALON. much contested for during the Crusades. ASCA`NIUS. who trotted _non passibus aequis_ ("with unequal steps") by the side of his father as he escaped from burning Troy. Computer Lecturer. ST. was consecrated the first bishop of the newly organised Methodist Church there (1745-1816).

a Yorkshireman. a good classical. the races at which. 6 m. a racecourse in Berks. and translated he was. and who held intercourse with the other spheres of existence by the bridge Bifroest. to spend 30 years. on the Main. instituted by Queen Anne. a Bithynian who practised medicine with repute at Rome in Cicero's time. an ancient town of Bavaria." for which Henry VIII. entitled "Toxophilus." an admirable treatise on education. ROGER. e. writing pamphlets. Chennai 6. CTSTI. held in high regard by Dr. from Frankfort. was tutor and Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth. the sum of which is _docendo discas_. and particularly Greek. an eccentric Englishman. of Windsor. his chief work. ASCHERSLE`BEN (22). Johnson. author of an English dictionary. take place a fortnight after the Derby. 20 m. and end his days in the debtors' prison.ramakalai@gmail. the "Schoolmaster. and was great in hygiene. a manufacturing town in the Magdeburg district of Prussia. SW. JOHN. a dissenting divine. wrote a book on archery. with an old castle and cathedral. ASCHAM. deemed a classic. settled a pension on him. Computer Lecturer. AS`COT. and much esteemed by her. ASGILL. Fellow of Cambridge. ASH. Page 168 of 2772 . the rainbow. and to express his belief that he would be translated. apparently quite happily.com ASCHAF`FENBURG (14). ASCLEPI`ADES. JOHN. i. AS`GARD. in which each had a separate dwelling. the garden or heaven of the Asen or gods in the Norse mythology. wrote a book to prove that death was due to want of faith. scholar. "learn by teaching" (1515-1560).

still more. JOHN. simple-hearted old man" (1774-1848). in his retirement "a really good. 5TH EARL OF. member of Peel's administration in 1834-35. warlike. well watered." with the ruins of a castle in which Queen Mary was immured. ASH`ANTI. known as the Ashburton Treaty. son of the preceding. natives intelligent. "a very worthy man. and skilful. second son of Sir Francis Baring. or ASHANTEE. sent special ambassador to the United States in 1842. W. ASHBURTON. which led to the submission of the king and the appointment of a British Resident. of Leicester. wooded. and his wife.com valuable for the number of obsolete and provincial words contained in it (1724-1779). Computer Lecturer. and well cultivated." an admirer. a faithful adherent and attendant of Charles I. Page 169 of 2772 . a Liberal politician. collected a number of valuable MSS. and rare books known as the Ashburnham Collection. Lady Harriet. ASHBURTON. a negro inland kingdom in the Upper Soudan. ALEXANDER BARING.. ASHBURNHAM. concluded the boundary treaty of Washington. _d_. ASHBURNHAM. ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH.ramakalai@gmail. WILLIAM BINGHAM BARING. N. LORD. and finally the despatch of a military expedition. 1878. a small market-town 17 m. and assistant to him in his troubles (1603-1671). twice over provoked a war with Great Britain. figures in "Ivanhoe. Chennai 6. most cheery. CTSTI. solid. sagacious. a member of the Long Parliament. of Gold Coast territory. of Thomas Carlyle (1797-1844). turned Conservative.

and eight S. See ASTARTE. which laid the foundation of the Ashmolean Collection there (1617-1692).. of Jaffa. Page 170 of 2772 . of Computer Lecturer. a cotton-manufacturing town near Manchester. presented to the University of Oxford a collection of rarities bequeathed to him. with a large continental basin. two SE. and eastward into three bulging masses and three pronounced peninsulas forming seas. ASH`TAROTH. strikingly stand at a higher level as we go E. ASHMUN. and with lakes which though they do not match those of America and Africa. ASHE`RA. extensive plains. of which four flow N. CTSTI. from a centre of high elevations.com ASHDOD. founder of the Negro Republic of Liberia. ASH`TON-UNDER-LYNE (47). being the half of that of the globe. and associated with the worship of that goddess. v. S. a celebrated antiquary and authority on heraldry. stretches southward into three large peninsulas separated by three immense arms of the sea. an American philanthropist. the largest of the four quarters of the globe. coast of Africa (1794-1828). also the largest in the world.. and as good as in touch with the other three.000. a maritime Philistine city 20 m. contains one-third of all the land.). an image of ASTARTE (q. which. with a population of 840. with a richly varied flora and fauna. JEHUDI. ASIA. and deep depressions. with rivers the largest in the whole world. with every variety of climate. seat of the Dagon worship. on the W. Chennai 6.. ASH`MOLE.. ELIAS.ramakalai@gmail. protected by groups of islands.000.

by the Levant. who gloats on the vices and follies of mankind. indented all round. and on the S. ASKEW." or the "Devil on Two Sticks. and as regards religion. the place of their origin.ramakalai@gmail.000. CTSTI. a mischievous demon or goblin of the Jewish demonology. by the Archipelago.com chiefly three races. Caucasian. ASMONAE`ANS. ASO`KA. made a proclamation of this faith Computer Lecturer. or Christ. has a population of over 28. Page 171 of 2772 . a collector of rare and curious books (1722-1774). in India. called also ANATOLE`. ASIA MINOR. mainland as well as adjoining islands. Buddha. ASKEW. a physician and classical scholar. a king of Behar. all more or less busy centres of trade. Chennai 6. organised Buddhism. into a State religion. tortured on the rack and burnt at the stake. became an ardent disciple of Buddha. and figures in Le Sage's "Le Diable Boiteux. Mahomet. from Asmon. and consists of a plateau with slopes all round to the coasts. ANNE." as lifting off the roofs of the houses of Madrid and exposing their inmost interiors and the secret doings of the inhabitants. with bays and harbours. a name given to the Maccabees. by far the majority professing the faith of Brahma. at different stages of civilisation. a lady of good birth. 1546. Mongolian. a peninsular extension westward of the Armenian and Kurdistan highlands in Asia. bounded on the N.C. is as large as France. on the W. for denying transubstantiation. after his accession in 264 B. by the Black Sea. and Malay. ASMODE`US. as Constantine did Christianity. a victim of persecution in the time of Henry VIII. ANTONY. convened the third great council of the Church of that creed at Patna.000.

C. CTSTI. came and settled in it.). and more or less in every quarter of the globe. NE. and Marshal Lannes killed.com as far as his influence extended. covered the Elysian fields. became the wife of Pericles. and with which they. a lily plant appraised by the Greeks for its almost perennial flowering. beauty. a woman remarkable for her wit. Chennai 6. Socrates included. May 21. and culture. also a limestone impregnated with bitumen. a native of Miletus. ASPHYX`IA. a term frequently employed by Carlyle to denote a much more recondite. where a charge of the Austrians under the Archduke Charles was defeated by Napoleon. suspended respiration in the physical life. a mineral pitch of a black or brownish-black colour. being attracted to Athens. ASPHALT. but a no less real. on the Danube. AS`PERN. in their imagination. called hence the Asphodel Meadow. her character was often both justly and unjustly assailed. and her home the rendezvous of all the intellectual and wise people of the city. Computer Lecturer. ASPHALTIC LAKE. evidence of which is still extant in pillars and rocks inscribed with his edicts in wide districts of Northern India. so called from the asphalt on its surface and banks. corresponding phenomenon in the spiritual life. a village in Austria. of Vienna. ASPA`SIA. the DEAD SEA (q. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. 1809. Page 172 of 2772 . AS`PHODEL. v. ASP. 4 m. 223 B. consisting chiefly of carbon. a poisonous Egyptian viper of uncertain species.

500). and devoted zealously his fortune and time to the task (1753-1821). 450 m. on the W. of Bengal. pierced with bayonets. an Italian philanthropist. the low lands extremely fertile and productive. ASSAROTTI. at the Atlantic extremity of the Panama railway. the first to open a school for deaf-mutes in Italy. since the Empress Eugenie presented it with a statue of Columbus. ceded to Britain after the Burmese war in 1826. Auvergne!" he exclaimed. born at Genoa. coast of the Red Sea. ASQUINI. ASSAM` (5. captain of the French regiment of Auvergne. to the saving of his countrymen. Chennai 6. overlooking the Strait of Messina.com ASPINWALL. and fell dead on the instant. and the hills covered with tea plantations. COUNT. yielding at one time. a coaling-station belonging to Italy. and defied with bayonets at his breast to utter a cry of alarm. was suddenly surrounded by the enemy's (the English) soldiers. a mountain close by Reggio. NICOLAS. ASSAB BAY.ramakalai@gmail. being an alluvial plain. near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862. CTSTI. a province E. whose celebrity depends on a single act of defiance: having entered a wood to reconnoitre it the night before the battle of Kloster Kampen. AS`SAS. if not still. with ranges of hills along the Brahmapootra. Page 173 of 2772 . "Ho. a rural economist who did much to promote silk culture in Italy (1726-1818). named Colon. three-fourths of the tea raised in India. Computer Lecturer. long and 50 broad. ASPROMON`TE. a town founded by an American of the name in 1800.

half clergymen and half laymen. 1643. and discipline in the National Church. at the time of the Crusades. to Feb. NATIONAL. 1789. a fanatical Moslem sect organised in the 11th century. ASSEGAI. over 1100 of them. from July 1. ASSEMBLY. a representative body. Computer Lecturer. and which held its sittings. and so called because they braced their nerves for their deeds of blood by draughts of an intoxicating liquor distilled from hashish (the hemp-plant). whose stronghold was a rock fortress at Alamut. under a chief called the Old Man of the Mountain. convened at Westminster to determine questions of doctrine. where Sir Arthur Wellesley gained a victory over the Mahrattas in 1803. but were divided in the matter of government. Page 174 of 2772 . African tribes with deadly effect in war. constituted itself into a legislative assembly. ASSEMBLY.com ASSASSINS. and put them wholesale to the sword. and determines appeals. worship. Chennai 6. which sits in Edinburgh for ten days in May. 1649. A Tartar force burst upon the horde in their stronghold in 1256. a spear or javelin of wood tipped with iron. ASSEMBLY. WESTMINSTER.ramakalai@gmail. GENERAL. 22. disposes of the general business of the Church. NE. the chief court of the Presbyterian Church. the Commons section of the States-General of France which met on May 5. of Aurungabad. a body composed of 140 members. ASSAYE`. devoted to the assassination of all enemies of the Moslem faith. CTSTI. with the result that the members of it were unanimous in regard to doctrine. a small town 46 m. and gave a new constitution to the country. of which 117 were clergymen. in Persia. used by certain S.

a French company. and biographer of Alfred the Great. librarian of the Vatican. wrote an account of Syrian writers (1687-1768). ASSINIBOINES. ASSINIBOI`A. a province in Canada between Saskatchewan and the United States. Chennai 6.com ASSEMANI. who relinquished their rights in 1750 on compensation by Spain. is said to have suggested the founding of Oxford University. bills or notes. JOHN. 909. the Genoese. David's. to the number of 45 thousand million. nephew. STEPHANO. held the same office. ASSIEN`TO. GIUSEPPE. AS`SIGNATS. tutor. and finally the South Sea Company. ASSER. CTSTI. 12 m. a learned Syrian Maronite. who sometimes came in great numbers. it was a celebrated place of resort of pilgrims. Page 175 of 2772 . and based on the security of Church and other lands appropriated by it. the English. of Perugia. wrote "Acta Sanctorum Martyrum" (1707-1782). a treaty with Spain to supply negroes for her colonies. certain aborigines of Canada. Computer Lecturer. the few of whom that remain do farming on the banks of the Saskatchewan. and which in course of time sunk in value.ramakalai@gmail. ASSI`SI (3). a town in Central Italy. to the ruin of millions. Francis. friend. the birthplace and burial-place of St. in Wales. monk of St. and the birthplace of Metastasio. concluded in succession with the Flemings. issued as currency by the revolutionary government of France in 1790. SE. _d_.

280 m.. and the former. an ancient kingdom. these two being representative respectively of the conceptive and generative powers of nature. such that the consciousness of one tends to recall the other. or ASHTORETH. the ancient Syene. chiefly in a Biblical interest. and has been under the Turks since 1638. FEAST OF THE. with a fertile soil and a population at a high stage of civilisation.. long and 150 broad. the alleged day of the event. D'. and symbolised. became a province of Media. near the last cataract. Chennai 6. in whose hands it is now a desert. and afterwards a satrapy of the Persian empire. ASSOUCY. ASSUMPTION. and Babylonia on the S. by the sun. ASSUR. a fact employed to explain certain recondite psychological phenomena. ASSYR`IA. or IST`AR. mythical name of the founder of Assyria. ASTAR`TE. ASSYRIOLOGY.C. celebrated on the 15th of August. the latter.com ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS.. like Computer Lecturer. the southernmost city of Egypt. the female divinity of the Phoenicians. like Apollo. in 606 B. Page 176 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. as Baal was the male. the origin and early history of which is uncertain. on the right bank of the Nile. a French burlesque poet ridiculed by Boileau (1604-1679). CTSTI. between the Niphates Mountains of Armenia on the N. which lay to the E. the study of the monuments of Assyria. a connection in the mind between two ideas. festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to heaven. ASSOUAN`.

1820. and went about in male attire. inscribed. German authoress. championed the rights of women. gradually found to number more than 200. _b_. in "Orlando Furioso" he brings back Orlando's lost wits in a phial from the moon. "To the right eye of Philip. of Amphipolis.ramakalai@gmail. and possesses a horn that with a blast can discomfit armies. small planets in orbits between those of Mars and Jupiter. 1801. SE. all discovered in the present century. by the moon. 26 m. sometimes identified with Urania and sometimes with Venus.com Artemis or Diana. boasting of his skill in bringing down birds on the wing. an ancient city in Piedmont. with a Gothic cathedral. and named Ceres. a knight-errant in mediaeval legend who generous-heartedly is always to do greater feats than he can perform. ASTOLFO. birthplace of Alfieri. CTSTI. Page 177 of 2772 . the first on Jan. Aster will hang for it. ASTER. or Planetoids. to be revenged. Chennai 6. ASTON. surmised in 1596. Aster. is noted for its wine. Computer Lecturer. AS`TI (33)." which took effect. and to whom Philip had replied he would accept them when he made war on the birds. from Turin. AS`TEROIDS. ASTLEY. an archer who offered his services to Philip of Macedon. on the Tanaro. sped an arrow from the wall of a town Philip was besieging. the rites connected with her worship were of a lascivious nature. PHILIP. along with Franconi established the Cirque Olympique in Paris (1742-1814). whereupon Philip sped back another with the words. "When Philip takes the town." and he was true to his word. LUISE. 1. a famous equestrian and circus manager.

AS`TRAKHAN (43). a fur-trading station. v. came to London. 1848. JOHN JACOB. the name given to an era which piques itself on the return of the reign of justice to the earth. in Oregon. from its mouth in the Caspian Sea. the withdrawal explained to mean the vanishing of the ideal from the life of man on the earth. ASTOR. became proprietor of the _Pall Mall Gazette_ and _Budget_ in 1893.ramakalai@gmail. WILLIAM WALDORF. known as the "landlord of New York" (1792-1875). and her sister Pudicitia along with her. ASTRAE`A. who made a fortune of four millions in America by trading in furs (1763-1848). ASTRAEA REDUX. son of a German peasant.com ASTON MANOR (54). a millionaire. to correspond to it. 1891. the goddess of justice. Chennai 6. son of the preceding. ASTRAL BODY. ASTO`RIA. of which it is the chief port. His son doubled his fortune. CTSTI. and to be capable of BILOCATION (q. a suburb of Birmingham. 40 m.) Computer Lecturer. dwelt among men during the Golden Age. Page 178 of 2772 . the daughter of Zeus and Themis. ASTOR. devoted to politics. now placed among the stars under the name of Virgo. an ethereal body believed by the theosophists to invest the animal. a Russian trading town on the Volga. _b_. with numerous salmon-tinning establishments. but left the earth on its decline.

Page 179 of 2772 . was cast down by the Greeks from the ramparts after the fall of Troy. now named Oviedo. a science at one time believed in by men of such intelligence as Tacitus and Kepler. the son of Hector and Andromache. now noted as having discovered that the book of Genesis consists of Elohistic and Jehovistic portions. and with good fisheries. ASTRUC.com ASTRAL SPIRITS. from the principal town. and who by this discovery founded the modern school called of the Higher Criticism (1681-1766). in overcoming whom the gods asserted their sovereignty in the Computer Lecturer. rich in minerals.C. gives title to the heir to the crown. in the Hindu mythology the demons of the darkness of night. ASURAS. a science founded on a presumed connection between the heavenly bodies and human destiny as more or less affected by them. of Spain. or ASSUMPTION (18). CTSTI. ASTY`ANAX. JEAN.ramakalai@gmail. spirits believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies. the capital of Paraguay. ASTY`AGES. THE. Chennai 6. last king of the Medes. on the left bank of the Paraguay. lest he should live and restore the city. and to hover unembodied through space exercising demonic influence on embodied spirits. 549 B. so called from having been founded by the Spaniards on the Feast of the Assumption in 1535. dethroned by Cyrus. an ancient province in the N. ASTROLOGY. ASTU`RIAS (579). ASUN`CION. a French physician and professor of medicine in Paris. and few great families at one time but had an astrologer attached to them to read the horoscope of any new member of the house. to whom worship was paid.

ATALAN`TA. name given to the reappearance in progeny of the features. provided him by Venus. of Chile. was banished by her father Zeus. stooping to lift which lost her the race. ATE`. then another. AT`AVISM. abounding in silver and copper mines. also of vengeance. ATBA`RA. but as he neared the goal. a river. of ancestors dead generations before. which it joins near Berber. a line always approaching some curve but never meeting it. ATACA`MA. and was strangled by his orders in 1533. CTSTI. and a lake in British N. accepted the risk and started along with her. that is. who fell into Pizarro's hands through perfidy. the lowest tributary of the Nile. and even diseases.com universe. kept dropping first one golden apple. Computer Lecturer. ATHABA`SCA. for the annoyance she gave him. the last of the Incas of Peru. in the Greek mythology the goddess of strife and mischief. Hippomenes his name. ATAHUALPA. an all but rainless desert in the N. ASYMPTOTE. or Black River. at last one suitor. little short of a year after the Spaniards landed in Peru.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. Page 180 of 2772 . failure being death. the prize of any suitor who could outstrip her on the racecourse. whereupon Hippomenes claimed the prize. a beautiful Grecian princess celebrated for her agility. as well as gold in considerable quantities. America. from the Highlands of Abyssinia. where she has not been idle since. from heaven to earth. a province.

and a deacon of the Church. but now believed to be of later date. and was his most uncompromising antagonist. CTSTI. an island in a marsh near the confluence of the Computer Lecturer. celebrated for her crimes and impiety. spent the last 10 years of his life as bishop at Alexandria." ATHELNEY. the queen of Judah. retired into the Thebaid for a time. a statement. driven forth again and again from his bishopric under persecution of the Arians. the Son. Chennai 6. in the form of a confession. ATHEISM. Page 181 of 2772 . ATHANASIAN CREED. ATHEISM. ATHANASIUS. and in employing young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not know. of the orthodox creed of the Church as against the Arians. 9th century B. a native of Alexandria. and in vindication of the doctrine of the Trinity viewed in the most absolute sense (296-373). the latter the more common and the more fatal form of it. ascribed by Ruskin to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy in teaching children what they cannot understand. and damnatory of every article of the heresy severally. his works consist of treatises and orations bearing on the Arian controversy.C. and the Holy Ghost in the Trinity.com ATHALIA. MODERN. which may be either theoretical. though embracing his theology in affirmation of the absolute co-equal divinity of the Father. where he died. in the intellect. was chosen bishop of Alexandria. ISLE OF. ascribed to Athanasius at one time. daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. Christian theologian. in the life. for which she was in the end massacred by her subjects. took a prominent part against Arius in the Council at Nice. or practical. disbelief in the existence of God.ramakalai@gmail.

and the owl among animals. ATHENAEUM. the resort in ancient times of all the able and wise men. but being converted to Christianity. were sacred to her. CTSTI. and a treatise on the resurrection of the dead." extant only in an imperfect state. and in the heart". happily called by Ruskin the "'Queen of the Air. to have issued full-armed from the brain of Zeus. in the earth.ramakalai@gmail. the olive among trees. Alfred's place of refuge from the Danes. ATHE`NA. and bears on her left arm the aegis with the Medusa's head. the Greek virgin goddess of wisdom.' in the heavens. that have been considered to rival it in this respect.com Tone and Parret. an able Christian apologist of the 2nd century. the capital of Attica. Somerset. or the Suppers of the Learned. from all parts of the country and lands beyond. particularly in the domain of literature and art. and in this way the child of both wisdom and power. though the name Athens has been adopted by or applied to several cities. The two chief monuments of the architecture of ancient Athens. Edinburgh in particular. wrote an apology in its defence. at once the brain and the heart of it. ATHENAG`ORAS. of war as of peace. and is the name of over twenty places in the United States. Page 182 of 2772 . are the Computer Lecturer. wears a helmet. was Athenian and a pagan by birth. both erected on the Acropolis. and the chief city of ancient Greece. is said to have been the conception of Metis. ATHENAEUS. wrote a curious miscellany of a book entitled "Deipnosophistae. a school of learning established in Rome about 133 by Hadrian. a Greek writer of the 3rd century. particularly in the arts. while the monuments of temple and statue that still adorn it give evidence of a culture among the citizens such as the inhabitants of no other city of the world have had the genius to surpass. ATH`ENS. Chennai 6.

high at the southern extremity of the most northerly peninsula of Salonica. Computer Lecturer. ATLANTES. of Perthshire.S. and other rural occupations. honey. which divides it. MOUNT. a market-town on the Shannon. a district in the N. a large manufacturing and railway centre. is the capital (100) of modern Greece. honourably distinguished for having devoted years of his life to editing the records of the family and the related history. and the Erechtheum. oatmeal. a mountain 6780 ft. ATHOLE-BROSE. a temple dedicated to Poseidon close by. the finest building on the finest site in the world. Page 183 of 2772 . ATHOLE.ramakalai@gmail.com PARTHENON (q. U. and whisky mixed. the more devout among them at one time celebrated for the edification they derived from the study of their own navels. figures of men used in architecture instead of pillars. and rich in curious manuscripts.). _b_. 1840 A`THOS. dedicated to Athena. SIR JOHN JAMES HUGH STEWART-MURRAY.. and the residence of the king. 7TH DUKE OF. ATHLONE (7). in Turkey. ATHOLE. the monks devote themselves to gardening. covered with monasteries. bee-culture. or MONTE SANTO (6). ATLANTA (65). CTSTI. inhabited exclusively by monks of the Greek Church. and a chief military station. the largest city in Georgia. the seat of the government. v. which gives name to a branch of the Murray family. Chennai 6.

CTSTI. rather than separating. THE. although another account makes him a king of Mauritania whom Perseus. to Cape Bon. the pupil. Africa. travelling whence along the arteries it peers out as a small image in the eye. the Old World and the New. of the Pillars of Hercules. an island alleged by tradition to have existed in the ocean W. ATLAS MOUNTAINS.com ATLANTIC. ATMAN. the GREATER in Morocco. the most important. most traversed and best provided for traffic of all the oceans on the globe.. Plato has given a beautiful picture of this island.000 ft. ATLAN`TIS. in the Hindu philosophy. conceived of as a small being having its seat in the heart. for his audacity in attempting to dethrone Zeus. THE. best known. in Tunis. in Morocco. the highest 11. length 9000 m. Page 184 of 2772 . AT`LAS. its average breadth 2700 m. connecting. and appears with dazzling effect in the sun.. a Utopia figured as existing somewhere in the Atlantic. was doomed to bear the heavens on his shoulders. changed into a mountain by exposing to view the head of the Medusa. covers nearly one-fifth of the surface of the earth.ramakalai@gmail. and the whole system extending from Cape Nun.. Computer Lecturer. a Titan who. a range in N. the heart and eye of the world. the LESSER extending besides through Algeria and Tunis. with waves in consequence of greater height and volume than those of any other sea.000 feet. and is the same there as in the heart of man. which Lord Bacon began to outline but never finished.. Chennai 6. it is centred in the heart of the universe. and an account of its fabulous history. its average depth 15. THE NEW. where it may be felt stirring. or from 3 to 5 m. for his want of hospitality. the divine spirit in man.

a river in Colombia which flows N. and served them up in a banquet to him.). one of the three Fates. A`TREUS. the weight of an atom of any body compared with that of hydrogen. II. the name of three kings of Pergamos: A. along with San Juan River.. ATOMIC WEIGHT. descendants of Atreus. a family frequently referred to as capable of and doomed to perpetrating the most atrocious crimes. kept up the league with Rome (157-137). the name. a son of Pelops and king of Mycenae. appointed to spin the thread. bequeathed his wealth to the Roman people Computer Lecturer. as tradition shows.. the theory that all compound bodies are made up of elementary in fixed proportions. who. AT`TALUS. III. A. given to a coral island consisting of a ring of coral enclosing a lagoon. his descendants had to pay heavy penalties. the one who cut asunder the thread of life. Page 185 of 2772 . Lachesis. killed his two sons. CTSTI. ATRA`TO.ramakalai@gmail.C. I. to avenge a wrong done him by his brother Thyestes. founded the library of Pergamos and joined the Romans against Philip and the Achaeans (241-197 B. one of her sisters.. ATOMIC THEORY. AT`ROPOS. the unit. into the Gulf of Darien. into a canal to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. and the other.com AT`OLL. ATRI`DES. proposed.. a Polynesian one. A. Chennai 6. Clotho. since the failure of the Panama scheme. particularly Agamemnon and Menelaus. for which act. to be converted. is navigable for 200 m. to direct it.

a zealous Churchman and Jacobite. ATTIC BEE.com (137-132). and wrote an eloquent style (1662-1731). and elegant style. AT`TICA. pointed and delicate wit. bishop of Rochester. ATTERBURY. originally the purest and most refined style of the ancient literature of Greece. died in Paris. of the Peloponnesus. classical.. opposed to Punic. which has nevertheless had a history of world-wide fame and importance. and dean of Westminster. Sophocles. He was a scholarly man. within an area not larger than that of Lanarkshire. a pure. FRANCIS. which last brought him into trouble on the accession of the House of Hanover and led to his banishment. Chennai 6. TITUS P. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. ATTIC FAITH. from the sweetness and beauty of his productions. ATTIC SALT. ATTICISM. a country in ancient Greece. an English prelate. ATTIC MUSE. an eloquent preacher. ATTICUS. inviolable faith. a pure and refined style of expression in any language. from the simplicity and elegance of his style. a wealthy Roman and a great friend of Cicero's. on the NE. CTSTI. ATTIC STYLE. Xenophon. Page 186 of 2772 . in succession dean of Christ Church.

was defeated in a great battle near Chalons-sur-Marne by the combined armies of the Romans under Aetius and the Goths under Theodoric. and was buried in a gold coffin containing immense treasures in 453. AT`TILA. the king of the Huns. been killed. vanquished the emperors of both East and West. wrote a few anthems (1767-1836). overran the Roman Empire at the time of its decline. surnamed "the Scourge of God. extorting heavy tribute. beloved by Cybele. a town and fortress in the Punjab. retreated across the Alps and ravaged the N. died of voluntary starvation rather than endure the torture of a painful and incurable disease (110-33 B. Computer Lecturer. ATTWOOD. Chennai 6.). who turned him into a pine. a mathematician. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. an eminent English musician and composer. the slaves who dug the grave having. as in falling bodies (1745-1807). a beautiful Phrygian youth. CTSTI. A`TYS. it is alleged. took no part in politics. by her apparition at his marriage to forbid the banns. THOMAS. led his forces into Germany and Gaul. Page 187 of 2772 . lest they should reveal the spot. ATTWOOD." from the terror he everywhere inspired. invented a machine for illustrating the law of uniformly accelerated motion. of Italy.C. after she had. on the Indus where the Kabul joins it--a river beyond which no Hindu must pass.ramakalai@gmail. died of hemorrhage. GEORGE. the name given the first law officer and legal adviser of the Crown in England and Ireland. on the day of his marriage.com devoted to study and the society of friends. driven him mad. it was built by Akbar in 1581. it is said. or Etzel. AT`TOCK (4).

published one work. AUBUSSON. John of Jerusalem..com AUBE (255). inherited estates in Wilts." being a collection of popular superstitions. born at Paris (1731-1814). CTSTI. died at Dijon. an eminent antiquary. with Troyes for capital. left a vast number of MSS. a French town on the Creuse. JOHN. provost of Paris under Charles V. 1382. born at Caen." &c.ramakalai@gmail.: built the famous Bastille. (1782-1871). a dep. grand-master of the Knights of St. AUB`RIOT. Hereford. "Miscellanies. a popular French composer of operas. his operas included "La Muette de Portici. AU`BERT. AU`BER. manufactures carpets and tapestry. but released by a mob. Chennai 6. and Wales. AUBRY DE MONTDIDIER. formed of Champagne and a small part of Burgundy. preserved a good deal of the gossip of the period (1624-1697). a French fabulist. v. in France. THE ABBE. a French statesman. was imprisoned in it for heresy. born at Dijon. French knight murdered by ROBERT MACAIRE (q. AUB`REY.). the sole witness of the crime and the avenger of it being his dog." "Le Domino Noir. who in 1480 gallantly defended Rhodes when Computer Lecturer." "Fra Diavolo. was intimate with all the literary men of the day. of French descent. Page 188 of 2772 . AUBUSSON. PIERRE D'. a friend of Anthony Wood's. all of which he lost by lawsuits and bad management.

SW. with the mansion of the Boswell family. BISHOP (11). AUCKLAND. of Durham and in the county of Durham. GEORGE EDEN. was the capital of New Zealand till the seat of government was transferred to Wellington. AUCKLAND. a village in Perthshire. with a fertile soil and a fine climate. and the capital of a district of the name. 10 m. the largest town in New Zealand. Page 189 of 2772 . and the assertion of the rights of the people and led to the disruption of the community. AUCHTERAR`DER. island. AUCHINLECK. broad. rich in natural products of all kinds. capital of the dep. a village 15 m. AUCH (12). and the creation of the Free Church in 1843. of Toulouse. CTSTI.000 men (1423-1503). First Lord of the Admiralty. of Ayr. France. W. gave name to Auckland. a Whig in politics. and drove the assailants back. long. E. LORD. son of the following. AUCK`LAND (60). Computer Lecturer. has a trade in wine and brandy. in the N. 14 m. where the forcing of a presentee by a patron on an unwilling congregation awoke a large section in the Established Church to a sense of the wrong. Governor-General of India. amounting to no fewer than 100. with the palace of the bishop. and accessible only by a flight of 200 steps. with an excellent harbour in the Gulf of Hauraki. with a splendid cathedral perched on a hill. returned afterwards to his post in the Admiralty (1784-1849). a town on the Wear. of Gers.ramakalai@gmail.. and 200 m. 400 m. Chennai 6.com besieged by Mahomet II.

yields cereals. with some good harbours. being a portion of Languedoc. diplomatist. LORD. such especially as monkeys and humming-birds. JEAN VICTOR. born in Essex. AUDEBERT. was employed by the French Government to inquire into and report on the diseases of the silkworm. wine. and is rich in minerals. an engraver. AUDRAN. JEAN BAPTISTE. AUDLEY. Computer Lecturer. devoted himself to the illustration in coloured plates of objects of natural history. a group of small islands 180 m. of New Zealand. unscrupulous tool of Henry VIII. AU`DOUIN. AUDE (317). and Poussin. GERARD.. S. in the S. AUDHUMBLA. Chennai 6. the selfish. all exquisitely done (1759-1800). WILLIAM EDEN. that nourished Hymir. and the insects that destroy the vines (1797-1841). he did some fine illustrations of the battles of Alexander the Great (1640-1703). Page 190 of 2772 . son of a yeoman. (1488-1554). SIR THOMAS. and an authority on criminal law (1744-1814). born at Lyons. &c. and lived herself by licking the hoar-frost off the rocks. of France. the cow. LORD. became Speaker of the House of Commons and Lord Chancellor of England. and rich in vegetation. Mignard. an eminent French entomologist. a French artist and naturalist. a maritime dep. engraved the works of Lebrun. CTSTI. AUCKLAND ISLANDS.com AUCKLAND. the most eminent of a family of artists.ramakalai@gmail. in the Norse mythology.

AU`ERBACH. born in Silesia. and having begun his literary career as editor of his works. the "Birds of America" and the "Quadrupeds of America. are in the main of a somewhat philosophical bent. at the hands of the modern party of unbelief. born in the Black Forest. and who profess to settle all questions of reason. if they could only persuade men to forego reason. conspicuously of the present time. eminent Sanskrit scholar. that is. BERTHOLO." Computer Lecturer. Stirling defines it.com AU`DUBON. AU`ENBRUGGER. a celebrated American ornithologist of French Huguenot origin. the members of which pique themselves on ability to disperse the darkness of the world. _b_. by appeal to private judgment and majorities. 1822. an Austrian lyrical and satirical poet. author of two great works. or as Dr. his "Village Tales of the Black Forest" were widely popular (1812-1882). THEODOR. he having been early led to the study of Spinoza. became professor at Bonn. the former characterised by Cuvier as "the most magnificent monument that Art up to that time had raised to Nature" (1780-1851). and accept sense. CTSTI. a German poet and novelist of Jewish birth. AUF`RECHT. or Illuminationism. THE." drawn and illustrated by himself. an Austrian physician. "that stripping of us naked of all things in heaven and upon earth. AU`ERSPERG. his novels. and under the guidance of so-called rationalism. which have been widely translated. JOHN JAMES. of faith. AUFKLAeRUNG. common-sense. of liberal politics. was professor of Sanskrit in Edinburgh University. returning to Germany.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. a movement. and a pronounced enemy of the absolutist party headed by Metternich (1806-1876). COUNT VON. Page 191 of 2772 . discoverer of the method of investigating diseases of the chest by percussion (1722-1809). as the only test of truth.

the work of reformation proper. a French litterateur. Sardou (1820-1889). born at Paris. and where the peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555. renowned as a critic (1772-1829). all distinctly on the side of virtue.ramakalai@gmail. executed the _coup d'etat_ of the 4th Sept. once a city of great importance. his services were rejected by Napoleon on his return from Elba. distinguished in the campaigns of the Republic and Napoleon. but was cleansed by Hercules turning the rivers Peneus and Alpheus through it. AUGER. and with no great brains for anything else but military discipline (1757-1816). a document drawn up by Melanchthon in name of the Lutheran reformers. in Greece. AU`GEREAU. in Bavaria. ensuring religious freedom. He was simply a soldier. produced brilliant comedies for the French stage through a period of 40 years. EMILE. that had not been cleaned out for 30 years. AU`GIER. AUGSBURG CONFESSION. AUGS`BURG (75).com AUGE`AS. Chennai 6. against Computer Lecturer. the act a symbol of the worthless lumber a reformer must sweep away before his work can begin. born at Paris. and one of the Argonauts. a legendary king of Elis. on account of his having supported the Bourbons during his absence. CTSTI. PIERRE FRANCOIS CHARLES. marshal of France and duke of Castiglione. able French dramatist. rude and rough-mannered. where in 1531 the Protestants presented their Confession to Charles V. a busy manufacturing and trading town on the Lech. His only rivals were Dumas _fils_ and M. headed by the Elector of Saxony in statement of their own doctrines. had a stable with 3000 oxen. Page 192 of 2772 . and of the doctrines of the Church of Rome.. 1797.

or rather archbishopric. of Canterbury. AUGUST. the time in the history of a nation when its literature is at its best. xiii. U. 14). Paul (Rom. began his labours in Kent. born near Gotha (1771-1841).. a German rationalist theologian of note. which began in March. Page 193 of 2772 .. "Take and read". on the Savannah. became Computer Lecturer. AUGUSTAN AGE.S. a prosperous town in Georgia. a college of priests in Rome appointed to forecast the future by the behaviour or flight of birds kept for the purpose. and which were sometimes carried about in a coop to consult on emergencies. as the sixth month of the Roman year. CTSTI. in Numidia. also a town (10) the capital of Maine. as on suggestion of a friend he took up the epistle to read it in answer to an appeal he had made to him to explain a voice that was ever whispering in his ears. ST. the apostle of England. ST. which his eyes first lit upon. as being the month identified with remarkable events in his career. from its mouth. Monica. originally called Sextilis. sent thither with a few monks by Pope Gregory in 596 to convert the country to Christianity. AUGUSTA (33).S. son of a pagan father and a Christian mother. after a youth of dissipation. AU`GUSTINE. was converted to Christ by a text of St. founded the see. a native of Tagaste. the bishop of Hippo and the greatest of the Latin Fathers of the Church. Chennai 6. _d_. or AUSTIN.com which they protested. 605. U. 231 m. and named August in honour of Augustus. AUGUSTI. AUGUSTIN. St.ramakalai@gmail. 13.. AUGURS.

devoted himself to pastoral duties. Paul (354-430)." his "City of God. AUGUSTINIANS. and the Pelagians. and took an active part in the Church controversies of his age. and his heir. (_b_) Friars. nurses of the sick. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. ultimately CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS. had 200 houses in England and Wales at the Reformation. called also Black Cenobites. a Lutheran prince." and his treatises on Grace and Free-Will. opposing especially the Manichaeans. called at first CAIUS OCTAVIUS.C. his reign forming a distinguished epoch in the history of the ancient literature of Rome (63 B. Elector of Saxony. grand-nephew of Julius Caesar. and became master of the Roman world. the Donatists.ramakalai@gmail.-A. formed one of a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus. no Churchman has ever exercised such influence as he has done in moulding the creed as well as directing the destiny of the Christian Church.C. the first of the Roman Emperors or Caesars. a portion of them barefooted. was voted the title of "Augustus" by the Senate in 27 B.. and he was himself both a good man and a good ruler. defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. joined the Republican party at Caesar's death. (_a_) Canons.com bishop in 396. CTSTI. It is safe to say. AUGUSTUS. proved a wise and beneficent ruler. mendicant. AUGUSTUS. whose reign was peaceful comparatively. a monarch surnamed the "pious" and the "Justinian of Saxony" (1526-1586).. and patronised the arts and letters.D. the name of several princes of Saxony and Poland in the 16th and 17th centuries. became consul. under a less severe discipline than monks. along with Antony overthrew the Republican party under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. He was especially imbued with the theology of St. 14). (_c_) Nuns. AUGUSTUS I. Page 194 of 2772 . his principal works are his "Confessions.

died an exile at Brussels (1556-1631). to procure a favourable wind. baked the biggest bannock on record. and having escaped. a port in Boeotia. from which there was no appeal.--of physical strength." He was. a patron of the fine arts. is known to history as "The Strong". distinguished himself in Algiers. which he held against Henry IV. which he resigned when his father abdicated. AUMALE. but was reinstated." says Carlyle. supreme council in the old German Empire. leagued with the Spaniards. Page 195 of 2772 . no man of his means so regardless of expense. AUMALE. AUGUSTUS III. DUC D'. son of the preceding. and founded the Dresden Picture Gallery (1670-1733). it had no constitution. lived in England for twenty years after. AULIS.com AUGUSTUS II. and was governor of Algeria. could break horse-shoes. and where Iphigeneia. CTSTI. "attained the maximum. dealt with judicial matters. fourth son of Louis Philippe... an event commemorated in the "Iphigeneia in Aulis" of Euripides.. DUC D'. and lived and died with the emperor. three hundred and fifty-four of them (Marshal Saxe one of the lot). nay. half-crowns with finger and thumb. like many a monarch of the like loose character. had twice to retire. and left his estate and valuables to the French nation Computer Lecturer. proved an incompetent king (1696-1763). was sacrificed by her father Agamemnon. forced himself on Poland. one of the chiefs of the League. where the fleet of the Greeks assembled before taking sail for Troy. acknowledged the Republic.ramakalai@gmail. was convicted of treason. "in several things. of sumptuosity. a cake with 5000 eggs and a tun of butter. Chennai 6. became governor of Paris. of date from 1495 to 1654. AULIC COUNCIL. beat Stanislaus Leszcynski in the struggle for the crown of Poland. and of bastards. was burned in effigy. Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.

sent on embassies to various courts. now in ruins. Chennai 6. AU`ROCHS. son of a peasant of Pannonia. a wreath of light represented as encircling the brows of the saints and martyrs. drove the barbarians out of Italy. VICTOR SEXTUS. RICHARD. AUNOY. Page 196 of 2772 . affluent of the Dordogne. and an able Roman emperor. Computer Lecturer. AUNGERVILLE. of Cantal. was a lover and collector of books. or RICHARD DE BURY. queen of Palmyra. LUCIUS DOMITIUS. distinguished as a skilful and successful general. and left a curious work called "Philobiblon" (1281-1345). AURILLAC (14). AURE`LIUS. now extinct. Geraud. carrying her captive to Rome. subdued a usurper in Gaul. built round the famous abbey of St. a German wild ox. powerful in physique. tutor to Edward III..ramakalai@gmail. AURE`LIUS. See ANTONI`NUS. vanquished Zenobia.com (1822-1897). known and appreciated for her fairy tales (1650-1705). capital of the dep. bishop of Durham. CTSTI. and while on his way to crush a rebellion in Persia was assassinated by his troops (212-275). AUREOLA. on the Jourdanne. COMTESSE D'. was elected emperor. a Roman consul and a Latin historian of the 4th century. a French authoress. MARCUS. AURELIA`NUS. 270.

was a patron of letters. AURUN`GABAD` (50). a city in Hyderabad. name in "Sartor Resartus. See EOS. Chennai 6. CTSTI. AUSCULTATION. charged with opening for the sun the gates of the East. of Chicago. and when he died it crumbled to pieces in the hands of his sons. discerning by the sound whether there is or is not disease in the interior organs of the body. AUSCULTATOR. understood to be an electric discharge through the atmosphere connected with magnetic disturbance. U. a city in Illinois. AU`RUNGZEBE.S. had a star on her forehead. now much decayed.ramakalai@gmail. but the empire was rotten at the core. ascended the throne by the deposition of his father. he governed with skill and courage. in the Nizam's dominions. the murder of two brothers and of the son of one of these. Mogul emperor of Hindustan. with the ruins of a palace of Aurungzebe. Page 197 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. and rode in a rosy chariot drawn by four white horses. and Bengal. 35 m." the hero as a man qualified for a profession.. SW. his rule was far-shining. among whom he beforehand divided it (1615-1707). third son of Shah Jehan. the Carnatic. extended his empire by subduing Golconda. but as yet only expectant of employment in it. AURORA BOREALIS. and though fanatical and intolerant. said to have been the first town to light the streets with electricity. once the capital. AURORA (19). or Northern Lights.com AURO`RA. the Roman goddess of the dawn.

a town in Moravia." Dec. and was followed by "Pride and Prejudice. made him prefect of Latium and of Gaul. her interest being throughout in ordinary quiet cultured life. occupied herself in writing without eye to publication. named after Stephen Austin. "She showed once for all. a gifted English novelist. born in Bordeaux. and combined with due art. near Bruenn. Her first novel. who. where Napoleon defeated the emperors of Russia and of Austria. and the delineation of it." says Professor Saintsbury. 2. Hampshire. CTSTI. AUSTEN. on coming to the throne. "the capabilities of the very commonest and most ordinary life. and thought so by himself." her masterpiece. ALFRED. DECIMUS MAGNUS. and consul of Rome. but that should be of the absolutely first quality as literature. to furnish forth prose fiction not merely that would pass. and only in mature womanhood thought of writing for the press. a Roman poet.com AUSONIA. which she achieved in an inimitably charming manner. who was chiefly instrumental in annexing Texas to the States. poet-laureate in succession to Tennyson. a native of Gaul. JANE. but devoted to literature as journalist. AUSTIN. "Sense and Sensibility. bred for the bar. writer. an ancient name of Italy. the capital of Texas. He was a good versifier and stylist. She is the mother of the English 19th-century novel. as Scott is the father of it" (1775-1816). if sufficiently observed and selected. Chennai 6. Page 198 of 2772 . on the Colorado River. AUSONIUS. AUS`TERLITZ (3). born near Leeds. member of a quiet family circle. Computer Lecturer. at "the battle of the three emperors." and others. daughter of a clergyman in N. "Persuasion. one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories. AUSTIN (14).ramakalai@gmail. 1805." was published in 1811. tutor to the Emperor Gratian. but no poet (300-394).

the rivers are few. Page 199 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. of any consequence. though many and spacious harbours. "Falk's Characteristics of Goethe" for one. on the S. and breadth 1971.. coast. depressed in the centre. 2345 m. has written "The Golden Age. the coast has singularly few inlets. being 2400 m. and one bight. professor of Jurisprudence in London University. but being too profound in his philosophy. and extends more or less parallel all the way with the E. a Satire. long. executed translations from the German. (_nee_ Sarah Taylor). wife of the preceding.. Carpentaria. "If I 'swear eternal friendship' with any woman here. 1835. and either in flood or dried up.." and his Lectures. the chief mountain range is in the E." "English Lyrics. to W. AUSTIN. only one river. CTSTI. JOHN. See AUGUSTINIANS." "Savonarola. was unsuccessful as professor. mastered the science of law by the study of it in Germany. about one-fourth smaller than Europe. were published by his widow after his death (1790-1859). AUSTRALIA. a name given to Australia. the interior consists of a low desert plateau. on the N. Chennai 6. J. its utmost length from E. the Murray. AUSTRALASIA (i... the Great Australian Bight. his great work. of the utilitarian school. like her husband. _b_.ramakalai@gmail. he wrote to his wife of her. it will be with her" (1793-1867) AUSTIN FRIARS. e. a distinguished English jurist." and several works in prose. was. bordered with ranges of various elevation. "The Province of Jurisprudence Determined. was introduced to Carlyle when he first went up to London. Southern Asia). MRS.com and poet. only one great gulf. a continent entirely within the Southern Hemisphere. New Zealand. between which and the sea is a varying breadth of coast-land. for the climate is very parching. AUSTIN. and the islands adjoining.

and Trans-Leithan on the E. AUSTRASIA. Chennai 6. and smaller ones of great beauty. which are numerous.000. is inhabited by peoples of different races and nationalities. the capital Vienna. yet has free communication with the seas on all sides of it. in the absence of many animals of other countries. and composed of 50 different states. and the territory divided into Victoria. the kangaroo. its chief seaport. of the possessions of the Franks in Gaul. or the Western Kingdom.. the dingo. is rich in minerals. Trieste. CTSTI. and the duck-bill. AUSTRIA.ramakalai@gmail. is a country of every variety of surface and scenery. a kingdom on the E. capital of which was Metz. the eucalyptus and the acacia the most characteristic. a thick under-lip characteristic of the House of Hapsburg. all of which have their mouths in other countries. including. Australia. manufacturing chiefly in the W. is the third country for size in it. and edible roots being all imported. the cassowary and the emu. are shallow and nearly all salt. the fauna is no less peculiar. Queensland. Australia.000. is largely pastoral and agricultural. New South Wales. but songless. has next to no coast-line. and the population over 40.com while the lakes. the flora is peculiar. speaking different languages. the natives are disappearing. and W. fruits. 5 of them kingdoms. the Danube in chief.000. or the East Kingdom. the colonists in 1904 numbering close upon 4. grains. occupies the centre of Europe. Computer Lecturer. the useful animals being likewise all imported.000. of birds. is divided by the Leitha. which with Tasmania federated in 1900 and became the Commonwealth. S. into Cis-Leithan on the W. AUSTRIAN LIP. it was celebrated for its rivalry with the kingdom of Neustria.. that existed from 511 to 843. minerals abound. a tributary of the Danube. or AUSTRO-HUNGARY. has three zones of climate with corresponding zones of vegetation. Page 200 of 2772 . as many as 20. both the precious and the useful. is watered by rivers.

prior to being burned alive. who held their sittings for three years severally at Westminster. Cambridge. CTSTI. of the Seine. who met for nine months in Stationers' Hall. Chennai 6. the rest being done for nothing. the whole being thereafter revised by a committee of six. and they have produced a version that will remain to all time a monument of the simplicity. a ceremony held by the court of the Inquisition in Spain. and received thirty pounds each.). divided into three groups of two sections each.com AUTEUIL. the most famous auto-da-fe took place in Madrid in 1680. its very style has had a nobly educative effect on the national literature. AUTOCHTHONS. to hear a sermon on the true faith. AUTOL`YCUS. preliminary to the execution of a heretic. and melody of the English language. called the San Benito. and Oxford. and was the work of 47 men selected with marked fairness and discretion. Page 201 of 2772 . walked in a procession of monks. and maternal grandfather of Ulysses by his daughter Anticlea. London. AUTO-DA-FE. and has contributed more than anything else to prevent it from degenerating into the merely frivolous and formal.ramakalai@gmail. and that has since woven itself into the affectionate regard of the whole English-speaking people. Computer Lecturer. followed by carts containing coffins with malefactors' bones. and a pointed cap. The result was a translation that at length superseded every other. so that it is not undeservedly called King James's Bible. in which the condemned. Greek for aborigines. a village in the dep. in the Greek mythology a son of HERMES (q. v. grace. synonym for thief. famed for his cunning and robberies. or Act of Faith. dignity. now included in Paris. The men who executed it evidently felt something of the inspiration that breathes in the original. AUTHORISED VERSION OF THE BIBLE was executed between the years 1604 and 1610 at the instance of James I.. dressed in a hideously fantastic robe.

CTSTI. with a fine cathedral and rich in antiquities. Page 202 of 2772 . manufactures serges. in the Celtic mythology an island of faerie in the region Computer Lecturer. now in ruins from an earthquake in 1839. and supply all the water-carriers and street-sweepers of Paris. Cantal. NW. AUVERGNE`. and contain a hardy and industrious race of people descended from the original inhabitants of Gaul. the highlands of which separate the basin of the Loire from that of the Garonne. drives a large trade in wine. Self-law). JOSEPH. e. capital of the dep. AUXERRE` (15). carpets. embracing the deps. 90 m. and attained distinction by the production of the tragedy "La Fille d'Eschyle" (1813-1877). of Paris. and part of Haute-Loire. in 1610. AUTRAN`. an ancient city in the dep. he was of the school of Lamartine. Chennai 6. has a fine cathedral in the Flamboyant style. a French poet and dramatist. &c. 28 m. in the Kantian metaphysics denotes the sovereign right of the pure reason to be a law to itself.ramakalai@gmail. an ancient province of France. born at Marseilles. velvet. AUTONOMY (i.com AUTOM`EDON. the charioteer of Achilles. they speak a strange dialect. of Saone-et-Loire. AV`ALON. AVA. united to the crown under Louis XIII. where Talleyrand was bishop. of Yonne. SE. AUTUN` (15). capital of the Burmese empire from 1364 to 1740 and from 1822 to 1835. from Chalons. an ancient city. on the Arroux. of Puy-de-Dome.

59 m. AVEBURY. macaroni. an invocation to the Virgin. AVATAR`. a village in Wiltshire. the mount to which the plebs sullenly retired on their refusal to submit to the patrician oligarchy. one of the seven hills of Rome. AVARS. chief town in a province of the name in Campania..ramakalai@gmail. AVENTI`NUS. or Descent. of Marlborough. has been subject to earthquakes. CTSTI. a Bavarian historian. W. of Europe about 553. and committed ravages in it for about three centuries. so called as forming the first two words of the salutation of the angel in Luke i. Page 203 of 2772 . 28. Chennai 6. of Naples. manufactures woollens. or ABERY. E. and the final home of the heroes of chivalry when their day's work was ended on earth. by the Chinese. paper. &c. driven from their home in the Altai Mts. AVE MARIA. surmised to have been erected and arranged in memory of some great victory. the incarnation and incarnated manifestation of a Hindu deity. and all but exterminated in 827. AVELLI`NO (26). a tribe of Huns who.com where the sun sinks to rest at eventide. author of the "Chronicon Bavariae" Computer Lecturer. invaded the E. AVENTINE HILL. and from which they were enticed back by Menenius Agrippa by the well-known fable of the members of the body and the stomach. a theory both characteristic of Vishnuism and marking a new epoch in the religious development of India. 6 m. in the middle of a so-called Druidical structure consisting of 100 monoliths. famous for its trade in hazel-nuts and chestnuts. till they were subdued by Charlemagne.

and identified with it." being the supreme in medical science for centuries (980-1037). near Naples. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. an illustrious Arabian physician. of France. much resorted to by the Neapolitans. a valuable record of the early history of Germany (1477-1534). occupying the crater of an extinct volcano. surnamed the prince of physicians." though he appears to have coupled with the philosophy of Aristotle the Oriental pantheistic doctrine of emanations (1126-1198). earning for himself the title of the "Commentator. as well as from the mephitic vapours it exhaled. of authority in philosophy as well as in medicine. and conceived. amid vineyards and orange groves. in the S. a mountainous dep. his "Canon of Medicine. an Italian town 8 m. 11/2 m. a man of immense learning and extensive practice in his art. RUFUS FESTUS. to be the entrance to the infernal world. Page 204 of 2772 . AVERSA (24). AVEYRON`. devoted himself to the study and the exposition of Aristotle. from its gloomy appearance. his philosophy being of the school of Aristotle with a mixture of Neoplatonism. where the Roquefort cheese is produced. the teacher of Averroes (1073-1103). a geographer and Latin poet. AVENZO`AR. a Moor by birth and a native of Cordova. AVICEN`NA. an Arabian physician and philosopher.com (Annals of Bavaria). at one time surrounded by a dark wood. AVIE`NUS. AVERNUS. in circumference. from Naples. Chennai 6. or versifier Computer Lecturer. an Arabian physician. a deep lake in Italy. with excellent pastures. AVER`ROES.

a port of Albania. a soldier. Page 205 of 2772 . it contains a number of interesting buildings. AV`OLA (12). CTSTI. coast of Sicily. for his zeal in planting the Gospel in its mountains. with a Gothic cathedral and a Moorish castle. and belonged to the Papacy from that time till 1797. or VALONA.com rather. and carries on a large trade in wine. grows and manufactures silk in large quantities. of various fortune from its foundation by the Phocaeans in 539 B. an ancient city beautifully situated on the left bank of the Rhone. place of export of the Hybla honey. A`VILA (10). above the sea-level. birthplace of St. AVLO`NA (6). JUAN D'. was the seat of the Papacy from 1305 to 1377. Theresa. _d_. and historian under Charles V. a town in Spain. at that period. in a province of the name. capital of the dep. Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6..C. 1569. surnamed the Apostle of Andalusia. of the 4th century. France. on an inlet of the Adriatic. in S. rebuilt since. near the confluence of the Durance. when it was appropriated to France. oil. purchased by Pope Clement VI. and fruits. A`VON. such as Shakespeare's in Warwickshire. a seaport on the E. diplomatist. AVILA. and of Bristol. of Old Castile. 3000 ft. the name of several English rivers. rising in Wiltshire. AVIGN`ON (37).ramakalai@gmail. AVILA Y ZINUGA. of Salisbury in Wiltshire. a Spanish priest. ruined by an earthquake in 1693. of Vaucluse.

where Henry II. and now fertile. &c. belonged to Holland till 1871. AXIM. AXHOLME. born in Zealand. LOCH. AYACU`CHO. AXEL. then a marsh. Lincolnshire. overshadowed by mountains. ISLE OF. broad. AWE. rape. a town in dep. Normandy. the spot marked by a stone. Page 206 of 2772 . a Danish patriot with Norse blood. 25 m. its surface is 100 ft. archbishop of Lund. founded by Pizarro in 1539. one with the ruin of a castle. drained in 1632.ramakalai@gmail. now in ruins. and compelled them to adopt Christianity. where the Peruvians and Colombians achieved their independence of Spain Computer Lecturer. the place. producing hemp. Africa. a thriving town in Peru. subdued tribes of Wends. AX`UM. a batrachian. where Christianity was introduced in the 4th century. numerous in Mexico and the Western States. once a forest. long and 5 m. 17 m. received absolution for the murder of Thomas a Becket. flax. the scenery gloomily picturesque. lace-making the staple industry. belonging to Britain. in the centre of Argyllshire. and trade in agricultural products. Chennai 6. studded with islands. capital of an Ethiopian kingdom in Abyssinia. a trading settlement on the Gold Coast. in length. of Manche.com AVRANCHES` (7). AX`OLOTL. believed to be in its preliminary or tadpole state of existence. above the sea-level. CTSTI. and which as the outpost of Christendom fell early before the Mohammedan power. the second in size of Scottish lakes. a tract of land in NW.

bishop of London. for he died in her arms. She was. supplies the London market with ducks. "A woman who distinguished herself by all manner of qualities among the Moslems. CTSTI. the daughter of Abubekr. and a friend to neither Papist nor Puritan. 40 m. the dominant people of Peru at the Computer Lecturer. AYLOFFE. English antiquary.com in 1824. the only wife of Mahomet that remained a virgin. whom he married soon after the death of Kadijah. the chief native race of Peru and Bolivia. born in Sussex (1708-1781). from which it would appear sprang the Quinchuas. AYESHA. of London. and a book of poems entitled the "Rhymes of the Court" (1332-1407). SIR JOSEPH. statesman. a borough and market-town in Buckinghamshire. born in Murcia. a lemur found in the woods of Madagascar. AYLES`BURY (9). tutor to Lady Jane Grey. it is said. and diplomatist. who defeated her and took her prisoner. as much devoted to Mahomet as he was to her. he is satirised by Spenser in the "Shepherd's Calendar" (1521-1594). AYE-AYE. AYLMER. NW. a Spanish soldier. a highly arbitrary man." which was more than a chronicle of wars. AYA`LA. American continent. AYMA`RAS. JOHN. wrote a "History of the Kings of Castile. and favourite wife of Mahomet. PEDRO LOPEZ D'. but released her on condition that she should not again interfere in State matters (610-677). Chennai 6. On Mahomet's death she opposed the accession of Ali." who is styled by them the "Mother of the Faithful" (see KADIJAH). and ended the rule of Spain in the S. in an agricultural district. being also a review of them. Page 207 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail.

bordered on the W. v.. a clean. Page 208 of 2772 . to the S. the county town of Ayrshire. its charter. who made his fortune by a Latin panegyric to King James I. a good harbour and docks for shipping.com time of the Spanish conquest. with a large coal-field and thriving manufactures. of the style of HANS SACHS (q. of Scotland. well built. a German dramatist in the 16th century. AYR`ER. a large and wealthy county in the W. the father of four sons. JACOB. and doubly so among Scottish towns as the birthplace near it of Robert Burns." AYTON. AYRSHIRE (226). of the Doon. SIR ROBERT. famous in early Scottish history. Carrick for a coo. a poet of considerable merit. AY`MAR-VER`NAY.000. AYMON. dating from 1200. Chennai 6. born at Kinaldie. Carrick. on his accession. renowned in the legends of chivalry. with elegant villas in the suburbs. CTSTI. and number to-day 500.ramakalai@gmail. THE COUNT OF DORDOGNE. Alard. a native of Fife. concerning which there is an old rhyme: "Kyle for a man. ancient town. Cunningham for butter and cheese. Kyle. a peasant of Dauphine. who in the 17th century professed to discover springs and treasures hid in the earth by means of a divining rod. was on friendly terms with the eminent literary men Computer Lecturer. between the Doon and the Irvine. Renaud. its divisions. at the mouth of a river of the same name. by the Firth of Clyde. AYR (23). granted by William the Lion. Guiscard. and particularly as paladins of Charlemagne. Galloway for 'oo. and Cunningham.). on the N. agricultural and pastoral. and Richard. attained a high degree of civilisation.

with fertile plains. his poems are written in pure and even elegant English. covered with orange groves. of it.000). AZERBIJAN (2. an Italian patriot and statesman. AZOV. fighting for Italian independence. Chennai 6. 800 m. he was not altogether engrossed with politics. entered the Piedmontese Parliament. poet and critic. AZEGLIO. along with Sir Theodore Martin. CTSTI. of the river Aras. AYTOUN. a native of Edinburgh. SEA OF. in the latitude of Lisbon. Page 209 of 2772 . of the "Gaultier Ballads. W. of Armenian Persia. i. professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in Edinburgh University. Ben Jonson in particular. are in general mountainous. he was also editor. native of Turin. being an amateur in art (1798-1866). AZ`RAEL. and have only recently been collected together (1571-1638). prov. was Victor Emanuel's right-hand man. AZORES. Michael's and Fayal. and good for pulmonary complaints.ramakalai@gmail. cattle-breeding. they were known to the Carthaginian mariners. and gradually silting up with mud from the Don. and forming a province of it. wounded at Vicenza in 1848. of which the chief are St. the angel of death according to Rabbinical tradition. of Portugal. S. a group of nine volcanic islands in the Atlantic. and 900 m." an admirable collection of light verse (1813-1865). e. an opening from the Black Sea. some in Latin. W. MARCHESE D'. very shallow. and rich in minerals. Hawk Islands (250). Computer Lecturer.com of his time. but fell out of the map of Europe till rediscovered in 1431. the climate is mild. WILLIAM EDMONDSTOUNE. retired in favour of Cavour. author of the "Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers".

fell back upon the mysticism of Jacob Boehme. AZUNI. Page 210 of 2772 . and God even in life. of reddish-brown skin. as incomprehensible realities. _PL_. FRANZ XAVIER VON. the name given to a party in the Church who insisted that only unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist. which regarded God in Himself. BAALIM. author of "Droit Maritime de l'Europe" (1729-1827). which occupied the Mexican plateau for some centuries before the Spaniards visited it. revolting alike from the materialism of Hume. BA`AL (meaning Lord).com AZ`TECS. what might rather be called a theosophy than a philosophy. and the transcendentalism of Kant. and taught in 16 vols. identified himself with the liberal movement in politics. and offended the king (1765-1841). however.ramakalai@gmail. who. was patronised by the king of Bavaria. and broad featured. an Italian jurist. and the controversy hinged on the question whether the Lord's Supper was instituted before the Passover season was finished. with its self-sufficiency of the reason. CTSTI. born at Muenich. a civilised race of small stature. B BAADER. which he studied in England. as in the former case the bread must have been unleavened. and became professor in Muenich. lean. AZYMITES. Chennai 6. president of the Court of Appeal at Genoa. the principal male divinity of the Canaanites and Phoenicians. made a special study of maritime law. and in the latter leavened. He. and were overthrown by the Spaniards in 1520. identified with the sun as the great Computer Lecturer. DOMINICO ALBERTO. or after. a German philosopher. born in Sardinia.

BABBINGTON. worshipped on hill-tops with sacrifices. conspired against Computer Lecturer. his crowning attribute. the god who presided over the labours of the husbandman and granted the increase. was for a time mixed up with the worship of Jehovah in Israel. ANTONY. in Asia Minor. a mathematician. ALI.com quickening and life-sustaining power in nature. BABBAGE. an ancient city of Syria. CHARLES. Page 211 of 2772 .). the most conspicuous of which is the Great Temple to Baal. Heliopolis. the character in the "Arabian Nights" who discovers and enters the den of the Forty Thieves by the magic password "SESAME" (q. CAPE. the name given to the worship of natural causes. a word which he accidentally overheard. tending to the obscuration and denial of the worship of God as Spirit. v. wealth. BABA. covering an area of four acres. but under the zealous preaching of the prophets it was eventually stamped out. Chennai 6. BAAL`BEK (i. City of Baal.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. studied at Cambridge. in Anatolia. once a place of great size. and dancing. born in Devonshire. and at one time threatened to swamp it. spent much time and money over the invention of a calculating machine. Baal-worship. the most western point in Asia. BABA. and splendour. NW. one of the most magnificent ruins of the East. BAALISM." and an autobiography entitled "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher". incense. or the Sun). called by the Greeks. being that of the Canaanites. with a town of the name. 35 m. wrote on "The Economy of Manufactures and Machinery. of Damascus. an English Catholic gentleman. now in ruins. and professor there. in his later years was famous for his hostility to street organ-grinders (1791-1871). strength. e.

stifled by the soldiery". the Gate of Tears).com Elizabeth on behalf of Mary. a descendant of Tamerlane. Page 212 of 2772 . adverse to polygamy.ramakalai@gmail. BABOO. headed an insurrection against the Directory. left memoirs. Chennai 6. e. and were guilty of the greatest atrocities. after attempting to commit suicide (1764-1797). FRANCOIS NOEL. his dynasty lasted for three centuries. self-styled Gracchus. convicted of conspiracy. "which died in the birth. in his Computer Lecturer. confessed his guilt. insisted on the emancipation of women. thrice invaded India. have suffered from persecution. BABOEUF. BABIS. and often cause wreckage to vessels attempting to pass it. their doctrines a mixture of pantheistic with Gnostic and Buddhist beliefs. a strait between Asia and Africa forming the entrance to the Red Sea. and was executed at Tyburn in 1586. BABOON. LEWIS. BABES IN THE WOOD. the founder of the Mogul empire in Hindustan. or BABU. name applied to a native Hindu gentleman who has some knowledge of English. a modern Persian sect founded in 1843. a violent revolutionary in France. Queen of Scots. was guillotined. BAB-EL-MANDEB (i. the name Arbuthnot gives to Louis XIV. and became at length master of it in 1526. concubinage. Irish banditti who infested the Wicklow Mountains in the 18th century. CTSTI. and divorce. so called from the strong currents which rush through it. but are increasing in numbers. BABER. See CHILDREN.

the accumulation of material wealth. From very early times it was the seat of a highly developed civilisation introduced by the Sumero-Accadians. But Nabopolassar in 625 B. The name was often metaphorically applied to Rome by the early Christians. where the overcrowding. asserted his independence. and under his son Nebuchadnezzar. Babylonia rose to the zenith of its power. Computer Lecturer. In that year Cyrus conquered it for Persia. BABY-FARMING. and "the land of the Chaldees". who descended on the plain from the mountains in the NW.ramakalai@gmail. turned the fables of AEsop and of others into verse. the gigantic walls and hanging gardens of which were classed among the seven wonders of the world. BABYLO`NIA. such as London.com "History of John Bull. through the self-sacrifice of Zophyrus. Chennai 6. was marked by a fierce struggle with the northern empire of Assyria. a Greek poet of uncertain date. was taken. which flowed through it and by Darius in 519 B. it occupied the rich. or GABRIUS. with alterations. the name given by the Greeks to that country called in the Old Testament. one of the richest and most magnificent cities of the East. Judah was captive in the country from 599 to 538 B.C.C. BABYLON. The 8th century B. CTSTI. Semitic tribes subsequently settled among the Accadians and impressed their characteristics on the language and institutions of the country.C. and the so-called refinements of civilisation. by Cyrus in 538 B." BA`BRIUS. in which Babylonia eventually succumbed and became an Assyrian province. Shinar. are conceived to have a corrupting effect on the religion and morals of the inhabitants. fertile plain through which the lower waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris flow. now the Turkish province of Irak-Arabi or Bagdad.C.. by diverting out of their channel the waters of the Euphrates. according to tradition. Babel. a system of nursing new-born infants whose parents may wish them out of sight. Page 213 of 2772 . the capital city of Babylonia. and is to-day to great centres of population.C..

Benjamin. and carrying a THYRSUS (q. v. Page 214 of 2772 . till they were allowed to return to their own land by Cyrus. a festival. BAC`CHUS. BACCIO`CHI.. and Levi.com and its history became merged in that of Persia. and were called by a number of names. nephew of Simonides and uncle of Eschylus. a Corsican officer. and had loose flowing garments.C. BACCHYL`IDES. he rendered signal service to Zeus in the war of the gods with the GIANTS (q. See DIONYSUS. a rival of Pindar. the name given to the deportation of Jews from Judea to Babylon after the capture of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon. v. and which continued for 70 years. BABYLONISH CAPTIVITY. BACCHANALIA. and was created by Napoleon Prince of Lucca (1762-1841). CTSTI. they wore their hair dishevelled and thrown back. confined originally to women. BACCIO DELLA PORTO. who had conquered Babylon.). only a few fragments of his poems extant. represented as riding in a car drawn by tame tigers. Thyads. in honour of Bacchus.ramakalai@gmail. such as Maenads. son of Zeus and Semele. those who took part in the festival of Bacchus. BACCHANTES. those who returned were solely of the tribes of Judah. a Greek lyric poet. Computer Lecturer. FRA. 5th century B.. the god of the vine. See BARTOLOMEO. &c. Chennai 6. and promoter of its culture as well as the civilisation which accompanied it. who married Maria Bonaparte.). originally of a loose and riotous character.

superintended the coast survey (1806-1867). JOHANN SEBASTIAN. Page 215 of 2772 . A. associated with Franklin in three polar expeditions. though she did not originate. SIR GEORGE. born in Eisenach. a Dutch painter. Leipzig. born at Philadelphia. famous for his sea-pieces and skill in depicting sea-waves. discovered instead and traced the Great Fish River in 1839. an American authoress.ramakalai@gmail. DALLAS. DELIA. an organist. Thomas. a little rod). difficult of execution (1685-1750). BACIL`LUS (lit. entered the navy. BACK. from their originality and scientific rigour. who first broached.com BACH. BACHE. was a French captive for five years. distinguished as being twice as long as it is broad. and in 1857 made admiral (1796-1878). noted--sixty of them--for musical genius. a theory in favour of which she has received small support (1811-1859). See BACTERIA. and finally director of music at the School of St. Computer Lecturer. a devoted Arctic explorer. others being more or less rounded. a director of concerts. was in succession a chorister. BACHELOR. one of the greatest of musical composers. BACKHUY`SEN. born at Stockport. CTSTI. an American physicist. a name given to one who has achieved the first grade in any discipline. was an etcher as well as painter (1631-1708). was knighted in 1837. his works. of a family of Hungarian origin. BACON. LUDOLPH. Chennai 6. the theory of the Baconian authorship of Shakespeare's works. a bacterium. went in search of Sir John Ross.

a prudent and honourable man and minister. Liverpool. Privy Councillor and Keeper of the Great Seal under Queen Elizabeth. Lord Bacon. LORD VERULAM. the air-pump. a Franciscan monk. a Hungarian poet. suggested several scientific inventions. and much honoured and trusted by the queen (1510-1579). he suffered from his liberal political opinions. son of Sir Nicholas Bacon. such as the telescope. BACSANYI. spent his retirement in his favourite studies. Page 216 of 2772 . JANOS.com BACON. Chennai 6. convicted and condemned to imprisonment. and gunpowder. BACON. accused of magic. Somerset. represented successively Taunton. called to the bar when 21. BACTE`RIA. the father of the inductive method of scientific inquiry. became at last in succession Attorney-General. born at Ilchester. his great works were his "Advancement of Learning. these show such shrewdness of wit as to embolden some (see _SUPRA_) to maintain that the plays named of Shakespeare were written by him (1561-1626). was a favourite with the queen. Lord Keeper. from which he was released only to die." but is seen to best advantage by the generality in his "Essays. but witnessed against him at his trial. fined and imprisoned." "Novum Organum. a fearless truth-seeker of great scientific attainments. and wrote some eighty treatises (1214-1294). the father of Francis. CTSTI." and "De Augmentis Scientiarum. born in the Strand. and Ipswich in Parliament. Privy Councillor. which served him little. attached himself to Essex. exceedingly minute organisms of the simplest structure. educated at Cambridge. but pardoned and released.ramakalai@gmail. the diving-bell. and Lord Chancellor. indeed." which are full of practical wisdom and keen observation of life. the camera obscura. deposed. like many of his countrymen (1763-1845). after study at Gray's Inn. BACON. was convicted of venality as a judge. London. ROGER. Computer Lecturer. SIR NICHOLAS. FRANCIS.

CTSTI. NE. BADAJOZ` (28). BADAKANS. the scene of fearful outrages after its capture. surrendered to Soult in 1811. and to the knowledge of which. BADAKHSHAN` (100). rich in minerals. or intermediate shapes. the presumed fatherland of the Aryans and the birthplace of the Zoroastrian religion. from E. Computer Lecturer. and 150 from N. a picturesque hill country. called Badakhshans. as happens. and multiply by fission with great rapidity. a name given to Zoroaster as a native of Bactria. about 20 m. fraught. on the Guadiana.. a place of great strength. so much has been contributed by the labours of M. to S. which develop in infusions of organic matter. India.). it is 200 m. a Mohammedan territory NE. BACUP (23). v. and the purpose they serve in nature. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. to W. a Dravidian people of small stature. now BALKH (q. the inhabitants. near the frontier of Portugal. BAC`TRIA. in S. conspicuous by the part they play in the process of fermentation and in the origin and progress of disease. Page 217 of 2772 . of Afghanistan. Pasteur. with life or death to the higher forms of being.com being merely cells of varied forms. are of the Aryan family and speak Persian. rods. it has been often visited by travellers. BACTRIAN SAGE. Chennai 6. from Marco Polo onwards. of Manchester. and taken after a violent and bloody struggle by Wellington in 1812.ramakalai@gmail. capital of a Spanish province of the name. living on the Nilghiri Mountains. a province of ancient Persia. in the shape of spheres.

of Zurich. traversed by the Spey.W. travelled in the East. and jewellery employ a great proportion of the inhabitants. long a fashionable resort for its mineral springs. a shrine of Vishnu. BADEN-BADEN (13). is rich in timber. NW. is believed to be the first Christian admitted to the shrine of Mecca. born at Barcelona.com BADALO`NA (15). a town in the duchy of Baden.000 ft. having acquired a knowledge of Arabic and Arab customs. long by 19 broad. 10. and mineral springs. but was forfeited by them. which were known to the Romans. a seaport 5 m. includes the Black Forest. a town in the canton of Aargau. of Inverness-shire. minerals.ramakalai@gmail.725). even in Mecca itself. was bestowed by Bruce on his nephew. of Barcelona. in N. Switzerland. became finally the property of the Earl of Huntly. after a time settled in Paris. in the SE. consists of valley. Chennai 6. extends along the left bank of the Rhine from Constance to Mannheim. cotton fabrics. and wrote an account of his travels (1766-1818). CTSTI. BA`DEN (4). his disguise was so complete that he passed for a Mussulman. and is a popular summer resort. disguised himself as a Mohammedan under the name of Ali-Bei. noted for its hot mineral springs. much Computer Lecturer. Page 218 of 2772 . India. 45 m. wood-carving. BAD`ENOCH. high. there are two university seats. BAD`EN. Heidelberg and Freiburg. BADRINATH. mountain. belonged originally to the Comyns. and plain. THE GRAND-DUCHY OF (1. a Spaniard. BADI`A-Y-LABLICH. also a town near Vienna. NE. 14 m. a forest-covered district of the Highlands of Scotland. a German duchy. 18 m. from Carlsruhe and 22 from Strassburg.

It is a station on the Anglo-Indian telegraph route. born in Somerset. cotton. Passage. it suffers from visitations of cholera and famine. who. on the Tigris. a native of Esthonia. WALTER. BAFFIN. famed for the guide-books to almost every country of Europe that he published (1801-1859). grain. styled the "father of comparative embryology". BAGDAD (185). BAEDEKER. KARL. and silk are manufactured. CTSTI. discovered in 1615 by William Baffin. a Computer Lecturer. an early English Arctic explorer. red and yellow leather. Chennai 6. open four months in summer to whale and seal fishing. professor of zoology. Formerly a centre of Arabic culture. Petersburg. is still considerable. the greatest of modern embryologists. an English political economist. first in Koenigsberg and then in St. is the capital of a province. Page 219 of 2772 . 500 m. wool. and one of the most flourishing cities of Asiatic Turkey. though less than formerly. BAGEHOT. BAER. and the transit trade.com frequented by pilgrims for the sacred waters near it. and connected with the Euphrates by canal. a strait stretching northward between N. and is served by a British-owned fleet of river steamers plying to Basra. and horses are exported.W. America and Greenland. BAFFIN BAY. discovered Baffin Bay (1584-1622). when acting as pilot to an expedition in quest of the N. which are believed to be potent to cleanse from all pollution. a German printer in Coblenz.ramakalai@gmail. that the embryo when developing resembles those of successively higher types (1792-1876). WILLIAM. it has belonged to Turkey since 1638. An imposing city to look at. KARL ERNST VON. dates. the discoverer of the law. from its mouth. known by his name.

wrote. BAGNERES. Chennai 6. and an authority on banking and finance. BAGLI`VI." and a mock epic. an important work. Rewah the most prosperous. "Parthenais oder die Alpenreise. BAGIR`MI. from Palermo. a pastoral epic. to S. 240 m. of Lake Tehad. besides other publications. 8 m. an illustrious Italian physician. though from his egotism and irritability he was personally unpopular (1764-1826). BAGHELKAND. BAGLIO`NI. in which he was quite at home. wrote "De Fibra Motrice" in defence of the "solidist" theory. from N. "The English Constitution". his minor pieces are numerous and popular. a Mohammedan kingdom in Central Africa. wrote in a vigorous style (1826-1877). a Danish poet. wrote mostly in German. BAGHE`RIA.com banker by profession. Computer Lecturer. travelled a good deal. and 150 m. Page 220 of 2772 . GIORGIO. an Italian fresco-painter of note (1573-1641). as it is called. which traced all diseases to alterations in the solid parts of the body (1667-1706). from E. "Adam and Eve". a disciple of Ricardo. SE. CTSTI. a town in Sicily. his chief works.ramakalai@gmail. was editor of the _Economist_. well-known watering-places. BAGGE`SEN. name of five native states in Central India. where citizens of the latter have more or less stylish villas. to W. two French towns on the Pyrenees. JENS EMMANUEL.

an Arabic word meaning "river. classical scholar. THE (47). flat coral islands in the W. belonging to Britain. Chennai 6. achieved a brilliant success at Smolensk. one of the chief seaports of Brazil. distinguished in many engagements. BAGRA`TION. fell at Borodino (1765-1812). with a capital of the name. and in 1812.ramakalai@gmail. of India. a group of over 500 low. a town on the Ganges. BAHAWALPUR (650). Eylau. of Patna. a "self-absorbed" talking character in "Dombey & Son." prefixed to the name of many places occupied by Arabs. of which 20 are inhabited. BAHAR (263). commanded the vanguard at Austerlitz. and on one of which Columbus landed when he discovered America. in the Bay of All Saints. turtle. after falling into decay. and thousands of rocks. and Friedland." BAHA`MAS. and originally the capital in a province of the name stretching along the middle of the coast. Russian general. BAeHR. BAHR. burn at Darmstadt. wrote a "History Computer Lecturer. or San Salvador (200). Nassau the capital. Page 221 of 2772 . yield tropical fruits. 34 m. JOE.com BAGNES. a fine city. is again rising in importance. a feudatory state in the NW. SE. CTSTI. Indies. sponges. BAGSTOCK. BAHI`A. name given to convict prisons in France since the abolition of the galleys. PRINCE. &c. FELIX. is connected administratively with the Punjab.. against Napoleon.

long and 10 broad.com of Roman Literature. 32 m." in high repute (1798-1872). belonging to Muscat. long and from 13 to 54 wide. cap. a French poet one of a group of seven known in French literature as the "Pleiade. in S. Manamah (20). on which sledges ply for six or eight months in winter. was attached to the Niger Expedition in 1854. long famous for their pearl-fisheries. 1884. the largest Olkhin. and at its surface 1560 ft. it abounds in fish. above the sea-level. deep. BAHREIN` ISLANDS (70). for its climate and its baths. a group of islands in the Persian Gulf. an old Egyptian prov. W. BAIAE. and it was through it Marchand made his way to Fashoda. BAIF. died at Sierra Leone (1825-1864). 397 m. the richest in the world. of it. Chennai 6." whose aim was to accommodate the French language and literature to the models of Greek and Latin. by 10 m. it contains several islands. of Siberia. Computer Lecturer. a clear fresh-water lake. an Orcadian. a small town near Naples. it was wrested from Egypt by the Mahdi. BAHR-EL-GHAZAL. the largest 27 m. BALFOUR. now in ruins and nearly all submerged. and steamboats in summer. in some parts 4500 ft. a district of French Congo lies W. the third largest in Asia. BAIKAL. famous as a resort of the old Roman nobility. especially sturgeon and salmon. opening the region up and letting light in upon it at the sacrifice of his life. including the district watered by the tributaries of the Bahr-el-Arab and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. BAIKIE.ramakalai@gmail. born at Kirkwall. and ultimately commanded it. surgeon in the Royal Navy. CTSTI. Page 222 of 2772 . under the protection of Britain.

and political economy. an early English lexicographer." besides many others. wrote on Morbid Anatomy (1761-1823). she does not stand high either as a dramatist or a writer (1762-1851). and became a zealous advocate of the national cause. whose dictionary. a utilitarian in philosophy. JOANNA. stayed afterwards with a sister at Hampstead. famous for her songs. acquired in business. born in Sheffield. NATHAN." "The Mystic. born in Nottingham. LADY GRIZEL. PHILIP JAMES." "The Universal Hymn. BAILLIE. English poet. a liberal-minded man. was the basis of Johnson's. joined a brother in London. CTSTI. born at Bothwell. BAILEY. "And werena my heart licht I wad dee" is well known (1665-1740). under the auspices of Sir Walter Scott. very popular in its day. resisted Laud's attempt to thrust Episcopacy on the Scotch nation. a Scotch Presbyterian divine. an English author. brother of Joanna. _b_. BAILLIE. both comedies and tragedies. BAILLIE. Chennai 6. born in Glasgow. which he was delegated Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. BAILEY. physician. he has been rated by some extravagantly high.com BAILEY. Page 223 of 2772 . ethics. MATTHEW. passed through 11 editions in England and 30 in America. was succeeded by "The Angel World. and left a fortune. _d_." was acted in the Theatre Royal. Edinburgh. 1742. produced a series of dramas entitled "Plays of the Passions." and "The Age". SAMUEL. ROBERT. to his native town (1787-1870). an heroic Scotch lady. a poetess. 1816. child of the Presbyterian manse there. who wrote on psychology. BAILLIE." a work that on its appearance in 1839 was received with enthusiasm. author of "Festus. one of which. the "Family Legend.

" in five volumes. elected president of the National Assembly.' Crueller end. such as hails from Kant and his school. 'it is for cold. and twice Lord Rector. which he connected with physiology." forming. and was made principal of Glasgow University. "had no mortal. who endorsed his philosophy. Page 224 of 2772 . BAILLY. he is of the school of John Stuart Mill. BAIN. installed mayor of Paris." and "Mental and Moral Science". Ancient and Modern. tried for complicity in the Rye House Plot. his most popular works were.ramakalai@gmail. lost favour with the people. a sculptor. an astronomer. Computer Lecturer. born at Paris. Exposed beforehand "for hours long. JEAN SYLVAIN. the subject of one of his critical essays (1599-1662).' said he meekly. born in Bristol. born at Aberdeen. a zealous Scotch Presbyterian.. BAILLIE. thou tremblest. and barbarously executed the same day (in 1683) for fear he should die afterwards and cheat the gallows of its victim. ROBERT. where he was much esteemed by and exercised a great influence over his pupils." and the "Graces Seated" (1788-1867). 'Bailly. studied under Flaxman. his psychology. as they do. amid curses and bitter frost-rain. professor of Logic in the university. and unfairly condemned to death. was imprisoned as an enemy of the popular cause and cruelly guillotined. ALEXANDER." "The Sleeping Girl. "His Letters and Journals" were published by the Bannatyne Club.com to represent twice over in London. and are commended by Carlyle as "veracious.' said one. H. he was a royalist all the same." "The Emotions and the Will. has written on composition in a very uninteresting style. was based on empiricism and the inductive method. to the utter exclusion of all _a priori_ or transcendental speculation. Chennai 6. 'Mon ami. his chief works. _b_." says Carlyle. CTSTI. "Eve Listening to the Voice. "The Senses and the Intellect." BAILY. E. was distracted from further study of the science by the occurrence of the Revolution. wrote the "History of Astronomy.

sultan of the Ottoman Turks. Egypt. seventy days later. on the birds and mammals of N. as was fit. the capital of Upper Franconia. born at Newbyth. and on the fall of Sir John Moore at Corunna. simple but massive. in vindication of Scotch orthodoxy. bequeathed L500. followed by another of four days.000 to support churches (1802-1876). _i. to the memory of Jean Paul. entered the army at 15. who died there. BAIRD. surnamed ILDERIM. served in India. in command when the Cape of Good Hope was wrested from the Dutch. a Mohammedan festival of three days at the conclusion of the Ramadan. e_. MARGRAVINE OF.ramakalai@gmail. BAJAZET` I. FULLERTON. in commemoration of the offering up of Isaac. sister of Frederick the Great.. SIR DAVID. was present at the taking of Seringapatam. CTSTI. founder of the Baird Lectureship. as well as contributed to fish-culture and fisheries (1823-1887). BAIRD. called the Second Bairam. a distinguished English general of Scotch descent. WILHELMINA. BAI`REUTH (24). wounded. Computer Lecturer. an American naturalist. and at the Cape. with a large theatre erected by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions. BAIREUTH. along with others. America. left "Memoirs" of her time (1709-1758). he afterwards retired (1757-1829). JAMES. and the siege of Pondicherry. wrote. in Bavaria. BAIRAM. Chennai 6. Page 225 of 2772 . Aberdeenshire.com 1818. and accompanied with sacrifices. ironmaster. and with a monument. S. BAIRD.

where he died (1603-1645). a man of enterprise and travel. from the energy and rapidity of his movements. deputy from the University of Louvain to the Council of Trent.com Lightning. are connected by pipes with Computer Lecturer. BAKSHISH. CTSTI. in some cases so gushing as to overflow in streams. a country gentleman. aimed at Constantinople. commanded an expedition under the Khedive into the Soudan. author of "The Chronicle of the Kings of England. born in Kent. visited Cyprus and travelled over India. who is said to have shut him in a cage and carried him about with him in his train till the day of his death (1347-1403). 11. BAKER. pushed everything before him in his advance on Europe. still subject to eruptions. SIR RICHARD.. but was met and defeated on the plain of Angora by Tamerlane. where he incurred much obloquy at the hands of the Jesuits by his insistence of the doctrines of Augustine. Page 226 of 2772 . in a district so impregnated and saturated in parts with petroleum that by digging in the soil wells are formed. BAKER.ramakalai@gmail. as the Jansenists did after him (1513-1580). BAKER. MOUNT. MICHAEL. BA`JUS. SIR SAMUEL WHITE. left a record of his travels in five volumes with different titles (1821-1893). discovered the Albert Nyanza. wrote an account of it in a book. often referred to by Sir Roger de Coverley. Chennai 6." which he wrote in the Fleet prison.000 ft. a volcano in the Cascade range. "Ismailia". a word used all over the East to denote a small fee for some small service rendered. which wells. born in London. reckoned by hundreds. BAKU (107). a Russian port on the Caspian Sea.

the county town of Merioneth. and Carlyle's essay on the "Corn-Law Rhymes" for its application to modern State councillors of the same time-serving type.com refineries in the town. BALA. among other events. from the spontaneous ignition of the petroleum. BALANOGLOS`SUS. Bala Lake. a worm-like marine animal. preservation of the equilibrium existing among the States of Europe as a security of peace.. regarded by the zoologist as a possible connecting link between invertebrates and vertebrates. of Sebastopol. was banished to Siberia. BALANCE OF TRADE. 4 m. native of Moscow.ramakalai@gmail. and said to be in favour of the country whose exports exceed in value the imports in that respect. but was expelled (1814-1876). BAKU`NIN. long. a district which. xxii. MICHAEL. a Midianitish soothsayer. Computer Lecturer. the difference in value between the exports and the imports of a country. with a large land-locked basin. in Wales. a small port 6 m. and with a depth of 100 ft. and famous in the war. an extreme and violent anarchist. BALACLA`VA. and their probable fate. the head-quarters of the British during the Crimean war. and a leader of the movement.-xxiv. SE. BA`LAAM. joined the International. for the account of him see Num. but escaped. was long ago a centre of attraction to the Parsees or fire-worshippers of the East. for the "Charge of the Six Hundred. for long an important consideration with European statesmen. Chennai 6. CTSTI. the largest lake in Wales. Page 227 of 2772 ." BALANCE OF POWER. and resorted to by them as holy ground.

goes under the name of bully. devoted his later years to literature. SW. BALBO. as on earth. an Italian statesmen and publicist. in spite of. the largest lake in Hungary. wrote a life of Dante. works in advocacy of Italian independence (1789-1853). born at Turin. 48 m. the sun-god of the Norse mythology. are subject in the long-run to mortality. a Castilian noble. from jealousy of the glory he had acquired and the consequent influence in the State (1475-1517). or projecting from the wall. BALD`ER. CTSTI. BAL`ATON. slightly saline. broad." who is fated to die. established a settlement at Darien. LAKE. VASCO NUNEZ DE. Page 228 of 2772 . suspended from the roof. BALBI. and dies. CALEB.ramakalai@gmail. either supported on columns. discovered the Pacific. or thrones. put to death by a new governor. a pathetic symbol conceived in the Norse imagination of how all things in heaven. CAESARE. the wise. Chennai 6. the faithful old domestic in Scott's "Bride of Computer Lecturer. took possession of territory in the name of Spain. altars. BALDACHINO. a geographer of Italian descent. who composed in French a number of works bearing on geography (1782-1848). long. born at Venice. a vegetable gum used as a substitute for gutta-percha. ADRIANO. the benignant. of Pesth. BALDERSTONE. and to the grief of. all the gods of the pantheon. being at once ductile and elastic. and 10 m. 56 m. a tent-like covering or canopy over portals. "the beautiful. and abounds in fish.com BALATA. BALBO`A.

king of Jerusalem. a German artist. which lasted only 57 years (1217-1273). JOHN. B. accompanied him on the crusade. contracted a disease in Egypt. and was made emperor. BALDWIN. CTSTI. succeeded his brother Godfrey de Bouillon. Page 229 of 2772 . a friend of Duerer's. Chennai 6. born in Suabia. died in 1186 (1058-1118). count of Hainault and Flanders. and supported by Cromwell. made himself master of most of the towns on the coast of Syria." now in Freiburg Cathedral (1300-1347). HANS. and was buried on Mount Calvary. BALDRICK. in Ireland. the last of whom. bishop of Ossory. assuming said title. or HANS GRUeN." the family he serves his pride. his greatest work. born in Suffolk. archbishop of Canterbury.. eight in all. BALDWIN. BALDWIN I. a masterpiece.com Lammermoor. was defeated and taken prisoner by the Bulgarians (1171-1206). died at Acre in 1191. BALE. dagger. there were five of this name and title. a convert from Popery.ramakalai@gmail. author of a Computer Lecturer.. nephew of Baldwin I. a painting of the "Crucifixion. a child of some eight years old.. by birth. was made bishop by Edward VI. persecuted out of the country as an apostate from Popery. with a sword. BALDUNG. joined the fourth crusade. last king of the Latin dynasty. led the van in the capture of Constantinople.. across the body diagonally. or horn suspended from it. returned to Jerusalem. II. an ornamental belt worn hanging over the shoulder.. the first Latin emperor of Constantinople. crowned Richard Coeur de Lion. the name of several counts of Flanders. BALDWIN I.

BALFOUR. SIR JAMES." BALI. CTSTI. 1583. educated at Eton and Cambridge. _b_. of Irish birth. FRANCIS MAITLAND. sided now with this party. Computer Lecturer. MICHAEL WILLIAM. and world-famous (1808-1870)." his masterpiece. a group of five islands off the coast of Valencia. having been one and all systematically trained to the use of the sling from early childhood. long by 40 m. author of "The Bohemian Girl. BALFOUR OF BURLEY. BALFOUR. Chennai 6. Lord President of the Court of Session. 75 m. brother of the preceding. coffee. and First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the House of Commons in Lord Salisbury's ministry. cap. of Whittinghame. born near Wexford. a musical composer. East Lothian. inhabitants in ancient times famous as expert slingers. author of a "Defence of Philosophic Doubt" and a volume of "Essays and Addresses". and tobacco. broad. in Spain. BALFE. a promising biologist. BALFOUR. an unprincipled man. _d_. career was cut short by death in attempting to ascend the Wetterhorn (1851-1882). and that at the most critical period in Scottish history. J. nephew of Lord Salisbury. to his own advantage. Page 230 of 2772 . A. produces cotton.ramakalai@gmail. native of Fife. 1848.. Palma (58). now with the opposite. BALEARIC ISLES (312).com valuable account of early British writers (1495-1563). Majorca the largest. leader of the Covenanters in Scott's "Old Mortality. one of the Samoa Islands.

son of the following. 1269. CTSTI. but intensely salt. in Central America. THE. &c. above sea-level. e. trade in mahogany. JOHN DE. supported by Edward III. the capital of British Honduras. of Norman descent. i.. a mountain range extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.ramakalai@gmail.com BALIOL. was supported by Edward I. founder of Baliol College. but rebelled. BALIZE. LAKE. invaded Scotland.. Oxford. BALKANS. laid claim to the Scottish crown on the death of the Maid of Norway in 1290. a guardian to the heir to the Scottish crown on the death of Alexander III. died in 1314 in Normandy. in their stinging humorous style.. as King Toom Tabard. and obliged to renounce all claim to the crown. 6500 ft. bounded on the N. SIR JOHN DE. mean height. by the Save and the Lower Danube. by Greece. 150 m. _d_. after spending some three years in the Tower. son of the following. and was forced publicly to resign the crown. Empty King Cloak. EDWARD. 1369. died at Doncaster. on receipt of a pension. BALKASH. BALKAN PENINSULA. BALIOL. long and 73 m. Chennai 6. properly the range dividing Bulgaria from Roumania. 780 ft. and on the S. Page 231 of 2772 . the territory between the Adriatic and the AEgean Sea. Computer Lecturer. or BELIZE. rosewood. was driven from the kingdom. broad. satirised by the Scotch. BALIOL. and did homage to him for his kingdom. the waters clear. a lake in Siberia. was crowned king at Scone.

mathematician and astronomer. born at Lyons.. JOHN. reduced now to a village.ramakalai@gmail. BALLANTINE. his chief work "la Palingenesie Sociale. BALL`ANTYNE. PIERRE SIMON." his aim being the regeneration of society (1814-1847). a priest who had been excommunicated for denouncing the abuses of the Church. broad. long and 120 m. 1840. JAMES. a failure in which Scott was seriously implicated (1772-1833). Computer Lecturer. BALL. the best known of a popular kind on the former science being "The Story of the Heavens". failed in business. with a capital of the same name. CTSTI. generally of patriotic interest. a native of Kelso. a mystic writer. printed all Sir Walter Scott's works. birthplace of Zoroaster.com BALKH. BALLAD. a ringleader in the Wat Tyler rebellion. captured and executed. SERJEANT. _b_. glass-stainer and poet. a story in verse. born in Edinburgh (1808-1877). SIR R. composed with spirit. became a printer in Edinburgh. BALLANCHE. anciently called Bactria. author of works on astronomy and mechanics. a district of Afghan Turkestan lying between the Oxus and the Hindu-Kush. Chennai 6. BALL. Astronomer-Royal for Ireland. S. distinguished counsel in celebrated criminal cases (1812-1887). born in Dublin. and sung originally to the harp. Page 232 of 2772 . JAMES. BALLANTINE. 250 m.

ramakalai@gmail." BAL`MEZ. JACQUES. above sea-level. BALMAWHAPPLE. Computer Lecturer. the precious metal being at first washed out of the soil. NW.com BALLANTYNE. author of "Protestantism and Catholicism compared in their Effects on the Civilisation of Europe" (1810-1848). of Melbourne. an inimitable story-teller and mimic. from Ballater. a celebrated Alpine guide (1796-1834). brother of preceding. it is the seat of both a Roman Catholic and a Church of England bishopric. Page 233 of 2772 . stands 668 ft. and now crushed out of the quartz rocks and dug out of deep mines. 9 m. of Chamounix. 521/2 m. a town in Victoria. Chennai 6. JOHN. from Aberdeen. the centre of the chief gold-fields in the colony. BALMAT. a castle on the upper valley of the Dee. a clean Aberdeenshire village on the Dee. BALLARAT` (40). a confidant of Sir Walter's in the matter of the anonymity of the Waverley Novels. and since 1851 the second city in the province. BALL`ATER. an able Spanish Journalist. about 100 m. BALMOR`AL. at the foot of Braemar. very much to the delight of Sir Walter (1774-1821). the Highland residence of Queen Victoria. a favourite summer resort. on a site which took the fancy of both the Queen and the Prince Consort on their first visit to the Highlands. a prejudiced Scotch clergyman in "Waverley. CTSTI.

BALTIMORE (550). flour. The industries are varied and extensive. for having conspired with Charles the Rash. owing to the number of rivers that flow into it and the slight evaporation that goes on at the latitude. minister of Louis XI. _d_. CTSTI. is picturesquely situated. 1579. BALSALL. engaged in hardware manufacture. not quite so regular in design as most American cities. iron. HENRY. BALNAVES. and tobacco. It is the seat of the John Hopkins University. the sharp-cutting sword of Siegfried. coadjutor of John Knox in the Scottish Reformation. but noted for its fine architecture and its public monuments. grain. Chennai 6. by Louis in an iron cage for eleven Computer Lecturer. afterwards contributed towards formulating the creed of the Scotch Church. of Europe. CARDINAL. when he fell in pieces. 900 m. on an arm of Chesapeake Bay. an inland sea in the N. broad. so sharp that a smith cut in two by it did not know he was so cut till he began to move. BALTIC PROVINCES. the metropolis of Maryland. the navigation of it is practically closed from the middle of December to April. comparatively shallow. waters fresher than those of the ocean. imprisoned. long and from 100 to 200 m. a thriving suburb of Birmingham. about the size of England and Wales. flour. the exports. BALTIC SEA. Page 234 of 2772 . and steel.com BALMUNG. has no tides.. including textiles. 250 m. tobacco. BALUE.ramakalai@gmail. The staple trade is in bread-stuffs. and a fellow-sufferer with him in imprisonment and exile. from the Atlantic. born at Kirkcaldy. owing to the inlets being blocked with ice. Russian provinces bordering on the Baltic. and educated in Germany.

" the whole being a minute dissection of the different classes of society (1799-1850). containing the tomb of its founder.ramakalai@gmail. JEAN LOUIS GUEZ DE. yields grain. BALZAC." but in this way did much to improve the language.000). HONORE DE. _d_." says Prof. the natives are negroes of the Mohammedan faith.. See Beluchistan. Saintsbury. native of Tours. "he deliberately wrote. and palm-oil. a country lying to the S. BAMBERG (35). CTSTI. and subtle and profound delineation of human passion. Bavaria. born at Angouleme. a magnificent edifice. BAMBINO. in France. once the centre of an independent bishopric. and contributed by his "Letters" to the classic form it assumed under Louis XIV. a figure of the infant Christ wrapped in swaddling bands. Computer Lecturer. and are good husbandmen. BAMBAR`RA (2. 1685. warmth and fertility of imagination. with a cathedral. BALUCHISTAN. the Emperor Henry II. of Afghanistan and extending to the Persian Gulf. the infant in pictures surrounded by a halo and angels. a French litterateur and gentleman of rank. his productions remarkable for their sense of reality.com years (1421-1491). the soil fertile. cotton. dates. Page 235 of 2772 . who devoted his life to the refinement of the French language. they show power of observation. and not because he had anything particular to say. "for the sake of writing. the "Comedie Humaine. a manufacturing town in Upper Franconia. Chennai 6. a Soudan state on the banks of the Upper Niger. one of the most brilliant as well as prolific novelwriters of modern times. his design in producing them being to make them form part of one great work. BALZAC. opened up to trade.

an island in the Eastern Archipelago. BAMIAN`. left property which yields a revenue worth L200 a year. a fertile but unhealthy negro territory. BANCROFT. BAMBOUK (800). an American historian.com BAMBOROUGH CASTLE. above sea-level. worked by Chinese. author of a "History of the Pacific States of N. now an alms-house. celebrated for its cross and its cakes. 1832. an American statesman. side. CTSTI. Page 236 of 2772 . diplomatist. RICHARD. America". BANBURY. are hewn huge figures of Buddha. for the endowment of which John Bampton. a zealous Churchman and an enemy of the Puritans. BANCROFT. _b_. 8500 ft. full of caves.. HUBERT. high. with an unhealthy climate. eight in number. a high-lying valley in Afghanistan. on the coast of Northumberland. and historian. Chennai 6. BANCA (80). BAMPTON LECTURES. born in Massachusetts. with mineral wealth and deposits of gold. GEORGE. one of them 173 ft. his chief work "The History of the United States.ramakalai@gmail. a market-town in Oxfordshire. belonging to the Dutch. canon of Salisbury. out of the rocks on its N. annual lectures on Christian subjects. of Bambarra. an ancient fortress E. and a faithful account (1800-1891). represented the Church at the Hampton Court Computer Lecturer. of Belford. archbishop of Canterbury." issued finally in six vols. rich in tin. BANCROFT. all of ancient date. W.

some twelve in number.. born in London. his work "Hercules and Cacus" is the most ambitious of his productions. a Florentine sculptor. See URUGUAY. and other dramatists of their time (1480-1562). belonging to Holland. opened with her the Haymarket Theatre in 1880. fishing and agriculture the great industries. in 1844. a writer of tales. Page 237 of 2772 . though mountainous on the S. yield nutmegs and mace. some of which furnished themes and incidents for Shakespeare.com Conference. and was chief overseer of the Authorised Version of the Bible (1554-1610). to the cause of Italian independence. Computer Lecturer. tried hard to rival Michael Angelo and Cellini. and have appeared since only occasionally. an actress. at which time both retired. and SE. Chennai 6. BANDA ORIENTAL. BANDIE`RA. an Italian Dominican monk. at the mouth of the Deveron. the county itself (64) stretches level along the coast. are subject to earthquakes.ramakalai@gmail. BANDA ISLES. made his first appearance in Birmingham in 1861. did a "Descent from the Cross" in bas-relief. BANCROFT. on the Moray Firth. BANFF (7). SIR SQUIRE. BANDELLO. county town of Banffshire. married Mrs. CTSTI. BANDINELLI. in Milan Cathedral (1487-1559). martyrs. English actor. Wilton. retired in 1885. Massinger. a group of the Moluccas. born in Venice. brothers.

BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY. Premier of Hungary. he is a strong Liberal. and was made Premier in 1893. preached before George I. BANGHIS.ramakalai@gmail. a controversy in the Church of England provoked by a sermon which Hoadley. from the canals which intersect it. in 1717. and the capital. the centre of the foreign trade. a place of summer resort. CTSTI. styled. and on the shore of which he died. Wales. long. BARON. Computer Lecturer. 150 m. born at Klausenburg. in the courtyard of which several white elephants are kept. BANGOR (9). the "Venice of the East". above sea-level. with large slate quarries. from the sea. on the Menam. which offended the sticklers for ecclesiastical authority. BAN`GALORE (180). became in 1874 provincial prefect of Transylvania. with the royal palace standing on an island. and half as wide. an episcopal city in Carnarvon. N. bishop of Bangor. a lake in Equatorial Africa. is manufacturing and trading. from the beauty of its surroundings. _b_. carried on by Europeans and Chinese. BANGWEO`LO. stands high.com BANFFY. discovered by Livingstone. the capital of Siam. a low-caste people in the Ganges valley. Chennai 6. 1841. the Hindu name for the Delta of the Ganges. BANGK`OK (500). BANGA. 3690 ft. the largest town in Mysore. was elected a peer on the formation of the Upper Hungarian Chamber. Page 238 of 2772 . 20 m. a very striking city.

Michael survived him 32 years (1798-1842). the carriers and caravan-conductors of the region. 1314. a complete set having been sold for L235. BANKS. the scene of the victory. BANJARI.ramakalai@gmail." now in the entrance-hall of Burlington House. a native of Kilkenny. &c. "Psyche" and "Achilles Enraged. his finest works.. BANIM. a manufacturing village 3 m. poetry. a non-Aryan race in Central India. but was rescued by a public subscription and a pension. left his collection and a valuable library and herbarium to the British Museum. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. he fell into poverty. THOMAS. of Irish stories. BANKS. particularly in botany. which reasserted and secured Scottish independence. Chennai 6. on June 24. or general literature. Irish author. BANNATYNE CLUB. JOHN. of specimens in natural history. born at Lambeth. first appreciated by the Empress Catharine. wrote 24 vols. Page 239 of 2772 . of Robert the Bruce over Edward II. dissolved in 1861. BAN`NOCKBURN (2). president of the Royal Society for 41 years (1744-1820). it manufactures carpets and tartans. SIR JOSEPH. a club founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish interest.com BANIAN DAYS. a zealous naturalist. his health giving way. an eminent English sculptor. in lands far and wide. novelist of Irish peasant life on its dark side. who. all deemed of value. of which it printed 116. a collector. along with his brother Michael. he excelled in imaginative art (1735-1805). days when no meat is served out to ships' crews. of Stirling. SE. whether in history..

Banting. recommended by a Mr. S. and the matter comparatively insignificant. suggests rather a linguistic than an ethnological distinction. THEODORE DE.ramakalai@gmail. not final.com BAN`SHEE. a deep inlet on the SW. a London merchant. with their languages. who gave warnings by wailings of an approaching death in it. BANTAM.. a dietary for keeping down fat. CTSTI. well characterised as "_Roi des Rimes_. Chennai 6. a tree whose branches. BANTRY BAY. and in some parts of the Highlands and Brittany. BANTU. among the Irish. lat. BANVILLE. coast of Ireland. take root and form new stocks. bending to the ground. Computer Lecturer. whence the Bantam fowl is thought to have come. there are touches here and there of both fine feeling and sharp wit (1823-1891). abandoned as unhealthy by the Dutch. he recommended lean meat. that occupy Africa from 6 deg. the name of most of the races. for one thing. however. a French poet. Page 240 of 2772 . a chief town in Java." for with him form was everything. born at Moulins. the Indian fig. BANYAN. a fairy. the language differing radically from all other known forms of speech--the inflection. believed to be attached to a family. till they cover a large area and become a forest. being in several respects superior. and kept guard over it. to 20 deg. and the avoidance of sugar and starchy foods. though. chiefly initial. a place of shelter for ships. are negroid rather than negro. N. BANTING SYSTEM. the name. in a "Letter on Corpulence" in 1863.

insist that the rite of initiation is duly administered only by immersion. under which all the spectres that haunted him withered up. but which they may rather be surmised to have invoked to curse them if they failed in their vow. the Christian rite of initiation into the membership of the Church. JEAN. which the Templars were accused of worshipping. presumed represent Mahomet.com BA`OBAB. II. and have included in their membership a number of eminent men. however they may and do differ on other matters. BAPTISMAL REGENERATION. sometimes called Anabaptists to distinguish them from Paedobaptists. a denomination of Christians. BAPTISM. remarkable for the girth of its trunk. the thickness of its branches. and alienation all over the Churches of Christendom. and their expansion. in which the rite of baptism is administered. a large African tropical tree.. where he speaks of the "Baphometic fire-baptism" of his hero. the most remarkable. vi. 4) with that No to the world which precedes or rather accompanies Yea to God. identified by St.ramakalai@gmail. a mysterious image. and to those who are of age to make an intelligent profession of faith. a name given to the French Canadians. chapter vii. BAPHOMET. debate." end of Bk. Chennai 6. BAPTISTS. they are a numerous body. that of Pisa. CTSTI. who. Page 241 of 2772 . Carlyle refers to this cult in "Sartor. particularly in America. BAPTISTE. but a misunderstanding of the nature of which has led to endless diversity. a circular building. BAPTISTRY. the High Church doctrine that the power of Computer Lecturer. its leaves and seeds are used in medicine. Paul (Rom. and more so in England than in Scotland. sometimes detached from a church.

BARBARA.com spiritual life. originally those who could not speak Greek. BARBARIANS. the imaginary island of which Sancho Panza was formally installed governor. ACHILLE. one of the Windward Islands. arrowroot. rather larger than the Isle of Wight. as well as under Louis Napoleon.ramakalai@gmail. how. who was immediately after the act struck dead by lightning. and where in most comical situations he learned how imaginary is the authority of a king. BARBACAN. particularly literary. forfeited by the Fall. distinguished himself under Louis Philippe in Algeria. Festival. CTSTI. almost encircled by coral reefs. subject to hurricanes. a fortification to a castle outside the walls. and of Mantua. a Christian martyr of the 3rd century. her attributes are a tower. Page 242 of 2772 . BARAGUAY D'HILLIERS`. ST. generally at the end of the drawbridge in front of the gate. is bestowed on the soul in the sacrament of baptism duly administered. instead of governing his subjects. and aloes. is the most densely peopled of the Windward Islands. Dec. and a crown. 4. Computer Lecturer. beheaded by her own father. or BARBICAN. and ultimately synonymous with the uncivilised and people without culture. ginger.. this is the sense in which Matthew Arnold uses it. BARATARIA. a sword. a French marshal who fought under Napoleon at Quatre-Bras. healthy and well cultivated. a fanatical heathen. his subjects govern him. it yields sugar. Chennai 6. she is the patron saint of those who might otherwise die impenitent. presided at the trial of Marshal Bazaine (1795-1878). BARBA`DOES (182).

held out against Marat and Robespierre. and of which there is a colony on the Rock of Gibraltar. turned corsair. that "he is not yet dead. BARBAROUX. CHARLES. died at Constantinople in 1546. became viceroy of the Porte. leaning on his elbow. winking. advocate. when he will reappear. Red-beard). then drooped his eyelids again: 'Not yet time. Page 243 of 2772 . a native of Mitylene. represented Marseilles in the Constituent Assembly and the Convention. BARBARY APE. native of the mountainous parts of Barbary. the surname of Frederick I. BARBAROSSA. only half-asleep. Computer Lecturer. became sovereign of Algiers by the murder of Selim the emir. brother and successor of the preceding. a tailless monkey of gregarious habits. HORUK. of which he became town-clerk. came to Paris "a young Spartan. and streamed out on the floor. beard had grown through the table. emperor of Germany.'" BARBAROSSA (i. but only sleeping. made admiral under the sultan. Chennai 6.com BARBAROSSA. but the shot miscarried. the only one in Europe. who had adopted him as an ally against Spain. was defeated twice by the Spanish general Gomarez and slain (1473-1518)." and became chief of the Girondins in the French Revolution. as a peasant once tumbling into the interior saw him. till the bad world reach its worst. He looked at the peasant one moment.ramakalai@gmail. sent "fire-eyed" message to Marseilles for six hundred men "who knew how to die". CTSTI. at a marble table. asked something about the time it was. joined the Rolands. He sits within a cavern near Saltzburg. and joined the French against Spain. ravaged the coast of Italy. declared an enemy of the people. but will be soon. was captured and guillotined (1767-1794). drew his pistol and shot himself. mistook a company approaching for Jacobins. of whom there is this tradition.. born at Marseilles. e. KHAIR-EDDIN. opposed Andrea Doria. had to flee.

a French bibliographer. 1432. and one made pope in 1623 under the name Urban VIII. died at the Hague (1809-1870). BAR`BECUE.com BARBARY STATES. expatriated himself voluntarily. BARBIER. &c. ANTOINE ALEX. author of a "Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works" (1765-1825). a mining town and important centre in the Transvaal. and VII. BARBAZAN. Algeria.. E. (1743-1825). formerly common in the SW. at which the animals are roasted and dressed whole. _nee_ Aiken. imprisoned in 1848. _d_. an illustrious and influential Florentine family." in which she was assisted by a brother.ramakalai@gmail.. a French general under Charles VI. a feast in the open air on a large scale. ANNA LAETITIA. BARBERI`NI. BARBAULD. Page 244 of 2772 . so called from the Berbers who inhabit the region. of Pretoria. liberated in 1854. ARMAND. BARBERTON. States of N. 180 m. Tunis. the four states of Morocco. several of the members of which were cardinals. a French politician. who deservedly earned for himself the name of the Irreproachable Knight. and Tripoli. BARBES. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. surnamed the Bayard of Democracy. America." "Evenings at Home. wrote "Hymns in Prose for Children. an English popular and accomplished authoress. CTSTI.

BARCA (500).. and possessing both historical and literary merit. ALEX. (1689-1771). has numerous churches. historical and anecdotical. BARCA. a French satirical poet. his only extant work a poem entitled "The Bruce.com BARBIER. known as the Barcine faction. which he ceased to be on the dissolution of the monasteries. and olives. born in Paris. of Africa. author of a journal. a work consisting of 13. produces maize. bred a monk in England. archdeacon of Aberdeen. Chennai 6. the largest town in Spain next to Madrid. and its largest manufacturing town. and its chief port. of the time of Louis XV. BARBOUR. a man of learning and sagacity. figs. on the Mediterranean. author of "Iambics" (1805-1882). dates. called the "Spanish Manchester.ramakalai@gmail. FR. HENRY.000 octosyllabic lines. jurisconsult of the parliament. a Scotch poet and chronicler. BARBIER. wrote vigorous political verses. and determinedly opposed to the ascendency of Rome.. 1195. Page 245 of 2772 . Hasdrubal. is the seat of a bishopric and a university. of Scotch birth." being a long history in rhyme of the life and achievements of Robert the Bruce. CTSTI. "the whole of the eager struggle for Scottish freedom against the English. born in Paris. ED." the staple manufacture being cotton. and Hannibal belonged. and the national spirit in it full grown into life. which closed at Bannockburn. between Tripoli and Egypt. "represents." _d_. BARCELO`NA (280). name of a Carthaginian family to which Hamilcar. JOHN. convents. a Turkish province in the N." partly a translation and partly Computer Lecturer. with a naval arsenal. BARCLAY. and theatres. wrote "The Ship of Fools. a poet and prose-writer." says Stopford Brooke.

and superseded in command by Kutusow. distinguished in successive Russian wars. and led them into France in 1815. and elevated to the rank of prince (1761-1818). WILLIAM. on the latter's death was made commander-in-chief. BARCLAY. of Scottish descent. ROBERT. but intuition. his greatest work. educated by the Jesuits. translated more than once into English (1582-1621). commanded the Russians at Dresden and Leipzig. "An Apology for the True Christian Divinity. the celebrated apologist of Quakerism. CTSTI. BARCLAY DE TOLLY. the leading thesis of which is that Divine Truth is not matter of reasoning. Chennai 6." says Stopford Brooke. an eminent citizen and professor of Law at Angers. joined the Society of Friends. a Russian general and field-marshal. and dedicated to Charles II. "but it was popular because it attacked the follies and questions of the time. much thought of by Cowper. 1605. he was afterwards Minister of War at St. JOHN. as his father had done before him. and patent to the understanding of every truth-loving soul (1645-1690). his promotion rapid." a Latin romance. on Napoleon's invasion of Russia his tactic was to retreat till forced to fight at Smolensk. and of the same family as Robert Barclay the Quaker. Page 246 of 2772 . he was defeated. born in Morayshire. Computer Lecturer. Petersburg. born in France.ramakalai@gmail.. BARCLAY. All these Barclays were of Scottish descent. a stanch Catholic. in spite of his unpopularity as German born. tempted hard to become a Catholic. and its sole interest to us is in its pictures of familiar manners and popular customs" (1475-1552). written in Latin as well as in English. leader of the sect of the Bereans (1734-1798). _d_. JOHN.com an imitation of the German "Narrerschiff" of Brandt. father of John (1). wrote the "Argenis. "It has no value. as the same is held forth and preached by the People called in scorn Quakers. BARCLAY." a great work. BARCLAY.

yet the Assembly for the remarkablest purpose. at 4000 ft. Chennai 6." who sues Pickwick for breach of promise." says Carlyle. and the Little Parliament had to go its ways again. with what we call the Devil and all his angels against it. OF TWICKENHAM. CTSTI... Cowper. BARDELL`.. Akenside. Page 247 of 2772 . from one Praise-God Barebone. Campbell. Computer Lecturer. In this it failed. Wordsworth. OF RYDAL MOUNT. met 4th July 1653. derisively called Barebone's Parliament. a drunken. BAR-DURANI. resorted to for its mineral waters.ramakalai@gmail. Cromwell's Little Parliament. a member of it. Burns. OF MEMORY. BARDOLPH." 12th December in the same year. BAREBONE'S PARLIAMENT. MRS. the business being no less than introducing of the Christian religion into real practice in the social affairs of this nation. OF IMAGINATION.. Pope. Shakespeare. a widow in the "Pickwick Papers. OF OLNEY. the collective name of a number of Afghan tribes between the Hindu-Kush and the Soliman Mountains. BARDON HILL. OF AYRSHIRE. Rogers. from which one can see right across England.com BARD OF AVON. "If not the remarkablest Assembly. "that ever met in the modern world. a village on the Hautes-Pyrenees. could not but fail. OF HOPE. BAREGES. above the sea-level. swaggering. worthless follower of Falstaff's. a hill in Leicestershire.

" of the "Sinking of the _Vengeur_." he was inventor of the famous fable "his masterpiece. an Italian lexicographer." "the largest. BARFRUeSH (603). became a spy under Napoleon. a goblin long an object of terror in the N. BARERE. BARETTI. the National Assembly of France. in 1596. India.com BAREILLY (121). and by Mercier. "the greatest liar in France. of Cherbourg. E. notable as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first broke out. BARFLEUR. of England. of Delhi. and the Convention. E. most inspiring piece of _blaque_ manufactured. a seaport 15 m. and doubled the NE. BARENTZ.ramakalai@gmail. an Arctic explorer." escaped the fate of his associates. born in Friesland. discovered Spitzbergen. Page 248 of 2772 . 153 m. a member of the States-General. famous for its bazaar. uttering the oft-quoted words. was called by Burke. French revolutionary. the chief town in Rohilkhand. Computer Lecturer. "The tree of Liberty thrives only when watered by the blood of tyrants. Chennai 6. BAR`GUEST. a city in NW. extremity of Nova Zembla. voted in the Convention for the execution of the king. See VENGEUR." died in beggary (1755-1841). patronised by Johnson. for some centuries. from his flowery oratory. of the Caspian. born in Turin. by any man or nation. CTSTI. THE. became secretary of the Royal Academy (1719-1789). GIUSEPPE. a small negro nation on the banks of the White Nile. BARI. a town S. where William the Conqueror set out with his fleet to invade England. taught Italian in London. and died the same year. the Anacreon of the Guillotine.

a market-town in Essex. 1834.ramakalai@gmail. Page 249 of 2772 ." published originally as a series of papers in _Bentley's Miscellany_ (1788-1879). RICHARD HARRIS. a voluminous writer on all manner of subjects. SABINE. amassed property. minor canon of St. being a Christianised version of an earlier legend relating to Buddha. BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT. founder of the great banking firm of Baring Brothers & Co. _b_." BARKER. HENRY. NE. especially the latter. of London. history. Paul's. his literary name Thomas Ingoldsby. a prince like Buddha. with the remains of an ancient Benedictine convent. rector of Lew-Trenchard. author of "Ingoldsby Legends. the exhilarating spirit distilled from barley Computer Lecturer. theology. Devonshire. a classical scholar. 7 m. is converted by Barlaam to a like ascetic life. a carrier-lad in "David Copperfield. E..com BARING. celebrated in various departments of literature. in which Josaphat." an arduous work. BARLEYCORN. BARKIS. a mediaeval legend. CTSTI. Chennai 6. BARHAM. born at Canterbury. "Barkis is willin'. and romance. BARKING. BARING-GOULD. and a man of wide reading. value of it said to have been nearly seven millions (1740-1810). died in poverty (1788-1839). SIR FRANCIS. friend of Sidney Smith. JOHN. born in Yorkshire. edited Stephens' "Thesaurus Linguae Graecae." in love with Peggotty.

in Rhenish Prussia. a member of the first Christian brotherhood. 1690. and was visited with a gnawing remorse to the end of his days.. and that in the end met with the cruellest fate. eminent for ability and virtue. JOEL. in extent. ST. the staple industry. The caliph. and which he enjoyed with such seeming gusto and such good-humour as to earn for himself a sumptuous real one. woman. BARMACIDE FEAST. a long town. so called from a story in the "Arabian Nights" of a hungry beggar invited by a Barmacide prince to a banquet. wrote a poem "The Vision of Columbus" (1755-1812).com personified. Chennai 6. a Persian family celebrated for their magnificence. BAR`MEN (116). a French watchmaker. BARNABAS. Page 250 of 2772 . and his four sons rose along with him to such influence in the government. which proved a long succession of merely empty dishes. 6 m. as to excite the jealousy of the caliph so much. the population consists chiefly of Protestants. an American poet and diplomatist. Yahya. and it is the centre of that industry on the Continent. a Computer Lecturer. the manufacture of ribbons. that he had the whole family invited to a banquet. CTSTI. BARLOW. inventor of the repeating watch. BAR`MACIDES. it is gratifying to learn. and it had fatal issues to his kingdom as well as himself.ramakalai@gmail. BARLOWE. and child of them massacred at midnight in cold blood. one of them. consisting of a series of hamlets. _d_. never forgave himself for this cruelty. was chosen by the world-famous Haroun-Al-Raschid on his accession to the caliphate to be his vizier. for his Republican zeal. and every man. was in 1792 accorded the rights of citizenship in France. an imaginary feast.

born at Grenoble." named after a Balcarres herd. Chennai 6. Festival. the 5th Earl of Balcarres. not to sue for preferment in the Church. published in 1841. birthplace of John Baliol. LADY ANNE." BARNAVE. one of Dickens' novels. American educationist. as the rest are. lived several years at the Cape. born in Fife. Paul's. the Epistle to the Hebrews has by some been ascribed to him. CTSTI. Dupont thinks it. and the scene of Scott's "Rokeby. in 1530. and characterised in the Acts as "a good man". daughter of Lindsay. and after his death. JOSEPH MARIE. in London (1750-1825). a proselytising order of monks founded at Milan. Barnave speaks it. by the three monastic vows. born in Connecticut. president of the French Constitutional Assembly in 1780. BARNARD CASTLE. bound. one of the trio in the Assembly of whom it was said. of Darlington. authoress of "Auld Robin Gray. BARNABY RUDGE." a defender of the monarchy from the day he gained the favour of the queen by his gallant Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. where Barnabas was reported to have been bishop. HENRY. "Whatsoever those three have on hand. Lameth does it. but is not believed to be his work. Page 251 of 2772 . BARNARD. an epistle extant bears his name. French lawyer. and by a vow in addition. an old tower W. he is usually represented in art as a venerable man of majestic mien." BAR`NARDINE. a reckless character in "Measure for Measure. with the Gospel of St.com companion of St. where he was born. BARNARD. where her husband held an appointment. Matthew in his hand. June 11. stoned to death at Cyprus. 1811. BARNABITES. in Durham.

fought for the independence of his country against Spain. name formerly given to an extreme radical party in the United States. WILLIAM. Chennai 6. author of "Poems of Rural Life in Dorset. THOMAS. was arrested. the king-maker. BARNETT. BARN-BURNERS. Page 252 of 2772 . and died on the scaffold at 71 years of age. JOHANN VAN OLDEN. to which Maurice belonged. Computer Lecturer. editor of the _Times_. and practised as an advocate there. as imitating the Dutchman who. BARNEVELDT. whose ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed. CTSTI. author of operas and a number of fugitive pieces (1802-1891). studied law at the Hague. burned his barns. a town in Hertfordshire. wrote on subjects of philological interest (1830-1886). in 1619. took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party. composer.. of a distinguished family. Grand Pensionary of Holland. BARNES. a local philologist. concluded a truce with Spain. under whom the paper first rose to the pre-eminent place it came to occupy among the journals of the day (1786-1841). being an Arminian. tried. born at Bedford. native of Dorsetshire. was slain. convicted by documentary evidence of conspiring with the court against the nation. almost a suburb of London." in three vols. to get rid of the rats. BARNES. in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice. has a large annual horse and cattle fair. BARNET (5). and condemned to death as a traitor and heretic. scene of a battle in 1471.com conduct to her on her way back to Paris from her flight with the king to Varennes. of the Synod of Dort.ramakalai@gmail. JOHN. too. at which Warwick. with sanction. a favourite resort of Londoners. was guillotined (1761-1793).

the sovereign of which is called the Guicowar. Page 253 of 2772 . in the prov. a manufacturing town in W. of Bombay.ramakalai@gmail. failed of the popehood from the intrigues of the Spaniards. BARONS' WAR. minister of Napoleon III. priest of the Congregation of the Oratory under its founder. and ultimately Superior. CAESAR. a great Catholic ecclesiastic.415). imitator of the style of Correggio (1528-1612).. with a capital (101) of the same name. a celebrated Italian painter. dying worth five million dollars (1810-1891). BAROCHE. BARNUM. Computer Lecturer. manufactures textile fabrics and glass. 18 m. written to prove that the Church of Rome was identical with the Church of the 1st century. the third city in the presidency. Yorkshire. whose political schemes he had frustrated (1538-1607). started in 1871 with his huge travelling show.com BARNSLEY (35). CTSTI. (1802-1870). and realised a fortune. his great work. engaged Jenny Lind for 100 concerts in 1849. with Hindu temples and a considerable trade. and realised another fortune. a French statesman. born near Naples. Chennai 6. "Annales Ecclesiastici." being a history of the first 12 centuries of the Church. BARO`DA (2. a war in England of the barons against Henry III. a native state of Gujerat. cardinal and librarian of the Vatican. of Sheffield. a work of immense research that occupied him 30 years. PIERRE-JULES. BAROCCI. began with the exhibition of George Washington's reputed nurse in 1834. an American showman. N. which he lost. BARO`NIUS. picked up Tom Thumb in 1844.

more lavish and showy rather than true and tasteful. Chennai 6. BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS." voted in the National Convention for the execution of the king. a small island.com headed by Simon de Montfort. above Calcutta. born in Dublin. PAUL FRANCOIS. Page 254 of 2772 . 5 m. charged with Computer Lecturer. the inhabitants of which are engaged in fisheries.. BAROQUE. BAR`RATRY. much in vogue from the 16th to the 18th centuries.ramakalai@gmail. BARRE. put an end to the career of Robespierre and the Reign of Terror. where the lieutenant-governor of Bengal has a residence. a member of the Jacobin Club. CTSTI. of S. and which lasted from 1258 to 1265. BARRAS. BAR`RACKPUR (18). Uist. born in Provence.. served under Wolfe in Canada. and handsome to the eye. ornamentation of a florid and incongruous character. 15 m. SW. supported Pitt. ballads by Rudyard Kipling.. took part in the siege of Toulon. one of the Hebrides." was a member of the Directory till Bonaparte swept it away (1755-1829). soldier and statesman. employed Bonaparte to command the artillery. this artillery officer the commandant. tall. the offence of inciting and stirring up riots and quarrels among the Queen's subjects. a town on the Hooghly. "he the commandant's cloak. with a fine martial strain. entered Parliament. a healthy resort of the Europeans. BARRA. named general-in-chief to oppose the reactionaries. ISAAC. also a fraud by a ship captain on the owners of a ship. "a man of heat and haste.

brother of the great tribune of the name. a slightly interrupted succession of coral reefs off the coast of Queensland. WILSON. of 1200 m. produced his Hamlet in 1884." in 1889. English actor. JEAN FRANCOIS.. _b_. _b_. made his _debut_ at Halifax. and "A Window in Thrums. BARRIE. of France. See BARERE. Leeds. JAMES MATTHEW.ramakalai@gmail. London. would-be assassin of Henry IV. PIERRE. and of the Court and the Princess's Theatres. are from 70 to 20 m. 1860. _d_. a writer with a rich vein of humour and pathos. produced. THE GREAT. Computer Lecturer. and recently "Margaret Ogilvie. CTSTI. born in Essex. Chennai 6. began his literary career as a contributor to journals. off the coast. BARRIERE. "Auld Licht Idylls" in 1888. in Forfarshire. and protect the intermediate channel from the storms of the Pacific.com authorship of "Junius' Letters". BARRIERE. and growing narrower as they go N. so called from his bulk and the liquor he held. lessee of the Grand Theatre. French historian of the Revolution (1786-1868). Page 255 of 2772 . born at Kirriemuir ("Thrums"). 1846. BARRETT. and 100 m. BARRIER REEF. broken on the wheel in 1593.. BARRERE. wide at the S. BARREL MIRABEAU." deemed by some likely to prove the most enduring thing he has yet written. among other works. extent. Viscount de Mirabeau. 1802.

the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in the Indies. BARROW. born at Villefort. gained the favour of the Nonconformists by his "Rights of Dissenters. the fourth. and founder of the library. CTSTI. the fifth." and a body of sermons remarkable for their vigour of thought and nervousness of Computer Lecturer. 1st Viscount. a river in Ireland rising in the Slievebloom Mts. JOAO DE. which ended in the capitulation of the city and the abdication of Napoleon. and master of Trinity. left six sons. accepted office under Louis Napoleon. and soon after Gresham professor of Geometry. "Asia Portugueza.. English scholar. falls into Waterford harbour. after a course of 114 m. subsequently Lucasian professor of Mathematics (in which he had Newton for successor). assisted under Lord Howe at the relief of Gibraltar. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. a distinguished Portuguese historian." relates. for his "Dissuasive from Jacobitism". a graduate of Cambridge.com BARRIERS. to return to office in 1872 (1791-1873). BARROS. a battle fought within the walls of Paris in 1814 between Napoleon and the Allies." and an Irish peerage from George I. Page 256 of 2772 . and fellow of Trinity College. BARRINGTON. BARROT. BARROW. a man of great intellectual ability and force of character. mathematician. contributed to the Revolutions of both 1830 and 1848. appointed professor of Greek at Cambridge. he did not live to complete it (1493-1570). retired after the _coup d'etat_. besides mathematical works. BATTLE OF THE. his great work. and became an admiral in 1787 (1678-1764). distinguished in law (1727-1800). famous as an advocate. JOHN SHUTE. particularly Daines. 1st Lord of the name. ODILON. all more or less distinguished. and Samuel. and divine. born in London. in a pure and simple style. left a "Treatise on the Pope's Supremacy. distinguished in the naval service. ISAAC.

served under De Ruyter. Computer Lecturer.com expression (1630-1677). or BARTH. the principal landowners in the district being the Dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch. painted the "Death of General Wolfe". was subsidised as a privateer. BART. Lancashire. son of a fisherman. was captured by the English. entered the French service at 20. JAMES. Anson. See PROCTER. owing to the discovery of extensive deposits of iron in the neighbourhood. defeated the Dutch admiral. BARRY. secretary to the Admiralty for 40 years. BARRY. JEAN. captured his squadron laden with corn. his masterpiece is the "Victors at Olympia" (1741-1806). of recent rapid growth. a town and seaport in N. unhampered by red-tapism of every kind (1651-1702). became professor of Painting at the Royal Academy. but escaped. he was one of the bravest of men and the most independent. purchased a ship of two guns. besides other public buildings (1795-1860). died in poverty. a distinguished French seaman. and much esteemed in that department. wrote the Lives of Macartney. born at Westminster. but was deposed. De Vries. architect. and Peter the Great (1764-1848). distinguished also as a man of letters. BARRY CORNWALL. born at Dunkirk. Howe. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. Page 257 of 2772 . BARROW. BARROW-IN-FURNESS (51). architect of the new Palace of Westminster. which has led to the establishment of smelting works and the largest manufacture of steel in the kingdom. having had other ships placed under his command. born in Cork. made numerous prizes. SIR CHARLES. for which he was ennobled by Louis XIV.. SIR JOHN. painter.

and customs of Greece (1716-1795). 1805. a celebrated physician. an associate of Odilon Barrot in the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848. THE ABBE. BARTHELEMY. a great African explorer. BARTHELEMY." in five volumes (1821-1865). "Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grece. born at Marseilles. born at Montpellier. Page 258 of 2772 . his greatest achievement. a French sculptor. Buddhism. suffered greatly during the Revolution. born at Cassis. an Oriental as well as Greek scholar. in chief. and Encyclopaedist. born at Hamburg. JULES." long treated as an authority in the history. BARTHEZ. in Provence. translated the works of Aristotle. CTSTI. an ardent Imperialist. JEAN JACQUES. and subsequently a zealous supporter of M. BARTHELEMY SAINT-HILAIRE. for a time professor of Greek and Roman Philosophy in the College of France." in verse. Chennai 6. is celebrated among physiologists as the advocate of what he called the Vital Principle as a physiological force in the functions of the human organism. author of "Nemesis. AUGUSTE-MARSEILLE. physiologist. Computer Lecturer. and warm supporter of Louis Napoleon (1796-1867). where he founded a medical school. _b_. born at Paris. his work "Nouveaux Elements de la Science de l'Homme" has been translated into all the languages of Europe (1734-1806). born at Colmar. his principal works. as well as wrote on the Vedas. manners. wrote several archaeological works.ramakalai@gmail. Thiers. educated by the Jesuits. a French historian and antiquary. a poet and politician. PAUL JOSEPH. was much esteemed and honoured by Napoleon. HEINRICH." and the best French translation of the "AEneid. author of "Travels in the East and Discoveries in Central Africa. BARTHOLDI.com BARTH. and the "Iliad" into verse. a French baron and politician. had great skill in numismatics. and Mahomet. an enemy of the Bourbons.

Aug.. sometimes been painted as being flayed alive. cruelly gloried in by the Pope and the Spanish Court. 1834. BARTHOLOMEW. erected at the entrance of New York harbour. Festival. when it ceased to be a market and became an occasion for mere dissipation and riot." the largest bronze statue in the world. born at Rhode Island. BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. London... London. BARTHOLOMEW HOSPITAL. an event. high. 24. an hospital in Smithfield. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY. day in 1572 memorable for the wholesale massacre of the Protestants in France at the instance of Catharine de Medici. CTSTI. U. then regent of the kingdom for her son. ST. and instituted in 1133 by Henry I. has a medical school attached to it. with which the names of a number of eminent physicians are associated. an annual market held at Smithfield. founded in 1123. Charles IX." among other works particularly on ethnology (1805-1886). an overhanging wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls of ancient fortifications. BARTIZAN. Computer Lecturer. an American ethnologist and philologist.S. also as headless.. Page 259 of 2772 . _b_. an apostle of Christ. to be kept on the saint's day. and martyr." and "Liberte eclairant le Monde. being 150 ft. JOHN H. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. but abolished in 1853. till Charles was coerced to grant liberty of conscience throughout the realm.. BARTLETT. which kindled a fire in the nation that was not quenched.. although it extinguished Protestantism proper in France. 24th August.com "Lion le Belfort. represented in art with a knife in one hand and his skin in the other. author of "Dictionary of Americanisms. ST.

" after Michael Angelo. born at Florence." a poor country servant-girl. BARTOLINI. but instinct with poetic feeling and fancy. as well as more substantial patronage in the shape of a government pension (1784-1849). LORENZO. PIETRO. his chief works. which involved her and her abettors in a charge of treason. an eminent engraver. "the Maid of Kent." after Annibale Caracci. a Florentine sculptor. the "Prometheus. Sebastian" among his best productions (1469-1517). BERNARD. BARTON. mostly on homely subjects. FRA.com BARTOLI. produced a great number of busts (1777-1850). BARTOLI." born in London. and she was led by them to pronounce sentence against the divorce of Catharine of Aragon. ELIZABETH. engraved a great number of ancient works of art (1635-1700). in which she gave utterances ascribed by Archbishop Warham to divine inspiration. Page 260 of 2772 . gained him the friendship of Southey and Charles Lamb. friend of Raphael. Chennai 6. and "Virgin and Child. a learned Italian Jesuit. "Clytie. BARTOLOZ`ZI. DANIELE. FRANCESCO. CTSTI. he was the father of Madame Vestris (1725-1815).ramakalai@gmail." after Carlo Dolci. Mark" and "St. Italian engraver. BARTOLOMME`O. subject from nervous debility to trances. born at Ferrara (1635-1685). till her communications were taken advantage of by designing people. a clerk nearly all his days in a bank. an adherent of Savonarola. born in Kent. where he died. born at Florence. "St. his poems. for Computer Lecturer. patronised by Napoleon. wrought at his art both in England and in Portugal. a celebrated Florentine painter of sacred subjects. BARTON. the "Quaker poet.

his method modelled according to the principles of Rousseau. BASEL (74). (1) the friend of the prophet Jeremiah. has a cathedral. BARUCH. however. which led to a rupture with his colleagues (1723-1790). established a normal school on this method at Dessau. Peter and St. just before it enters Germany. and the home for several years of Erasmus. BASEL. but was hampered at every step by the opposition of Pope Eugenius IV. library. the people are Protestant and German-speaking. a zealous educational reformer. on the Rhine. JOHANN BERNARD. and his scribe. his best works. Chennai 6. It effected some compromise with the Hussites. COUNCIL OF. Page 261 of 2772 . Asserting the authority of a general council over the Pope himself. of Switzerland. affecting to predict the fall of Jerusalem. BARYE. instinct with the spirit of Hebrew prophecy. on his Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. Andrew. failed from his irritability of temper. and accompanied him into Egypt. "Christ in the Garden" and the "Calling of St. and has manufactures of silks and chemicals. BASAITI. who was cast with him into prison. was a centre of influence in Reformation times. and laboured for 12 years to effect the reformation of the Church from within. (3) also a book entitled the Apocalypse of Baruch.ramakalai@gmail. (2) a book in the Apocrypha. a rival of Bellini. met in 1431. a French sculptor. and museum. it cited him on two occasions to appear at its bar. ascribed to him. university. which. a Venetian painter of the 15th and 16th centuries. born at Hamburg. but obviously written after the event." BASEDOW.com which they were all executed at Tyburn (1506-1534). in the NW. distinguished for his groups of statues of wild animals (1795-1875). it is now a great money market.

it elected a rival pope. the indecorousness of certain festivals. more or less. in 1449. as well as. tributary to the British Government. the men of it were remarkable for their stature. CTSTI. undisciplined troops in the pay of the Sultan. the pope died. Russia. an immense sensation from the confessions it contains (1860-1884). Page 262 of 2772 . in the time of the Crimean war. the papal prerogatives and exactions. and at one time densely peopled. but are not recognised by modern Roman canonists. was recognised by the whole Church. Failing to effect its purpose. but scantily recognised. when published after her death. Felix V. a precocious Russian young lady of good family. however. who was. BASHI-BAZOUKS`. The decrees of the council were directed against the immorality of the clergy. originally a Finnish nomad race (and still so to some extent) of E..000. rendered themselves odious by their brutality in the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876.ramakalai@gmail. MARIE. The Emperor Frederick III. professing Mohammedanism. a native hill state in the Punjab. and Nicholas V. supported Eugenius. Palestine of considerable extent. BASHKIRTSEFF. Computer Lecturer. irregular. and ultimately endeavoured to suspend him.com refusal declared him contumacious. They were all confirmed by Nicholas V. which created. and dealt with the election of popes and the procedure of the College of Cardinals. a fertile and pastoral district in NE. BA`SHAN. traversed by the Sutlej. At length. but of delicate constitution. BASHAHR. and the council gradually melted away. BASHKIRS. they number some 500. and left a journal of her life. Felix resigned. who travelled a good deal with her mother.. noted her impressions. owing to the secession of his supporters. Chennai 6.

tried in vain to unite the Churches of the East and West. whose rules are followed by different monastic communities. and with an emaciated appearance (326-380). a conspicuous opponent of the Arian heresy. Ambrose. BASIL I. CTSTI. the mystic. compiled by Basil I. BASILICA. and Basil. originally open to the sky. There were several Basils of eminence in the history of the Church: Basil. and Leo. before the union of the crowns.ramakalai@gmail. and defender of the Nicene Creed. THE GREAT. BASILICA. 180 B. but eventually covered in. and named after the former. who flourished in the 4th century. _d_. in 60 books. Chennai 6. the code of laws. the friend of St. Prince Henry. They were first erected by the Romans. his son and successor. Page 263 of 2772 . BASILICON DORON (i. in a circular apse added to it. in 1599.. his birthplace.C. for public business and the administration of justice. is represented in Christian art in Greek pontificals. a spacious hall. 886. fought successfully against the Saracens. first published in 887. containing a defence of the royal prerogative. they were converted into churches. in Cappadocia. bishop of Caesarea. a code of laws that were in force till the fall of the empire. had Julian the Apostate for a fellow-student. bishop of Ancyra. and with the judge's bench at the end opposite the entrance. on the adoption of Christianity. the Macedonian. governed wisely. a work written by James I. Royal Gift). afterwards. for the instruction of his son. emperor of the East. though he had raised himself to the throne by a succession of crimes. compiled. Basil. the lifelong friend of Gregory Nazianzen.. surnamed the Philosopher. e. bareheaded. twice as long as broad. ST. founded a monastic body. the altar being in the apse. Computer Lecturer.. studied at Athens..com BASIL. along with his son Leo.

BASILI`DES, a Gnostic of Alexandria, flourished at the commencement of the 2nd century; appears to have taught the Oriental theory of emanations, to have construed the universe as made up of a series of worlds, some 365 it is alleged, each a degree lower than the preceding, till we come to our own world, the lowest and farthest off from the parent source of the series, of which the God of the Jews was the ruler, and to have regarded Jesus as sent into it direct from the parent source to redeem it from the materialism to which the God of the Jews, as Creator and Lord of the material universe, had subjected it; which teaching a sect called after his name accepted and propagated in both the East and the West for more than two centuries afterwards.

BAS`ILISK, an animal fabled to have been hatched by a toad from the egg of an old cock, before whose breath every living thing withered and died, and the glance of whose eye so bewitched one to his ruin that the bravest could confront and overcome it only by looking at the reflection of it in a mirror, as PERSEUS (q. v.) was advised to do, and did, when he cut off the head of the Medusa; seeing itself in a mirror, it burst, it as said, at the sight.

BASKERVILLE, JOHN, a printer and typefounder, originally a writing-master in Birmingham; native of Sion Hill, Worcestershire; produced editions of classical works prized for their pre-eminent beauty by connoisseurs in the art of the printer, and all the more for their rarity (1706-1756).

BASNAGES, JACQUES, a celebrated Protestant divine, born at Rouen; distinguished as a linguist and man of affairs; wrote a "History of the Reformed Churches" and on "Jewish Antiquities" (1653-1723).

BASOCHE, a corporation of lawyers' clerks in Paris. See BAZOCHE.

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BASQUE PROVINCES, a fertile and mineral district in N. of Spain, embracing the three provinces of Biscaya, Guipuzcoa, and Alava, of which the chief towns are respectively Bilbao, St. Sebastian, and Vittoria; the natives differ considerably from the rest of the Spaniards in race, language, and customs. See BASQUES.

BASQUE ROADS, an anchorage between the Isle of Oleron and the mainland; famous for a naval victory gained in 1809 over a French fleet under Vice-Admiral Allemand.

BASQUES, a people of the Western Pyrenees, partly in France and partly in Spain; distinguished from their neighbours only by their speech, which is non-Aryan; a superstitious people, conservative, irascible, ardent, proud, serious in their religious convictions, and pure in their moral conduct.

BAS-RELIEF (i. e. low relief) a term applied to figures very slightly projected from the ground.

BASS ROCK, a steep basaltic rock at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, 350 ft. high, tenanted by solan geese; once used as a prison, specially in Covenanting times.

BASS STRAIT, strait between Australia and Tasmania, about 150 m. broad.

BASSANIO, the lover of Portia in the "Merchant of Venice."

BASSANO, a town in Italy, on the Brenta, 30 m. NW. of Padua; printing the chief industry.

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BASSANO, DUC DE, an intriguing French diplomatist in the interest of Bonaparte, and his steadfast auxiliary to the last (1763-1839).

BASSANO, JACOPO DA PONTE, an eminent Italian painter, chiefly of country scenes, though the "Nativity" at his native town, Bassano, shows his ability in the treatment of higher themes (1510-1592).

BASSOMPIERRE, FRANCOIS DE, a marshal of France, born in Lorraine; entered military life under Henry IV., was a gallant soldier, and one of the most brilliant wits of his time; took part in the siege of Rochelle; incurred the displeasure of Richelieu; was imprisoned by his order twelve years in the Bastille; wrote his Memoirs there; was liberated on the death of Richelieu; his Memoirs contain a lively description of his contemporaries, the manners of the time, his own intrigues, no less than those of his friends and enemies (1579-1646).

BASSORAH (40), a port in Asiatic Turkey, on the Shatt-el-Arab; a place of great commercial importance when Bagdad was the seat of the caliphate; for a time sank into insignificance, but has of late revived.

BASTI`A (22), a town in NE. Corsica, the most commercial in the island, and once the capital; was founded by the Genoese in 1383, and taken by the French in 1553; exports wine, oil, fruits, &c.

BASTIAN, ADOLF, an eminent ethnologist, born at Bremen; travelled over and surveyed, in the interest of his science, all quarters of the globe, and recorded the fruits of his survey in his numerous works, no fewer than thirty in number, beginning with "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," in three vols.; conducts, along with Virchow and R. Hartman, the _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_; _b_. 1826.

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BASTIAN, DR. H. C., a physiologist, born at Truro; a materialist in his theory of life; a zealous advocate of the doctrine of spontaneous generation; _b_. 1837.

BASTIAT, FREDERIC, an eminent political economist, born at Bayonne; a disciple of Cobden's; a great advocate of Free Trade; wrote on behalf of it and against Protection, "Sophismes Economiques"; a zealous Anti-Socialist, and wrote against Socialism (1801-1850).

BASTIDE, JULES, French Radical writer, born in Paris; took part in the Revolution of 1848, and became Minister of Foreign Affairs (1800-1879).

BASTILLE (lit. the Building), a State prison in Paris, built originally as a fortress of defence to the city, by order of Charles V., between 1369 and 1382, but used as a place of imprisonment from the first; a square structure, with towers and dungeons for the incarceration of the prisoners, the whole surrounded by a moat, and accessible only by drawbridges; "tyranny's stronghold"; attacked by a mob on 14th July 1789; taken chiefly by noise; overturned, as "the city of Jericho, by miraculous sound"; demolished, and the key of it sent to Washington; the taking of it was the first event in the Revolution. See Carlyle's "French Revolution" for the description of the fall of it.

BASUTOLAND (250), a fertile, healthy, grain-growing territory in S. Africa, SE. of the Orange Free State, under protection of the British crown, of the size of Belgium; yields large quantities of maize; the natives keep large herds of cattle.

BASUTOS, a S. African race of the same stock as the Kaffirs, but superior to them in intelligence and industry.

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BATANGAS, a port in the island of Luzon, one of the Philippine Islands, which has a considerable trade.

BATAVIA (105), the capital of Java, on the N. coast, and of the Dutch possessions in the Eastern Archipelago; the emporium, with a large trade, of the Far East; with a very mixed population. Also the ancient name of Holland; _insula Batavorum_ it was called--that is, island of the Batavi, the name of the native tribes inhabiting it.

BATES, HENRY WALTER, a naturalist and traveller, born at Leicester; friend of, and a fellow-labourer with, Alfred R. Wallace; author of "The Naturalist on the Amazons"; an advocate of the Darwinian theory, and author of contributions in defence of it (1825-1892).

BATH (54), the largest town in Somerset, on the Avon; a cathedral city; a place of fashionable resort from the time of the Romans, on account of its hot baths and mineral waters, of which there are six springs; it was from 1704 to 1750 the scene of Beau Nash's triumphs; has a number of educational and other institutions, and a fine public park.

BATH, MAJOR, a gentleman in Fielding's "Amelia," who stoops from his dignity to the most menial duties when affection prompts him.

BATH, ORDER OF THE, an English order of knighthood, traceable to the reign of Henry IV., consisting of three classes: the first, Knights Grand Cross; the second, Knights Commanders, and the third, Knights Companions, abbreviated respectively into G.C.B., K.C.B., and C.B.; initiation into the order originally preceded by immersion in a bath, whence the name, in token of the purity required of the members by the laws of chivalry. It was originally a military order, and it is only since 1847 that civil Knights, Knights Commanders, and Companions have been admitted as Knights. The first class, exclusive of royal personages and

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foreigners, is limited to 102 military and 28 civil; the second, to 102 military and 50 civil; and the third, to 525 military and 200 civil. The motto of the order is _Tria juncta in uno_ (Three united in one); and Henry VI.'s chapel at Westminster is the chapel of the order, with the plates of the Knights on their stalls, and their banners suspended over them.

BATHGATE (5), largest town in Linlithgowshire; a mining centre; the birthplace of Sir J. Simpson, who was the son of a baker in the place.

BATHILDA, ST., queen of France, wife of Clovis II., who governed France during the minority of her sons, Clovis III., Childeric II., and Thierry; died 680, in the monastery of Chelles.

BATH`ORI, ELIZABETH, a Polish princess, a woman of infamous memory, caused some 650 young girls to be put to death, in order, by bathing in their blood, to renew her beauty; immersed in a fortress for life on the discovery of the crime, while her accomplices were burnt alive; _d_. 1614.

BATHOS, an anti-climax, being a sudden descent from the sublime to the commonplace.

BATH`URST (8), the capital of British Gambia, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western Africa; inhabited chiefly by negroes; exports palm-oil, ivory, gold dust, &c.

BATHURST (10), the principal town on the western slopes of New South Wales, second to Sydney, with gold mines in the neighbourhood, and in a fertile wheat-growing district.

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BATHURST, a district in Upper Canada, on the Ottawa, a thriving place and an agricultural centre.

BATHYB`IUS, (i. e. living matter in the deep), substance of a slimy nature found at great sea depth, over-hastily presumed to be organic, proved by recent investigation to be inorganic, and of no avail to the evolutionist.

BATLEY (28), a manufacturing town in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; a busy place.

BATN-EL-HAJAR, a stony tract in the Nubian Desert, near the third cataract of the Nile.

BATON-ROUGE (10), a city on the E. bank of the Mississippi, 130 m. above New Orleans, and capital of the state of Louisiana; originally a French settlement.

BATON-SINISTER, a bend-sinister like a marshal's baton, an indication of illegitimacy.

BATOUM` (10), a town in Transcaucasia, on the E. of the Black Sea; a place of some antiquity; recently ceded by Turkey to Russia, but only as a mere trading port; has an excellent harbour, and has improved under Russian rule.

BATRACHOMYOMACHIA, a mock-heroic poem, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice," falsely ascribed to Homer.

BATTAS, a Malay race, native to Sumatra, now much reduced in

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numbers, and driven into the interior.

BATTERSEA, a suburb of London, on the Surrey side of the Thames, opposite Chelsea, and connected with it by a bridge; with a park 185 acres in extent; of plain and recent growth; till lately a quite rural spot.

BATTHYA`NI, COUNT, an Hungarian patriot, who fought hard to see his country reinstated in its ancient administrative independence, but failed in his efforts; was arrested, tried for high treason by court-martial, and sentenced to be shot, to the horror, at the time, of the civilised world (1809-1849).

BATTLE, a market-town in Sussex, near Hastings, so called from the battle of Senlac, in which William the Conqueror defeated Harold in 1066.

BATTLE OF THE SPURS, (_a_) an engagement at Courtrai in 1302 where the burghers of the town beat the knighthood of France, and the spurs of 4000 knights were collected after the battle; (_b_) an engagement at Guinegate, 1513, in which Henry VIII. made the French forces take to their spurs; OF THE BARRIERS (see BARRIERS); OF THE BOOKS, a satire by Swift on a literary controversy of the time; OF THE STANDARD, a battle in 1138, in which the English, with a high-mounted crucifix for a standard, beat the Scots at Northallerton.

BATTUE, method of killing game after crowding them by cries and beating them towards the sportsmen.


BAUDELAIRE, CHARLES, French poet of the romantic school, born in

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Paris; distinguished among his contemporaries for his originality, and his influence on others of his class; was a charming writer of prose as well as verse, as his "Petits Poemes" in prose bear witness. Victor Hugo once congratulated him on having "created a new shudder"; and as has been said, "this side of his genius attracted most popular attention, which, however, is but one side, and not really the most remarkable, of a singular combination of morbid but delicate analysis and reproduction of the remotest phases and moods of human thought and passion" (1821-1867).

BAUDRICOURT, a French courtier whom Joan of Arc pressed to conduct her into the presence of Charles VII.

BAUDRY, PAUL, French painter, decorated the _foyer_ of the Grand Opera in Paris; is best known as the author of the "Punishment of a Vestal Virgin" and the "Assassination of Marat" (1828-1886).

BAUER, BRUNO, a daring Biblical critic, and violent polemic on political as well as theological subjects; born at Saxe-Altenburg; regarded the Christian religion as overlaid and obscured by accretions foreign to it; denied the historical truth of the Gospels, and, like a true disciple of Hegel, ascribed the troubles of the 19th century to the overmastering influence of the "ENLIGHTENMENT" or the "AUFKLAeRUNG" (q. v.) that characterised the 18th. His last work was entitled "Disraeli's Romantic and Bismarck's Socialistic Imperialism" (1809-1882).

BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, professor of Philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder; disciple of Wolf; born at Berlin; the founder of AEsthetics as a department of philosophy, and inventor of the name (1714-1762).

BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, a German theologian of the school of Schleiermacher; professor of Theology at Jena; born at Merseburg; an authority on the history of dogma, on which he wrote (1788-1843).

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BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN, head of the Tuebingen school of rationalist divines, born near Stuttgart; distinguished by his scholarship and his labours in Biblical criticism and dogmatic theology; his dogmatic treatises were on the Christian Gnosis, the Atonement, the Trinity, and the Incarnation, while his Biblical were on certain epistles of Paul and the canonical Gospels, which he regarded as the product of the 2nd century; regarded Christianity of the Church as Judaic in its origin, and Paul as distinctively the first apostle of pure Christianity (1792-1861).

BAUSSET, cardinal, born at Pondicherry, who wrote the Lives of Bossuet and Fenelon (1748-1824).

BAUTZEN, a town of Saxony, an old town on the Spree, where Napoleon defeated the Prussians and Russians in 1813; manufactures cotton, linen, wool, tobacco, paper, etc.

BAVARIA (5,590), next to Prussia the largest of the German States, about the size of Scotland; is separated by mountain ranges from Bohemia on the E. and the Tyrol on the S.; Wuertemburg lies on the W., Prussia, Meiningen, and Saxony on the N. The country is a tableland crossed by mountains and lies chiefly in the basin of the Danube. It is a busy agricultural state: half the soil is tilled; the other half is under grass, planted with vineyards and forests. Salt, coal, and iron are widely distributed and wrought. The chief manufactures are of beer, coarse linen, and woollen fabrics. There are universities at Muenich, Wuerzburg, and Erlangen. Muenich, on the Isar, is the capital; Nueremberg, where watches were invented, and Angsburg, a banking centre, the other chief towns. Formerly a dukedom, the palatinate, on the banks of the Rhine, was added to it in 1216. Napoleon I. raised the duke to the title of king in 1805. Bavaria fought on the side of Austria in 1866, but joined Prussia in 1870-71.

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BAVIE`CA, the famous steed of the Cid, held sacred after the hero's death.

BAVOU, ST., a soldier monk, the patron saint of Ghent.

BAXTER, RICHARD, an eminent Nonconformist divine, native of Shropshire, at first a conformist, and parish minister of Kidderminster for 19 years; sympathised with the Puritans, yet stopped short of going the full length with them; acted as chaplain to one of their regiments, and returned to Kidderminster; became, at the Restoration one of the king's chaplains; driven out of the Church by the Act of Uniformity, was thrown into prison at 70, let out, spent the rest of his days in peace; his popular works, "The Saint's Everlasting Rest," and his "Call to the Unconverted" (1615-1691).

BAY CITY (27), place of trade, and of importance as a great railway centre in Michigan, U.S.; the third city in it.

BAYADERE, a dancing-girl in India, dressed in loose Eastern costume.

BAYARD, a horse of remarkable swiftness belonging to the four sons of Aymon, and which they sometimes rode all at once; also a horse of Amadis de Gaul.

BAYARD, CHEVALIER DE, an illustrious French knight, born in the Chateau Bayard, near Grenoble; covered himself with glory in the wars of Charles VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I.; his bravery and generosity commanded the admiration of his enemies, and procured for him the thrice-honourable cognomen of "The Knight _sans peur et sans reproche_"; one of his most brilliant feats was his defence, single-handed, of the bridge over the Garigliano, in the face of a large body of Spaniards; was

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mortally wounded defending a pass at Abblategrasso; fell with his face to the foe, who carried off his body, but restored it straightway afterwards for due burial by his friends (1476-1524).

BAYEUX (7), an ancient Norman city in the dep. of Calvados, France; manufactures lace, hosiery, &c.; is a bishop's seat; has a very old Gothic cathedral.

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, representations in tapestry of events connected with the Norman invasion of England, commencing with Harold's visit to the Norman court, and ending with his death at the battle of Hastings; still preserved in the public library of Bayeux; is so called because originally found there; it is 214 ft. long by 20 in. wide, divided into 72 scenes, and contains a variety of figures. It is a question whose work it was.

BAYLE, PIERRE, a native of Languedoc; first Protestant (as the son of a Calvinist minister), then Catholic, then sceptic; Professor of Philosophy at Padua, then at Rotterdam, and finally retired to the Boompjes in the latter city; known chiefly as the author of the famous _Dictionnaire Historique et Critique_, to the composition of which he consecrated his energies with a zeal worthy of a religious devotee, and which became the fountain-head of the sceptical philosophy that flooded France on the eve of the Revolution; pronounced by a competent judge in these matters, a mere "imbroglio of historical, philosophical, and anti-theological marine stores" (1647-1700).

BAYLEN, a town in the province of Jaen, Spain, where General Castanos defeated Dupont, and compelled him to sign a capitulation, in 1808.

BAYLEY, SIR JOHN, a learned English judge; author of a standard work "On the Law of Bills of Exchange"; _d_. 1841.

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BAYONNE (24), a fortified French town, trading and manufacturing, in the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, at the confluence of the Adour and Nive, 4 m. from the Bay of Biscay; noted for its strong citadel, constructed by Vauban, and one of his _chef-d'oeuvres_, and its 12th-century cathedral church; it belonged to the English from 1152 to 1451.

BAZAINE, FRANCOIS ACHILLE, a marshal of France, born at Versailles; distinguished himself in Algiers, the Crimea, and Mexico; did good service, as commander of the army of the Rhine, in the Franco-German war, but after the surrender at Sedan was shut up in Metz, surrounded by the Germans, and obliged to surrender, with all his generals, officers, and men; was tried by court-martial, and condemned to death, but was imprisoned instead; made good his escape one evening to Madrid, where he lived to write a justification of his conduct, the sale of the book being prohibited in France (1811-1888).

BAZARD, SAINT-AMAND, a French socialist, founder of the _Charbonnerie Francaise_; a zealous but unsuccessful propagator of St. Simonianism, in association with ENFANTIN (q. v.), from whom he at last separated (1791-1832).

BAZOCHE, a guild of clerks of the parliament of Paris, under a mock king, with the privilege of performing religious plays, which they abused.

BEACHES, RAISED, elevated lands, formerly sea beaches, the result of upheaval, or left high by the recession of the sea, evidenced to be such by the shells found in them and the nature of the debris.

BEACHY HEAD, a chalk cliff in Sussex, 575 ft. high, projecting into the English Channel; famous for a naval engagement between the allied

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English and Dutch fleets and those of France, in which the latter were successful.

BEACONSFIELD, capital of the gold-mining district in Tasmania; also a town in Buckinghamshire, 10 m. N. of Windsor, from which Benjamin Disraeli took his title on his elevation to the peerage.

BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF, English novelist and politician, born in London; son of Isaac D'Israeli, litterateur, and thus of Jewish parentage; was baptized at the age of 12; educated under a Unitarian minister; studied law, but did not qualify for practice. His first novel, "Vivian Grey," appeared in 1826, and thereafter, whenever the business of politics left him leisure, he devoted it to fiction. "Contarini Fleming," "Coningsby," "Tancred," "Lothair," and "Endymion" are the most important of a brilliant and witty series, in which many prominent personages are represented and satirised under thin disguises. His endeavours to enter Parliament as a Radical failed twice in 1832; in 1835 he was unsuccessful again as a Tory. His first seat was for Maidstone in 1837; thereafter he represented Shrewsbury and Buckinghamshire. For 9 years he was a free-lance in the House, hating the Whigs, and after 1842 leading the Young England party; his onslaught on the Corn Law repeal policy of 1846 made him leader of the Tory Protectionists. He was for a short time Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Derby in 1852, and coolly abandoned Protection. Returning to power with his chief six years later, he introduced a Franchise Bill, the defeat of which threw out the Government. In office a third time in 1866, he carried a democratic Reform Bill, giving household suffrage in boroughs and extending the county franchise. Succeeding Lord Derby in 1868, he was forced to resign soon afterwards. In 1874 he entered his second premiership. Two years were devoted to home measures, among which were Plimsoll's Shipping Act and the abolition of Scottish Church patronage. Then followed a showy foreign policy. The securing of the half of the Suez Canal shares for Britain; the proclamation of the Queen as Empress of India; the support of Constantinople against Russia, afterwards stultified by the Berlin Congress, which he himself attended; the annexation of Cyprus; the Afghan and Zulu wars, were its salient

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features. Defeated at the polls in 1880 he resigned, and died next year. A master of epigram and a brilliant debater, he really led his party. He was the opposite in all respects of his protagonist, Mr. Gladstone. Lacking in zeal, he was yet loyal to England, and a warm personal friend of the Queen (1804-1881).

BEAR, name given in the Stock Exchange to one who contracts to deliver stock at a fixed price on a certain day, in contradistinction from the _bull_, or he who contracts to take it, the interest of the former being that, in the intervening time, the stocks should fall, and that of the latter that they should rise.


BEAM, an ancient prov. of France, fell to the crown with the accession of Henry IV. in 1589; formed a great part of the dep. of Basses-Pyrenees, capital Pau.

BEATIFICATION, religious honour allowed by the pope to certain who are not so eminent in sainthood as to entitle them to canonisation.

BEATON, or BETHUNE, DAVID, cardinal, archbishop of St. Andrews, and primate of the kingdom, born in Fife; an adviser of James V., twice over ambassador to France; on the death of James secured to himself the chief power in Church and State as Lord High Chancellor and Papal Legate; opposed alliance with England; persecuted the Reformers; condemned George Wishart to the stake, witnessed his sufferings from a window of his castle in St. Andrews, and was assassinated within its walls shortly after; with his death ecclesiastical tyranny of that type came to an end in Scotland (1494-1546).

BEATON, JAMES, archbishop of Glasgow and St. Andrews, uncle of the

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preceding, a prominent figure in the reign of James V.; was partial to affiliation with France, and a persecutor of the Reformers; _d_. 1539.

BEATTIE, JAMES, a poet and essayist, born at Laurencekirk; became professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy at Marischal College, Aberdeen; wrote an "Essay on Truth" against Hume; his most admired poem, "The Minstrel," a didactic piece, traces the progress of poetic genius, admitted him to the Johnsonian circle in London, obtained for him the degree of LL.D. from Oxford, and brought him a pension of L200 per annum from the king; died at Aberdeen (1735-1803).

BEATRICE, a beautiful Florentine maiden, Portinari, her family name, for whom Dante conceived an undying affection, and whose image abode with him to the end of his days. She is his guide through Paradise.

BEAU NASH, a swell notability at Bath; died in beggary (1674-1761).

BEAU TIBBS, a character in Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," noted for his finery, vanity, and poverty.

BEAUCAIRE (8), a French town near Avignon, on the Rhone, which it spans with a magnificent bridge; once a great centre of trade, and famous, as it still is, for its annual fair, frequented by merchants from all parts of Europe.

BEAUCHAMP, ALPHONSE DE, a historian, born at Monaco; wrote the "Conquest of Peru," "History of Brazil," &c. (1769-1832).

BEAUCLERK, Henry I. of England, so called from his superior learning.

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BEAUCLERK, TOPHAM, a young English nobleman, the only son of Lord Sydney Beauclerk, a special favourite of Johnson's, who, when he died, lamented over him, as one whose like the world might seldom see again (1759-1780).

BEAUFORT, DUKE OF, grandson of Henry IV. of France; one of the chiefs of the Fronde; was surnamed Roi des Halles (King of the Market-folk); appointed admiral of France; did good execution against the pirates; passed into the service of Venice; was killed at the siege of Candia in 1669.

BEAUFORT, HENRY, cardinal, bishop of Winchester, son of John of Gaunt, learned in canon law, was several times chancellor; took a prominent part in all the political movements of the time, exerted an influence for good on the nation, lent immense sums to Henry V. and Henry VI., also left bequests for charitable uses, and founded the hospital of St. Cross at Winchester (1377-1447).

BEAUHAR`NAIS, ALEXANDRE, VICOMTE DE, born at Martinique, where he married a lady who, afterwards as wife of Napoleon, became the Empress Josephine; accepted and took part in the Revolution; was secretary of the National Assembly; coolly remarked, on the news of the flight of the king, "The king's gone off; let us pass to the next business of the House"; was convicted of treachery to the cause of the Revolution and put to death; as the father of Hortense, who married Louis, Napoleon's brother, he became grandfather of Napoleon III. (1760-1794).

BEAUHARNAIS, EUGENE DE, son of the preceding and of Josephine, born at Paris, step-son of Napoleon, therefore was made viceroy of Italy; took an active part in the wars of the empire; died at Muenich, whither he retired after the fall of Napoleon (1781-1824).

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BEAUHARNAIS, HORTENSE EUGENIE, sister of the preceding, ex-queen of Holland; wife of Louis Bonaparte, an ill-starred union; mother of Napoleon III., the youngest of three sons (1783-1837).

BEAUMAR`CHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE, a dramatist and pleader of the most versatile, brilliant gifts, and French to the core, born in Paris, son of a watchmaker at Caen; ranks as a comic dramatist next to Moliere; author of "Le Barbier de Seville" (1775), and "Le Mariage de Figaro" (1784), his masterpiece; astonished the world by his conduct of a lawsuit he had, for which "he fought against reporters, parliaments, and principalities, with light banter, clear logic, adroitly, with an inexhaustible toughness of resource, like the skilfullest fencer." He was a zealous supporter of the Revolution, and made sacrifices on its behalf, but narrowly escaped the guillotine; died in distress and poverty. Of the two plays he wrote, Saintsbury says, "The wit is indisputable, but his chansons contain as much wit as the Figaro plays." He made a fortune by speculations in the American war, and lost by others, one of them being the preparation of a sumptuous edition of Voltaire. For the culmination and decline, as well as appreciation, of him, see the "French Revolution," by Carlyle (1732-1799).

BAUMA`RIS, principal town in Anglesea, Wales, on the Menai Strait, near Bangor, a favourite watering-place, with remains of a castle erected by Edward I.

BEAUMONT, CHRISTOPHE DE, archbishop of Paris, born at Perigord, "spent his life in persecuting hysterical Jansenists and incredulous non-confessors"; but scrupled to grant, though he fain would have granted, absolution on his deathbed to the dissolute monarch of France, Louis XV.; issued a charge condemnatory of Rousseau's "Emile," which provoked a celebrated letter from Rousseau in reply (1703-1781).

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, dramatic poet, born in Leicestershire, of a family of good standing; bred for the bar, but devoted to literature; was

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a friend of Ben Jonson; in conjunction with his friend Fletcher, the composer of a number of plays, about the separate authorship of which there has been much discussion, the dramatic power of which comes far short of that so conspicuous in the plays of their great contemporary Shakespeare, though it is said contemporary criticism gave them the preference (1585-1615).

BEAUMONT, JEAN BAPTISTE ELIE DE, French geologist, born in Calvados; became secretary to the Academy of Sciences; was joint-editor of a geological map of France. He had a theory of his own of the formation of the crust of the earth (1798-1874).

BEAUREGARD, PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT, American Confederate general, born at New Orleans; adopted the cause of the South, and fought in its behalf (1818-1893).

BEAUREPAIRE, a French officer, noted for his noble defence of Verdun against the Prussians; preferred death by suicide to the dishonour of surrender (1748-1792).

BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC, a Huguenot divine, born at Poitou; fled to Holland on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled in Berlin, and became a notability in high quarters there; attracted the notice of the young Frederick, the Great that was to be, who sought introduction to him, and the young Frederick "got good conversation out of him"; author of a "History of Manichaeism," praised by Gibbon, and of other books famous in their day, a translation of the New Testament for one (1659-1738).


BEAUTY AND THE BEAST, the hero and heroine of a famous fairy tale. Beauty falls in love with a being like a monster, who has, however, the

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heart of a man, and she marries him, upon which he is instantly transformed into a prince of handsome presence and noble mien.

BEAUVAIS (19), capital of the dep. of Oise, in France, 34 in. SW. of Amiens, an ancient town, noted for its cathedral, its tapestry weaving, and the feat of Jeanne-Hachette and her female following when the town was besieged by Charles the Bold.

BEAUVAIS, a French prelate, born at Cherbourg, Bishop of Senez, celebrated as a pulpit orator (1731-1790).

BEAUVILLIER, a statesman, patron of letters, to whom Louis XIV. committed the governorship of his sons; died of a broken heart due to the shock the death of the dauphin gave him (1607-1687).

BEBEK BAY, a fashionable resort on the Bosphorus, near Constantinople, and with a palace of the sultan.

BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO, one of the best painters of the Sienese school, distinguished also as a sculptor and a worker in mosaic (1486-1550).

BECCA`RIA, CAESARE BONESANA, MARQUIS OF, an Italian publicist, author of a celebrated "Treatise on Crimes and Punishments," which has been widely translated, and contributed much to lessen the severity of sentences in criminal cases. He was a utilitarian in philosophy and a disciple of Rousseau in politics.

BECHE-DE-MER, a slug, called also the trepang, procured on the coral reefs of the Pacific, which is dried and eaten as a dainty by the Chinese.

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BECHER, JOHANN JOACHIM, chemist, born at Spires; distinguished as a pioneer in the scientific study of chemistry (1635-1682).

BECHSTEIN, a German naturalist, wrote "Natural History of Cage Birds" (1757-1822).

BECHUANA-LAND, an inland tract in S. Africa, extends from the Orange River to the Zambesi; has German territory on the W., the Transvaal and Matabele-land on the E. The whole country is under British protection; that part which is S. of the river Molopo was made a crown colony in 1885. On a plateau 4000 ft. above sea-level, the climate is suited for British emigrants. The soil is fertile; extensive tracts are suitable for corn; sheep and cattle thrive; rains fall in summer; in winter there are frosts, sometimes snow. The Kalahari Desert in the W. will be habitable when sufficient wells are dug. Gold is found near Sitlagoli, and diamonds at Vryburg. The Bechuanas are the most advanced of the black races of S. Africa.

BECHUA`NAS, a wide-spread S. African race, totemists, rearers of cattle, and growers of maize; are among the most intelligent of the Bantu peoples, and show considerable capacity for self-government.

BECKER, KARL, German philologist; bred to medicine; author of a German grammar (1775-1842).

BECKER, NICOLAUS, author of the "Wacht am Rhein," was an obscure lawyer's clerk, and unnoted for anything else (1810-1845).

BECKER, WILLIAM ADOLPHE, an archaeologist, born at Dresden; was professor at Leipzig; wrote books in reproductive representation of ancient Greek and Roman life; author of "Manual of Roman Antiquities"

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BECKET, THOMAS A, archbishop of Canterbury, born in London, of Norman parentage; studied at Oxford and Bologna; entered the Church; was made Lord Chancellor; had a large and splendid retinue, but on becoming archbishop, cast all pomp aside and became an ascetic, and devoted himself to the vigorous discharge of the duties of his high office; declared for the independence of the Church, and refused to sign the CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON (q. v.); King Henry II. grew restive under his assumption of authority, and got rid of him by the hands of four knights who, to please the king, shed his blood on the steps of the altar of Canterbury Cathedral, for which outrage the king did penance four years afterwards at his tomb. The struggle was one affecting the relative rights of Church and king, and the chief combatants in the fray were both high-minded men, each inflexible in the assertion of his claims (1119-1170).

BECKFORD, WILLIAM, author of "Vathek," son of a rich alderman of London, who bequeathed him property to the value of L100,000 per annum; kept spending his fortune on extravagancies and vagaries; wrote "Vathek," an Arabian tale, when a youth of twenty-two, at a sitting of three days and two nights, a work which established his reputation as one of the first of the imaginative writers of his country. He wrote two volumes of travels in Italy, but his fame rests on his "Vathek" alone (1759-1844).

BECKMANN, a professor at Goettingen; wrote "History of Discoveries and Inventions" (1738-1811).

BECKX, PETER JOHN, general of the Jesuits, born in Belgium (1790-1887).

BECQUEREL, ANTOINE CAESAR, a French physicist; served as engineer in the French army in 1808-14, but retired in 1815, devoting himself to

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science, and obtained high distinction in electro-chemistry, working with Ampere, Biot, and other eminent scientists (1788-1878).

BED OF JUSTICE, a formal session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts, the last session being in 1787, under Louis XVI., at Versailles, whither the whole body, now "refractory, rolled out, in wheeled vehicles, to receive the order of the king."

BEDCHAMBER, LORDS or LADIES OF, officers or ladies of the royal household whose duty it is to wait upon the sovereign--the chief of the former called Groom of the Stole, and of the latter, Mistress of the Robes.

BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL, born at Clifton, son of Thomas Beddoes; an enthusiastic student of science; a dramatic poet, author of "Bride's Tragedy"; got into trouble for his Radical opinions; his principal work, "Death's Jest-Book, or the Fool's Tragedy," highly esteemed by Barry Cornwall (1803-1849).

BEDE, or BEDA, surnamed "The Venerable," an English monk and ecclesiastical historian, born at Monkwearmouth, in the abbey of which, together with that of Jarrow, he spent his life, devoted to quiet study and learning; his writings numerous, in the shape of commentaries, biographies, and philosophical treatises; his most important work, the "Ecclesiastical History" of England, written in Latin, and translated by Alfred the Great; completed a translation of John's Gospel the day he died. An old monk, it is said, wrote this epitaph over his grave, _Hac sunt in fossa Bedae ... ossa_, "In this pit are the bones ... of Beda," and then fell asleep; but when he awoke he found some invisible hand had inserted _venerabilis_ in the blank which he had failed to fill up, whence Bede's epinomen it is alleged.

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BEDELL, bishop of Kilmore and Ardagh, born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; superintended the translation of the Old Testament into Irish; though his virtues saved him and his family for a time from outrage by the rebels in 1641, he was imprisoned at the age of 70, and though released, died soon after (1571-1642).

BEDFORD (160), a midland agricultural county of England, generally level, with some flat fen-land; also the county town (28), on the Great Ouse, clean and well paved, with excellent educational institutions, famous in connection with the life of John Bunyan, where relics of him are preserved, and where a bronze statue of him by Boehm has been erected to his memory by the Duke of Bedford in 1871; manufactures agricultural implements, lace, and straw plaiting; Elstow, Bunyan's birthplace, is not far off.

BEDFORD, JOHN, DUKE OF, brother of Henry V., protector of the kingdom and regent of France during the minority of Henry VI., whom, on the death of the French king, he proclaimed King of France, taking up arms thereafter and fighting for a time victoriously on his behalf, till the enthusiasm created by Joan of Arc turned the tide against him and hastened his death, previous to which, however, though he prevailed over the dauphin, and burnt Joan at the stake, his power had gone (1389-1435).

BEDFORD LEVEL, a flat marshy district, comprising part of six counties, to the S. and W. of the Wash, about 40 m. in extent each way, caused originally by incursions of the sea and the overflowing of rivers; received its name from the Earl of Bedford, who, in the 17th century, undertook to drain it.

BEDLAM, originally a lunatic asylum in London, so named from the priory "Bethlehem" in Bishopsgate, first appropriated to the purpose, Bedlam being a corruption of the name Bethlehem.

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BEDMAR, MARQUIS DE, cardinal and bishop of Oviedo, and a Spanish diplomatist, notorious for a part he played in a daring conspiracy in 1618 aimed at the destruction of Venice, but which, being betrayed, was defeated, for concern in which several people were executed, though the arch-delinquent got off; he is the subject of Otway's "Venice Preserved"; it was after this he was made cardinal, and governor of the Netherlands, where he was detested and obliged to retire (1572-1655).

BEDOUINS, Arabs who lead a nomadic life in the desert and subsist by the pasture of cattle and the rearing of horses, the one element that binds them into a unity being community of language, the Arabic namely, which they all speak with great purity and without variation of dialect; they are generally of small stature, of wiry constitution, and dark complexion, and are divided into tribes, each under an independent chief.

BEE, THE, a periodical started by Goldsmith, in which some of his best essays appeared, and his "Citizen of the World."

BEECHER, HENRY WARD, a celebrated American preacher, born at Litchfield, Connecticut; pastor of a large Congregational church, Brooklyn; a vigorous thinker and eloquent orator, a liberal man both in theology and politics; wrote "Life Thoughts"; denied the eternity of punishment, considered a great heresy by some then, and which led to his secession from the Congregational body (1813-1887).

BEECHER-STOWE, HARRIET ELIZABETH, sister of the above, authoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," of which probably over a million copies have been sold. Born at Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., in 1812; _d_. 1896.

BEECHY, REAR-ADMIRAL, born in London, son of the following; accompanied Franklin in 1818 and Parry in 1819 to the Arctic regions; commanded the _Blossom_ in the third expedition of 1825-1828 to the same regions; published "Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole"

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BEECHY, SIR WILLIAM, portrait-painter, born in Oxfordshire; among his portraits were those of Lord Nelson, John Kemble, and Mrs. Siddons (1753-1839).

BEEF-EATERS, yeomen of the royal guard, whose institution dates from the reign of Henry VII., and whose office it is to wait upon royalty on high occasions; the name is also given to the warders of the Tower, though they are a separate body and of more recent origin; the name simply means (royal) dependant, a corruption of the French word _buffetier_, one who attends the sideboard.

BEEHIVE HOUSES, small stone structures, of ancient date, remains of which are found (sometimes in clusters) in Ireland and the W. of Scotland, with a conical roof formed of stones overlapping one another, undressed and without mortar; some of them appear to have been monks' cells.

BEEL`ZEBUB, the god of flies, protector against them, worshipped by the Phoenicians; as being a heathen deity, transformed by the Jews into a chief of the devils; sometimes identified with Satan, and sometimes his aide-de-camp.

BEERBOHM TREE, HERBERT, actor, born in London, son of a grain merchant; his first appearance was as the timid curate in the "Private Secretary," and then as the spy Macari in "Called Back"; is lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London, and has had many notable successes; he is accompanied by his wife, who is a refined actress; _b_. 1852.

BEER`SHEBA, a village in the S. of Canaan, and the most southerly, 27 m. from Hebron; associated with Dan, in the N., to denote the limit of

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the land and what lies between; lies in a pastoral country abounding in wells, and is frequently mentioned in patriarchal history; means "the Well of the Oath."

BEESWING, a gauze-like film which forms on the sides of a bottle of good port.

BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VON, one of the greatest musical composers, born in Bonn, of Dutch extraction; the author of symphonies and sonatas that are known over all the world; showed early a most precocious genius for music, commenced his education at five as a musician; trained at first by a companion named Pfeiffer, to whom he confessed he owed more than all his teachers; trained at length under the tuition of the most illustrious of his predecessors, Bach and Haendel; revealed the most wonderful musical talent; quitted Bonn and settled in Vienna; attracted the attention of Mozart; at the age of 40 was attacked with deafness that became total and lasted for life; continued to compose all the same, to the admiration of thousands; during his last days was a prey to melancholy; during a thunderstorm he died. Goethe pronounced him at his best "an utterly untamed character, not indeed wrong in finding the world detestable, though his finding it so did not," he added, "make it more enjoyable to himself or to others" (1770-1827).

BEETS, NICOLAS, a Dutch theologian and poet, born at Haarlem; came, as a poet, under the influence of Byronism; _b_. 1814.

BEFA`NA, an Italian female Santa Claus, who on Twelfth Night fills the stockings of good children with good things, and those of bad with ashes.

BEGG, JAMES, Scotch ecclesiastic, born at New Monkland, Lanark; was a stalwart champion of old Scottish orthodoxy, and the last (1808-1883).

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BEGHARDS, a religious order that arose in Belgium in the 13th century, connected with the Beguins, a mystic and socialistic sect.

BEGUINS, a sisterhood confined now to France and Germany, who, without taking any monastic vow, devote themselves to works of piety and benevolence.

BEGUM, name given in the E. Indies to a princess, mother, sister, or wife of a native ruler.

BEHAIM, MARTIN, a geographer and chartographer, born in Nueremberg; accompanied Diego Cam on a voyage of discovery along W. coast of Africa; constructed and left behind him a famous terrestrial globe; some would make him out to be the discoverer of America (1459-1507).

BEHAR (24,393), a province of Bengal, in the valley of the Ganges, which divides it into two; densely peopled; cradle of Buddhism.

BEHE`MOTH, a large animal mentioned in Job, understood to be the hippopotamus.

BEHIS`TUN, a mountain in Irak-Ajemi, a prov. of Persia, on which there are rocks covered with inscriptions, the principal relating to Darius Hystaspes, of date about 515 B.C., bearing on his genealogy, domains, and victories.

BEHM, ERNST, a German geographer, born in Gotha (1830-1884).

BEHN, AFRA, a licentious writer, born in Kent, for whom, for her

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free and easy ways, Charles II. took a liking; sent by him as a spy to Holland, and through her discovered the intention of the Dutch to burn the shipping in the Thames. She wrote plays and novels (1640-1689).

BEHRING STRAIT, a strait about 50 m. wide between Asia and N. America, which connects the Arctic Ocean with the Pacific; discovered by the Danish navigator Vitus Behring in 1728, sent out on a voyage of discovery by Peter the Great.

BEIRA (1,377), a central province of Portugal, mountainous and pastoral; gives title to the heir-apparent to the Portuguese throne.

BEKE, DR., traveller, born in London; travelled in Abyssinia and Palestine; author of "Origines Biblicae," or researches into primeval history as shown not to be in keeping with the orthodox belief.

BEKKER, IMMANUEL, philologist, born in Berlin, and professor in Halle; classical textual critic; issued recensions of the Greek and Latin classics (1780-1871).

BEL AND THE DRAGON, HISTORY OF, one of the books of the Apocrypha, a spurious addition to the book of Daniel, relates how Daniel persuaded Cyrus of the vanity of idol-worship, and is intended to show its absurdity.

BELA I., king of Hungary from 1061 to 1063; an able ruler; introduced a great many measures for the permanent benefit of the country, affecting both religion and social organisation.

BELA IV., king of Hungary, son of Andreas II., who had in 1222 been compelled to sign the Golden Bull, the _Magna Charta_ of Hungarian

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liberty; faithfully respected the provisions of this charter, and incurred the enmity of the nobles by his strenuous efforts to subdue them to the royal power.

BELCH, SIR TOBY, a reckless, jolly, swaggering character in "Twelfth Night."

BELCHER, SIR EDWARD, admiral, was engaged in several exploring and surveying expeditions; sailed round the world, and took part in the operations in China (1812-1877).

BELFAST (256), county town of Antrim, and largest and most flourishing city in the N. of Ireland; stands on the Lagan, at the head of Belfast Lough, 100 m. N. of Dublin; is a bright and pleasant city, with some fine streets and handsome buildings, Presbyterian, Catholic, and Methodist colleges. It is the centre of the Irish linen and cotton manufactures, the most important shipbuilding centre, and has also rope-making, whisky, and aerated-water industries. Its foreign trade is larger than even Dublin's. It is the capital of Ulster, and head-quarters of Presbyterianism in Ireland.

BELFORT (83), a fortified town in dep. of Haut-Rhin, and is its capital, 35 m. W. by N. of Basel; capitulated to the Germans in 1870; restored to France; its fortifications now greatly strengthened. The citadel was by Vauban.

BELGAE, Caesar's name for the tribes of the Celtic family in Gaul N. of the Seine and Marne; mistakenly rated as Germans by Caesar.

BELGIUM (6,136), a small European State bordering on the North Sea, with Holland to the N., France to the S., and Rhenish Prussia and Luxemburg on the E.; is less than a third the size of Ireland, but it is

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the most densely populated country on the Continent. The people are of mixed stock, comprising Flemings, of Teutonic origin; Walloons, of Celtic origin; Germans, Dutch, and French. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Education is excellent; there are universities at Ghent, Liege, Brussels, and Louvain. French is the language of educated circles and of the State; but the prevalence of dialects hinders the growth of a national literature. The land is low and level and fertile in the N. and W., undulating in the middle, rocky and hilly in the S. and E. The Meuse and Scheldt are the chief rivers, the basin of the latter embracing most of the country. Climate is similar to the English, with greater extremes. Rye, wheat, oats, beet, and flax are the principal crops. Agriculture is the most painstaking and productive of the world. The hilly country is rich in coal, iron, zinc, and lead. After mining, the chief industries are textile manufactures and making of machinery: the former at Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels, and Liege; the latter at Liege, Mons, and Charleroi. The trade is enormous; France, Germany, and Britain are the best customers. Exports are coal to France; farm products, eggs, &c., to England; and raw material imported from across seas, to France and the basin of the Rhine. It is a small country of large cities. The capital is Brussels (480), in the centre of the kingdom, but communicating with the ocean by a ship canal. The railways, canals, and river navigation are very highly developed. The government is a limited monarchy; the king, senate, and house of representatives form the constitution. There is a conscript army of 50,000 men, but no navy. Transferred from Spain to Austria in 1713. Belgium was under French sway from 1794 till 1814, when it was united with Holland, but established its independence in 1830.

BELGRADE (54), the capital of Servia, on the confluence of the Save and Danube; a fortified city in an important strategical position, and the centre of many conflicts; a commercial centre; once Turkish in appearance, now European more and more.

BELGRA`VIA, a fashionable quarter in the southern part of the West End of London.

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BELIAL, properly a good-for-nothing, a child of worthlessness; an incarnation of iniquity and son of perdition, and the name in the Bible for the children of such.

BELIEF, a word of various application, but properly definable as that which lies at the heart of a man or a nation's convictions, or is the heart and soul of all their thoughts and actions, "the thing a man does practically lay to heart, and know for certain concerning his vital relations to this mysterious universe, and his duty and destiny there."

BELINDA, ARABELLA FERMOR, the heroine in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."

BELISA`RIUS, a general under the Emperor Justinian, born in Illyria; defeated the Persians, the Vandals, and the Ostrogoths; was falsely accused of conspiracy, but acquitted, and restored to his dignities by the emperor; though another tradition, now discredited, alleges that for the crimes charged against him he had his eyes put out, and was reduced to beggary (505-565).

BELIZE, British Honduras, a fertile district, and its capital (6); exports mahogany, rosewood, sugar, india-rubber, &c.


BELL, ANDREW, LL.D., educationist, born at St. Andrews; founder of the Monitorial system of education, which he had adopted, for want of qualified assistants, when in India as superintendent of an orphanage in Madras, so that his system was called "the Madras system"; returned from India with a large fortune, added to it by lucrative preferments, and bequeathed a large portion of it, some L120,000, for the endowment of education in Scotland, and the establishment of schools, such as the Madras College in his native city (1753-1832).

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BELL, BESSY, and MARY GRAY, the "twa bonnie lassies" of a Scotch ballad, daughters of two Perthshire gentlemen, who in 1666 built themselves a bower in a spot retired from a plague then raging; supplied with food by a lad in love with both of them, who caught the plague and gave it to them, of which they all sickened and died.

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE, a ceremony at one time attending the greater excommunication in the Romish Church, when after sentence was read from the "book," a "bell" was rung, and the "candle" extinguished.



BELL, GEORGE JOSEPH, a brother of Sir Charles, distinguished in law; author of "Principles of the Law of Scotland" (1770-1843).

BELL, HENRY, bred a millwright, born in Linlithgowshire; the first who applied steam to navigation in Europe, applying it in a small steamboat called the _Comet_, driven by a three horse-power engine (1767-1830).

BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD, born in Glasgow, a lawyer and literary man, sheriff of Lanarkshire; wrote a vindication of Mary, Queen of Scots, and some volumes of poetry (1803-1874).

BELL, JOHN, of Antermony, a physician, born at Campsie; accompanied Russian embassies to Persia and China; wrote "Travels in Asia," which were much appreciated for their excellency of style (1690-1780).

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BELL, PETER, Wordsworth's simple rustic, to whom the primrose was but a yellow flower and nothing more.

BELL, ROBERT, journalist and miscellaneous writer, born at Cork; edited "British Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper," his best-known work, which he annotated, and accompanied with careful memoirs of each (1800-1867).

BELL, SIR CHARLES, an eminent surgeon and anatomist, born in Edinburgh, where he became professor of Surgery; distinguished chiefly for his discoveries in connection with the nervous system, which he published in his "Anatomy of the Brain" and his "Nervous System," and which gained him European fame; edited, along with Lord Brougham, Paley's "Evidences of Natural Religion" (1774-1842).

BELL, THOMAS, a naturalist, born at Poole; professor of Zoology in King's College, London; author of "British Quadrupeds" and "British Reptiles," "British Stalk-eyed Crustacea," and editor of "White's Natural History of Selborne" (1792-1880).

BELL ROCK, or INCHCAPE ROCK, a dangerous reef of sandstone rocks in the German Ocean, 12 m. SE. of Arbroath, on which a lighthouse 120 ft. high was erected in 1807-10; so called from a bell rung by the sway of the waves, which the abbot of Arbroath erected on it at one time as a warning to seamen.

BELL-THE-CAT, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Arran, so called from his offer to dispose by main force of an obnoxious favourite of the king, James III.

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BELLA, STEPHANO DELLA, a Florentine engraver of great merit, engraved over 1000 plates; was patronised by Richelieu in France, and the Medici in Florence (1610-1664).

BELL`AMY, JACOB, a Dutch poet, born at Flushing; his poems highly esteemed by his countrymen (1752-1821).

BELLANGE, a celebrated painter of battle-pieces, born at Paris (1800-1866).

BELLAR`MINE, ROBERT, cardinal, born in Tuscany; a learned Jesuit, controversial theologian, and in his writings, which are numerous, a valiant defender at all points of Roman Catholic dogma; the greatest champion of the Church in his time, and regarded as such by the Protestant theologians; he was at once a learned man and a doughty polemic (1542-1621).

BELLAY, JOACHIM DU, French poet; author of sonnets entitled "Regrets," full of vigour and poetry; wrote the "Antiquites de Rome"; was called the Apollo of the Pleiade, the best poet and the best prose-writer among them (1524-1560).

BELLE FRANCE, (i. e. Beautiful France), a name of endearment applied to France, like that of "Merry" applied to England.

BELLE-ISLE (60), a fortified island on the W. coast of France, near which Sir Edward Hawke gained a brilliant naval victory over the French, under M. de Conflans, in 1759.

BELLEISLE, CHARLES LOUIS AUGUSTE FOUQUET, COUNT OF, marshal of France; distinguished in the war of the Spanish Succession; an ambitious

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man, mainly to blame for the Austrian Succession war; had grand schemes in his head, no less than the supremacy in Europe and the world of France, warranting the risk; expounded them to Frederick the Great; concluded a fast and loose treaty with him, which could bind no one; found himself blocked up in Prague with his forces; had to force his way out and retreat, but it was a retreat the French boast comparable only to the retreat of the Ten Thousand; was made War Minister after, and wrought important reforms in the army (1684-1761). See CARLYLE'S "FREDERICK" for a graphic account of him and his schemes, specially in Bk. xii. chap. ix.

BELLENDEN, JOHN, of Moray, a Scottish writer in the 16th century; translated, at the request of James V., Hector Boece's "History of Scotland," and the first five books of Livy, which remain the earliest extant specimens of Scottish prose, and remarkable specimens they are, for the execution of which he was well rewarded, being made archdeacon of Moray for one thing, though he died in exile; _d_. 1550.

BELLENDEN, WILLIAM, a Scottish writer, distinguished for diplomatic services to Queen Mary, and for the purity of his Latin composition; a professor of belles-lettres in Paris University (1550-1613).

BELLER`OPHON, a mythical hero, son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus; having unwittingly caused the death of his brother, withdrew from his country and sought retreat with Proetus, king of Argos, who, becoming jealous of his guest, but not willing to violate the laws of hospitality, had him sent to Iobates, his son-in-law, king of Lycia, with instructions to put him to death. Iobates, in consequence, imposed upon him the task of slaying the Chimaera, persuaded that this monster would be the death of him. Bellerophon, mounted on Pegasus, the winged horse given him by Pallas, slew the monster, and on his return received the daughter of Iobates to wife.

BELLEROPHON, LETTERS OF, name given to letters fraught with mischief

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to the bearer. See SUPRA.

BELLES-LETTRES, that department of literature which implies literary culture and belongs to the domain of art, whatever the subject may be or the special form; it includes poetry, the drama, fiction, and criticism.

BELLEVILLE, a low suburb of Paris, included in it since 1860; the scene of one of the outrages of the Communists.

BELLIARD, COMTE DE, a French general and diplomatist; fought in most of the Napoleonic wars, but served under the Bourbons on Napoleon's abdication; was serviceable to Louis Philippe in Belgium by his diplomacy (1769-1832).

BELLI`NI, the name of an illustrious family of Venetian painters.

BELLINI, GENTILE, the son of Jacopo Bellini, was distinguished as a portrait-painter; decorated along with his brother the council-chamber of the ducal palace; his finest picture the "Preaching of St. Mark" (1421-1508).

BELLINI, GIOVANNI, brother of the preceding, produced a great many works; the subjects religious, all nobly treated; had Giorgione and Titian for pupils; among his best works, the "Circumcision," "Feast of the Gods," "Blood of the Redeemer"; did much to promote painting in oil (1426-1516).

BELLINI, JACOPO, a painter from Florence who settled in Venice, the father and founder of the family; _d_. 1470.

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BELLINI, VINCENZO, a musical composer, born at Catania, Sicily; his works operas, more distinguished for their melody than their dramatic power; the best are "Il Pirati," "La Somnambula," "Norma," and "Il Puritani" (1802-1835).

BELLMANN, the poet of Sweden, a man of true genius, called the "Anacreon of Sweden," patronised by Gustavus Adolphus (1741-1795).

BELLO`NA, the goddess of fury in war among the Romans, related by the poets to Mars as sister, wife, or daughter; inspirer of the war-spirit, and represented as armed with a bloody scourge in one hand and a torch in the other.

BELLOT, JOSEPH RENE, a naval officer, born in Paris, distinguished in the expedition of 1845 to Madagascar, and one of those who went in quest of Sir John Franklin; drowned while crossing the ice (1826-1853).

BELLOY, a French poet, born at St. Flour; author of "Le Siege du Calais" and numerous other dramatic works (1727-1775).

BELON, PIERRE, a French naturalist, one of the founders of natural history, and one of the precursors of Cuvier; wrote in different departments of natural history, the chief, "Natural History of Birds"; murdered by robbers while gathering plants in the Bois de Boulogne (1518-1564).

BEL`PHEGOR, a Moabite divinity.

BELPHOEBE (i. e. Beautiful Diana), a huntress in the "Faerie Queene," the impersonation of Queen Elizabeth, conceived of, however, as a pure, high-spirited maiden, rather than a queen.

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BELSHAM, THOMAS, a Unitarian divine, originally Calvinist, born at Bedford; successor to the celebrated Priestley at Hackney, London; wrote an elementary work on psychology (1750-1829).

BELSHAZZAR, the last Chaldean king of Babylon, slain, according to the Scripture account, at the capture of the city by Cyrus in 538 B.C.

BELT, GREAT and LITTLE, gateways of the Baltic: the Great between Zealand and Fuenen, 15 m. broad; the Little, between Fuenen and Jutland, half as broad; both 70 m. long, the former of great depth.

BELT OF CALMS, the region in the Atlantic and Pacific, 4 deg. or 5 deg. latitude broad, where the trade-winds meet and neutralise each other, in which, however, torrents of rain and thunder-storms occur almost daily.

BELTANE, or BELTEIN, an ancient Celtic festival connected with the sun-worship, observed about the 1st of May and the 1st of November, during which fires were kindled on the tops of hills, and various ceremonies gone through.

BELTED WILL, name given to Lord William Howard, warden in the 16th and 17th centuries of the Western Marches of England.

BELU`CHISTAN (200 to 400), a desert plateau lying between Persia and India, Afghanistan and the Arabian Sea; is crossed by many mountain ranges, the Suliman, in the N., rising to 12,000 ft. Rivers in the NE. are subject to great floods. The centre and W. is a sandy desert exposed to bitter winds in winter and sand-storms in summer. Fierce extremes of temperature prevail. There are few cattle, but sheep are numerous; the camel is the draught animal. Where there is water the soil is fertile,

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and crops of rice, cotton, indigo, sugar, and tobacco are raised; in the higher parts, wheat, maize, and pulse. Both precious and useful metals are found; petroleum wells were discovered in the N. in 1887. The population comprises Beluchis, robber nomads of Aryan stock, in the E. and W., and Mongolian Brahuis in the centre. All are Mohammedan. Kelat is the capital; its position commands all the caravan routes. Quetta, in the N., is a British stronghold and health resort. The Khan of Kelat is the ruler of the country and a vassal of the Queen.

BE`LUS, another name for BAAL (q. v.), or the legendary god of Assyria and Chaldea.

BEL`VEDERE, name given a gallery of the Vatican at Rome, especially that containing the famous statue of Apollo, and applied to picture-galleries elsewhere.

BELZO`NI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a famous traveller and explorer in Egypt, born at Padua, of poor parents; a man of great stature; figured as an athlete in Astley's Circus, London, and elsewhere, first of all in London streets; applied himself to the study of mechanics; visited Egypt as a mechanician and engineer at the instance of Mehemet Ali; commenced explorations among its antiquities, sent to the British Museum trophies of his achievements; published a narrative of his operations; opened an exhibition of his collection of antiquities in London and Paris; undertook a journey to Timbuctoo, was attacked with dysentery, and died at Gato (1778-1823).

BEM, JOSEPH, a Polish general, born in Galicia; served in the French army against Russia in 1812; took part in the insurrection of 1830; joined the Hungarians in 1848; gained several successes against Austria and Russia, but was defeated at Temesvar; turned Mussulman, and was made pasha; died at Aleppo, where he had gone to suppress an Arab insurrection; he was a good soldier and a brave man (1791-1850).

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BEMBA, a lake in Africa, the highest feeder of the Congo, of an oval shape, 150 m. long and over 70 m. broad, 3000 ft. above the sea-level.

BEMBO, PIETRO, cardinal, an erudite man of letters and patron of literature and the arts, born at Venice; secretary to Pope Leo X.; historiographer of Venice, and librarian of St. Mark's; made cardinal by Paul III., and bishop of Bergamo; a fastidious stylist and a stickler for purity in language (1470-1547).

BEN LAWERS, a mountain in Perthshire, 3984 ft. high, on the W. of Loch Tay.

BEN LEDI, a mountain in Perthshire, 2873 ft. high, 41/2 m. NW. of Callander.

BEN LOMOND, a mountain in Stirlingshire, 3192 ft. high, on the E. of Loch Lomond.

BEN NEVIS, the highest mountain in Great Britain, in SW. Inverness-shire, 4406 ft. high, and a sheer precipice on the NE. 1500 ft. high, and with an observatory on the summit supported by the Scottish Meteorological Society.

BEN RHYDDING, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 15 m. NW. of Leeds, with a thoroughly equipped hydropathic establishment, much resorted to.

BENARES (219), the most sacred city of the Hindus, and an important town in the NW. Provinces; is on the Ganges, 420 m. by rail NW. of Calcutta. It presents an amazing array of 1700 temples and mosques with

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towers and domes and minarets innumerable. The bank of the river is laid with continuous flights of steps whence the pilgrims bathe; but the city itself is narrow, crocked, crowded, and dirty. Many thousand pilgrims visit it annually. It is a seat of Hindu learning; there is also a government college. The river is spanned here by a magnificent railway bridge. There is a large trade in country produce, English goods, jewellery, and gems; while its brass-work, "Benares ware," is famous.

BENBOW, JOHN, admiral, born at Shrewsbury; distinguished himself in an action with a Barbary pirate; rose rapidly to the highest post in the navy; distinguished himself well in an engagement with a French fleet in the W. Indies; he lost a leg, and at this crisis some of his captains proved refractory, so that the enemy escaped, were tried by court-martial, and two of them shot; the wound he received and his vexation caused his death. He was a British tar to the backbone, and of a class extinct now (1653-1702).

BENCOOLEN, a town and a Dutch residency in SW. of Sumatra; exports pepper and camphor.

BENDER, a town in Bessarabia, remarkable for the siege which Charles XII. of Sweden sustained there after his defeat at Pultowa.

BENEDEK, LUDWIG VON, an Austrian general, born in Hungary; distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1848-1849; was defeated by the Prussians at Sadowa; superseded and tried, but got off; retired to Graetz, where he died (1804-1871).

BENEDETTI, COUNT VINCENT, French diplomatist, born at Bastia, in Corsica; is remembered for his draft of a treaty between France and Prussia, published in 1870, and for his repudiation of all responsibility for the Franco-German war; _b_. 1817.

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BENEDICT, the name of fourteen popes: B. I., from 574 to 575; B. II., from 684 to 685; B. III., from 855 to 858; B. IV., from 900 to 907; B. V., FROM 964 TO 965; B. VI., from 972 to 974; B. VII., from 975 to 984; B. VIII., from 1012 to 1024; extended the territory of the Church by conquest, and effected certain clerical reforms; B. IX., from 1033 to 1048, a licentious man, and deposed; B. X., from 1058 to 1059; B. XI., from 1303 to 1304; B. XII., from 1334 to 1342; B. XIII., from 1724 to 1730; B. XIV., from 1740 to 1758. Of all the popes of this name it would seem there is only one worthy of special mention.

BENEDICT XIV., a native of Bologna, a man of marked scholarship and ability; a patron of science and literature, who did much to purify the morals and elevate the character of the clergy, and reform abuses in the Church.

BENEDICT, BISCOP, an Anglo-Saxon monk, born in Northumbria; made two pilgrimages to Rome; assumed the tonsure as a Benedictine monk in Provence; returned to England and founded two monasteries on the Tyne, one at Wearmouth and another at Jarrow, making them seats of learning; _b_. 628.

BENEDICT, ST., the founder of Western monachism, born near Spoleto; left home at 14; passed three years as a hermit, in a cavern near Subiaco, to prepare himself for God's service; attracted many to his retreat; appointed to an abbey, but left it; founded 12 monasteries of his own; though possessed of no scholarship, composed his "Regula Monachorum," which formed the rule of his order; represented in art as accompanied by a raven with sometimes a loaf in his bill, or surrounded by thorns or by howling demons (480-543). See BENEDICTINES.

BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS, musician and composer, native of Stuttgart; removed to London in 1835; author of, among other pieces, the "Gipsy's

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Warning," the "Brides of Venice," and the "Crusaders"; conducted the performance of "Elijah" in which Jenny Lind made her first appearance before a London audience, and accompanied her as pianist to America in 1850 (1806-1885).

BENEDICTINES, the order of monks founded by St. Benedict and following his rule, the cradle of which was the celebrated monastery of Monte Casino, near Naples, an institution which reckoned among its members a large body of eminent men, who in their day rendered immense service to both literature and science, and were, in fact, the only learned class of the Middle Ages; spent their time in diligently transcribing manuscripts, and thus preserving for posterity the classic literature of Greece and Rome.

BENEDICTUS, part of the musical service at Mass in the Roman Catholic Church; has been introduced into the morning service of the English Church.

BENEFIT OF CLERGY, exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before a secular judge.

BE`NEKE, FRIEDRICH EDUARD, a German philosopher and professor in Berlin of the so-called empirical school, that is, the Baconian; an opponent of the methods and systems of Kant and Hegel; confined his studies to psychology and the phenomena of consciousness; was more a British thinker than a German (1798-1854).

BENENGE`LI, an imaginary Moorish author, whom Cervantes credits with the story of "Don Quixote."

BENETIER, the vessel for holding the holy water in Roman Catholic churches.

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BENEVENTO (20), a town 33 m. NE. of Naples, built out of and amid the ruins of an ancient one; also the province, of which Talleyrand was made prince by Napoleon.

BENEVOLENCE, the name of a forced tax exacted from the people by certain kings of England, and which, under Charles I., became so obnoxious as to occasion the demand of the PETITION OF RIGHTS (q. v.), that no tax should be levied without consent of Parliament; first enforced in 1473, declared illegal in 1689.

BENFEY, THEODOR, Orientalist, born near Goettingen, of Jewish birth; a great Sanskrit scholar, and professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology at his native place; author of "Lexicon of Greek Roots," "Sanskrit Grammar," &c. (1809-1881).

BENGAL (76,643), one of the three Indian presidencies, but more particularly a province lying in the plain of the Lower Ganges and the delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra, with the Himalayas on the N. At the base of the mountains are great forests; along the seaboard dense jungles. The climate is hot and humid, drier at Behar, and passing through every gradation up to the snow-line. The people are engaged in agriculture, raising indigo, jute, opium, rice, tea, cotton, sugar, &c. Coal, iron, and copper mines are worked in Burdwan. The manufactures are of cotton and jute. The population is mixed in blood and speech, but Hindus speaking Bengali predominate. Education is further advanced than elsewhere; there are fine colleges affiliated to Calcutta University, and many other scholastic institutions. The capital, Calcutta, is the capital of India; the next town in size is Patna (165).

BENGA`ZI (7), the capital of Barca, on the Gulf of Sidra, in N. Africa, and has a considerable trade.

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BENGEL, JOHANN ALBRECHT, a distinguished Biblical scholar and critic, born at Wuertemberg; best known by his "Gnomon Novi Testamenti," being an invaluable body of short notes on the New Testament; devoted himself to the critical study of the text of the Greek Testament (1687-1752).

BENGUE`LA, a fertile Portuguese territory in W. Africa, S. of Angola, with considerable mineral wealth; has sunk in importance since the suppression of the slave-trade.

BENICIA, the former capital of California, 30 m. NE. of San Francisco; has a commodious harbour and a U.S. arsenal.

BENI-HASSAN, a village in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, above Minieh, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated.

BENI-ISRAEL (i. e. Sons of Israel), a remarkable people, few in number, of Jewish type and customs, in the Bombay Presidency, and that have existed there quite isolatedly for at least 1000 years, with a language of their own, and even some literature; they do not mingle with the Jews, but they practise similar religious observances.

BENIN`, a densely populated and fertile country in W. Africa, between the Niger and Dahomey, with a city and river of the name; forms part of what was once a powerful kingdom; yields palm-oil, rice, maize, sugar, cotton, and tobacco.

BENI-SOUEF`, a town in Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 70 m. above Cairo; a centre of trade, with cotton-mills and quarries of alabaster.

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BENJAMIN, Jacob's youngest son, by Rachel, the head of one of the twelve tribes, who were settled in a small fertile territory between Ephraim and Judah; the tribe to which St. Paul belonged.

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, an American journalist, born at Keith, Scotland; trained for the Catholic priesthood; emigrated, a poor lad of 19, to America, got employment in a printing-office in Boston as proof-reader; started the _New York Herald_ in 1835 at a low price as both proprietor and editor, an enterprise which brought him great wealth and the success he aimed at (1795-1872).

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON, son of preceding, conductor of the _Herald_; sent Stanley out to Africa, and supplied the funds.

BENNETT, SIR STERNDALE, an English musical composer and pianist, born at Sheffield, whose musical genius recommended him to Mendelssohn and Schumann; became professor of Music in Cambridge, and conductor of the Philharmonic Concerts; was president of the Royal Academy of Music (1816-1873).

BENNETT, WM., a High-Churchman, celebrated for having provoked the decision that the doctrine of the Real Presence is a dogma not inconsistent with the creed of the Church of England (1804-1886).

BEN`NINGSEN, COUNT, a Russian general, born at Brunswick; entered the Russian service under Catherine II.; was commander-in-chief at Eylau, fought at Borodino, and victoriously at Leipzig; he died at Hanover, whither he had retired on failure of his health (1745-1826).

BENTHAM, GEORGE, botanist, born near Plymouth, nephew of Jeremy and editor of his works, besides a writer on botany (1800-1884).

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BENTHAM, JEREMY, a writer on jurisprudence and ethics, born in London; bred to the legal profession, but never practised it; spent his life in the study of the theory of law and government, his leading principle on both these subjects being utilitarianism, or what is called the greatest happiness principle, as the advocate of which he is chiefly remembered; a principle against which Carlyle never ceased to protest as a philosophy of man's life, but which he hailed as a sign that the crisis which must precede the regeneration of the world was come; a lower estimate, he thought, man could not form of his soul than as "a dead balance for weighing hay and thistles, pains and pleasures, &c.," an estimate of man's soul which he thinks mankind will, when it wakes up again to a sense of itself, be sure to resent and repudiate (1748-1832).

BENTINCK, LORD GEORGE, statesman and sportsman, a member of the Portland family; entered Parliament as a Whig, turned Conservative on the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832; served under Sir Robert Peel; assumed the leadership of the party as a Protectionist when Sir Robert Peel became a Free-trader, towards whom he conceived a strong personal animosity; died suddenly; the memory of him owes something to the memoir of his life by Lord Beaconsfield (1802-1848).

BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM HENRY CAVENDISH, Indian statesman, governor of Madras in 1806, but recalled for an error which led to the mutiny at Vellore; but was in 1827 appointed governor-general of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms. Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in 1835, became member for Glasgow in 1837, and died before he made any mark on home politics (1774-1839).

BENTINCK, WILLIAM, a distinguished statesman, first Earl of Portland, born in Holland; a favourite, friend, and adviser of William III., whom he accompanied to England, and who bestowed on him for his services great honours and large domains, which provoked ill-will against

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him; retired to Holland, after the king died in his arms, but returned afterwards (1648-1709).

BENTIVOGLIO, an Italian family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B., Guido, cardinal, though a disciple of Galileo, was one of the Inquisitors-General who signed his condemnation (1579-1641).

BENTLEY, RICHARD, scholar and philologist, born in Yorkshire; from the first devoted to ancient, especially classical, learning; rose to eminence as an authority on literary criticism, his "Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris," which he proved to be a forgery, commending him to the regard and esteem of all the scholars of Europe, a work which may be said to have inaugurated a new era in literary historical criticism (1662-1742).

BENUE, an affluent of the Niger, 300 m. long, falling into it 230 m. up, described by Dr. Barth and explored by Dr. Baikic, and offers great facilities for the prosecution of commerce.

BENVOLIO, a cantankerous, disputatious gentleman in "Romeo and Juliet."

BENYOW`SKY, COUNT, a Hungarian, fought with the Poles against Russia; taken prisoner; was exiled to Kamchatka; escaped with the governor's daughter; came to France; sent out to Madagascar; was elected king by the natives over them; fell in battle against the French (1741-1786).

BENZENE, a substance compounded of carbon and hydrogen, obtained by destructive distillation from coal-tar and other organic bodies, used as a substitute for turpentine and for dissolving grease.

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BENZOIN, a fragrant concrete resinous juice flowing from a styrax-tree of Sumatra, used as a cosmetic, and burned as incense.

BEOWULF, a very old Anglo-Saxon romance consisting of 6356 short alliterative lines, and the oldest extant in the language, recording the exploits of a mythical hero of the name, who wrestled Hercules-wise, at the cost of his life, with first a formidable monster, and then a dragon that had to be exterminated or tamed into submission before the race he belonged to could live with safety on the soil.

BERANGER, PIERRE JEAN DE, a celebrated French song-writer, born at Paris, of the lower section of the middle class, and the first of his countrymen who in that department rose to the high level of a true lyric poet; his first struggles with fortune were a failure, but Lucien Bonaparte took him up, and under his patronage a career was opened up for him; in 1815 appeared as an author, and the sensation created was immense, for the songs were not mere personal effusions, but in stirring accord with, and contributed to influence, the great passion of the nation at the time; was, as a Republican--which brought him into trouble with the Bourbons--a great admirer of Napoleon as an incarnation of the national spirit, and contributed not a little to the elevation of his nephew to the throne, though he declined all patronage at his hands, refusing all honours and appointments; has been compared to Burns, but he lacked both the fire and the humour of the Scottish poet. "His poetical works," says Professor Saintsbury, "consist entirely of chansons political, amatory, bacchanalian, satirical, philosophical after a fashion, and of almost every other complexion that the song can possibly take" (1780-1859).

BERAR` (896), one of the central provinces of India, E. of Bombay; it occupies a fertile, well-watered valley, and yields large quantities of grain, and especially cotton.

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BERAT, FREDERIC, a French poet and composer, author of a great number of popular songs (1800-1853).

BERBER, native language spoken in the mountainous parts of Barbary.

BERBER (8), a town in Nubia, on the Nile, occupied by the English; starting-point of caravans for the Red Sea; railway was begun to Suakim, but abandoned.

BER`BERAH, the seaport of Somaliland, under Britain, with an annual fair that brings together at times as many as 30,000 people.

BERBERS (3,000), a race aboriginal to Barbary and N. Africa, of a proud and unruly temper; though different from the Arab race, are of the same religion.

BERBICE, the eastern division of British Guiana; produces sugar, cocoa, and timber.

BERBRUGGER, a French archaeologist and philologist; wrote on Algiers, its history and monuments (1801-1869).

BERCHTA, a German Hulda, but of severer type. See BERTHA.

BERCY, a commune on the right bank of the Seine, outside Paris, included in it since 1860; is the great mart for wines and brandies.

BERE`ANS, a sect formed by John Barclay in 1778, who regard the Bible as the one exclusive revelation of God.

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BERENGER, or BERENGA`RIUS, OF TOURS, a distinguished theologian, born at Tours; held an ecclesiastical office there, and was made afterwards archdeacon of Angers; ventured to deny the doctrine of transubstantiation, a denial for which he was condemned by successive councils of the Church, and which he was compelled more than once publicly to retract, though he so often and openly recalled his retractation that the pope, notwithstanding the opposition of the orthodox, deemed it prudent at length to let him alone. After this he ceased to trouble the Church, and retired to an island on the Loire, where he gave himself up to quiet meditation and prayer (998-1088).

BERENGER I., king of Italy, grandson of Louis the Debonnaire, an able general; provoked the jealousy of the nobles, who dreaded the abridgment of their rights, which led to his assassination at their hands in 934. B. II., king of Italy, grandson of the preceding, was dethroned twice by the Emperor Otho, who sent him a prisoner to Bamberg, where he died, 966.

BERENGER, THOMAS, a French criminalist and magistrate (1785-1866).

BERENI`CE, a Jewish widow, daughter of Herod Agrippa, with whom Titus was fascinated, and whom he would have taken to wife, had not the Roman populace protested, from their Anti-Jewish prejudice, against it. The name was a common one among Egyptian as well as Jewish princesses.

BERESFORD, WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT, an English general, natural son of the first Marquis of Waterford; distinguished himself in many a military enterprise, and particularly in the Peninsular war, for which he was made a peer; he was a member of the Wellington administration, and master-general of the ordnance (1770-1854).

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BERESI`NA, a Russian river, affluent of the Dnieper, into which it falls after a course of 350 m.; it is serviceable as a water conveyance for large rafts of timber to the open sea, and is memorable for the disastrous passage of the French in their retreat from Moscow in 1812.

BEREZOV`, a town in Siberia, in the government of Tobolsk; a place of banishment.

BERG, DUCHY OF, on right bank of the Rhine, between Duesseldorf and Cologne, now part of Prussia; Murat was grand-duke of it by Napoleon's appointment.

BER`GAMO (42), a Lombard town, in a province of the same name, and 34 m. NE. of Milan, with a large annual fair in August, the largest in Italy; has grindstone quarries in the neighbourhood.

BERGASSE, French jurisconsult, born at Lyons; celebrated for his quarrel with Beaumarchais; author of an "Essay on Property" (1750-1832).

BERGEN (52), the old capital of Norway, on a fjord of the name, open to the Gulf Stream, and never frozen; the town, consisting of wooden houses, is built on a slope on which the streets reach down to the sea, and has a picturesque appearance; the trade, which is considerable, is in fish and fish products; manufactures gloves, porcelain, leather, etc.; the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral.

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM (11), a town in N. Brabant, once a strong place, and much coveted and frequently contested for by reason of its commanding situation; has a large trade in anchovies.

BER`GENROTH, GUSTAV ADOLPH, historian, born in Prussia; held a State

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office, but was dismissed and exiled because of his sympathy with the revolutionary movement of 1848; came to England to collect materials for a history of the Tudors; examined in Simancas, in Spain, under great privations, papers on the period in the public archives; made of these a collection and published it in 1862-68, under the title of "Calendar of Letters, Despatches, &c., relating to Negotiations between England and Spain" (1813-1869).

BERGERAC (11), a manufacturing town in France, 60 m. E. of Bordeaux, celebrated for its wines; it was a Huguenot centre, and suffered greatly in consequence.

BERGERAC, SAVINIEN CYRANO DE, an eccentric man with comic power, a Gascon by birth; wrote a tragedy and a comedy; his best work a fiction entitled "Histoire Comique des Etats et Empires de la Lune et du Soleil"; fought no end of duels in vindication, it is said, of his preposterously large nose (1619-1655).

BERGHAUS, HEINRICH, a geographer of note, born at Cleves; served in both the French and Prussian armies as an engineer, and was professor of mathematics at Berlin; his "Physical Atlas" is well known (1797-1884).

BERGHEM, a celebrated landscape-painter of the Dutch school, born at Haarlem (1624-1683).

BERGMAN, TORBERN OLOF, a Swedish chemist, studied under Linnaeus, and became professor of Chemistry at Upsala; discovered oxalic acid; was the first to arrange and classify minerals on a chemical basis (1735-1784).

BERI, a town in the Punjab, 40 m. NW. of Delhi, in a trading centre.

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BERKELEY, a town in Gloucestershire, famous for its cattle.

BERKELEY, GEORGE, bishop of Cloyne, born in Kilkenny; a philanthropic man, who conducted in a self-sacrificing spirit practical schemes for the good of humanity, which failed, but the interest in whom has for long centred, and still centres, in his philosophic teaching, his own interest in which was that it contributed to clear up our idea of God and consolidate our faith in Him, and it is known in philosophy as Idealism; only it must be understood, his idealism is not, as it was absurdly conceived to be, a denial of the existence of matter, but is an assertion of the doctrine that the universe, with every particular in it, _as man sees it and knows it_, is not the creation of matter but the creation of mind, and a reflex of the Eternal Reason that creates and dwells in both it and him; for as Dr. Stirling says, "the object can only be known in the subject, and therefore is subjective, and if subjective, ideal." The outer, as regards our knowledge of it, is within; such is Berkeley's fundamental philosophical principle, and it is a principle radical to the whole recent philosophy of Europe (1684-1753).

BERKSHIRE (238), a midland county of England, with a fertile, well-cultivated soil on a chalk bottom, in the upper valley of the Thames, one of the smallest but most beautiful counties in the country. In the E. part of it is Windsor Forest, and in the SE. Bagshot Heath. It is famous for its breed of pigs.

BERLICHINGEN, GOETZ VON, surnamed "The Iron Hand," a brave but turbulent noble of Germany, of the 15th and 16th centuries, the story of whose life was dramatised by Goethe, "to save," as he said, "the memory of a brave man from darkness," and which was translated from the German by Sir Walter Scott.

BERLIN` (1,579), capital of Prussia and of the German empire; stands on the Spree, in a flat sandy plain, 177 m. by rail SE. of Hamburg. The royal and imperial palaces, the great library, the university, national

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agriculture. Paganini was so struck that he presented him with 20. machinery. in the dep. of New York. a cathedral and some old churches. technical and military academies. temperate climate. and the arsenal are all near the centre of the city. BERMOO`THES. His best known works are the "Symphonie Fantastique. the numerous canals and railways which converge on it. They are held by Britain as a valuable naval station. bank of the Thames." "Romeo and Juliet.ramakalai@gmail. Chennai 6. 21. and wool. 1806. cattle. spirits. and vessels trading with it liable to capture. declaring Britain in a state of blockade. the chief are woollens. and are provided with docks and fortifications. the Spree. SE. BERLIOZ. drapery goods. its staple trade is in grain. to which he devoted his life. and mining. a celebrated musical composer and critic. There are schools of science. a group of 400 coral islands (five inhabited) in mid-Atlantic. and are a popular health resort for Americans. Manufactures are extensive and very varied. They produce a fine arrowroot. 677 m. France. on the S. a busy SE. a decree of Napoleon of Nov. sent to study medicine in Paris. and export onions. suburb of London. CTSTI. Its position between the Baltic and North Seas. zoological and botanical gardens. born near Grenoble. BER`MONDSEY. BERLIN DECREE.com gallery and museums. Page 319 of 2772 . bronze ware.000 francs (1803-1869). HECTOR. the Bermudas. art." which he produced while he was yet but a student at the Conservatoire in Paris. have a delightful. render it a most important commercial centre. with the "Symphonie." and the "Damnation of Faust". Computer Lecturer. and beer. BERMU`DAS (15). of Isere. abandoned it for music.

founded in 1115 a monastery at Clairvaux. that of the liver the transformation into sugar of certain elements in the blood. BERNARD. or as contemplating an apparition of the Virgin and the Child. he studied at Paris. in the construction of canals and forts (1779-1839). of his adopted country (1764-1844). CLAUDE. 20. Chennai 6.. a French engineer. prepared the statutes for the Knights-Templar. became king of Sweden himself under the title of Charles XIV. born at Pau. Festival. adopted by Charles XIII. Julien. was Majendie's assistant and successor in the College of France. and declined all honours to himself. born at Fontaines. king of Sweden. defeated Abelard in public debate. pronounced one of the grandest figures in the church militant. BERNARD. ST. dealt death-blows all round to no end of heretics.com BERNADOTTE. distinguished as such in the service of Napoleon. Computer Lecturer.. abbot of Clairvaux. in Champagne. to the material welfare. or as bearing the implements of Christ's passion (1091-1174). joined the Allies as a naturalised Swede in the war against France in alliance with Russia.ramakalai@gmail. in Burgundy. discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion of ingested fats. though between him and Napoleon there was constant distrust. founded 160 monasteries. CTSTI. Page 320 of 2772 . and for vast engineering works executed in the United States. studied in Paris. a marshal of France. drew around him disciples who rose to eminence as soldiers of the cross.. rose from the ranks. Aug. JEAN BAPTISTE JULES. represented in art as accompanied by a white dog. as it proved. content if he could only awake some divine passion in other men. entered the monastery of Citeaux. born at Dole. SIMON. a distinguished French physiologist. distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. BERNARD. and procured his condemnation. born at St. awoke Europe to a second crusade. and that there are nervous centres in the body which act independently of the great cerebro-spinal centre (1813-1878).

ramakalai@gmail. an ecclesiastic. wrote a poem entitled "De Contemptu Mundi. (1380-1444). commonly called Saint-Pierre simply. Computer Lecturer. born at Massa Carrara. LORD. Chennai 6. founder of the Observantines. BERNARDINE. written in a mystical vein. a fine Swiss town on the Aar. AGNES. BERNARD OF MORLAIX. Festival. was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1516. since 1848 the capital of the Swiss Confederation. OF SIENA. founder of the monasteries of the Great and the Little St. Bernard. in Italy." written on the eve of the Revolution. and governor of Calais from 1520. called by Carlyle "the swan-song of old dying France. a branch. Neale. displeased at the marriage. a monk of Cluny. established 300 monasteries of the said branch." translated by Dr. which almost surrounds it. including "Jerusalem the Golden. and restoration on strict lines. BERNERS. wife of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria. born at Havre. in the passage of the Alps (923-1008).." &c. a celebrated French writer. BERNE (47). BERNAUER. whom his father. his works. of the 11th century. fill five folio vols. author of "Paul and Virginia. JOHN BOUCHIER. commands a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps. ST. of noble family. writer or translator of romance. CTSTI." (1739-1814). in a populous canton of the same name. Page 321 of 2772 .com BERNARD OF MENTHON." BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE. had convicted of sorcery and drowned in the Danube. a busy trading and manufacturing city. translated Froissart's "Huon of Bordeaux. of the Franciscan order. June 15.

born at Angers. FRANCESCO. but baptized as a Christian. a dramatic artiste. Chennai 6. a great German general. Page 322 of 2772 . without sufficient proof.ramakalai@gmail. JULIANA. distinguished himself on the Protestant side in the Thirty Years' war. published "Travels. fought under the standard of Gustavus Adolphus. of abilities qualifying her to shine in other departments of the profession and of art." a work full of interest. a French physician and traveller. physician for 12 years to Aurungzebe. a chain in the Middle Alps. born in Mayenne. and a model of exactitude (1625-1688). THE ABBE. BERNHARDT. _b_. BERNESE ALPS. of Jewish descent. CTSTI. born in Paris. remodelled Boiardo's "Orlando Innamorato" in a style surpassing that of the original.com BERNERS. promoted afterwards to be Bishop of Orleans (1762-1806). distinguished specially as a tragedienne. the Great Mogul. said to have been prioress of a nunnery. lived in the 14th century. SARAH. writer on hunting and hawking. BERNHARD. BERNI. one of the principal authors of the Concordat. Computer Lecturer. DUKE OF WEIMAR. 1844. born in Tuscany. died at Neuburg. France. held command of the left wing at the battle of Luetzen. an Italian poet. and completed the victory after the fall of Gustavus. of which she has given proof. BERNIER. of which the eastern half is called the Bernese Oberland. to whom the Italian as a literary language owes much. who excelled in the burlesque. form the watershed between the Aar and the Rhone. as alleged. by poison (1604-1639). BERNIER.

he died wealthy (1598-1680). these have been collected and published by W. remarkable for its extensive glaciers. COUNT. JOHN. BERNSTORFF. Danish minister. Petersburg and then at Basel.290 ft. discovered the exponential calculus and the method of integrating rational fractions. and obtained the emancipation of the serfs (1711-1772). and architect. born at Basel. high. Chennai 6. born at Naples. was architect to the Pope. and designed the colonnade of St. a nephew of the preceding. was professor first at St. GIOVANNI LORENZO. his masterpiece. BERNINI. who. PIERRE. translated into Greek certain records of Babylonish history. name of a Swiss family of mathematicians. 3rd century B. BERNSTORFF. BERO`SUS. also statesman and diplomatist (1712-1772). though of Dutch origin--JAMES. BERNOUIL`LI.ramakalai@gmail.. CTSTI. a guardian of civil and political liberty (1735-1797). Page 323 of 2772 .com BERNI`NA. Richter. in Computer Lecturer. as well as the line of swiftest descent (1667-1748). of whom John is the most celebrated. a priest of the temple of Belus in Babylon. son of the preceding. BERNSTORFF. valuable fragments of which are preserved by Josephus and Eusebius. called the Danish Oracle by Frederick the Great. and philanthropist of Denmark. sculptor. produced his "Apollo and Daphne" at eighteen. 13. COUNT. an Italian painter. Peter's. a celebrated statesman. diplomatist.C. a mountain in the Swiss canton of Grisons. and DANIEL. founded an Agricultural Society and an hospital at Copenhagen.

BERT. an ancient province of France. PIERRE ANTOINE. born at Auxerre. dowager of preceding. which brought him into trouble. BER`SERKER. of Indre and Cher. a French physiologist and statesman. Chennai 6. a benevolent man. was member of the National Assembly of 1848. of the spinning-wheel Computer Lecturer. Minister of Public Instruction under Gambetta. BERRI. DUCHESSE DE. CTSTI. distinguished herself by her futile efforts to restore the Bourbon dynasty in the reign of Louis Philippe (1798-1890). assassinated by a fanatic. and is said to have been inspired with such fury as to render him invulnerable and irresistible. second son of Charles X. PAUL.com Germany.ramakalai@gmail. which became crown property in 1100 under Philippe I. inimical to the Second Empire. took to politics after the fall of the Empire. German mythology. wrote a science primer for children entitled "La Premiere Annee d'Enseignement Scientifique" (1833-1886). Page 324 of 2772 . an eminent French barrister. and openly protested against the _coup d'etat_ (1790-1868). whence his name (which means bare of sark or shirt of mail). BERRYER. BERRI.. died of fever soon after. and a duchy in 1630. forms dep. giving title to a succession of French princes. Louvel. BERTHA. goddess in the S. a Norse warrior who went into battle unharnessed. born at Paris. BERRI. a red-hot Legitimist. was professor of Physiology at Paris. as he was leaving the Opera House (1778-1820). and father of Count de Chambord. sent governor to Tonquin. DUC DE.

and was Computer Lecturer. on Napoleon's return retired with his family to Bamberg. and mother of Charlemagne. BERTHIER. Long Foot). COUNT. Page 325 of 2772 . a famous chemist. the employment of carbon in purifying water. PIERRE EUGENE. wife of Pepin the Short. _b_. BERTHELIER. wife of Ethelbert. the dyeing trade owes much to his discoveries in the extraction of dyes from coal-tar. and rose to distinction in the Revolution. became a senator and officer of the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. attached himself to the Bourbons on their return. an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition to lord it over Geneva. king of Kent. born at Versailles. professor in the College of France. ST. native of Savoy. and many improvements in the manufactures. BERTHOLLET. CTSTI. prince of Wagram and marshal of France. BERTHA. BERTHE "au Grand Pied" (i. and his companion in all his expeditions. in behalf of which and its economical management she is often harsh to idle spinners. he laid the foundation of thermo-chemistry. threw himself from a window.. converted him to Christianity. &c. ALEXANDRE.. served with Lafayette in the American war. maddened at the sight of Russian troops marching past to the French frontier (1753-1815). so called from her club foot. distinguished for his researches in organic chemistry. 1827. a French chemist. and his attempt to produce organic compounds. a British princess. e. Chennai 6. at her festival thrift is the rule. and of the household as dependent on it.ramakalai@gmail. a Swiss patriot. swore fealty to the Bourbons at the restoration of 1814.com principally. became head of Napoleon's staff. born at Paris. to whom we owe the discovery of the bleaching properties of chlorine. BERTHELOT.

a fiery partisan of royalty. BERTRAND and RATON. as well as in his exile at St. born at Paris. BERTINAZZI. Computer Lecturer. Minister of Marine under Louis XVI. cracks the nut and B. a French general. accompanied him in all his campaigns. PIERRE. BERTIN. native of Switzerland. a celebrated actor. Chennai 6. which he started in 1799. a French journalist. eats it. Helena. friend of Chateaubriand (1766-1841).. to and from Elba. Page 326 of 2772 . two personages in La Fontaine's fable of the Monkey and the Cat. milliner to Marie Antoinette. HENRI GRATIEN.com created a peer (1744-1822). CTSTI." or the Elder. BERTRAND DE MOLLEVILLE. founder and editor of the _Journal des Debats_. invented by Taylor in England (1751-1819). a celebrated clockmaker. COMTE. famed for her devotion to her. surnamed the _enfant terrible_ of the monarchy (1744-1818). invented the marine chronometer to determine the longitude at sea (1727-1807). born at Turin. BERTIN "l'Aine. introduced stenography into France.ramakalai@gmail. conducted his remains back to France in 1840 (1770-1844). and faithful adherent of Napoleon. BERTHOUD. long a favourite in Paris (1710-1788). of whom R. BER`TRAND. BERTIN. ROSE. settled in Paris.

was made marshal of France. and of the Congregation of the Oratory (1576-1629). Page 327 of 2772 . JAMES FITZ-JAMES. fell at the siege of Philippsburg. is divided into the Merse. instituted the chemical notation by symbols based on the notion of equivalents. the Lammermoors. BERULLE.com BERTON. a natural son of James II. specially for the golfing links. determined the equivalents of Computer Lecturer. BERZE`LIUS. Chennai 6. at its mouth. BERWICKSHIRE (32). of hill and dale. a summer resort. dividing the Merse from Mid and East Lothian. of interest from its connection with the Border wars.. founder of the order of Carmelites. reckoned since 1835 in Northumberland. in Haddingtonshire. a fertile Scottish county between the Lammermoors. and the Tweed. during which it frequently changed hands. composed operas. left "Memoirs" (1670-1734). Greenlaw the county town. CARDINAL. wrote a treatise on harmony (1761-1844). a naturalised Frenchman. DUKE OF. his son. BERWICK-ON-TWEED (13). defended the rights of his father.. CTSTI. a place on the S. where he gained the victory of Almanza. a town on the Scotch side of the Tweed. one of the creators of modern chemistry. JOHAN JAKOB. shore of the Forth. though at one time treated as a separate county. distinguished himself in Spain. till in 1482 the English became masters of it. was present with him at the battle of the Boyne. a richly fertile plain in the S. Baron. hilly and pastoral. and Lauderdale. born at Troyes. French composer of operas (1726-1780). NORTH. BERWICK. along the banks of the Leader. a celebrated Swedish chemist. BERWICK. PIERRE. inclusive.ramakalai@gmail. Henri.

watchmaking a staple industry.000 of the inhabitants. is an interesting woman. such as cerium and silenium. champion of the cause of Authors _versus_ Publishers. 1838. ANNIE. of Irish descent. and has an interesting address as a lecturer. Chennai 6. of which she is now an active propagandist. from whom she was legally separated. took a keen interest in social questions and secularism. fortified by Vauban. CTSTI. capital of the dep. and is the author of "French Humourists. assassinated Computer Lecturer. a Swiss. _b_. abounds in relics of Roman and mediaeval times. Page 328 of 2772 . in France. a very strong place. a bay on the Asiatic coast. married to an English clergyman. eminent chiefly as a novelist of a healthily realistic type. SIR WALTER. a man of letters. a royalist stunned into a state of helpless dismay at the first outbreak of the Revolution in Paris.. BESANT. born in London. 1847. _nee_ WOOD. wrote a number of novels jointly with James Rice." as well as short stories. manufactures also porcelain and carpets. BESME. born at Portsmouth. a Bohemian in the pay of the Duke of Guise. could do nothing in the face of it but run for his life (1722-1791). he ranks next to Linnaeus as a man of science in Sweden (1779-1848).com a great number of simple bodies. BESENVAL. of Doubs. BESANCON (57). drifted into theosophy. BESANT. MRS. employing some 15. and shared with Davy the honour of propounding the electro-chemical theory. BESIKA BAY. BARON. discovered silenium.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. and is chairman of the committee. commandant of Paris under Louis XVI. near the mouth of the Dardanelles.

SIR HENRY. BESSARA`BIA (1. of patient toil and painstaking accuracy (1784-1846). professor of Mathematics at Koenigsberg. named after him. tried hard to unite the Churches of the East and the West." on which he spent 10 years. a marvel. a government in the SW. cardinal. BESSEL. Herts. BESS. to the production of thirty times as much steel as before and at one-fifth of the cost per ton (1813-1898). BESSEMER. joined the latter. between the Dniester and the Pruth. born at Charlton. FRIEDRICH WILHELM. wool. civil engineer and inventor. and tallow. of Russia. a familiar name of Queen Elizabeth. and director of the Observatory. exports cattle. a cattle-breeding province. a Prussian astronomer of prominent ability. Computer Lecturer.688). leading. discovered--what was a great achievement--the parallax of the fixed star 61 Cygne. and was himself killed by Berteauville. Chennai 6. and was made cardinal. of converting pig-iron into steel at once by blowing a blast of air through the iron while in fusion till everything extraneous is expelled. his greatest work. BESSAR`ION. GOOD QUEEN. native of Trebizond. JOHN.ramakalai@gmail. to which he was twice over nearly elevated (1395-1472). too much of a Grecian to recommend himself to the popehood. as has been calculated. born at Minden. of his many inventions the chief is the process. contributed by his zeal in Greek literature to the fall of scholasticism and the revival of letters. and only a definite quantity of carbon is left in combination. Page 329 of 2772 . in 1571. like all he did. CTSTI. "Fundamenta Astronomiae. a Protestant gentleman.com Coligny. a process which has revolutionised the iron and steel trade all over the world.

near it is the grotto where St. Page 330 of 2772 . a village 6 m. of Jerusalem. with a convent containing the Church of the Nativity. and famous in the history of the patriarchs. but was delivered over by Alexander to Darius's brother. a name given to a class of books treating of animals. BESSUS. BESSIERES.ramakalai@gmail. rose from the ranks. assumed the title of king of Computer Lecturer. distinguished himself in the Italian campaign. BETHLEHEM (3). Chennai 6. DUKE OF ISTRIA. BETHLEN-GABOR. house of God). a Norman baron. and much esteemed by him. scene of Jacob's dream. by whom he was put to death. who assassinated his master after the battle of Arbela. and at Marengo. See BESSEMER. CTSTI. abode of Lazarus and his sisters. was shot at Luetzen the day before the battle (1768-1813). and held them as a fief of the crown of Castile. N.C. a friend and one of the ablest officers of Napoleon. Jerome translated the Bible into Latin. 328 B. of Jerusalem. BESTIARY. JEAN BAPTISTE. born at Languedoc. of humble parentage. e. viewed allegorically.com BESSEMER PROCESS. a satrap of Bactria under Darius. the birthplace of Jesus Christ and King David. in 1425 discovered and conquered the Canaries. S. village on E. a place 11 m. of the Mount of Olives. BETHEL (i. BETHENCOURT. prince of Transylvania. BETHANY. in Egypt. marshal of France.

8 m. NW. a tragic actor. and as such an interpreter of Shakespeare on. a German statesman. HENRY. Chennai 6. BEULE. friendly to Austria.com Hungary. became Chancellor of the Austro-Hungarian empire. of strong conservative leanings. left "Memoirs" (1809-1886). a parliamentary borough. lived afterwards retired (1791-1874). in the centre of a mining district. W. THOMAS. held office under Macmahon (1826-1874). BETTERTON. BEUTHEN (36). which contains the tombs of the Percys. a poor district. assisted Bohemia in the Thirty Years' war (1580-1629). superintended excavations on the Acropolis of Athens. of Hull. born at Dresden. amassed a fortune. resigned office in 1871. sympathised with France in the Franco-German war. a boy actor. Minister for Foreign Affairs in Saxony. a passionate admirer of Goethe. a French statesman and archaeologist. the Countess of Arnim. COUNT VON. BEUST. Computer Lecturer. an eastern suburb of London. CTSTI. with a Gothic minster. and scene of benevolent enterprises. it is believed. BETTY. the traditional lines. BETHNAL GREEN (129). Page 331 of 2772 . adopted a liberal policy. known as the Infant Roscius. a manufacturing town in Prussian Silesia. born at Westminster. BEVERLEY (12).ramakalai@gmail. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. BETTINA.

com BEVERLEY. an ambitious writer and a cynical (1788-1842). and the port of Damascus. showed his art first in woodcuts for his "History of Quadrupeds. a very ancient place. Page 332 of 2772 . a famous knight of English mediaeval romance." the success of which led to the publication of his "History of British Birds. born in Burgundy." born at Grenoble." in which he established his reputation both as a naturalist. a port in the Madras presidency. 721. BEYPUR. BEWICK. WILLIAM. of Computer Lecturer. was one of the most learned men of his time. THEODORE. a learned man.ramakalai@gmail. THOMAS. whose marvellous feats are recorded in Drayton's "Polyolbion. and an artist (1753-1828). _d_. BEVIS OF SOUTHAMPTON. archbishop of York." and in fiction "La Chartreuse de Parme" and "Le Rouge et le Noir". apprenticed to the trade in Newcastle. a man of gigantic stature. from which it is distant 55 m. SIR. and founder of a college for secular priests at Beverley. JOHN. BEZA. MARIE HENRI. French critic and novelist. BEYLE. did a cartoon from the Elgin Marbles for Goethe (1795-1866). with coal and iron in the neighbourhood.. tutor to the Venerable Bede. wrote in criticism "De l'Amour. a distinguished wood-engraver. usually known by his pseudonym "De Stendal. or HAMPTON." BEWICK. the most nourishing commercial city on the coast of Syria. a French Protestant theologian. BEYROUT (200). CTSTI. Chennai 6. a railway terminus. in the truest sense. born in Northumberland. a great wood-engraver.

a town in Burmah. a town in Rajputana. professor of Greek at Lausanne. BHAMO` (6). BHARTPUR` (68). e. the chief centre of trade with China. Chennai 6. and each section into six chapters. BHAGAVAD GITA. from which he shrunk. BEZANTS. calculated to allay the scruples of Arjuna. died at 86 (1519-1605). on the right bank of the Ganges. maize. BEZIERS (42). manufactures silk fabrics and confectionary. NW. a town in Bengal. which regards the extinction of existence as absorption in the Deity. 265 m. where they were current till the time of Edward III." in which he justified the burning of Servetus. sugar. settled in Geneva.ramakalai@gmail. 49 m. SW. a manufacturing town in the dep. of Montpellier. introduced by the Crusaders into England. (i. CTSTI. 30 Computer Lecturer. yielding wheat. being a series of mystical lectures addressed by Krishna to his royal pupil Arjuna on the eve of a battle. cotton. from the Chinese frontier. as it was with his own kindred. "De Hereticis a Civili Magistratu Puniendis. and a "History of the Reformed Churches" in France. divided into three sections. of Herault. Song of Krishna). persuaded the king of Navarre to favour the Protestants. with quarries of building stone. the whole conceived from the point of view or belief. called Upanishads. a poem introduced into the Mahabharata. BHAGALPUR` (69). Page 333 of 2772 . Byzantine gold coins of varying weight and value. became the friend and successor of Calvin. of Calcutta. conducted mainly by Chinese. in a native state of the name. deputed from Germany to intercede for the Huguenots in France.com good birth. only 40 m. wrote a book. and a military station.

subsidised by Britain. though the people are at a low stage of civilisation. sketching by the way. Chennai 6. BHUTAN (20). SW.ramakalai@gmail. of Bayonne. AUGUSTE FRANCOIS. W. Page 334 of 2772 .. number 750. name given to the aborigines of Thibet. and applied by the Hindus to all the Thibetan peoples. still untrained to settled life. 6 m. and to have been of royal rank.000. French _genre_ painter. BIARRITZ. musk. a bathing-place on the Bay of Biscay. a large bay in the Gulf of Guinea. under British protection. of Agra. a rude pro-Aryan race of Central India. and salt. who appears to have lived in the 11th century B. under a government that has been always friendly to Britain. a well-governed native state in Central India. BIAF`RA. with magnificent scenery. BHILS. religion the same. Africa. with a capital city (70) of the same name. in W. Indian author of apothegms. CTSTI. BIARD.com m.C. has a government like that of Thibet. BHOPAL` (952). journeyed round the world. an independent state in the Eastern Himalayas. born at Lyons. BIGHT OF. includes several islands. the country exports horses. became a place of fashionable resort by the visits of the Empress Computer Lecturer. was successful in rendering burlesque groups (1800-1882). BHOD-PA. carries on an industry in the manufacture of chowries. and receives into it the waters of the Calabar rivers. BHARTRIHARI.

not in a speculative or a scientific. the Old. in Ionia. BIBLIA PAUPERUM (i. individual and social. Old and New. and thieves break through and steal. Jerome.. both in the root of it and the fruit of it. a collection of sacred writings divided into two parts. one of the seven wise men of Greece. a book consisting of some 50 leaves. with pictures of scenes in the Life of Christ. the Old Testament and the New. BIAS. 280 B. and is known as the Vulgate. after which the two came to be regarded by the Church as of equal divine authority and as sections of one book. Computer Lecturer. written in Greek. and explanatory inscriptions. the history. and is known as the Septuagint. was translated into Latin in a grotto near Bethlehem by St.C. which moth and rust can corrupt.. and ultimately a moral principle within. is faith.C. the Prophets. and the whole book. was distinguished for his indifference to possessions. many wise sayings are ascribed to him. BIBLE. the Pentateuch. the Book _par excellence_. Bible of the Poor). e. The spirit in which it is composed is the spirit of conviction. and the Epistles. its essence. comprehending three groups of books. The one principle of the book is that loyalty to the divine commands is the one foundation of all well-being. bearing on the religion. comprehending the Four Gospels. lived in the 6th century B.D. e. The Old Testament was translated into Greek at Alexandria by 72 Jews. from wooden blocks. Page 335 of 2772 . and the New. Chennai 6. and not so much a book as a library of books). the Acts of the Apostles. printed. 385-404. both equally divine. but a spiritual interest. in the 15th century. the institutions. and the Hagiographa. It may be permitted to note that the Bible is written throughout. and before the invention of printing by movable types. CTSTI. born at Priene. A. THE (i. and that primarily in a moral power above.com Eugenie. and that its final aim is to guide men in the way of life. written in Hebrew.ramakalai@gmail. and the manners of the Jews.

in India. Chennai 6. BICKERSTAFF. physician to the Hotel-Dieu. BICHAT. BIDDLE. side of Paris. originally a Carthusian monastery. whose name was adopted as a _nom de plume_ by Swift and Steele.ramakalai@gmail. with a commanding view of the Seine and the city. a colleague of Julius Caesar. CTSTI. a Socinian writer in the time of Charles I. "cellular. a mere cipher.com BIBULUS. author of several evangelical works. and now for confirmed lunatics. died at 31 (1771-1802). MARIE FRANCOIS XAVIER. Paris." his great work "Anatomie Generale appliquee a la Physiologie et a la Medecine". in the S. BICKERSTETH. and one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance (1786-1850). JOHN. in which the congregation joins. made at Bidar. and the Computer Lecturer. BICKERTON. a hospital. served in several naval engagements. vascular. and zinc. copper. one of the first to resolve the structure of the human body into. vice-admiral. a _faineant_. lead. and muscular tissues. an Irish dramatist of 18th century. BIDDING PRAYER. English clergyman. as "Sartor" has it. since used for old soldiers. ware of tin. SIR RICHARD. and died commander-in-chief at Plymouth in 1792. followed by the Lord's Prayer. BICETRE. ISAAC. Page 336 of 2772 . BIDDERY WARE. an eminent French anatomist and physiologist. EDWARD. an exhortation to prayer in some special reference.

but released by Cromwell. in the Swiss canton of Berne. much persecuted for his belief. an Austrian officer. every six years. the presumed author of a collection of Hindu fables of ancient date. Pierre. author of a "Confession of Faith concerning the Holy Trinity" (1615-1662). appears. the retreat of Rousseau in 1765. a manufacturing town in Westphalia. BIELEFELD (39). sometimes unobserved. Chennai 6. of firm solidity and exquisite workmanship. Computer Lecturer.com Commonwealth. with a large trade in linen.100 ft. BIELU`KA. highest of the Altai Mountains. represented in the rainbow. born in Massachusetts (1814-1879). American inventor of weaving machines. BIGELOW. 11. Page 337 of 2772 . on the shores of it are remains of lake-dwellings. and was imprisoned. LAKE OF. a bridge in the Norse mythology stretching from heaven to earth. regarded as the founder of English Unitarianism. St. BIELA'S COMET. ERASTUS BRIGHAM. and widely translated. in 1826. with its twin peaks. or PILPAI. the Aar is led into it when in flood. and the centre of the trade. a comet discovered by Biela. BIENNE.ramakalai@gmail. BIDPAI. CTSTI. in extensive circulation over the East. so as to prevent inundation below. and an island in it. of which the colours are the reflections of the precious stones. BIFROeST.

and content to die there rather than return to France. John Brown and of the Gladstone ancestry. "a grim. but with remains of its former greatness. Dutch poet. resolute. imaginary author of poems in the Yankee dialect. which Bonaparte made him free to do. BILLAUD-VARENNES. when a rapier was called a "bilbo. Page 338 of 2772 . BIGLOW. specially in Queen Elizabeth's time. BILE. was president of the Convention. JEAN NICOLAS. of which the former are regarded as heretics by the latter because they break their eggs at the big end. egged on the mob during the September massacres in the name of liberty. now deserted. assisted at the fall of Robespierre. famous at one time for its steel. WILLEM. unrepentant" member of the Jacobin Club. as Little-endians is the name given to the Protestants. once the capital of an extensive kingdom. city in the presidency of Bombay. was deported to Surinam. a fluid secreted from the blood by the liver to aid in digestion.com BIG-ENDIANS. the secretion of which is most active after food. in Spain. of Biscay. born at Amsterdam (1756-1831)." BILDERDIJK. BILBA`O (50). a commercial city of ancient date. BIJAPUR`. in the imaginary kingdom of Lilliput. but could not avert his own. died at Port-au-Prince (1756-1819). a town in Lanarkshire. birthplace of Dr. BIGGAR. capital of the Basque prov. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. written by James Russell Lowell. a name given to the Catholics. CTSTI.

ELIZABETH. a fish-market in London. architect. the power or state. BIMETALLISM. the ratio usually proposed being 1 to 151/2. died at Venice in 1817. ROBERT WILLIAM. BILLINGTON. martyr. coarse language indulged in there. _nee_ WEICHSEL. ascribed to certain of the saints. ADAM. of German descent. Page 339 of 2772 . and was at last burned as a heretic in 1531. _d_.ramakalai@gmail. a celebrated singer. born in London. was engaged in the restoration of old buildings.com BILLAUT. BILLINGS. as well as delineating them (1813-1874). a fabulous island with a fountain possessed of the virtue of Computer Lecturer. born in Norfolk. also a name given to low. THOMAS. called "Maitre Adam. BIMINI. CTSTI. Chennai 6. the employment of two metals (gold and silver) in the currency of a country as legal tender at a fixed relative value. a priest who adopted the reformed doctrine. his great work "Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland. below London Bridge." richly illustrated. was twice arraigned. BILNEY. 1662. delineator of old historical buildings. BILLINGSGATE. kept up her celebrity to the last. of appearing in two places at the same time. BILOCATION." born at Nevers. and designated "Virgile au Rabot" (a carpenter's plane). but could not refrain. and released on promise not to preach. born in London. the carpenter poet.

name of the theory that derives life from life. BINET. lost his all in the South-Sea Scheme and died (1668-1723). born at Paris. and contributed numerous memoirs to scientific journals. an eminent French mathematician.." a laborious and learned work.C. author of "Origines Ecclesiasticae. BINGEN. a contemporary of Theocritus. in its varied forms and through its successive stages. a French litterateur. wrote works on astronomy (1774-1862). settled in Sicily.ramakalai@gmail. or of life in organised bodies generally. Computer Lecturer. was poisoned. a Greek pastoral poet of 3rd century B. professor of Physics in the College of France. Chennai 6. and physicist. astronomer. opposite which is the tower associated with the myth of Bishop Hatto. an English divine. in Grand-Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt. little of his poetry survives. JEAN BAPTISTE. BINGHAM. BIOT. and opposed to ABIOGENESIS (q. born at Smyrna. BION.com restoring youth. by a rival. a manufacturing and trading town on the left bank of the Rhine. CTSTI. made observations on the polarisation of light. born at Wakefield. translator of Horace and Virgil (1732-1812). took part in measuring an arc of the meridian along with Arago. Page 340 of 2772 . it is said.). BIOLOGY. JOSEPH. BIOGENESIS. the science of animal life in a purely physical reference. v. including that of plants.

EDWARD. born in London." the "Field of Chevy Chase.com BIRAGUE. THOMAS. an English _genre_ painter. Computer Lecturer. and contributed articles on that and kindred archaeological subjects (1813-1885). had an extensive knowledge of Egyptology. born in Stuttgart. BIRD. born at Milan. acted in Berlin. especially by contemporary historians. BIRCH-PFEIFFER. M. a musician in the time of Elizabeth. wrote largely." and the "Day after the Battle. archaeologist and Egyptologist. and esteemed a great luxury by the Chinese. a great authority in kidney disease. as the chief instigator of the St. CHARLOTTE. wrote a history of the Royal Society (1705-1765). born in London." is ascribed to him (1563-1623). the nest of a species of swift. Bartholomew Massacre (1507-1583). BIRCH. composed madrigals. Domine. Page 341 of 2772 . BIRCH. CTSTI. of which he himself died (1815-1854). settled in Bristol. SAMUEL. formed from a marine plant that has been first digested by a bird. RENE DE. actress. keeper of Oriental antiquities in the British Museum. born in Wolverhampton. among his works are the "Choristers Rehearsing. GOLDING. WILLIAM. charged. BIRD. cardinal and chancellor of France.D.ramakalai@gmail. "Non Nobis. BIRD'S NEST." pronounced his masterpiece (1772-1819). antiquary.. wrote dramas (1800-1868). BIRD. Chennai 6.

which in six years after he relinquished in favour of his eldest son (1687-1772). has large shipbuilding-yards and docks. in Perthshire. opposite Liverpool and a suburb of it. BIRMINGHAM (478). in consociation with Brougham and others interested in the diffusion of useful knowledge (1776-1841). several times imprisoned during the Commonwealth for his obtrusive royalism (1615-1679). DUKE OF COURLAND. All kinds of engines and machinery. was banished to Siberia. and a great town-hall. BIRKENHEAD (100). steel pens. but recalled." Computer Lecturer. M. son of a peasant. in the NW. educational institutions. fine gold. George Dawson.ramakalai@gmail. and celebrated all over the world for its metal ware. where the triennial musical festival is held. favourite of the Russian Empress Anne. and had his honours restored to him. a cathedral. silver. Chennai 6. CTSTI. due to the vicinity of Liverpool. nails. a town of rapid growth. libraries. buttons. ruled with great cruelty.D. a political writer. art gallery and museums. is the chief town of the Midlands. BIRKENHEAD. a Yorkshireman. Page 342 of 2772 .. BIRKBECK. held the reins of government even after her death. copper. and Dale were dissenting ministers. and brass ware. in Cheshire. a zealous promoter all over the country of mechanics' institutes. of London by rail. was founder of the London Institute.com BIREN. It is a picturesque town with many fine buildings. BIRNAM. and Priestley. contains part of a forest mentioned in "Macbeth. Of this town Burne-Jones was a native. and screws are specialties. a hill near Dunkeld. NW. 112 m. cutlery and ammunition are made here. on the Mersey. SIR JOHN. GEORGE. of Warwickshire.

one of the stormiest of seas. intrigued with the Duke of Savoy and with Spain against Henry. and. born at Hanover. under SW. though a Catholic. served bravely under Henry IV. was killed at the siege of Epernay. narrowly escaped at the Massacre of St. experimented on the inflammable power of gas (1792-1870). extending from Cape Ortegal. in France. THEODOR LUDWIG WILHELM. marshal of France. distinguished biologist. professor at Bonn. winds particularly. and of both at Muenich (1807-1882). but being a man of no principle and discontented with the reward he got for his services.. favoured the Huguenots. Page 343 of 2772 ." BIRON.ramakalai@gmail.. to Cape Finisterre. eventually an overseer of churches. of depth varying from 20 to 200 fathoms. chemist. BIRON. and 400 m.com BIRON. especially of a district. he was beheaded (1562-1602). carried a note-book with him everywhere. after trial. Chennai 6. BAY OF. where. Bartholomew. born at Perigord. Computer Lecturer. son of the preceding. BISCHOFF. a madcap lord in "Love's Labour's Lost. made a special study of embryology. BISCHOF. originally an overseer of souls. CTSTI. of Physiology at Giessen. KARL GUSTAV. DUC DE. and so observant was he that it passed into proverb. BARON DE. "You will find it in Biron's note-book" (1524-1592). BISCAY. was professor of Anatomy at Heidelberg. born at Nueremberg. in Spain. and conceived of by High-Churchmen as representing the apostles and deriving his powers by transmission from them. BISHOP. was arrested and sent to the Bastille. broad. a bay in the Atlantic. served also bravely under Henry IV.

NE. of which "Guy Mannering. and the consequent erection of a German Confederation. but the annexation of Sleswig-Holstein by force of arms in 1863 raised him into general favour. and welding them into one under the crown of Prussia. the humiliation of Austria at Koeniggraetz in 1866. an English composer. it has coal-mines close by. Augustine. was for a brief space professor of Music in Edinburgh University. the German empire restored under a Computer Lecturer. PRINCE VON. SIR HENRY ROWLEY. the Germans proved to be a nation of soldiers. born in London. woke up into civil life by the events of 1848. took a bold stand against revolutionary ideas and measures. conceived the idea of freeing the several States of Germany from foreign control. of New Guinea." are still in favour. and beat the French ignominiously back from the Rhine. made him the idol of the nation. produced 60 pieces. and to an advance on the part of the French against Berlin.com BISHOP. born at Schoenhausen. Summoned in 1862 by King William to be his political adviser. composer and director of music in Covent Garden Theatre for 14 years. St. of Durham." "The Miller and his Men. manufactures machinery and cotton goods. CTSTI. His next feat. marshalled as army never was before. Page 344 of 2772 . under the protectorate of Germany. that still threatened. BISHOP OF HIPPO. where the bishop of Durham has his residence. BISMARCK-SCHOeNHAUSEN. with Prussia at its head. a palatial structure. his influence was at first distrusted. His treatment of Napoleon III. Chennai 6. and eventually held a similar chair in Oxford (1786-1855).ramakalai@gmail. BISHOP-AUCKLAND (10). SW. EDUARD LEOPOLD. as well as that of Austria. helpless at his feet. BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO (188). To the surprise of nearly all Europe. as once in office there. an archipelago formerly called New Britain. provoked the latter into a declaration of war. a market-town 9 m. Count Bismarck had the satisfaction of seeing the power of France.

BISSA`GOS. Chennai 6. the people of it were of Thracian origin. and repressed Socialism--equalled this great feat. a Danish sculptor. Nothing he did after this--though he reformed the coinage. BITLIS (25). with a large negro population. an inflammable mineral substance. a country in the NW. he produced some fine works. of Van. above. W. presumably of vegetable origin. BITHYNIA. anciently so called.com Hohenzollern king. born in Sleswig. intrusted by him to finish a statue he left unfinished at his death. BITHUR. a group of some 20 volcanic islands off the coast of Senegambia. 12 m. Maltha when viscid. If he ceased to be chancellor of Germany on the accession of William II. a town on the right bank of the Ganges. yield tropical products. and belong now to Portugal. it was because the young king felt he would have a freer hand with a minister more likely to be under his control (1815-1898). Computer Lecturer. and for this a grateful nation must ever honour his name. with a population of Mohammedans and Armenians. established protection. increased the army. the sea-level. called Naphtha when liquid and light-coloured. and Asphalt when solid. 62 m. of Asia Minor. stands in a valley 8470 ft..ramakalai@gmail. where Nana Sahib lived. BITUMEN. codified the law. Petroleum when less fluid and darker. and himself installed as chancellor of the monarch he had served so well. Page 345 of 2772 . but his best known are his "Cupid Sharpening his Arrow" and "Atalanta Hunting" (1798-1868). and concocted the conspiracy which developed into the mutiny of 1857. CTSTI. a high-lying town in Asiatic Turkey. above Cawnpore. BISSEN. a pupil of Thorwaldsen.

WILLIAM. then in Edinburgh. an active and zealous promoter of liberalism. of Scotch parents. and lyrics. where his lectures were very popular. BJOeRNSEN. composed stories of Swiss life under the _nom de plume_ of Jeremias Gotthelf. started life as a journalist in connection with the _Morning Star_. was by profession a Protestant pastor. BIZET. the duties of which he continued to discharge till his death (1797-1854). _b_. BLACK. professor of Chemistry. died of heart-disease shortly after its appearance (1838-1875). both in religion and politics. of the capital. the best known and most admired. novelist. an operatic composer. born in Glasgow." "The Strange Adventures of Computer Lecturer. a Norwegian author. rich in picturesque description. first in Glasgow. his writings are numerous. the discoverer of what has been called latent heat. over 30 in number. born at Kvikne. northernmost town in Africa. BIZERTA (10). born at Paris. his best play "Sigurd the Bastard". CTSTI. dramas. his greatest work "Carmen". about the West Highlands of Scotland." "Macleod of Dare. a seaport of Tunis. JOSEPH. 1832. composed tales. all of distinguished merit and imbued with a patriotic spirit. sometimes extreme. BLACK. a Swiss author. fascinating from their charming simplicity and truth. but what is really transformed energy. with an excellent harbour. 38 m. born at Bordeaux. GEORGES. has written several novels. his discoveries in chemistry were fruitful in results (1728-1799). Page 346 of 2772 ." the "Madcap Violet. and they rank high. "A Daughter of Heth. he is much admired by Ruskin. Chennai 6.com BITZIUS.ramakalai@gmail. his songs being highly appreciated by his countrymen. NW. a celebrated chemist.

a plague at Oxford in 1557. believed to be the same as the Oriental plague. lead. which.com a Phaeton. caught at the assize from the prisoners under trial. a wooded mountain chain 4000 ft. BLACK HOLE OF CALCUTTA. through Wuertemberg and Baden. such as wooden clocks." "But when are you going to write a book. from the Swiss frontier to Carlsruhe. BLACK FOREST (488).ramakalai@gmail. Mr. it possesses many health resorts. is remarkable for its picturesque scenery and its mineral wealth. their sufferings were excruciating. Chennai 6." and "A Princess of Thule. monks of the Dominican order. as is reckoned. which carried off 300 victims. Page 347 of 2772 . BLACK DEATH. though attended with peculiar symptoms. and only 23 survived till morning. CTSTI. a confined apartment 13 ft. BLACK ART. the women and children of the region make articles of woodwork. Black?" said Carlyle to him one day (1841-1898). the most serious was that of 1348. &c. as Baden-Baden and Wildbad. Computer Lecturer. a name given to a succession of fatal epidemics that devastated the world from China to Ireland in the 14th century. square. and iron are wrought in many places. of it. copper. into which 146 English prisoners were crammed by the orders of Surajah Dowia on the 19th June 1756. which runs parallel with the Rhine. silver. name of a district in London where they had a monastery. BLACK ASSIZE. cobalt. BLACK FRIARS. where are mineral springs. high (so called from the black pines that cover it). and E. name given to the presumed power of evoking evil spirits. stripped England alone of one-third of its inhabitants.

twice the size of Britain. an official of the House of Lords. Page 348 of 2772 .. with the Sea of Azov. and in the SW. in greatest breadth. Bulgaria. name given in Scotland to Saturday. in greatest length and 400 m. and consisting of a layer of black earth or vegetable mould. of from 3 to 20 ft. BLACK SEA. lying between Europe and Asia. Dneister. to die (1330-1376). extending between the Carpathians and the Urals. guards the privileges of the House. from the colour of his armour. BLACK ROD. constituting one-third of the soil. and a chief source. or EUXINE. Chennai 6. BLACK SATURDAY. Bug. GENTLEMAN USHER OF. communicates in the N. Russia. an inland sea. from its exhaustless fertility.. Easter Monday in 1351. It has but one island. broken in health. and Asia Minor.com BLACK LANDS. of the wealth of the country. under which many died. gained the battle of Poitiers. and the Kizil-Irmak and Sakaria from Asia--three times as much as is received by the Mediterranean. Rumelia. and Don. summons the Commons to the House. with the Mediterranean. BLACK MONDAY. so called. it is said. the Sea of Marmora. BLACK PRINCE. but involved his country in further hostilities with France. distinguished himself at Crecy. Adassi. receives the waters of the Danube. and an intense cold. &c. through the Bosphorus. CTSTI. and the Dardanelles. It washes the shores of Turkey. regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy. whose badge of office is a black rod surmounted by a gold lion. 4th August 1621. Prince of Wales. from Europe. lands in the heart of Russia. returned to England. in thickness. son of Edward III. a stormy day of great darkness. remarkable for the extreme darkness that prevailed.ramakalai@gmail. being 700 m. off the mouths of the Computer Lecturer.

Batoum. BLACKIE. BLACKHEATH. two Highland regiments.. and Sinope. raised originally for the preservation of the peace in the Highlands. and it has no noticeable tides. spoke much and wrote much in his day on manifold subjects. which are numerous. executed a metrical translation of Goethe's "Faust. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. Page 349 of 2772 . Austrians (1784). Chennai 6. Among the chief ports are Odessa. took an active interest in everything affecting the welfare and honour of Scotland. BLACKBURN (120). founded a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh University. the first two are ice-bound in January and February. studied German. a centre of the cotton industry. the 42nd and 73rd. so called from the dark colour of the tartan. and the greatest in the world. for long provided the only golfing-course in England. Computer Lecturer. JOHN STUART. is the birthplace of Hargreaves. a man of versatile gifts and warm human sympathies. born in Glasgow. Kherson. hence in summer navigation is very safe. no reefs or shoals. "Self-Culture" is the most likely to survive him longest (1809-1895). BLACK WATCH. and afterwards that of Greek in Edinburgh.ramakalai@gmail." Part I. among his works. of London. filled the chair of Humanity in Aberdeen. Trebizond. once a favourite haunt of highwaymen. of Manchester. Its waters are fresher than those of the ocean. but devoted to literary pursuits. and Homer's "Iliad" in verse. bred to the bar. the inventor of the spinning-jenny. 21 m. Russia and Turkey keep fleets in it. AEschylus. SE. CTSTI. but other warships are excluded. now a place of holiday resort for Londoners. a common 7 m. but the Russians (1774).com Danube. French and English (1802) secured trading rights. For three centuries the Turks excluded all other nations from its waters. In winter it is harassed by severe storms. was a zealous educational reformer. NW.

bred to the bar. _d_. the most voluminous of poetasters. BLACKPOOL (23). adventurer. SIR RICHARD. ALEXANDER. born in Berks. born in Wilts. born in Aberdeen. and may be credited. of Preston. author of the well-known "Commentaries on the Laws of England. BLACKMORE. convicted of conspiracy. published four long worthless poems." which. the best known "Lorna Doone. Oxford. was supported by his wife. NW. &c.ramakalai@gmail. sometimes called the "Brighton of the North. THOMAS. was patronised by the king. BLACKWELL. and in 1746 called to the bar.. set up as a teacher in Edinburgh. after occupying a charge for two years. born in London." BLACKSTONE. Page 350 of 2772 . was fellow of Pembroke College. became highly popular. he is pronounced unrivalled in his day as a writer of rustic comedy. has written several novels. physician. Computer Lecturer. studied medicine. a clergyman. and beheaded in 1747. had Jeremy Bentham for one of his pupils. though coldly received at first. therefore. RICHARD DODDRIDGE. novelist. on his release went to Sweden. with saving for his country and humanity at large one of the most gifted of his country's sons (1721-1791). an eminent jurist and judge. took to printing. was influential in inducing Burns to abandon his intention to emigrate. became first Vinerian professor of Law at Oxford. 1825. _b_. and made himself the butt of all the wits of the period. born in Annan. 1729. besides essays and psalms. the son of a silk-mercer." an authority on the subject and a work that has appeared in many editions (1723-1780). a watering-place on the coast of Lancashire. thrown into prison for debt. Chennai 6. CTSTI. BLACKMORE.com BLACKLOCK. 18 m. SIR WILLIAM. blind from early infancy.

and the first to hold a medical diploma in the United States. and procured him a pension of L200 from the king. His son JAN edited a valuable atlas called "Atlas Major. a French naturalist. a lady doctor. Chennai 6. HUGH. clergyman. _d_. originally a bookseller. Page 351 of 2772 . became assistant to Cuvier.com BLACKWELL. his third son. in 1817. was admitted into the Maternity Hospital in Paris. HENRI MARIE. and became professor of Rhetoric in Edinburgh University. ELIZABETH. held subsequently high naval positions (1770-1832). 1673. his terrestrial and celestial globes have been admired for their excellence and accuracy (1571-1638). BLACKWOOD. wrote largely on natural science. 1821. graduated in 1849. and has since distinguished herself as a social reformer. JOHN. BLAEU. he was a man of great critical acumen. conducted it as editor till his death (1776-1834). much trusted by Nelson. his principal literary advisers being Professor Wilson and Lockhart. were much esteemed at one time for their polished style. born at Alkmaar. devoted himself to medicine. held in succession several charges in Scotland. and Computer Lecturer. author of "Lectures on Rhetoric" and "Sermons. and particularly on subjects connected with his appointment as a professor (1777-1850). started _Maga_. born in Bristol. WILLEM JANZSOON. British admiral. and to St.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. Bartholomew's in London. was present at Nelson's death. no less distinguished in the cause of literature (1818-1879). Dutch cartographer. as it was called. _b_. WILLIAM. BLACKWOOD. succeeded him as professor of Comparative Anatomy. SIR HENRY. distinguished at Aboukir Bay and Trafalgar. born in Edinburgh. BLAIR." in 11 volumes. BLAINVILLE. originator of _Blackwood's Magazine_. born in Edinburgh." which latter are of the nature of moral essays rather than sermons. his successor.

devoted his leisure to poetry. JEAN JOSEPH LOUIS. BLANC. with rare intervals. a French art critic. BLAKE. poet. he spent his life a mystic from his very boyhood. beat the Dutch under Van Tromp de Ruyter and De Witt." "Marriage of Heaven and Hell. minister of Athelstaneford. apprenticed to an engraver." born at Bridgewater.ramakalai@gmail. born in London. born in Edinburgh." "Gates of Paradise. where. Catherine Boucher (1757-1828)." and the "Book of Job. took first to sea in pursuit of Prince Rupert and the royalist fleet. painter. BLANC.com the celebrated Schleiermacher did not think it beneath him to translate some of them into German (1718-1800). ROBERT. born at Madrid. and finally. Chennai 6. annihilated a Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay under the shadow of the Peak of Teneriffe. author of "The Grave. and engraver." His poem has the merit of having been illustrated by William Blake (1699-1743). whom he assisted with his drawings. WILLIAM. the author of "Douglas. started on original lines of his own as illustrator of books and a painter. wrote "Songs of Innocence. "one of the fiercest actions ever fought on land or water" (1598-1657). Page 352 of 2772 ." and "Songs of Experience". before he tried seamanship. brother of Louis Blanc (1813-1882). a French Socialist." Blair's "Grave. his greatest feat. illustrated Young's "Night Thoughts. most vivid feeling and imagination. and had for wife an angel. the great English admiral and "Sea King." He was a man of stainless character but eccentric habits. successful as a soldier under the Commonwealth. was an intensely religious man of deep spiritual insight. which he destroyed. BLAKE. BLAIR. CHARLES. CTSTI. sailed under the great guns of Tunis into the harbour. where he fired a fleet of Turkish pirates. where he was succeeded by Home. Computer Lecturer." a thoughtful and cultured man. ROBERT.

MONT. born at Yarmouth. 15.ramakalai@gmail. regent of France during the minority of her son and during his absence in crusade. inventor of the parachute. Chennai 6. Page 353 of 2772 .780 ft. threatened with impeachment. BLANCHARD. died of grief over the long absence of her son and his rumoured intention to stay in the Holy Land (1186-1252). BLANCHARD. governed with great discretion and firmness. and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1871. was member of the Provisional Government of 1848. a prolific periodical and play writer. Piedmontese physician. almost entirely within France. died by suicide (1803-1845). a work which gained the favour of the working-classes. a man of a singularly buoyant spirit. BLANDRATA. he fell from his balloon and was killed at the Hague (1738-1809). crushed by calamities. LAMAN. GIORGIO. of France and mother of St. FRANCOIS. the highest mountain in Europe. died at Cannes (1811-1882). wrote an "elaborate and well-written" "History of the French Revolution". THE ABBE. BLANCHET. then in Computer Lecturer. wife of Louis VIII.. first in Poland." which had already appeared in the _Revue_." much esteemed (1707-1784). a celebrated French aeronaut. and eventually of the National Assembly. French litterateur. founded the _Revue du Progres_. Louis. sends numerous glaciers down its slopes. author of "Apologues and Tales. who for his religious opinions was compelled to take refuge. returned to France on the fall of the Empire. and published separately in 1840 "Organisation of Labour. BLANCHE OF CASTILE. the Mer de Glace the chief. fled to England.com started as a journalist. BLANC. CTSTI.

where he sowed the seeds of Unitarianism (1515-1590). a stone in Castle Blarney. CTSTI. the patron of wool-combers. Chennai 6. in Armenia. BLASPHEMY.com Transylvania. culminating in wishing ill to God. born in Holstein. "History of Political Economy in Europe" (1798-1854). born at Nice." BLATANT BEAST. a French republican of extreme views and violent procedure. spent nearly half his life in prison (1805-1881).ramakalai@gmail. BLEEK. BLASIUS. a great authority on theosophy. as the height of "ill-manners. ADOLPHE. professor at Bonn.. B. FRIEDRICH. his chief Computer Lecturer. suffered martyrdom in 316. clamour of the mob. BLARNEY-STONE. would appear to have posed as a martyr. born in Russia. of difficult access. Cork. his principal work. LOUIS AUGUSTE. BLANQUI. defined by Ruskin as the opposite of euphemy. eminent German Biblical exegete and critic of the Schleiermacher school. a celebrated French publicist and economist. which is said to endow whoso kisses it with a fair-spoken tongue. Spenser's name for the ignorant. a disciple of J. BLANQUI. Say. the doctrines of which she professed she derived from the fountain-head in Thibet (1813-1891). bishop of Sebaste. a brother of the preceding. ST. hence the application of the word. slanderous. Page 354 of 2772 .. a theosophist. and as wishing ill to anything. MME. BLAVATSKY. and a free-trader.

near Augsburg.com work. African Languages" (1827-1875). in an open boat. BLESSINGTON." a great work. others are Introductions to the Old and to the New Testaments (1793-1859). of the country to the Duke of Marlborough." and wrote several novels. figured much in intellectual circles in London. WM. accompanied Colenso to Natal. inhabited by pigmies. an island separated from Lilliput by a strait 800 yards wide. BLENHEIM PARK. "Commentary on the Hebrews. an Irish lady celebrated for her beauty and wit. and had to flee the country (1789-1849). commanded the _Bounty_ at Tahiti. was afterwards governor of N. WM. COUNTESS OF. with 18 others.. Page 355 of 2772 . BLICHER. son of preceding. with the Woodstock estate. had her salon at Kensington. for his military services in the Spanish Succession war. Chennai 6. BLEEK.S. a philologist. BLEFUSCU.ramakalai@gmail. and set him adrift. Wales. the gift. a naval officer. Oxford. famous for Marlborough's victory in 1704. BLIGH. he arrived in England. CTSTI. and published "Conversations with Byron. but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct (1753-1817). being extravagant. after incredible privations. was on intimate terms with Byron. BLENHEIM. a village in Bavaria. near Woodstock. Danish poet of rural life (1782-1848). and giving name to it. fell into debt. when his crew mutinied under his harsh treatment. served under Captain Cook. STEEN STEENSEN. understood to represent France. Computer Lecturer. in which.. author of "Comparative Grammar of the S.

and sentenced to prison in consequence of a pamphlet he wrote entitled "German Hunger and German Princes. a favourite residence of Francis I. S. produced at the expense of the wealthiest princes of Germany (1723-1799). a family of Flemish painters and engravers in 16th and 17th centuries.com BLIMBER. BLOIS. of Jewish descent. his "Ichthyology" is a magnificent national work. BLIND HARRY. and cultivated his literary as well as his political proclivities by contributing to magazines. and the scene of events of interest in the history of France. composed in verse "The Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland. Page 356 of 2772 .. a prim school-matron in "Dombey & Son. BLOCH. 35 m." BLIND. FRANCIS. a wandering Scottish minstrel of the 15th century. born at Mannheim. BLOMEFLELD." but rescued by the mob. CTSTI. took part in the risings of 1848. and Charles IX. a naturalist. a dune near Haarlem. capital of the deps." BLINKERT DUNE. KARL. born at Norfolk. MRS. found refuge in England. 1826. _b_. author of "Topographical History of the County of Norfolk" (1705-1751). and otherwise. of Loire and Cher. revolutionist and journalist. France. a clergyman. Computer Lecturer. above the sea-level. on the Loire. where he interested himself in democratic movements.ramakalai@gmail. BLOEMAERT. Chennai 6. Sir William Wallace. of Orleans. 197 ft. born at Anspach. MARCUS ELIESER. CORNELIA.

the judicial massacres and cruel injustices perpetrated by Judge Jeffreys during Circuit in 1685. _b_. Computer Lecturer. CHARLES. an Irish desperado. and by the voice of Richard in responding to the strain. unaccountably pardoned by Charles II. statute of Henry VIII. 1824. He was afterwards charged with conspiracy. bishop of London. THOMAS. and released. celebrated for his feats in crossing Niagara Falls on the tight-rope. BLONDEL. BLOODY STATUTE. making it a crime involving the heaviest penalties to question any of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church. active in the Church extension of his diocese (1785-1857). a troubadour of the 12th century. CTSTI. a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion..com BLOMFIELD. BLOODY ASSIZES. BLOOD. Greek scholar.ramakalai@gmail. it is said. and for carrying off the regalia in the Tower. Edmunds. discovered the place of Richard's imprisonment in Austria by singing the first part of a love-song which Richard and he had composed together. and received afterwards into royal favour with a pension of L500 per annum. an acrobat and rope-dancer. COLONEL. a hobgoblin feared by children. France. BLONDIN. BLOODY BONES. born at Bury St. who. born at St. Omer. noted for his daring attempts against the life of the Duke of Ormonde. Chennai 6. and committed to the King's Bench. Page 357 of 2772 .

pursued the French across the Rhine. and contributed to decide the fate of the day (1742-1819). at the age of 70 commanded the centre of the Allied Army in 1813.. was involved in all the controversies of the time. from 5000 to 7000 ft. a deist. the highest 4100 ft. a nickname given to an inhabitant of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick. CTSTI." a highly popular production. Chennai 6. defeated by Napoleon at Ligny. distinguished himself at Luetzen and Leipzig. BLOUNT. CHARLES. spent his last days in ill-health struggling with poverty. an English poet. Page 358 of 2772 . BLOWPIPE. familiarly named "Marshal Forwards. served first in the Swedish army." born at Rostock. translated into French and Italian. with a deep chasm between. distinguished as a leader of cavalry. Computer Lecturer. born in London. pressed forward to Paris at the time of Napoleon's abdication. 16th June 1815. BLUE MOUNTAINS. BLUeCHER.com BLOOMFLELD. died by his own hand (1654-1693). then in the Prussian. in height. and met with varying fortune. ROBERT. to W.ramakalai@gmail. author of the "Farmer's Boy. and the flame directed upon some fusible substance to fuse or vitrify it. arrived on the field of Waterloo just as the French were preparing to make their last charge. also a chain of mountains in New South Wales of two parallel ranges. assailant of revealed religion. which brought on dejection of mind (1766-1823). Prussian field-marshal. a contrivance by which a current of air is driven through a flame. BLUE NOSE. and full of gloomy ravines and beetling precipices. by trade a shoemaker. a range of thickly wooded mountains traversing Jamaica from E. born in Suffolk.

BLUE-GOWN. tried by court-martial and shot for abetting a political movement in Vienna in 1848. by the timely arrival of her brothers. _b_. who at once despatch the husband to his merited doom. a female pedant or _femme savante_. or HARRY. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. a wealthy seigneur. with injunctions not to unlock any of the doors. those of a single session now forming a collection of some 60 folio volumes. and had his license to beg.. a name derived from a learned coterie. her disobedience is discovered. Page 359 of 2772 . born at Cologne. marries a beautiful woman. 1807. and she is to prepare for death. a proceeding which created a wide-spread sensation at the time all over Europe. who wore blue stockings as a badge. and leaves her in charge of the keys of the apartments in his absence. but is rescued. a bedesman of the king. BLUFF HAL. BLUE-STOCKING. in Scotland a beggar. and finds to her horror the remains of his former wives locked up in one of them. who wore a blue gown. as the corresponding documents in France are in _yellow_. BLUE-BOOKS. from the blue coats worn by the boys. BLUE-COAT SCHOOL. at Venice. Chennai 6. they have been published regularly since the beginning of the 18th century. as she lies with her head on the block.ramakalai@gmail. of England. a name given to Christ's Hospital. founded in the reign of Edward VI. Henry VIII.com BLUEBEARD. Parliamentary documents bound in _blue_ paper. the owner of a castle. London. an injunction which she fails to respect. formed in the 15th century. the gift of the king. a German politician. BLUM.

a distinguished jurist. or ABU-ABDALLAH. _b_. the siren that Calypsowise in "Sartor" seduced Teufelsdroeckh at the commencement of his career. was a great advocate for religious liberty (1752-1840). born at Gotha. an authority in international law. that the soul's cravings can find satisfaction. from 1481 to 1492. D. JOHN HENRY. Chennai 6. as he rode off he halted on a hill called "The Last Sigh of the Moor. field-marshal in the Prussian army. but who opened his eyes to see that it is not in sentiment. studied at Jena." and wept as he looked back on the Alhambra. BLUNT. and France. founder and president of the Protestant Union called the _Protestantenverein_ (1808-1881). an office he filled for 60 years. the chief were "Institutiones Physiologicae. CTSTI. while his mother added to his bitterness with the cutting sarcasm. became professor at Goettingen. BLUMI`NE. his works gave a great impulse to scientific research in all directions." "Manual of Natural History. recklessly throwing away his life on a field of battle. born at Chelsea. BLUMENTHAL. a liberal conservative both in Church and State. expelled from his throne by Ferdinand of Castile and Aragon. an eminent strategist. Page 360 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. however fine. "Weep as a woman for a throne you have not been able to defend as a man". 1810. BLUNTSCHLI." "Manual of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology".com BLUMENBACH.ramakalai@gmail.D.. wrote largely on theological and ecclesiastical subjects (1823-1884). a distinguished German naturalist and ethnologist. Austria. JOHANN KASPAR. distinguished in the wars with Denmark. he made craniology a special study. surnamed "The Unfortunate." the last Moorish king of Granada. LEONARD VON. born at Zurich. died shortly after in Africa. JOHANN FRIEDRICH. BOABDIL.

along with whom he contributed to the revival and study of classic literature. e.com BOADICE`A. applied by Christ to the sons of Zebedee for the vehemence of their zeal. showed early a passion for literature. two pillars of brass at the entrance of Solomon's Temple.ramakalai@gmail. Sons of Thunder). the type of the merry-andrew at country fairs. Petrarch's death deeply affected him. BOAZ and JACHIN. born near Florence. Chennai 6. queen of the Iceni. she put. son of an upholsterer of the St. BOB`ADIL. under the Empire and the Restoration. an end to her life by poison. Computer Lecturer. styled by him Fiammetta. a British heroine. with a murderous onslaught. BOANERGES (i. 61. the celebrated Italian _raconteur_. A. GIOVANNI. roused by indignity done to her and her people by the Romans. CTSTI. CAPTAIN." BOBECHE. who.D. fell in love with Maria. attacked their settlements and destroyed them. and his great work. gave himself up to story-telling in prose and verse. Antoine faubourg. Page 361 of 2772 . daughter of the king. Cowper made her the theme of one of his poems. a braggadocio in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour. sent by his father to Naples to pursue a mercantile career. in her despair. and he died the year after (1313-1375). lectured on Dante in Florence. gathered round her an army. a beautiful woman. but being attacked and defeated in turn by Suetonius Paulinus. who occupied Norfolk and Suffolk. the Roman governor. for whom he wrote several of his works. early formed a lifelong friendship with Petrarch. the "Decameron". BOCCACCIO. signifying respectively strength and stability. a French theatrical clown.

which summed up all the political philosophy of his time. well called the filter of the Rhine. born at Rouen. BODLEIAN LIBRARY. a celebrated troubadour of the 13th century. his works were numerous. JOHANN ELERT. one of his best. published at first in French and then in Latin. BODIN. the violinist. enlarged from time to time by bequests. wrote a treatise on sacred geography. It possesses 400. although it was observed by Kepler long before his day (1747-1826). author of "The Republic. was professor of Astronomy and director of Observatory at Berlin. born at Hamburg. an astronomer. SAMUEL. born at Lucca. born at Angers. a geographer and an Orientalist.000 printed volumes and 30." in six books. another name for the Lake of Constance. called Bode's Law. founded. born at Arras. pastor at Caen. a Protestant divine. BODEL. LUIGI. BODENSEE. by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1593. and contributed to prepare the way for subsequent speculations. celebrated for a nine-days' discussion with the Jesuit Verin (1599-1667). BOCHART. Chennai 6. BODE. "An Introduction to the Knowledge of the Starry Heavens. appears to have lived in poverty and obscurity (1740-1805). was associated with Manfredi. CTSTI. produced a number of astronomical works. often munificent. Page 362 of 2772 . Computer Lecturer. a celebrated Italian musical composer. or rather restored. a publicist and diplomatist.ramakalai@gmail.000 MSS. was the precursor of Hobbes and Montesquieu (1530-1596). JEAN.com BOCCHERINI." gave name to the law of the planetary distances. the university library of Oxford.

supersedes Truro as capital. Tasso. Homer. a Danish lyric poet. which he did more by his republication of the Minnesingers and part of the "Nibelungen Lied" than by his advocacy (1698-1783). and. France. named after him (1545-1613). BODMER. by study of the masters in literature of Greece and Rome.ramakalai@gmail. a distinguished Swiss critic. Tacitus. BODONI. and Italy. a humanist and Scottish historian." and "History of Scotland" in excellent Latin (1465-1536). settled at Parma. Horace. wrote "History of Bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen. CTSTI. but he refused to quit Parma and the patronage of the ducal house there (1740-1813). along with others. BODMIN (5). LUDWIG. SIR THOMAS. the first. BOECE. born at Exeter. Page 363 of 2772 . England. whence issued magnificent editions of the classics. lived chiefly in Italy (1793-1874). Computer Lecturer. to wake up Germany to a sense of its poverty in that line. HECTOR. where he collected a number of valuable books. where his press was set up in the ducal palace. last of all. BOeDTCHER. and sheep. and who aided. in the inauguration of a new era. He was often tempted to Rome. the county town of Cornwall. horses. an Italian printer. bequeathed them and his fortune to the university library of Oxford. born near Zurich. born at Copenhagen. born at Dundee. Chennai 6. friend of Erasmus. professor of Philosophy at Paris. employed on embassies by Elizabeth on the Continent.com BODLEY. Virgil. has large annual fairs for cattle. was principal of university at Aberdeen. JOHANN JACOB. an important agricultural centre.

He was subject to persecution.. &c. of an imaginatively meditative turn from boyhood as a neat-herd. Page 364 of 2772 . as it comes out in nature. classical antiquary. and as it returns to itself in the human soul (1575-1624). PHILIP AUGUST. a seated statue of Carlyle on the Thames Embankment. and afterwards in his stall as a shoemaker. Paul's by the Queen's desire (1785-1869). Chennai 6. and modest. spent his whole life in meditation on divine things. in his way of thinking. as all of his stamp are. of Hungarian parentage. was an eminently learned man. a German historian. gentle. apocalyptical speech.ramakalai@gmail. a statue of Bunyan at Bedford. born in Vienna. a celebrated German mystic. a thinker very fascinating to all minds of the seer class. SIR JOSEPH EDGAR. patronised by the Queen and royal family. and a contributor on a large scale to all departments of Greek classical learning. setting forth the trinity in unity of the Hegelian system. that is. BOEHME. viewing the divine as it is in itself. and his philosophy would seem to have anticipated the secret of Hegel. settled in England. executed a colossal statue of the Queen at Windsor. and which he conveyed to others in mystical. Computer Lecturer. born at Goerlitz. JACOB. buried in St. author of works on the Carlovingian period of history (1795-1863). for which he felt he had no organ to express. and an authority in different departments of learning (1785-1867). born at Frankfort. born at Carlsruhe. sculptor. professor of Ancient Literature in Berlin. and bore up with the meekness which all men of his elevation of character ever do--"quiet.com BOECKH. who acknowledges him as one of the fathers of German philosophy. BOEHM. BOEHMER. seemed to have eyes given him to see visions of these things himself. He left writings which embody a scheme of mystical theology. saw in the Bible a revelation of these as in no other book. CTSTI." as they all are to the very core. a classic of the first rank. by the men of the letter.

Pope Benedict VIII. a Roman statesman.com BOEO`TIA." Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. settled at length in the Transvaal in a self-governed community by themselves. and even as far as China--a letter from which bore the simple address. and particularly of Athens." and "Institutiones Chemicae" (1668-1738). CTSTI. BOETHIUS. BOEUF. employing verse and prose alternately. "To M. born near Leyden. who accused him of treason." "Aphorismi de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis.ramakalai@gmail. his integrity and opposition to injustice procured him enemies. were mere tillers of the soil under a heavy atmosphere." and found him. of Consular rank. the natives. as well as of Chemistry. of the Gulf of Corinth. he was canonised as a martyr. ultimately professor of Medicine and Botany there. and finally put to death. e. under Theodoric the Goth. who in the 17th century squatted in S. Boerhaave. gave themselves to agriculture and cattle-rearing. and Peter the Great. FRONT DE. he was cast into prison. and Plutarch were natives of Boeotia. held the highest offices. chairs of which he filled and adorned with the greatest distinction. and regarded as boors and dullards by the educated classes of Greece. a great physician. though brave. BOERHAAVE. N. a country of ancient Greece." in five parts. his character was as noble as his abilities were great. and his influence was great during the Middle Ages (470-524). his system was adopted by the profession." "Libellus de Materia Medica. Africa. Page 365 of 2772 . a character in "Ivanhoe. peasants engaged in tillage). born at Rome. his reputation spread over Europe. which King Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon. and son of a pastor. a profoundly learned man. Europe. and yet Hesiod. ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS. Consul among others. his principal works were "Institutiones Medicae. wrote in prison his "De Consolatione Philosophiae. innocent of culture. BOERS (i. and patients from far and wide came to consult him--among others. Dutch colonists of an independent republican temper. Pindar.

almost mountain-encircled. now to certain Irish for their agility in escaping over bogs. religious writer. BOGOTA` (100). university. Chennai 6. SE. salt. and has a spring-like climate. from Bavaria.com BOGATZKY. and precious metals. JOHANN. translated the Bible into Dutch. Though the country is fertile and the mountains rich in coal. plateau. It is regularly built. situated on a remarkable. and the Religious Tract Societies (1750-1825).843). is best known as the author of the "Golden Treasury" (1690-1744). and the Computer Lecturer. the most northerly province in Austria. with innumerable churches. library. Dutch divine. the Riesengebirge. his best-known poem "Psyche" (1743-1803). the Boehmerwald. two-thirds the size of Scotland. Page 366 of 2772 . is 8600 ft. the highest navigable point of the Magdalena. iron.ramakalai@gmail. KARL HEINRICH VON. on the river Bogota. and was President of the Synod of Dort (1576-1633). from Prussia. BOG-TROTTER. The Erzgebirge separate it from Saxony. its situation and the want of a railway hinder trade. capital of the United State of Colombia. and drained by the upper Elbe and its tributaries. and observatory. a mint. and several schools. BOGDANOVITCH. BOHEMIA (5. CTSTI. born in Berwickshire. of its port. above sea-level. is encircled by mountains. 65 m. a Congregational minister. wrote hymns and an autobiography. BOGUE. called by his countrymen the "Russian Anacreon". the Foreign Bible. DAVID. Honda. a name given to the Scottish moss-troopers. one of the founders of the London Foreign Missionary. a Russian poet. BOGERMANN.

The mineral wealth is varied and great. organised as United Brethren in 1455. from Moravia. by Count Zinzendorf to settle on his estate. are the chief industries. including coal. The people are mostly Czechs. met in secret. under the name of Moravians or Herrnhuters. do not amalgamate. name given to one who lives by his wits and shuns conventionality. CTSTI. Dyeing. and the restoration of the Austrian House. silver. liberated. of the Slavonic race. In the 16th century the crown was united with the Austrian. was besieged in turn by the Saracens. and were invited. BOHEMIAN. BOHEMOND. there is a university at Prague. besieged and took Antioch. set out on the first crusade. This was followed by the Thirty Years' War. who are twice as numerous. Computer Lecturer. he collected troops and recaptured the city (1056-1111). a German Orientalist. and porcelain clay. but in 1608 religious questions led to the election of the Protestant Frederick V. flax and hops the chief products. The glassware is widely celebrated.ramakalai@gmail. first prince of Antioch. the former being riled at the official use of the Czech language. the most useful metals. The climate is mild in the valleys. Page 367 of 2772 . broken up in the Thirty Years' War. BOHEMIAN BRETHREN. Roman Catholics in religion. the soil fertile. there is a large and influential German minority of about two millions. Education is better than elsewhere in Austria. and imprisoned for two years. VON. professor at Koenigsberg (1796-1840). there are iron-works and sugar-refineries. The transit trade is very valuable. calico-printing. sulphur. BOHLEN. the extermination of the Protestants. forests are extensive. Chennai 6. with whom the Czechs. and the latter agitating for the elevation of the province to the same status as that of Hungary. linen and woollen manufactures. son of Robert Guiscard. a fraternity of an extreme sect of the Hussites. the capital.com Moravian Mountains.

amassed wealth. did much to reform French poetry. issued a series of works identified with his name (1796-1884)." reckoned his masterpiece. East India Company." and "La Dame Blanche." "L'Art Poetique. BOILEAU. BOIELDIEU. COUNT DE. Page 368 of 2772 . but devoted to letters. CTSTI. BOII. BOeHTLINGK. diplomatist. courtier. author of the "Calife de Bagdad." &c." "Telemaque. to distinguish him from his brother). to whom he rendered signal service. born in London. NICOLAS (surnamed Despreaux. Chennai 6. surnamed the "Flower of Chivalry". Count of Scandiano." "Le Lutrin. and statesman. occupying territory between the Allier and the Loire.1815.. Petersburg." which eclipsed it (1434-1494). poet and critic. an enterprising publisher. OTTO. an Italian poet. which he dealt out generously and for the benefit of his country (1751-1830). among other works.. as Pascal did to reform the prose. HENRY GEORGE. ADRIEN FRANCOIS. the model of Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso. associating himself with La Fontaine.com BONN. author of "Satires" and "Epistles. and Moliere. was an Computer Lecturer. a French soldier of fortune. MATTEO MARIA. called the French Mozart (1775-1834). served under France.ramakalai@gmail. _b_. Racine. born at Chambery. born in St. author. in which he attached and employed his wit against the bad taste of his time. BOIARDO. brought up to the law. a distinguished French musical composer of operas. a German. an ancient people of Gaul. Sanskrit scholar. and the prince of the Mahrattas. BOIGNE. born in Paris. a German. of a Sanskrit dictionary in 7 vols. Russia. and was for long the law-giver of Parnassus. author of "Orlando Innamorato" (1456).

THE ABBE. a French poet. THE ABBE. covered. a member and president of the Convention in Paris. 1714. BOISROBERT. a French fabulist of remarkable fecundity (1743-1831). BOISARD.. shot dead a young deputy. they held up Feraud's bloody head to him. and with a fine cathedral. BOISSONADE. and yielded not". cousin of Vauban. Feraud. SE. 45 m. became a senator and commander of Computer Lecturer. of Amsterdam.. BOIS-LE-DUC (27). the president sat unyielding. but abandoned politics for letters (1774-1857). BOIS-GUILLEBERT. for a time carried away by the revolutionary movement. he yielded not. Chennai 6. noted for his firmness and coolness during the frenzy of the Revolution: one day the Parisian mob burst in upon the Convention. Page 369 of 2772 . BOISSY D'ANGLAS. levelled muskets at him. BOISSIERE. capital of North Brabant. one of the first members of the French Academy. advocate of free trade. seat of an archbishop. they menaced him. _d_.com imitator of Pope. but especially of Horace (1636-1711). a French economist. JEAN FRANCOIS. "sweeping the members of it before them to the upper-bench . a French lexicographer (1806-1885). patronised by Richelieu (1592-1662). with grave. COUNT. CTSTI. like a rock in the beating of seas. stern air he bowed to it. one of the best French pulpit orators of the 18th century (1715-1786). a French Greek scholar. BOISMONT.ramakalai@gmail.

after a three years' residence at the French Court became maid of honour to Queen Katherine. JOHN. BOLEYN. or BULLEN. was of the Reformed faith. and became queen.800). ANNE. and cultivation possible only near the rivers-the Oxus. but the Khan is a vassal of the Czar. Rice. BOLINGBROKE. English statesman. Zarafshan. second wife of Henry VIII. her marriage with Henry had important bearings on the English Reformation (1507-1536). mud-built city. the Great. is traversed by a torrent.com the Legion of Honour under Napoleon. who ruled from 992 to 1025. and mother of Elizabeth. The surface is arid. a high-lying. In the sands of the Oxus. was made a peer by Louis XVIII. The people are of Turk and Persian origin. attracted the admiration of Henry. deep. N. silk. a mile. with numerous colleges and mosques. extending between Quetta (Beluchistan) and Kandahar (Afghanistan). was found guilty and beheaded. was married to him. a Mohammedan State in Central Asia. VISCOUNT. narrow gorge. gold and salt are found. and firearms are manufactured. a walled. jewellery. the name of several dukes of Poland. cutlery. the centre of learning and religious life in Central Asia. Chennai 6. a French lexicographer (1765-1824). and Karshi. of whom the most famous is Boleslaus I. of Afghanistan. (1756-1826). BOKHA`RA (1. is on the plain of the Zarafshan. and cereals are grown. cotton. cotton-thread. It has important trade and large slave markets. sloping upwards at an inclination of 90 ft. BOLESLAUS. nominally independent. HENRY ST. Computer Lecturer. BOISTE.ramakalai@gmail. daughter of Sir Thoman Bullen (afterwards Earl of Wiltshire). Bokhara (70). in circumference. BOLAN` PASS. Page 370 of 2772 . orator. 8 or 9 m. CTSTI. charged with adultery and conspiracy. The capital.

a man of good birth and liberal education. Page 371 of 2772 . and his time deprived him of many. and the 'Ideal of a Patriot King. Trade Computer Lecturer. and Chili." It was he who suggested to Pope his "Essay on Man" (1678-1751). "is a rhetorician pure and simple. achieved in 1824 the same for Upper Peru. The most important industry is mining: gold. SIMON.' a sort of apologia. after his name. BOLIVAR. he abdicated. The S. Chennai 6. CTSTI. and was preparing to leave the country when he died of fever. Argentina. "The presence of a soldier. accused of aspiring to the Dictatorship. an inland republic of S. henceforth called Bolivia. general and statesman. tobacco. in 1819. was impeached and attainted.com and political writer. Prime Minister of Queen Anne in the Tory interest. and surrounded by Peru. he has been called the Washington of S. In the lower plains coffee. the singularly shallow form of infidelity called Deism and the like. after her dismissal of the Whigs. is chiefly desert. America. devoted himself to the cause of S. in the N. and the author of "Letters" bearing upon politics and literature. was the friend of Pope and Swift. which." says Prof. if not most. and tin. Paraguay. but the subjects of his rhetoric were not the great and perennial subjects. The very varied heights afford all kinds of vegetation. but puny ephemeral forms of them--the partisan and personal politics of his day. from wheat and maize to tropical fruits. occupying lofty tablelands E. born at Caracas. freed from the yoke of Spain Venezuela and New Grenada. America (1783-1830). but denied a seat in the House of Lords.' exhibit him at his best. silver. he erected into a republic under the name of Colombia. an indignity which he resented by working the overthrow of Walpole. copper. Saintsbury. of the Andes. The 'Letter to Windham. are Lake Titicaca and many well-watered valleys.500). seized with the passion for freedom during a visit to Madrid and Paris. is always dangerous in a State that is new to freedom". however disinterested he may be.ramakalai@gmail. BOLIVIA (1. on the accession of George I. born at Battersea. with the sage reflection on his lips. Brazil. "Bolingbroke. fled to France and joined the Pretender. cotton. returned in 1723 to his estates. of the rhetorician's most telling weapons. surnamed the Liberator. American independence. and cinchona are cultivated.

a lake with clear water in a hollow crater of a volcano. BOLSE`NA. at the foot of the Lower Apennines. CTSTI. born in Belgium. a small town in Italy. libraries. but La Pay (45) and Cochabamba (14) are larger towns. an ancient walled city of Italy. called after him "Bollandists. but with an unwholesome atmosphere. stretching from the Hindu Kush mountains northwards to the Tian Shan. shore of Lake Bolsena. 1879-83. Silver is the chief export. manufactured goods are imported. N. and Argentina. of Florence. JOHN. now extended to sixty vols. schools of music and art. JOHN OF. BOLOGNA (147). one of the oldest in Europe. compiled five vols. one of the most celebrated sculptors of art in his time. a Jesuit of Antwerp. BOLOR-TAGH. on a fertile plain. There are some silk and other industries. a succession of Jesuits who produced the Lives of the Saints.com is hampered by want of navigable rivers. settled at Florence (1524-1608). it lost its sea provinces in the war with Chili. Peru. BOLLAND. 83 m. on the E. Chennai 6. and art collections. a high tableland in Central Asia.ramakalai@gmail. BOLOGNA." BOLLANDISTS. has many fine buildings. The capital is Sucre (12). BOLSENA." which was continued by others. but helped by railways from Chili. and abounding with fish. born at Douai. Page 372 of 2772 . The country has been independent since 1825. of the Lives of the Saints called "Acta Sanctorum. Computer Lecturer. and considerable trade. a university.

the Russians bound not to restore it. BOLTON ABBEY. opium. BOMBAY (822). N. salt. In the S.. of it are mountain ranges and tablelands. Page 373 of 2772 . In the fertile N. its position promises to make it the most important commercial centre in the East. of Skipton. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. BOMBASTES FURIOSO. BOMARSUND. but pleasant on the plateaux. oil. BOMBAY (26. 6 m. was founded by the Augustinian canons. It is rapidly surpassing Calcutta in trade. tea. an opera by Thomas Rhodes in ridicule of the bombastic style of certain tragedies in vogue. BOMA. BOMBA. Cotton manufacture has developed extensively and cotton cloths.com BOLTON (115). iron. and has a magnificent harbour and noble docks. E. but coal is wanting. cotton. wool. coal. destroyed by the Anglo-French fleet in 1854.. the western Presidency of India. Chennai 6. late king of the Two Sicilies. with sugar. in the Congo Independent State. S. from his calling upon his soldiers to bombard his people during an insurrection. it is alleged. and is one of the greatest of seaports. and liquors are imported. nickname of Ferdinand II. an old abbey in Yorkshire.960). once a great slave mart. a fortress of the island of Aland occupied by Russia. and gold are mined. of the Nerbudda River the country is flat and fertile. the chief city. given him. Machinery. stands on an island. as it already is in the Computer Lecturer. The climate is hot and moist on the coast and in the plains. a station on the Lower Congo. manufacturing town of Lancashire. and wheat are the staple products. and drugs are exported. embraces 26 British districts and 19 feudatory states. connected with the coast by a causeway.

who leased it to the East India Company for L10 a year. in the province of Constantine. BONA. Her symbol was a serpent. Its prosperity began when the Civil War in America afforded it an opening for its cotton. BONA (30). a violent royalist and ultramontanist. a Roman goddess of fertility. but revealed. the episcopal city of Augustine. It came to England from Portugal as dowry with Catherine of Braganza. but the name under which she was worshipped is not known. and its merchandise is mainly in the hands of the Parsees. surnamed the Fenelon of Italy. name of a celebrated family of Italian origin settled in Computer Lecturer. is much improved since its occupation by the French in 1832. a French publicist. BON GAULTIER. on a bay of the Mediterranean. _nom de plume_ assumed by Professor Aytoun and Sir Theodore Martin. her priests vestals and her worship by rites from which men were excluded. one of feuillant order of monks (1609-1674).. It swarms with people of every clime. VICOMTE DE. BONA DEA (the good goddess). wife of Charles II. worshipped by women. Page 374 of 2772 . It is the most English town in India. which led to its alteration. the descendants of the ancient fire-worshippers. an ascetic writer. CTSTI. Near it are the ruins of Hippo. a seaport in Algeria. He denied that language was innate.com cotton trade of the world. with an excellent harbour and a growing trade. BONALD.ramakalai@gmail. looked upon the Catholic religion and the royal authority as fundamental to the stability of the social fabric. and that causation was inherent in matter (1758-1840). and was opposed to the law of divorce. Chennai 6. BONAPARTE.

married Marat in 1800. then queen of Naples. LOUIS. king of Spain from 1808 to 1813. 1846. MARQUIS DE. during the session of which he died. died at Montpellier. died at Trieste. 1844. married Princess Clothilde. called Jerome. _b_. MARIE PAULINE. 1780. became president of the Council of the Five Hundred. born in Tuscany. 1822. 1778. _b_. became Grand-duchess of Berg and Cleves. king of Westphalia (from 1807 to 1813). died at Florence. CHARLES.). became king of Naples. his writings were admired by Luther (1221-1274). 1840. born at Edinburgh (1808-1889). Prince Camille Borghese. the Princess Mathilde. LUCIEN. the principal members of it were: CHARLES MARIE. 1775. 1782. Prince Napoleon. Jerome. 1784. Page 375 of 2772 . marshal of France in 1850. died at Florence. such as existed between man and his Maker prior to the Fall. _b_. his real name John Fidenza. _b_. became Duchess of Guastalla. married. died in Viterbo. HORATIUS. _b_. who became prince of Lucca. married Felix Bacciochi. (q. of this union were born eight children: JOSEPH. Chennai 6. _b_. French general. in 1803. a state which could be recovered only by a life of purity and prayer. by second marriage. 1836. father of Napoleon III. NAPOLEON I. and a celebrated hymn writer. CTSTI. 1806. surnamed the Seraphic Doctor. born in Anjou. 1801. daughter of Victor Emmanuel. Princess Catherine of Wuertemburg. died at Leghorn.. a clergyman of the Free Church of Scotland. afterwards. 1744. died at Rome.. BONAR. MARIE-LAETITIA RAMOLINO. v. 1777. BONAVENTURA. 1750. 1820. married General Leclerc. cardinal. 1785. king of Holland (from 1806 to 1810). 1839. returned to Europe. born at Ajaccio.ramakalai@gmail. was chosen general of the Order and papal legate at the Council of Lyons in 1274. of which marriage was born Prince Victor Napoleon in 1862. and died at Florence. 1767. born at Ajaccio. _b_. _b_. and his son. CAROLINE-MARIE. married. and prince of Canino. retired to United States after Waterloo. married Hortense de Beauharnais. ascribed knowledge of the truth to union with God.com Corsica. ST. his daughter. 1826. was a mystic in theology. died in 1860. MARIE-ANNE-ELIZA. 1825. served Computer Lecturer. entered the Franciscan Order. BONCHAMP.

a name of contempt given by the nobility of France to the peasants in the 14th century." considered her masterpiece. BONHOMME. BONE. II.com in the American war. BONHEUR. her best-known works are the "Horse Fair" and the "Hay Harvest in Auvergne.. _d_. B. through the Empress Eugenie she received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. BONIFACE. a celebrated enamel painter. BONER. CTSTI. a dependency of France. author of "Der Edelstein" (The Jewel). Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. ordered the release of 5000 prisoners which his party. WILLIAM. exhibited when she was 19. discovered a satellite of Neptune and an eighth satellite of Saturn (1826-1865). fruits. relented over the blood already shed. cotton. JACQUES. in their revenge. _b_. a book of fables. especially in miniature on ivory. born at Truro (1755-1834). born at Bordeaux. BOND. the name of nine popes. fell at the battle of Cholet. pope from 530 to 532. 1793." "Ploughing with Oxen. and when dying. ROSA. a country of Senegambia. Computer Lecturer. Page 376 of 2772 . became one of the chiefs of the Vendean army.. yields maize. brought up in poverty from ill-fortune. BONDU (30). taught by her father. HENRY. during the siege of Paris her studio was spared by order of the Crown Prince. a celebrated French animal painter. a distinguished American astronomer (1789-1815). pope from 418 to 422. B. assumed the title of First Bishop of Christendom. GEORGE PHILLIPS. I. ULRICH. 1822. was about to massacre. a German fabulist and Dominican monk of the 14th century. who with his son.

the birthplace of Beethoven. from 607 to 608. he was released at the Reformation. consecrated Pepin le Bref. it is a stronghold of the old Catholics. ST. VI. painted the "Ducal Palace" and "Grand Canal" at Venice. CTSTI. imitated for Computer Lecturer. BONIN`. pope from 1294 to 1303. BONINGTON.. and a cause of much turmoil in Europe. born in Devonshire. his real name Winfried. B.. BONIVARD.com B. and since 1878 subject to it. B. twice imprisoned by Charles III. a group of rocky islands SE. born near Nottingham. whom he sought to convert (680-755). with a famous university. IV. RICHARD. a Duke of Savoy. B. of Cologne.ramakalai@gmail. BONNAT. his masterpieces (1801-1828). a Genevese patriot and historian. SE. VIII. an eminent English landscape painter of exceptional precocity. for his sympathy with the struggles of the Genevese against his tyranny. Chennai 6. provoked a war with Philip the Fair of France. V. III. a French painter. B. was.. who arrested him at Anagni. with 53 companions. BONIFACE. born at Bayonne.. VII.. pope for 10 months.. FRANCOIS DE. the Apostle of Germany. a Prussian town on the Rhine.. and adopted Protestantism (1496-1571). pope from 608 to 614. JOSEPH LEON. B. the second time for six years in the Castle of Chillon. BONN (38). with a monument to his memory. and though liberated by the citizens died on his way to Rome. of Japan.. pope from 974 to 985. pope from 617 to 625. a strenuous assertor of the papal supremacy over all princes. immortalised by Lord Byron in his "Prisoner of Chillon". B. an old Roman station. was made Primate of Germany. pope in 896. IX. pope from 1389 to 1405.. Page 377 of 2772 . the first pope to wear the Triple Crown. massacred by the barbarians of Friesland.

sided with Henry VIII.. a gold coin of James V. Chennai 6. 1833. his studies as a naturalist gave a materialistic cast to his philosophy. was restored by Mary. born at Worcester. he was faithful as a bishop. and bore the indignities done him with manly fortitude (1495-1569). Francia in Paraguay as a spy. affected to welcome Elizabeth to the throne.ramakalai@gmail. born at Rochelle. was again deposed and imprisoned for refusing to take the oath of supremacy under Elizabeth. Paris. though he did not deny the existence of mind. whom he served in her Anti-Protestant zeal. so called from the king being represented on it as wearing a bonnet instead of a crown.com a time the religious paintings of the old masters. kept prisoner there for about nine years. _b_. CLAUDE-ALEXANDRE. Viscount Dundee. CHARLES DE. "Christ at the Cross" in the Palais de Justice. a French botanist and traveller. brought home a large collection of plants. against the Pope. fell into disgrace under Edward VI. BONNET. companion of Alexander von Humboldt in his S. thousands of species of them new to Europe. of Scotland. Computer Lecturer. consistent in his conduct. See ACHMED PASHA. AIME. arrested by Dr. COMTE DE. is his work. Graham of Claverhouse. Page 378 of 2772 . American scientific explorations. EDMUND. he gave to material impressions a dominant influence in determining its manifestations (1720-1793). was chaplain to Wolsey. went out again to America. BONPLAND. born at Geneva. BONNIE DUNDEE. still less that of its sovereign Author. CTSTI. BONNEVAL. died in the Marshalsea Prison: he does not deserve all the odium that has been heaped on his memory. Swiss naturalist and philosopher. BONNET-PIECE. bishop of London. BONNER. but since 1862 has followed a style of his own.

BOONE. born at Berne. settled in the prov. where he died. BONSTETTEN. translated along with his ox to become a constellation in the northern sky. acted Shakespearean. and "Differential Equations" (1815-1864). BONTEMPS. Page 379 of 2772 . BOOeTES (the ox-driver or waggoner). wrote on anthropology. the brightest star in which is Arcturus. English actor. 1822. _d_. BOOTH. Chennai 6. though thrown forward. a French personification of a state of leisure and freedom from care. psychology. BARTON. &c. (1745-1832). author of "Laws of Thought. CTSTI. a missile of hard curved wood used by the Australian aborigines of 21/2 ft. English mathematician. characters and Hamlet's ghost (1681-1733).com released. aged 84. mathematical professor at Cork. inventor of the plough in the Greek mythology. BONZE. Japan. a deadly weapon." an original work. ROGER. CHARLES VICTOR DE. BOOLE. wrote several works bearing on plants (1773-1858). long. a son of Ceres. of Corrientes. BOOMERANG.ramakalai@gmail. so constructed that. it takes a whirling course upwards till it stops. a famous American backwoodsman. when it returns with a swoop and falls in the rear of the thrower. DANIEL. Computer Lecturer. born at Lincoln. a Buddhist priest in China. Burmah. &c. a Swiss publicist and judge.

W. with eight others. an island in the Malay Archipelago. as he says of her. BOOTON. magnetic pole of the earth is situated. who. Latin. Computer Lecturer.com BOOTH. (1791-1867). born at Dax. one of those employed in measuring an arc of the meridian to establish the metric system in France (1733-1799). was at Luther's instance released from her convent. 1839. BOPP. three sons and three daughters (1499-1552). v. served in both army and navy. KATHARINA. in the dep. WILLIAM. born in Nottingham. a peninsula of British N. originally a nun. published "In Darkest England". proved "a pious and faithful wife" to Luther. founder and general of the Salvation Army.ramakalai@gmail. BOOTH. _b_. FRANZ. of Landes. born at Mayence. CTSTI. Chennai 6. born in Meissen. Zend. a celebrated German philologist and Sanskrit scholar. assassinated Lincoln. Page 380 of 2772 . SE. Gothic. of the Gulf of Boothia. son of an actor. BORDA. Greek. and became the mother to him of six children. Old Slave. translated portions of the "MAHABHARATA. JOHN WILKES. Lithuanian. was professor of Oriental Literature and General Philology at Berlin. his greatest work. and German". and was shot by his captors (1839-1865). BORA. a French mathematician and physicist." q. "A Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit. discovered by Sir John Boss in 1830. the wife of Luther. and in which the N. a man of singular self-devotion to the religious and social welfare of the race. of Celebes. subject to the Dutch. America. BOOTHIA.

theology. of Gironde. and son of the Titan Astraeus and of Aurora. in those of Brazil. Page 381 of 2772 . "The Gondolier presenting the Ring of St. BORE. who separated himself from her on the fall of her brother (1775-1832). The cod-fishing industry has its base here. CTSTI. glass and chemical works. BORDERS. born at Treviso. and chief seat of the wine trade in France and the third seaport on the Garonne. a great industrial and commercial city. and rich picture-gallery. a centre of endless fighting and marauding on the opposite sides for centuries. an Italian painter. his father. Chennai 6. museum. due to a strong tidal wave travelling up a gradually narrowing channel. his most celebrated picture. and navigation. the god of the north wind. There are schools of science. A cathedral dates from the 11th century. potteries. and Prince Borghese having married Pauline Bonaparte. having become Pope in 1605 under the title of Paul V. the Computer Lecturer. foundries. a watery ridge rushing violently up an estuary. the Black Prince. THE. in England. the birthplace of Rosa Bonheur and Richard II.ramakalai@gmail. Mark to the Doge" (1500-1570). art.com BORDEAUX (256). There are sugar-refineries. Sir Walter Scott. medicine. cap. BORDONE. having had his seat here as governor of Aquitaine. sister of Napoleon. a library. Bores are common in the estuary of the Ganges and other Asiatic rivers. and at the mouth of the Severn. BORGHESE. BORDER MINSTREL. of the dep. BOREAS.. the shifting boundary between Scotland and England before the Union. name of a family of high position and great wealth in Rome: Camillo. a pupil of Titian and Giorgione..

an Italian savant skilled in numismatics (1781-1860). WILLIAM. LUCRETIA. author of "Observations on the Antiquities of Cornwall" and Computer Lecturer. a post he filled with great zeal as well as prudent management. an honour he relinquished to become a soldier. BORLASE. Chennai 6. BORGIA. though she has been accused of enormities as well as her brother (1480-1523). BORGU. BORGIA. traversed by the Niger. a portrait of him by Raphael. revolting. was made cardinal at the age of 17. fertile and densely-peopled state in Africa. is a masterpiece. and a patron of art and literature. which have made his name a synonym for every action that is most crafty. and gave her to a nephew of the king of Naples. who was murdered by her brother's assassins. CAESAR. and has a rich collection of paintings. sister of Caesar Borgia.. he is reputed to have been just as a ruler in his own domain.. antiquary and naturalist. in the Borghese gallery. when she married the Duke of Ferrara. and cruel.. Notwithstanding the execration in which his memory is held. fourth son of Pope Alexander VI. FRANCESO. 1671 (1510-1572). born in St. in one of the chief towns of which Mungo Park lost his life.ramakalai@gmail. subject to the Royal Niger Company. BORGHESI. third general of the Order of the Jesuits. CTSTI. Just. born at Rome. Page 382 of 2772 . COUNT. in which capacity it is alleged he gave himself up to deeds of inhumanity. and canonised by Clement IX. Cornwall. 1507. was beatified by Urban VIII.com palace of the family one of the finest in Rome. _d_. BORGIA. her father annulled her first marriage. was celebrated for her beauty and her patronage of letters.

of Jewish parentage.. covered with mountains in the interior.). climate hot and unhealthy in the low ground. population mostly negroes. one of the most celebrated troubadours of the 12th century. famed for a breed of horses." BORNE. the ruling race of Arab descent. of Lake Tehad. is placed by Dante in the "Inferno. CTSTI. was disappointed with the result. in the Baltic. and S. BERTRAND.com "Natural History of Cornwall". and turned Radical. BORN. and Chinese. bordered all round with wide plains and low marshy ground.ramakalai@gmail. its length 800 m. born in Perigord. BORNEO (1. Australia and New Guinea being larger. went to Paris after the Revolution there of 1830. has no volcanoes. the population is Dyak. he and Heine were at deadly feud (1787-1837). LUDWIG. of England and his sons.000 ft. Page 383 of 2772 . and fishing the occupation of the inhabitants. the ruin of a magnificent Buddhist temple in Java. in gold and precious stones. called Shuwas. and in the north part by the British. all tropical crops and spices are cultivated. agriculture. a political writer.. a Mohammedan State in the Central Soudan. the third largest in the globe.000). ebony. an island in the Malay Archipelago. teak. and its breadth 700. cattle-breeding. was vicar in his native parish (1696-1772). possessed in great part by the Dutch. BORNHOLM (35). BORO BUDOR. BORNU (5. rich in vegetation and in minerals. its forests abound with valuable timber. W. Kinabalu the highest (13. aggravated the quarrel between Henry II.800). born at Frankfort. but temperate in the high. Malay. Chennai 6. Computer Lecturer. an island belonging to Denmark. disgusted with the state of things in Germany. has no good harbour. &c.

chariot races. 7. and sometimes educational. Page 384 of 2772 . and deriving its income from rates levied on property within its bounds.ramakalai@gmail. though only three feet in height. Its charter may be held from the Crown or granted by Parliament. W. conspicuous by his self-sacrificing offices during a plague in the city of which he was the archbishop (1538-1584). cardinal and archbishop of Milan. Computer Lecturer. BORORO. BORODINO. 1812. BOROUGH ENGLISH. a Polish dwarf. &c. but it is further an area of local government. BOROWLASKI. processions. four islands in Lago Maggiore. of perfect symmetry. the scene of a bloody battle between Napoleon and the Russians. a large Brazilian nation between Cuyaba and Goyaz. Sept. exercising police. enriched with fine paintings and other works of art. COUNT. ST. and in Scotland sometimes from "common good" and petty customs. attained the age of 98. on one of which stands a palace of the Borromeos. a village 70 m. sanitary. and contributed to the Tridentine Catechism. BORROME`O. with representations of battles. of which three were converted into gardens by Count Borromeo in 1671. is in its modern sense primarily a town that sends a representative to Parliament. descent of lands to a youngest son. CTSTI. in Scotland BURGH. BORROME`AN ISLANDS. of Moscow.com ornamented with figures of Buddha and scenes in his life. a prominent member of the Council of Trent. Chennai 6. CARLO. BOROUGH. supervision.

associated much with the gipsies. a valley in the Lake District. BORROW. a British admiral. BORY DE SAINT-VINCENT. showed early a passion for adventure and a facility in languages.ramakalai@gmail. and similar character (1584-1631). Page 385 of 2772 . and a famous book. celebrated for its beautiful scenery. of Edinburgh. he wrecked and ruined a fine French fleet. BOSCAWEN. nephew and successor of the preceding. was appointed agent for the Bible Society in Russia and Spain. W. FREDERIGO. CTSTI. where. EDWARD. entered the Order of the Jesuits. in his fondness for open-air life. 13 m. eager to elude his grasp (1711-1761). BORTHWICK CASTLE. wrote an account of those in Spain. a ruined peel tower. SE. JEAN BAPTISTE. entitled "The Bible In Spain". distinguished himself in engagements at Puerto Bello. advocated the molecular theory of physics. where Queen Mary and Bothwell spent four days together in June 1567.com BORROMEO. discovered the equator of the sun and the period of its rotation. Cumberland." which he was). Chennai 6. wrote "Lavengro. GEORGE HENRY. traveller and philologist. with which Computer Lecturer. born at Ragusa. of equal status in the Church. Cape Finisterre. BORROWDALE. was professor in Pavia. meaning "word-master. BOSCOVICH. after a "sea hunt" of 24 hours. ROGER JOSEPH. a French traveller and naturalist (1780-1846). and afterwards at Milan. which is chiefly autobiography (1803-1831). born in Norfolk. Cathagena. and the Bay of Lagos." his masterpiece (a gipsy designation applied to him. an Italian mathematician and astronomer. known from his fearlessness as "Old Dreadnought".

distinguished in Algiers and the Crimea. Page 386 of 2772 . and the first attempt at a philosophy of history.ramakalai@gmail. long and from 3 to 1/2 m. and to Fenelon for his defence of her and her Quietists. strongly defended by forts. conceived a violent dislike to Madame Guyon. or rather of the Crown. PIERRE FRANCOIS JOSEPH. the inhabitants of Servian nationality. was wounded at the storming of the Malakoff (1810-1861). the great aim of his life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith. and one of the ablest defenders of the doctrines of the Catholic Church. It derives its name from the channel which. crossed into Europe with Europa on his back. in the form of an ox. BOSNA-SERAI (38). and about 30 fathoms deep. under Austria-Hungary. a channel 17 m. and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. bishop of Meaux. Zeus. CTSTI. BOSNIA (1." of the see of which he became bishop. born at Dijon. of the Balkan Peninsula.com his name is associated. patronised in France (1769-1845). Computer Lecturer. one of the greatest of French pulpit orators. as against the claims of the Pope. BARON. a province in NW. outspoken champion of the truth. BOS`PHORUS (Ox-ford). subject to Turkey. his "Discourse on Universal History" is on approved lines. BOSIO. BOS`QUET. capital of Bosnia. JACQUES BENIGNE. extending from the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea. proved himself more a time-server than a bold. surnamed the "Eagle of Meaux. BOS`SUET. took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican clergy. a celebrated Italian sculptor. wrote largely.200). a marshal of France. Chennai 6. and seat of authority. broad. died insane (1701-1787). according to the Greek myth.

.com his Funeral Orations are monuments of the most sublime eloquence.. he scarcely ever oversteps it. The Boston riots of 1770 and 1773 were the heralds of the revolution. edited Pascal's works (1730-1814). one of the best-built and best-appointed cities of the Union. It has a spacious church. With an excellent harbour and eight converging railways it is an emporium of trade. BOSTON (19). "was more of a speaker than a writer. CTSTI. a Lincolnshire seaport.. 30 m. and very wealthy. cotton. Fox. cattle. was a native. boot and shoe making is one of many varied industries. is the capital of Massachusetts and the chief city of New England. Sugar. Among famous natives were Franklin.. in the contagious enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point. born near Lyons. The most unfortunate incident of his life was his controversy with Fenelon" (1627-1704). SE. hides. not far off. while his "Politique founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right of kings. on the Witham. The many educational institutions and its interest in literature and art have won for it the title of American Athens. farm produce. his chief work "L'Histoire Generale des Mathematiques". while most American men of letters have been associated with it. corn. on Massachusetts Bay." says Professor Saintsbury. Poe. His excellence lies in his wonderful survey and grasp of the subject. machinery. _confrere_ of the Encyclopaedists. BOSTON (561). also canvas and sail-cloth works.. and imports timber and general goods. which is a conspicuous landmark and beacon at sea.. Page 387 of 2772 . BOSSUT. and Emerson. of Lincoln. the martyrologist. Chennai 6. and wool. exports coal. wool. and tobacco exported. "Bossuet. French mathematician. Though he is always aiming at the sublime. Computer Lecturer. now included in it.ramakalai@gmail. or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous. and the first battle was fought at Bunker Hill. and in his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons. CHARLES. and chemicals are imported. There is a large cattle and sheep market.

the "Journal" of which he afterwards published. a work unique in biography. THOMAS. educated at Edinburgh. on Dec." a popular exposition of Calvinism. Auchinleck.com BOSTON. son and heir of the preceding. in Ayrshire. He succumbed in the end to intemperate habits. settled in London. made a tour with him to the Hebrides in 1773. a town in Leicestershire. mortally wounded in a duel with James Stuart of Dunearn." both at one time much read and studied by the pious Presbyterian burghers and peasantry of Scotland. lost both crown and life in 1485. who had impugned his character. Boswell's "Life" of him appeared five years after. CTSTI. and conceived for him the most devoted regard. three English ships laden with tea. and hurled several hundred chests of it into Boston harbour. He was a shrewd man and a quaint writer. JAMES. born at Duns. 16. the biographer of Johnson. a Scottish divine. BOSWORTH. with an income of L1600 a year. author of the "Fourfold State. "making it black with unexpected tea. near which Richard III. to his father's estate. the insurgent American colonists who. an antiquary. in 1782. became minister of Ettrick. and such as no man could have written who was not a hero-worshipper to the backbone. and "The Crook in the Lot." BOSWELL.ramakalai@gmail. boarded. second as fallen. Johnson dying in 1784. third as redeemed. the former an account of the state of man. for which the latter was tried. an event which terminated the Wars of the Roses and led to the accession of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of Computer Lecturer. aggravated by the death of his wife (1740-1795). first in innocence. 1773. Page 388 of 2772 . and fourth as in glory. born at Edinburgh. disguised as Indians. exercised a great influence on the religious views of the most pious-minded of his countrymen (1676-1732). fell in with Johnson on a visit to London in 1763. BOSTON TEA-PARTY. SIR ALEXANDER. Chennai 6. and was called to the English bar. succeeded. showed early a penchant for writing and an admiration for literary men. but acquitted (1775-1822). BOSWELL.

of Glasgow. from France home. became professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford. was once an English convict settlement. BOTHNIA. 5 m. carried off Mary to Dunbar Castle. an Anglo-Saxon scholar. discovered by Captain Cook in 1770. by Sir Joseph Banks. fled to Norway. JAMES HEPBURN. a village in Lanarkshire. Page 389 of 2772 . SE. Earl of. of Sydney. was a great favourite with the queen. Queen of Scots. JOSEPH. so called. was believed to have murdered Darnley. as is believed (1525-1577). of Sweden. CTSTI. BOTHWELL. a prov. was recalled by Mary on her marriage with Darnley. 8 m. worked frequently on the same canvas. one of the envoys sent in 1560 to convey Mary. after ten years of misery he died. by a gulf of the name. had to flee to France for an act of conspiracy. an inlet in New South Wales. BOTH. BOTHWELL. and W. and married to her at Holyrood. scene of a battle between Monmouth and the Covenanters in 1679. pardoned. JOHN AND ANDREW. the former a landscape and the latter a figure painter. parted with her at Carberry Hill. Computer Lecturer. though when tried. was made Duke of Orkney. S. BOSWORTH. Chennai 6. BOTANY BAY. was the author of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Dictionary (1789-1876). was made Privy Councillor the year after. was acquitted. on the Clyde. Flemish painters of the 17th century. and was kept captive there at Malmoee.ramakalai@gmail. from the variety and beauty of its flora. born in Derbyshire. insane. divided into E.com England in the person of Henry VII.

BOTTA. near the coast. published in the "Memoire de l'Ecriture Cuneiform Assyrienne" and "Monuments de Ninive" (1802-1870). or ALESSANDRO. a wandering wild tribe in the forests of Brazil." he adds. which Ruskin has reproduced on the title-page of his recent books. an alchemist who.ramakalai@gmail. began as a goldsmith's apprentice. a celebrated painter of the Florentine school. though he was no less fascinated with classical--mythological conceptions.com BOTOCUDOS. BO-TREE. Page 390 of 2772 . particularly in the drawing of flowers. in 1843. and are said to have no numerals beyond _one_. invented the celebrated Meissen porcelain (1682-1719). a pupil of Fra Lippo Lippi. roses as he has done. was the author of some poems (1766-1837). he understood. born at Turin. remarking that "no one has ever yet drawn. Chennai 6.. son of the preceding. the figure of Spring. Computer Lecturer. SANDRO. See BUDDHA. or is likely to draw. a very low type of men. and at a very low stage of civilisation. BOTTICELLI. made further explorations. a species of Ficus. discovered the ruins of Nineveh. and it is a rose on the petticoat of one of his figures. in his experiments on porcelain. and could in a measure paint both Aphrodite and the Madonna" (1447-1515). CTSTI.. sacred to the Buddhists as the tree under which Buddha sat when the light of life first dawned on him. CARLO GIUSEPPE.. the best-known examples of his art are on religious subjects. BOeTTGER. an Italian political historian. is distinguished for his attention to details and for delicacy. PAUL EMILE. BOTTA. his most important work is his "History of Italy from 1789 to 1814". Assyriologist. born in Piedmont. "the thoughts of heathens and Christians equally. are demon-worshippers. when consul at Mosul.

field-marshal of France. one of the heroes of the war of Greek independence (1789-1823). a French painter. a weaver in the interlude in "Midsummer-Night's Dream. MARSHAL DE. born in Ardennes (1783-1868). BOUCICAUT. BOTTOM. with his ass's head. Titania falls in love with under the influence of a love-potion. BOTZARIS.com BOeTTIGER. distinguished in several famous battles. one of the bravest and noblest of French soldiers. BOUFFLERS. Page 391 of 2772 . KARL AUGUSTE. a dramatic writer. CTSTI. marshal of France. and his masterly retreat Computer Lecturer. born at Paris (1703-1770). was taken captive by the English at Agincourt. German archaeologist. as "The Colleen Bawn" and "The Shaughraun" (1822-1890). author of popular Irish pieces. especially classical (1760-1835). DION." whom. BOUCHARDON. courtier and author (1737-1815). born at Tours. MARQUIS DE. French naturalist and anthropologist. died in England (1364-1421). CHEVALIER DE. BOUCHER. a celebrated French sculptor (1698-1762). BOUFFLERS. Chennai 6. distinguished for his defence of Namur (1695) and of Lille (1708). BOUCICAULT. was a voluminous writer on antiquities. BOUCHER DE PERTHES.ramakalai@gmail.

his subjects both classical and religious. BOUGUEREAU. with suppressed-explosive resolution. choleric. "last refuge of royalty in all straits"." BOUILLON. born in Auvergne. BOUGH. headlong audacity. a "quick.. BOUHOUR.ramakalai@gmail. died in London. French physicist. a French general. LE PERE. nay.. landscape painter. and quitted France. MARQUIS DE." as described by him in "Un Voyage autour du Monde" (1729-1811). LOUIS ANTOINE DE. French litterateur. as well as portraits. born at Paris (1628-1702). ADOLPHE. failed. sharp-discerning. and settled in Edinburgh for 20 years (1822-1878). BOUILLE. PIERRE. See for the part he played in it. distinguished in the Seven Years' War. born at Carlisle. born in Brittany. a French navigator. born at Rochelle in 1825. voyaged round the world.. belonged Computer Lecturer. CARLYLE'S "FRENCH REVOLUTION. favoured the flight of Louis XVI. in the West Indies and during the Revolution. with valour. originally a German duchy. SAM. born in Paris. wrote on optics and the figure of the earth (1698-1758). Chennai 6. CTSTI.. BOUGUER. which occupied him two years and a half. an intrepid. and left "Memoirs of the French Revolution" (1759-1800). a distinguished French painter. stubbornly-endeavouring man.com from Malplaquet (1645-1711). Page 392 of 2772 . adamantine man". district in Belgium. BOUGAINVILLE. did his utmost for royalty. muzzled and fettered by diplomatic pack-threads. his "Travels" had a remarkably stimulating effect on the imaginations of the "philosophies.

BOUILLY. BOULOGNE. from his sentimentality "poete lacrymal" (1763-1842). on the Nile. BOULDER. CTSTI. and committed suicide at Brussels (1837-1891). a French statesman. nicknamed. vice-president of the Republic from 1849 to 1851 (1797-1858). a large mass or block of rock found in localities often far removed from the place of its formation. the crusader.com to Godfrey. Page 393 of 2772 . Chennai 6. a French dramatist.ramakalai@gmail. who pledged it to raise funds for the crusade. Cloud. a French historian. born near Tours. BOULEVARD. though the boulevard is not always on the line of a rampart. took part in the redaction of the Civil Code. BOULAK (20). born at Rennes. of note for the political intrigues with which he was mixed up during the last years of his life. BOULAY DE LA MEURTHE. author of a "History of Mahomet" (1658-1722). the port of Cairo. BOULAN`GER. much Computer Lecturer. a promenade between Paris and St. BOIS DE. BOULAINVILLIERS. fled the country. and the dangerous popular enthusiasm which he excited. and transported thither on the ice of the Glacial Age. Henri. the rampart of a fortified city converted into a promenade flanked by rows of trees and a feature of Paris in particular. distinguished as an orator. JEAN MARIE. JEAN NICOLAS. a son. a French general. was a faithful adherent of Napoleon (1761-1840). accused of peculation.

born at Birmingham. BOULOGNE-SUR-MER (46). _b_. of Pas-de-Calais. Those who escaped founded a colony on Pitcairn Island.ramakalai@gmail. is connected by steamer with Folkestone. a mutiny which took place on the ship _Bounty_. "BOUNTY. born at Pau. CTSTI. and established with him a manufactory of steam-engines at Soho. a town on the right bank of the Seine. one of the principal ports for debarkation from England. of Calais. 27 m. BOULTON. BOURBAKI. contributed to the improvement of the coinage (1728-1809). SW. BOULOGNE-SUR-SEINE (32). in the dep. CHARLES DENIS SOTER. and attempted suicide.com frequented by people of fashion. who returned to Otaheite after setting the captain (Bligh) adrift with others in an open boat. on a barren heath near his native place. afterwards retired. and a favourite watering-place. Bligh reached England after a time. it rivals that of the Champs Elysees. Computer Lecturer. is the centre of an important coasting trade. a fortified seaport in France. an eminent engineer. and likely to become a naval station. 5 m. Chennai 6. where Napoleon collected in 1803 a flotilla to invade England. served for a time under Gambetta. MATTHEW. SW. on the 28th April 1789. served in the Crimean War and in Italy. bound from Otaheite to the West Indies. on the part of 25 of the crew. the chief station of the North Sea fisheries. entered into partnership with James Watt. suffered disastrously in the Franco-German War. reported the crime. from which it is separated by the Bois-de-Boulogne. Page 394 of 2772 . to the seizure at length of certain of the offenders and the execution of others. a French general. and a favourite place of recreation." MUTINY OF THE. on the English Channel. 1816. of Paris.

called the "king of preachers. CTSTI. and free from ornament. acquired immense wealth by the death of an elder brother and by his marriage. one of the most earnest and powerful of his sermons. both of which trace back to Henry IV. but fearless and uncompromising (1632-1704). a French Jesuit.. BOURDALOUE. called the Orleans. by Benvenuto Cellini (1489-1527). LOUIS. Chennai 6.. and fell in the assault. mortally wounded. ancient province in the centre of France." is deemed the greatest. and the other. carefully reasoned.. born at Montpellier.com BOURBON. the latter ending with Francis II. Moulins. injustice Francis did him. grandson of Louis XIV. and Spain. he clandestinely entered the service of the Emperor Charles V. one of the most eloquent pulpit orators of France.. held sway in France. united to the crown in 1531. second son of Louis XIII. the former branch still (1899) in power. BOURBON. with Philip of Orleans. His sermons are ethical in their matter from a Christian standpoint.. a family of French origin. the one entitled "The Passion. was for his daring in the field named Constable of France by Francis I. hailing from Bourbonnais. and lived in royal state. perhaps imaginary. and who severally ruled their territories under a more or less overweening sense of their rights as born to reign. members of which occupied for generations the thrones of France. and preacher of kings". and the latter ending with Louis Philippe and his line. offended at some. and took Francis captive. Page 395 of 2772 . it is said. CHARLES DE. styled the Constable de Bourbon. defeated the French at Pavia.ramakalai@gmail. BOURBONNAIS. a French painter. laid siege to Rome. BOURDON. born at Bourges. Naples. though junior.. his contemporary. parted from Charles. one beginning with Louis XIV.. eldest son of Louis XIII. did not suffer by comparison with Bossuet. in 1860. the former ending with Charles X.. cap. and his family. SEBASTIAN. Two branches. The branches of the family ruling in Spain and Naples began with Philip VI. his Computer Lecturer. being the duchy of Bourbon.

banished to Guiana. where he died in 1791. BOURGET. 1852. as distinguished from the nobles and the peasants. brought herself into trouble by the wild fancies she promulgated. an eminent French novelist and essayist. the name given in France to the middle class. BOURIGNON. BOURGEOISIE. and often consulted on the matter (1712-1779)." and distinct from the romantist and naturalistic. and founder of veterinary colleges at Lyons in 1762. a subtle analyst of character.. a French town in the dep. was an authority on horse management. _b_. a Flemish visionary and fanatic. birthplace of Louis XI. but applied by the Socialists to the capitalists as distinct from the workers. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. born at Amiens. BOURGELAT. a French revolutionist. of Cher. PAUL.000 to build a gallery for them (1756-1811). left his collection to Dulwich College. and L10." executed for the church of Notre Dame (1616-1671). a famous French veterinary surgeon. born at Lyons. Peter. professional people. BOURGES (43). ANTOINETTE. his novels are what he calls "psychological. and Bourdaloue. and merchants. BOURGEOIS. resolved religion into emotion. on which he bestows great pains. to the derangement of others as well as herself (1615-1680).com _chef-d'oeuvre_ "The Crucifixion of St. SIR FRANCIS. painter to George III. BOURDON DE L'OISE. with a clear and elegant style. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. Page 396 of 2772 . member of the Convention.

a French marshal. refused allegiance to Louis Philippe on his accession.com BOURMONT. wrote "Memoirs" disparaging to Napoleon (1769-1834).. BOUSSA. where Mungo Park lost his life as he was going up the Niger. an ancient mode of writing from right to left. BOURNEMOUTH (38). held high commands under Napoleon. Page 397 of 2772 . he was a carpenter by trade. as in ploughing a field. CTSTI. and a zealous propagator of their principles. 37 m. at the Revolution joined the Bourbons on the frontiers. capital of a State of the same name. a great health resort. Computer Lecturer. and was dismissed the service (1773-1846). is of recent. BOURNE. joined the Bourbons at the Restoration. founder of the Primitive Methodists. but dismissed for being implicated in disgraceful money transactions. born at Sens. BOURRIENNE. and then from left to right.ramakalai@gmail. secretary of Napoleon. growth. and a school friend. and he appears to have wrought at his trade while prosecuting his mission. commanded under Ney on Napoleon's return from Elba. of Southampton. gave evidence against Ney to his execution. deserted on the eve of Waterloo to Louis XVIII. HUGH. LOUIS ANTOINE FAUVELET. which he did extensively both in Britain and America (1772-1852). and has been of rapid. commanded the expedition against Algiers. COMTE DE. SW. a town in Central Africa. held the post for five years. BOUSTROPHE`DON. on Poole Bay. LOUIS AUGUSTE VICTOR. and he died a lunatic at Caen. Chennai 6. served the royal cause in La Vendee. a town in Hants. with a fine sandy beach. the Revolution of 1830 and the loss of his fortune affected his mind.

accompanied with an elaborate commentary (1773-1838). born in Boston. a gallant British naval commander. published "Practical Navigation. and by his captures of the enemy's ships. and expounder of their doctrines. Computer Lecturer. American mathematician. of French extraction. BOWEN. JAMES." translated the "Mecanique Celeste" of Laplace. and penetrated as far as Coomassie. killed by grape-shot at the storming of Santa Cruz. BOWDITCH. wrote "History of Poetry and Eloquence among the Modern Races" (1766-1828). sent on a mission to Guinea. an English physician. BOWDICH. FRIEDRICH. at the moment when Nelson was wounded (1761-1797). BOWDLER. author of "Discourse on the Constitution of the United States" (1727-1790). edited expurgated editions of Shakespeare and Gibbon in the interest of moral purity. wrote an interesting account of it in his "Mission to Ashanti" (1791-1824). Massachusetts. an American statesman. THOMAS EDWARD. THOMAS. then of Jacobi. Chennai 6. distinguished himself in several engagements. born at Salem.com BOUTERWEK. NATHANIEL. Bowdlerism (1754-1825). RICHARD. a zealous advocate of American independence. abbot of Inchcolm. continued Fordun's History down to the death of James I. a practical scientist. BOWDOIN. a German philosopher and professor of Philosophy at Goettingen. born at Bristol. in 1437 from 1153 (1385-1449). an English traveller. BOWER. Scottish chronicler. CTSTI. Page 398 of 2772 . added in consequence a new term to the English language. WALTER. a disciple of Kant.ramakalai@gmail.

linguist and political writer." BOWLING. whose undue influence in the State was broken by Peter the Great. generally out of the choir. Computer Lecturer. and published an edition of the Greek New Testament with notes (1699-1777)." were much admired by Coleridge. WILLIAM LISLE. his sonnets. to act as bishop and do all his episcopal duties. and their appearance is believed to have inaugurated a new era in English poetry. St. a boy chosen on 6th December. became governor of Hong-Kong. also the landed aristocracy of Roumania. the old nobility of Russia. SIR JOHN. The term of office was limited in 1279 to 24 hours. ordered the bombardment of Canton. remarkable for a successful run such as is said to have brought the author L7000. born in Northamptonshire. which caused dissatisfaction at home (1792-1872). BOWLING. as developed in the Lake School (1762-1850). except celebrate mass. For the term of his office. Nicholas' Day. friend and disciple of Bentham as well as editor of his works. Page 399 of 2772 . "of nature's aspect to human feeling. M. which varied." a farce by J. first editor of _Westminster Review_. a typical British sailor in "Roderick Random. at the instance of the English Government visited the Continental States to report on their commercial relations. Morton. born in London. BOYARS. wrote on the origin of printing.com BOWLES. TOM. and if he died during his tenure of it was buried with episcopal honours. WILLIAM. by their "linking. BOY BISHOP. printer and scholar. Chennai 6. CTSTI. a poet. BOWYER." as Professor Saintsbury has it.ramakalai@gmail. born at Exeter. "BOX AND COX. he was treated as bishop.

afterwards professor in the University of Paris.com BOYCE. in France.ramakalai@gmail. ANDREW KENNEDY HUTCHISON. born in London. BOYD. he issued also Hume's "History of England. H. returned to Scotland in consequence of the persecution of the Huguenots. died at Bournemouth by mischance of swallowing a lotion instead of a sleeping-draught (1825-1899). but entered the Church." which was widely read. BARON. and the encouragement he gave to native artists. preached before Cromwell after the battle of Dunbar. JOHN. author of "Recreations of a Country Parson." with 196 plates in illustration (1719-1804). an English engraver and print-seller. BOYCOTT." with 96 plates in illustration of Shakespeare. attendant on Napoleon. French anatomist and surgeon. author of the "Last Battell of the Soule in Death" and "Zion's Flowers. CTSTI. famous for his "Shakespeare Gallery. and rector of the University.. ZACHARY. Page 400 of 2772 . an Irish landlord's agent in Connemara. bred for the bar. which continued for long text-books on those Computer Lecturer. published a collection of the "Cathedral Music of the Old English Masters". composed "Hearts of Oak. a Scottish clergyman and writer. chiefly of church music. Chennai 6. known to fame as A. BOYDELL. composer. called "Boyd's Bible" (1585-1653). with whom the population of the district in 1880 refused to have any dealings on account of disagreements with the tenantry. CAPTAIN. BOYD. wrote works on anatomy and surgical diseases. Glasgow. and of Reminiscences of his life. K." a naval song sung by ships' crews at one time before going into action (1710-1779). regent of a Protestant college at Samur." being mainly metrical versions of Scripture. a Scottish divine. became minister of Barony Parish. B. BOYER. WILLIAM.

as well as pneumatics. retired to Paris. ROBERT. distinguished for the connection of his name with the Bentley controversy. refused the presidentship of the Royal Society. BOYLE LECTURES.com subjects. president of Hayti. founded by his will an endowment for the "Boyle Lectures" in defence of Christianity against its opponents and rivals. where he spent the rest of his life and died (1776-1850). and held for a tenure of three years. BOYER. but suspected of consulting his own advantage more than that of the country. BOYLE. BOYLE. Robert Boyle in 1691. the endowment being L50 per annum. that had there been one like him in every province in Ireland rebellion would have been impossible (1566-1643). also for the honours conferred upon him for his patriotism. first and great Earl of Cork. CTSTI. and declined a peerage (1626-1691). THE HON. born at Port-au-Prince of a negress and a Creole father. and for its connection with an astronomical contrivance by one Graham to illustrate the planetary system (1676-1731). a distinguished natural philosopher. was driven from power by a revolution in 1843. Page 401 of 2772 . Chennai 6. born at Lismore. the lecturer must deliver eight lectures in defence of Computer Lecturer. especially chemistry. devoted his life and contributed greatly to science. held the presidency for 25 years from 1818. distinguished among Irish patriots and landlords for what he did to improve his estates and develop manufactures and the mechanical arts in Ireland. was one of the originators of the "Royal Society".ramakalai@gmail. fourth Earl of Orrery. of the Orrery family. being a student of theology. secured the independence of the country. CHARLES. JEAN PIERRE. when Cromwell saw how his estates were managed he remarked. BOYLE. RICHARD. the lectureship founded by the Hon. was a man of very conservative opinions (1757-1833).

inhabitants Flemings." and the first attempt of the kind. BRABANT. also Belgian. CTSTI. sister to Rinaldo. had a lance which unhorsed every one it touched.. and S. EDWARD. inhabitants Walloons. BOZ. BOYLE'S LAW. Breda. or Dutch Brabant.com Christianity. is now divided between Holland and Belgium. gives name to the battle in which William III. HENRY DE. of the Low Countries. that the volume of a gas is inversely as the pressure. BOYNE. Page 402 of 2772 . Johnson's familiar name for Boswell. entered the Coldstream Guards. and became major-general in 1754. 1268. British general. It comprises three provs. Antwerp. which flows through Meath into the Irish Sea.ramakalai@gmail. BRADDOCK. cap. defeated the forces of James II. BRACTON. cap. being his nickname when a boy for a little brother. Chennai 6. a _nom de plume_ under which Dickens wrote at first. born in Perthshire." a writer on English law of the 13th century. cap. Brussels. _d_. on 30th July 1690. Antwerp. Brabant." a "Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England. BRADAMANTE. an English "justice itinerant. and some of the most eminent men have held the post. and one of the heroines in "Orlando Furioso". in mediaeval times was an important prov. the N. author of "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae. a Belgian prov. the whole mostly a plain.. inhabitants Dutch. BOZZY. a river in Ireland. fell in an attempt to invest Fort Computer Lecturer. commanded a body of troops against the French in America.

of Leeds. BRADFORD (216). MISS (Mrs. Annie Besant. _b_. born at Stockport. BRADLAUGH. and did the same service for railways. it is the chief seat of worsted spinning and weaving in England. had a chequered career. a social reformer on secularist lines. and has an important wool market. astronomer. had for associate in the advocacy of his views Mrs. and astronomer-royal at Greenwich. elected M. coal and iron mines are at hand.com Duquesue. John Maxwell). Also the name of a manufacturing town on the Avon. which he did in 1886. and opposed to the Protectorate. W. for Northampton thrice over. born in Gloucestershire." and some 50 other novels. and iron-works and machinery-making are its other industries. an engraver of maps in Manchester. which developed into the well-known "Railway Guide" (1830-1863). BRADSHAW. and lost nearly all his men (1695-1755). a popular novelist. GEORGE. wrote the "Impeachment of the House of Brunswick" (1833-1891). professor of Astronomy at Oxford." "Aurora Floyd. discovered the aberration of light and the nutation of the earth's axis. 9 m. authoress of "Lady Audley's Secret. born in London. Chennai 6..P.000 astronomical observations (1693-1762). but not allowed to sit till he took the oath. CHARLES. Page 403 of 2772 . BRADSHAW. JOHN. a friend of Milton. contributed largely to magazines. born in London. BRADDON. BRADLEY. became president of Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. died respected by all parties in the House of Commons. a Yorkshire manufacturing town. made 60. bred for the bar. in Wilts. a thorough republican. on a tributary of the Aire. 1837. published maps illustrative of certain canal systems. JAMES. president of the High Court of Justice for trial of Charles I.ramakalai@gmail.

surnamed "Doctor Profundus" from his treatise "De Causa Dei" against Pelagianism. a pretender who ingratiates himself with people above him. Portugal. the name of a baron and his daughter. capital of Traz-os-Montes. son of Odin and Frigga." BRAEMAR`.com the Council on Cromwell's death. the residence of the Primate. Chennai 6. called the House of Braganza. much frequented by tourists. BRAGANZA. BRADWARDINE. in Portugal. the Norse god of poetry and eloquence. represented as an old man with a long flowing beard and unwrinkled brow. BRAG. Computer Lecturer. a Scottish Highland district SW. BRADWARDIN. the eighth duke of Braganza having ascended the throne in 1640. JACK. of Oporto. THOMAS. of Aberdeenshire. was buried in Westminster. and resorted to for summer country quarters. Page 404 of 2772 . CTSTI. 34 m. chaplain to Edward III. gives name to the ruling dynasty of Portugal. the heroine of "Waverley. his body was exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration (1586-1659). with a mild expression of face.. was present at Crecy and at the taking of Calais. BRAGI. NE. on the liberation of Portugal from the yoke of Spain. received in Valhalla the heroes who fell in battle. BRAGA (23). a city.ramakalai@gmail. died of the black death shortly after his consecration (1290-1348). archbishop of Canterbury. the capital of Minho.

of Jewish parents. circles round the E.com BRAHAM. TYCHO. composed operas. accepted an invitation of the Kaiser Rudolf II. spent his life in the study of the stars. born in London. with prescriptions bearing upon ritual. and known all over Europe. had an observatory provided for him on an island in the Sound by the king. where he made observations for 20 years. a Swedish astronomer. BRAHE. BRAHMA.ramakalai@gmail. after a course of some 1800 Computer Lecturer. BRAHMAN. but an angel of a singer" (1774-1856). and at another the creator of all things. or BRAHMIN. BRAHMANAS. on the king's death. from which all beings issue and into which they all merge. and therefore of high-priestly rank. Scott described him as "a beast of an actor. in the Hindu religion and philosophy at one time the formless spirit of the Universe. See TRIMURTI. treatises on the ceremonial system of Brahminism. and abounding in legends and speculations. Chennai 6. Page 405 of 2772 . which. he was. v. of the Himalayas. e. BRAHMAPUTRA (i. JOHN. killing that he may make alive. Brahma. and. however. of noble birth. a river which rises in Tibet. one of the sacred caste of the Hindus that boasts of direct descent from. was particularly effective in rendering the national songs. compelled to retire under persecution at the hand of the nobles. the most so in Europe of his day. to Prague. a celebrated tenor singer. were only dramas interspersed with songs. v. where he continued his work and had Kepler for assistant and pupil (1546-1601). and as such is not an object of worship. son of Brahma). or immediate relationship with.) is the preserver AND SIVA (q. discovered a new star in Cassiopeia. of which VISHNU (q.) the destroyer. CTSTI. but a subject of meditation. the custodians and mediators of religion.

According to the religious conception of this class. brings down twice as much mud as the Ganges. born at Hamburg. In this way Brahma. a secession from traditional Hinduism. joins the Ganges. Page 406 of 2772 . or rather monotheistic. takes form or incarnates himself successively as Brahma. CTSTI. and the Brahmaputra in British India. and religious organisation which developed among the Aryans in the valley of the Ganges under the influence of the Brahmans. Brahma. originated in 1830 by Rammohun Roy. the Dihong in Assam. which triple incarnation constitutes a trimurti or trinity.. principles. BRAHMS. JAMES.com m. it has numerous tributaries. distinguished as a performer as well as a composer. particularly Assam. and Sudras--all the rest being outcasts or pariahs. church of God). and in the lower part of its course overflows the land. had four sons. distinguished for his heroism on the occasion of great fires both in Edinburgh and London (1790-1861). or that social. Kshatriyas. political. and Siva. the appearance of compositions of his an event in the musical world. BRAHMO-SOMAJ (i. has no living rival. Vishnu. settled in Vienna. _b_. the creed and ritual of the Brahmans. as well as a profession of a sense of the brotherhood of man no less than the unity of God. born in Edinburgh. Vaisyas. 1833. e. or the universal spirit. JOHANNES. of great promise from a boy. BRAIDWOOD. BRAHMINISM. a distinguished composer. the first incarnation of the universal spirit. approaches Beethoven as no other does. founded on theistic. Computer Lecturer. e. i. called the Sampo in Tibet. from whom issued the four castes of India--Brahmans. unitarian. director of the London fire brigade. Chennai 6. See CASTE. and developed by Chunder Sen. and the rational ideas and philosophy of Europe.ramakalai@gmail. like an inland sea.

named after him (1748-1814). architect. an ungainly maiden at forty-five. born in Yorkshire. which he did not live to complete (1444-1514). BRAN. in whose house he died (1718-1747). author of many mechanical inventions. JOSEPH. laid the foundation of St. a gouty humorist in "Humphrey Clinker". among others the hydraulic press. 1818. in public debate with such a dialectician as Thomas Hobbes on the questions of necessity and free-will (1594-1663). invented printing in relief for the blind (1809-1852). MISS TABITHA.com BRAILLE. BRAMANTE. Chennai 6. born in Barnsley. president of the British Association in 1888. 18 of which were patented. BRAMBLE. and previously of Association of Engineers. _b_. archbishop of Armagh. who has a sister. BRAMHALL.ramakalai@gmail. BRAINERD. and of anything but a sweet temper. Peter's at Rome. his Life was written by Jonathan Edwards. American missionary to the Red Indians. Computer Lecturer. a high-handed Churchman and imitator of Laud. a blind Frenchman. civil engineer. CTSTI. DONATO. BRAMAH. JOHN. was foolhardy enough once to engage. nowise to his credit. born in Connecticut. BRAMWELL. SIR FREDERICK. Page 407 of 2772 . yet generous and kind. an engineer. Yorkshire. of a fretful temper. name given to Fingal's dog. MATTHEW.

BRANDENBURG. after a stay in Berlin. born in Durham. with fertile districts and woodlands here and there. a literary critic. born in London. BRANDE. of Jewish parents. author of Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. ISLAND OF. born at Copenhagen. of the Canary Islands. into gold. JOHN. wrote a "Popular Antiquities" (1744-1784). chemist. he returned to it in 1862. BRANDES. Brandan as lying W. _d_. an illustrious German family dating from the 10th century. but. a Swedish chemist. an island reported of by St. a satirical writer. ST. BRANDT. with the support of a strong party in his favour. BRANDT.542). from which descended the kings of Prussia. and that figured on charts as late as 1755. Page 408 of 2772 . in the great northern plain of Germany. is a central Prussian province.. BRANDAN. most of it a sandy plain. in quest of which voyages of discovery were undertaken as recently as the beginning of the 18th century. born at Strassburg. 1692. SEBASTIAN. the opposition to his views were such that he was forced to leave Copenhagen. his views of the present tendency of literature in Europe provoked at first much opposition in Denmark. chanced on the discovery in 1669 of phosphorus while in quest of a solvent to transmute metals. though they were received with more favour afterwards. author of "Manual of Chemistry" and other works (1788-1866). and the nucleus of the Prussian kingdom. such as silver. GEORGE. Chennai 6. BRANDENBURG (2. antiquary.ramakalai@gmail. up to which time it was believed to exist. THE HOUSE OF.com BRAND.

_d_. his most celebrated action. in 422 B. born in Perigord. faithful. BRANTOME. SAMPSON. evil-spoken family in Miss Burney's "Evelina. and vivid delineations of the characters of the most celebrated of his contemporaries (1527-1614)." of which there have been many translations and not a few imitations (1458-1521)..C. the defeat at the expense of his life. led the life of a knight-errant. a Spartan general. distinguished in the Peloponnesian war. contemporary of Montaigne. with a small body of helots and mercenaries. sepulchral tablets of a mixed metal. from her fondness for brandy." BRANT. called latten. a French chronicler. a vulgar. BRASIDAS. BRANGTONS. of the flower of the Athenian army at Amphipolis. THE.com the "Narrenschiff" or "Ship of Fools. whom he fleeced. inlaid in a slab of stone. a small river in Delaware. BRANDYWINE CREEK. PIERRE DE BOURDEILLES. CTSTI. and insculpt with figures and inscriptions of a Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. 1807. and wrote Memoirs remarkable for the free-and-easy. BRASSES. BRANDY NAN. Chennai 6. affected feeling for his clients. scene of a victory of the British over the Americans in 1777. BRASS. a brave and good man. a knavish attorney in "Old Curiosity Shop". a nickname for Queen Anne. JOSEPH. Indian chief who sided with the British in the American war. Page 409 of 2772 .

almost equal to Europe. a Berkshire village. and of value (1809-1856). BRAZIL (14. BRAUN. BRASSEY. and comprises the Amazon basin. he lived in the reigns of Charles II. a great railway contractor. contracted for the construction of railways in all parts of the world (1805-1870). BRAVEST OF THE BRAVE. the largest South American State.ramakalai@gmail. born at Gotha. that succeeded the weak Silver Age. famous for Simon Aleyn. its vicar from 1540 to 1588. who." BRAXY. AUGUSTE EMIL. the upper basin of the Paraguay. due to a change in food from succulent to dry. CTSTI. in the Greek mythology the age of violence. never scrupled to change his principles.. German archaeologist. in Surrey. to retain his living. Queen Anne. works numerous. so called from his fearlessness in battle.. and the name given to the mutton of sheep affected with it. with the valleys of the Parana and San Francisco. an inflammatory disease in sheep. Napoleon had on one occasion said. See AGES. THOMAS. and George I. "That man is a lion. James II. and the maritime highlands. Page 410 of 2772 . the oldest in England is at Stoke d'Abernon. occupies the eastern angle of the continent.com monumental character. Great stretches of the interior are uninhabitable swamp and forest lands. Chennai 6. the tablelands of Matto Grosso. William III. BRAZEN AGE. BRAY..000). forests tenanted by an endless variety of Computer Lecturer. Marshal Ney. born in Cheshire.

and obtained a governorship. inland it is negro. which has been harassed ever since by desultory civil war. of the Congo for France. when roasted. Vegetable products are indescribably rich and varied. Page 411 of 2772 . the coasts are often humid and unhealthy. Computer Lecturer. a wood found in Brazil. gold. is richly wooded. born at Landau.. and a republic established on the federal system. and copper. fled to his colony. The vast mineral wealth includes diamonds. explorer. timber of all kinds. a gorge in the dep. BRAZZA (22). translator into French of Bopp's "Comparative Grammar". of great value for dyeing red. the religion. Chennai 6. The capital is Rio Janeiro. is used as bread. born in Rome. The emperor. was driven out in 1889. an island in the Adriatic. acquired land N. coffee and sugar are the chief crops. MICHEL. but the upper levels have a fine climate. which was made a kingdom 1815. rubber. education is very backward. BRECHE-DE-ROLAND. 1852. Discovered in 1500. and Indian. expelled by the French in 1808. BRAZZA. and an empire in 1822. the other seaports. BREADFRUIT-TREE. mercury. which.ramakalai@gmail. and government unsettled. Almost all the country is within the tropics.com brilliant-plumed birds and insects. a French philologist. _b_. the colouring principle being named Brasilin. of the Haute-Pyrenees. belonging to Austria. The population at the seaports is mostly white. _b_. BREAL. and fruit are exported. Most of the trade is with Britain and America. 1832. yields marble. PIERRE SAVORGNAN DE. a South Sea island tree producing a fruit which. the Portuguese king. The language is Portuguese. and annexed by Portugal. Pedro II. mulatto. Bahia and Pernambuco. cotton. BRAZIL-WOOD. Roman Catholic. noted for its wines. CTSTI.

BREHON LAWS. with a cathedral and an old round tower near it. W. the capital of N. BREMEN (126). Esk. a famous inventor of astronomical instruments (1747-1823). existed from prehistoric times till Cromwell's conquest. the Geneva Bible. ALFRED EDMUND. Chennai 6. Page 412 of 2772 . and whether it was at first traditional. high. the _Westminster_. Brabant. CTSTI. many manuscript redactions of portions exist still. an authority in it. the chief seaport of Germany. after Hamburg. Charles II. in which "aprons" is rendered "breeches. so called at one time. a body of judge-created laws that for long formed the common law of Ireland. and issued hence his declaration prior to his restoration. iii. BREECHES BIBLE. so called from its rendering in Gen. Charlemagne's Paladin of the name of Roland cleft with one stroke of his sword when he was beset by the Gascons. fortified town. BREHM. who had been a leather-breeches maker at Charing Cross. of Montrose. a place of historical interest. The origin of the code is unknown. BREGNET. on the S. German naturalist. 7. 85 ft. the only one of the kind in Scotland besides being at Abernethy. is on the Computer Lecturer. BREDA (23). a town in Forfarshire. BRECHIN. resided here for a time during his exile. born at Neuchatel.ramakalai@gmail. a French chronometer-maker.com according to tradition." BREECHES REVIEW. from one Place. his chief work "Illustrirtes Thierleben" (1829-1884).

rear-admiral. ST. high. BREMERHAVEN." "The President's Daughter. "The Neighbours. it is the head-quarters of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company. Its export and import trade is very varied.C. BRENNER PASS. with a large hospice for emigrants. in his ninety-fourth year. BREMER. founded for the accommodation of large vessels in 1830. the port of Bremen. from its mouth. born in Finland. crossed by a railway. founded a monastery at Clonfert. born at Tralee. which facilitates trade between Venice. Textiles. Chennai 6. FREDRIKA. as the gold was being weighed out he threw his sword and helmet into the opposite scale. Page 413 of 2772 . and is a free city. 6853 ft.ramakalai@gmail. BREMER. invested the Capitol for so long that the Romans offered him a thousand pounds' weight of gold to retire. with a territory less than Rutlandshire. who. 50 m. on the estuary of the Weser. BRENDAN. a highly popular Swedish novelist.com Weser." and "Strife and Peace. between Innsbruck and Botzen.. a Gallic chief." are perhaps her best stories. after taking and pillaging Rome. and Austria. CTSTI. 300 B. an Irish saint. half the total of emigrants sail from its docks. distinguished in the Burmese and Chinese wars (1786-1850). died in 577.. SIR JAMES. tobacco. was one of the principal cities of the Hanseatic League. pass on the central Tyrolese Alps. BRENNUS. has been called the Jane Austen of Sweden. Germany. and paper industries add to its prosperity. adding _Vae Computer Lecturer. celebrated for his voyages in quest of "a land beyond human ken" and his discovery of "a paradise amid the waves of the sea".

as well as a catechism extensively used (1499-1570). near Lerwick. W. BRESCIA (43). of London. there are a cathedral. second city in Prussia. BRESLAU (335). 150 m. it stands in the centre of the Baltic. the reformer of Wuertemberg. an important commercial and manufacturing centre. poet of the romanticist school. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. and debouches near Venice. of Milan. of Frankfort. one of the Shetland Isles. its manufactures are woollens. and has a large woollen industry and grain market. and wine. university. the capital of Silesia. "Woe to the conquered. that he turned his back and offered battle to him and to his army.com victis_. JOHANN. rises in the Tyrol. Page 414 of 2772 . BRESSAY. 10 m. is on the Oder. a city of Lombardy. has two cathedrals. and has a first-class fortress. and Danube trade. and one of the authors of the Wuertemberg Confession. CTSTI. with one of the Computer Lecturer. leather. by rail SE. CLEMENS. 50 m. that figures in history and literature. BRENTFORD. a Roman temple excavated in 1822." an insolence which so roused Camillus. BRENZ. market-town in Middlesex. BRENTANO. an Italian river.ramakalai@gmail. on the Brent. was a roving genius (1778-1849). BRENTA. waters Bassano. and library. E. and totally routed the whole host. Chennai 6. North Sea. and now a classical museum. on the Mella and Garza. an art gallery and library. brother of Goethe's Bettina von Arnim. silks.

one of the chief naval stations in France. besides satirical writings. of France. BRETON. KARL GOTTLIEB. BRETHREN OF THE COMMON LIFE. Page 415 of 2772 . his theological writings are of permanent value. composed. held political posts. BRETON DE LOS HERREROS. and one of the safest.com best natural harbours in the world. a French _genre_ and landscape painter. served in the army." and the comic epic. Chennai 6. and paper manufactures. much regarded for his sound judgment in critical matters. Spanish poet and dramatist. waxcloth." and an edition of Melanchthon's works. a German satirical writer. Computer Lecturer. BARON DE. CTSTI. led a bohemian life. first made a marine arsenal by Richelieu. BREST (76). HENRY GOTTFRIED VON." founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote. BRETEUIL. BRETSCHNEIDER. flowing style (1800-1873). "Handbuch der Dogmatik. with a magnificent harbour. (1733-1807). its industries are chiefly related to naval equipment.ramakalai@gmail. born at Courrieres. wrote comedies and satires in an easy. a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God. with leather. "Almanach der Heiligen auf das Jahr. an ex-secretary of Louis XVI." "Wallers Leben und Sitten. JULES ADOLPHE. a strongly-fortified naval station in the extreme NW. "Graf Esau" (1739-1810). born at Gera. BRETSCHNEIDER. his chief works. in Pas-de-Calais. has large shipbuilding yards and arsenal. 1827. 1788. a German rationalistic theologian.

. specially distinguished for his discoveries in light. BREWSTER. BREWER.. as well as Lives of Euler. his studies in optics." which gives the services connected with the celebration of the Eucharist. "VELVET" B. London.. from his fondness for horrible subjects (1559-1637). and the other. edited the "Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. and for his optical inventions. (1510-1570). a son. "HELLISH" B. and the "Pontifical. Computer Lecturer." his work the sole authority on Henry's early reign (1810-1879). Peter. Page 416 of 2772 . CTSTI. a Life of Newton. a title apparently of some kind of acknowledged supremacy among the Anglo-Saxon kings. professor of English Literature in King's College. born at Jedburgh. author of "Calendar of Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. g.com BRETWALDA. e.ramakalai@gmail. a father and two sons." which gives those for special occasions. Chennai 6. JOHN SHERREN. Jacob Arteveld. John. Peter. SIR DAVID. an eminent Scottish natural philosopher. differs from the "Missal. the father. and the leader in war. historian. a commission entitling an officer in the army to a nominal rank above his real rank. BREVET`." in the pages of which Carlyle served his apprenticeship. BREUGHEL. BREVIARY. a family of Butch painters. such as the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope. BREWER OF GHENT.'s Reign. either from his dress or from the vivid freshness of his colours (1560-1625). connected with most scientific associations of his time. called "OLD" B. a book containing the daily services in the Roman Catholic Church and corresponding to the English Prayer-Book. wrote largely on scientific and other subjects.

a day in 1002 on which a desperate attempt was made to massacre all the Danes in England and stamp them wholly out.). above sea-level. 42 m. Nov. from Grenoble. Andrews. and for a time a probationer (1781-1868). ST. one of THE GIANTS (q.. BRIANCON. died defeating the Danes at Clontarf. BRIAN BOROIHME. Festival. Page 417 of 2772 . BRIAREUS. who early in the 10th century established his rule over a great part of Ireland. Principal of the United Colleges of St. and disciple of St. in 1620. and made great efforts for the civilisation of the country. CTSTI. bred originally for the Church. had been a clergyman of the Church of England.. bishop of Tours in the beginning of the 5th century. Computer Lecturer. the twenty-fifth battle in which he defeated them. 19. son of Ouranos and Gaia. who years before defeated him as candidate for the Natural Philosophy chair in Edinburgh. being. according to another account. a Uranid with 50 heads and 100 arms. and afterwards of Edinburgh. Andrews by James David Forbes. and others of the class. the highest town in France. who conveyed them to Plymouth. ST. Chennai 6. BRICE'S. SE. an Irish chief. it is said. whom Poseidon cast into the sea and buried under Etna. an attempt which was avenged by the Danish king. WILLIAM. being succeeded at St. i. leader of the Pilgrim Fathers in the _Mayflower_.ramakalai@gmail. e. with a trade in cutlery. Massachusetts. BREWSTER. Martin. Sweyn. BRICE. but whom Zeus delivered to aid him against the Titans. 4300 ft. Heaven and Earth.com Kepler. v.

an American politician in "Martin Chuzzlewit. Bridget's well." BRIDGEPORT (48). BRIDGET. so called from a ceremony in which her espousals were celebrated by the Doge casting a ring into the Adriatic. U. whence the name. takes rank in Ireland with St. a house of correction in Blackfriars. so called from St. Chennai 6. entered a monastery at 14. BRIDGE OF ALLAN. London. Columba. founded a new Order. from New York. JEFFERSON. BRIDGE OF SIGHS. of Computer Lecturer.. with a mild climate and mineral waters. 58 m.ramakalai@gmail.. 38 m. of Stirling.com BRICK. MRS. 3 m. Page 418 of 2772 . a manufacturing town in New Jersey. NE." BRIDE OF THE SEA. 1 (453-523).. a character in "Tristram Shandy. MAJOR RALPH. an Irish saint. born at Dundalk. N. a village on Allan water. a covered way in Venice leading from the Ducal Palace to the State prison. S. BRIDGETON. Festival. a thriving manufacturing town and seaport of Connecticut. Feb." BRIDGET. Patrick and St. Also the name of a Swedish saint in the 14th century. founded monasteries. and over which culprits under capital sentence were transported to their doom.S. a Roundhead in "Peveril of the Peak. CTSTI. near it. BRIDGENORTH. Venice. and 72 monasteries of the Order. BRIDEWELL. ST.

CTSTI. and blind child. a deaf." who decided cases by the throw of dice. FRANCIS EGERTON. LAURA. BRIDLEGOOSE. BRIDLINGTON. celebrated for his self-sacrificing devotion to the improvement and extension of canal navigation in England.ramakalai@gmail. the bishop. U.. born in New Hampshire. a college. SW.S. BRIDGETOWN (21). SW. seat of the government. a seaport town in Somersetshire. noted for the surprising development of intellectual faculty notwithstanding these drawbacks. educated for the Church. died unmarried (1736-1803). he did not take part in politics.com Philadelphia. Chennai 6. bequeathed L8000 for the best work on natural theology. &c. Page 419 of 2772 . BRIDGEWATER. in which he was aided by the skill of Brindley. Computer Lecturer. BRIDGMAN. of Flamborough Head. BRIDGEWATER. called "Bridgewater Treatises. though he was a supporter of Pitt. Dickens gives an account of her in his "American Notes" (1829-1889). BRIDGWATER. 29 m. 3RD DUKE OF. dumb. with a chalybeate spring. JUDGE. which his trustees expended in the production of eight works by different eminent men. a watering-place in Yorkshire. capital of Barbadoes." all to be found in Bohn's Scientific Library (1758-1829).. 8TH EARL OF. a judge in Rabelais' "Pantagruel. 6 m. of Bristol. embarking in it all his wealth. it has suffered frequently from hurricane and fever. FRANCIS HENRY EGERTON.

which was accepted by Napier. a favourite resort for tourists. made an important improvement on the system of logarithms. a seaport and an episcopal city in the dep. the inventor. long. Computer Lecturer. Town of. distinguished in several engagements (1797-1814). consisting of a number of regiments. called brigadier. a powerful British tribe that occupied the country between the Humber and the Roman Wall. of Cotes-du-Nord. commercially speaking. elected king of Jerusalem. BRIGGS. ST. a distinguished English mathematician. then emperor of Constantinople. a British admiral. BRIGADE. 2 m. descendant of an old French family. above sea-level. over 800 ft. a body of troops under a general officer.ramakalai@gmail. LAKE OF. or battalions. abounding in fish. first Savilian professor at Oxford. squadrons. the chief of the Mormons (1801-1877). 25 m. lake in the Swiss canton of Bern. third. and of great depth in certain parts. Chennai 6. of Breslau. VISCOUNT. (19).com BRIDPORT. BRIENNE. _d_. HENRY. JEAN DE. town in Prussian Silesia. BRIENZ. BRIEUC. Page 420 of 2772 . SE. broad. and is the system now in use (1561-1631). CTSTI. 1237. BRIGANTES. 8 m.. France. BRIGHAM YOUNG. a thriving. BRIEG (20).

Irish Church Disestablishment 1869. entering Parliament in 1843. a place of fashionable resort ever since George IV. so called from Dr. in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow University. BLIGHT'S DISEASE. in 1873. and later of the Crimean war. JAMES FRANCK. Gladstone pronounced one of the noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another (1811-1889). he joined the Anti-Corn-Law League on its formation in 1839. and the 1870 Irish Land Act. a fine parade extends along the whole length of the sea front. he was closely associated with the 1867 Reform Act. though his business interests suffered severely. Page 421 of 2772 . and on the outbreak of the American Civil War supported the North. an animated and eloquent orator. of which it is virtually a suburb. his Ministerial career began in 1868. BRIGHTON (128). born near Rochdale. JOHN. a splendid aquarium. English statesman. S. took an early interest in political reform.ramakalai@gmail. who first Computer Lecturer. took a fancy to it. and again in 1881. a much-frequented watering-place in Sussex. schools of science and art. Oxford. author of "English History for the Use of Public Schools. the game laws. originally built for George IV. he was a strong opponent of protection. the principal building is the Pavilion or Marine Palace. of Quaker birth and profession.com BRIGHT. he was a man of lofty and unblemished character. and soon was associated with Cobden in its great agitation. due to several diseased conditions of the organ. Also the name of a suburb of Melbourne. 50 m. he seceded from Gladstone's Government on the Egyptian policy in 1882. he advocated financial reform and the reform of Indian administration. he was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. son of a Lancashire cotton spinner. a museum. BRIGHT. _b_. a disease in the kidneys. and strenuously opposed Home Rule in 1886. but was interrupted by illness." a book of superior literary merit. Master of University College. engaged in manufacture. historian. CTSTI. Chennai 6. 1832. Richard Bright. at his death Mr. public library and public gallery. has many handsome edifices. of London.

BRINDLEY. BRINK. and for Palestine in mediaeval." a book full of wit and learning. author of "Physiologie du Gout. BRINVILLIERS. born in Derbyshire. Page 422 of 2772 .com investigated its nature. has risen in importance since the opening of the Overland Route as a point of departure for the East. the poison she used appears to have been the Tofana poison. a mechanician and engineer. an art which one of her paramours taught her (1630-1676). the younger. BRILLAT-SAVARIN. was tortured and beheaded. Computer Lecturer. regarded rivers as mere "feeders to canals" (1716-1772).ramakalai@gmail. and two sisters for the sake of their property. a Dutch writer. was professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825). landscape painters. JAN TEN. BRIN`DISI (15). See AQUA TOFANA. JAMES. devoted his skill and genius to the construction of canals. MARQUISE DE. Chennai 6. employed in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the Vatican at Rome. 1834. under the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater. it was the port of embarkation for Greece in ancient times. CTSTI. born at Antwerp. a seaport of Southern Italy. as the greatest service he could render to his country. on the Adriatic coast. of whom Paul. MATTHEW AND PAUL. brother. BRIL BROTHERS. published posthumously. it is 60 hours by rail from London. his best pictures are in Rome. notorious for her gallantries and for poisoning her father. a French gastronomist. bred a millwright. was the greater artist. and three days by steam from Alexandria. _b_. distinguished as a critic in the department of belles-lettres.

gave name to the capital of Queensland. British general. prosperity began when the colony was opened to free settlement in 1842. who fell to the lot of Achilles among the spoil of a victory. captured in 1796 Dutch warships. from the sea. BRISBANE. the theme of the "Iliad" being the "wrath of Achilles" on this account. born near Largs. SIR THOMAS MACDOUGALL. Ayrshire. three ships of the line among them. in consequence. CTSTI. is the chief trading centre and seaport of the Colony. on the Brisbane River. it has steam communication with Australian ports and London. whereupon he retired to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further part in the war.com BRISBANE (49). Chennai 6. the name of a noble family which supplied several marshals to France. naval officer. and railway communication with Sydney. 500 m. BRISBANE. Computer Lecturer. ADMIRAL SIR CHARLES. in Saldanha Bay. Melbourne. but whom Agamemnon carried off from him. catalogued over 7000 stars. and Adelaide. succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society (1773-1860). and what it led to.ramakalai@gmail. a man of science and an astronomer. was made governor of St. for ten long years. N. BRISSAC. of Sydney. 25 m. BRISE`IS. brother of the preceding. served under Lord Howe and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829). to its prolongation. as Homer relates. and in 1807 the island of Curacoa. it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city incorporated in 1859. saw service as a soldier. BRISBANE. a naval officer of distinction under Lords Hood and Nelson. capital of Queensland. a young virgin priestess. Vincent (1769-1829). was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the colony. Page 423 of 2772 . SIR JAMES.

is the largest town in Gloucestershire. BRISSOT DE WARVILLE. it has a cathedral. BRISTOL CHANNEL. or rather of a party of his own. Wales and Devon and Cornwall. BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE. consists of Computer Lecturer. two colleges. bred to the bar. became an outspoken disciple of Rousseau. named after him Brissotins. and with a depth of from 5 to 40 fathoms. Indian. fell under suspicion like the rest of the party. returned on the outbreak of the Revolution. the seventh in England. he went to America. and inhabited by Celts. JEAN PIERRE. was arrested. a French revolutionary. is subject to very high tides. formed a Radical administration in 1898. a railway bridge spanning the Menai Strait. it forms a county in itself. a name for Britain as old as the days of Caesar. Chennai 6. midway between the Jacobins and them. W. as Gaul also was. _b_. tried and guillotined (1754-1793). by a charter of Edward III. and completed in 1850. son of a pastry-cook. from its mouth. from 5 to 43 in breadth. in length. BRITANNIA. born at Chartres. numerous rivers flow into it. of England. 1835. W. HENRI. on the Avon. 6 m. between S. American trade. Page 424 of 2772 . BRISTOL (286). an inlet in SW. and 118 m. a library and many educational institutions.ramakalai@gmail. became one of the leaders. but resigned after a few months. it manufactures tobacco.com BRISSON. sat in the National Assembly. with Irish. after holding presidentships in the Chamber became premier in 1885. CTSTI. which was short-lived. took to letters. liberated. and as such dangerous to shipping. French publicist and journalist. 8 m. spent some time in the Bastille. and a great seaport. and S. of London. designed by Robert Stephenson. boots and shoes. joined the Girondists.

the son of Claudius and Messalina. and objects of natural history. is a lady knight in the "Faerie Queene.com hollow tubes of wrought-iron plates riveted together. CTSTI. antiquities. it is divided into eight sections--mathematical.. biological. a national institution in London for the collection of MSS. geological. in Montagu House as it happened. Page 425 of 2772 . of men of all departments of science for the encouragement of scientific research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge. BRITISH ASSOCIATION. now in this. extending between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific. now in that selected central city of the country. poisoned by Nero. a western fertile prov. rain is abundant. of British America.ramakalai@gmail.. founded as far back as 1700. BRITOMART. &c. economic. rich in timber and minerals. Computer Lecturer. and took five years in erecting. to Alaska on the N. and anthropological." representing chastity with a resistless magic spear. of Sir David Brewster's suggestion. the name given to John Bull when roused by opposition. name applied to Andrew Marvell from his corresponding incorruptible integrity in life and poverty at death. BRITISH LION. BRITISH ARISTIDES. BRITISH COLUMBIA (98). mechanical. being 800 m. and cereals do well. BRITISH MUSEUM. for the public benefit till 1759. long and four times the size of Great Britain. prints and drawings. though not opened. BRITANNICUS. which holds its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished scientist.. an association. ethnology. chemical. and from the United States on the S. geographical. books. Chennai 6.

JOHN. land of the Bretons. his principal works. 1744 to Mar. on the Surrey side. CTSTI." instalment of a work embracing all the counties of England and Wales. was in former times a duchy. a stamp like an arrow-head to indicate government property. comprising the peninsula opposite Devon and Cornwall. and works of value. Page 426 of 2772 . BRITTON. of Norfolkshire. topographer and antiquary. stretching westward between the Bays of Cancale and Biscay. BROAD BOTTOM MINISTRY. an old French prov. his chief work is 14 volumes. which look like expansions of the rivers. a southern suburb of London. that section of the Church which inclines to liberal opinions in theology.com BRITTANY (3. are "Antiquities of Great Britain" and "Cathedral Antiquities of England". are a series of inland lakes in the E. BRIXTON. BROAD ARROW. BROAD CHURCH. the "Antiquities in Normandy" did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects (1771-1857). a third of its inhabitants still retain their Breton language.ramakalai@gmail. author of "Beauties of Wiltshire. Pelham. born in Wiltshire in humble position. THE NORFOLK. so called from the powerful parties represented in it. perhaps to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements distinctive of the Christian system. a coalition of great weight under Mr. BROADS. a district of the city that has of late years extended immensely. they are Computer Lecturer. and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or form. Chennai 6.162). 1755. from Nov..

ramakalai@gmail. and W. the mists. keen air. and magnified by. in comparison with whom Gulliver was a pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked from the lazy finger of a maid. anthropologist. a man of scholarly parts. Computer Lecturer. the highest peak (3740 ft. with thick Cyclopean walls. or BLOCKSBERG. an eminent French surgeon. held a succession of important appointments. a single doorway. Chennai 6. Page 427 of 2772 . famous for a "SPECTRE" so called. BROB`DINGNAG. and one of the chief French evolutionists." inhabited by giants. a German publisher. each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple". born at Dortmund. an imaginary country in "Gulliver's Travels. but which is only the beholder's shadow projected through.com favourite holiday resorts on account of the expanse of strange scenery. fishing and boating attractions. publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon. BROCHS. abundant vegetation.. began business in Amsterdam. and open to the sky. BROCKHAUS. cultivated to the summit. of Scotland. FRIEDRICH ARNOLD. long an object of superstition." BROCA. properly a native of the country. PAUL. a mineralogist and geologist. CTSTI. director of the St. dry-stone circular towers. BROCKEN. but settled in Leipzig.) of the Harz Mts. found on the edge of straths or lochs in the N. born in Paris. Gobin manufactory (1773-1810). BROCHANT DE VILLIERS. called also Picts' towers and Duns. and was the author of a number of medical works (1824-1880)." and a great many other important works (1772-1823).

BRODIE. BRODIE. Page 428 of 2772 . president of the Royal Society (1783-1862). SIR BENJAMIN. CTSTI. could not persuade his troops to fire on the rioters. celebrated for the action between his ship _Shannon_. born in Wiltshire. DUC DE. negotiated a treaty with England for the abolition of slavery. was medical adviser to three sovereigns. and the American ship _Chesapeake_. a French statesman. BROGLIE. Chennai 6. BROGLIE. distinguished in the Seven Years' War. son of the following. professor of surgery. born at Paris. held office under Louis Philippe. had to "mount and ride". _b_. in June 1813. was summoned by royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak of the Revolution. a Scottish sculptor. retired after the _coup d'etat_ (1785-1870). a Liberal politician. a forest in Brittany famous in Arthurian legend. born at Ipswich. author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th century". one of the most brilliant naval actions on record. George's Hospital. in which he boarded the latter and ran up the British flag. took command of the Emigrants in 1792. DUC DE. marshal of France. BROKE. rear-admiral. a Conservative politician and litterateur. ALBERT. and likely to be long remembered in the naval annals of the country (1776-1841). was an Orleanist. surgeon.com BROCOLIANDO. SIR PHILIP BOWES VERE. born in Banff. Computer Lecturer. 49 guns. and an enemy of the Second Empire. 38 guns.ramakalai@gmail. being "a firm disciplinarian". was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard. 1821 BROGLIE. VICTOR FRANCOIS. and died at Muenster (1718-1804). WILLIAM. for 30 years surgeon in St. CHARLES VICTOR. did numerous busts and statues (1815-1881).

author of "Travels and Researches in Greece. whim. being a frontier town. SW. once a rustic locality. Chennai 6. a Danish archaeologist. RICHARD. and a rival. extracted from bittern. of London. some festive. Page 429 of 2772 . in Kensington. BROME. BROeNDSTED. where the bishops of Rochester had their palace. and where there is a home called Warner's College for clergymen's widows. it suffered much in times of war." where by excavations he made important discoveries. ALEXANDER. his plays are numerous. a cavalier.ramakalai@gmail. BROMLEY (21). writer of songs and lampoons instinct with wit. BROMPTON. and were characterised by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study. originally his servant. 1652. a market-town in Kent. a liquid which remains after the separation of salt. CTSTI. PETER OLAF. now a fashionable district. and of his songs some are amatory. with several public buildings and the Oratory. BROME. a busy town on the Brahe.com BROMBERG (41). BROMINE. _d_. in Prussian Posen. 10 m. district of London. an English comic playwright. and some political (1626-1666). now called S. an elementary fluid of a dark colour and a disagreeable smell. and spirit. his great work "Travels and Archaeological Researches in Greece" (1780-1842). Kensington. Computer Lecturer. contemporary with Ben Jonson. SE.

and in some cases overlapping these two. where she lived most of her days." which proved a failure. but very ephemeral productions. born at Paris. EMILY (Ellis). four years younger. the age in the history of a race intermediate between the Stone Age and the Iron. introduced a new classification of reptiles. in conjunction with her sisters. which she did not live to develop. when weapons and tools were made of bronze. In 1854 she married her father's curate. "Jane Eyre. ADOLPHE. to Haworth. Chennai 6. ANNE (Acton). two years younger. Computer Lecturer. showing still greater genius. director of the porcelain works at Sevres. she set to novel writing. and her success was instant. Yorkshire. and she died (1816-1855). and Anne. Emily. on her return. spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher. poet rather than novelist. CTSTI. at the age of four.ramakalai@gmail. Page 430 of 2772 ." a remarkable production. and her fame was established." appeared.com BRONGNIART. daughters of a Yorkshire clergyman of Irish extraction: CHARLOTTE. BRONTE (16). Nothing daunted. a moorland parish. a French chemist and zoologist. Mr. Nicholls. BRONGNIART. first. ALEXANDRE. also wrote two novels. son of the succeeding. the first to discover and explain the function of the pollen in plants (1801-1876). prepared and published a volume of poems under the pseudonyms respectively of "Currer. BRONTE. Charlotte. in the same county. and Acton Bell. born at Thornton." and then "Villette. French botanist." then "Shirley. revived painting on glass. but her constitution gave way. the name of three ladies. wrote "Wuthering Heights. which gave title of duke to Nelson. author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic arts (1770-1847). removed with her father. a town in Sicily. on the western slope of Etna. BRONZE AGE. Ellis. collaborateur with Cuvier.

a poem called "Universal Beauty. assisted the governor in suppressing an insurrection. BROOK FARM. swept the seas of pirates. wrote.com BRONZI`NO. Cavan. BROOKE. and was made rajah. wrote the "Life of Robertson of Brighton. finally returned to England and died. was appointed governor of Labuan.ramakalai@gmail. rajah of Sarawak. _b_. a great admirer of Michael Angelo. HENRY. SIR JAMES. from Boston. Bloomsbury. BROOKE. and wrote an account of it." and a play called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783). arrived at Sarawak.S." and "Life of Milton. by George Ripley in 1840." "Theology in the English Poets." a "Primer of English Literature. born in co. author of the "Fool of Quality. 1832." a book commended by John Wesley and much lauded by Charles Kingsley. educated in England. brought the province under good laws. Page 431 of 2772 . sailed in a well-manned and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object." "History of English Poetry. an abortive literary community organised on Fourier's principles. STOPFORD. and the only one of his works that survives. conceived the idea of suppressing piracy and establishing civilisation in the Indian Archipelago. the former rajah being deposed in his favour. Computer Lecturer. born in Donegal. after other clerical appointments became incumbent of Bedford Chapel. in Borneo. but continued to preach in Bloomsbury. Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the community. U. "Descent of Christ into Hell" (1502-1572). returned in consequence to England. entered the Indian army. for which he was rewarded by the English government.. painted both in oil and fresco. BROOKE. his famous picture. preacher and writer. was wounded in the Burmese war. CTSTI. a Florentine painter. and Queen's chaplain. being succeeded in Sarawak by a nephew (1803-1868)." all works in evidence of critical ability of a high order. born at Benares. 8 m. among other things. Chennai 6. from conscientious motives seceded from the Church. Irish dramatist and novelist.

sent to Russia to inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry and labouring classes there. wrote among other subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and prehistoric man (1709-1777). though ranking as a city. separated from New York by the East River. extensive docks and warehouses. his report published in his "Russians of the South". novelist and journalist. born in London. the city is really a part of New York. a mile broad. of water front. and tobacco. CTSTI. BROUGHAM. BROOKS. Page 432 of 2772 . who believed and persuaded others to believe that the English people were the ten lost tribes of Israel (1757-1824). a fanatic.ramakalai@gmail. and the fourth in the Union. and does an enormous shipping trade. it is now incorporated in Greater New York. and connected with it by a magnificent suspension bridge. the largest in the world. a suburb of New York. born at Dijon. metallic wares. was admitted to Computer Lecturer. and his editor and commentator (1671-1743). dock. Chennai 6. born in Newfoundland. BROSSETTE. as well as in Syria and Egypt." and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor in 1870. BROTHERS. chemicals. BROSSES. clothing. RICHARD. as well as by some 12 lines of ferry boats plied by steam. and storehouse. born at Lyons. and educated at the High School and University of that city. there is a naval yard. friend of Boileau. a French litterateur.com BROOKLYN (806). formed a connection with _Punch_ in 1851. has many fine buildings. a French archaeologist. parks. LORD BROUGHAM AND VAUX. on Long Island. HENRY. born in Edinburgh. manufactures include glass. writing the "Essence of Parliament. has 10 m. and pleasure grounds. was on the staff of the _Morning Chronicle_. he was the author of several works (1816-1874). CHARLES DE. CHARLES WILLIAM SHIRLEY.

RHODA. a man of versatile ability and untiring energy. along with Horner. CTSTI." &c. Chennai 6. of Asiatic Turkey. became Lord Chancellor in 1830. he associated with the Whig opposition. BROUGHTON. political. 1840. Computer Lecturer. the capital of the Turkish empire till the taking of Constantinople in 1453. and Sidney Smith. excluded from promotion in Scotland by his liberal principles. entering Parliament in 1810. a city in the extreme NW. he was a supporter of many popular institutions. where he died (1778-1868). companion of Vancouver. and is celebrated for its baths. BROUSSA (37). and a favourite place of residence of Dundee merchants. he joined the English bar in 1808. at the foot of Mt. Page 433 of 2772 . from the Sea of Marmora.. but four years afterwards his political career closed. and. with villas.com the Scotch bar in 1800. 12 m. won universal popular favour. threw himself into the agitation for the abolition of slavery. and philosophical themes. wrote also "Cometh Up as a Flower. but his violence and eccentricity hurt his influence. the cause of education. WILLIAM ROBERT. 1820. BROUGHTON. BROUGHTON.ramakalai@gmail. discovered a portion of Oceania (1763-1822). a writer on scientific. Jeffrey. one of the founders of the _Edinburgh Review_." "Red as a Rose is She. and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. historical. spent his last days at Cannes. novelist. abounds in mosques. her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well". See HOBHOUSE. by his eloquence in the cause of Queen Caroline. speedily acquired a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in Crown libel actions. an English seaman. Olympus. LORD. BROUGHTY FERRY (9). also of London University. _b_. and law reform. a watering-place. near Dundee.

annulled her marriage. in 1648. an English painter. British general. Computer Lecturer. the Pope. one of which is "Chaucer reciting his Poetry at the Court of Edward III. which.com BROUSSAIS." "Edgar Huntly. anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism (1821-1893). BROWN. his subjects nearly all of a historical character. but declared her two daughters legitimate (1783-1876). mostly of low. founder of the "physiological school" of medicine. born in England. resolved life into excitation. a French materialist. his best-known fictions are "Wieland. distinguished both in the Peninsular and in the Crimean war. (1771-1810). a member of the Parlement of Paris." &c. born at Calais. an American novelist. of Quaker connection. a Dutch painter. BROUSSON. or pretext for. in 1816. the first wife of the Duc de Berri. a French Huguenot who returned to France after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. born in Philadelphia. BROUWER. AMY.ramakalai@gmail. FORD MADOX. the organisation of the Fronde. whose arrest. CTSTI. and disease into too much or too little (1772-1838). died in France. SIR GEORGE. and was broken on the wheel. JOSEPH VICTOR. CHARLES BROCKDEN. BROWN. when in command of the Light Division (1790-1863). Chennai 6. BROWN. BROWN. 1698. born near Elgin. as familiar with it.". Page 434 of 2772 . vulgar life. he depicted with great spirit (1605-1638). was severely wounded at Inkerman. was the cause of. BROUSSEL.

BROWN.. was surrounded. JOHN. BROWN. See BROUSSAIS. founder of the Brunonian system of medicine. born at Carpow. much beloved by all who knew him. and deep piety. Nothing can tell the loss to me in his death. Page 435 of 2772 . and those due to deficiency of excitation. and hanged (1800-1859). he was "the best and truest friend of all my life.D. JOHN. HENRY KIRKE. born at Bunkle.. JOHN. a self-educated Scotch divine. with six others.ramakalai@gmail. settled in Kansas." "John Leech. near Abernethy. who says of him. those resulting from redundancy of excitation.com BROWN. nor the grief to how many greater souls than mine that had been possessed in patience through his love" (1810-1882).. and by none more than by John Ruskin. BROWN. a man of considerable learning. Chennai 6. Perthshire. Berwickshire." and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787). a colossal one of Washington among them (1814-1886). American slavery abolitionist. did a number of statues.. and resolutely opposed the project of making it a slave state. seized on the State armoury at Harper's Ferry in hope of a rising. M." and other works. author of "Dictionary of the Bible. reduced diseases into two classes. CTSTI. author of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on the Old and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). tried. left an orphan at 11. JOHN. seized. son of a poor weaver." "Pet Marjorie. born at Biggar. educated in Edinburgh High School and at Edinburgh University. Computer Lecturer. an American sculptor. was a fine and finely-cultured man. M. of Haddington.D. entrenched himself armed in it. BROWN. author of "Horae Subsecivae. and commenced quiet practice in Edinburgh. great-grandson of the preceding. the eminent surgeon. became a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington. in the interest of emancipation. was a pupil of James Syme.." "Rab and his Friends.

MOUNT (16. to a reconstruction of the science of atomics. BROWN. his great work. OLIVER MADOX.000 ft. Chennai 6. the highest of the Rocky Mts." left unfinished at his death. son of Ford Madox. whose life was devoted. died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874). M.. born in Haddington. SAMUEL. he was a man of most minute and accurate observation. grandson of John Brown of Haddington. accompanied an expedition to survey the coast of Australia in 1801. CTSTI. BROWN. in N. the Linnean Society. where he spent a great part of his life.. which he did not live to see realised: a man of genius.D. a distinguished botanist. "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern Italy. spent his life at Venice in the study of Italian history. BROWN. work of 20 years' hard labour. which he classified and described in his "Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae". especially in its relation to English history. out of the fear of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858). styled by Humboldt _botanicorum facile princeps_. Page 436 of 2772 . son of an Episcopal clergyman. and finally president of. with the zeal of a mediaeval alchemist.). historical scholar. a brilliant conversationist Computer Lecturer. died at Venice. and of a wide range of knowledge. where Ruskin found him and conceived a warm friendship for him (1803-1883). AND ROBINSON. and drawn by Richard Doyle. which he prosecuted with unwearied industry. a youth of great promise both as an artist and poet. returned after four years' exploration. RAWDON. BROWN. ROBERT. BROWN. as figured in the pages of _Punch_.com BROWN. three middle-class Englishmen on their travels abroad. JONES. became librarian to. with 4000 plants mostly new to science. chemist. America. much of which died along with him.ramakalai@gmail. born at Montrose.

THOMAS. born in Kirkcudbrightshire. born in London. and a devoted student. the first Computer Lecturer. CHARLES FARRAR. Scottish psychologist. among the number De Quincey. bred to medicine. illustrated Dickens's works." "Lectures on the Atomic Theory. which he called the "muscular. his lectures. HABLOT KNIGHT. "Pickwick" to begin with. which he brought with him to London. all improvised on the spur of the moment. carrying with him a whimsical panorama as affording texts for his numerous jokes.ramakalai@gmail.. were published posthumously. the highest peak (1368 ft. and the Abbotsford edition of Scott. Fielding. "Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth sense. BROWNE. Page 437 of 2772 . Ainsworth. U.com and an associate of the most intellectual men of his time. born in Rutland. and Emerson. colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart. BROWNE. BROWN WILLY.) in Cornwall.S. he was skilful as an etcher and an architectural draughtsman (1815-1882). Carlyle. professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. and Smollett. and defined their religion as singular. he spent some time among the Mormons. known by the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward. he was obliged from ill-health to resign his professorship after 10 years (1778-1820). BROWN. but their wives plural (1834-1867). wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory of Christianity. Chennai 6. ROBERT." He was a man of precocious talent. a humorist and satirist. artist. travelled over America lecturing. to the injury of his health and the shortening of his life. BROWNE. and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success." born in Maine." and two volumes of "Essays. Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856). CTSTI." as well as the works of Lever. founder of the Brownists. his first literary effort was as "showman" to an imaginary travelling menagerie. under the pseudonym of "Phiz.

" adds the professor." on the story of Ulysses and Circe. and died there. and a sort of key to the others. was knighted by Charles II. or Urn-Burial. and his presence an evidence that the internal economies were approved of." "a man. his principal works are "Religio Medici. steer. or leading on to. contemplative." Professor Saintsbury says. English pastoral poet. and was partial to houses where it was observed. "rich in various knowledge. CTSTI. Page 438 of 2772 . often truly great. in the whole range of English". exuberant in conceptions and conceits. BROWNE WILLIAM. as he favoured good husbandry. "the greatest prose writer perhaps." a collection of eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque. though his project of secession proved a failure. the latter" (1605-1682). died in jail at Northampton. born at Tavistock... imaginative. and a parallel has been instituted between him and Keats (1590-1645). author of "Britannia's Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe. SIR THOMAS. with some opening exquisitely beautiful verses. a good-natured household elf.. born in London." "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors.com seceder from the Church of England." says Coleridge. resided at Norwich for nearly half a century. with a strong tinge of the fantastic. when all things are taken together. BROWNIE. a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk". He is a quiet and sublime enthusiast. He meditated much on death and the hereafter.. "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest favourite.ramakalai@gmail. and magnificent in his style and diction. he may be accounted the father of the Congregational body in England (1540-1630). physician and religious thinker. and he returned to the English Church. Chennai 6. and the first to found a Church of his own on Congregational principles. where he was imprisoned for assaulting a constable. Computer Lecturer. which he did at Norwich. believed in Scotland to render obliging services to good housewives. and on the former in its relation to..." and "Hydriotaphia." among them. was an imitator of Spenser.. BROWNE. "was. "Steer hither. "all of the very first importance in English literature.

v. lies buried in Westminster Abbey. 'the fear of death did not trouble him. "Timor mortis non conturbabat.)." in 1851 "Casa Guidi Windows. born in Camberwell. was a poet of great subtlety." and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh. "Sordello" in 1840.' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the century." "a novel in verse. Durham. 'James Lee.. knowledge. this was succeeded by a succession of others. went to Torquay for her health. ranks high. fell in with and married Robert Browning in 1846. poet. and more analytic than poetic. with some of his "Dramatic Romances and Lyrics. which developed early. not like most poets. wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese. BROWNING.' In the browner shades of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang." His creed was an optimism of the brightest.) published in 1833." and in 1868 "THE RING AND THE BOOK" (q. after a time. _nee_ BARRETT. and imagination.' 'Rabbi Ben Ezra. sensibility. CTSTI. which was followed by "Paracelsus" in 1835. Computer Lecturer. one of the two greatest in the Victorian era. among the poetesses of England. finishing up with "Asolando. her work is marked by musical diction. ROBERT. that gave her a shock the effect of which never left her. early given to write verses. but Love and Life. witnessed the death by drowning of a brother." and in 1844 "The Cry of the Children". creative power. born at Carlton Hall. Page 439 of 2772 . poetess. if not highest. deep insight. of a genius and learning which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of. who immediately took her abroad. in which he was not idle." which appeared the day he died at Venice." and in 1860 "Poems before Congress". of Browning it has been said by Professor Saintsbury. which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861). she took an interest all through life in public affairs.. and his restful faith "it is all right with the world" (1812-1889). Chennai 6." in 1855 his "Men and Women. suffered from injury to her spine. appeared. prepared himself for his literary career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary. ELIZABETH BARRETT.ramakalai@gmail. published in 1838 "The Seraphim.. v.com BROWNING. a woman of great natural abilities. his longest poem. his first poem "PAULINE" (q. and strong faith. Love and Death. settling in Florence.

and for relief from the chagrin wrote an account of his travels in five quarto vols. Robert de Bruis. who came over with the Conqueror. BRUAT. rival with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. a Scotch poet. BRUANT. his poems singularly plaintive and pathetic. the general accuracy of which. his title to the authorship of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention (1746-1767). a family illustrious in Scottish history. MICHAEL. elated with his success. 1818. a French admiral. _d_. felt hurt that no honor was conferred on him. traveller. and published works on the subject. born in Mauritius. descended from a Norman knight. _b_. BRUCE. a French architect. in poor circumstances. and became a professor in the College de France. BRUCE. Page 440 of 2772 . stayed two years in Abyssinia. and returned home by way of France. architect of the Invalides and the Salpetriere. Chennai 6. born in Paris. set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source of the Nile: believed he had discovered it. JAMES.. born near Loch Leven. made a special study of the nervous system and nervous diseases. as far as it goes. Stirlingshire. ROBERT. BRUCE. physiologist. BRUCE. commanded the French fleet at the Crimea (1796-1885). has been attested by subsequent explorers (1730-1794). called the "Abyssinian. practised in New York. of American parentage." born at Kinnaird House. studied for the Church. 1697.com BROWN-SEQUARD. CTSTI. died of consumption. in the parish of Portmoak. studied in Paris. and who acquired lands first in Northumberland and then in Annandale.

where he died in the thirty-third year of his reign (1274-1329). small town in Bavaria. after which.com the death of Margaret. king of Scotland. French dramatist. in 1328. through Marjory his wife. Page 441 of 2772 . spent his last two years at Cardross Castle. stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at Dumfries. and on 24th June 1314 defeated the English under Edward II. with Comyn for rival. but joined the national party and became one of a regency of four. BRUCE. the independence of Scotland was acknowledged as well as Bruce's right to the crown. of Kissingen. DAVID AUGUSTIN DE. NW. born at Augsburg. did homage for a time to Edward. BRUCIN. 17 m. 1306. born at Aix. CTSTI. managed to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays Computer Lecturer. Ireland. served under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one instance. BRUCE. decided in favour of Baliol (1210-1295). earl of Carrick. author of "Historia Critica Philosophiae" (1696-1770). though much weaker. BRUCKER. on the Clyde. at Bannockburn. ROBERT. an alkaloid. suffering from leprosy. being only a twenty-fifth of the strength. BRUEYS. with mineral springs good for nervous and skin diseases. and actively engaged in propagating the faith.ramakalai@gmail. returned and landed in Carrick. allied in action to strychnine. historian of philosophy. the Maiden of Norway. Chennai 6. an abbe converted by Bossuet. against whose claim Edward I. and a pastor there. sued for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304). and obliged to flee to Rathlin. ROBERT. son of the preceding. and was that same year crowned king at Scone. BRUeCKENAU. son of the preceding. was defeated by an army sent against him. cleared the English out of all the fortresses except Stirling.

where. settled at Computer Lecturer. though many of them are now. of W. in a decayed and a decaying place." BRUMAIRE. of considerable depth. in Belgium. BRUIN. has a number of fine churches. the 9th November 1799. HEINRICH. became director of the School of Egyptology at Cairo.. in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance. the bear personified in the German epic of "Reynard the Fox. was associated with Mariette in his excavations at Memphis. quarrelled with the prince. one specially noteworthy. little disturbed by traffic. an unprincipled man. connecting it with Ostend. BRUGES (49). CTSTI. intersected by canals crossed by some 50 bridges.. a German Egyptologist. afterwards George IV. minister of Augustus III. and of great value. the church of Notre Dame. Flanders. _b_.ramakalai@gmail. he lived some years in the same reckless fashion. sugar-refineries.000. BRUMMELL. who encouraged his master. 1827. Chennai 6. Page 442 of 2772 . HEINRICH KARL. e. in his day the prince of dandies. the 18th (i. as well as distilleries. born at Berlin. it has several manufactures. whence its name "Bridges".com (1650-1725). overthrew the Directory and established himself in power. born in London. patronised by the Prince of Wales. on his return from Egypt. his works on the subject are numerous. BRUeHL. COUNT VON. the foggy month). so that when the Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to flee from Dresden and seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763). textile and chemical. king of Poland. having once had a population of 200. cap. and indulged himself. as well as some of the streets. fled from his creditors to Calais. BRUGSCH. one of these canals. reduced to destitution. and shipbuilding yards. the day when Napoleon. BEAU.

was the first to apply the screw propeller to steam navigation. BRUNELLESCHI. of France. where he died insane (1778-1805). the Pitti Palace. French marshal. born at Strassburg. settled in England. born in Rouen. BRUNEL. on his release. Computer Lecturer. and. became block-maker to the Royal Navy. son of the preceding. had to sell his library in order to live (1729-1803). and was attacked by a mob of Royalists at Avignon as he was setting out for Paris. an able French Hellenist. MARIE. SIR ISAMBARD. edited several classical works.com length in Caen. begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849). joined Napoleon on his return from Elba. was chief engineer of New York. CTSTI. the first to cross the Atlantic. classical scholar. emigrated to the United States. Italian architect. designed the _Great Western_ steamship. assisted his father in his engineering operations. was imprisoned. BRUNEL. returned to his native city. and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo (1377-1444). ISAMBARD KINGDOM. engineer. saw service in the Vendean war and in Italy. born in Florence. G. bred a goldsmith. studied at Rome. in particular the Thames tunnel. designed and constructed the _Great Eastern_. BRUNE. Page 443 of 2772 . Chennai 6. was engineer of the Great Western Railway. and critic. and brutally murdered and his body thrown into the Rhone (1763-1815).ramakalai@gmail. distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland. was appointed to a post of command in the S. constructed bridges and naval docks (1806-1859). BRUNCK. played a perilous part in the French Revolution. built the Duomo of the Cathedral. entered the French navy. constructed the Thames tunnel. but had to surrender after Waterloo. submitted to Bourbons in 1814.

Page 444 of 2772 . did much by his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of Greek (1369-1444). capital of Moravia. where he had Dante for a pupil (1220-1294). who played an important part among the Guelfs. connected with the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ and now editor. and dragged to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse. COUNT VON. who had married her rival Chriemhilda. _b_. BRUNI. entitled "L'Evolution des Genres de l'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise". which at her death she seized possession of for a time. a Russian diplomatist. Italian humanist. had a lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde. LEONARDO. which she accomplished by the hand of Hagen. born at Arezzo. BRUNHILDA. hence called Aretino. was deceived by Siegfried into marrying Gunther. and meditated the death of Siegfried. BRUeNN (95). according to Prof. represented Russia in several conferences. beautifully situated. settled in Florence. and was twice ambassador at the English Court (1797-1875). CTSTI. and was obliged to flee to Paris. promises to be one of the chief monuments that the really "higher" criticism has yet furnished. about one-half of the population Czechs. who. his chief work. woollens the staple of the country. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. but was overthrown by Clothaire II. Also a queen of Austrasia. 1849. 93 m.. Austrian city. and wrote a history of it. begun in the form of lectures in 1890. Chennai 6. a masculine queen in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to marry the man that could beat her in feats of strength. of Vienna. queen of Neustria. the other division of the Frankish world. Saintsbury. Fredegunde's son. BRUNNOW. with large manufactures. was papal secretary. born at Dresden. French critic. BRUNETTO-LATINI. about the 7th century. an Italian writer.com BRUNETIERE. a very sound and sensible critic. N.

com BRUNO. and regarded God as the living omnipresent soul of the universe. chancellor of the Empire. archbishop of Cologne. attached himself to Calvin for a time. before all. BRUNSWICK (101). went for more freedom to Paris. the first house of which was established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). and after seven years spent in prison was burned as a heretic. JOHN. Oct. and promoter of it among the clergy. BRUNSWICK (404). represent and encourage it (928-965). Chennai 6. once a member Computer Lecturer. 6. is mountainous. a great lover of learning.. had to leave France as well. as the Earth-Spirit does in Goethe's "Faust"--a definition of Nature in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor Resartus". BRUNO. Page 445 of 2772 . a bold and fervid original thinker. attacked the scholastic philosophy. who he thought should.ramakalai@gmail. he was a pantheist. where each lived in cells apart. in fact. 1600. and Nature as the living garment of God.. a system which regards and treats diseases as due to defective or excessive excitation. See BROWN. Festival. retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble with six others. propagated his views in Germany and Italy. founder of the Carthusian Order of Monks. a busy commercial town. was for heterodoxy obliged to flee from it. third son of Henry the Fowler. and they met only on Sundays. was arrested by the Inquisition. spent two years in England in friendship with Sir Philip Sidney. Germany generally. _d_. mostly in the upper basin of the Weser. born at Nola. made up of eight detached parts. ST. GIORDANO. quitted his monastery. born at Cologne. German duchy. the capital. and contains part of the Harz Mts. CTSTI. in Italy. as sthenic or asthenic. climate and crops are those of N. a Dominican monk. a N. BRUNO THE GREAT. BRUNONIAN SYSTEM.

of Berlin. BRUNSWICK. boulevards. on the Senne.com of the Hanseatic League. FREDERICK WILLIAM. LUCIUS JUNIUS. BRUSSELS (477). is the capital of Belgium. and compelled him to retreat in 1792. in the 6th century B. on the Oker. fell fighting at Ligny. DUKE OF. which. Prussian general. it saved his life when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death. Page 446 of 2772 . meaning stupid). There are many parks. BRUNSWICK. was elected one of the two first Consuls of Rome. a ship-canal and numerous railways foster commerce. The old town is narrow and crooked. The manufactures include linen. two days before the battle of Waterloo (1771-1815). being embarked for England. of Antwerp. ribbons.C.. CTSTI. and manufactures textiles. sentenced his two sons to death for conspiring to restore the monarchy. 27 m. an irregularly built city. commanded the Prussian and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution. raised troops against France. fell repelling an attempt to restore the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns. Chennai 6. the founder of Republican Rome. headed a revolt. brother of Queen Caroline. and squares. art-gallery. CHARLES WILLIAM. and fell into comparative decay after the decay of the League. and expelled the tyrant. was beaten by Davout at Auerstaedt. but when Tarquin's son committed an outrage on Lucretia. 140 m. and mortally wounded (1735-1806). it has a cathedral. and paper. but a Revolutionary army under Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy. The new town is well built. and one of the finest in Europe. blustering manifesto. one of the sons of the Computer Lecturer. a cathedral. DUKE OF. SW. and sewing-machines. he threw off his disguise. university and art schools. affected idiocy (whence his name. took part in the Peninsular war. the town-hall a magnificent building. but picturesque. S. in the heart of the country. BRUTUS. museum and library. leather. emitted a violent. It is Paris in miniature.ramakalai@gmail.

MARCUS JUNIUS.). WILLIAM JENNINGS. born in Salem. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. entered Parliament in 1880. Fellow of Oriel College. _b_. BRYCE. and was recognised by Caesar among the conspirators as party to his death. some of the later his best (1794-1878). entered Congress in 1890 as an extreme Free Silver man.com banished king. his chief literary work. thou art but a name!" (85-42 B. "O Virtue. Page 447 of 2772 . was member of Mr. BRUTUS. Illinois. BRUYERE. lost his seat from his uncompromising views on that question. historian and politician. was twice nominated for the Presidency in opposition to Mr McKinley." a work of high literary merit. "The Holy Roman Empire. his poems were popular in America. bred to the bar. bred to the bar and practised at it." a satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696). but persuaded by Cassius and others to believe that Caesar aimed at the overthrow of the republic. much beloved by Caesar and Caesar's friend. was defeated at Philippi by Antony and Augustus. the chief. and son of Cato Uticensis's sister. Oxford. forced to flee from Rome after the event. _b_. Chennai 6. 1860. but defeated. wrote short poems all through his life. "The Age. a French writer. joined the conspirators. was 50 years editor of the _New York Evening Post_.C. author of "Characteres de Theophraste. JAMES. BRYAN. American statesman. a descendant of the preceding. but escaped capture by falling on a sword held out to him by one of his friends. born at Belfast." published in 1821. Gladstone's last cabinet. WILLIAM CULLEN. American poet. for a time professor of Civil Law at Oxford. 1838. BRYANT.ramakalai@gmail. exclaiming as he did so.

BUCCANEERS. giving the head the title of earl or duke. with a stronghold of the Scott family. was M. in Kent. with their head-quarters in the Caribbean Sea. invited by Cranmer to England. while he tried to reconcile them. Page 448 of 2772 . organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S. e. the state galley. originally a Dominican. adopted the Reformed faith. on the Hydaspes. a glen 18 m. called to the bar. SW. lived afterwards and died at Geneva. the wife of Ptah.com BRYDGES. American continent. born at Strassburg. SIR SAMUEL EGERTON. differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli. a German Reformer. English antiquary. and a city in Lower Egypt. and edited old English writings of interest (1762-1837). an Egyptian goddess. ministered as pastor and professor in his native place. was built near its grave. Computer Lecturer. the Egyptian Diana. but devoted to literature. worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers.P. BUCEN`TAUR. Bucephala. BUCEPH`ALUS (i. BUCER MARTIN. of piratical adventurers in the 16th and 17th centuries. the horse which Alexander the Great. while yet a youth. on the eastern branch of the Nile. an association. BUBASTIS. for Maidstone for six years. in which the Doge of Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it. which they were carrying home across the sea. Chennai 6. of Selkirk. CTSTI. it died in India from a wound. born at Wootton House. and on which he rode through all his campaigns. chiefly English and French. BUCCLEUCH. ox-head). wrote novels and poems. The town.ramakalai@gmail. broke in when no one else could.

BUCHAN. where he commenced his celebrated Latin version of the Psalms.'s illegitimate sons. LEOPOLD VON. Barbe. Andrews and Paris. CTSTI. educated at St. came back to Scotland. a district in the NE. GEORGE. near Glasgow. Leonard's College. it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box and see if there was enough to bury him. wrote a "History of Scotland. returned to Scotland. wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853). in St. a most distinguished scholar and humanist. of Aberdeenshire. born at Cambuslang. in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly in 1570 tutor to James VI. who esteemed him highly. between the rivers Deveron and Ythan. died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him. BUCHANAN. Chennai 6. The Comyns were earls of it till they forfeited the title in 1309. was buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard.com he accepted the invitation. Page 449 of 2772 . Andrews. and when he found there was not. and became professor of Divinity at Cambridge. professor for three years in the College at St. was appointed in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary. abounds in magnificent rock scenery. he ordered her to distribute what Computer Lecturer. driven from one place to another. adopted the volcanic theory of the earth. when dying. BUCH.ramakalai@gmail. born at Killearn." and his book "De Jure Regni. escaped to France. BUCHANAN. a German geologist. imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton for satires against the monks. wrote "Christian Researches in Asia" (1756-1815). CLAUDIUS. and had several offices of State conferred on him. became tutor to James V. a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander von Humboldt. Stirlingshire. imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal at the instance of the Inquisition. where he died. chaplain in Barrackpur under the East India Company." against the tyranny of peoples by kings. but his bones were exhumed and burned a few years later (1491-1551). in 1566 principal of St.. vice-provost of the College at Fort William. one of the first to awaken an interest in India as a missionary field. Calcutta.

there is a Catholic cathedral and a university. became a Christian Socialist. BUCHANAN. ROBERT. "Undertones.1841. is a meanly built but well-fortified town. JOSEPH. CTSTI. 180 m. at the time when the troubles between the North and South came to a head.com there was among his poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as they saw good (1506-1582). besides novels. statesman of the United States.ramakalai@gmail. was ambassador in London in 1853. the "Parliamentary History of the French Revolution". politician. and he has since written a goodly number of poems. born in Warwickshire. in a fertile plain. BUCHANITES. who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. grain. a tributary of the Danube. _b_." which attacks the Christian religion. some of them of very high merit. JAMES. figured in political life after the Revolution Computer Lecturer. it is the emporium of trade between the Balkan and Austria. hides. picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza. retired after his Presidentship into private life (1791-1868). xii. and coal are the chief articles in its markets. Buchan. and a collaborateur in an important historical work. Page 450 of 2772 . favoured the South. a French historian. the fifteenth in order. named after a Mrs. with the reputation of the most dissolute capital in Europe. made President in 1856." a volume of verse published by him in 1863. joined the St. has written magazine articles. BUCHEZ. BUCHANAN. from the Black Sea. textiles. educated at Glasgow University. a fanatical sect who appeared in the W. and Socialist. Chennai 6. capital of Roumania. and one in particular. Simonian Society. which involved him in some trouble. of Scotland in 1783. metal. his first work. the last "The Wandering Jew. BUCHAREST (220). a writer in prose and verse.

was at the battle of Worcester. lectured at Tuebingen University. DUKE OF. of Bedford and Hertford. but retired to private life after the establishment of the Empire (1796-1865). had to return to England. born in Falmouth. born at Darmstadt. where his cause was warmly taken up. BUCKINGHAM. favourite of James I. fell into disfavour with the people. was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant Felton. physician and materialist. a learned Frenchman. and Charles I. BUCKINGHAM. CTSTI. traveller and journalist. Chennai 6. by his writings and speeches paved the way for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855). and had to retire into private practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy.. LUDWIG. in the Civil War. son of the preceding. lying E. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (185). and gave offence to the East India Company by his outspokenness.. conducted a journal in Calcutta. midland county.ramakalai@gmail. wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff. BUCHON. became minister of Charles II. GEORGE VILLIERS. is full of beautiful and varied Computer Lecturer. JAMES SILK. which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899). born in Leicestershire. BUeCHNER. W. served under Charles I. BUCKINGHAM. wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846). e. rose under favour of the former to the highest offices and dignities of the State. on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628). a profligate courtier and an unprincipled man (1627-1688). DUKE OF." i. provoked by his conduct wars with Spain and France. of Oxford.com of 1848. GEORGE VILLIERS. Force and Matter. Page 451 of 2772 . English S.

an advanced thinker. was inspector of salmon fisheries.com scenery. had a predilection from boyhood for natural science." "Familiar History of British Fishes. _b_. tried it. BUCKLAND. editor of the _Times_. became editor in 1884. son of the succeeding. that national character depends on Computer Lecturer. The county town is BUCKINGHAM (3). contributed largely to the journals. devoted to the study of animal life. of London. which he started in 1866 (1826-1880). where he distinguished himself. his intellect gave way in 1850. and died at Damascus. his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects.ramakalai@gmail. and water. in delicate health from his infancy.. studied at Oxford. on the Ouse. dairy produce. naturalist. Page 452 of 2772 . in Kent. exerted himself to reconcile the teachings of science with the accounts in Genesis." &c. and sheep rearing the sources of wealth. born in Lee. cattle and poultry feeding. is a Fellow of All Souls' College. CTSTI.. but failed. BUCKLE. and he remained in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856). The Chiltern Hills cross the county. visited the East for his health. having previously belonged to the editorial staff. his theory as regards the development of civilisation is. wood. NW. BUCKLAND. awoke in Oxford University an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology. thought himself equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England. dale. 1854. wrote "Curiosities of Natural History. Agriculture is the prevailing industry. bred to medicine. born at Tiverton. HENRY THOMAS. 60 m. FRANCIS (FRANK). hill. too ambitious for his powers. GEORGE EARLE. and the Thame through the centre. The Thames forms the southern boundary. was made Dean of Westminster by Sir Robert Peel. WILLIAM. Chennai 6. and edited _Land and Water_. a distinguished geologist. born near Bath. BUCKLE. such as the _Field_. the Ouse flows through the N." in connection with that of Europe.

the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B. BUDASTIS. in his contemplation of the vanity of existence. which he continued to do for 40 years. and became a preacher to others of what had proved salvation to himself. by-and-by. could get no good out of them. an extremely imperfect reading and rendering of the elements at work. and he called himself henceforth and gave himself out as Buddha. Page 453 of 2772 . e.C. like Christ's. from which. nothing could detain him. i. he abstracted himself more and more from everything external. and indeed a total omission of nearly all the more vital ones. of an intensely contemplative nature. Computer Lecturer. soul with soul. e. or SAKYA-MUNI. BUCKSTONE. GAUTAMA. consulted religious books. his tribe. an ancient town in Lower Egypt. and that progress depends upon the emancipation of rationality. London (1802-1870). he was distinguished as a chess-player (1822-1862). who did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life. where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be held every year.ramakalai@gmail. till. the former on a rocky elevation and the latter on level ground. an able comic actor and popular dramatist. however.. like Christ's.com material environment. BUDDHA. now he said to himself. "I know it all. the Enlightened. as Sakyamuni. Buda (Ger. who went forth without sword. to preach what they. CTSTI. the capital of Hungary. retired into solitude at the age of 30. the son of a king." as Mahomet in his way did after him. leaving behind him disciples. a twin city. Ofen) on the right bank and Pesth on the left. as he sat brooding under the Bo-tree alone with the universe. for a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre. born in London. born a Hindu. the two cities being connected by a suspension bridge. a great commercial centre. believed was a gospel to every creature. solitary of the Sakyas. BUDA-PESTH (506). JOHN BALDWIN. when at the end of ten years. the light of truth rose full-orbed upon him. Chennai 6. i. on the Danube.

often a highly beggarly one. 133 m. eschewing all speculation about God and the universe. or of this high order. but in some 300 years after his death his teachings assumed a canonical form. several Protestant churches. improving in appearance. and the centre of export and import trade. a religion which. or triple basket. ever tend to do. Buddha wrote none himself. the religion of Buddha. never attempted to do. BUENOS AYRES (543). it at one time overran the whole of India. cigar-making. as it is called. a university and military school. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising religion. stands on the right bank of the broad but shallow river Plate. the climate does not correspond with the name it bears. 150 m. who in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulae. Chennai 6. and though it is now in small favour there. when finished. a great deal of the foreign trade is Computer Lecturer. BUDWEIS (28). of Vienna. capital of the Argentine Republic. Buddha is not answerable for this. NW. libraries and hospitals. a very brilliant light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand burner. it is. as all faiths of the kind. in such form as it has assumed. understood to be the religion of 340 millions of the human race. printing. with a cathedral. so called from the place of the inventor's abode. under the name of Tripitaka. from the Atlantic. CTSTI. it is the principal Argentine port. the end of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being. which Buddha. but his followers.ramakalai@gmail. Page 454 of 2772 . it is a progressing city. BUDE-LIGHT. cloth and boot manufacture are the leading industries. was the Buddhist Nirvana.com BUDDHISM. a Bohemian trading town on the Moldau. and the "way" to which was the mortification of all private passion and desire which mortification. which erelong became a formality. set itself solely to the work of salvation. This is the primary doctrine of the Buddhist faith. knowing belike how the letter killeth and only the spirit giveth life.

studying the English language. contributed to the conquest of Algiers. and created duke for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at the battle of Isly in 1844. CTSTI. The saying "Style is the man" is ascribed to him. THOMAS. though more to the display of it. of New York. and coal. professor at Christiania.com conducted through Monte Video. the railways and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain. "By sword and plough" (1784-1849). BUGEAUD. tanneries. his father one of the _noblesse de robe_. and flour-mills represent the industries.. born at Montbard. devoted from early years to science. is supplied from Niagara. cattle. and he has been measured by some according to his own standard. by Daubenton and others. a city of New York State. a convert of Luther's and coadjutor. GEORGE LOUIS LECLERC. a great French naturalist. &c. in Burgundy. _b_. spent some time in England. BUGGE. was made governor. marshal of France. Page 455 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. helpful to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558). 300 m. BUGENHAGEN. and to natural science for life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi. at the E. 1833. retired from service till 1830. is a well-built. Neither his style nor his science is rated of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated as his style" (1707-1780). and more than assisted. due NW. Norwegian philologist. Computer Lecturer. BUFFALO (256). served under Napoleon. born at Limoges. and healthy city. breweries. electric power for lighting. Chennai 6. BUFFON. while immense iron-works. studied law at Dijon. traction. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between the years 1749 and 1767. produced 15 vols. served under Louis Philippe. his motto was _Ense et aratro_. end of Lake Erie. JOHANN. a German Reformer. COMTE DE. but it monopolises all the inland trade. handsome. assisted.

constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland. and Computer Lecturer. and duchy in the E. the people industrious. CHARLES ANDRE. with hills and fertile plains in the N. manufactures of woollens. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in 1878. Socinians. much in fashion in Louis XIV.ramakalai@gmail. Turkey is the southern boundary.com BUHL. so called from a leaden seal attached to it. the chief import is live stock. a stanch Churchman.154). Davids. SOFIA (50). wine and tobacco. bishop of St. CTSTI. BULL. Page 456 of 2772 . BUKOWINA (640). BULL. breeds cattle and horses.). an edict of the Pope. of Austria-Hungary. BUHL. rich in minerals. the chief export is cereals. and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885. born at Wells. Chennai 6. inventor of the work which bears his name (1642-1732)." in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated in the ATHANASIAN CREED (q. ornamental work for furniture. is the seat of a university. which takes its name from the inventor (see INFRA). an Italian cabinet-maker. on the Black Sea. is the principal port. GEORGE. consisted in piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel.. while the Black Sea washes the eastern shores. are staple industries. and "Defensio Fidei Nicenae. VARNA (28). with Eastern Roumelia (3. Servia the western. attar of roses. BULGARIA. The climate is mild. the capital. the Danube the northern. a small prov.. mountains and forests in the S. v. or with metals of another colour. and denied or modified by Arians.'s reign. wrote "Harmonia Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul and James on the matter of justification.

a stream in Virginia. 1839. _b_. South Africa. July 1861 and August 1862. universally beloved and respected (1806-1848). where the Union army was twice defeated by the Confederate. U. and was for a short time Under-Secretary for Ireland. JOHN. with marked distinction in the 60th King's Royal Rifles. and Catherine de Medicis. Egypt. born in Bergen. entered Parliament at 24.ramakalai@gmail. and the Soudan." in which the Church of England figures as his mother. a politician.S. a Liberal in politics. but a fool in spending it (1810-1880). served in China. GENERAL SIR REDVERS HENRY. conceived of as well-fed. OLE BORNEMANN. built the tombs of Montmorency. "The History of John Bull. a celebrated violinist.. died in his prime. pupil of Paganini. BULLINGER. the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire. good-natured. BULLER. CTSTI. Chennai 6.com Sabellians (1634-1709). a Swiss Reformer. 25 m. from Washington. and plain-spoken. BULLANT. CHARLES.. justice-loving. born in Calcutta. born in Aargau. has held staff appointments. a humorous impersonation of the collective English people. honest-hearted. Page 457 of 2772 . was a wise man at making money. Norway. BULL. held distinguished State appointments. as well as wrought at the Tuileries and the Louvre (1510-1578). friend and Computer Lecturer. pupil of Thomas Carlyle. BULLER. BULL RUN. Henry II. BULL. a French architect and sculptor. HEINRICH. Ashanti.

the bull being one who buys in the hope that the value may rise." &c. BARON VON. and has done important diplomatic work in connection with it. wrote several works.ramakalai@gmail. defeated the French under the Empire in several engagements. a famous pianist. BULOZ. and contributed to the victory at Waterloo. a beadle in "Oliver Twist.com successor of Zwingli. _b_. having been secretary to several embassies and charge d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war. and the bear one who sells in the hope that it may fall." Computer Lecturer.. a French litterateur. BUeLOW. BERNARD VON." a "Life of Byron. (1801-1872). HENRY LYTTON. assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession. "An Autumn in Greece. was party to the conclusion of several important treaties. Page 458 of 2772 . Foreign Secretary of the German empire. BUeLOW. BUeLOW. See BEAR. CTSTI. BUMBLE. 1850. Chennai 6. served the Liberal interest. MR. early entered the Foreign Office. FRIEDRICH WILHELM. BULLS AND BEARS. was a correspondent of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575). GUIDO VON. BULWER. born near Geneva. a Prussian general. an experienced and successful diplomatist. originator of the _Revue des Deux Mondes_ (1803-1877). served his country in the war with Revolutionary France. heading the column that first came to Wellington's aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816). pupil of Liszt (1830-1894). in the Stock Exchange.

and the burner called after him. recommended himself to the king." "Hippolytus and his Age. became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England. CTSTI. a diplomatist and man of letters. BUNSEN. and much esteemed in England. Page 459 of 2772 . BARON VON. was partial to English institutions. BUNCOMBE. whence the phrase to "talk Buncombe. became acquainted with Niebuhr at Berlin. (1791-1860). Carolina. discovered the antidote to arsenic. invented the charcoal pile.S. BUNDELKHAND (2. and succeeded Niebuhr. a district in N. between the Chambal and the Jumna. author of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762). Provinces.. the scene on 19th June 1775 of the first great battle in the American War of Independence. ROBERT WILLIAM. to the Prussian embassy at Rome. commander of a ship in "Dombey & Son. became secretary. has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense. BUNKER HILL. now included in Boston. studied Oriental languages under Silvestre de Sacy at Paris. BUNSBY. studied at Marburg and Goettingen. the magnesian light. an eminence 112 ft. e. under Niebuhr. born at Korbach. with hydrate of iron and the Computer Lecturer. Chennai 6. a distinguished German chemist.com BUNAU. for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech was some years ago delivered in the U. India." &c. in Waldeck." regarded as an oracle by Captain Cuttle. born at Goettingen. Congress. JACK.ramakalai@gmail.000). wrote the "Church of the Future." i. a German historian. BUNSEN. to please one's constituency. a territory in NW. settled as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg.

Page 460 of 2772 . _b_... near Bedford. BUNSEN BURNER. painter. and bred himself to that humble craft. and brought. but it is the first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress. his witness for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment.ramakalai@gmail. he was early visited with religious convictions. JOHN. BUNYAN. born at Florence. MR. but except this. and sculptor (1536-1608). that he dreamed his world-famous dream. in the spring of 1676. and in the precincts of Bedford jail. took the chief role in "Hamlet. BUONTALENTI. and ensures it the place it holds in the religious literature of the world." noted for Computer Lecturer. and it was towards the close of it. the whole finished the year after. largely used in chemical operations. born in London. 1811. BURBAGE. after a time of resistance to them." continue to be read (1628-1688). to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ. RICHARD. and causes at the top a non-luminous flame. an Italian artist. BURCHELL. being. a character in the "Vicar of Wakefield." &c. like Michael Angelo." born in Elstow. it came out eventually in two parts.). a small gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the bottom of it to let in air. an imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a half years. author of the "Pilgrim's Progress. Chennai 6. not more than two of these. the son of a tinker. his masterpiece. associate of Shakespeare. "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War. at once architect. and published at the end of it. which burns with the gas.com SPECTRUM ANALYSIS (q. here two-thirds of it were written. (1562-1618)." "Richard III. extended. CTSTI. v." "King Lear. English tragedian. one of the greatest. encouraged by the success of it--for it leapt into popularity at a bound--Bunyan wrote some sixty other books.

Swiss historian and archaeologist.. and are distinguished for the veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817). married Sophia. Page 461 of 2772 . inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts. travelled by way of Syria. many of which have since been adopted. author of "Civilisation in Italy during the Renaissance". SIR FRANCIS. and died a member of it (1770-1844). and in 1881 married Mr. BURDETT. fined L1000 for condemning the Peterloo massacre. pushed on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim--the first Christian to risk such a venture. acquired a proficiency in Arabic. BURDETT-COUTTS. born at Lausanne. her grandfather. a popular member of Parliament. and assumed Arabic customs. traveller. the youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts. advocated radical measures of reform. BURCKHARDT. was made a peeress in 1871. returned to Egypt. BARONESS. his travels were published after his death. was prosecuted for a libel.ramakalai@gmail. and acquired through her a large fortune.P. received the freedom of the city of London in 1874. JOHN LUDVIG. becoming M.com his habit of applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected to believe. Chennai 6. CTSTI. born at Bale. and imprisoned three months. author of "Village Sermons. joined the Conservative party in 1835. and got himself into serious trouble. GEORGE. THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ANGELA GEORGINA. a wealthy London banker." which were once widely popular (1752-1832). and died at Cairo just as he was preparing for his African exploration. BURDER. _b_. he resolutely opposed the government measures of the day. Congregational minister. daughter of Sir Francis. William Lehman Computer Lecturer. which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic as well as patriotic objects. 1818. BURCKHARDT. became secretary to the London Missionary Society. sent out from England by the African Association to explore Africa.

Page 462 of 2772 . Chennai 6. 225 m. being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga. BURGOS (34). Computer Lecturer. N. and an old castle. and. defended his conduct with ability and successfully afterwards. boasts a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period. JOHN. and Inkerman in the Crimea. devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama.com Ashmead-Bartlett. _b_. born at Augsburg. was present at the battles of Alma. on the Arlanzon." which was translated by Sir Walter Scott. celebrated for his woodcuts. author of the ballads "Lenore. 1804. a name for government by bureaux." as well as songs. and a very unhappy one in later years. after a victory or two. BUeRGER.ramakalai@gmail. died in poverty (1747-1794). field-marshal. and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain. painter and engraver. it has linen and woollen industries. English general. ancient cap. was the birthplace of the Cid. the "Heiress" in the latter his best (1723-1792). fell into disfavour. HANS. of Old Castile. a name given to a department of public administration. Balaclava. and "The Wild Huntsman. who obtained the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts. served under Abercromby in Egypt. BURGOYNE. BUREAU. amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531). was governor of the Tower (1782-1871). of Madrid by rail. SIR JOHN. CTSTI. BURGOYNE. a German lyric poet. BURGKMAIR. hence bureaucracy. led a wild life in youth. joined the Royal Engineers. and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the revolt in the American colonies. and once a university seat. GOTTFRIED AUGUST. an American.

and brocades. "a rhetorician (i. annexed to France as a province in the 6th century. entered Parliament in 1765." a weighty appeal." says Professor Saintsbury. "He was. silks. born in Artois. a scholastic doctor of the 14th century. BURIDAN. genealogist." to which he was to the last chief contributor. he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution. author of the "Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom". a town in the Central Provinces of India. "A Vindication of Natural Society. Page 463 of 2772 . a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE. EDMUND. distinguished himself by his eloquence on the Liberal side. of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass. born at Dublin. Computer Lecturer. and sometime after planned the "Annual Register. the country is still noted for its wines." and another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful. but still famous. in particular by his speeches on the American war. was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in the Deccan. an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose of suasion). a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of the will.ramakalai@gmail. and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections. of France. as formerly. though there is no evidence of it in his works. Chennai 6. orator and philosophic writer. CTSTI. JEAN. BURHANPUR (32). BURKE. and famous as the reputed author. and economical reform. in the Nimar district. of Irish descent. wrote in early life two small but notable treatises. of Bombay. for its muslins.com BURGUNDY was. prior to the 16th century. Catholic emancipation. and educated at Dublin University. born in London. BURKE. NE. his greatest oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment of Warren Hastings. SIR JOHN BERNARD. called after him Buridan's Ass. and a place of great extent. and E. between a bottle of hay and a pail of water." which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects of the time. e. is now in comparative decay. 280 m. and probably the greatest that modern times has ever produced" (1730-1797).

and nearly all his subordinates were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598). he had an accomplice as bad as himself. WILLIAM. Page 464 of 2772 . WILLIAM CECIL. whom the citizens mobbed. but on the way back both he and his companion Wells perished. after intoxicating them with drink. whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh anatomist of the name of Knox. ROBERT O'HARA. Queen Elizabeth recognised his statesman-like qualities. His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal without respect of persons. bred to the legal profession. concluded treaties between them and China (1820-1870). to the glory of the queen and the good of the country. and returned as Chinese envoy to the American and European courts. sent ambassador to China. author of "Expository Notes on the New Testament. and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset. Biblical expositor. a great statesman. born in Lincolnshire. BURKITT.ramakalai@gmail. LORD. Australian explorer. BURKE. after terrible sufferings from privation and drought (1820-1861). born in Suffolk. and appointed him chief-secretary of state. he held for forty years. managed to escape the Marian persecution." once held in high esteem (1650-1703). a number of works on aristocratic genealogies (1815-1892). BURLEIGH. conducted an expedition across Australia. becoming informer. BURKE. an office which. BURLINGAME. executed in 1828 for wholesale murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation. ANSON. a notorious murderer. who. American diplomatist.com produced. born in Galway. got off. Chennai 6. besides editing successive editions of it. CTSTI. native of Ireland. till his death. WILLIAM. Computer Lecturer.

rice is the chief crop. killed. and bamboo. an expert at the burlesque. was chiefly distinguished for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary. Upper Burma. of the Bay of Bengal. he was a daring aeronaut. cap. and was seized by Britain in 1826 and 1854. having in 1882 crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885). but is mostly hot and trying. was annexed in 1886. lead. Mandalay. silver. China. the climate varies with the elevation. and became a Roman Catholic. RICHARD. and rubies. the forests yield teak. born in Westmoreland. Tibet. the best known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical Law" (1709-1785). and author of a series of papers. observant wit: _b_. CTSTI. Salween. Rangoon. and all along produced works imbued with the spirit of it.000 ft. of Welsh descent. the mines. gum. and bounded landward by Bengal. COLONEL. BURNABY. and his account of them in "On Horseback through Asia Minor". cap. English vicar. which is at Computer Lecturer. and with Gordon in the Soudan. compiled several law digests. Page 465 of 2772 . whose deltas are flat fertile plains. at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column to the charge. and Sittang Rivers. came early under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. SIR EDWARD. the country is mountainous. and for his travels next year in Asia Minor and Persia. 1836. lying E. powerful man. born at Birmingham." which give evidence of a most keen. a tall. copper. iron. pierced by an Arab spear. a vast province of British India. travelled in South and Central America. entitled "Happy Thoughts. studied for the Church. BURNE-JONES. drained by the Irawadi. Chennai 6. Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue. an empire nearly as large as Spain. editor of _Punch_. of which he published a spirited account. and Siam. FRANCIS COWLEY. BURN. born at Bedford. artist. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal to Siam. a traveller of daring adventure.606). the heights on the Chinese frontier reach 15.com BURMA (9. BURNAND.ramakalai@gmail.

Chennai 6. BURNET. by an Afghan mob during an Insurrection (1805-1841). a broad Churchman in creed. imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment." an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles. was murdered. afterwards preacher at the Rolls Chapel. engraver and author. of an old Aberdeen family. appointed Resident at Cabul. the most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times. along with his brother and others. and others made the butt of their satire (1643-1715)." the "History of His Own Times". professor of Divinity in Glasgow. master of the Charterhouse. he was a Whig in politics.com once mystical in conception and realistic in execution. born in Yorkshire. took an active part in supporting the claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne. author of the "Sacred Theory of the Earth. and wrote on art (1784-1868). wrote the "History of the Reformation. CTSTI." eloquent in descriptive parts. was an officer in the Indian army. BURNETT. born at Edinburgh. FRANCES HODGSON. novelist. GILBERT. BURNET. his father a cousin of Robert Burns. resident for a time in America.ramakalai@gmail. and used to spend their Sunday mornings together (1831-1898). born in Manchester. that of Salisbury. Page 466 of 2772 . he was one of the foremost. Swift. and a man of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity. London. bishop of Salisbury. engraved Wilkie's works. SIR ALEXANDER. if not the foremost." a work which Pope. William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college days at Oxford. but written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715). BURNET. THOMAS. of the artists of his day. born at Fisherrow. distinguished for the services he rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the native languages. was rewarded with a bishopric. born at Montrose. BURNES. wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's. JOHN." and other stories of Computer Lecturer.

and has been twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament. wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821). brother of preceding. born at Vauxhall. Chennai 6. born at Shrewsbury. settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814). 1849. was four times elected member of the London County Council for Battersea. pathos. JOHN. got into trouble in consequence. BURNEY. BURNEY. politician and Socialist. purchased by the British Museum for L13.500 (1757-1817). characterised by shrewd observation. of humble parentage. CTSTI. BURNEY. BURNLEY (87). CHARLES. 27 m. _b_. a great classical scholar. an illustrious Orientalist. rear-admiral. edited the text of and translated the "Bhagavata Purana. JAMES. became a platform orator in the interest of Socialism." a book embodying Hindu mythology. imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman. an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature. a refugee of the Commune from Paris. professor of Sanskrit in the College of France. &c. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. foundries. author of "The History of Music. accompanied Cook in his last two voyages. a Frenchman." and the father of Madame d'Arblay. with cotton mills. CHARLES. BURNS. BURNOUF. Page 467 of 2772 . and descriptive power. left a fine library. born in Paris. bred to be an engineer. made a special study of Buddhism. a friend of Johnson's. and popular among the working class. N. breweries. son of preceding.com Lancashire manufacturing life. 1858. Computer Lecturer. wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852). musical composer and organist.ramakalai@gmail. of Manchester. EUGENE. _b_.

in hut and hall. without ever having lived. which he thinks "by far the best that Britain has yet produced.ramakalai@gmail. aged 37. born in Connecticut.. forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast. as the heart unfolds itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence. He is at his best in his "Songs. tried farming himself on his father's decease in 1784. devoted to the study of languages. and money came in. when friends and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay. "His sun shone as through a tropical tornado." BURRA-BURRA. BURRARD INLET. Chennai 6. his poems were reprinted." he adds." See Carlyle's "Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. realised a few pounds thereby.. To the ill-starred Burns was given the power of making man's life more venerable. ROBERT. but took to rhyming by preference. Page 468 of 2772 . CTSTI. its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom. meditated emigrating to Jamaica. fell into bad health. which might have soared could it but have walked. driven desperate in his circumstances. we may almost say. is the name and voice which Burns has given them. an inlet of river Fraser. BURRITT. he was invited to Edinburgh. Australia.. a blacksmith. and the pale shadow of death eclipsed it at noon. the _name_.. intelligent peasant. in British Columbia. and published a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end. And that spirit. best known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great Computer Lecturer. who tried farming in a small way. and died in 1796. a copper-mine in S. "he has found a tune and words for every mood of man's heart. but did not prosper. celebrated Scottish poet.. about 103 m. and was about to set sail. son of an honest. soon after he married. In them. but failing.. born at Alloway.. accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries. but that of wisely guiding his own life was not given. soon sank to the dust. both ancient and modern. the _voice_ of that joy and that woe. near Ayr.com BURNS.. of Adelaide. of which he knew many. and died. NE. ELIHU.." he says. and took a farm. in 1759.

com part of Europe. wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals. BURSCHENSCHAFT. BURTON. weary of his expostulations. an association of students in the interest of German liberation and unity. historian and miscellaneous writer. JOHN. a Roman general. an able man. BURRUS. visited Mecca and Medina as an Afghan pilgrim. born in New York.. JOHN HILL. "Life of Hume. and broken up by the Government in 1819. a farmer. popular author. and Computer Lecturer. Page 469 of 2772 . Palestine. formed in 1813. was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland (1809-1881). and the "mother of the potteries". Napier. visited Utah." &c. his works on his travels numerous. and wrote "The City of the Saints". _b_. bred for the bar. born at Aberdeen." "The Book-Hunter. and discovered Lake Tanganyika. on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879). till Nero. CTSTI. &c. a cultured man. Chennai 6. wrote an account of his visit in his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage. on which he has written largely and _con amore_. characterised by Lord Rosebery as a "dispassionate historian". and opposed his tyrannical acts. who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education.ramakalai@gmail. penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke. travelled in Brazil." "History of Scotland. with a great liking for country life and natural objects. translated the "Arabian Nights". born in Hertfordshire. got rid of him by poison." "The Scot Abroad. BURTON. 1837.". SIR RICHARD FRANCIS. a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire. BURROUGHS. traveller. BURSLEM (31). and Western Africa. served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife. manufactures porcelain and glass.

a mountain ridge in the prov. 10 m. &c. spending his time in it for some 50 years in study." which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind. of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT. of Manchester. BURY ST. EDMUNDS. named from Edmund. 26 m. BURTON-ON-TRENT (46). author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy. the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes. in whose honour it was built. a town in Staffordshire. was head-master of Winchester School. Oxford. but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works. RICHARD." BUSA`CO. born in Leicestershire.com show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890). BURY (56). EDMUNDSBURY (16). ROBERT. NW. Page 470 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. lived chiefly in Oxford. and South (1606-1695). or ST. of Ipswich. a manufacturing town in Lancashire. BUSBY. a market-town in Suffolk.000 troops beat Massena with 65. from every manner of source (1576-1640). dye-works. martyred by the Danes in 870. Computer Lecturer. familiar and unfamiliar. Portugal. famous for its abbey. See ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY. NW. of Beira. a book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic. among others Dryden. Lincolnshire. Chennai 6. an English clergyman. Locke. king of East Anglia.000. originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture. born at Lutton. BURTON. CTSTI. had a number of eminent men for his pupils. Scholar of Christ Church. distinguished English schoolmaster. where Wellington with 40. brews and exports large quantities of ale.

or BOSJESMANS. CTSTI. and sacrificed him. Chennai 6. at one time caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings. Page 471 of 2772 . his "Erdbeschreibung. long and from 3 to 5 broad. gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793).com BUeSCHING. about 16 m. BUSHIRE (27). a celebrated German geographer. by a winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute. in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush. HANS. born in Wales. a rude." and there associated with other desperadoes. ANTON FRIEDRICH. seized Hercules and bound him to the altar. BUSK. author of "The Rifle. one of the originators of the Volunteer movement. and separated from the mainland on the N. BUSHRANGERS. BUSIRIS." Computer Lecturer. N. the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf. an island in the Firth of Clyde. and How to Use it" (1815-1882). with his seat at Mount Stuart. nomadic race. BUTE. nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property. at one time numerous." the first geographical work of any scientific merit. aborigines of South-west Africa. BUSKIN.ramakalai@gmail. of Arran. and a synonym for tragedy. and a great trading centre. but Hercules snapped the bonds he was bound with. BUSHMEN. a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in sacrifice. but now fast becoming extinct. a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage.

" the aim of which is twofold--first. BUTE. over whom he had a great influence. where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons. in Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. conformed to the Church of England. an English barrister. born in Northampton. was raised. statesman. spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement. born a Dissenter. and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime Minister under George III." the first three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral science. to establish a conformity between the divine order in revelation and the order of nature. ALBAN. devoted to archaeological studies. and finally bishop of Durham. head of the college at St. CHARLES. Chennai 6. devoting himself to literature and science (1712-1792). BUTLER. hagiographer. wrote "Lives of the Saints" (1710-1773). in Berks. Omer. SAMUEL. to show that the objections to revealed religion are equally valid against the constitution of nature. born at Wantage. his leading idea being the supremacy of the king. Secretary of State. a master of burlesque.. his style is far from interesting. _b_. BUTLER. "The Analogy of Religion. an eminent English divine.com BUTE. CTSTI. born in Bute. and interested in university education. born in London. 1849. MARQUIS OF. to the Constitution and Course of Nature. son of the second marquis. BUTLER. JOSEPH. JOHN STUART. Natural and Revealed. and is often obscure (1692-1752). made dean of St. in virtue of his merits alone. THIRD EARL OF. Paul's. was very unpopular as a statesman. to the see of Bristol. wrote "Historical Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832). his great work. and second. became preacher at the Rolls. born at Strensham. born of an old Scotch family. admitted to the Roman Catholic Church in 1868. BUTLER. Page 472 of 2772 .

Chennai 6. author of "Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848). BUTT. learning. ISAAC. Computer Lecturer. it appeared in three parts. professor of Moral Philosophy at Dublin. and.com Worcestershire. _b_. was an especial favourite with Charles II. and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party. "for wit. born in Sussex.. but it is too long. "the fierce reaction that (at the Restoration) had set in against Puritanism. distinguished for his scholarship at Dublin University. and it undoes the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its exaggeration" (1612-1680). in which he subjects to ridicule the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the Civil War and the Commonwealth. the second soon after. Ireland. ever since which appearances she has been much in demand as a singer. entered Parliament. PHILIPP. born near Clonmel. Page 473 of 2772 . operatic singer. became editor of the _Dublin University Magazine_. "It represents. and ingenious drollery." he adds. is absolutely without obscurity. who was never weary of quoting from it. It is often as terse as Pope's best work. and retired (1813-1879). its wit wearies us at last. and few who take it up read it through.ramakalai@gmail. a philosophical writer. yet is hard reading." a poem of about 10.000 octosyllabic lines. It is justly famed. a German philologist. BUTT. WILLIAM ARCHER. good sense. the first in 1663. in accordance with the new criticism. the author of "Hudibras. CLARA. 1872. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. BUTLER. professor of Philology in Berlin." and in "Orfeo" at the Lyceum. Irish patriot. best known by his "Greek Grammar" (1764-1829). CTSTI. made her _debut_ in London at the Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend. BUTTMANN. but could not control it. the son of a small farmer." says Stopford Brooke. and the third in 1678. it is sparkling with wit.

commanded the squadron that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape Passaro. _b_. educated at Harrow and Cambridge. and a resort for invalids. VISCOUNT TORRINGTON. favoured the Prince of Orange. admiral. was made a baronet in 1840. was conspicuous for his interest in benevolent movements. Australia. Chennai 6. fourth son of the preceding. BUXTON. a philanthropist and Evangelical Churchman. was known by the title. 1837. GEORGE. CTSTI. represented Weymouth in Parliament from 1818 to 1837. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. worn out with sorrow. Page 474 of 2772 . was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727. stalactite cavern. BYNG. whom she pursued into far lands. a high-lying town in Derbyshire.ramakalai@gmail. was recalled. JOHN. member of a family of Orientalists. he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845). till. in the Greek mythology a daughter of Miletus. BYBLIS. a philanthropist. admiral. born in Essex. a Liberal in politics. once governor of S. SIR THOMAS FOWELL. BUXTON. she was changed into a fountain. noted for its calcareous and chalybeate springs. a tall man of energetic character. born in Westphalia. in love with her brother Caunus. an office he held till his death (1663-1733).com BUXTON. grandson of the preceding. and made his fortune. and fine scenery. entered life as a brewer. is also famous for its rock crystals. BUXTORF. professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle. and won the navy over to his interest. and member for King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868. such as the amelioration of criminal law and the abolition of slavery. having failed to compel the French to raise the blockade of Minorca. "Master of the Rabbis" (1564-1629). in Computer Lecturer. BYNG. a celebrated Hebraist.

when a storm raised against him on account of his private life drove him from England. threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece. at the age of 36. produced the "Giaour. and which he had the sole right of teaching for 21 years. Aberdeenshire. and wrote "Don Juan". JOHN. contributed as "John Shadow" to the _Spectator_. when at the latter. a fate it is now believed he did not deserve. an English poet. Computer Lecturer. spending. author of the pastoral. wrote "Hours of Idleness. on the Continent. his poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763). from the character of the passion that breathed in them. Page 475 of 2772 . died at Missolonghi in a fit. O ye Muses. BYROM. finished "Childe Harold. invented a system of shorthand. made a great impression on his age. if not already past. was Happily Spent". where his mother had taken a house. who in a year left him never to return. Chennai 6. but she had not returned his affection. BYRON. and he never came back." "Bride of Abydos. the promise of such. poet and stenographer. an heiress. and Catherine Gordon of Gight.ramakalai@gmail. risked his all in the emancipation of the latter." and other work. or anyhow." and soon afterwards left England and spent two years in foreign travel. wrote first part of "Childe Harold. under the breath. but the like interest in them is happily now passing away. In his school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth. See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824). which called forth a severe criticism in the _Edinburgh Review_." a poor first attempt. spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother. moved from place to place. GEORGE GORDON. and which he satirised in "English Bards and Scotch Reviewers. born in London. and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge. the earth is looking green again once more. of a new spring-time." completed several short poems. SIXTH LORD.com deference to popular clamour." "Hebrew Melodies. was shot at Portsmouth. son of Captain Byron of the Guards. "My Time. born near Manchester. now a widow." "awoke one morning and found himself famous". and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank. His poems. and which he bore like a man and a Christian (1704-1757). his vacations in London. and embarking in it. now superseded. and being tried and condemned as guilty of treason. CTSTI. it is believed.

naval officer.com BYRON.C. wrote "Our Boys" (1834-1884). he rose to the rank of admiral. or the Greek Empire.ramakalai@gmail. called also the Eastern. till Constantinople was taken by the Turks in 1453. BYZANTIUM. of which he wrote a classical account on his safe return home. nicknamed from his misfortunes "Foul-weather Jack". the Roman empire was divided between his two sons. born in Manchester. Egypt in Africa. by the death of Theodosius. a decorative style of art patronised by the Romans after the seat of empire was removed to the East. JOHN. but was wrecked in his ship the _Wager_. and commanded the squadron in the West Indies during the American war." BYZANTINE EMPIRE. founded by Greek colonists in 667 B. dates from 395 A. Fairholt as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon classic forms. and Ancient Greece.. Chennai 6. CTSTI. dramatist. Arcadius and Honorius. Pontus. the Lower. and it lasted with varied fortune for ten centuries after the accession of Arcadius. when. Asia Minor. died in England (1723-1786). it has been described by Mr. accompanied Anson in his voyage round the world. grandfather of the poet. BYRON. BYZANTINE ART. who established the seat of his government at Byzantium. Computer Lecturer. ending in their debasement. the empire included Syria.D. Page 476 of 2772 . the Eastern section falling to the share of the former. the ancient name of Constantinople. a celebrated citadel of Carthage. suffered almost unexampled hardships. HENRY JAMES. BYRSA.

built in it. and Lauderdale. the _nom de plume_ of Cecilia Boehl. a collector of folk tales. of German descent. their names were Clifford. a small square structure in the grand mosque of Mecca. Page 477 of 2772 . "the Keblah of all Moslem. an ancient Arab temple. with a mysterious black stone. a secret science alleged to have been divinely imparted to Moses and preserved by tradition. The name comes from a Hebrew word suggesting "to receive. by means of which the Rabbis affected to interpret the pretended mystic sense of the words.ramakalai@gmail. on which all pilgrims who visit the shrine imprint a kiss. Arlington. particularly Andalusian. a science which really owes its existence to a dissatisfaction in the rabbinical mind with the traditional literal interpretation. CAB`ALA. born in Switzerland.com C CAABA. probably an aerolite. CABALLERO. Chennai 6. and very accents of the Hebrew Scriptures. a name applied to a junto of five ministers of Charles II. Computer Lecturer. the eyes of innumerable praying men being turned towards it from all the quarters of the compass five times a day. the initials of whose names go to make up the word. a popular Spanish authoress. wrote charmingly. CTSTI. ALEXANDRE. born at Montpellier (1828-1889). FERNAN. letters. in power from 1668 to 1673. told stories of Spanish." CABAL`. Buckingham. v." and denotes "that which is received" or tradition.). and a sense that there is more in Scripture than meets the ear. peasant life (1797-1877). derived from CABALA (q. Ashley. a French painter. a secret intriguing faction in a State. CABANEL.

a Venetian pilot. born at New Orleans. but failed. and especially with that of DEMETER and DIONYSUS (q. GIOVANNI. his materialism was of the grossest. Creole life in America. died at St. a French communist. CABET. born at Ryswick (1631-1698). born in Dijon. born either in Venice or Computer Lecturer. GEORGE WASHINGTON. treated the soul as a nonentity.com CABANIS. first in Texas and then at Nauvoo. born at Genoa. and created an interest in. a pronounced materialist in philosophy." a body of whom he headed to carry out his schemes in America. CABI`RI. wrote a history of the First Revolution. in which he defended the Jacobins. Chennai 6. America. in the dep. v. has written interestingly on." in description of a communistic Utopia. Louis broken-hearted (1788-1856). settled in Bristol. born in Cosnac. a celebrated French medical man. CABEL.. attended him in his last illness. at Labrador. in connection with nature-worship. PIERRE JEAN GEORGE.). which became the text-book of a communistic sect called "Icarians. a journalist. 1844. and published an account of it. son of the preceding. and friend of Mirabeau. Page 478 of 2772 .ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. CABOT. and fled to England. about 1497: _d_. a celebrated painter of the Dutch school. of Charente Inferieure. and held that the brain secretes thought just as the liver secretes bile (1757-1808). a leader of the Carbonari. author of the "Voyage en Icarie. CABOT. certain mysterious demonic beings to whom mystic honours were paid in Lemnos and elsewhere in Greece. CABLE. 1498. _b_. entered the service of Henry VII. provoked prosecution. SEBASTIAN. ETIENNE. and discovered part of the mainland of N.

CABRE`RA. a Spanish general. 1500. drifted on the coast of Brazil. did altar-pieces. but failed. CACERAS (350).com Bristol. in height. was the first to notice the variation of the magnetic needle.ramakalai@gmail. his best work. _d_. born at Tortosa. to plant colonies in Brazil with no success. and of which he is accounted by some the discoverer. Computer Lecturer. America. continued his course. produces wild olives. CABRAL. "Deposition from the Cross. or KABUL (50). CABRERA. a Spanish province in the N. of Estremadura. cap. died in England. for which he was imprisoned and banished. a Portuguese navigator. the name also of its capital (14). and a depot for European goods. 1625. CTSTI. PEDRO ALVAREZ. sailing for the Indies. returned to Spain. attempted under Charles V. used as a penal settlement by Spain. Page 479 of 2772 . first in Spain then in England. of a province of the name in Afghanistan. accompanied his father to N. on the high route between Central Asia and the Punjab. famous for its bacon and sausages." at Novara. Italian fresco-painter. on an elevated plateau of great fertility. a zealous supporter of the claims of Don Carlos. a great highway of trade. Chennai 6. as the province is for cattle-rearing. CACCIA. and to open up to England trade with Russia (1474-1557). one of the Balearic Isles. CABUL`. Catalonia. took up arms in his behalf. in a mild climate. sought service as a navigator. 6000 ft. he was an unscrupulous adversary (1810-1877). and established a factory at Calicut in 1501 (1460-1526). on which he planted the Portuguese flag.

CADEMOSTO. could not prevent his followers from plundering.. CACHET. was answered by an armed force. in the reign of Henry VI. for the arrest and imprisonment of a person. Computer Lecturer. under the royal seal. with maps illustrative called Cadastral Maps. represented by Virgil as breathing smoke and flames of fire. name given in Canada to a hole in the ground for hiding provisions when they prove cumbersome to carry. entered the city. stole the oxen of Hercules as he was asleep.com CACHAR (313). and the extent of their estates. a Venetian in the service of Portugal. he had to flee. published posthumously (1432-1480). a great tea-growing district in Assam. CADASTRE. Chennai 6. in 1450. often obtained to gratify private ends. encamped with his following on Blackheath.ramakalai@gmail. CA`CUS. CTSTI. CADE. a warrant issued in France before the Revolution. JACK. Page 480 of 2772 . which he defeated. wrote the first book giving an account of modern voyages. LETTRE DE. strangled by Hercules in his rage at the deception quite as much as the theft. abolished in 1790. dragging them to his cave tail foremost to deceive the owner. a mythological brigand of gigantic stature who occupied a cave in Mount Aventine. discovered the Cape de Verde Islands in 1457. an Irish adventurer. but was overtaken and slain. the citizens retaliating. a register of the landed proprietors of a district. demanded of the king redress of grievances. headed an insurrection in Kent. CACHE.

slew the dragon. his companions to a well guarded by a dragon. v. he sent. sowed its teeth. was in the hands of the god possessed of magical virtues. a brave man. with a view to its sacrifice. became the forefathers of Thebes. a semi-mythological personage. having confessed his intention to overthrow the Republic and establish Louis XVIII. extremity of the Isle of Leon. an English poet of the 7th century. called Gades by the Romans. preserved by Bede. who would fain have enlisted him. which devoured them.C.. the winged rod of Hermes. born in Brittany. founder of Thebes. to whom is ascribed the introduction of the Greek alphabet from Phoenicia and the invention of writing. GEORGES. CAEDMON. and separated from the rest of the island by a channel crossed by bridges. one of the chief commercial ports in Spain. founded by the Phoenicians about 1100 B.com CADIZ (62). tried hard and took up arms to restore the Bourbons in the teeth of the Republic. the son of a farmer. the story goes. was told by the oracle at Delphi to follow a cow and build a city where she lay down. but was defeated. which sprang up into a body of armed men. originally a simple olive branch. Chennai 6. in Andalusia. CAD`MUS. on a secret mission from Charles X. is the oldest specimen extant of English poetry. it is 7 m. CADOUDAL. the fragment of a hymn by whom. in the quest of his sister Europa. wrote a poem on the beginning of things at the call of a voice Computer Lecturer. all but five. from Gibraltar. in Boeotia. came over from London. and. Page 481 of 2772 . condemned and executed. CTSTI. after a short trial.ramakalai@gmail. refused to serve under Bonaparte. whither he had retired. was suspected of evil designs against the person of Bonaparte. arrived at the spot where the cow lay down. having seen in him "a mind cast in the true mould". it was the symbol of peace. arrested.. who. at the NW. CADUCEUS. entwined with two serpents. who speared each other to death. chief of the CHOUANS (q. from Xeres and 50 m. on the throne (1769-1804). and carries on a large export trade.).

Italian natural philosopher. CAESAR. and has fine old public buildings. NE. a fine old Norman town.com from heaven. was forerunner of Harvey and Linnaeus. CAEN (45). early provoked the jealousy of Sulla. and was by an edict of proscription against him obliged to quit the city. 21/2 m. on the death of Sulla returned to Rome. of Newport. CAESAR. was elected to one civic office after another. was appointed to the government of Gaul. CAESALPINUS. it survives in the titles of the Kaiser of Germany and the Czar of Russia. by birth and marriage connected with the democratic party. capital of Calvados. it is a well-built town. as Stopford Brooke reports. name of an old Roman family claiming descent from the Trojan AEneas. and of heaven and hell to come. was professor of botany at Pisa. though the title was applied to succeeding emperors and to the heirs-apparent of the Western and the Eastern Empires. and thereupon he began to sing. the story of Genesis and Exodus. and a noble collection of pictures. it is a very ancient place.C.ramakalai@gmail. born at Arezzo. and gave hints on their classification (1519-1603). many other tales in the sacred Scriptures. Chennai 6. celebrated by Tennyson in connection with Arthurian legend. and contains relics of Roman times. discovered sex in plants. a large library. saying as he slept. which the emperors of Rome from Augustus to Nero of right inherited. CAIUS JULIUS. and finally to the consulship. CAER`LEON.). CTSTI. and the native place of Charlotte Corday. and the story of Christ and the Apostles. lace the chief manufacture. on the Usk. come sing me some song". of Cherbourg. which he subdued after Computer Lecturer. then dictator. United with Pompey and Crassus in the First Triumvirate (60 B. a small old town in Monmouthshire. pronounced the greatest man of antiquity. "Caedmon. Page 482 of 2772 . about 80 m. the burial-place of William the Conqueror. SE.

of poor parents.. which.). _b_. coast. and crossing the Rubicon with his victorious troops. Also C. and so by His sacrifice perfect their faith in Him. at the source of the Jordan. PAOLO. and wrung large sums from his dupes wherever they went. CAGLIOSTRO. by means of which he perpetrated the most audacious frauds. was thereupon elected dictator and consul for five years. v. high. distinguishing himself in Egypt and elsewhere. when detected in one place were repeated with even more brazen effrontery in another. on assuring Himself that His disciples were persuaded of His divine sonship. turned to go up to Jerusalem. CAGLIARI. proper name of PAUL VERONESE (q. early acquired a smattering of chemistry and medicine. born in Palermo.C.). built in honour of Augustus Caesar by Herod the Great. his real name being Giuseppe Balsamo. conceived and executed vast schemes for the benefit of the city. his successes awoke the jealousy of Pompey. and he was recalled.C. this roused Caesar. of Joppa. he soon saw all Italy lying at his feet (49 B. CAESAREA. Page 483 of 2772 . PHILIPPI. who had gone over to the aristocratic side. professed supernatural powers. a Syrian seaport. and defeated him at Pharsalia (48 B. though a place of note in the days of the Crusades. and is on the site of an ancient Carthaginian town.C.C. 30 m. CTSTI.). whence Christ. COUNT ALESSANDRO DI.). assumed name of an arch-impostor.C.ramakalai@gmail. and the chief port. Chennai 6. on the S. pursued Pompey. now in ruins.com nine years to the dominion of Rome. returned to Rome (47 B. the summit of which is 300 ft. lies on the slopes of a hill. the cap of Sardinia. who became an accomplice. and became the idol of its citizens. in the fifty-sixth year of his age. married a pretty woman named Lorenza Feliciani. CAGLIARI (44). N. 44 B. when he was assassinated on the Ides (the 15th) of March. who had fled to Greece. after which they absconded to Paris and lived in Computer Lecturer.100 B. was a colony of Jews from the time of Tiberius till 1492. whence they were expelled by the Spaniards.

here he was thrown into the Bastille for complicity in the DIAMOND NECKLACE AFFAIR (q. CAIAPHAS. of France. MARQUIS OF. his wife having retired into a convent (1743-1795). calculated the table of eclipses for 1800 years (1713-1762). he was consigned to the tender mercies of the Inquisition. CAGNOLA.). but annexed to Jamaica since 1874. on his wife turning informer. hard to persuade to reconcile themselves to a settled life. a wild savage race in the woods of Brazil. astronomer. CAHORS (13). v. LOUIS DE LA. owing. before unknown. born at Milan. and committed to the fortress of San Leone. from which. of Toulouse. a town in the dep. N. 71 m. CAICOS. See CARLYLE'S "MISCELLANIES" for an account of his character and career. it has been supposed. to some taint of leprosy.ramakalai@gmail. CAILLE. the High-Priest of the Jews who condemned Christ to death as a violator of the law of Moses.com extravagance. Computer Lecturer. Page 484 of 2772 . in his native city. they were by their manner of life in course of time freed. the execution of which occupied him over 30 years (1762-1833). the "Arco della Pace. in the S. of Lot. it is argued. a group of small islands connected with the Bahamas. CTSTI. with interesting Roman and other relics of antiquity. CAGOTS. CAIAPOS. Chennai 6. Italian architect. his greatest work. LUIGI. treated as outcasts in the Middle Ages. of France of uncertain origin." of white marble. studied at the Cape of Good Hope. where he died at 52. registered stars of the Southern Hemisphere. numbering 9000. a race in the SW.

eminent novelist. and the murderer of his brother Abel. a peasant insurrection in France in 1358. born in Poitou. CAIN. author of a number of novels bearing on Manx life. according to Genesis. collecting minerals and making observations (1787-1869). CAILLIAUD. CAIN. "It will go on. began life as architect and took to journalism. and Ethiopia. such as the "Deemster" and the "Manxman".com CAILLET. a chief of the Jacquerie. CAIRD. in Central Africa. born in Cheshire. and therefore of the race. RENE. of Manx blood. EDWARD. taken prisoner and tortured to death. which he received with a pension of 1000 besides (1799-1839). interpreter of Kant and Computer Lecturer. the temptation was a prize of 10. said to have been a phrase of Benjamin Franklin's. 1853. Chennai 6. CA IRA. born in Nantes. CTSTI. his most recent novel. CAILLIE. French traveller in Africa." his greatest but most ambiguous work. Page 485 of 2772 . which he was in the habit of using in answering inquirers about the progress of the American revolution by his friends in France." a popular song in France during the Revolution. THOMAS HENRY HALL.000 marks offered by the Geographical Society of Paris. the first-born of Adam and Eve. travelled in Egypt.ramakalai@gmail. which he did in 1828. where the verdict is divided. and much challenged in England. Nubia. though less so in America. _b_. the first European to penetrate as far as Timbuctoo. the "Christian. it has been translated into most of the languages of Europe. French mineralogist. brother of the following.

author of works on political economy (1823-1875). born in co. among other places. an eloquent Scotch preacher." and edited the lectures and sermons of his brother. of Egypt. became Lord Chancellor under Disraeli's government in 1868. and largest city in Africa. CAIRNES. lawyer and politician. Ireland. has written on the "Evolution of Religion. born in co. loosely thrown together. HUGH MACCALMONT. Page 486 of 2772 . CAIRNS. CAIRNGORM. and wrote eloquently on it. succeeded Jowett as master of Balliol. a yellowish-brown variety of rock-crystal. on one of the Scottish Grampians. Down. a political economist of the school of John Stuart Mill with modifications. Chennai 6. and presents a strange Computer Lecturer. JOHN ELLIOT. just above the Delta. so named. cap. 120 m. entered Parliament. JOHN. Principal of Glasgow University. representing Belfast. though not always. and again in 1874. a heap of stones often. CAIRO (400). 1825. made a special study of the philosophy of religion. covers an extensive area on a broad sandy plain. _b_. Louth. generally by way of a sepulchral monument. so called from being found. Ireland. on the right bank of the Nile. famous for a sermon entitled "The Religion of Common Life" preached before the Queen at Crathie in 1855. CAIRN.ramakalai@gmail. and it would seem sometimes in execration of some foul deed.com Hegel. CAIRD. SE. born at Greenock. called to the English bar. professor successively in Dublin. Galway. in Aberdeenshire. and London. took an active interest in philanthropic movements (1819-1885). of Alexandria. CTSTI. EARL. more especially the Christian version of it (1820-1898).

the townsfolk are half Arab. it is a centre of Mohammedan learning.. CALABAR BEAN.. gateways. 43 m. a level. The most modern part of the city consists of broad boulevards. Extensive railway communication and the Nile waterway induce a large transport trade. palaces. CALABAR`. county in the NE. the inhabitants are to a great extent of Scandinavian origin. a district under British protection on the coast of Upper Guinea. represented the Pope at the Diet of Augsburg. and somewhat barren. with European-built villas. Chennai 6. narrow streets. CARDINAL. known as the Ordeal Bean. of which Wick is the chief seat. but there is little industry. employed in medicine. peninsula of Computer Lecturer. old walls. the country flat and the climate unhealthy. has flagstone quarries. and university with 2000 students. and tried in vain to persuade Luther to recant. seed of an African bean.500). The modern city is the fourth founded in succession on the same site. These. and Greeks are numerous. and remains of the former cities are included in it. Italians. and on the "Summa Theologiae" of Aquinas. bare. still represent the brightest period of Saracenic art. with a bold and rocky coast. Turks. The population is mixed. hotels. and has all the advantages of modern civic appliances. CAITHNESS (37). having been used to test the innocence of people charged with witchcraft. Page 487 of 2772 . a fertile prov. and English. and S. CTSTI.ramakalai@gmail. and since 1882 the centre of British influence in Egypt. fishing the chief industry. CAJETAN. and 400 mosques. by 28 m. There is a rich museum..com agglomeration of ancient and modern elements. Jews. general of the Dominicans. of Scotland. except in the W. as. embraced in the SW. &c. born in Gaeta. and latticed houses. being poisonous. wrote a Commentary on the Bible. not Gaelic. though much spoiled by time and tourists. is the language spoken. while Copts. half Egyptian. CALABRIA (1.

is inhabited by a race of somewhat fiery temper. and has considerable export trade. of San Francisco. on the Strait of Dover. took up her case. a fortified seaport in France. CALAS.ramakalai@gmail. Computer Lecturer. and sentenced to torture and death on the wheel (1762). CALAMY. Chennai 6. got the process revised. for the high esteem in which he was held. yields grains and fruits. a Presbyterian divine. to his immortal honour. after which his property was confiscated. whose son committed suicide. which he could not. across. is much subject to earthquakes. JEAN. and a variety of minerals. against which he vigorously protested with his pen. favourable to Royalty. as well as cotton and tulle manufactures. an inland county of California. E. and who was charged with murdering him to prevent his going over to the Catholic Church. and the last town held by them on French soil. EDMUND.com Italy. was in possession of the English from 1347 to 1558. on whom. after the Restoration. opposed the execution of Charles I. a grandson of the preceding. CALAVE`RAS. and the protectorate of Cromwell. with tunny and anchovy fisheries. to grant a sum of money out of the royal bounty for the benefit of the family. is the chief landing-place for travellers from England to the Continent. was tried. Glasgow. Voltaire. born in London. CALAMY. CTSTI. a tradesman of Toulouse. CALAIS (56). and traversed by the Apennines. while the widow escaped into Switzerland. on conscientious grounds. honorary degrees were conferred by the Edinburgh. an eminent Nonconformist minister in London. where it is 21 m. and Louis XV. convicted. refused a bishopric. and his children compelled to embrace the Catholic faith. accept (1600-1666). made chaplain to Charles II. and Aberdeen universities (1671-1732). proved to the satisfaction of the legal authorities in France the innocence of the victims. but zealously opposed to Episcopacy. Page 488 of 2772 . EDMUND.

the rules of the integral calculus assist us in calculating the position and velocity of the body at any future time. and the initial position and velocity. CALCUTTA (900). and many other English Buildings have earned for it the name "city of palaces". an excellent water-supply. the differential calculus has to do with the _differentials_ (increments or decrements) of varying quantities. is the capital of Bengal and the Indian Empire. Chennai 6. the houses of mud or bamboo. on the left bank of the Hooghly. enjoined the sacrifice of Iphigenia to propitiate the gods. in mathematics. and the effective force acting on the body. a device by means of which Troy was surprised and taken. g. Expressed somewhat crudely. warehouses. is the method by which we discuss the properties of continuously varying quantities.com rich in minerals. town hall. university. gas. and the residence of the Governor-General. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL. the change of direction of motion (i. and tramway services. St. Bishop's College (now an engineering school) High Court. the motion of a train in a track. Conversely. the largest and westernmost branch of the Ganges delta. but the native quarters. If we know the successive positions of the moving body at successive short intervals of time. are still squalid. the Government buildings. an esplanade. though being improved. while the integral calculus is a process of summation or _integration_ of these differentials. and advised the construction of the wooden horses. about 80 m. museum. CALCULUS. from the sea. CTSTI. e. given the force at every point. and jute mills. ships of 5000 tons enter Computer Lecturer. numerous quays. iron-works.ramakalai@gmail. there are extensive dockyards. the soothsayer who accompanied Agamemnon to the siege of Troy. the rules of the differential calculus enable us to calculate the speed. or the motion of a planet in its orbit. with copper and gold mines. the curvature of the path). e. Paul's cathedral. timber yards. add to the amenities. bank. Page 489 of 2772 . CALCHAS. the change of speed. extensive railway and steamboat communications make it the chief emporium of commerce in Asia. The nature of the method and the necessity for it may be indicated by a simple example. foretold the length or the war.

and instinct with a kindly. he was a dramatist of the first order. and the "Black Hole" massacre perpetrated in 1756. CALDER. which were full of life. "Altare Damascenum. CALDERON DE LA BARCA. attained afterwards the rank of admiral (1745-1818).ramakalai@gmail. DAVID. the population are two-thirds Hindus. and wrote a "History of the Kirk" (1575-1650). Chennai 6. CTSTI. and has suffered frequently from cyclones." in Holland. a Scotch ecclesiastic. became the capital of India in 1772. and 41/2 per cent. born at Madrid. became minister of Crailing. founded in 1686. CALDERWOOD. born at Dalkeith. a sentence which was afterwards found to be unjust. exercised his art chiefly in book illustrations. his abilities as an artist were promptly and generously recognised by the Academy. wrote a book.com the docks. returned on the death of the king. graceful humour. producing the while dramas which were received with great enthusiasm. was tried by court-martial. he suffered from ill-health. artist. CALDECOTT. Page 490 of 2772 . Calcutta was captured by Surajah Dowlah. the great Spanish dramatist. and became a canon of Toledo. whither he had retired. and has been ranked by the more competent critics among the foremost of the class in both ancient and modern times (1600-1681). served bravely in several naval engagements. and died in Florida. took holy orders. RANDOLPH. though professionally untrained. British naval officer. born in Chester. Christian. being a searching criticism of the claims of the Episcopacy. whither he had gone to recruit (1846-1886). to establish Episcopacy in Scotland. and reprimanded for not following up a victory which he had gained. entered the army. less than a third Mohammedan. but to the last continued to write poems and plays. and then banished for resisting the attempts of James VI. SIR ROBERT. first imprisoned. Computer Lecturer. and served in Italy and Flanders.

60 m. an American statesman. has 28 locks. of Irish descent. long. in NW. executed by Telford. 40 m. since applied poetically to the whole of Scotland. born in S. CALHOUN. regarding slavery as an institution fraught with blessing to all concerned. CALEDONIAN CANAL. the Roman name for Scotland N. chief town on the Malabar coast." of the grossest animality of nature. for the passage of ships between the Atlantic and the North Sea. the first day of the Roman month. CALENDS. of Scotland. Carolina. territory of Canada. a canal across the NW. finished 1823. was constructed for the benefit of coasting vessels to save the risks they encountered in the Pentland Firth. the first port at which Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. His chief work is a treatise on the "Nature of Government" (1789-1850). CTSTI. all through his public life in high civic position. and any State had a right to withdraw from its conditions. begun 1803. whence the cotton cloth first imported from the place got the name "calico. Chennai 6. of the Wall of Antoninus. CALICUT (66).000. of which consist of natural lakes. so called as the day on which the feast days and unlucky days of the month were announced. JOHN CALDWELL. in vindication of the doctrine that the Union was a mere compact. cost L1. CALIBAN. in the Madras Presidency of India.ramakalai@gmail.com CALEDONIA.300. Page 491 of 2772 ." Computer Lecturer. CAL`GARY. a slave in Shakespeare's "Tempest. and champion of the slave-holding States. the capital of Alberta. leader of "the States rights" movement.

having ingratiated himself with Tiberius. and winters severe. and a delightful climate. coal. It is the second largest State.com CALIFORNIA (1. the largest city. Union. in the Sierra Nevada. born at Antium. and had divine honours paid to him. but after an illness due to his dissipation. and progress has since been steady and rapid. Wheat is the most important product. the most south-westerly State in the American Union. ruled with wisdom and magnanimity at first. and is bounded landward by Nevada and Arizona. and scarcely habitable peninsula. and seaward. would entertain people at a banquet and then throw them into the sea. CTSTI. Chennai 6. that he might shear it off at a blow. stretching southward from the State.D. gave way to the most atrocious acts of cruelty and impiety. there is little rain. eastward by the great Central. larger by a quarter than the United Kingdom. Roman emperor from A. is the most wonderful gorge in the world. had his horse installed as consul in mockery of the office. Page 492 of 2772 . in Mexican territory. in the S. the grape and all manner of fruits grow luxuriantly.208). agriculture is carried on in some of the valleys.ramakalai@gmail. CALIFORNIA. lead. mountainous. through which falls the Merced River. and pearl and whale fisheries support some coast towns. the original lawlessness gradually gave way to regular administration. In the N. Mineral wealth is great: it is the foremost State for gold and quicksilver. an extensive. while he lived in the unbridled indulgence of every lust. dry. LOWER (30). The Yosemite Valley. and brought thousands of adventurers from all over the world. The industries include brandy and sugar manufactures. declared himself a god. occupies the Pacific seaboard between Oregon and Mexico. silk-growing. wished Rome had only one head. copper. and many other minerals abound. iron. and Southern Pacific railroads. was named his successor. silver. the chief port being San Francisco. All products are exported. and fishing. youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina. the discovery of gold next year raised great excitement. Captured from Mexico in 1847. as Sacramento is the capital of the State. CALIGULA. shipbuilding. the rainfall is excessive. 37 to 41. sulphur. till a conspiracy was formed against him on his return from an expedition Computer Lecturer. Constituted a State in 1850.

king of Arcadia. established at Cordova by Abderrahman (756-1031). as supreme in both civil and religious matters. born at Computer Lecturer. the name of three popes: C. The principal caliphates are: (1) the Caliphate of the East. daughter of Lycaon. stood by him. a port in Peru. the title adopted by the successors of Mahomet. from Lima. CALLCOTT. an eminent musical composer. travelled for four years in Germany. pope from 1119 to 1124. established by the Fatimites (909-1171). if not in the world. C. his friends. born at Sleswick. CALIXTUS. when he was assassinated (12-41). transferred to Bagdad by the Abassides (632-1258). and he retained the position he held in the Lutheran Church (1586-1656). Page 493 of 2772 .com into Gaul. GEORGE. its prosperity depends on trade. which might embrace both. III. and placed by Jupiter among the stars.ramakalai@gmail. (3) the Caliphate of Egypt. Pope from 1455 to 1458. 7 m.. changed by Juno into a she-bear.. II. CALISTO. and for considering the Apostles' Creed a broad enough basis for Christian union and communion. (2) the Caliphate of Cordova. England. Chennai 6. It was at Bagdad that Moslem civilisation achieved its final development. or rather apostasy.. established by Abubekr at Mecca. a Lutheran theologian of an eminently tolerant type. CALIPH. and France. Pope from 218 to 222. CTSTI. JOHN WALL. CALLA`O (32). which is less than it was before the annexation of the nitrate fields to Chile. for the liberal spirit in which he had learned in consequence to treat both Catholics and Calvinists. I. Belgium. however. C. with a fine harbour the safest on the coast. accused of heresy. CALIXTUS.

10 m. noted for its circles of standing stones. born in Cyrena. was a pupil of Haendel's.C. in height. CTSTI. CALLI`OPE. a disciple of Aristotle. and flourished in the 3rd century B. and was put to death by his order for remonstrating with him on his adoption of the manners and style of the potentates of the East. LADY MARIA. Chennai 6. architect of the Parthenon in Athens. Greek architect. CALLIM`ACHUS. CALLERNISH. See MUSES. Computer Lecturer. who accompanied Alexander the Great to India. was admired by Catullus. inventor of the Corinthian order. and is celebrated for his glee compositions (1766-1821). author of "Little Arthur's History of England" (1779-1842). was knighted for his eminent skill as an artist (1779-1841). was keeper of the library there.com Kensington. the whole in cruciform arrangement. of his writings. 4th century B. from 10 to 17 ft. CALLIC`RATES. brother. but professedly on a charge of treason. the muse of epic poetry and eloquence. of the island of Lewis. a district in the W. Ovid. taught grammar and belles-lettres at Alexandria.ramakalai@gmail. CALLIS`THENES. Greek poet. CALLIMACHUS. along with Ictinos.C. landscape painter. and sometimes with a paper roll. only a few epigrams and hymns remain. Page 494 of 2772 . wife of Sir Augustus. is represented with a tablet and stylus. SIR AUGUSTUS WALL. and Propertius. which are said to have been on a variety of subjects and very numerous. from Stornoway.

minister of Ferdinand VII. CALLOT. escaped into France by bribing his captors (1773-1842)... a violent enemy of liberal principles and measures. Critical. and which lasts for weeks at a time. succeeded Necker in 1783 as comptroller-general of the finances in France. could do nothing but convoke the Notables in 1787. CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE. a learned Benedictine and biblical scholar. THE. his etchings. which are much admired. CALMET. of France. CALOMAR`DE. such as those of the sieges of Breda and Rochelle. AUGUSTINE. "and he did it. could give no account of his administration that would satisfy them. a man of "fiscal genius. he wrote also a "Commentary on the Bible" in 23 vols. born in Lorraine. JACQUES. obnoxious to the people. and had to quit Paris and France. executed many of them at the instance of the Grand-duke of Tuscany and Louis XIII. born at Douay. born at Nancy. and a reactionary. but known in England by his "Historical. CALONNE. arrested for treachery. tracts of calm in the ocean. and a "Universal History" in 17 vols. genius for persuading. who kindled in Demosthenes a passion for his art." the first published book of its kind of any note. French financier under Louis XVI. Chennai 6. amounted to 1600 pieces.." referring to the Computer Lecturer. a Spanish statesman. and much referred to at one time as an authority.ramakalai@gmail. his Spartan sympathies brought him to grief. engraver and etcher. CALMS. after four years of desperate attempts at financial adjustment. and led to his execution as a traitor. and Chronological Dictionary of the Bible. was dismissed." says Carlyle. "his task to raise the wind and the winds. CTSTI. DUKE. before all things for borrowing". (1672-1757).com CALLIS`TRATUS. Page 495 of 2772 . on the confines of the trade winds. as also those of the gipsies with whom he associated in his youth (1593-1633). an Athenian orator.

). among the American Indians a pipe for smoking. in N.ramakalai@gmail. CALPE. CALVADOS (428). of France. and if rejected. Computer Lecturer. by means of the action of light on nitrate of silver. where he died in embarrassed circumstances (1734-1802). v. a fiery Lutheran polemic. a bitter enemy of George Calixtus (1612-1686). SW. Chennai 6. urged Caesar to stay at home the day he was assassinated. which if accepted when offered. the staple industry is pottery and terra-cotta ware. who. Page 496 of 2772 . CAL`UMET. with a fertile soil and a moist climate. CALPURNIA. skirted by dangerous rocks of the same name. CALTAGIRONE (28). CALOTYPE.com Revolution he provoked. a declaration of war. CALORIUS. daughter of the consul Piso. a maritime dep. CTSTI. the name given by physicists to the presumed subtle element which causes heat. a city 38 m. of Catania. a process of photography invented by Fox Talbot in 1840. ABRAHAM. Gibraltar. alive to the danger of conspiracy. the last wife of Julius Caesar. CALORIC. was an emblem of peace. one of the PILLARS OF HERCULES (q. was permitted by Napoleon to return to France.

ramakalai@gmail. became acquainted with the Scriptures.. retired to Basel. became the centre of a dangerous religious excitement.com CALVAERT. for twenty years he held sway in Geneva. or CAUVIN. also name given to effigies of the crucifixion in Catholic countries. the "Institutes of the Christian Religion". which allowed of no license in faith any more than conduct. settled at Bologna. his masterpiece. where he studied Hebrew and wrote his great epoch-making book. Domenichino. GEORGE and CECIL. and for so long he was regarded as the head of the Reformed Churches in Scotland. devoted for a time to the law. Page 497 of 2772 . CHARLES STUART. his parodies among the most amusing of the century. of Maryland. but proceeded with such rigour that he was expelled. identified with a hill on the N. after having mastered Latin as a boy at Paris. and Albani. "St. though recalled after three years. in Picardy. proceeded to Paris. among others Guidi Reni. erected for devotion. professed the Protestant faith. from whence issued many eminent artists. Oxford. Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. CALVERLEY. Peter's. DENIS. wrote "Fly-Leaves" and "Verses and Translations". looked down upon from the city. flavoured by the author's scholarship (1831-1884). born at Noyon. where he founded a school.S. Michael" in St. was arrested as by the hand of God to stay and help on God's work in the place. of Jerusalem. Bologna (1555-1619). Fellow of Christ's Church. a painter. CALVIN. under charter from James I. the place of the crucifixion. born at Antwerp. CALVERT. the great Reformer. with a cliff on which criminals were cast down prior to being stoned. Chennai 6. CALVARY. Lords Baltimore. had to flee for his life from France. a clever English parodist. on his return he proposed and established his system of Church government. U. making after this for Strassburg. JOHN. as witness the burning of Servetus for denying the doctrine of the Trinity. was sent to study at the university of Orleans. founders. and acquired a permanently theological bent. he chanced to pass through Geneva. father and son.

and France.. bred to the legal profession. the merits of it being those of full maturity and elaborate preparation rather than of youthful exuberance" (1509-1564). who interpose between the legitimate ministers and the crown. CAMARILLA." says Prof. as ever in the "Great Taskmaster's" eye." CALYPSO. CALVINISM. It was written in Latin. queen of the island of Ogygia." he found time to write Commentaries on nearly all the books of the Bible. in the Greek mythology a nymph. took a prominent part as a lawyer in the national Convention. CALVO. an Argentine publicist. was a man of masculine intellect and single-hearted devotion to duty. His greatest work was his "Institutes. "it is beyond all question the first serious work of great literary merit not historical in the history of French prose. she died of grief on his departure. "In the translated form. Holland. after the Revolution of the 18th Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. Saintsbury. CTSTI...com Switzerland. it is perhaps the most remarkable work of its particular kind to be anywhere found. daughter of Atlas. and four years after translated by himself into French. author of "International Law. Chennai 6. Theoretical and Practical. Duke of Parma. JEAN JACQUES REGIS DE." published in Basel in 1535-36. who by her fascinating charms detained Ulysses beside her for 7 of the 10 years of his wanderings home from Troy. born at Montpellier. a name of recent origin in Spain for a clique of private counsellors at court. Besides his "Institutes. the theological system of Calvin. born at Buenos Ayres in 1824. CHARLES. the chief characteristic of which is that it assigns all in salvation to the sovereign action and persistent operation of Divine grace. Page 498 of 2772 . CAMBACERES. Considering that the whole of it was written before the author of it was seven-and-twenty.

a small kingdom in Indo-China. in consequence of which the place. the landward boundaries touch Siam. 28 m. a town and seaport N. of Bombay. stands in flat country. a city in the dep. was chosen second consul. Page 499 of 2772 .500). an ancient city. The kingdom was formerly much more extensive. The glory of the city is the University. the ancient name of Wales. and timber are also produced. which is fast silting up. it has been under French protection since 1863. with interesting archaeological remains. has fallen into decay. The coast-line is washed by the Gulf of Siam. there are some fine buildings. Fenelon was archbishop here. a branch of the Mekong flows backward and forms the Great Lake. and maize are grown in the tracts thus irrigated. NE. The capital is Pnom-Penh (35). of London. on a gulf of the same name. in the cathedral of which is a monument to his memory. spices. Annam. hence called _cambrics_. CTSTI. Holy Sepulchre. to which the Welsh belong. once a flourishing port. country of the Kymry. the oldest round church in England. in the N. a Celtic race. occupying an area as large as Scotland in the plains of the Lower Mekong. foreign trade is done through the port Kampot. most of the country is inundated in the rainy season. was sincerely attached to Napoleon. CAMBO`DIA (1. cotton. famous for its fine linen fabrics. on the Cam. and rice. are stretches of forest and hills in which iron and copper are wrought. CAMBAY (31). of Nord. on the Scheldt. was made by him High Chancellor of the Empire as well as Duke of Parma. on the Mekong. there are iron-works at Kompong Soai. in France. his "Projet de Code" formed the basis of the _Code Napoleon_ (1753-1824). and French Cochin-China. CAMBRAI (17). founded in the 12th Computer Lecturer. county town of Cambridgeshire. tobacco. gutta-percha. remarkable ruins of ancient grandeur are numerous.com Brumaire.ramakalai@gmail. and a Roman Catholic church. CAMBRIA. Chennai 6. CAMBRIDGE (44).

an inland agricultural county. 1598. Sidney Sussex. marshy in the N. Dryden. is rich in Roman remains. Queens'. very flat. 1350. King's. Among its eminent men have been Bacon. which he continued to be till. 1347. &c. CAMBRIDGE. Gonville and Caius. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY contains 17 colleges: Peterhouse. 1511. CAMBRIDGE (70). museums. the Gog-Magog in the S.. in 1837. St. became commander-in-chief in 1856 on the resignation of Viscount Hardinge. was made viceroy of Hanover. the crown fell to the Duke of Cumberland (1774-1850).S. 1348.com century. It lays emphasis on mathematical. Newton. Clare College. Computer Lecturer. St John's. Corpus Christi. Each college is a corporation by itself. here Longfellow resided for many years. and Downing. FIRST DUKE OF. Spenser. served in the army. Pembroke. and was succeeded by Lord Wolseley. governed by statutes sanctioned by the crown. 1819. one of the oldest towns in New England. son of the preceding and cousin to the Queen. 1800.. Emmanuel..ramakalai@gmail. Trinity Hall.. CAMBRIDGESHIRE (188). 1326. and capable of holding landed or other property. Trinity. libraries. 1496. 1441. _b_. chapels. 1352. Wordsworth. founded 1257. a suburb of Boston. born in Hanover. CTSTI. CAMBRIDGE. Magdalene. as Oxford on classical. retired in 1895. culture. 1448. famed for its butter and cheese. and carried a marshal's baton. 1584. and Tennyson. Milton. 1546. Christ's. nine-tenths of its surface under cultivation. Jesus. the centre of the book-making trade. Page 500 of 2772 . 1519. with a range of chalk-hills.. Catherine's. with its colleges housed in stately buildings. U. SECOND DUKE OF. seventh and youngest son of George III. Thackeray. served as volunteer under the Duke of York. 1505. seat of Harvard University. Cromwell. 1473. which shares with Oxford the academic prestige of England. Chennai 6. Pitt.

the great Cyrus. Act ii. but afterwards suffered serious reverses. "The Guard dies.. commanded a division of the Old Guard at Waterloo. and ring. 4. Computer Lecturer. together with a magical mirror. CAMBYSES. though surrounded by the enemy and summoned to surrender. KING. CAMBUS`CAN. CHARLES PRATT.S. CTSTI. a busy town in New Jersey. who had a wonderful steed of brass. et ne se rend pas_. fought to the last. FIRST EARL OF. on the left bank of the Delaware. accompanied Napoleon to Elba in 1814. the terminus of six railways. and in the end gave himself up to dissipation and vindictive acts of cruelty. opposed. from which not only his subjects suffered.'s reign. Chennai 6. CAMDEN. and ultimately Lord Chancellor of England. CAMDEN (58). and was taken prisoner. referred to by Falstaff in I Henry IV. _La Garde meurt. sc. Page 501 of 2772 . succeeded his father. and as a statesman the policy and action of the government towards the American colonies. the prosecution of Wilkes as illegal. French general.com CAMBRONNE.C. 54 B. opposite Philadelphia. served under the Republic and the Empire. refused. as judge in the case. born at Nantes. _d_. chief-justice of the King's Bench in George I. a ranting character in a play called "The Lamentable Tragedy". magically obedient to the wish of the rider. king of Persia. he was created earl in 1786 (1713-1794). CAMBY`SES. but does not surrender" (1770-1842). is credited with the saying. king of Tartary. a distinguished British lawyer and statesman.ramakalai@gmail. sword. U. identified with Genghis Khan.. invaded and subdued Egypt. but the members of his own family.

CAMERA OBSCURA. born at Bamberg. in the Roman mythology a set of nymphs endowed with semi-prophetic powers. Page 502 of 2772 ." a historical and topographical account of the British Isles. he has been surnamed the Strabo and the Pausanias of England (1551-1623). and where entrenchments of an old town are still to be seen. CAMERA LUCIDA. an optical contrivance. CAMEO. by means of which the images of external objects are exhibited distinctly on a surface in the focus of the lens." both. and sometimes identified with the Muses. played a prominent part in the religious struggles of his time. a learned English antiquary. written in Latin. Chennai 6. CTSTI. active as a German Reformer.ramakalai@gmail. CAMENAE. as all the rest of his works. WILLIAM. which led to his appointment as Clarencieux king-at-arms. it is presumed. the upper cut in relief and the under forming the ground. his most widely known work. author of "Britannia. second master. the first and most famous born in London.com CAMDEN. a distinguished scholar. CAMELOT. and eventually head-master in Westminster School. friend and biographer of Melanchthon. CAMERARIUS. consists generally of two or three different colours. and "Annals of Elizabeth's Reign. King Arthur held his court. where. during which time he gave proof of his antiquarian knowledge. by means of which the image of an object may be made to appear on a light or white surface. a place in Somerset. an optical instrument or contrivance. collaborated with him in drawing up the Augsburg Confession (1500-1574). Computer Lecturer. a precious stone cut in relief.

CAMERON. of the estuary. (3) also a German colony. known as the oil river.com CAMERON. a learned divine. born in Glasgow. VERNEY LOVETT. originally raised in defence of Scottish religious rights. (1) a river in W. wrote "Across Africa" (1844-1894). traversed Africa all the way from east to west (1873-75). and he died of a wound inflicted by an opponent of his views (1579-1625). contended like him for the faith to which the nation by covenant had bound itself. CAMERONIANS (1). Computer Lecturer. extending 199 m. who held several professorial appointments on the Continent. and fixed on the Netherbow Port. (2) Also a British regiment.ramakalai@gmail. but his explorations were cut short by the natives. the highest peak nearly 14. and after a brave fight slain. a ringleader of the persecuted Presbyterians. was for a time Principal of Glasgow University. for long the 26th Regiment of the British line. along the coast. CAMERON. CAMEROON. he was on the track of important discoveries. his knowledge was so extensive that he was styled a "walking library. NW.. RICHARD. and even declined to take the oath of allegiance to sovereigns such as William III. Africa. born in Falkland. falling by a wide estuary into the Bight of Biafra. from the quantities of palm-oil exported. was surprised by a body of dragoons at AIRDS MOSS (q. a Scotch Covenanter of the 17th century. CTSTI.000 ft.). now the Scottish Rifles. Page 503 of 2772 . v. Chennai 6. a volcanic group. a Presbyterian body in Scotland who derived their name from Richard Cameron. Fife. who did not explicitly concede to the nation this right. his head and hands cut off." but he fell in disfavour with the people for his doctrine of passive obedience. and his successors. JOHN. (2) a mountain range. born near Weymouth. at the head of the Canongate. took to arms along with sixty others in defence of his rights. African explorer. Edinburgh. in 1680.

a blouse over their armour." or the Lusitanians.). were partly persuaded and partly compelled into submission by Marshal Villars in 1704. studied at Coimbra.ramakalai@gmail. killed by her brother because she wept at the death of her affiance. i. the "Epos of Commerce". MARCUS FURIUS. and remembered for generations after as one of the noblest heroic figures in Roman history. v. called. saved Rome from destruction by the Gauls under Brennus.. Page 504 of 2772 . and is their national epic. and consoled himself by writing his "Lusiad". the Portuguese. and got into trouble with the Portuguese authorities. died at eighty of the plague. volunteered service in India. CAMILLUS. Computer Lecturer. who took up arms by thousands in serious revolt against Louis XIV. took Veii. one of the CURIATII (q. and her grace. one of the heroines in the "AEneid.. under Jean Cavalier their chief. v. CAMOENS.com CAMILLA. fell in passionate love with a lady of high rank in Lisbon. in which others joined." noted for her preternatural fleetness on the racecourse. CTSTI. a _chemise_). was five times elected dictator. a rival town. so called because they wore a _camiso_ (Fr. retired into voluntary exile at Ardea on account of the envy of his enemies in Rome. coming home he lost everything but his poem. left Lisbon. born at Lisbon. a famous patrician of early Rome.). was banished to Macao. recalled from exile. (1) a virgin queen of the Volsci. the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). after. the poet of Portugal. in 365 B. and into English alone no fewer than six times (1524-1580). and in consequence of. whom the Horatii slew. (2) also a sister of the HORATII (q. it has been translated into most European languages. joined the army. the title of the poem is properly "The Lusiads. CAMISARDS.C. arrived at Goa. lamented by the whole nation. but whom he was not allowed to marry. Chennai 6. after a ten years' siege. and fought against the Moors. e. not inaptly. and gained a succession of victories over rival Italian tribes. as she with him. died neglected and in poverty. Huguenots of the Cevennes.

Capua was the capital. DE. CAMPAIGN. and devoted himself to the study of nature. it was a Computer Lecturer. of great fertility. oil. and spent 27 years of his life in a Neapolitan dungeon. and Gaeta. infested with malaria. a secret society in Naples with wide ramifications. Page 505 of 2772 . to suppress it. contemporary of Bacon. Salerno. which at one time had by sheer terrorism considerable political influence in the country. Chennai 6. (2) a town in Italy. released. became under Napoleon matron of an institution for daughters of officers of the Legion of Honour. and oil in great abundance. and fruit. after the Revolution opened a boarding-school at St. he was the author of sonnets as well as philosophical works (1568-1639). co-extensive with ancient Latium. THE. in the W. an ancient prov. he retired to France. and enjoyed the protection of Richelieu. with a cathedral. at the reform of philosophy. of Italy. the members of it joined the revolutionary party. the chief towns of which now are Naples. CAMPANELLA. like him. CAMPAGNA. CAMPANIA. an Italian philosopher of the transition period. originally a Dominican monk. TOMMASO. aimed. CTSTI. fell back upon the ancient systems. wrote the "Private Life of Marie Antoinette" (1752-1822). poem by Addison in celebration of Marlborough's victory at Blenheim. and had their revenge in the expulsion eventually of the Bourbons from Italy. faithful friend and confidante of Marie Antoinette. and a trade in wine. born at Paris. wine. was persecuted all along by the Church. when steps were taken by Francis II.ramakalai@gmail. and yields corn.com CAMORRA. opposed scholasticism. CAMPAN. born in Calabria. Germain. MME. in Salerno. (1) an unhealthy flat district round Rome.

LORD CLYDE. but not attached to it. was a Whig in Computer Lecturer. the sect has upwards of 5000 meeting-houses in America. destined for the Church. CAMPANILE. CAMPBELL. relieved Lucknow. a celebrated Scottish Highland clan. ALEXANDER. SIR COLIN. very common in Italian cities. the members of which have played an important role in English and Scottish history. born in Antrim.com favourite resort of the wealthy families of ancient Rome. the leaning tower of Pisa being one. and owned no authority in religion but the Bible. GEORGE. son of a carpenter named Macliver. disowned creeds. and that of Florence one of the most famous. with a pension of L2000. was made field-marshal. was called to the bar. did journalistic work and law reports. wrote "Philosophy of Rhetoric. CTSTI. commanded the Highland Brigade in the Crimea. entitled "Dissertation on Miracles" (1709-1796). and created Lord Clyde. Campbell executed a translation of the New Testament. entered the army. born in Glasgow." and an able reply to Hume's argument against miracles. Lord Chancellor of England. JOHN. a Scotch divine. CAMPBELL. emigrated to America in 1807. CAMPBELL. CAMPBELL. CAMPBELL.ramakalai@gmail. Principal of Aberdeen University. and over half a million members. won the day at Alma and Balaclava. in which he employed the words "immercer" and "immersion" for "baptist" and "baptism" (1788-1866). born at Cupar-Fife. and rose rapidly. an Anti-Calvinistic Baptist. but took the study of law. Chennai 6. commanded in India during the Mutiny. Page 506 of 2772 . and founded a sect called the "Disciples of Christ". a tower for bells constructed beside a church. he was one of the bravest soldiers of England (1792-1863). served in China and the Punjab. a son of the manse. and quelled the rebellion.

is a great fishing centre. and has over 20 whisky distilleries. whose character alone should have protected him from such an indignity. when a student of law in Edinburgh wrote "The Pleasures of Hope". CAMPBELL. a town in Kintyre. CTSTI. where he wrote the well-known lines. JOHN FRANCIS. author of. the Fatherhood of God. after settling in London a pension of L200 was awarded him through the influence of Fox. among other works. poet. "Popular Tales of the West Highlands.com politics." a collection all his own. orally collected. a Scotch clergyman. and again in the following year: buried in Westminster (1777-1844). CAMPBELL. and settled in London. he was elected Rector of Glasgow University in 1827. Computer Lecturer. he continued afterwards to ply his vocation as a minister of Christ in a quiet way to some quiet people like himself. the success of the work. while the doctrine for which he was deposed. Argyllshire. enabled him to travel on the Continent. in particular "The Last Man". with a fine harbour." and "The Exile of Erin". CAMPBELL. deposed from the ministry of the Scotch Church in 1831 for his liberal theological sentiments. born in Glasgow. and some more poetry.ramakalai@gmail. CAMPBELTOWN. Page 507 of 2772 . he wrote in prose as well as verse. married. where he did writing. and a remarkable one for the enthusiasm and the patriotic devotion it displays (1822-1885). JOHN MACLEOD. lecturing. which was great. Chennai 6. born at Islay. born in Argyll. held a succession of offices both on the Bench and in the Cabinet. wrote the "Lives of the Chancellors" and the "Lives of the Chief Justices" (1779-1861). a saintly man. THOMAS. studied with distinction at the University. "Ye Mariners of England. his favourite theme was the self-evidencing character of revelation. is being now adopted as the central principle of Scotch theology." "Hohenlinden. and before his death a testimonial and address in recognition of his worth was presented to him by representatives of nearly every religious community in Scotland (1801-1872).

his mission served only to embitter the relations of Henry with the see of Rome (1474-1539). famous for his moonlight pieces. German educationist. whom he would fain have befriended. LORENZO. a Mexican seaport on a bay of the same name. a Dutch landscape painter of the 17th century. CAMPHUYSEN. of Antwerp. CAMPINE. near which Admiral Duncan defeated the Dutch fleet under Van Winter in 1797. made a special study of the facial angle in connection with intelligence. CAMPER. a Dutch anatomist.ramakalai@gmail. cardinal. a tract of sandy hills on the coast of N. a vast moor of swamp and peat to the E. CAMPI. CTSTI. manufactures cigars. Page 508 of 2772 . being now rendered fertile by irrigation. JOACHIM HEINRICH. Computer Lecturer. PETER. and Catherine. CAMPERDOWN. with the effect of mortally offending the former and being of no real benefit to the latter. Chennai 6. and a patron of art (1722-1789). twice visited England as legate. the last time in connection with the divorce between Henry VIII. born at Leyden. CAMPEACHY (12). Holland. a family of painters. and author of educational works (1746-1818). he was an artist as well as a scientist. held sundry professorships. distinguished in the annals of Italian art at Cremona in the 16th century. CAMPEGGIO. disciple of Basedow.com CAMPE.

Italian and Spanish name for a burial-place. of Rio Janeiro.com CAMPION. became a keen Catholic propagandist in England. of the island of Walcheren. a village near Udine. CAMUS. of Computer Lecturer. on the NE. voted for the execution of the king as a traitor and conspirator. Chennai 6. by which the Belgian provinces and part of Lombardy were ceded to France. CAMPVERE. EDMUND. a learned French jurisconsult. in the prov. CAMPOS (13). in Venetia. born in London. CTSTI. and certain Venetian States to Austria in return. originally the coast land. where a treaty was concluded between France and Austria in 1797. a renegade from the Church of England. civil and ecclesiastical. a Jesuit. was arrested for sedition. was conservator of the national records. a trading city of Brazil. of which he was innocent. CAMPO-FORMIO. Page 509 of 2772 . a violent enemy of the mendicant monks (1582-1663). was in 1886 beatified by Pope Leo XIII.ramakalai@gmail. bishop of Belley. (1540-1581). and did good service in preserving them (1740-1804). and executed. but eventually the whole. a determined enemy of the Court party in France. now called VERE. CAMPO SANTO (_Holy Ground_). CANAAN. CAMUS. member of the National Convention. had a Scotch factory under Scotch law. born at Paris.

and the original inhabitants of Palestine. and Ontario are the largest lakes. dependent on agriculture. the twelve provinces. Erie. Alberta. cold. which with Newfoundland forms British North America. but as yet not much wrought. of the Jordan. pine. each with its own Parliament. but there are several gorges. year after year. CTSTI. nearly every Computer Lecturer.000). and poplar in immense quantities. Lawrence. Superior. occupies the northern third of the continent. Huron. elm. Great Slave. Manitoba. coal.000 ft. the forests yield maple. and Athabasca. Chennai 6. the peninsulas of Labrador and Nova Scotia. Athabasca. but bracing and exhilarating winters. are united under the Dominion Government. of the Rocky Mountains. it comprises a lofty and a lower tableland W. the Rocky Mountains rise to 16. in the rich soil of Manitoba. Manitoba. are of great value. worshippers of the fertilising powers of nature. CANAANITES. Prince Edward Island. New Brunswick. CANADA (5. from the United States to Alaska and the Arctic Ocean. Great Bear. many of them of enormous size and navigable. and between these a vast extent of prairie and undulating land. Saskatchewan. the climate is varied.ramakalai@gmail. with hot summers. the federal capital. the finest wheat is grown without manure. constituting the finest system of inland waterways in the world. Athabasca. and steps are taken to prevent the wealth of timber ever being exhausted. British Columbia. fisheries. through one of which the Canadian Pacific railroad runs. and the western prairie. very cold in the north.. very wet west of the Rockies. and E. the Dominion Parliament meets at Ottawa. the Governor-General is the Viceroy of the Queen. stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific. both on the coasts and inland. Page 510 of 2772 . from which they were never wholly rooted out. Winnipeg. the chief trade is done with England and the United States. nearly as large as Europe. with rivers and lakes innumerable. long. Nova Scotia. Quebec. the corn-growing land is practically inexhaustible. and copper are widely distributed. ash. a civilised race with towns for defence. Keewatin. elsewhere drier than in Europe. Saskatchewan. Ontario. gold. and St. iron. the chief rivers are the Fraser. Assiniboia. Mackenzie. agriculture and forestry are the most important industries. oak.com Palestine W.

CANARY ISLANDS (288). CTSTI. the islands are a health resort of growing favour. the largest town is Montreal. with rocky coasts. CONSTANTINE. more than any other statesman (1790-1877). now the name of the capital. CANCAN. on the lower levels the climate is delightful. taken possession of by France in 1534. Quebec. by the treaty of Utrecht. Hudson Bay. a Greek statesman. off the NW. sugar. bananas. CANALETTO. distinguished for his perspective and light and shade (1720-1780). settlement began at Quebec in 1608. CANARIS. Toronto. and tobacco are exported. that of Toronto being the most important. the ancient name of Crete. Page 511 of 2772 . did much to free and consolidate Greece. the rainfall is low.ramakalai@gmail. and Newfoundland passed to England. belonging to Spain. and sugar. CANDIA (12). Hamilton. CANALETTO. Chennai 6. and wild. the various provinces. picturesque scenery. BERNARDO BELLOTTO. a Venetian painter. in the centre of the N. nephew and pupil of preceding. 1703. constituted at different times. and Halifax are all larger than the capital. wine.com province has its university. coast. a group of mountainous islands in the Atlantic. African coast. were finally confederated in 1871. except Newfoundland. and water often scarce. the name of an ungraceful and indecent dance practised in the Paris dancing saloons. Nova Scotia. farther up there are zones where wheat and cereals are cultivated. famous for his pictures of Venice and handling of light and shade (1697-1768). and dates grow. the rest of French territory was ceded to England in 1763. ANTONIO. Computer Lecturer.

"All for the best in the best of all possible worlds". near the mouth of the Aufidus. wrote on the antiquities of Rome. CTSTI. coast. LUIGI. all come in for a sneer. next to Chalmers. ROBERT SMITH.com CANDIDE. human weakness. a philosophic romance by Voltaire. national manners. Hannibal. who addressing him said. an old Roman custom in honour of the goddess Februa. and "religion. oil. CANDOLLE. Italian architect. and written in ridicule of the famous maxim of Leibnitz. CANDLISH. CANINA." CANEA (12). a festival in commemoration of the purification of the Virgin. on NW.. Chennai 6. loyalty.. celebrated with lighted candles." CANDLEMAS. Page 512 of 2772 . one of his officers. a Scottish ecclesiastic. (1795-1856). in a great battle. trades in wax.C. CANNAE." Computer Lecturer. defeated the Romans in 216 B. "You know how to conquer. See DE CANDOLLE. wool. Etruria. born in Edinburgh. but failing to follow up his success by a march on Rome. held on February 2. CANDOUR. was twitted by Maherbal. where Hannibal. &c. it is a sweeping satire. but not how to profit by your victory.ramakalai@gmail. chief commercial town in Crete. love. was an able debater and an eloquent preacher (1806-1873). for his services in organising the Free Church of Scotland. fruit. MRS. ancient town in Apulia. and silk. political government. a slanderess in Sheridan's "Rivals. ambition. distinguished.

to the disgust of his old colleagues.com CANNES (15). was made Governor-General of India. a distinguished British statesman and orator. CHARLES JOHN. distinguished himself during this trying crisis by his discretion. CANNING. CANO. grandson of the succeeding. was rewarded by an under-secretaryship. became a member of the Liverpool ministry. died in London without issue. a French watering-place and health resort on the Mediterranean. and once more minister of Foreign Affairs. and the title became extinct (1812-1862). was not equal to the opposition he provoked. born in London. CTSTI. Page 513 of 2772 . entered Parliament as a protege of Pitt. CANO. the first to sail round the world. held this post at the time of the Mutiny in 1857. a Spanish navigator. of France. in succession to Lord Dalhousie. whom he strenuously supported. and architect (1601-1667). Computer Lecturer. CANNING. surnamed the Michael Angelo of Spain. studied for the bar. a celebrated artist. with a fortune. under Portland distinguished himself by defeating the schemes of Napoleon. on the death of Pitt became minister of Foreign Affairs. ALONZO. perished on his second voyage to India (1460-1526). firmness. and died at the age of 57 (1770-1827). sculptor. on the death of Liverpool was made Prime Minister. became viceroy on the transfer of the government to the crown in 1858. after service in cabinet offices. married a lady of high rank. and moderation. a liberal policy. Chennai 6. where Napoleon landed on his return from Elba. 1856. satirised the Whigs by his pen in his "Anti-Jacobin". EARL. born at Granada. having been painter. GEORGE. and after a period of unpopularity became popular by adopting. in the SE. SEBASTIAN DEL.ramakalai@gmail.

the blue vault of heaven with its stars. a town in Apulia. a gorge in Arizona through which the Colorado River flows. CANOVA. CANONISATION. being 300 m. CANON OF COLORADO. termed Saint." distinguished by a Computer Lecturer. Page 514 of 2772 . a great Italian sculptor. renowned for his virtue and for miracles he has wrought. CANOSSA. to remove from him the sentence of excommunication. and honoured by a special festival. is the solemn declaration by the Pope that a servant of God. in the courtyard of the castle of which the Emperor Henry IV. on the site of ancient Canusium. much resembling a suit at law. CANOSA (18). waiting for Pope Gregory VII. the name given to the body of Scripture accepted by the Church as of divine authority. a town NW.ramakalai@gmail. is to be publicly venerated by the whole Church. in the Romish Church. abounding in Roman remains. Chennai 6. the largest and deepest in the world. of Bologna. and costly process. bareheaded and barefooted. and the beatification and canonisation of a saint are promoted by a long. stood three days in the cold. was the group of "Theseus and the Minotaur. and which established his fame. in January 1077. tedious. A preparatory stage is beatification. his first great work. ANTONIO. as he wanders over the waste at night alone. with a wall from 3000 to 6000 ft. in perpendicular height. gave early proof of his genius. long." which was by-and-by succeeded by his "Cupid and Psyche. CTSTI. revered and worshipped by the son of the sandy desert as a friend and guide to him. CANOPUS. born in Venetia.com CANON.

affectation of thinking. marshal of France. and then in succession to St. FRANCOIS. became a member of the senate under the Republic (1809-1895). CANTACUZE`NUS. believing. served for some 20 years in Algeria. CANTARINI. his works were numerous.. emperor of the East. where he wrote a history of his time. insincere and sincere. the original inhabitants of the N. JOHN. born at Pesaro. CANROBERT. but only an imitator from afar (1612-1648). 100 years old. and a tool. died in 1411. ANDREW. a Scotch Presbyterian minister. A son of his was Principal of Edinburgh University from 1675 to 1685." perhaps the triumph of his art. which he made a generous use of (1757-1822). commanded in the Crimea.ramakalai@gmail. an able statesman. a pupil of Guido and a rival. fought in Italy against Austria. CANT. insincere when one cants knowing it. first under. was a supporter of Napoleon III. who acting as regent for the heir. Chennai 6. of which there are two degrees. and made prisoner. Page 515 of 2772 . and brought him a large fortune. who had an equal zeal for the Scotch covenant and the cause of Charles Stuart (1610-1664). had himself crowned king. Arnaud. and feeling what one in his heart and reality does not. retired to a monastery on Mount Athos. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer.com tenderness and grace quite peculiar to him. CANTABRI. the latter being of the darker and deeper dye. SIMONE. presumed to be the ancestors of the Basques. was shut up in Metz with Bazaine. and erelong by "Perseus with the Head of Medusa. but was driven to resign at length. of Spain. and sincere when one cants without knowing it. CANT. an Italian painter.

and other buildings occupy the site of the old monastic houses. SE. and agreed to tell each a tale going and each another coming back. conceived of as related by a small company of pilgrims from London to the shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. the cloisters. her sole beloved. chapter-house. dating as far back as the 11th century. if there is any unity in it at all. Kent. 597 by St. Kit Marlowe was a native. a book in the Bible erroneously ascribed to Solomon.com CANTERBURY (23). there is an art gallery. in the centre of the South Island. trade is chiefly in hops and grain. CANTERBURY TALES. Augustin. Chennai 6. among the latter that of Thomas a Becket. a district in New Zealand. and is by some still. to the conclusion that it represents a young maiden seduced into the harem of Solomon. the author of the best tale to be treated with a supper. in justification possibly of the secession. Computer Lecturer. the city is rich in old churches and ecclesiastical monuments. CTSTI. of London. CANTERBURY (128). is the ecclesiastical capital of England. who cannot be persuaded to transfer to the king the affection she has for a shepherd in the northern hills of Galilee. as regards the latter. recent criticism inclines. about the canonicity and interpretation of which there has been much debate. the aim of the author presumed by some to present a contrast between the morals of the south and those of the north. a body of tales by Chaucer. murdered in the north transept. on the east side of which are the Canterbury Plains or Downs. it contains many interesting monuments. and called in Hebrew the Song of Songs. Page 516 of 2772 . believed to be an allegory in which the Bridegroom represents Christ and the Bride His Church. It was for long. though. CANTICLES. None of the tales on the homeward journey are given. in E. the cathedral was founded A. a great pasture-land for sheep of over three million acres.ramakalai@gmail. by rail 62 m. the present building belongs to various epochs. and tombs.D. on the Stour. They started from the Tabard Inn at Southwark. 1170. statues.

NW. &c. cassia. and is a healthy town. 100 m. but with a heavy rainfall. JOHN. died in England. (1807-1895). and metal work are famous. CANTU. born in Lombardy. invaded England. 10 and 13 centuries old respectively. discovered the means of making artificial magnets and the compressibility of water (1718-1772). silk. though London held out for a time. and next year. a "Universal History" in 35 vols. carried all before him. mostly Buddhist. called the Great. literary as well as historical. wrote. is covered with forests of pine. and after a success or two was elected king by his fleet. Page 517 of 2772 . and exports timber and fish. 125 temples. Computer Lecturer.800). or CNUT. every one is familiar with the story of the rebuke he administered to the courtiers by showing how regardless the waves of the sea were of the authority of a king (994-1035). and he had to flee.ramakalai@gmail. the claim was repudiated by the Saxons. of Nova Scotia at its eastern extremity. CAPE BRETON (92). CANUTE. and particularly in electricity. THE DANE. CANTON. &c. but at length liberated.com CANTON (1. its river communication with the interior has fostered an extensive commerce. silk. wisely. exports. imprisoned by the Austrian government for his bold advocacy of liberal views. returned in 1015. stands on a river almost on the seaboard. among a number of other works. equitably. CAESARE. and was buried in Winchester Minster. on the death of his sole rival became undisputed king of England.. born at Stroud. an ingenious experimentalist in physics. an Italian historian. chief commercial city and port of Southern China. sugar. has narrow crooked streets. oak. king of Denmark. and two pagodas. though the care of governing Denmark and Norway lay on his shoulders as well. long and 85 broad. and well. son of Sweyn. CTSTI. it is surrounded by walls. and ruled it as an Englishman born. the insular portion of the prov. tea. great part of the population live in boats on the river. of Hong-Kong. porcelain. the fancy goods. Chennai 6. ivory. 90 m.

and German origin. ostrich feathers. roads are good. the northern slope long and gradual to the Orange River. The government is in the hands of a governor. Discovered by the Portuguese Diaz in 1486. and is nearly twice the size of the United Kingdom. hides. have been formally taken under British protection. CAPE HORN. diamonds from Kimberley and copper from Namaqualand are the chief exports. capital of the Gold Coast colony. French. the university of the Cape of Good Hope was founded in 1873. CTSTI. CAPE COLONY (1. called at first "Cape of Storms. education is well cared for. discovered by Diaz in 1486. the southern shorter and terraced to the sea. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.com CAPE COAST CASTLE (11). Page 518 of 2772 . two-thirds of the country is arid plain. Chennai 6. local government is in vogue all over the country. In recent years great tracts to the N. frowning rock at the SE. the Cape was taken possession of by the Dutch in 1652. English. Various steps towards self-government culminated in 1872. two-thirds of the people are of African race. the Nieuwveld Berge. wool. but there are many small towns. a cape in South Africa.527). only requires irrigation to render it very fertile. Kimberley and Port Elizabeth the only other large towns. who flourish under British rule. the climate is dry and healthy. much dreaded at one time by sailors. however. divides the country into two slopes. appointed by the crown. assisted by an executive council of five and a parliament of two houses. steep. and the policy of extending British sway from the Cape to Cairo is explicitly avowed. extremity of the Fuegean Islands." from the experience of the first Computer Lecturer. comprises the extremity of the African continent south of the Orange River and Natal. from whom it was captured by Great Britain in 1805. and W. the prevalent vegetation is heath and bulbous plants.. chiefly Kaffirs. Sheep and ostrich farming are the chief industries. railway and telegraph communication is rapidly developing. the remainder are of Dutch. a black. Cape Town is the capital. but hot in summer. goats' hair. which. running E.ramakalai@gmail.

flat-roofed. and cattle-breeding is the chief industry. and is a port of call for vessels of all nations. with notes and various readings (1713-1781). 350 m. museum and art gallery. the wood-grouse. born at Bury St. volcanic islands. of which 10 are inhabited. and a graving dock. CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (110). on the SW. CTSTI. with a thriving commerce. a group of mountainous. of Africa. spent 20 years in editing the text of Shakespeare.." a strange medley of curious learning. an encyclopaedist. imposing town. CAPELL. altered in consideration of the promised land reached beyond. and with a good water supply.com navigators. CAPELLA. These islands are unhealthy. and lit. bank and exchange. The Government buildings and law courts. belonging to Portugal. well drained. Chennai 6. a large game-bird found in fir woods in mountainous districts. paved. coast. is a regularly built. Vincent. CAPELLA. from Cape Verde. born in North Africa in the 5th century. an inspector of plays. Computer Lecturer. are its chief architectural features. with Table Mountain rising behind it. oftenest visited. It has docks.ramakalai@gmail. in three vols. Edmunds. CAPE TOWN (84). CAPERCAILZIE. with an excellent harbour. Page 519 of 2772 . capital of Cape Colony. a reddish star of the first magnitude in the northern constellation of Auriga. author of a work called the "Satiricon. with handsome buildings and extensive Government gardens. EDWARD. on the W. and highly esteemed for table. situated at the head of Table Bay. the largest and most productive Santiago and St.

the founder. hence the saying. played a prominent part in the insurrection of the Computer Lecturer. which ruled till 1848. the exact site of which is uncertain. born in Corfu. terminated at its southern extremity by Tarpeian Rock. aided John Hunniades in 1456 in defending Belgrade against the Turks (1385-1456). having been officially designated as a Capet at his trial. CAPO D'ISTRIA. Chennai 6. a rabid adversary of the Hussites. Page 520 of 2772 . and under that name sentenced to the guillotine. COUNT OF. CAPET. "The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitol. a town on the N." and voluminously both in French and English (1393-1464)." to denote the close connection between glory and disgrace. Louis XVI. one of the seven hills of Rome. as distinct from the laws for the separate peoples comprising it. and where victors who were voted a triumph were crowned. CAPGRAVE. which continued to rule France till 1328. an Italian Franciscan. GIOVANNI DA. JOHN. a temple and citadel erected by Tarquin on the Capitoline Hill. and the Bourbon. the most famous being those issued or begun by Charlemagne and St. which ruled till 1589. in 987.ramakalai@gmail. CAPITULARIES. of the third dynasty of French kings. entered the Russian diplomatic service.com CAPERNAUM. collections of royal edicts issued by the Frankish kings of the Carlovingian dynasty. Augustine friar. CAPISTRANO. with sanction of the nobles. Louis. for the whole Frankish empire. the centre of Christ's labours. CTSTI. wrote "Chronicle of England. side of the Sea of Galilee. the surname of Hugh. though the name is applied both to the Valois dynasty. from which criminals guilty of treason were precipitated. CAPITOL.

where. connected with the mainland by a causeway half a mile in length. and noted for its fine air and picturesque scenery. held chief posts in the Austrian and Franco-German wars. COUNT. CAPRARA. made President of the Greek Republic. entered the army in 1849. CAPRIVI.ramakalai@gmail. of the bay of Naples. born at Bologna. a port of a small island in the government of Trieste. a small. a favourite retreat of the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius. of Naples. a plateau with pastures for immense flocks. destroyed by the Saracens in 840. the home of Garibaldi. 27 m. in 1890 succeeded Bismarck as Imperial Chancellor.. his soldiers were enervated. Hannibal. CARDINAL. CAPUA (11). Computer Lecturer. in France. or rather near which. CAPRI. a small island at the entrance from the S. and his burial-place. N.C. CTSTI. Chennai 6. CAPO D'ISTRIA. retired with his army to spend the winter after the battle of Cannae. on the Volturno. assassinated at Nauplia from distrust of his fidelity (1776-1831). and where. CAPRE`RA. concluded the "Concordat" of 1801 (1733-1810). resigned in 1894 (1831-1899). Page 521 of 2772 . 216 B. legate of Pius VII. CAPPADOCIA. at the invitation of the citizens. of varied political fortune. in a place of the same name. an ancient country in the heart of Asia Minor. and the modern city built in its stead. a fortified city in Campania. from the luxurious life they led. born in Berlin. coast of Sardinia. barren island off the N. where he died.com Greeks against Turkey. with a capital of the same name on the eastern side. after which it was taken by the Romans.

ANNIBALE. cousin and pupil. and was assassinated himself by one of his guards. founded in 1526. born at Lyons. assisted him in the frescoes of the gallery. the principle of which was eclecticism.com CAPUCHINS. or imitation of the styles of the best masters (1555-1619). a family of painters. among others the jurist Papinianus. son of Septimius Severus. familiar to us through Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet. monks of the Franciscan Order. the "Communion of St. in appearance like a small pig. CARACAS or CARRACAS (72). the water-hog. CARACCI or CARRACCI. CAPYBA`RA. Chennai 6. it contains the tomb of Bolivar. the founder of a new school of painting. in consequence of which it is known as the Eclectic School.ramakalai@gmail. and extravagances.000 persons. and were twice over suppressed by the Pope." and his chief. AGOSTINO. went to Rome and painted the celebrated Farnese gallery." Romeo being of the latter and Juliet of the former. CAPULETS. Jerome" his greatest work Computer Lecturer. the cap. a Roman emperor. "Three Marys weeping over Christ". CTSTI. CARACALLA. subject to earthquakes.000 perished. stands at an altitude 3000 ft. Page 522 of 2772 . above the level of the sea. so called from a cowl they wear. brother of above. the largest rodent extant. Roche distributing Alms. did "St. though they exist still in Austria and Switzerland. and great part of the city was destroyed. in one of which (1812) 12. a work which occupied him four years (1560-1609). born at Bologna: LUDOVICO. his reign (211-217) was a series of crimes. he put to death 20. follies. they were a mendicant order. of Venezuela. a celebrated Ghibelline family of Verona at mortal feud with that of the Montagues.

CTSTI.. one of them. CARAGLIO. Paul IV. Chennai 6. CARAVAGGIO. Computer Lecturer. a distinguished Neapolitan family. and led in triumphal procession through Rome. famous for his valour and the chastity and constancy of his wife. a class of substances such as the sugars. consisting of carbon. taken captive. hydrogen. 50 A. and kept generally to crass reality. CARAFFA. a knight of the Round Table. born at Verona.. with a court in the middle for the accommodation of caravans and other travellers at night in the East. London (1569-1609). which gave birth to a number of distinguished ecclesiastics. the latter in the proportion in which they exist in water. which hastened his end. CARADOC. an eminent Italian engraver. after the works of the great masters (1500-1570). starch. maintained a gallant struggle against the Romans for nine years. an Italian painter. a large unfurnished inn.D. a painting by him of "Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus" is in the National Gallery. CARBOHYDRATES. and oxygen. Page 523 of 2772 . but was overthrown by Ostorius.ramakalai@gmail. CARAVANSERAI. engraved on gems and medals as well as copper-plate. often in its grossest forms.com (1557-1602). king of the Silures. disdained the ideal and the ideal style of art. &c. CARACTACUS. that he set him and all his companions at liberty. a man of a violent temper. a British chief. when the Emperor Claudius was so struck with his dignified demeanour.

a county in S. Silvio Pellico. believed in astrology. numbering hundreds of thousands. few of them belonging to the Church of England. the object of which was the overthrow of despotic governments. made discoveries in algebra. Italian physician and mathematician. left a candid account of himself entitled "De Vita Propria".ramakalai@gmail. in the beginning of the 19th century. S. on the equipment of which he lavished large sums of money (1797-1868). and mountainous in the interior. on the river Taff. Wales. born at Pavia. CARDIFF (129). which he led. _charcoal burners_). included Lord Byron. his favourite regiment. a secret society that. low-lying on the coast. EARL OF. county town of Glamorganshire. the sea outlet for the mineral wealth and products of the district. Page 524 of 2772 . Wales. JEROME. level towards the coast. a number of churches. but with fertile valleys. CARDIGANSHIRE (62). a town that has risen more rapidly than any other in the kingdom. having had at the beginning of the century only 2000 inhabitants. and distinguished himself in the famous charge of the Six Hundred. it has a university. Computer Lecturer. they were broken up by Austria. and absorbed by the Young Italy party. a British officer. CARDIGAN. CTSTI. originated in Italy and extended itself into France. Chennai 6. was the author of "Cardan's Formula" a formula for the solution of cubic equations. and Mazzini among them.com CARBONARI (lit. commanded the Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimean war. studied and wrote on all manner of known subjects. CARDAN. was far-famed as a physician. he is said to have starved himself to death so as to fulfil a prophecy he had made as to the term of his life (1501-1576). and has also three daily papers. the 11th Hussars.

CTSTI.com CARDINAL VIRTUES. brothers. present at her deathbed rode off post-haste on the occurrence of the death with the news to Edinburgh to announce it to King James (1560-1639). his poems. Page 525 of 2772 . SIR ROBERT." &c." CARDINALISTS." he adds. name given to the partisans in France of Richelieu and Mazarin." "Odi Barbari. Florentine artists. Computer Lecturer. _b_. these have been "arranged by the wisest men of all time. Fortitude (the spirit that persists and endures rightly). and the governing powers and princes of economy. 1837. _d_. 1743. Chennai 6. CARDUCCI." and are defined by Ruskin as "Prudence or Discretion (the spirit which discerns and adopts rightly). GIOSUE. Justice (the spirit which rules and divides rightly). under four general heads. CARDUCCI. "are not only the means of protecting and prolonging life itself. English poet and musician. composed "Sally in Our Alley".ramakalai@gmail. but are the chief guards or sources of the material means of life. CAREY. These cardinal and sentinel virtues. THOMAS." "Commentaries on Petrarch. CAREW. excelled in ballads.. and Temperance (the spirit which stops and refuses rightly). HENRY. CAREY. English courtier poet. chiefly masks and lyrics (1589-1639). an Italian poet and critic. author of "Hymn to Satan. did their chief work in Spain. of the 17th century. warden of the Border Marches under Elizabeth.

Glasgow. they give name to the Caribbean Sea. a Scotch Covenanter. tall.com CAREY. Chennai 6. they are a fine race. CARIA. was 29 years Oriental professor in the College of Fort William. bordering on the Archipelago. of which the Maeander is the chief river. lying between the Great Antilles and South America. Page 526 of 2772 . in the castle of which. suffered at the Cross of Edinburgh for daring to excommunicate the king. a SW. CARINTHIA (361). born in Perthshire. and is the turning-point of the Gulf Stream. since 1849 crownland of Austria. celebrated Baptist missionary. Calcutta (1761-1834). CTSTI. and of ruddy-brown complexion. originally inhabiting the West Indies. rears cattle and horses. subject to hurricanes. CARGILL. died with the faith and courage of a martyr (1619-1681). born in Northamptonshire. was minister of the Barony Parish. but have lost their distinctive physique by amalgamation with other tribes. as far as the mouth of the Amazon. WILLIAM. the principal river is the Drave. capital. it corresponds to the Mediterranean in Europe. an inland sea of the Atlantic. country in Asia Minor. near Italy. a village in the Isle of Wight. distributing Bibles and tracts by thousands in native languages. founder of the Baptist Missionary Society. founded the mission at Serampore and directed its operations. CARISBROOKE. DONALD. now confined to the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea. Computer Lecturer. Klagenfurt. and its first missionary. CARIBBEAN SEA.ramakalai@gmail. CARIBS. is a mountainous and a mineral country. a race of American Indians. fought at Bothwell Brig. manufactures hardware and textile fabrics. as well as preparing grammars and dictionaries.

her novels. his first work. EARL OF. EMILIA. his wife included." followed by others of a like class (1794-1860). and the foundation of his reputation. supported the successive Whig administrations of his time. although he time after time suffered imprisonment for it. "Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry. a disciple of Tom Paine's. and economist. a Whig in politics. and became eventually Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Palmerston (1802-1864). county town of Cumberland. Page 527 of 2772 . Italian archaeologist. born at Capo d'Istria. on the Eden. CARLEN. president of the Council of Commerce at Milan (1720-1795). CARLILE. as well as those who associated themselves with him. English Radical and Freethinker. some 30 in number. WILLIAM. Chennai 6. was imprisoned 13 months before his trial.com now in ruins. numismatist. RICHARD. CARLI. and a cathedral founded by William Rufus and dedicated to Henry I." the first twelve volumes of which are dated from his prison. a great railway centre. treat of the everyday life of the lower and middle classes (1807-1883). and propagandist of his views with a zeal which no prosecution could subdue. and in that interest did not suffer in vain (1790-1843). CARLISLE.ramakalai@gmail. CTSTI. wrote as his chief work on political economy. Swedish novelist. GEORGE FREDERICK WILLIAM HOWARD. CARLETON. CARLISLE (39). Charles I. Computer Lecturer. Irish novelist. with an old castle of historical interest. his principal organ was "The Republican. it was at one time a Roman station. born in Devonshire. he was a martyr for the freedom of the press.

884. son of Charles Martel.ramakalai@gmail. CARLOMAN. against Isabella. Chennai 6. and heir to the throne. DON. Page 528 of 2772 . _d_. died shortly after. CARLOS. and the struggle kept up for years. and especially in Spain to those of Don Carlos (1833). Ferdinand's daughter who by the Salic law. where he died. CARLOMAN. on whose death he laid claim to the crown as heir. and convicted. _d_. the story of Don Carlos has formed the subject of tragedies. no right to the throne. he urged. grandson of the preceding. defeated at length he retired from the contest. tried. or worse. and Provence in 768. and brother of Pepin le Bref. the brother of Ferdinand VII. though sentence against him was never pronounced. 771. CARLOS. Burgundy. especially one by Schiller. of Spain. though set aside in her favour by her father. son of Philip II. abdicated. born at Valladolid. was seized. confessed to a priest a design to assassinate some one. and abdicated in favour of his son (1785-1855). and heir to his rights. believed to be his father. of Spain. son of Pepin le Bref. CTSTI.. the German poet (1545-1568). king of Austrasia. but from incapacity. CARLOS. a name given in France to the partisans of Charles X. excluded by his father from all share in the government. Computer Lecturer. and brother of Charlemagne. his cause was taken up by a large party. DON. CARLOMAN.com CARLISTS. DON. king of Austrasia from 741 to 747. and those of his grandson (1873-1874). king of France conjointly with his brother Louis III. and retired into a monastery. (1830). had.

the capital of the Grand-Duchy of Baden. built in the form of a fan. bore sway from 762 to 987.ramakalai@gmail. the last. a celebrated watering-place in Bohemia. CTSTI. CARLOWITZ. CARLSTADT. a Swedish town.. _b_. NW. Pepin le Bref the first. an inland county in Leinster. of aristocratic resort. on the Baltic. CARLSCRONA (21). or KARLINGS. the name of the second dynasty of Frankish kings. of Belgrade. which had become _faineant_. took refuge in London. and gave name to the dynasty.com revived the struggle in 1870. the inhabitants are engaged in industries which minister to the tastes of the visitors and their own profit. radiating so from the duke's palace in the centre. very much to the curtailment of the territories of the former. associated for a time with Luther. a great railway centre. its streets. Page 529 of 2772 . the springs being the hottest in Europe. the water varying from 117 deg. CALLOW (40). CARLOVINGIANS. but Computer Lecturer. but fared no better than his grandfather. also the county town. strongly fortified. and Louis V. Ireland. CARLSBAD (10). it is built on five rocky islands united by dykes and bridges. naval station. Chennai 6. where a treaty was concluded in 1699 between Turkey and other European powers. population nearly trebled in the season. and arsenal. 32 in number. a town on the Danube. a German Reformer. in succession to the Merovingian. with a spacious harbour. 30 m. CARLSRUHE (73). Charlemagne was the greatest of the race. to 165 deg. 1848.

and of Margaret Aitken. penetration. removed to Craigenputtock. a woman of deep piety and warm affection. formed there an intimate friendship with Edward Irving. where he wrote his "French Computer Lecturer. born in Dumfriesshire. removed to London in 1834. and integrity of character. left an "Autobiography. married Jane Welsh. the author of "Douglas". in the Arts classes. when he was Prince of Wales. and afterwards a small farmer. CARLYLE. a man of great force. removed to Edinburgh. so called. distinguished himself early in mathematics. surnamed Jupiter Carlyle. Page 530 of 2772 . CARLTON CLUB. the latter of which collected afterwards in the "Miscellanies. wrote a "Life of Schiller". son of James Carlyle. and took to tutoring and working for an encyclopedia.ramakalai@gmail. and a symbolical. cultured pagan (1722-1805). then at Kirkcaldy. a stone-mason. became a teacher first in Annan Academy. Adam Smith. demolished in 1828. though all too exclusively treated as a speculative. ALEXANDER. Dumfriesshire. born in the village of Ecclefechan. entered the University of Edinburgh at the age of 14. and by-and-by to translating from the German and writing criticisms for the Reviews. enrolled as a student in the theological department. in Dumfriesshire. succeeded Zwingli as professor at Basel (1483-1541)." proved "epoch-making" in British literature. CTSTI. friend of David Hume. and occupied by George IV. and an autobiographical. a descendant of John Knox. from 1747 to his death. Annandale. as erected on the site of Carlton House. from his noble head and imposing person. CARLYLE. THOMAS. threw up both school-mastering and the church. which shows its author to have been a man who took things as he found them. educated at the parish school and Annan Academy. a leader of the Moderate party in the Church of Scotland." written in 1831." which was not published till 1860.com parted from him both on practical and dogmatical grounds. a radically spiritual book. "the loneliest nook in Britain. the Conservative club in London. and enjoyed them to the full as any easy-going." where his original work began with "Sartor Resartus. Chennai 6. minister of Inveresk. Musselburgh. and Home.

in 1845 he dug up a hero literally from the grave in his "Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell. CARMEL. as he all along taught and felt. called Frederick the Great. and terminates in a rocky Computer Lecturer." which to the last he regarded. the social life affects the individual life to the very core." and in 1850 "Latter-Day Pamphlets"." says Emerson." says Froude." in 1843 "Past and Present. "that is a Judgment Day. as would seem. in "sore travail" of body and soul. capital Carmarthen. Page 531 of 2772 . and just for the love of God" (1795-1881). for its moral verdict on men and nations. CARMARTHENSHIRE (30). what he knew to be needful for the people of his time to hear. concluded (1858-1865) his life's task. has written. without thought of himself. if the will to hear had been in them . Chennai 6. extension of the limestone ridge that bounds on the S. John Sterling. prosecuted from first to last. CARMAGNOLE.. of Prussia." according to Ruskin. the Plain of Esdraelon. Wales. as he had left instructions to be. the most serious question of the time.. the last of them "Heroes and Hero-Worship. CTSTI. the last." afterwards printed in 1840. "a book. delivered three courses of lectures to the _elite_ of London Society (1837-1840)." "the last and grandest of his works. in Palestine. a Red-republican song and dance. lies buried beside his own kindred in the place where he was born." and after writing in 1851 a brief biography of his misrepresented friend. a county in S. "The man. with "The History of Friedrich II. contains part of the coal-fields in the district. seeing. and revealing "a new moral force" in the literary life of the country and century. all on what he called the "Condition-of-England-Question. and at present. "who alone of all our masters of literature. a book instinct with the all-consuming fire of the event which it pictures. and the manners of modern times".com Revolution" (1837). in 1840 appeared "Chartism. a river which traverses the county. the solitary Teacher who has asked them to be (before all) brave for the help of Man.ramakalai@gmail. a NW. as a subject of the realm. and the largest in the Principality. his greatest disciple. on the right bank of the Towy.

and a capital of the same name on the Menai Strait.. has taken an active interest in the elevation and welfare of her sex.ramakalai@gmail. CARNATIC. the first Prince of Wales. a Calabrian. author of little pieces under the name of "Proverbes" (1717-1806). in the Madras Presidency of India that extended along the Coromandel coast from Cape Comorin. was born. at length mendicant. forms the southern boundary of the Bay of Acre. lost an only child. Page 532 of 2772 . Wales. 1843. a monastic order. in which Edward II. Computer Lecturer. called the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. many of them undecipherable by the antiquary. CARNAC. _b_. CARNARVON. CARMONTEL. in consecration to whom it was founded by a pilgrim of the name Berthold. a maritime county in N. N. wrote the "Druses of Mount Lebanon" (1831-1890). The Order is said to have existed from the days of Elijah. of Morbihan. CARMEN SYLVA. a seaside fishing-village in the Bay of Quiberon. with the highest mountains and grandest scenery in the Principality. its highest point is 1742 ft. 600 m. the Virgin. i. HENRY HOWARD. high. in the dep. the _nom-de-plume_ of Elizabeth. an old prov. was a good classical scholar.com promontory 500 ft. in 1156. above the sea-level. with interesting historical records. Earl of. and took to literature for consolation. CARMELITES. CARNARVON. a French dramatist. Chennai 6. with the noble ruins of a castle. Conservative statesman. France. held office under Lord Derby and Disraeli. e. CTSTI. particularly Celtic. queen of Roumania. originally an association of hermits on Mount Carmel.

born in Dunfermline. founder of thermo-dynamics. _b_.S. U. 1835. born at Computer Lecturer. akin to the Saturnalia of the Romans. made a large fortune by his iron and steel works at Pittsburg. in his "Reflexions sur la Puissance du Feu" enunciates the principle of Reversibility. CARNOT. civil engineer and statesman. a crownland of the Austrian empire. his whole philosophy a polemic against the dogmatism of the Stoics.). KNOTT'S "PHYSICS. conceded that truth and virtue were admirable qualities. Page 533 of 2772 . ANDREW. upon which Cato moved he should be expelled from the senate-house and sent back to Athens. S. though in some parts it yields wine and fine fruit." CARNOT. of Austria. both in America and his native country. but he denied the reality of them. considered the most important contribution to physical science since the time of Newton (1796-1832). CARNEGIE.C. MARIE FRANCOIS. of Carinthia. CARNIVAL. ironmaster. and the soil is not grain productive. on the Adriatic. on the alleged ground of the absence of any criterion of certainty in matters of either science or morality. second only to those of Almaden. CTSTI. where he came from (213-129 B. the son of a weaver. son of Nicolas.com CARNEADES. the surface is mountainous. a Greek philosopher.. CARNIOLA (500). he propounded this doctrine in the ears of the Conscript Fathers. out of which he has liberally endowed institutions and libraries. born at Cyrene. SW. Chennai 6. in Spain. LEONARD SADI. sent once on an embassy to Rome.ramakalai@gmail. contains quicksilver mines. See DR. in Roman Catholic countries the name given to a season of feasting and revelry immediately preceding Lent.

a French philosopher. 480 m. defender of Antwerp in 1814. and pessimism (1826-1887). on the Atlantic. inland from the coast. voted for the death of the king. Page 534 of 2772 . Finance Minister in 1879 and 1887. Minister of War under Napoleon. S. became member of the Committee of Public Safety. CAROLINA. S. NORTH. and organiser of the armies of the Republic. ANNIBALE. America. the mountains are covered with forests. and the manufactures are numerous. CAROLINA. nephew of the preceding. from N. western. Carolina. a member of the National Convention. produces rice and cotton in large quantities and of a fine quality. one of the original 13 States of N. has a fertile. born at Nolay.. an Italian author and poet. the "organiser of victory". MARIE. is rich in minerals and natural products. of the Philippine Islands. 2000 m. CTSTI. of N. to S. is well watered. notable for his classic style (1507-1566). CARNOT.ramakalai@gmail. is alluvial with swamps. Chennai 6. and 180 m.. became President in 1887. belonging to Spain. a popular lecturer on philosophy.com Limoges. CAROLINE ISLANDS (36). of Virginia. NICOLAS. from E. born at Poitiers. in Burgundy. CARO. a stretch of lagoon islands. the soil of the western is fertile. wrote on mysticism. to W. CARO. and afterwards Minister of the Interior (1753-1823). French mathematician and engineer. about the size of England. and central. surnamed _le philosophe des dames_. once divided into eastern. and there is plenty of fish and turtle in the Computer Lecturer. was assassinated at Lyons by an anarchist in 1894. well-watered subsoil in the high lands. to W. whence his name. 100 m. materialism. of New Guinea and E. N. from E. SOUTH.

Chennai 6. CARON.ramakalai@gmail. married George. JEAN BAPTISTE. in a semicircle round the greater part of Hungary. born at Valenciennes. but almost immediately after her husband abandoned her. then Prince of Wales. the highest of them Negoi. extend from Presburg to Orsova. CARPEAUX. an Italian critic says of him. she died a fortnight after (1768-1821). and their sides clothed with forests. in 1795. executed 1822. for his truth of delineation. was charged with adultery. was allowed to go abroad after a time. on the day of the coronation sought admission to Westminster Abbey.. long. and the facade of the Opera House (1827-1875).. CAROLINE OF BRUNSWICK. and have nearly all of them sacred subjects. in two great masses. principally of beech and pine. 880 m. a range of wooded mountains in Central Europe. and his rich colouring. queen of George IV. head of the Belford conspiracy in 1820 under the Restoration. his works are numerous. VITTORE. reckoned highly imaginative. CARPACCIO. a Venetian painter of great celebrity. they are rich in minerals. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. "He had truth in his heart" (1450-1522). particularly in his early pieces. both on the Danube. several of the public monuments of Paris. and E. but after a long trial acquitted. which. CTSTI. but the door was shut against her. under the first Empire. on the accession of her husband she was offered a pension of L50. Page 535 of 2772 . gave birth to the Princess Charlotte the year following. his fertile imagination. and daughter of the Duke of Brunswick. particularly the whole of the N.com lagoons. adorned by his art.000 if she stayed out of the country. CARPATHIANS. but rejected it and claimed her rights as queen. Computer Lecturer. she retired to a mansion at Blackheath. sculptor. 8517 ft.

of Australia. of the "Principles of General and Comparative Physiology" (1838). CARPENTER. a philanthropist. Chennai 6. CARPINI. CARPIO. she visited four times.com CARPENTARIA. CARPI. successful imitator of Correggio (1501-1556). GIROLAMO DA. born at Exeter. was a corpulent man of 60. to the Emperor of the Mogul Tartars to persuade him out of Europe. travelled from Lyons to beyond Lake Baikal and back. brother of the preceding. UGO DA. which had a quieting effect on the panic in Europe (1182-1252). and receives several rivers. and advocated the theory of a vertical circulation in the ocean (1813-1877).ramakalai@gmail. Unitarian minister. biologist. Italian painter and wood engraver. author. a Franciscan monk. WILLIAM BENJAMIN. and she was the founder of the National Indian Association (1807-1877). Italian painter and architect. MARY. contributed to mental physiology. among other numerous works. is said to have invented engraving in chiaroscuro (1486-1530). born at Ferrara. which he threatened. daughter of Dr. contains several islands. deep gulf in the N. in her zeal. CARPI. CTSTI. headed an embassy from Pope Innocent IV. a legendary hero of the Moors of Spain. her philanthropic efforts extended to India. Lant Carpenter. CARPENTER. is said to have slain Roland at Roncesvalles. GULF OF. Computer Lecturer. took an active part in the establishment of reformatory and ragged schools. and a chief promoter of the Industrial Schools Act. wrote a report of his journey in Latin. a broad. held several high professional appointments in London. inaugurated deep-sea soundings. which. born in Umbria. Page 536 of 2772 .

JEAN BAPTISTE. the working of which is its staple industry. a man of high character. these quarries have been worked for 2000 years. 91/2 m. born at Rouen. who believed in the transmigration of the soul and its final emancipation from all external bonds and obligations. one of the most blood-thirsty of the French Revolutionists. CTSTI. a town and seaport N. NW. 30 m. or shot. sent on a mission to La Vendee. advocated the compatibility of the pantheistic with the Computer Lecturer. a German philosopher and man of letters. was the founder of a sect called after his name. famous for its quarries of white statuary marble. and employ as quarrymen alone regularly over 3000 men. CARRICKFERGUS (9). ARMAND. caused thousands of victims to be drowned. and courage. CARRICK. Chennai 6. an attorney by profession.ramakalai@gmail. a town in N. See NOYADES. by means of concentrated meditation on the divine unity. CARREL. Page 537 of 2772 . was guillotined himself after trial by a Revolutionary tribunal (1756-1794). born in Hesse. and highly esteemed. CARRIERE. are 400 in number. born near Aurillac.com CARPOC`RATES. French publicist. author of works on aesthetics and art in its relation to culture and the ideal. from Belfast. of Leghorn. of Belfast Lough. which he conducted with great ability. MORITZ. the southern division of Ayrshire. beheaded. a Gnostic of Alexandria of the 2nd century. See AYRSHIRE. editor of the _National_. CARRARA (11). Italy. CARRIER. and a life in conformity therewith. died of a wound in a duel with Emile de Girardin (1800-1836). with a picturesque castle.

on the Mediterranean. accompanied him to England as chaplain in 1688. was made Principal of Edinburgh University." with its sequel. was chief promoter of the Treaty of Union. CARROL. brought back to Germany a taste for art." rose at once into fame. "The Fall of the Angels. the author of "Alice in Wonderland. Chennai 6. ASMUS JAKOB. was the means of reviving it. born in Sleswig. one of the oldest towns in it. was held in high esteem by his countrymen for his personal character as well as his public services.ramakalai@gmail. afterwards studied the masters at Rome. controlled Church affairs in Scotland. a naval port of Spain. treated classical subjects. and had no small share in bringing about the Revolution. L. LEWIS. Danish artist. born in Kentucky. quarrelled the Academy. Page 538 of 2772 . the name given in Scotland to alluvial lands bordering on a river. born at Cathcart. on the appearance of his great picture. founded by the Computer Lecturer.com deistic view of the world (1817-1893). CARSTENS. American trapper. WILLIAM. v. CTSTI. sent to Utrecht to study theology. and became his political adviser. DODGSON (q. with a capacious harbour. recommended himself to the regard of the Prince of Orange. near Glasgow. KIT. was admitted to the Berlin Academy. pseudonym of C." CARSE. "Through the Looking-Glass. died in poverty at Rome (1754-1798).). CARSON. CARTAGENA (86). was of service to the States in expeditions in Indian territories from his knowledge of the habits of the Indians (1809-1878). was a most sagacious man (1649-1715). CARSTAIRS. a Scotch ecclesiastic.

was a "fiery. CARTERET. ELIZABETH. some of her papers appear in the _Rambler_ (1717-1806). in Parliament was head of the party opposed to Sir Robert Walpole and of the subsequent administration.ramakalai@gmail. English sailor and explorer. Johnson. Chennai 6. translated Epictetus and Algarotti's exposition of Newton's philosophy. and others. CARTER. CARTE. PHILIP. entered Parliament in the Whig interest. Computer Lecturer. Sir Joshua Reynolds. 1796. born near Rugby. EARL GRANVILLE. _d_. was once the largest naval arsenal in Europe." which has proved a rich quarry of facts for subsequent historians (1686-1754). and discovered several islands. his foreign policy has been in general approved of. orator. Pitcairn's Island among the number. friend of Dr. JOHN. which he was instrumental in securing.com Carthaginians. historian. a blank paper with a signature to be filled up with such terms of an agreement as the holder is authorised to accept in name of the person whose signature it bears. had the satisfaction of seeing. Page 539 of 2772 . CARTE-BLANCHE. an accomplished lady. explored in the Southern Seas. eminent British statesman. was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. the elder Pitt installed in office before he retired. CTSTI. Also capital (12) of the Bolivar State in Colombia. THOMAS. born at Deal. emphatic man" (1690-1763). wrote a "History of England. a devoted Jacobite. and diplomatist. first as an enemy but at length as a friend. after service as diplomatist abroad. in which capacity he was brought into contact with Swift. a great Greek and Italian scholar. his first speech was in favour of the Protestant succession. and proved a successful viceroy. CARTERET.

D. they amassed considerable wealth. founded by St. which even ventured to compete with. CARTHUSIANS. and founded by Phoenicians in 850 B. Page 540 of 2772 . and became a place of great importance till burned in A.ramakalai@gmail. made three voyages to N. Malo. in consequence of which they figure not so much in the outside world as many other orders do. Chennai 6. to overthrow. a notorious captain of a band of thieves. the most famous of which are those of Raphael.. each member of which had originally a single cell. but were given to deeds of benefaction. near the site of Tunis. the Arab. CTSTI. Bruno in 1086. who was broken on the wheel alive in the Place de Greve (1698-1721). after a siege of two years. though it rose again as a Roman city under the Caesars. all of them opening into one corridor.. CARTOONS.C. Computer Lecturer. transferred by tracing or pouncing to the surface to be painted. the struggle during the early part of its history was virtually a struggle for the ascendency of the Semitic people over the Aryan race in Europe. by planting the French flag on the soil (1494-1554). and spent their time in study and contemplation. of Africa. in the last of which it was taken and destroyed by Publius Cornelius Scipio in 146 B. born at St. took possession of Canada in the name of France. originally the centre of a colony. born in Paris. America in quest of a North-West passage. on a peninsula in the N. drawings or designs made on stiff paper for a fresco or other paintings. eventually one consisting of two or three rooms with a garden.C. at the instance of Francis I. under Hannibal. CARTIER. CARTOUCHE. and at one time threatened. a French navigator. 698 by Hassan. an ancient maritime city.. a monastic order of a very severe type. it became the capital of a wide-spread trading community. in a series of protracted struggles known as the Punic Wars.com CARTHAGE. the power of Rome.

but left both services for political reasons. at first violently opposed. blew up his ship and perished along with his son. the Art of Living in the World" (1503-1556). CARY. took to the study of agriculture. is now universally adopted. Page 541 of 2772 . JOHN. CARYATIDES. a many-sided man. after securing the safety of his crew. inventor of the powerloom and the carding machine. advocate of the theory that health of body and mind depends on the equipoise of antagonistic principles (1789-1869). and the advocacy of radical political reform much in advance of his time (1740-1824).000 was made him by Parliament in consideration of his services and in compensation for his losses. who. wrote "Galateo. CASABIANCA. CTSTI. or. brother of the preceding. HENRY FRANCIS. born in Corsica. born at Leipzig. a French naval officer. the corresponding male figures are called Atlantes. to his ruin for the time being. Secretary of State under Pope Paul IV. CARUS. Chennai 6. born at Gibraltar. at the battle of Aboukir.ramakalai@gmail.. a grant of L10. his invention. CASA. bred for the Church. his translation is admired for its fidelity as well as for its force and felicity (1772-1844). Computer Lecturer. Italian statesman. draped female figures surmounting columns and supporting entablatures. LOUIS. a celebrated German physiologist. he had a turn for versifying as well as mechanical invention (1743-1823). translator of Dante.com CARTWRIGHT. CARTWRIGHT. served in the navy and the militia. KARL GUSTAV. who would not leave him (1755-1798). born in Nottinghamshire. EDMUND.

being a Protestant he removed to London on Henry's death. and afterwards of belles-lettres at Paris. they are nearly parallel with the coast. born in London.ramakalai@gmail. CASCADE MOUNTAINS. ISAAC. CASANOVA. invited thither by Henry IV. brazen-faced account of his career of scoundrelism (1725-1798). who pensioned him. manufactures silk twist. accompanied his father to England. of which the Rocky Mountains form the eastern boundary. painter. MERIC. gave him two prebends. Page 542 of 2772 . a clever Venetian adventurer and scandalous impostor. America (1474-1566). CASAUBON. professor of Greek at Geneva and Montpellier. and edited his father's works (1599-1671). including even Frederick the Great.com CASA`LE (17). who insinuated himself into the good graces for a time of all the distinguished people of the period. CASAUBON. "the smell of brimstone behind him". painted landscapes and battle-pieces (1727-1806). Voltaire. a town on the Po. as Carlyle would say. of Venetian origin. son of preceding. of the Cagliostro type. CASAS. has been ranked with Lepsius and Scaliger as a scholar (1559-1614). CTSTI. a range in Columbia that slopes down toward the Pacific from the Western Plateau. wrote a long detailed. born in Geneva. where James I. inland. became professor of Theology at Oxford. distinguished for his exertions in behalf of the Christianisation and civilisation of the Indians of S. and others. Chennai 6. and above 100 m. died in Bohemia after endless roamings and wrigglings. an eminent classical scholar and commentator. Computer Lecturer. CASANOVA DE SEINGALT.. a Spanish prelate. BARTOLOMEO DE LAS. leaving. held a church living under the Charleses.

born in Paris. bordering upon Tibet. 49 m. in a valley of the Himalayas. one of the architects of St. with a "Rock" 300 ft. Page 543 of 2772 . because. formed a code of laws. Casimir III. a club-house or public building in Continental towns provided with rooms for social gatherings. a town in Italy. a bishop's see. 1847. hemmed in by deep-gorged woods and snow-peaked mountains.543). the name of five kings of Poland. occupied by interesting ruins. owing to misrepresentation. Chennai 6. was premier in 1893. resigned 1895. NE. 20 m. &c. the office had become irksome to him. defeated the Tartars on the Vistula. CASIMIR. president of the French Republic. music. and annexed part of Lithuania. the most eminent. high. dancing. a man of moderate views and firm character. long and 80 m. a native Indian State. limiting both the royal authority and that of the nobles (1309-1370). built after plans supplied by Vanvitelli. CASHMERE or KASHMIR (2. CASINO. which spreads out here and there near it into lovely lakes.com CASERTA (35). a town in Tipperary. Computer Lecturer. was elected king in 1333. Peter's at Rome. it was formerly the seat of the kings of Munster. billiards. wide. of Cork.ramakalai@gmail. succeeded Carnot in 1894. recovered Silesia from Bohemia in two victories. Ireland. noted for a magnificent palace. CASIMIR-PERIER. with beautiful scenery and a delicious climate. shawl weaving and lacquer-work are the chief occupations of the inhabitants. called the Great. _b_.. after distinguishing himself in wars against the Teutonic Knights. 120 m. CTSTI. from Naples. forming the basin of the Upper Indus. and watered by the Jhelum. CASHEL.

though in favour of slave-holding. the sister of Alexander the Great. started several journals. invaded Macedonia and ascended the throne. CASPIAN SEA. Page 544 of 2772 . PAUL. Chennai 6. which all died a natural death. and the Elburz on the S. born at Dessau. wrote a "History of the U. LEWIS. and a learned Orientalist (1710-1791)..com CASIRI. deep in the S. an obstinate Imperialist. the waters. which are not so salt as the ocean. thus securing himself against all rival claimants. KARL PAUL. allied himself with the Greek cities. from N.S.ramakalai@gmail. on the W. and from 270 to 130 m. an inland sea. but put Alexander's mother to death. embroiled himself in duels and lawsuits without number (1806-1880). passed over in the succession by his father Antipater. partly in Europe and partly in Asia. professor at Christiania (1814-1892). a semi-official organ. king of Macedonia. Indians" (1782-1867). CASSANDER. and openly hostile to Great Britain. in breadth.. a member of the Democratic party. a friend of Union. to S. CASSAGNAC. abound in fish. CASSAGNAC. 1843. _b_. German theologian. is the fragment of a larger sea which extended to the Arctic Ocean. GRANIER DE. especially salmon and sturgeon. CASS. CASPARI. edited _Le Pays_. an eminent American statesman. married Thessalonica. shallow in the N. CTSTI. editor of _Le Pays_ and the journal _L'Autorite_. a French journalist. son of preceding. the largest in the world. left his son Philip as successor Computer Lecturer. with the Caucasus Mts.. became a supporter of the Empire. at first an Orleanist. being 600 m. a Syro-Maronite religious.

one to decide in civil cases. and human depravity. scene of a French victory under Vendome in 1705. and became a pupil of Chrysostom. CASSELL. also a town near Milan. whom Apollo endowed with the gift of prophecy. Chennai 6. a town in the S. (360-448). and third. one to determine if the appeal should be received. it consists of a president and vice-president. a beautiful Trojan princess.). and six advocates-general. her name is applied to any one who entertains gloomy forebodings. of Italy. CASSATION. founded two monasteries in Marseilles. CASSANDRA. and not being able to go the length of Pelaganism. and a French defeat under Moreau in 1799. adopted SEMI-PELAGIANISM. but. came to Constantinople. 49 judges. as she had rejected his suit. CASSEL (72). CTSTI. COURT OF. a self-made man. second. q. JOHN. a public prosecutor called the _procureur-general_. who ordained him. which were treated by her countrymen as the ravings of a lunatic. daughter of Priam and Hecuba. one to decide in criminal cases. who knew the value of knowledge and did much to extend it (1817-1865). Page 545 of 2772 . appointed in the case of appeal to revise the forms of a procedure in an inferior court. CASSANO. it consists of three sections: first. as happened with her warnings of the fate and the fall of Troy. JOANNUS. Computer Lecturer.ramakalai@gmail. 120 m. an Eastern ascetic. doomed to utter prophecies which no one would believe. v. CASSIANUS. capital of Hesse-Cassel. it is the birthplace of Bunsen. a court of highest and last appeal in France. the publisher.C.com (354-297 B. an interesting town. from Frankfort-on-Main. opposed the extreme views of Augustine in regard to grace and free-will. born in Manchester.

like a canal. chief conspirator against Caesar. and became in succession directors of the observatory of Paris. _d_.C. CASSIUS. made himself master of it. connects the Rio Negro. soon after the deed was done fled to Syria. a constellation well north in the northern sky of five stars in the figure of a W. and left letters of great historical value (468-568).com CASSINI. thought all was lost. mother of Andromeda. which the Phoenician sailors visited to procure tin. an affluent of the Amazon. name of a family of astronomers of the 17th and 18th centuries. called him the "last of the Romans". joined his forces with those of Brutus at Philippi. of Italian origin. born in Calabria. and the moon. CASSIODO`RUS. which they adjoin. CASSIQUIA`RI. withdrew into his tent. which. CASSIOPE`IA. prime minister of Theodoric the Great and his successor. Chennai 6. retired into a monastery about 70. in his lamentation over him. islands in the Atlantic. a Latin statesman and historian. won over Brutus to join in the foul plot. they settled. a remarkable river in Venezuela. presumed to have been the Scilly Islands or Cornwall. and lived there nearly 30 years. placed after death among the constellations. CASSITER`IDES. distinguished for their observations and discoveries affecting the comets. CAIUS. queen of Ethiopia. Brutus. the last of whom died in 1864. with the Orinoco. repulsed on the right. CTSTI. Computer Lecturer. after completing in 1793 a great topographical map of France begun by his father.ramakalai@gmail. in Paris. and called his freedmen to kill him. father and son and grandson. 42 B. the planets. wrote a history of the Goths. Page 546 of 2772 .

bishop of Albi. such as prevails among the Hindus especially. CASTANOS. or the soldier caste.. earth-born all. Page 547 of 2772 . from the feet of Brahma. Brahmans.com CASSIUS. those who have passed through a second birth. a fountain at the foot of Parnassus sacred to the Muses. CTSTI. notwithstanding which distinction often members of the highest class sink socially to the lowest level.C. who drowned herself in it to escape Apollo. while the latter are of one rank and are menial to the other. Kshatriyas. CASSIVELLAUNUS. to invade France in 1815 (1758-1852). from the mouth of Brahma. named after a nymph. CASTE. and Vaisyas. Louis (1256-1317). _i. called Sudras. Chennai 6. of the former there are three grades. e_..C. or the priestly caste. procured the canonisation of St. Among them there are originally two great classes. in 1808. distinguished for his victory over the French under Dupont. made a league with the Latins. 52 B. subdued the Sabines. a Spanish general. and those who have not. a Roman. SPURIUS. from the hands of Brahma. CASTANET. and became tributary to Rome.ramakalai@gmail. if required. first time 502 B. rank in society of an exclusive nature due to birth or origin. the first passed. the twice-born and the once-born. and members of the lowest rise socially to the highest. surrendered after defeat. Computer Lecturer. a British warlike chief. or the agricultural caste. ready. who unsuccessfully opposed Caesar on his second invasion of Britain. after this he served under Wellington in several engagements. and was commander of the Spanish army. thrice chosen consul. whom he compelled to surrender and sign the capitulation of Baylen. promoted an agrarian law. CASTALIA. which conceded to the plebs a share in the public lands.

CASTELLAMARE (15). _b_. 35 m. EMILIO. 79.. though under protest. he ventured to pronounce the Song of Solomon a mere erotic poem (1515-1563). till he gave expression to some heretical views. It takes its name from a castle built on it by the Emperor Frederick II. bounded by Computer Lecturer. of Naples. SE.com CASTEL. slope of Etna. and New Castile (3.500) in the S. called by the Italians in admiration of it "The Golden Book". CTSTI. a port on the coast of Italy. Protestant theologian.. has a cathedral. famed for hazel nuts. a central district of Spain. and made way for the return of monarchy. an accomplished Italian. French poet and naturalist (1758-1832).800) in the N.ramakalai@gmail. of Messina. 115 m. born in Mantua. appointed dictator of Spain in 1873. SW. wrote a history of the "Republican Movement in Europe" among other works of political interest. the scene of Pliny's death from the eruption of Vesuvius in A. Chennai 6. a protege of Calvin's for a time. on N. CASTILE. resigned. and was a courtly man (1478-1529).D. CASTIGLIONE. but not being equal to the exigency in the affairs of the State. a town of Sicily. CASTIGLIONE. 1832. and manufactures. which led to a rupture. CASTELLIO." a manual for courtiers. divided by the mountains of Castile into Old Castile (1. RENE-RICHARD. author of "II Cortegiano. Page 548 of 2772 . as well as Rome. a Spanish republican. arsenal. CASTELAR. born in Cadiz.: the former consisting of a high bare plateau. COUNT. had spent much of his time in courts in England and Spain. an eloquent man and a literary.

the latter. has a richer soil. CASTLEREAGH. with extensive glass-works. of Douglas. yields wheat and good pasturage. and is rich in minerals. a place in which the dwellers live amid luxurious delights. report themselves. co-operated with Pitt in securing the Union. also tableland. Page 549 of 2772 . visionary projects. SE. 11 m. breeds horses and cattle. and the soul of the coalition against Napoleon. till the ill-fated Walcheren expedition and a duel with Canning obliged him to resign. CASTLE GARDEN. CASTLES IN SPAIN. and on the S. a poem of Thomson's. a town 10 m. CASTLEFORD (14). succeeded his father as Marquis of Londonderry in 1821. and united to the crown of Spain in 1469 by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. with a variable climate. Both were at one time occupied by the Moors. his name has been unduly defamed. and committed suicide the year following.. and contains besides the quicksilver mines of Almaden. became Foreign Secretary in 1812.com mountains on the N. entered political life as a member of the Irish Parliament. and yields richer produce. after which he entered the Imperial Parliament. Chennai 6. and were created into a kingdom in the 11th century. CASTLETOWN. SW.ramakalai@gmail. and Computer Lecturer. CTSTI. and are advised where to settle or find work. LORD. especially bottles. represented the country in a congress after Napoleon's fall. became War Minister (1805). of Leeds. a seaport in the Isle of Man. and his services to the country as a diplomatist have been entirely overlooked (1769-1822). to the enervation of soul and body. the immigration depot of New York where immigrants land. CASTLE OF INDOLENCE.

CASTREN. INEZ DE.) the epic of the Finns. and one of the first places in France to embrace Calvinism. whereupon it was agreed they should spend a day in Hades time about. the Dioscuri. Page 550 of 2772 . 46 m. the beloved wife of Don Pedro. this name is also given to the electric phenomenon called ST. CTSTI. of Toulouse.). MATHIAS ALEXANDER. ELMO'S FIRE (q. a Spanish dramatist.com the former capital. CASTRO. the Gemini. rising and setting together. put to death out of jealousy of Spain by the latter's father. of Tarn. professor of the Finnish Language and Literature in Helsingfors. worn out with his labours (1813-1852). and took to dramatic composition (1569-1631). so that when the former was slain the latter begged to be allowed to die with him. and the latter in boxing. was a Roman station. the twin sons of Zeus by Leda. CASTLEWOOD." CASTOR AND POLLUX. got acquainted with Lope de Vega. he began life as a soldier. v. CASTRO. author of the play of "The Cid. an eminent philologist. heir of the Portuguese throne. the former in horsemanship." which gained him European fame. but on his Computer Lecturer. a town in the dep. travelled all over Northern Europe and Asia. E. the heroine in Thackeray's "Esmond. were raised eventually to become stars in the sky. died prematurely. a royal heiress of the Spanish throne in the 14th century. great. born in Finland. GUILLEN DE. translated the "KALEVALA" (q. and left accounts of the races he visited and their languages.ramakalai@gmail. CASTRES (22). twin signs in the zodiac. famed for their mutual affection. Chennai 6. v.

accession dug out of her grave, arrayed in her royal robes, and crowned along with him, after which she was entombed again, and a magnificent monument erected over her remains.

CASTRO, JUAN DE, a Portuguese soldier, born at Lisbon, distinguished for his exploits in behalf of Portugal; made viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, but died soon after in the arms of Francis Xavier (1500-1548).

CASTRO, VACA DE, a Spaniard, sent out by Charles V. as governor of Peru, but addressing himself to the welfare of the natives rather than the enrichment of Spain, was recalled, to pine and die in prison in 1558.

CASTROGIOVANNI (18), a town in a strong position in the heart of Sicily, 3270 ft. above the sea-level; at one time a centre of the worship of Ceres, and with a temple to her.

CASTRUCCIO-CASTRACANI, Duke of Lucca, and chief of the Ghibelline party in that town, the greatest war-captain in Europe in his day; lord of hundreds of strongholds; wore on a high occasion across his breast a scroll, inscribed, "He is what God made him," and across his back another, inscribed, "He shall be what God will make"; _d_. 1328, "crushed before the moth."

CATACOMBS, originally underground quarries, afterwards used as burial-places for the dead, found beneath Paris and in the neighbourhood of Rome, as well as elsewhere; those around Rome, some 40 in number, are the most famous, as having been used by the early Christians, not merely for burial but for purposes of worship, and are rich In monuments of art and memorials of history.

CATALANI, ANGELICA, a celebrated Italian singer and prima donna, born near Ancona; began her career in Rome with such success that it led

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to engagements over all the chief cities of Europe, the enthusiasm which followed her reaching its climax when she came to England, where, on her first visit, she stayed eight years; by the failure of an enterprise in Paris she lost her fortune, but soon repaired it by revisiting the capitals of Europe; died of cholera in Paris (1779-1840).

CATALONIA (1,900), old prov. of Spain, on the NE.; has a most fertile soil, which yields a luxuriant vegetation; chief seat of manufacture in the country, called hence the "Lancashire of Spain"; the people are specially distinguished from other Spaniards for their intelligence and energy.

CATAMAR`CA (ISO), NW. prov. of the Argentine Republic; rich in minerals, especially copper.

CATA`NIA (123), an ancient city at the foot of Etna, to the S., on a plain called the Granary of Sicily; has been several times devastated by the eruptions of Etna, particularly in 1169, 1669, and 1693; manufactures silk, linen, and articles of amber, &c., and exports sulphur, grain, and fruits.

CATANZA`RO (20), a city in Calabria, 6 m. from the Gulf of Squillace, with an old castle of Robert Guiscard.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, Kant's name for the self-derived moral law, "universal and binding on every rational will, a commandment of the autonomous, one and universal reason."

CATEGORIES are either classes under which all our Notions of things may be grouped, or classes under which all our Thoughts of things may be grouped; the former called Logical, we owe to Aristotle, and the latter called Metaphysical, we owe to Kant. The Logical, so derived, that group

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our notions, are ten in number: Substance or Being, Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Position, Possession, Action, Passion. The Metaphysical, so derived, that group our thoughts, are twelve in number: (1) as regards _quantity_, Totality, Plurality, Unity; (2) as regards _quality_, Reality, Negation, Limitation; (3) as regards _relation_, Substance, Accident, Cause and Effect, Action and Reaction; (4) as regards _modality_, Possibility and Impossibility, Existence and Nonexistence, Necessity and Contingency. John Stuart Mill resolves the categories into five, Existence, Co-existence, Succession, Causation, and Resemblance.

CATESBY, MARK, an English naturalist and traveller, wrote a natural history of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahamas (1680-1750).

CATESBY, ROBERT, born in Northamptonshire, a Catholic of good birth; concerned in the famous Gunpowder Plot; shot dead three days after its discovery by officers sent to arrest him (1573-1605).

CATH`ARI, OR CATHARISTS, i. e. purists or puritans, a sect of presumably Gnostic derivation, scattered here and there under different names over the S. and W. of Europe during the Middle Ages, who held the Manichaean doctrine of the radically sinful nature of the flesh, and the necessity of mortifying all its desires and affections to attain purity of soul.

CATHARINE, ST., OF ALEXANDRIA, a virgin who, in 307, suffered martyrdom after torture on the wheel, which has since borne her name; is represented in art as in a vision presented to Christ by His Mother as her sole husband, who gives her a ring. Festival, Nov. 25.

CATHARINE I., wife of Peter the Great and empress of Russia, daughter of a Livonian peasant; "a little stumpy body, very brown,... strangely chased about from the bottom to the top of the world,... had

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once been a kitchen wench"; married first to a Swedish dragoon, became afterwards the mistress of Prince Menschikoff, and then of Peter the Great, who eventually married her; succeeded him as empress, with Menschikoff as minister; for a time ruled well, but in the end gave herself up to dissipation, and died (1682-1727).

CATHARINE II. THE GREAT, empress of Russia, born at Stettin, daughter of Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst; "a most-clever, clear-eyed, stout-hearted woman"; became the wife of Peter III., a scandalous mortal, who was dethroned and then murdered, leaving her empress; ruled well for the country, and though her character was immoral and her reign despotic and often cruel, her efforts at reform, the patronage she accorded to literature, science, and philosophy, and her diplomatic successes, entitle her to a high rank among the sovereigns of Russia; she reigned from 1763 to 1796, and it was during the course of her reign, and under the sanction of it, that Europe witnessed the three partitions of Poland (1729-1796).

CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, wife of Henry II. of France, and mother of his three successors; on the accession of her second son, Charles IX.--for the reign of her first, Francis II., was very brief--acted as regent during his minority; joined heart and soul with the Catholics in persecuting the Huguenots, and persuaded her son to issue the order which resulted in the massacre of St. Bartholomew; on his death, which occurred soon after, she acted as regent during the minority of her third son, Henry III., and lived to see both herself and him detested by the whole French people, and this although she was during her ascendency the patroness of the arts and of literature (1519-1589).

CATHARINE OF ARAGON, fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, and wife of Henry VIII., her brother-in-law as widow of Arthur, from whom, and at whose instance, after 18 years of married life, and after giving birth to five children, she was divorced on the plea that, as she had been his brother's wife before, it was not lawful for him to have her; after her divorce she remained in the country, led an austere

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religious life, and died broken-hearted. The refusal of the Pope to sanction this divorce led to the final rupture of the English Church from the Church of Rome, and the emancipation of the nation from priestly tyranny (1483-1536).

CATHARINE OF BRAGANZA, the wife of Charles II. of England, of the royal house of Portugal; was unpopular in the country as a Catholic and neglected by her husband, on whose death, however, she returned to Portugal, and did the duties ably of regent for her brother Don Pedro (1638-1705).

CATHARINE OF SIENNA, born at Sienna, a sister of the Order of St. Dominic, and patron saint of the Order; celebrated for her ecstasies and visions, and the marks which by favour of Christ she bore on her body of His sufferings on the Cross (1347-1380). Festival, April 30. Besides her, are other saints of the same name.

CATHARINE OF VALOIS, daughter of Charles VI. of France, and wife of Henry V. of England, who, on his marriage to her, was declared heir to the throne of France, with the result that their son was afterwards, while but an infant, crowned king of both countries; becoming a widow, she married Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, whereby a grandson of his succeeded to the English throne as Henry VII., and the first of the Tudors (1401-1438).

CATHARINE PARR, the sixth wife of Henry VIII. and the daughter of a Westmoreland knight; was of the Protestant faith and obnoxious to the Catholic faction, who trumped up a charge against her of heresy and treason, from which, however, she cleared herself to the satisfaction of the king, over whom she retained her ascendency till his death; _d_. 1548.

CATHARINE THEOT, a religious fanatic, born in Avranches; gave

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herself out as the Mother of God; appeared in Paris in 1794, and declared Robespierre a second John the Baptist and forerunner of the Word; the Committee of Public Safety had her arrested and guillotined.

CATHAY, the name given to China by mediaeval writers, which it still bears in Central Asia.

CATHCART, EARL, a British general and diplomatist, born in Renfrewshire; saw service in America and Flanders; distinguished himself at the bombardment of Copenhagen; represented England at the court of Russia and the Congress of Vienna (1755-1843).

CATHCART, SIR GEORGE, a lieutenant-general, son of the preceding; enlisted in the army; served in the later Napoleonic wars; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; was governor of the Cape; brought the Kaffir war to a successful conclusion; served in the Crimea, and fell at Inkerman (1794-1854).

CATHEDRAL, the principal church in a diocese, and which contains the throne of the bishop as his seat of authority; is of a rank corresponding to the dignity of the bishop; the governing body consists of the dean and chapter.

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES, a famous leader of the Vendeans in their revolt against the French Republic on account of a conscription in its behalf; a peasant by birth; mortally wounded in attacking Nantes; he is remembered by the peasants of La Vendee as the "Saint of Anjou" (1759-1793).

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION, the name given to the emancipation in 1829 of the Roman Catholics of the United Kingdom from disabilities which precluded their election to office in the State, so that they are

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eligible now to any save the Lord Chancellorship of England and offices representative of royalty.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES, the name, equivalent to encyclical, given to certain epistles in the New Testament not addressed to any community in particular, but to several, and given eventually to all not written by St. Paul.

CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a title given by the Pope to several Spanish monarchs for their zeal in the defence of the Catholic faith.

CATILINE, or LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA, a Roman patrician, an able man, but unscrupulously ambitious; frustrated in his ambitious designs, he formed a conspiracy against the State, which was discovered and exposed by Cicero, a discovery which obliged him to leave the city; he tried to stir up hostility outside; this too being discovered by Cicero, an army was sent against him, when an engagement ensued, in which, fighting desperately, he was slain, 62 B.C.

CATINAT, NICOLAS, a marshal of France, born in Paris; one of the greatest military captains under Louis XIV.; defeated the Duke of Savoy twice over, though defeated by Prince Eugene and compelled to retreat; was an able diplomatist as well as military strategist (1637-1712).

CATLIN, GEORGE, a traveller among the North American Indians, and author of an illustrated work on their life and manners; spent eight years among them (1796-1872).

CATO DIONYSIUS, name of a book of maxims in verse, held in high favour during the Middle Ages; of unknown authorship.

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CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO MAJOR, surnamed Censor, Priscus, and Sapiens, born at Tusculum, of a good old family, and trained to rustic, frugal life; after serving occasionally in the army, removed to Rome; became in succession censor, aedile, praetor, and consul; served in the second Punic war, towards the end of it, and subjugated Spain; was a Roman of the old school; disliked and denounced all innovations, as censor dealt sharply with them; sent on an embassy to Africa, was so struck with the increasing power and the threateningly evil ascendency of Carthage, that on his return he urged its demolition, and in every speech which he delivered afterwards he ended with the words, _Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam_, "But, be that as it may, my opinion is Carthage must be destroyed" (234-149 B.C.).

CATO, MARCUS PORTIUS, or CATO THE YOUNGER, or UTICENSIS, great-grandson of the former, and a somewhat pedantic second edition of him; fortified himself by study of the Stoic philosophy; conceived a distrust of the public men of the day, Caesar among the number; preferred Pompey to him, and sided with him; after Pompey's defeat retired to Utica, whence his surname, and stabbed himself to death rather than fall into the hands of Caesar (95-46 B.C.).

CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY, an insignificant, abortive plot, headed by one Thistlewood, to assassinate Castlereagh and other ministers of the crown in 1820; so called from their place of meeting off the Edgeware Road, London.

CATRAIL, an old Roman earthwork, 50 m. long, passing S. from near Galashiels, through Selkirk and Roxburgh, or from the Cheviots; it is known by the name of the "Devil's Dyke."

CATS, JACOB, a Dutch poet and statesman, venerated in Holland as "Father Cats"; his works are written in a simple, natural style, and abound in wise maxims; he did service as a statesman; twice visited England as an envoy, and was knighted by Charles I. (1577-1660).

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CATSKILL MOUNTAINS, a group of mountains, of steep ascent, and with rocky summits, in New York State, W. of the Hudson, none of them exceeding 4000 feet; celebrated as the scene of Rip Van Winkle's long slumber; belong to the Appalachians.

CATTEGAT, an arm of the sea, 150 m. in length and 84 of greatest width, between Sweden and Jutland; a highway into the Baltic, all but blocked up with islands; is dangerous to shipping on account of the storms that infest it at times.

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE, artist, born in Norfolk; illustrated Britton's "English Cathedrals," "Waverley Novels," and the "Historical Annual" by his brother; painted mostly in water-colour; his subjects chiefly from English history (1800-1868).

CATTLE PLAGUE, or RINDERPEST, a disease which affects ruminants, but especially bovine cattle; indigenous to the East, Russia, Persia, India, and China, and imported into Britain only by contagion of some kind; the most serious outbreaks were in 1865 and 1872.

CATULLUS, CAIUS VALERIUS, the great Latin lyric poet, born at Verona, a man of wealth and good standing, being, it would seem, of the equestrian order; associated with the best wits in Rome; fell in love with Clodia, a patrician lady, who was the inspiration, both in peace and war, of many of his effusions, and whom he addresses as Lesbia; the death of a brother affected him deeply, and was the occasion of the production of one of the most pathetic elegies ever penned; in the civic strife of the time he sided with the senate, and opposed Caesar to the length of directing against him a coarse lampoon (84-54 B.C.).

CAUCA, a river in Colombia, S. America, which falls into the

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Magdalena after a northward course of 600 m.

CAUCASIA, a prov. of Russia, geographically divided into Cis-Caucasia on the European side, and Trans-Caucasia on the Asiatic side of the Caucasus, with an area about four times as large as England.

CAUCASIAN RACE, a name adopted by Blumenbach to denote the Indo-European race, from the fine type of a skull of one of the race found in Georgia.

CAUCASUS, an enormous mountain range, 750 m. in length, extending from the Black Sea ESE. to the Caspian, in two parallel chains, with tablelands between, bounded on the S. by the valley of the Kur, which separates it from the tableland of Armenia; snow-line higher than that of the Alps; has fewer and smaller glaciers; has no active volcanoes, though abundant evidence of volcanic action.

CAUCHON, bishop of Beauvais, infamous for the iniquitous part he played in the trial and condemnation of Joan of Arc; _d_. 1443.

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, mathematician, born in Paris; wrote largely on physical subjects; his "Memoir" on the theory of the waves suggested the undulatory theory of light; professor of Astronomy at Paris; declined to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III., and retired (1789-1857).

CAUCUS, a preliminary private meeting to arrange and agree on some measure or course to propose at a general meeting of a political party.

CAUDINE FORKS, a narrow mountain gorge in Samnium, in which, during the second Samnite war, a Roman army was entrapped and caught by the Samnites, who obliged them to pass under the yoke in token of

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subjugation, 321 B.C.

CAUDLE, MRS., an imaginary dame, a conception of Douglas Jerrold, famous for her "Curtain Lectures" all through the night for 30 years to her husband Mr. Job Caudle.

CAUL, a membrane covering the head of some children at birth, to which a magical virtue was at one time ascribed, and which, on that account, was rated high and sold often at a high price.

CAULAINCOURT, ARMAND DE, a French general and statesman of the Empire, a faithful supporter of Napoleon, who conferred on him a peerage, with the title of Duke of Vicenza, of which he was deprived at the Restoration; represented Napoleon at the Congress of Chatillon (1772-1827).

CAUS, SALOMON DE, a French engineer, born at Dieppe; discovered the properties of steam as a motive force towards 1638; claimed by Arago as the inventor of the steam-engine in consequence.

CAUSALITY, the philosophic name for the nature of the relation between cause and effect, in regard to which there has been much diversity of opinion among philosophers.

CAUTERETS, a fashionable watering-place in the dep. of the Hautes-Pyrenees, 3250 ft. above the sea, with sulphurous springs of very ancient repute, 25 in number, and of varying temperature.

CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGENE, a distinguished French general, born in Paris; appointed governor of Algeria in 1849, but recalled to be head of the executive power in Paris same year; appointed dictator, suppressed

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the insurrection in June, after the most obstinate and bloody struggle the streets of Paris had witnessed since the first Revolution; stood candidate for the Presidency, to which Louis Napoleon was elected; was arrested after the _coup d'etat_, but soon released; never gave in his adherence to the Empire (1802-1857).

CAVALCASELLE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Italian writer on art; joint-author with J. A. Crowe of works on the "Early Flemish Painters" and the "History of Painting in Italy"; chief of the art department under the Minister of Public Instruction in Rome; _b_. 1820.

CAVALIER, JEAN, leader of the CAMISARDS (q. v.), born at Ribaute, in the dep. of Gard; bred a baker; held his own against Montreval and Villars; in 1704 concluded peace with the latter on honourable terms; haughtily received by Louis XIV., passed over to England; served against France, and died governor of Jersey (1679-1740).

CAVALIERS, the royalist partisans of Charles I. in England in opposition to the parliamentary party, or the Roundheads, as they were called.

CAVALLO, a distinguished Italian physicist, born at Naples (1749-1809).

CAVAN (111), inland county S. of Ulster, Ireland, with a poor soil; has minerals and mineral springs.

CAVE, EDWARD, a London bookseller, born in Warwickshire; projected the Gentleman's Magazine, to which Dr. Johnson contributed; was the first to give Johnson literary work, employing him as parliamentary reporter, and Johnson was much attached to him; he died with his hand in Johnson's (1691-1754).

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CAVE, WILLIAM, an English divine; author of works on the Fathers of the Church and on primitive Christianity, of high repute at one time (1637-1713).

CAVENDISH, the surname of the Devonshire ducal family, traceable back to the 14th century.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE, the biographer of Wolsey; never left him while he lived, and never forgot him or the lesson of his life after he was dead; this appears from the vivid picture he gives of him, though written 30 years after his death (1500-1561).

CAVENDISH, LORD FREDERICK, brother of the ninth Duke of Devonshire, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and a Liberal; was made Chief-Secretary for Ireland in 1882, but chancing to walk home one evening through the Phoenix Park, he fell a victim, stabbed to the heart, of a conspiracy that was aimed at Mr. Burke, an unpopular subordinate, who was walking along with him, and came to the same fate. Eight months after, 20 men were arrested as concerned in the murder, when one of the 20 informed; five of them were hanged; the informer Carey was afterwards murdered, and his murderer, O'Donnel, hanged (1836-1882).

CAVENDISH, HENRY, natural philosopher and chemist, born at Nice, of the Devonshire family; devoted his entire life to scientific investigations; the first to analyse the air of the atmosphere, determine the mean density of the earth, discover the composition of water, and ascertain the properties of hydrogen; was an extremely shy, retiring man; born rich and died rich, leaving over a million sterling (1731-1810).

CAVENDISH, SPENCER COMPTON, ninth Duke of Devonshire, for long known in public life as Marquis of Hartington; also educated at Trinity

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College, and a leader of the Liberal party; served under Gladstone till he adopted Home Rule for Ireland, but joined Lord Salisbury in the interest of Union, and one of the leaders of what is called the Liberal-Unionist party; _b_. 1833.

CAVENDISH, THOMAS, an English navigator, fitted out three vessels to cruise against the Spaniards; extended his cruise into the Pacific; succeeded in taking valuable prizes, with which he landed in England, after circumnavigating the globe; he set out on a second cruise, which ended in disaster, and he died in the island of Ascension broken-hearted (1555-1592).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, English courtier and cavalier in the reigns of James I. and Charles I.; joined Charles II. in exile; returned at the Restoration; was made Duke of Newcastle; wrote on horsemanship (1592-1676).

CAVENDISH, WILLIAM, first Duke of Devonshire; friend and protector of Lord William Russell; became a great favourite at court, and was raised to the dukedom (1640-1707).

CAVIARE, the roe (the immature ovaries) of the common sturgeon and other kindred fishes, caught chiefly in the Black and Caspian Seas, and prepared and salted; deemed a great luxury by those who have acquired the taste for it; largely imported from Astrakhan.

CAVOUR, COUNT CAMILLO BENSO DE, one of the greatest of modern statesmen, born the younger son of a Piedmontese family at Turin; entered the army, but was precluded from a military career by his liberal opinions; retired, and for 16 years laboured as a private gentleman to improve the social and economic condition of Piedmont; in 1847 he threw himself into the great movement which resulted in the independence and unification of Italy; for the next 14 years, as editor of _Il

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Risorgimento_, member of the chamber of deputies, holder of various portfolios in the government, and ultimately as prime minister of the kingdom of Sardinia, he obtained a constitution and representative government for his country, improved its fiscal and financial condition, and raised it to a place of influence in Europe; he co-operated with the allies in the Crimean war; negotiated with Napoleon III. for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, and so precipitated the successful war of 1859; he encouraged Garibaldi in the expedition of 1860, which liberated Sicily and Southern Italy, and saw the parliament of 1861 summoned, and Victor Emmanuel declared king of Italy; but the strain of his labours broke his health, and he died a few months later (1810-1861).

CAWNPORE (188), a city on the right bank of the Ganges, in the North-Western Provinces of India, 40 m. SW. of Lucknow, and 628 NW. of Calcutta; the scene of one of the most fearful atrocities, perpetrated by Nana Sahib, in the Indian Mutiny in 1857.

CAXTON, WILLIAM, the first English printer, born in Kent, bred a mercer, settled for a time in Bruges, learned the art of printing there, where he printed a translation of the "Recuyell of the Historyes of Troyes," and "The Game and Playe of Chesse"; returning to England, set up a press in Westminster Abbey, and in 1477 issued "Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers," the first book printed in England, which was soon followed by many others; he was a good linguist, as well as a devoted workman (1422-1491).

CAYENNE (10), cap. and port of French Guiana, a swampy, unhealthy place, rank with tropical vegetation; a French penal settlement since 1852.

CAYLA, COUNTESS OF, friend and confidante of Louis XVIII. (1784-1850).

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CAYLEY, ARTHUR, an eminent English mathematician, professor at Cambridge, and president of the British Association in 1883 (1821-1895).

CAYLEY, CHARLES BAGOT, a linguist, translated Dante into the metre of the original, with annotations, besides metrical versions of the "Iliad," the "Prometheus" of AEschylus, the "Canzoniere" of Petrarch, &c. (1823-1883).

CAYLUS, COUNT, a distinguished archaeologist, born in Paris; author of a "Collection of Antiquities of Egypt, Etruria," &c., with excellent engravings (1692-1765).

CAYLUS, MARQUISE DE, born in Poitou, related to Mme. de Maintenon; left piquant souvenirs of the court of Louis XIV. and the house of St. Cyr (1672-1729).

CAZALES, a member of French Constituent Assembly, a dragoon captain, a fervid, eloquent orator of royalism, who "earned thereby," says Carlyle, "the shadow of a name" (1758-1805).

CAZOTTE, author of the "Diable Amoureux"; victim as an enemy of the French Revolution; spared for his daughter's sake for a time, but guillotined at last; left her a "lock of his old grey hair" (1720-1792).

CEAN-BERMUDEZ, a Spanish writer on art; author of a biographical dictionary of the principal artists of Spain (1749-1834).

CEARA (35), cap. of the prov. (900) of the name, in N. of Brazil.

CE`BES, a Greek philosopher, disciple and friend of Socrates,

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reputed author of the "Pinax" or Tablet, a once popular book on the secret of life, being an allegorical representation of the temptations that beset it.

CECIL, ROBERT, EARL OF SALISBURY, succeeded his father, Lord Burleigh, as first Minister under Elizabeth, and continued in office under James I., whose friendship he sedulously cultivated before his accession, and who created him earl (1565-1612). See BURLEIGH, LORD.

CECILIA, ST., a Roman virgin and martyr, A.D. 230, patron saint of music, especially church music, and reputed inventor of the organ; sometimes represented as holding a small organ, with her head turned heavenwards as if listening to the music of the spheres, and sometimes as playing on an organ and with a heavenly expression of face. Festival, Nov. 22.

CECROPS, the mythical first king and civiliser of Attica and founder of Athens with its citadel, dedicated by him to Athena, whence the name of the city.

CEDAR RAPIDS (25), a manufacturing town in Iowa, U.S.; a great railway centre.

CELADON, poetical name for a languid swain, all sighs and longings.

CELAENO, name of one of the HARPIES (q. v.).

CELEBES (1,000), an island in the centre of the Eastern Archipelago, third in size, in the shape of a body with four long limbs, traversed by mountain chains, and the greater part of it a Dutch possession, though it

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contains a number of small native states; it yields among its mineral products gold, copper, tin, &c.; and among its vegetable, tea, coffee, rice, sugar, pepper, &c.; capital. Macassar.

CELESTE, MME., a dancer, born in Paris; made her _debut_ in New York; in great repute in England, and particularly in the States, where she in her second visit realised L40,000 (1814-1882).

CELESTIAL EMPIRE, China, as ruled over by a dynasty appointed by Heaven.

CELESTINE, the name of five Popes: C. I., Pope from 422 to 432; C. II., Pope from 1143 to 1144; C. III., Pope from 1191 to 1198; C. IV., Pope for 18 days in 1241; C. V., Pope in 1294, a hermit for 60 years; nearly 80 when elected against his wish; abdicated in five months; imprisoned by order of Boniface VIII.; _d_. 1296; canonised 1313.

CELESTINES, an order of monks founded by Celestine V. before he was elected Pope in 1354; they followed the rule of the Benedictine Order, and led a contemplative life.

CELLINI, BENVENUTO, a celebrated engraver, sculptor, and goldsmith, a most versatile and erratic genius, born at Florence; had to leave Florence for a bloody fray he was involved in, and went to Rome; wrought as a goldsmith there for 20 years, patronised by the nobles; killed the Constable de Bourbon at the sack of the city, and for this received plenary indulgence from the Pope; Francis I. attracted him to his court and kept him in his service five years, after which he returned to Florence and executed his famous bronze "Perseus with the Head of Medusa," which occupied him four years; was a man of a quarrelsome temper, which involved him in no end of scrapes with sword as well as tongue; left an autobiography, from its self-dissection of the deepest interest to all students of human nature (1500-1571).

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CELSIUS, a distinguished Swedish astronomer, born at Upsala, and professor of Astronomy there; inventor of the Centigrade thermometer (1701-1744).

CELSUS, a celebrated Roman physician of the age of Augustus, and perhaps later; famed as the author of "De Medicina," a work often referred to, and valuable as one of the sources of our knowledge of the medicine of the ancients.

CELSUS, a philosopher of the 2nd century, and notable as the first assailant on philosophic grounds of the Christian religion, particularly as regards the power it claims to deliver from the evil that is inherent in human nature, inseparable from it, and implanted in it not by God, but some inferior being remote from Him; the book in which he attacked Christianity is no longer extant, only quotations from it scattered over the pages of the defence of Origen in reply.

CELTIBE`RI, an ancient Spanish race occupying the centre of the peninsula, sprung from a blending of the aborigines and the Celts, who invaded the country; a brave race, divided into four tribes; distinguished in war both as cavalry and infantry, and whom the Romans had much trouble in subduing.

CELTS. The W. of Europe was in prehistoric times subjected to two invasions of Aryan tribes, all of whom are now referred to as Celts. The earlier invaders were Goidels or Gaels; they conquered the Ivernian and Iberian peoples of ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland; their successors, the Brythons or Britons pouring from the E., drove them to the westernmost borders of these countries, and there compelled them to make common cause with the surviving Iberians in resistance; in the eastern parts of the conquered territories they formed the bulk of the population, in the W. they were in a dominant minority; study of

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languages in the British Isles leads to the conclusion that the Irish, Manx, and Scottish Celts belonged chiefly to the earlier immigration, while the Welsh and Cornish represent the latter; the true Celtic type is tall, red or fair, and blue-eyed, while the short, swarthy type, so long considered Celtic, is now held to represent the original Iberian races.

CENCI, THE, a Roman family celebrated for their crimes and misfortunes as well as their wealth. FRANCESCO CENCI was twice married, had had twelve children by his first wife, whom he treated cruelly; after his second marriage cruelly treated the children of his first wife, but conceived a criminal passion for the youngest of them, a beautiful girl named BEATRICE, whom he outraged, upon which, being unable to bring him to justice, she, along with her stepmother and a brother, hired two assassins to murder him; the crime was found out, and all three were beheaded (1599); this is the story on which Shelley founded his tragedy, but it is now discredited.

CENIS, MONT, one of the Cottian Alps, over which Napoleon constructed a pass 6884 ft. high in 1802-10, through which a tunnel 71/2 m. long passes from Modane to Bardonneche, connecting France with Italy; the construction of this tunnel cost L3,000,000, and Napoleon's pass a tenth of the sum.

CENSORS, two magistrates of ancient Rome, who held office at first for five years and then eighteen months, whose duty it was to keep a register of the citizens, guard the public morals, collect the public revenue, and superintend the public property.

CEN`TAURS, a savage race living between Pelion and Ossa, in Thessaly, and conceived of at length by Pindar as half men and half horses, treated as embodying the relation between the spiritual and the animal in man and nature, in all of whom the animal prevails over the spiritual except in Chiron, who therefore figures as the trainer of the heroes of Greece; in the mythology they figure as the progeny of

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Centaurus, son of IXION (q. v.) and the cloud, their mothers being mares.

CENTRAL AMERICA (3,000), territory of fertile tableland sloping gradually to both oceans, occupied chiefly by a number of small republics, lying between Tehuantepec and Panama in N. America; it includes the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, St. Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and a few adjoining fractions of territory.

CENTRAL INDIA (10,000), includes a group of feudatory States lying between Rajputana in the N. and Central Provinces in the S.

CENTRAL PROVINCES (12,944), States partly British and partly native, occupying the N. of the Deccan, and lying between the Nerbudda and the Godavary.

CEOS, one of the Cyclades, a small island 13 m. by 8 m., yields fruits; was the birthplace of Simonides and Bacchylides.

CEPHALONIA (80), the largest of the Ionian Islands, 30 m. long, the ancient Samos; yields grapes and olive oil.

CEPHALUS, king of Thessaly, who having involuntarily killed his wife Procris, in despair put himself to death with the same weapon.

CERAM` (195), the largest of S. Moluccas; yields sago, which is chiefly cultivated and largely exported.

CERBERUS, the three-headed or three-throated monster that guarded the entrance to the nether world of Pluto, could be soothed by music, and

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tempted by honey, only Hercules overcame him by sheer strength, dragging him by neck and crop to the upper world.

CERES, the Latin name for DEMETER (q. v.); also the name of one of the asteroids, the first discovered, by Piazzi, in 1801.

CERI`GO (14), an Ionian island, the southernmost, the ancient Cythera; yields wine and fruits.

CERINTHUS, a heresiarch of the first century, whom, according to tradition, St. John held in special detestation, presumably as denying the Father and the Son.

CERRO DE PASCO, a town in Peru, 14,200 ft. above the sea-level, with the richest silver mine in S. America.

CERUTTI, a Jesuit, born at Turin; became a Revolutionary in France; pronounced the funeral oration at the grave of Mirabeau in 1789.

CERVANTES-SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE, the author of "Don Quixote," born at Alcala de Henares; was distinguished in arms before he became distinguished in letters; fought in the battle of Lepanto like a very hero, and bore away with him as a "maimed soldier" marks of his share in the struggle; sent on a risky embassy, was captured by pirates and remained in their hands five years; was ransomed by his family at a cost which beggared them, and it was only when his career as a soldier closed that he took himself to literature; began as a dramatist before he devoted himself to prose romance; wrote no fewer than 30 dramas; the first part of the work which has immortalised his name appeared in 1605, and the second in 1615; it took the world by storm, was translated into all the languages of Europe, but the fortune which was extended to his book did not extend to himself, for he died poor, some ten days before

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his great contemporary, William Shakespeare; though carelessly written, "Don Quixote" is one of the few books of all time, and is as fresh to-day as when it was first written (1547-1616).

CERVIN, MONT, the French name for the Matterhorn, 705 ft., the summit of the Pennine Alps, between Valais and Piedmont.

CESAREWITCH, the eldest son and heir of the Czar of Russia.

CE`SARI, GIUSEPPE, sometimes called ARPINO, an eminent Italian painter; painted a series of frescoes in the Conservatorio of the Capitol, illustrative of events in the history of Rome (1568-1640).

CESAROTTI, an Italian poet, translator of the "Iliad" and "Ossian" into Italian (1730-1808).

CESTUS, a girdle worn by Greek and Roman women, specially the girdle of Aphrodite, so emblazoned with symbols of the joys of love that no susceptible soul could resist the power of it; it was borrowed by Hera to captivate Zeus.

CETINJE, the capital of Montenegro, in a valley 2000 ft. high; smallest of capital cities, with a population under 2000.

CETTE (36), a seaport, trading, and manufacturing town, on a tongue of land between the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, 23 m. SW. of Montpellier, with a large safe harbourage.

CE`UTA (12), a port opposite Gibraltar belonging to Spain, on the coast of Morocco, guarded by a fort on one of the Pillars of Hercules,

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overlooking it; of importance as a military and convict station.

CEVENNES, a range of low mountains on the eastern edge of the central plateau of France, separating the basin of the Rhone from those of the Loire and Garonne; average height from 3000 to 4000 ft.; the chief scene of the dragonnades against the Huguenots under Louis XIV.

CEYLON (3,008), a pear-shaped island about the size of Scotland, separated from India, to which it geographically belongs, and SE. of which it lies, by Palk Strait, 32 m. broad; comprises a lofty, central tableland with numerous peaks, the highest Tallagalla, 8000 ft., and a broad border of well-watered plains. It was an ancient centre of civilisation; the soil is everywhere fertile; the climate is hot, but more equitable than on the mainland; the chief products are tea, cinnamon, and tobacco; the forests yield satin-wood, ebony, &c.; the cocoa-nut palm abounds; there are extensive deposits of iron, anthracite, and plumbago; precious stones, sapphires, rubies, amethysts, &c., are in considerable quantities; the pearl fisheries are a valuable government monopoly. The chief exports are tea, rice, cotton goods, and coals. Two-thirds of the people are Singhalese and Buddhists, there are 6000 Europeans. The island is a crown colony, the largest in the British Empire, administered by a governor with executive and legislative councils; the capital and chief port is Colombo (127).

CHABAS, FRANCOIS, a French Egyptologist, born in Briancon; his works have contributed much to elucidate the history of the invasion and repulsion of the Hyksos in Egypt (1817-1882).

CHABOT, a member of the National Convention of France, a "disfrocked Capuchin," adjured "Heaven," amid enthusiasm, "that at least they may have done with kings"; guillotined (1759-1794).


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CHAD, LAKE, a shallow lake in the Sahara, of varied extent, according as the season is dry or rainy, at its largest covering an area as large as England, and abounding in hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, &c., as well as waterfowl and fish.

CHADBAND, REV. MR., a character in "Bleak House."

CHADWICK, SIR EDWIN, an English social reformer, born in Manchester, associated with measures bearing upon sanitation and the improvement of the poor-laws, and connected with the administration of them (1801-1890).

CHAERONEA, a town in Boeotia, where Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians, and extinguished the liberties of Greece.

CHALAIS, COUNT DE, a favourite of Louis XIII., accused of conspiracy against Richelieu, arrested at Nantes, and beheaded (1599-1626).

CHALAZA, one of the two filaments attached to the ends of the yoke of an egg to steady it in the albumen.

CHALCEDON, a city of Bithynia, at the entrance of the Thracian Bosphorus, where the fourth Council of the Church was held in 451, which defined the orthodox conception of Christ as God-man.

CHALCIDICE, the 3-fingered peninsula of the Balkan territory stretching into the AEgean Sea.

CHALCIS, the ancient capital of Euboea or Negropont.

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CHALDEA, ancient name for Babylonia.

CHALIER, a Piedmontese, head of the party of the Mountain at Lyons; his execution the signal for an insurrection at Lyons against the Convention (1747-1793).

CHALLENGER EXPEDITION, a scientific expedition sent out by the British Government in the _Challenger_ in 1872 in the interest of science, and under the management of scientific experts, to various stations over the globe, to explore the ocean, and ascertain all manner of facts regarding it open to observation, an expedition which concluded its operations in 1876, of which as many as 50 volumes of reports have been compiled.

CHALLIS, JAMES, an astronomer, born in Essex, noted the position of the planet Neptune before its actual discovery (1803-1882).

CHALLONER, RICHARD, a Roman Catholic bishop, born at Lewes; a zealous Catholic, author of "Garden of the Soul," a popular devotional book, as well as several controversial books (1691-1781).

CHALMERS, ALEXANDER, a miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; settled in London; edited the "British Essayists" in 45 vols., and author of "A General Biographical Dictionary."

CHALMERS, GEORGE, an English publicist, born at Fochabers, author of "An Account, Historical and Topographical, of North Britain" (1742-1825).

CHALMERS, THOMAS, a celebrated Scotch ecclesiastic and pulpit

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orator, born at Anstruther, Fife; studied for the Church, and entered the ministry; after he did so was for some years more engrossed with physical studies and material interests than spiritual, but he by-and-by woke up to see and feel that the spiritual interest was the sovereign one, and to the promotion of that he henceforth devoted himself body and soul; it was for the sake of the spiritual he took the interest he did in the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, and that the Church might have scope and freedom to discharge its spiritual functions was one chief ruling passion of his life, and it is no wonder he bent all his energies on a movement in the Church to secure this object; he was not much of a scholar or even a theologian, but a great man, and a great force in the religious life of his country; though the first pulpit-orator of his day, and though he wrote largely, as well as eloquently, he left no writings worthy of him except the "Astronomical Discourses" perhaps, to perpetuate his memory; he was distinguished for his practical sagacity, and was an expert at organisation; in his old age he was a most benignant, venerable-looking man: "It is a long time," wrote Carlyle to his mother, just after a visit he had paid him a few days before he died--"it is a long time since I have spoken to so _good_ and really pious-hearted and beautiful old man" (1780-1847).

CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (25), capital of the French dep. of Marne, 100 m. E. of Paris, where Attila was defeated by the Romans and Goths in 451; Napoleon III. formed a camp near it for the training of troops.

CHALONS-SUR-SAONE (24), a trading centre some 80 m. N. of Lyons; manufactures machinery, glass, paper, and chemicals.

CHAINS, chief town of the French dep. of Haute Vienne, where Richard Coeur de Lion was mortally wounded in 1199 by a shot with an arrow.

CHAM, the pseudonym of the French caricaturist Amedee de Noe, famous for his humorous delineations of Parisian life (1819-1884).

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CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, an association of merchants to promote and protect the interests of trade, particularly of the town or the district to which they belong.

CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES, a French legislative assembly, elected now by universal suffrage.

CHAMBERLAIN, RIGHT HON. JOSEPH, born in London, connected as a business man with Birmingham; after serving the latter city in a municipal capacity, was elected the parliamentary representative in 1876; became President of the Board of Trade under Mr. Gladstone in 1880, and chief promoter of the Bankruptcy Bill; broke with Mr. Gladstone on his Home Rule measure for Ireland, and joined the Liberal-Unionists; distinguished himself under Lord Salisbury as Colonial Secretary; _b_. 1836.

CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM, an English writer, born in Kendal, author of a cyclopaedia which bears his name, and which formed the basis of subsequent ones, as Johnson confessed it did of his Dictionary (1680-1750).

CHAMBERS, GEORGE, an English marine painter, born at Whitby; _d_. 1840.

CHAMBERS, ROBERT, brother of the succeeding and in the same line of life, but of superior accomplishments, especially literary and scientific, which served him well in editing the publications issued by the firm; was the author of a great many works of a historical, biographical, and scientific, as well as literary interest; wrote the "Vestiges of Creation," a book on evolutionary lines, which made no small stir at the time of publication, 1844, and for a time afterwards, the authorship of which he was slow to own (1802-1871).

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CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, born at Peebles; apprenticed to a bookseller in Edinburgh, and commenced business on his own account in a small way; edited with his brother the "Gazetteer of Scotland"; started, in 1832, _Chambers's Edinburgh Journal_ to meet a demand of the time for popular instruction in company with his brother founded a great printing and publishing establishment, from which there has issued a number of valuable works in the interest especially of the propagation of useful knowledge of all kinds; was a distinguished Edinburgh citizen, and did much for the expansion and improvement of the city (1800-1883)

CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM, architect, born at Stockholm, of Scotch origin; architect of Somerset House; was of the Johnson circle of wits (1726-1796)

CHAMBERY (19), chief town of dep. of Savoy, in a beautiful district; is the ancient capital, and contains the castle, of the dukes of Savoy; manufactures cloth, wines, soap, and textile fabrics; is also a summer resort.

CHAMBEZE, a head-stream of the Congo, N. of lake Nyassa.

CHAMBORD, spacious chateau in the dep. of Loire-et-Cher, France, built by Francis I.; after being long a residence for royalty and people of distinction, was presented in 1821 to the Duc de Bordeaux, the Comte de Chambord.

CHAMBORD, COMTE DE, Duc de Bordeaux, son of the Duc de Berri and grandson of Charles X., born at Paris; exiled in 1830, he retired to the chateau of Frohsdorf, in Austria, where he died without issue; his father and grandfather being dead, the monarchical party resolved to attempt a restoration in his behalf in 1872, but he refused to adopt the tricolor flag of the Revolution, and the scheme was abandoned, a like opportunity

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offering itself twice before being let slip (1820-1883).

CHAMBRE ARDENTE, a name given to certain courts of justice established to try certain cases that required to be sharply dealt with; they were held at night, and even when held in the daytime with lighted torches; a court of the kind was instituted for trial of the Huguenots in 1530, and again in 1680 and 1716.

CHAMFORT, a French wit and litterateur, born in Auvergne; took to the Revolution, but offended the leaders, and being threatened with arrest committed suicide, "cutting and slashing with frantic, uncertain hand, gaining, not without difficulty, the refuge of death"; he was a born cynic, and was famous for his keen insight into human nature and his sharp criticisms of it, summed up in a collection of maxims he left, as well as for his anecdotes in incisive portraiture of character. "He was a man," says Professor Saintsbury, "soured by his want of birth, health, and position, and spoilt by hanging on to the great persons of his time. But for a kind of tragi-comic satire, a _soeva indignatio_, taking the form of contempt for all that is exalted and noble, he has no equal in literature except Swift" (1741-1794).

CHAMILLARD, Minister of Finance and of War under Louis XIV.; "distinguished himself by his incapacity" (1651-1721).

CHAMISSO, ADALBERT VON, a German naturalist and litterateur born in France, but educated in Berlin; is famous for his poetical productions, but especially as the author of "Peter Schlemihl," the man who lost his shadow, which has been translated into nearly every European language; he wrote several works on natural history (1781-1838).

CHAMOUNI, OR CHAMONIX, a village in the dep. of Haute-Savoie, 33 m. SE. of Geneva, in a valley forming the upper basin of the Arve, famous for its beauty and for its glaciers; it is from this point that the

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ascent of Mont Blanc is usually made.

CHAMOUSSET, a French philanthropist, born in Paris; the originator of mutual benefit societies (1717-1773).

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province of France, 180 m. long by 150 broad, annexed to the Crown 1286, and including the deps. of Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne, and Ardennes; the province where the wine of the name is principally manufactured.

CHAMP-DE-MARS, a large space, of ground in Paris, between the front of the Ecole Militaire and the left bank of the Seine; the site of recent Expositions, and the scene of the Federation Fete, 14th July 1790.

CHAMPLAIN`, a beautiful lake between the States of New York and Vermont; it is 100 m. in length, and from 1 m. at its S. end to 14 m. at its N. end broad.

CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE, a French navigator, born at Brouage, in Saintonge, was founder of Quebec, and French Governor of Canada; wrote an account of his voyages (1570-1635).

CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANCOIS, a celebrated French Egyptologist, born in Figeac, dep. of Lot; early gave himself to the study of Coptic and Egyptian antiquities; was the first to decipher the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt, a great discovery; conducted a scientific expedition to Egypt in 1828, and returned in 1830 with the fruits of his researches; a chair of Egyptology was in consequence instituted in the College of France, and he was installed as the first professor; his writings on the science, of which he laid the foundation, are numerous (1790-1832).

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CHAMPS-ELYSEES, a Parisian promenade between the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de Triomphe.

CHANCELLOR, RICHARD, an English seaman, voyaging in northern parts, arrived in the White Sea, and travelled to Moscow, where he concluded a commercial treaty with Russia on behalf of an English company; wrote an interesting account of his visit; after a second visit, in which he visited Moscow, was wrecked on the coast of Aberdeenshire in 1556.

CHANDERNAGORE (25), a small town and territory on the Hooghly, 22 m. N. of Calcutta, belonging to France.

CHANDLER, RICHARD, a learned Hellenistic archaeologist, born in Hants; travelled in Asia Minor and Greece, along with two artists, to examine and describe the antiquities; the materials collected were published in his "Ionian Antiquities," "Travels in Asia Minor," &c. (1738-1810).

CHANDOS, an English title inherited by the Grenville family, of Norman origin.

CHANDOS, JOHN, a celebrated English general in the 14th century; was present at Crecy, governor of English provinces in France ceded by treaty of Bretigny; defeated and took prisoner Du Guesclin of Auray; served under the Black Prince, and was killed near Poitiers, 1369.

CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS, French general, born at Autun; distinguished himself in Algeria, was exiled after the _coup-d'etat_, returned in 1870, served in the Franco-German war; surrendered at Metz, at the close of the war came back, and assisted in reorganising the army (1793-1877).

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CHANNEL, THE ENGLISH, an arm of the Atlantic between France and England, 280 m. long and 100 m. wide at the mouth; the French call it _La Manche_ (the sleeve) from its shape.

CHANNEL ISLANDS (92), a group of small islands off the NW. coast of France, of which the largest are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark; formerly part of the Duchy of Normandy, and now all that remains to Britain of her French dominions, being subject to it since 1066; have a delightful climate mild and bright, and varied and beautiful scenery; the soil is fertile; flowers and fruit are grown for export to Britain, also early potatoes for the London market; Guernsey pears and Jersey cows are famous; valuable quarries of granite are wrought; the language is Norman-French.

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, a Unitarian preacher and miscellaneous writer, born at Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.; a man of the most liberal sentiments, who shrank from being classed with any sect; ranked high in point of moral character; was a vigorous thinker, and eloquent with the pen; "a man of faithful, long-continued striving towards what is Best" (1780-1842).

CHANSON DE GESTES (i. e. Songs of Deeds), poems of a narrative kind much in favour in the Middle Ages, relating in a legendary style the history and exploits of some famous hero, such as the "Chanson de Roland," ascribed to Theroulde, a trouvere of the 9th century.

CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS, an English sculptor, born in Derbyshire; was apprenticed to a carver and gilder in Sheffield; displayed a talent for drawing and modelling; received a commission to execute a marble bust for the parish, church, which was so successful as to procure him further and further commissions; executed four colossal busts of admirals for Greenwich Hospital; being expert at portraiture, his busts were likenesses; executed busts of many of the most illustrious men of the time, among them of Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and

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Wellington, as well as of royal heads; made a large fortune, and left it for the encouragement of art (1781-1841).

CHANZY, a French general, born at Nouart, Ardennes; served in Algeria; commanded the army of the Loire in 1870-71; distinguished himself by his brilliant retreat from Mans to Laval; was afterwards Governor-General in Algeria; died suddenly, to the regret of his country (1823-1883).

CHAOS, a name in the ancient cosmogomy for the formless void out of which everything at first sprang into existence, or the wide-spread confusion that prevailed before it shaped itself into order under the breath of the spirit of life.

CHAPELAIN, a French poet, protege of Richelieu, born at Paris; composed a pretentious poem on Joan of Arc, entitled "Pucelle," which was laughed out of existence on the appearance of the first half, consisting of only 12 of the 24 books promised, the rest having never passed beyond the MS. stage (1595-1674).

CHAPMAN, GEORGE, English dramatic poet, born at Hitchin, Hertfordshire; wrote numerous plays, both in tragedy and comedy, as well as poems, of unequal merit, but his great achievement, and the one on which his fame rests, is his translation into verse of the works of Homer, which, though not always true to the letter, is instinct with somewhat of the freshness and fire of the original; his translation is reckoned the best yet done into English verse, and the best rendering into verse of any classic, ancient or modern (1559-1634).

CHAPPELL, musical amateur, collector and editor of old English airs, and contributor to the history of English national music; was one of the founders of the Musical Hungarian Society, and the Percy Society (1809-1888).

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CHAPTAL, a distinguished French chemist and statesman, born at Nogaret, Lozere; author of inventions in connection with the manufacture of alum and saltpetre, the bleaching and the dyeing of cotton; held office under Napoleon, and rendered great service to the arts and manufactures of his country (1756-1832).

CHARCOT, JEAN MARTIN, a French pathologist; made a special study of nervous diseases, including hypnotism, and was eminent for his works in connection therewith (1823-1893).

CHARDIN, SIR JOHN, traveller, born in Paris; author of "Travels in India and Persia," valuable for their accuracy (1643-1713).

CHARENTE (360), a dep. of France, W. of the Gironde, capital Angouleme; with vast chestnut forests; produces wines, mostly distilled into brandy.

CHARENTE-INFERIEURE (456), a maritime dep. of France, W. of the former; includes the islands of Rhe, Oleron, Aix, and Madame; capital, La Rochelle.

CHARIVA`RI, a satirical journal, such as the English _Punch_; originally a discordant mock serenade.

CHARLEMAGNE i. e. Charles or Karl the Great, the first Carlovingian king of the Franks, son and successor of Pepin le Bref (the Short); became sole ruler on the death of his brother Carloman in 771; he subjugated by his arms the southern Gauls, the Lombards, the Saxons, and the Avares, and conducted a successful expedition against the Moors in Spain, with the result that his kingdom extended from the Ebro to the

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Elbe; having passed over into Italy in support of the Pope, he was on Christmas Day 800 crowned Emperor of the West, after which he devoted himself to the welfare of his subjects, and proved himself as great in legislation as in arms; enacted laws for the empire called capitularies, reformed the judicial administration, patronised letters, and established schools; kept himself in touch and _au courant_ with everything over his vast domain; he died and was buried at Aix-la-Chapelle (742-814).

CHARLEROI (21), a manufacturing town in Hainault, Belgium, 35 m. SE. of Brussels.

CHARLES II., surnamed THE BALD, son of Louis "le Debonnaire"; after conquering his brother Lothaire at Fontenoy in 841, became by the treaty of Verdun king of France, 843; was unable to defend his kingdom against the Normans; went to Italy, and had himself crowned emperor at Rome: _d_. 877.

CHARLES III., surnamed THE SIMPLE, became king of France in 893; his reign one long struggle against the Normans, which ended by conceding Normandy to Rollo; was conquered by Hugh Capet, a rival for the crown, at Soissons, and dethroned in 922; died in captivity, 929.

CHARLES IV., THE FAIR, third son of Philip the Fair, king of France from 1322 to 1328; lost to France Guienne, which was taken from him by the English; was the last of the Capetians; _d_. 1328.

CHARLES V., THE WISE, son of John II., king of France from 1361 to 1380; recovered from the English almost all the provinces they had conquered, successes due to his own prudent policy, and especially the heroism of Du Guesclin, De Clisson, and De Boucicaut; France owed to him important financial reforms, the extension of privileges to the universities, and the establishment of the first national library, into which were gathered together thousands of MSS.; the Bastille was founded

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in his reign.

CHARLES VI., THE WELL-BELOVED, king of France from 1380 to 1422, was son and successor of Charles V.; began his reign under the guardianship of his uncles, who rifled the public treasury and provoked rebellion by their exactions; gained a victory at Rossbach over the Flemings, then in revolt, and a little after dismissed his uncles and installed in their stead the wise councillors of his father, whose sage, upright, and beneficent administration procured for him the title of "Well-Beloved," a state of things, however, which did not last long, for the harassments he had been subjected to drove him insane, and his kingdom, torn in pieces by rival factions, was given over to anarchy, and fell by treaty of Troyes almost entirely into the hands of the English conquerors at Agincourt (1368-1422).

CHARLES VII., THE VICTORIOUS, son of Charles VI., became king of France in 1422; at his accession the English held possession of almost the whole country, and he indolently made no attempt to expel them, but gave himself up to effeminate indulgences; was about to lose his whole patrimony when the patriotism of the nation woke up at the enthusiastic summons of Joan of Arc; her triumphs and those of her associates weakened the English domination, and even after her death the impulse she gave continued to work, till at the end of 20 years the English were driven out of France, and lost all they held in it except the town of Calais, along with Havre, and Guines Castle (1403-1461).

CHARLES VIII., king of France, son and successor of Louis XI.; during his minority the kingdom suffered from the turbulence and revolts of the nobles; married Anne of Brittany, heiress of the rich duchy of that name, by which it was added to the crown of France; sacrificed the interests of his kingdom by war with Italy to support the claims of French princes to the throne of Naples, which, though successful in a military point of view, proved politically unfruitful (1470-1498).

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CHARLES IX., second son of Henry II. and Catharine de' Medici, became king of France in 1560; the civil wars of the Huguenots and Catholics fill up this reign; the first war concluded by the peace of Amboise, during which Francis of Guise was assassinated; the second concluded by the peace of Longjumeau, during which Montmorency fell; the third concluded by the peace of St. Germain, in which Conde and Moncontour fell, which peace was broken by the massacre of St. Bartholomew, into the perpetration of which Charles was inveigled by his mother and the Guises; incensed at this outrage the Huguenots commenced a fourth war, and were undertaking a fifth when Charles died, haunted by remorse and in dread of the infinite terror (1550-1574).

CHARLES X., brother of Louis XVI. and Louis XVIII., the latter of whom he succeeded on the throne of France in 1824; was unpopular in France as Duc d'Artois in the time of the Revolution, and had to flee the country at the outbreak of it, and stayed for some time as an exile in Holyrood, Edinburgh; on his accession he became no less unpopular from his adherence to the old regime; at an evil hour in 1830 he issued ordinances in defiance of all freedom, and after an insurrection of three days in the July of that year had again to flee; abdicating in favour of his son, found refuge for a time again in Holyrood, and died at Goertz in his eightieth year (1757-1837).

CHARLES V., (I. of Spain), emperor of Germany, son of Philip, Archduke of Austria, born at Ghent; became king of Spain in 1516, on the death of his maternal grandfather Ferdinand, and emperor of Germany in 1519 on the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I., being crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520; reigned during one of the most important periods in the history of Europe; the events of the reign are too numerous to detail; enough to mention his rivalry with Francis I. of France, his contention as a Catholic with the Protestants of Germany, the inroads of the Turks, revolts in Spain, and expeditions against the pirates of the Mediterranean; the ambition of his life was the suppression of the Protestant Reformation and the succession of his son Philip to the Imperial crown; he failed in both; resigned in favour of his son, and retired into the monastery of St. Yuste, in Estremadura,

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near which he built a magnificent retreat, where, it is understood, notwithstanding his apparent retirement, he continued to take interest in political affairs, and to advise in the management of them (1500-1558).

CHARLES VI., emperor of Germany from 1711 to 1740, as well as king of Spain from 1703, was son of the Emperor Leopold I., and father of Maria Theresa.

CHARLES XII., king of Sweden, son of Charles XI., a warlike prince; ascended the throne at the age of 15; had to cope with Denmark, Russia, and Poland combined against him; foiled the Danes at Copenhagen, the Russians at Narva, and Augustus II. of Poland at Riga; trapped in Russia, and cooped up to spend a winter there, he was, in spring 1709, attacked by Peter the Great at Pultowa and defeated, so that he had to take refuge with the Turks at Bender; here he was attacked, captured, and conveyed to Demotica, but escaping, he found his way miraculously back to Sweden, and making peace with the Czar, commenced an attack on Norway, but was killed by a musket-shot at the siege of Friedrickshall; "the last of the Swedish kings"; "his appearance, among the luxurious kings and knights of the North" at the time, Carlyle compares to "the bursting of a cataract of bombshells in a dull ballroom" (1697-1718).

CHARLES I., king of England, third son of James I., born at Dunfermline; failing in his suit for the Infanta of Spain, married Henrietta Maria, a French princess, a devoted Catholic, who had great influence over him, but not for good; had for public advisers Strafford and Laud, who cherished in him ideas of absolute power adverse to the liberty of the subject; acting on these ideas brought him into collision with the Parliament, and provoked a civil war; himself the first to throw down the gauntlet by raising the royal standard at Nottingham; in the end of which he surrendered himself to the Scots army at Newark, who delivered him to the Parliament; was tried as a traitor to his country, condemned to death, and beheaded, 30th January, at Whitehall (1600-1649).

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CHARLES II., king of England, son of Charles I., horn at St. James's Palace, London; was at The Hague, in Holland, when his father was beheaded; assumed the royal title; was proclaimed King by the Scots; landed in Scotland, and was crowned at Scone; marching into England, was defeated by Cromwell at Worcester, 3rd September 1651; fled to France; by the policy of General Monk, after Cromwell's death, was restored to his crown and kingdom in 1660, an event known as the Restoration; he was an easy-going man, and is known in history as the "Merry Monarch"; his reign was an inglorious one for England, though it is distinguished by the passing of the Habeas Corpus Act, one of the great bulwarks of English liberty next to the Magna Charta (1630-1685).

CHARLES, a French physicist, born at Beaugency; was the first to apply hydrogen to the inflation of balloons (1746-1823).

CHARLES, ARCHDUKE, of Austria, son of the Emperor Leopold II. and younger brother of Francis II., one of the ablest generals of Austria in the wars against the French Republic and the Empire; lost the battle of Wagram, after which, being wounded, he retired into private life (1771-1847).

CHARLES ALBERT, king of Sardinia, succeeded Charles Felix in 1831; conceived a design to emancipate and unite Italy; in the pursuit of this object he declared war against Austria; though at first successful, was defeated at Novara, and to save his kingdom was compelled to resign in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel; retired to Oporto, and died of a broken heart (1798-1849).

CHARLES EDWARD, the Young Pretender, grandson of James II. of England, born at Rome, landed in Scotland (1745); issued a manifesto in assertion of his father's claims; had his father proclaimed king at Edinburgh; attacked and defeated General Cope at Prestonpans; marched at the head of his adherents into England as far as Derby; returned, and defeated the king's force at Falkirk, but retired before the Duke of

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Cumberland, who dispersed his army at Culloden; wandered about thereafter in disguise; escaped to France, and died at Florence (1721-1789).

CHARLES MARTEL (i. e. "Charles the Hammer"), son of Pepin d'Heristal and grandfather of Charlemagne; became mayor of the Palace, and as such ruler of the Franks; notable chiefly for his signal victory over the Saracens at Poitiers in 732, whereby the tide of Mussulman invasion was once for all rolled back and the Christianisation of Europe assured; no greater service was ever rendered to Europe by any other fighting man (689-741).

CHARLES OF ANJOU, brother of St. Louis, king of Naples; lost Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers (1220-1285).

CHARLES OF VALOIS, third son of Philip the Bold, one of the greatest captains of his age (1270-1324).

CHARLES THE RASH, last Duke of Burgundy, son of Philip the Good, born at Dijon; enemy of Louis XI. of France, his feudal superior; was ambitious to free the duchy from dependence on France, and to restore it as a kingdom, and by daring enterprises tried hard to achieve this; on the failure of the last effort was found lying dead on the field (1433-1477).

CHARLES'S WAIN, the constellation of Ursa Major, a wagon without a wagoner.

CHARLESTON (56), the largest city in S. Carolina, and the chief commercial city; also a town in Western Virginia, U.S., with a spacious land-locked harbour; is the chief outlet for the cotton and rice of the district, and has a large coasting trade.

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CHARLET, NICOLAS TOUSSAINT, a designer and painter, born in Paris; famous for his sketches of military subjects and country life, in which he displayed not a little humour (1792-1845).

CHARLEVILLE (17), a manufacturing and trading town in the dep. of Ardennes, France; exports iron, coal, wines, and manufactures hardware and beer.

CHARLEVOIX, a Jesuit and traveller, born at St. Quentin, explored the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi (1682-1761).

CHARLOTTE, PRINCESS, daughter and only child of George IV. of England, married to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, afterwards king of Belgium; died after giving birth to a still-born boy, to the great grief of the whole nation (1796-1817).

CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH OF BAVARIA, second wife of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV., called the Princess Palatine (1652-1722).

CHARLOTTENBURG (76), a town on the Spree, 3 m. W. of Berlin, with a palace, the favourite residence of Sophie Charlotte, the grandmother of Frederick the Great, and so named by her husband Frederick I. after her death; contains the burial-place of William I., emperor of Germany.

CHARLOTTETOWN (13), the capital of Prince Edward Island.

CHARMETTES, a picturesque hamlet near Chambery, a favourite retreat of Rousseau's.

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CHARNAY, a French traveller; a writer on the ancient civilisation of Mexico, which he has made a special study; _b_. 1828.

CHARON, in the Greek mythology the ferryman of the ghosts of the dead over the Styx into Hades, a grim old figure with a mean dress and a dirty beard, peremptory in exacting from the ghosts he ferried over the obolus allowed him for passage-money.

CHARONDAS, a Sicilian law-giver, disciple of Pythagoras; is said to have killed himself when he found he had involuntarily broken one of his own laws (600 B.C.).

CHARRON, PIERRE, a French moralist and theologian, as well as pulpit orator, born in Paris; author of "Les Trois Verites," the unity of God, Christianity the sole religion, and Catholicism the only Christianity; and of a sceptical treatise "De la Sagesse"; a friend and disciple of Montaigne, but bolder as more dogmatic, with less _bonhommie_ and originality, and much of a cynic withal (1541-1603).

CHARTERHOUSE, a large London school, originally a Carthusian monastery, and for a time a residence of the dukes of Norfolk.

CHARTIER, ALAIN, an early scholarly French poet and prose writer of note, born at Bayeux; secretary to Charleses V., VI., and VII. of France, whom Margaret, daughter of James I. of Scotland and wife of Louis XI., herself a poetess, once kissed as he lay asleep for the pleasure his poems gave her; was a patriot, and wrote as one (1390-1458).

CHARTISM, a movement of the working-classes of Great Britain for greater political power than was conceded to them by the Reform Bill of 1832, and which found expression in a document called the "People's Charter," drawn up in 1838, embracing six "points," as they were called,

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viz., Manhood Suffrage, Equal Electoral Districts, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Abolition of a Property Qualification in the Parliamentary Representation, and Payment of Members of Parliament, all which took the form of a petition presented to the House of Commons in 1839, and signed by 1,380,000 persons. The refusal of the petition gave rise to great agitation over the country, which gradually died out in 1848.

CHARTRES (23), the capital of the French dep. of Eure-et-Lois, 55 m. SW. of Paris; gave title of Duke to the eldest of the Orleanist Bourbons.

CHARTREUSE, LA GRANDE, a monastery founded by St. Bruno in 1084 in the dep. of Isere, 14 m. NE. of Grenoble; famous as the original place of the manufacture of the Chartreuse liqueur, held in much repute; it was honoured by a visit of Queen Victoria in 1887; Ruskin was disappointed with both monks and monastery.


CHASE, SALMON PORTLAND, Chief-Justice of the United States; a great anti-slavery advocate and leader of the Free-Soil party; aimed at the Presidency, but failed (1773-1808).

CHASI`DIM, a party among the Jews identified with the Pharisees, their supreme concern the observance of their religion in its purity.

CHASLES, MICHEL, an eminent French mathematician, and held one of the first in the century; on the faith of certain autographs, which were afterwards proved to be forgeries, he in 1867 astonished the world by ascribing to Pascal the great discoveries of Newton, but had to admit he was deceived (1793-1880).

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CHASLES, PHILARETE, a French litterateur, born near Chartres, a disciple of Rousseau; lived several years in England, and wrote extensively on English subjects, Shakespeare, Mary Stuart, Charles I., and Cromwell among the chief (1799-1873).

CHASSE, DAVID HENDRIK, BARON, a Dutch soldier; served France under Napoleon, who called him "General Baionnette," from his zealous use of the bayonet; fought at Waterloo on the opposite side; as governor of Antwerp, gallantly defended its citadel in 1832 against a French and Belgian force twelve times larger than his own (1765-1849).

CHASSEPOT, a French breech-loading rifle named from the inventor.

CHASSEURS, picked bodies of light cavalry and infantry in the French service, called respectively _Chasseurs-a-cheval_ and _Chasseurs-a-pied_.

CHASTELARD, PIERRE DE BOSCOSEL DE, grandson of Bayard; conceived an insane passion for Queen Mary, whom he accompanied to Scotland; was surprised in her bedchamber, under her bed, and condemned to death, it being his second offence (1540-1562).

CHAT MOSS, a large bog in Lancashire, 7 m. W. of Manchester, which is partly reclaimed and partly, through the ingenuity of George Stephenson, traversed by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

CHATEAUBRIAND, FRANCOIS RENE DE, eminent French litterateur, born in St. Malo, younger son of a noble family of Brittany; travelled to N. America in 1791; returned to France on the arrest of Louis XVI., and joined the EMIGRANTS (q. v.) at Coblenz; was wounded at the siege of Thionville, and escaped to England; wrote an "Essay on Revolutions Ancient and Modern," conceived on liberal lines; was tempted back again to France in 1800; wrote "Atala," a story of life in the wilds

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of America, which was in 1802 followed by his most famous work, "Genie du Christianisme"; entered the service of Napoleon, but withdrew on the murder of the Duc d'Enghien; though not obliged to leave France, made a journey to the East, the fruit of which was his "Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem"; hailed with enthusiasm the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814; supported the Bourbon dynasty all through, though he wavered sometimes in the interest of liberty; withdrew from public life on the elevation of Louis Philippe to the throne; he was no thinker, but he was a fascinating writer, and as such exercised no small influence on the French literature of his day; he lived in a transition period, and hovered between legitimism and liberty, the revolution and reaction, and belonged to the Romantic school of literature--was perhaps the father of it in France (1766-1848).

CHATEAUX EN ESPAGNE, castles in Spain, visionary projects.

CHATELET, MARQUISE DE, a learned Frenchwoman, born at Paris, with whom Voltaire kept up an intimate acquaintanceship (1706-1749).

CHATELLERAULT (18), a town in the dep. of Vienne, 24 m. NE. of Poitiers; gave title to the Scottish regent, the Earl of Arran; manufactures cutlery and small-arms for the Government.

CHATHAM (59), a town in Kent, on the estuary of the Medway, a fortified naval arsenal; is connected with Rochester.

CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT, EARL OF, a great British statesman and orator, born in Cornwall; determined opponent of Sir Robert Walpole; succeeded in driving him from power, and at length installing himself in his place; had an eye to the greatness and glory of England, summoned the English nation to look to its laurels; saw the French, the rivals of England, beaten back in the four quarters of the globe; driven at length from power himself, he still maintained a single regard for the honour of

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his country, and the last time his voice was heard in the Parliament of England was to protest against her degradation by an ignoble alliance with savages in the war with America; on this occasion he fell back in a faint into the arms of his friends around, and died little more than a month after; "for four years" (of his life), says Carlyle, "king of England; never again he; never again one resembling him, nor indeed can ever be." See SMELFUNGUS on his character and position in Carlyle's "Frederick," Book xxi. chap. i. (1708-1775).

CHATHAM ISLANDS, a group of islands 360 m. E. of New Zealand, and politically connected with it; the chief industry is the rearing of cattle.

CHATSWORTH, the palatial seat of the Duke of Devonshire, in Derbyshire, 8 m. W. of Chesterfield, enclosed in a park, with gardens, 10 m. in circumference.

CHATTERTON, THOMAS, a poet of great promise, had a tragic fate, born at Bristol, passed off while but a boy as copies of ancient MSS., and particularly of poems which he ascribed to one Rowley, a monk of the 17th century, what were compositions of his own, exhibiting a genius of no small literary, not to say lyric, power; having vainly endeavoured to persuade any one of their genuineness, though he had hopes of the patronage of Sir Robert Walpole, he left Bristol for London, and made vehement efforts with his pen to bespeak regard, but failed; grew desperate, and committed suicide at the early age of 18 (1752-1770).

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY, the great early English poet, and father of English poetry, the son of a vintner and taverner, born probably in London, where he lived almost all his days; when a lad, served as page in the royal household; won the favour and patronage of the king, Edward III. and his son, John of Gaunt, who pensioned him; served in an expedition to France; was made prisoner, but ransomed by the king; was often employed on royal embassies, in particular to Italy; held

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responsible posts at home; was thus a man of the world as well as a man of letters; he comes first before us as a poet in 1369; his poetic powers developed gradually, and his best and ripest work, which occupied him at intervals from 1373 to 1400, is his "CANTERBURY TALES" (q. v.), characterised by Stopford Brooke as "the best example of English story-telling we possess"; besides which he wrote, among other compositions, "The Life of St. Cecilia," "Troilus and Cressida," the "House of Fame," and the "Legend of Good Women"; his influence on English literature has been compared to that of Dante on Italian, and his literary life has been divided into three periods--the French, the Italian, and the English, according as the spirit of it was derived from a foreign or a native source (1340-1400).

CHAUMETTE, PIERRE GASPARD, a violent member of the extreme party in the French Revolution, could "recognise the suspect from the very face of them"; provoked the disgust of even Robespierre, and was arrested amid jeers and guillotined (1763-1794).

CHAUTAUQUA, a summer resort on a lake of the name in the W. of New York State, centre of a novel institution, which prescribes a four years' course of private readings, and grants diplomas to those who anywhere achieve it.

CHAUVINISM, a name among the French for what is known as Jingoism among the English, i. e. an extravagant zeal for the glory of one's country or party, from one _Chauvin_, who made threatening displays of his devotion to Napoleon after his fall in 1815.

CHEDDAR, a village in Somersetshire, on the Mendip Hills, famous for its cheese.

CHEKE, SIR JOHN, a zealous Greek scholar, born at Cambridge, and first regius professor of Greek there; did much to revive in England an

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interest in Greek and Greek literature; was tutor to Edward VI., who granted him landed estates; favouring the cause of Lady Jane Grey on the accession of Mary, left the country, was seized, and sent back; for fear of the stake abjured Protestantism, but never forgave himself, and died soon after; he introduced the mode of pronouncing Greek prevalent in England (1514-1557).

CHELMSFORD (11), the county town of Essex, on the Chelmer.

CHELSEA (96), a western suburb of London, on the N. of the Thames; famous for its hospital for old and disabled soldiers, and the place of residence of sundry literary celebrities, among others Sir Thomas More, Swift, Steele, and Carlyle.

CHELTENHAM (49), a healthy watering-place and educational centre in Gloucestershire; first brought into repute as a place of fashionable resort by the visits of George III. to it; contains a well-equipped college, where a number of eminent men have been educated.

CHELYUSKIN, CAPE, in Siberia, the most northerly point in the Eastern hemisphere.

CHEMICAL AFFINITY, the tendency elementary bodies have to combine and remain in combination.

CHEMISM, in the Hegelian philosophy "the mutual attraction, interpenetration, and neutralisation of independent individuals which unite to form a whole."

CHEMISTRY, the science that treats of elementary bodies and their combinations: _inorganic_, relating to physical compounds; _organic_,

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relating to vegetable and animal compounds.

CHEMNITZ (160), a manufacturing town in Saxony, called the "Saxon Manchester," at the foot of the Erzgebirge, in a rich mineral district; manufactures cottons, woollens, silks, machinery, &c.

CHEMNITZ, MARTIN, an eminent Lutheran theologian, born in Brandenburg, a disciple of Melanchthon; author of "Loci Theologici," a system of theology; took a leading part in procuring the adoption of the "Formula of Concord"; his chief work "Examen Concilii Tridentini" (1522-1586).

CHEMOSH, the national god of the Moabites, akin to Moloch, and their stay in battle, but an abomination to the children of Jehovah.

CHEMULPO, a town on the W. coast of Corea; a thriving town since it became a treaty-port in 1883.

CHENAB`, an affluent on the left bank of the Indus, and one of the five rivers, and the largest, which give name to the Punjab; is 750 m. long.

CHENERY, THOMAS, a journalist; became editor of the _Times_; was distinguished for his knowledge of Arabic and Hebrew, and was one of the Old Testament revisers (1826-1884).

CHENIER, MARIE-ANDRE, French poet, greatest in the 18th century, born at Constantinople; author of odes, idylls, and elegies, which place him high among French poets; took part in the Revolution as a lover of order as well as of liberty; offended Robespierre, and was guillotined two days before the fall of Robespierre; as a poet he was distinguished

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for the purity of his style and his originality (1762-1794).

CHENONCEAUX, a magnificent chateau near Amboise, in, France; built by Francis I. for the Duchesse d'Etampes, afterwards the property of the Condes, and afterwards of Madame Dupont.

CHENU, a French naturalist; author of an "Encyclopaedia of Natural History" (1808-1879).

CHEOPHREN, king of Egypt, brother and successor of Cheops; built the second great pyramid.

CHEOPS, king of Memphis, in Egypt, of the 4th dynasty; builder of the largest of the pyramids about 3000 B.C.

CHEPSTOW (4), a port on the Wye, Monmouthshire, 17 m. N. of Newport; with a tubular suspension bridge, and where the tides are higher than anywhere else in Britain.

CHER, an affluent of the Loire below Tours; also the dep. in France (359) to which it gives name; an agricultural and pastoral district; capital Bourges.

CHERBOURG (40), a French port and arsenal in the dep. of Manche, opposite the Isle of Wight, 70 m. distant, on the construction and fortifications of which immense sums were expended, as much as eight millions; the fortifications were begun by Vauban.

CHERBULIEZ, VICTOR, novelist, critic, and publicist, born at Geneva, of a distinguished family; professor of Greek at Geneva; holds a high

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place, and is widely known, as a writer of a series of works of fiction; _b_. 1826.

CHER`IBON (11), a seaport of Java, on the N. of the island.

CHERITH, a brook E. of the Jordan, Elijah's hiding-place.

CHEROKEES, a tribe of American Indians, numbering some 20,000, in the NW. of the Indian Territory, U.S.; civilised, self-governing, and increasing; formerly occupied the region about the Tennessee River.

CHERONE`A, a town in Boeotia, where Philip of Macedon conquered the Athenians and Thebans, 338 B.C., and Sulla defeated Mithridates, 86 B.C.; the birthplace of Plutarch, who is hence called the Cheronean Sage.

CHERRA PUNJI (5), a village in the Khasi Hills, Assam, with the heaviest rainfall of any place on the globe.

CHERSONE`SUS (i. e. continent island), a name which the Greeks gave to several peninsulas, viz., the Tauric C., the Crimea, the Thracian C., Gallipoli; the Cimbric C., Jutland; the Golden C., the Malay Peninsula.

CHERTSEY (11), a very old town of Surrey, 21 m. SW. of London, on the right bank of the Thames.

CHERUBIM, an order of angelic beings conceived of as accompanying the manifestations of Jehovah, supporting His throne and protecting His glory, guarding it from profane intrusion; winged effigies of them overshadowed the MERCY SEAT (q. v.).

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CHERUBIM, a character in the "Mariage de Figaro"; also the 11th Hussars, from their trousers being of a cherry colour.

CHERUBINI, a celebrated musical composer, born at Florence; naturalised in France; settled in Paris, the scene of his greatest triumphs; composed operas, of which the chief were "Iphigenia in Aulis," and "Les deux Journees; or, The Water-Carrier," his masterpiece; also a number of sacred pieces and requiems, all of the highest merit; there is a portrait of him by Ingres (1842) in the Louvre, representing the Muse of his art extending her protecting hand over his head (1760-1842).

CHERUEL, ADOLPHE, French historian, born at Rouen; author of "History of France during the Minority of Louis XIV."; published the "Memoirs of Saint-Simon" (1809-1891).

CHERUSCI, an ancient people of Germany, whose leader was Arminius, and under whom they defeated the Romans, commanded by Varus, in 9 A.D.

CHESAPEAKE BAY, a northward-extending inlet on the Atlantic coast of the United States, 200 m. long and from 10 to 40 m. broad, cutting Maryland in two.

CHESELDEN, WILLIAM, an English anatomist and surgeon, whose work, "Anatomy of the Human Body," was long used as a text-book on that science (1688-1752).

CHESHIRE (730), a western county of England, between the Mersey and the Dee, the chief mineral products of which are coal and rock-salt, and the agricultural, butter and cheese; has numerous manufacturing towns, with every facility for inter-communication, and the finest pasture-land

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in England.

CHESHUNT (9), a large village in Hertfordshire, 14 m. N. of London, with rose gardens, and a college founded by the Countess of Huntingdon.

CHESIL BEACH, a neck of land on the Devonshire coast, 15 m. long, being a ridge of loose pebbles and shingle.

CHESNEY, C. CORNWALLIS, professor of Military History, nephew of the succeeding, author of "Waterloo Lectures" (1826-1876).

CHESNEY, FRANCIS RAWDON, explorer, born in co. Down, Ireland; explored with much labour the route to India by way of the Euphrates, though his labours were rendered futile by the opposition of Russia; proved, by survey of the isthmus, the practicability of the Suez Canal (1798-1872).

CHESTER (41), the county town of Cheshire, on the Dee, 16 m. SE. of Liverpool; an ancient city founded by the Romans; surrounded by walls nearly 2 m. long, and from 7 to 8 ft. thick, forming a promenade with parapets; the streets are peculiar; along the roofs of the lower storeys of the houses there stretch piazzas called "Rows," at the original level of the place, 16 ft. wide for foot-passengers, approached by steps; it abounds in Roman remains, and is altogether a unique town.

CHESTERFIELD (22), a town in Derbyshire, 21 m. N. of Derby; in a mineral district; manufactures cotton, woollen, and silk; has a canal connecting it with the Trent.

CHESTERFIELD, PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE, EARL OF, statesman, orator, and man of letters, eldest son of the third earl, born in London; sat in

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the House of Commons from 1716 to 1726; was an opponent of Walpole; held office under the Pelhams; in 1748 retired from deafness, or perhaps disgust, into private life; celebrated for his "Letters to his Son," models of elegance, though of questionable morality, which it appears he never intended to publish, and for the scorn with which Dr. Johnson treated him when he offered to help him, after he no longer needed any, in a letter which gave the death-blow to the patronage of literature; is credited by Carlyle with having predicted the French Revolution; it should be added, the "Letters" were printed by his son's widow (1694-1773).

CHEVALIER, MICHEL, a celebrated French economist, born at Limoges; originally a Socialist of the St. Simonian school; for defending Socialism was imprisoned, but recanted, and wrote ably against Socialism; was a free-trader and coadjutor of Cobden (1806-1879).


CHEVALIER D'INDUSTRIE, one who lives by his wits, specially by swindling.

CHEVALIER ST. GEORGE, the Pretender.

CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE, a military fence composed of a beam or a bar armed with long spikes, literally Friesland horses, having been first used in Friesland.

CHEVERT, a French general, born at Verdun; "a bit of right soldier stuff"; distinguished himself in many engagements, and especially at the siege of Prague in 1757 (1696-1773).

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Computer Lecturer. U. south-westwards. in heraldry an ordinary of two bands forming an angle descending to the extremities of the shield. was director in the dyeing department in the Gobelins manufactory. a warlike tribe of Red Indians. nervous disorders. a French chemist. which he recommended to others in the like case. now much reduced. DUCHESSE DE. extending 35 m. CHEVY CHASE. meeting at the top. wrote on fevers. suffered from corpulency. Page 606 of 2772 . and partially settled in the Indian Territory. born in Aberdeenshire.com CHEVIOT HILLS. there were strains in it which Sir Philip Sidney said moved his heart more than with a trumpet. CHEYENNE INDIANS. CHEVREUL. CHEVRON.. her Life has been written by Victor Cousin (1600-1679). wrote also on fluxions (1671-1743). an expert in the department of dyeing. CHEVREUSE.S.. noted for their horsemanship. famous for its breed of sheep. CTSTI. presumed to refer to an event in connection with the battle of Otterburn. Chennai 6. the subject and title of a highly popular old English ballad. GEORGE. he lived to witness the centenary of his birth (1786-1889). as well as the chemistry of fats. MICHEL EUGENE. and hygiene. the Carter Fell being 2020 ft. born at Angers.. representing the two rafters of a house.ramakalai@gmail. a range on the borders of England and Scotland. but kept it down by vegetable and milk diet. and an authority on colours. in practice in London. CHEYNE. the highest in Northumberland 2676 ft. a physician and medical writer. played an important part in the Fronde and in the plots against Richelieu and Mazarin. being 32 stone in weight.

CHEZY. CHIAPAS. THOMAS KELLY. GABRIELLO." in which he advocates conclusions in accord with modern critical results. 1841. yields maize. born at Neuilly. whom the Spaniards found established in New Granada in the 16th century. pestilential affluent of the Tiber. the first to create in France an interest in the study of Sanskrit (1773-1832). though on a lower stage than the Peruvians. Oriel Professor of Scripture Exegesis. born in London. an Italian lyric poet. an eminent Biblical scholar. CHIAROSCURO. an orange-red colouring matter obtained from boiling the Computer Lecturer. Oxford. born at Savona. sugar. now merged in the Spanish population. and canon of Rochester.com CHEYNE. now deepened into a healthful and serviceable stream. CHIA`NA. a small. the reproduction in art of the effects of light and shade on nature as they mutually affect each other. especially for his lyrics. CHIABRERA. _b_. Page 607 of 2772 . CHICA. and cotton." Pindar being a Greek poet whom it was his ambition to imitate (1552-1637). stagnant. Chennai 6.ramakalai@gmail. CHIBCHAS or MUYSCAS. distinguished. particularly on "Isaiah" and the "Psalms. covered with forests. surnamed the "Pindar of Italy. cacao. author of numerous works on the Old Testament. CTSTI. connecting the Tiber with the Arno. a civilised people. LAS (270). DE. a French Orientalist. a Pacific State of Mexico. they worship the sun.

chief trade in agricultural produce. to skin and bone. archbishop of Canterbury. shore of Lake Michigan. its unparalleled growth. accompanied Henry V. of it. a cathedral city in the W. with a port on the Channel 2 m. is the second city in the Union.. SW. CTSTI. in the NE. libraries. and now covering an area of 180 sq. dating only from 1837--in 1832 a mere log-fort. of the State. a third of the United States railway system centres in it. and with the ocean by the Great Lakes and the St. a moderate churchman. often employed on embassies. and used as a dye. enormously tall office "sky-scrapers. 17 m. CHICHEVACHE. it suffered severely from fire in 1871 and 1874. it has many magnificent buildings. on the SW. and it communicates with all Canada. in breadth--is due to its matchless facilities for communication. CHICARD. and theological colleges. of Portsmouth. outnumbered by the Germans and almost equalled by the Irish. CHICHELEY. and its manufactures include almost every variety of production.700). being 21 m. the metropolis of Illinois. there are a university. an art institute. the harlequin of the modern French carnival. CHICHESTER (9). Chennai 6. Situated in the heart of the continent. a monster fabled to feed on good women. HENRY. the population is a mixture of all European peoples.ramakalai@gmail. CHICAGO (1." and an unrivalled system of parks and avenues. NE. of Sussex. native-born Americans are a small minority. Lawrence River. it is the greatest grain and pork market in the world. from the scarcity of them.com leaves of the _Bignonia chica_. in contrast with another Computer Lecturer. commercial. medical. laid out with absolute regularity. a scholar and statesman. in length and 10 m. and starved. to Agincourt (1362-1442). m. Page 608 of 2772 . grotesquely dressed up. and observatory.

ramakalai@gmail. CHIEM-SEE. is pretty expert in getting rid of it. of the same name. CHICKASAWS. CHIGI. 78 m. NE. of Cadiz. and was fat and plump. a town in Mexico. eminent in the Church.com called Bicorn. the dog that never came when it was called. 48 m. CHIEN DE JEAN DE NIVELLE. CHIE`TI (22). See NIVELLE. American Indians. from Muenich. who are more plentiful. multiplies incredibly. with famous silver and also copper mines. famous for its fish. CHIEF. CHIGOE. Chennai 6. however. with a fine Gothic cathedral. CHIHUA`HUA (25). an insect which infests the skin of the feet. allied to the Chocktaws. Page 609 of 2772 . CHICLANA (12). that fed on good men. of Rome. SB. N. the upper part of an escutcheon cut off by a horizontal line. who. Computer Lecturer. settled in a civilised state in the Indian Territory like the Cherokees. CTSTI. a watering-place 12 m. a high-lying lake in Upper Bavaria. capital of a State (298). a city in Central Italy. with mineral baths. adorned with three islands. the largest in Mexico. a distinguished Italian family. and is a great annoyance to the negro.

born in Boston. king of Paris. who figures in old chronicles as the brother of Charles Martel. the eldest son of a nobleman who has not yet attained to knighthood." Lamartine takes up the hero where Byron leaves him. an American scholar.. representing the author himself as wandering over the world in quest of satisfaction and returning sated to disgust. CHILDERBERT I.ramakalai@gmail.. II. CHILD. advocated the compulsory transportation of paupers to the Colonies (1630-1699). Pepin d'Heristal. C. in his "Dernier Chant of C. CHILD. or has not yet won his spurs. Chennai 6. a poem of Byron's. Computer Lecturer. written between 1812 and 1819. reigned over all France from 695 to 711. CHILDE HAROLD. it abounds in striking thoughts and vivid descriptions. distinguished as the editor of Spenser and of "English and Scottish Ballads. CHILDERBRAND." "a monumental collection". FRANCIS JAMES. reigned from 575 to 596.. CTSTI. professor of Anglo-Saxon and Early English Literature at Harvard. a Frank warrior. under the mayor of the palace. king of Austrasia. CHILDE. III. _b_. a wealthy London merchant. Page 610 of 2772 . C. author of "Discourse on Trade.. son of Clovis. reigned from 511 to 558. an American novelist and anti-slavery advocate (1802-1880). LYDIA MARIA. son of Siegbert and Brunhilda. signalised himself in the expulsion of the Saracens from France." with an appendix against usury. H.com CHILD. 1825. son of Thierri III. SIR JOSHUA.

II. broad. to Peru. are stretches of pastoral land and virgin forest. The rivers are short and rapid. who hired two ruffians to murder them. CHILE (2. and of all France in 670. the most southerly regions being Computer Lecturer. and cold. was deposed by Pepin le Bref. Page 611 of 2772 . occupies a strip of country. a festival to commemorate the massacre of the children by Herod. with Argentine and Bolivia on its eastern borders. and stretching from Cape Horn northward 2200 m. are rainless tracts of mountains rich in copper. Chennai 6. that he might inherit their wealth. of little use for navigation. and author of Pali Dictionary (1809-1876). In the N. a redbreast having covered their bodies with strawberry leaves. professor of Pali and Buddhistic Literature in University College. American States. who were found dead in the morning. and deserts with wonderful deposits of nitrate. The climate is naturally various.500 ft. left to the care of an uncle. a boy and girl.. The Andes tower above the snow-line. and fruits of all kinds. died in the monastery of St. C. king of Austrasia in 660. and produces excellent wheat. killed his companion. son of the preceding. one of the ruffians relented. two children. the son of Merovig and father of Clovis. but excessively rugged and broken in the S. and left the children in a wood. _d_. CHILDREN OF THE WOOD. The central portion enjoys a temperate climate with moderate rainfall.. The coast-line is even in the N. manganese. CHILDERS. last of the Merovingian kings. with excessive rains.. III. CTSTI. grapes.. son of Clovis II. between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. king of the Franks.. the most advanced and stable of the S. assassinated 673. silver. C. and other metals.ramakalai@gmail.com CHILDERIC I. 100 m. raw climate. In the S. the uncle was thereafter goaded to death by the furies. ROBERT C. CHILDERMAS. Omer in 755.867).. 481. Aconcagua reaching 23. from 743 to 752..

a village in Northumberland. Page 612 of 2772 . CHILLIANWALLA.com weird and desolate. though a Protestant. Roman Catholicism the State religion. CHILLINGWORTH. successful wars with Spain 1864-66. SW. Since then a revolution in 1851. manufactures of various kinds are fostered with foreign capital. The chief trade is with Britain: exports nitre. In 1540 Pedro Valdivia entered it from Peru and founded Santiago. Mining and agriculture are the chief industries. textiles. Chennai 6. an able English controversial divine. a village in the Punjab. During colonial days it was an annex of Peru. 8 m. copper. "The Religion of Protestants the Safe Way to Salvation. of Lahore. the Bible alone. the seat of the Earl of Tankerville. WILLIAM. NW. with Bolivia and Peru 1879-81. Independence was gained in 1826. wheat. The government is republican. born at Oxford. the scene in 1849 of a bloody battle in the second Sikh War. The country was first visited by Magellan in 1520. containing a herd of native wild cattle. Computer Lecturer. of Belford. The people are descendants of Spaniards. championed the cause of Protestantism against the claims of Popery in a long-famous work. in which the Sikhs were defeated by Gen. machinery. is the religion of Protestants". CHILLINGHAM. Valparaiso (150) and Iquique the principal ports. who thought forcibly and wrote simply. and a revolution in 1891. but there is a large European element in all the coast towns. sugar. with a park attached to the castle. there is a university at Santiago. In 1810 the revolt against Spain broke out. mingled with Araucanian Indians. education is fairly well fostered. and cattle. Settled government was established in 1847. and he suffered at the hands of the Puritans as an adherent of the Royalist cause (1602-1643). and iodine. Santiago (250) is the capital. imports. he was not a Puritan or a man of narrow views. it was also the scene of a battle between Alexander the Great and Porus. CTSTI. Gough.ramakalai@gmail. 80 m. "The Bible." summing up his conclusion in the oft-quoted words. have been the most stirring events in its history.

in which Bonivard. incarcerated for six years. Computer Lecturer. a thickly wooded island off the coast.ramakalai@gmail. to S. at the eastern end of the Lake of Geneva. from 15 to 20 m. CHIMPANZEE. NE. Africa. and 43 m.. in height. 950 ft. 62 ft. from the shore. a range of chalk hills extending about 70 m. with a goat's body. from 3 to 4 ft. a wardship of beech forests on the Chiltern Hills against robbers. 115 m. CHILOE (77). broad. Chennai 6. slain by Bellerophon.700 ft. from the Thames in Oxfordshire through Bucks..com CHILLON. and covered with perpetual snow. CASTLE OF. exports timber. that at one time infested them. it is now an arsenal. and more allied in several respects to man than any other ape: it is found chiefly in W. as celebrated by Byron. a fire-breathing monster of the Greek mythology. the highest Wendover. surnamed the Bastille of Switzerland. CHIMBORA`ZO. a large African ape. in Ecuador. was. a castle and state prison built on a rock. the office being regarded as a Government one. and a symbol of any impossible monstrosity. and forming a province. a lion's head. Page 613 of 2772 . CHILTERN HILLS. inhabited chiefly by Indians. the Genevese patriot. the acceptance of which enables a member of Parliament to resign his seat if he wishes to retire. is an extinct volcano. CHIMAERA. and a dragon's tail. 20. is said to contain vast deposits of coal. one of the loftiest peaks of the Andes. now a sinecure office. of Chile. broad. CHILTERN HUNDREDS. CTSTI. long from N.

There are no railways. the mountainous Hainau is the only large one still Chinese. kindly. and coal abound in vast quantities. and E. In the N. W. communication inland is by road. The people are a mixed race of Mongol type. peaceful.000 to 400. from which parallel ranges run E. cotton goods and opium imported. Iron. by the Pacific. Chinese history goes back to 2300 B. in the S. its inter-provincial trade is the largest and oldest in the world. copper. has a clear frosty winter. the Emperor being at once father and high-priest of all the people. In the W. and china. is a vast. has coal-fields that. Annam. and vicegerent of heaven. courteous. and warm rainy summer.com CHINA (300. by Mongolia. tea. the Yellow Sea. river. and though primitive. Foreign trade is growing. Tea and silk are exported. almost all as yet done with Britain and her Colonies. and opium. Mongolia (from which it is separated by the Great Wall). one of the vastest and richest in the world. are lofty mountain ranges running N. in the NE. rice. and the whole country is marvellously fertile. and out of it are bitten the gulfs of Pe-che-lee. The Government is in theory a patriarchal autocracy. wheat. Commerce is as yet chiefly internal. and W. by Tibet and Burmah. and bearing on its waters an innumerable fleet of boats and barges. with Tibet. whose yellow soil produces great crops with little labour and no manure. silk." The most important manufactures are of silk. Chennai 6. cotton. and cotton are grown. and the China Sea. rising to greatest height in the S.000). There are many small islands off the coast. Buddhism is the prevailing faith of the masses. Forests have everywhere been cleared away. forms the Chinese Empire. and densely peopled country in Eastern Asia. English intercourse Computer Lecturer. Its mineral wealth is enormous. bounded on the N. compact. Agriculture is the chief industry. and canals. mill