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# Reasoning

## Visual Reasoning 1 (Introduction to Visual Reasoning): Class Exercise

Number of questions: 45 4. Time:

9
30 mins

Type 1
Directions for questions 1 to 10: In the given questions, the Problem Figures themselves are also the Answer Figures. Out of the four figures (a), (b), (c) and (d), three are similar in a certain way. One figure is not like the other three. That means three figures form a group. The question is: which of the figures does not belong to this group? Study the following problem based on odd man out.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

5.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

6.

(a ) (a ) (b ) (c) (d )

(b )

(c)

(d )

Of the four figures, three are straight-lines whereas one is a circle. The three lines form a group. The circle does not belong to this group. Therefore, the answer is the circle, which is figure (a). Now, solve the following questions.

7.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

8.

1.
(a ) (b ) (c) (d )

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

9.

2.
(a ) (b ) (c) (d ) (a ) (b ) (c) (d )

10. 3.
(a ) (b ) (c) (d )

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

Reasoning 9

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Directions for questions 11 to 15: In these questions, there are two sets of figures. The Problem Figures and the Answer Figures. The four Problem Figures make a series. That means they change from left to right in a specific order. The question is, if the figures continue to change in the same order, what should the fifth figure be? Study the following problem based on series.

## P rob lem F igu res

A nsw er Figure s

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

In the example above, as you go from left to right, you find the line across the Problem Figures falling downward. The question is, if the line continues to fall, what will be its next, i.e. fifth position? The answer would be: it would fall further and be lying horizontal. Now, look at the Answer Figures. You find that Answer Figure (d) has a line lying horizontal. Therefore, the answer is (d). Now, solve the following questions. 11.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

12.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

13.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

14.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

15.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

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Reasoning 9

Directions for questions 16 to 20: In each of the given questions, out of the four figures, three are similar in a certain way. One figure is not like the other three. That means three figures form a group. The question is: Which of the figures down not belong to this group?

18.

A B I
(a )

J K O
(b )

T C X
(c)

V E H
(d )

19. 16.

1 1
(a )

* *

3*

*
(c)

27

* ** *64
20.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(b )

(d )

17.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

Type 2
Directions for questions 1 to 10: Out of the five figures (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e), given in each of the following questions, four are similar in a certain way, one figure is not like the other four. Find the odd man out. 1.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

2.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

Reasoning 9

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3.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

4.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

5.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

6.

S S

T
(a ) (b )

S
(c)

T T
(d ) (e )

7.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

8.

@ g
(a )

@ ? T @ X
(c)

@ ?

X X ? @
(b )

S
g g

T g

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? T
(d )

S
(e )

Reasoning 9

9.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

10.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

Directions for questions 11 to 20: In each of the following questions there are two sets of figures. The figures given above are Problem Figures and those given under them are Answer Figures. A series is established if one of the answer figures is placed in place of question mark. You have to select that option from the answer figures that will continue the series given in the Problem Figure and mark it as the answer. 11. Problem figures
@ Z P N O T T O @ N P Z O @ N T P N O T @

T O

P N

T O

T O

Z N

N
(a ) (b ) (c)

N
(d )

T
(e )

Reasoning 9

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12.

Problem figures
O O ? ? Z ? Q Z O ?

? Q

Q Z O
(b )

@ Q ? ?
(c)

? Z O ?
(d )

Z O

O Q
(e )

Z
(a )

13.

Problem figures

M R A

R F

N A

R N

?
F

N A H
(a )

F A

S F

R H

R F

H
(b )

H
(c)

F
(d )

H
(e )

14.

Problem figures

A A C A

C @

@ Z A C
(b )

A E @ @
(c)

C C @ A ?
(d )

@
(e )

(a )

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Reasoning 9

15.

Problem figures

D D D V V V

?
Z Z Z

B B B
(a )

T T

@ ?

T
(b )

T
(c) (d ) (e )

16.

Problem figures

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

17.

Problem figures

@
?

@
Z Z ?
(a ) (b ) (c)

@
(e )

@
(d )

Reasoning 9

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18.

Problem figures

Z
(a ) (b )

N
(c)

Z
(d )

N
(e )

19.

Problem figures

M G Z R

M G A R

R M A H

H A S M

?
C M

A H S

T A N
(a )

T S Z
(b )

M A

S H
(c)

M A
(d )

H
(e )

20.

Problem figures

Z Z @ ?

? A

?
? A Z
(c)

? Z A

? Z C

A C
(d )

? Z

A C
(e )

? Z

(a )

(b )

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Reasoning 9

Directions for questions 21 to 25: In these questions, there are two sets of figures. The Problem Figures and the Answer Figures. The Problem Figures are presented in two units. The first unit contains two figures and the second unit contains one figure and a question mark. You have to find out which of the Answer Figures should be in place of the question mark.

## P rob lem F igu res

A nsw er Figure s

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

Look at the first two Problem Figures. The second figure is related to the first figure in a certain way. The elements in the second figure double the elements in the first figure. The first figure contains one square and the second figure contains two squares. The third and fourth figures should have the same relationship as that of the first and the second. The third figure is a circle; so the fourth should be two circles. Therefore, the answer is 5. Now, solve the following questions. PROBLEM FIGURES 21. ANSWER FIGURES

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

22.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

23.

S H Z
I

R X Y E S J Z
I

H N

(a )

(b )
R P Q R

(c)
R Q P

(d )
P R Q

(e )
R P Q

24.
X S

S S X

S P

R Q

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

25.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

Reasoning 9

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## Visual Reasoning 1 (Introduction to Visual Reasoning): Home Exercise

Type 1
Directions for questions 1 to 5: In these questions, there are two sets of figures. The Problem Figures and the Answer Figures. The four Problem Figures make a series. That means they change from left to right in a specific order. The question is, if the figures continue to change in the same order, what should be the third figure, so that the series is completed? Study the following problem based on series.

## P rob lem F igu res

A nsw er Figure s

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

In the example above, as you go from left to right, you find the line across the Problem Figures falling downward. The question is, if the line continues to fall, what will be its third position? The answer would be: it would fall further and be more inclined than the second figure and less inclined than the fourth figure. Also, further observe that the line has become horizontal in the fifth figure and hence, the series is maintained. Now, look at the Answer Figures. You find that Answer Figure (d) follows the same logic. Therefore, the answer is (d). Now, solve the following questions. PROBLEM FIGURES ANSWER FIGURES

1.
(a ) (b ) (c) (d )

2.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

3.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

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Reasoning 9

4.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

5.

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

Directions for questions 6 to 10: In each of the following questions there are two sets of figures. The figures given above are Problem Figures and those given under them are Answer Figures. A series is established if one of the answer figures is placed in place of question mark. You have to select that option from the answer figures which will continue the series given in the Problem Figure and mark it as the answer. 6. Problem Figure

?
A

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

7.

Problem Figure

?
A B C D E

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

Reasoning 9

CEX-8040/11/ Page 11

8.

Problem Figure

?
A

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

9.

Problem Figure

A

?
B C

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

10.

Problem Figure

B S C

S A

S
D E

(a )

S S

(b )

S
(c)

S S
(d )

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Reasoning 9

Type 2
Directions for questions 1 to 5: In each of the following questions there are two sets of figures. The figures given above are Problem Figures and those given under them are Answer Figures. A series is established if one of the answer figures is placed in place of question mark. You have to select that option from the answer figures that will continue the series given in the Problem Figure and mark it as the answer. 1. Problem figures

?

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

2.

Problem figures

? T @

@ W ?

G ?

C @

? A
(a )

@ Z @
(b )

? ?
(c)

B @ @
(d )

? A

C @
(e )

Reasoning 9

CEX-8040/11/ Page 13

3.

Problem figures

?

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

4.

Problem figures

P T X

T N

X P

X P P T X N

T N X
(a )

T X N
(b )

T P
(c)

T N P X T N X
(d )

N X
(e )

5.

Problem figures

?

(a )

(b )

(c)

(d )

(e )

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Reasoning 9

## Reasoning 9 Visual Reasoning 1 (Introduction to Visual Reasoning) Answers and Explanations

Class Exercise Type 1
1 11 1 11 21 b d e b c 2 12 2 12 22 b c b b b 3 13 3 13 23 d b a a e 4 14 4 14 24 c a c c c 5 15 5 15 25 d d c d a 6 16 6 16 c b d c 7 17 7 17 d d c e 8 18 8 18 d b c c 9 19 9 19 d b d d 10 20 10 20 b d c d

Type 2

## Home Exercise Type 1

1 1 d d 2 2 a d 3 3 b c 4 4 d d 5 5 c b
7. d Internal line moves by 45 in anticlockwise direction each time. Except option (d), all the figures are moving in clockwise direction. Triangle get inverted at each position. The direction of middle figure which should have been after 90 clockwise movement has changed in figure (d). Internal element is the exact replica of the external element. When you join the mid-points of the hexagon in the first box you get a triangle with the top vertex facing downwards. Repeat the same process for subsequent figures. The inside triangle moves through 900 ACW. Hence, in the fifth box the triangle should have the top vertex again facing ownwards. The central element becomes + and x in alternate boxes. All the other elements move ACW and flip by 1800 every time in subsequent boxes. All the elements move one step down and up and become opposite in direction.

10

Type 2

## Class Exercise Type 1

1. b In all the boxes except option (b), the x is always at the cut line end and the small circle is at the straightline end. Take the element in option (a) and go on moving it in the CW direction, you will get the options (c) and (d) but never option (b). The arrows in all the boxes are parallel to each other except in option (d). The shaded region is moving in the CW direction in all the boxes except in option (c). The inside shaded figure is supported by lines drawn from the sides of the outside figure in all the boxes except in option (d) where it is supported by lines drawn from the vertices of the outside figure. The middle line emerging from the vertex is an arrow in each figure except in the third figure.

8. d

9. d

2. b

10. b

3. d

11. d

4. c

5. d

12. c

13. b 6. c

Reasoning 9

CEX-8040/11/ Page 1

14. a

9. d

The top and right curves rotate 90 clockwise and the left and bottom curves rotate 90 anticlockwise. But this is not true in option (d). The elements diagonally opposite to each other are mirror image and water image respectively. Top right-hand corner occupies a new figure and gradually 1, 2 and 3 figures are lost. Top left-hand corner and bottom left-hand corner is occupied by new figures alternately and numbers of figures is also increasing. Next letter to bottom right-hand corner letter is introduced in the next figure each time. Middle of left-hand side and middle of the base, is occupied by a new element each time, alternately. Similar figures increasing in a systematic manner i.e. closed figure, then open figure. The answer figure would be a close one that is why choice (d) is the answer. The movment is like 1 5 6 9 3 7 and 2 4 8. New figure is added at the middle of the left-hand side in each figure, and the number of figures is increasing in each figure along with retaining the existing figure. Each figure is moving in clockwise direction and the D gets inverted in every next figure. In every box a new figure is coming and that new figure is the succeeding letter or the letter which vanishes. Bottom left hand corner position is occupied by a new figure each time and all the figures are moving in clockwise direction. The line with the circular tip moves one step CW while the small circle inside the hexagon moves one step ACW. The line outside the hexagon moves 2 steps CW. The total number of lines (by counting the star and the triangle) in the left box of the problem figure is 13. So, first of all in the answer choices the total number of lines should also be 13. Hence, options (c) and (e) are eliminated. Further, the figure at the top left corner consisting of 10 lines becomes a six sided figure. The triangle at the bottom right corner becomes four sided and 3 new lines are added which are parallel to each other.

10. c

11. b

15. d

12. b

16. b

13. a 14. c

17. d

18. b

15. d

16. c 17. e

19. b

20. d

18. c

Type 2
1. e 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. c Curves touch at tip and do not cut in figure.

19. d

20. d Inner figure does not touch outer figure in figure (b). One of the line does not have an arrow. 21. c Contains more than 4 enclosed spaces. Figure rotates by 45 in clockwise direction. The tip (square) box should be on opposite side in figure (c). 22. b 6. d 7. c In figure (d) S and T are wrongly placed. In option (c), the second quadrant is not a water image. And in each figure, the bottom right-hand corner figure is the water image of the left bottom corner figure rotated by 90 in anticlockwise direction. T @ ? are moving clockwise except in option (c). In option (c), they are not in sequence also.

8. c

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Reasoning 9

23. e

In the problem figure, the arrow flips vertically by 1800 and moves one step ACW. The line with curved tip at the bottom in the left box flips horizontally by 1800 and goes to the top position in the right box. The element S exhibits radial symmetry moves one step ACW, vanishes and a new element Z exhibiting the same line of symmetry appears. The final element namely H has two axes of symmetry, vanishes and a new element I having the same two axes of symmetry appears. The arrow and the X interchange places. The symbol O remains as it is. Both the S interchange places.

8. a

Option (a) is the correct choice as the movement of shaded region is in ACW direction. Option (b) is the correct choice as all the elements move in CW direction. Option (d) is the correct choice since all the S are being consumed by X

9. b

10. d

Type 2
1. d moves by 135 in clockwise direciton. moves

24. c

25. a

The first element flips vertically by 1800 and goes to the third position. The second element having only one shading on the top stays in the same position and further gets an extra shading on its tail. The third element flips vertically by 1800 and goes to the fourth position and the fourth element goes to the first position without any flipping. 2. d

## by 45 in anticlockwise direction. in clockwise direction. direction.

moves by 90

moves by 45 in clockwise

## moves by 90 in anticlockwise direction

in each figure, at their own positions. The movement is like 1 8 3 4 9 2 7 6. A new element enters at the middle position each time. The arrow moves towards left-hand side completely and then reverses its movement; the circle moves about the corners in clockwise direction. The movement is like 1 7, 2 8, 3 9, 4 6, and the middle element remains the same. Half circle is added each time from alternate sides. moves in clockwise direction.

## Home Exercise Type 1

1. d The shaded triangle flips alternately by 180 along the horizontal axis in every figure. So, option (c) gets eliminated. From first box onwards, one circle disappears every time and a new element appears at position 4. Hence, in box 3 of the problem figure, a new element # is introduced at position 4 and the + sign moves one step ACW. Also, if you further observe the vacant place moves one step ACW. The shaded region moves by three steps CW. The small circle moves three steps ACW. The dot moves by one step CW. Simple logic. In box 3 of the problem figure a circle appears at the top right corner. The shaded dots reduce by one and the lines increase by two in every step. Observe the fourth and the fifth boxes. The circle and the square remain in the same position but both the curved Xs which were bulging inwards now bulge outwards. Hence, now in the third box the Xs would remain as it is but the remaining three objects remain in the same position. The logic here is that an odd number of elements are added to subsequent figures along ACW direction. Option (b) is the correct choice as line is moving clockwise in one step, two steps, three steps and four steps.
0

3. c

4. d

5. b

2. a

moves in clockwise

## direction with internal line changing its position alternately.

3. b 4. d

5. c

6. c

7. b

Reasoning 9

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