Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

A WARRIOR IS BORN Shivaji Raje Bhosle popularly known as Chhatrapati Shivaji was the son of Shahaji Raje Bhosle

and Jijabai. Shivaji's birth date has been a matter of controversy but recently a consensus has been reached and is deemed to be 19 February 1630. He was born on Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and was named Shiva after Goddess Shivai, deity of the fort. Shivaji was the fifth son born to Jijabai, three of whom had died as infants and only Sambhaji survived. While Shivaji was accompanied mostly by his mother, Sambhaji lived with his father Shahaji at present day Bangalore). His father, Shahaji, was a Maratha general who rendered military services at various times against the Bijapur Sultanate and the Mughals. Shahaji following in the footsteps of his father Maloji Bhosale, began service with the young Nizamshah of Ahmednagar and together with Malik Amber, Nizam's minister, he won back most of the districts for the Nizamshah from the Mughals who had gained it during their attack of 1600. Thereafter, Lakhujirao Jadhav, Shahaji's father-in- law, attacked Shahaji at the Mahuli fort and laid a siege. Shahaji was accompanied by Jijabai, who was four months pregnant. After seeing no relief coming from Nizam, Shahaji decided to vacate the fort and planned his escape. He sent Jijabai off to the safety of Shivneri fort, which was under his control. It was here at Shivneri that Shivaji was born. During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the then Marathas forces had pledged their loyalties to one of these Sultanates and were engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggression. Shahaji Raje decided to part ways with the Nizamshahi Sultanate and raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom. And soon Ahmednagar fell to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, and shortly thereafter Shahaji responded by attacking the Mughal garrison there and regained control of this region again. In response the Mughals sent a much larger force in 1635 to recover the area back and forced Shahaji to retreat into Mahuli. The result of this was that Adilshah of Bijapur agreed to pay tribute to the Mughals in return for the authority to rule this region in 1636. Thereafter, Shahaji was inducted by Adilshah of Bijapur and was offered a distant jagir (landholding) at present-day Bangalore, but he was allowed to keep his old land tenures and holdings in Pune. Shahaji thus kept c hanging his loyalty among Nizamshah, Adilshah and the Mughals but always kept his jagir at Pune and his small force of men with him.

Influence of Jijabai Even when he was a little child his mother Jijabai used to tell him stories of heroes, of saints and sages who appear in the Ramayana, the Mahabharatha and the Puranas. As Shivaji listened to these tales of heroism and Dharmic deeds, he grew more and more eager to be like Rama or Krishna, Bheema or Arjuna. He was further blessed in that he had for his teacher and guides such a great man as Dadaji Kondadev was. He was also inspired by the memories of the glorious empire of the Vijayanagara Kings in Karnataka. Her piety and commitment to indigenous culture molded Shivaji's character.

His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love for the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence, his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision and quest for independence and freedom. Furthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous p lot hatched by Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their suspicions and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to external political domination.

Influence of Dadoji Kondev Dadoji Kondev was in the services of Shahaji Raje Bhonsal, as the instructor. Dadoji Kondev, despite being a Brahmin, was an expert in warfare, and particularly skilled in swordsmanship. Shahaji sent Dadoji Kondev along with council of ministers to look after Shahaji's wife Jijamata and son Shivaji and to look after the jahagir as well from1637 till his death 1649 at the age of 72. Shivaji was tutored in Sanskrit and war tactics none else than by his own father who was a scholar of Sanskrit and a veteran of wars this happened between 1641-1642; when he had visited Banglore along with his mother. after returning to Pune in 1642, Shivaji tranied in Law and justice by his mother,Maharaj and Jijabai did a role of Sub-Justice of Pune Subha, at the age of 14, Maharaj Punished Ranga Patil-Ranzekar of Ranja village related to rape case.

Oath of Swaraj Shahaji appointed young Shivaji, under the care of his mother Jijabai, to manage the Pune holdings. A small council of ministers was appointed to assist and train Shivaji in administration. This council included Shamrao Nilkanth as Peshwa (Prime Minister), Balkrishna Pant as Muzumdar, Raghunath Ballal as Sabnis, Sonopant as Dabir and Dadoji Kondev as a mentor. Apart from these ministers, military commanders Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to train Shivaji in martial arts. In 1644, Shahaji had Lal Mahal built in Pune for his wife and his son Shivaji. A royal seal in Sanskrit which read, This is the royal seal of Shivaji, son of Shahaji. This royal seal is for the welfare of people. This seal (the rule of the seal) will grow like the new moon grows, was handed to Shivaji. Thus Shivaji started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom on a mission. Shivaji used the title of Raja (king) only after Shahaji's death. Jijabais piety and commitment to indigenous culture and her recounting of tales from the great Indian epics of Mahabharata, Ramayana and Bhagwat Gita molded Shivaji's character and helped him to be peerless (as confirmed by even otherwise inimical chroniclers, Khafi Khan) especially in his tolerant attitude towards other religions as well as in his fair and kind treatment of women and non-combatants. Shahaji's vision, and Jijabai's teachings and motivation, and the able training by statesmen and administrators like Dadoji Kondadev, military commanders such as Gomaji Naik Pansambal and Baji Pasalkar were the main influences which groomed Shivaji in
2

achieving greatness. Shivaji along with his Mavala friends and soldiers took a blood oath to fight for the "Swarajya" at Rohideshwara temple.

THE JOURNEY TOWARDS SUPREMACY The Torana Endeavour Shivaji Maharajs task of building up an independent kingdom too was to be accomplished with the help of forts only. At the young age of sixteen he captured one of the forts. It was the fort of Toranagadh, Torana.

The Fall of Afzal Khan Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a seasoned commander and an accomplished warrior, to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt. After leaving Bijapur Afzal Khan desecrated Hindu temples at Tuljapur and Pandharpur to draw an emotionally overwrought Shivaji to the plains to retaliate with his limited military resources and thus lead him and his budding military power to easy destruction by the numerically advantaged, better armed and a more professional Bijapur army. Shivaji, upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to stay in the hills and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. Shivaji sent a letter to Afzal Khan stating that he was not eager for confrontation and sought some type of understanding. A meeting was arranged between Afzal Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Expecting certain skullduggery from Afzal Khan, Shivaji armed himself with the concealable weapons bichhwa (dagger) and wagh nakh (tiger claws) and wore a chilkhat (chain- mail armour) under his clothing for the meeting. What transpired during the meeting was not recorded by scribes, but folklore has it that Afzal Khan pretended to graciously embrace Shivaji as per custom and attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a kataar(a short waist-hostered dagger). Shivaji's agility, strength and his armour in addition to being prepared for such an occurance helped him survive this attack. Shivaji sharply drew his wagh nakh and counter-attacked, disemboweling Afzal Khan.

The Battle of Ghodkhind Sensing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a Maratha sardar along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind (a mountain pass in Gajapur which is 4 miles from Vishalgad) to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of Vishalgad. In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly. He was almost fatally wounded but he held on and continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad, signalling Shivaji had reached the fort. The result was the death of 300 Marathas and 1,286 of Adilshah's troops in this fierce battle. Shivaji reached the fort on July 13, 1660. Thereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshah through Shahaji, acknowledging and formally recognizing the independence of Shivaji's Kingdom.

In addition, as the terms of this accord, Panhala Fort was awarded to Siddi Johar.[6]. Ghod Khind (khind = " a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Pavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Shibosingh Jadhav, Fuloji, people from Bandal community and all other soldiers who fought in Ghod Khind (People from Bandal community were specially selected by Shivaji while escaping from Panhala for their knowledge of the region, rock cimbing skills, martial qualities). A small memorial stands even today in the pass in recognition of the heroism of Bajiprabhu and his men. This remained the situation until the death of Shahaji. Henceforth the Marathas became a formal and recognized power in the Deccan.

The debacle of Shaista Khan Shaista Khan was ordered by Aurangzeb to attack Shivaji per the Mughal-Adilshahi accord. Shaista Khan, with his better equipped and provisioned army of 100,000 that was many times the size of the Maratha forces, seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. At the time, Firangoji Narsala was the killedar (Commander of the fort) of fort Chakan, which was defended by 300 350 Maratha soldiers. They were able to withstand the Mughal attack on the fort for one and a half month. Then, a burj (outer wall) was blown up with explosives. This created an opening to the fort allowing hordes of Mughals to breach the exterior portion of the fort. Firangoji, himself led the Marathas against a larger Mughal army. Eventually, the fort was lost with the capture of Firangoji, who then was brought before Shaista Khan, who, appreciating his ferocious bravery, offered him a jahagir (military commission) on the condition that he join the Mughal forces, which Firangoji declined. Admiring his loyalty, Shaista Khan pardoned Firangoji and set him free. Firangoji returned home and Shivaji awarded him a fort named Bhupalgad. Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha territory. Although he held Pune for almost a year, he had little further success. He had set up his residence at Lal Mahal, Shivaji's palace, in the city of Pune. Seeing that Shaista was not able to subdue Shivaji, Aurangzeb sent Maharaja Jaswant Singh(a Rajput- who earlier on the orders of Shah Jahan had stopped Aurangzeb at the river Tapi, when Aurangzeb was trying to ascend the throne of Delhi) to help Shaista Khan. Shaista Khan kept a tight security in Pune. However, Shivaji planned an attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom's procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal. Chimanaji Deshpande- one of the childhood friends of Shivaji aided him in this attack offering his services as a personal bodyguard. According to Babasaheb Purandare, since Mughal army also consisted of Maratha soldiers, it was difficult for someone to distinguish between Shivaji's Maratha soldiers and the Maratha soldiers of the Mughal army. Thus, taking advantage of this situatio n, Shivaji, along with a few of his trusted men, infiltrated the Mughal camp. After overpowering and slaying of the palace guards, the Marathas broke into the mansion by breaking through a wall. Chimnaji and Netaji Palkar entered first to provide cover for Shivaji. Babaji Deshpande another of Shivaji's long time loyal associates accompanied him on the attack. Observing that Lal Mahal was under attack, Shaista hid in the 'harem'(ladies' section). Shivaji
5

then personally confronted Shaista Khan in a 'face to face' attack. Perceiving the danger, one of Shaista's wives quickly turned off the lights. Shivaji pusued Shaista Khan and severed three of his fingers with his sword (in the darkness) as he fled through an open window. Shaista Khan narrowly escaped death and lost his son and many of his guards and soldiers in the raid. Within twenty-four hours of this attack, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to the Mughals with his ignoble defeat in Pune.

The Treaty of Purandhar In 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important and wealthy Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan. Aurangzeb got angry as he looted one of his prosperous cities. (Surat was again sacked by Shivaji in 1670.) Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering well over 100,000 to defeat Shivaji. The Mughal forces under Raja Jai Singh proved to be unstoppable in the battles and Shivaji lost so many forts and large number of men that he decided to surrender for the time-being and come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men. In the ensuing treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on June 11, 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight with Mughals against Bijapur. He actually fought with Raja Jai Singh's Mughal forces against Bijapur's forces for a few months. His commander, Netaji Palkar, joined Mughals, was rewarded very well for his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. He returned to Shivaji after ten years in 1676 and was reconverted to Hinduism on Shivaji's order.

The Kondana combat Kondana fort, on the outskirts of Pune, was still under Mughal control. Uday Bhan Rathod, the fort keeper, led an army of about 1,500 Rajputs and Mughals for the protection of the fort. On February 4, 1670 Shvaj deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana. At that time, Tanhaji's son's (Raiba's) wedding plans were underway. However, putting his duty for the Maratha Kingdom over his family he said "Aadhi lagin Kondanyache, mag majhya Raibache" (First Kondana's marria ge, and then my son Raiba's) The Maratha army under Tanaji Malusare assigned to capture the fort was much smaller than the Mughal army posted at the fort. Tanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses for some days. The fort was well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. The legend is that, he used a monitor lizard (known as a ghorpad in Marathi named "Yeshwanti" with a rope tied around its body for climbing this cliff
6

on a moonless night. The lizard was made to climb to the top of the fort. As is the characteristic feature of this lizard, it braced and lodged itself in a tight corner of the fort. Then a soldier climbed to the top and threw ropes for others to climb. Meanwhile Tanaji's brother Suryaji moved close to the gates of the fort, namely Kalyn Darwja, with another 300 Mavalas. The gates were soon opened and once inside, all his soldiers joined Tanaji in the surprise attack. Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. Uday Bhan broke Tanaji's shield with a single blow, Tanaji was not deterred and continued to fight by wrapping his turban around his left hand for protection, to cover up his wounds and stanch the bleeding. Tanaji being grievously wounded, staggerred back and fell. Seeing their leader mortally wounded and dying before them, the Maratha soldiers started to back- up and retreat, Suryaji and Shelar Mama stepped up and assumed leadership. Shelar Mama, an old Sardar in his seventies, took charge and faced to challenge Uday Bhan and killed him in short order. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally the troops and led them back on the offensive. Legend and folk lore has it that, after the fall of Tanaji, the mavlas panicked and made a hasty retreat. Seeing this, Suryaji commented, "Why are you running like sheep? I have cut the ropes and all the escape routes are gone. Now we either fight or die." Marathas now out of any other options, charged the Mughal defenders fiercely and succeeded in capturing the fort. When Shvaj reached the fort after the victory, he was deeply bereaved at the loss of his good friend Tanaji. He sadly commented "Gadh ala puhn sinha gela" (The fort was won but the lion was lost). Thereafter Kondana Fort was renamed Sinhagad (Lion Fort) to honour Tanaji Malusare's sacrifice and bravery.

Kshatriya Kulavantas Simhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji was formally crowned as Chatrapati (meaning the Chief, Head or King of Kshatriyas) in June 1674 at the Raigad fort. He was given the title of Kshatriya Kulavantas Simhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.

AN EARLY DEMISE Shivaji was an efficient ruler and administrator and ruled with a just and firm hand. During Shivaji's reign the army was very efficient and dependable. Since Shivaji ruled a major part of the Western coast area, he also commanded a strong navy force. Shivaji is known for his protective and fatherly attitude towards his citizens. He is remembered till date as a hero who worked for the welfare of his subjects and state. Shivaji breathed his last in 1680 after suffering from fever for three whole weeks.

THE CHHATRAPATI IMPACT Shivaji Jayanthi: Shivaji Jayanti or the birthday of Shivaji Maharaj is celebrated on a majestic scale in Maharashtra. Chhatrapati Shivaji is a hero not only for the people of Maharashtra but for those of India as well. On the occasion of Shivaji Jayanti several p rocessions are taken out and people dress up like Shivaji and his associates. The birthday is celebrated on a huge scale and various programmes remembering the achievements of the great ruler are organized.

Shiv Sena: iv Sen, meaning Army of Shiv, referring to Shivaji, is a far-right political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Balasaheb Thackeray.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Airport: The world heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in Maharashtra in recent years. The Inte rstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivaji.

University: Shivaji University in Kolhapur was established in 1962, is named after the Great Maratha Warrior and founder of the Maratha empire Chhatrapati Shivaji

Postal Stamp:

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sanghralay: The Prince of Wales Museum in Mumbai was renamed as Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sanghralay in Shivajis honour. Movies, poems, books etc on Shivaji and his associates: Shivaji is a source of inspiration for a number of artists, directors, actors, writers, shahir (ballad composer), poets and orators. Films 'Raja Shivaji' (Marathi): directed by Bhalaji Pendharkar and the main role was played by Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. 'Maratha tituka melawawa' (Marathi)
9

'Gad ala pan sinh gela' (Marathi) 'Mee Shivaji Raje Bhosle Bolto-ahe' (Marathi): launched in April 2009. The film tries to convey how Shivaji Maharaj would have responded to the problems faced by the Marathi common man in the present times in the city of Mumbai. Mahesh Manjrekar played the role of Shivaji Maharaj in the film. Lite rature 'Sriman yogi': novel written on Shivaji Maharaj's life by Ranjit Desai. Raja Shivachhatrapati: biography authored by Babasaheb Purandare on his life, which was later brought out as Jaanata Raja, a musical tale of Shivaji Maharaj's life. Poetry and music 'Shivraj Bhushan' (Hindi) by Kavi Bhushan 'Vedat Marathe vir daudale sat': poem composed by Kusumagraj on Shivaji Maharaj's General Prataprao Gujar, performed Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar. Ballads by Tulsidas and Agandas 'Jay Dev, Jay Dev Jay Jay Shivraya' and 'He Hindu Nrusinha Prabho Shivaji Raja' composed by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, performed by Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar. 'Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete' (When Raigad awakes): by Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar based on the complex relationship between Shivaji Maharaj and Sambhaji

Television Raja ShivChhatrapati: TV serial on Star Pravah, a Marathi channel of Star India Network. The serial was launched in November 2008 and is expected to run for more than 100 one-hour episodes, in which the role of Raja Shivaji is played by Dr. Amol Kolhe

In the novel The Ark, the Indian ship is named Shivaji

10

LEADERSHIP TRAITS Shivaji occupies a special place in the hearts of Marathi peoples and many others in India due to his, well documented, high moral code of conduct and his unrelenting drive toward the liberation of India from alien power of the Mughals and the Nizams. He laid the foundations of the modern Marathi identity and infused it with strong martial, moral and chivalric traditions. In his times he squarely and unflinchingly faced daunting challenges such as repeated invasions by huge Mughal and regional Sutanate armies, that would have defeated a lesser leader. Shivaji successfully lead and marshaled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of this territories. He was also relentless and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was based on his fierce determination to establish a free and independent homeland (Vatan), and the high level of loyalty and respect he inspired in his followers due to his great leadership skills and high moral character. Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all socio-economic groups to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. To this day he is remembered as a just and welfare- minded king.

A Just Ruler Democratic: The pattern of administration, Shivaji followed was democratic. In his time period, the concept of "democracy" was at least 100 years in the future. Nonetheless, his policies were clearly promoting welfare of the common people at the expense of the entrenched feudal system.

Paternalistic: He also showcased paternalistic leadership. Shivaji is known for his protective and fatherly attitude towards his citizens. He is remembered till date as a hero who worked for t he welfare of his subjects and state.This kind of a leader knows what is hurting his people and then devises a strategy that will help them achieve their goals against seemingly insurmountable odds. This is how he worked his "magic". Shivaji inspired common people to succeed against overwhelming odds. In Shivajis times, 90% of the civilians were farmers. They lived in constant fear of losing their income, their property, their life or their womens dignity to the whims of their rulers. Shivaji was well- tuned to the aspirations and fears of these common people.

Treated Wome n with Dignity:

11

He protected womens dignity, especially against those in power, by swiftly and severely punishing those found to be guilty of such crimes. When he was only 15, prior to winning even his first fort, he severely punished a "Patil" a village chief for raping a farmers daughter in his town. Shivajis last known act of womens protection occurred when he punished his chief of a military campaign for raping his enemy commander

Fair administration: Shivaji established a fair system of taxation on farm incomes and employed civilians to collect taxes. This act established supremacy of civilians over military might. He also established a series of granaries and a system of affordable loans for farmers in need.

Despised Discrimination: Shivaji promoted common people based on their qualifications. Naturally a majority of his officers were Hindus, but a number of Muslims also held key positions: chief of artillery, chief of navy as well as diplomats. When Shivaji visited Agra to attend Aurangzebs 50th birthday celebration, his most trusted body guard was Madari Mehtar a Muslim teenager! What was the result of all this? Common citizen had much to gain by helping Shivaji and they fought for their cause against two mighty but tyrannical empires with valor and tenacity. A large majority of Shivajis "jewels" were "commoners" with little or no prior military experience barbers, farmers, clerks and so on.

Ahead of time Thinking A manager knows his peoples strengths and weaknesses, and ensures to utilize these for furthering his vision. As defined by a very capable diplomat, Arya Chanakya, Shivaji was a "true king" since he was forever striving to further the welfare of his people. Examples: In any organization, now as well as then, there are two kinds of people: those who work and those who occupy chairs. In Shivajis times, the chair-occupiers, called Vatanadar, ruled by accident of birth. They were often tyrannical. Shivaji labeled them "enemies of the nation", that is, rajyache dayadach. He wrote a special chapter on techniques for dealing with them in his book of policies, called adnyapatre

Support to traders: Shivaji promoted commerce by providing businessmen with choice locations at discount prices as well as tax concessions. His motto was, Sahukar he to rajyache bhushan (Business people are jewels of a nation).

12

Origin of the cabinet: Shivaji was an efficient ruler and administrator and ruled with a just and firm hand. His government had concepts that we know of now like the Cabinet known as Ashtapradhan Mandal, foreign affairs known as Dabir and also an internal intelligence wing.

Naval Force: Shivaji was the first Indian king to cultivate navy in addition to acquiring land. He had 3 shipyards, hundreds of frigates and many sea forts. He controlled over 300 miles of coastline. Shivaji gave detailed instructions for running a safe military camp just a few months before his coronation The very first shopping mall in the world is in Raigad. It was a drive-through mall except, of course, you rode a horse.

13

EFFICIENT TACTICS Shivajis brilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields and his acute administrative skills helped him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India. War Tactics The Navy: Shivaji was the first Indian king to cultivate navy in addition to acquiring land. He had 3 shipyards, hundreds of frigates and many sea forts. He controlled over 300 miles of coastline. Their pilgrim & merchant ships depended on Europeans in the sea. Under such circumstances Shivajis stress on naval activities reveals his far-sightedness. He can well be acclaimed as Father of the Indian Navy. Gue rilla Warfare He pioneered Ganimi Kava or guerrilla tactics, which leveraged strategic factors like demographics speed, surprise and focused attack to defeat his enemies. In comparison to the great Mughal Empire, Shivaji had a smaller army and thereby was obliged to wage guerilla warfare to help overcome this great imbalance. Revolution in military organisation Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions (though the term "commando" is modern). Shivaji was responsible for a lot of changes in military organization. These include A standing army belonging to the state called paga Horses belonged to the state; no individual in his army was allowed to own horses Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who used to work for eight months in the field and supported four months in war. This light infantry was his innovation and they were the ones who excelled in commando like actions. The introduction of an intelligence department, a navy, and regular chain-of-command Introduction of field craft viz. Guerilla warfare, commando actions, flank attacks; Innovation of weapons and innovative use of traditional weapons like tiger claw or 'Baghnakh'. 'Vita' was a weapon invented by Shivaji. Militarization of almost the entire society, including all classes, with the entire population of settlements and villages near forts involved in their defense

14

ESCAPE FROM AGRA

Slip to the Emperor: On Jaising's advice Shivaji decided to meet Aurangzeb personally in Delhi. His son Sambhaji accompanied him. Shivaji didn't expect much from the meeting but wanted to tell the Emperor the reason behind establishment of 'Hindavi Swaraj' and problems people face in Mahrashtra, but was staggered by the humiliating behavior of the Emperor. Shivaji and Sambhaji were kept in guard and were practically imprisoned by the Emperor. Shivaji then decided to escape from Delhi. He sent back all his men to Pune and pretended to have severe pain in the stomach. Doctor's were called and Shivaji started sending out huge baskets of sweets to Saints and poor people for his quick recovery. These baskets were unchecked at the gate and therefore Shivaji and Sambhaji sat in two of many baskets. They slipped swiftly. The emperor was wild with rage, but couldn't do anything.

15

AN ENCOUNTER WITH AFZAL KHAN Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a seasoned commander and an accomplished warrior, to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt. After leaving Bijapur Afzal Khan desecrated Hindu temples at Tuljapur and Pandharpur to draw an emotionally overwrought Shivaji to the plains to retaliate with his limited military resources and thus lead him and his budding military power to easy destruction by the numerically advantaged, better armed and a more professional Bijapur army. Shivaji, upon carefully weighing his options, strategically decided to stay in the hills and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. Shivaji sent a letter to Afzal Khan stating that he was not eager for confrontation and sought some type of understanding. A meeting was arranged between Afzal Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Expecting certain skullduggery from Afzal Khan, Shivaji armed himself with the concealable weapons bichhwa (dagger) and wagh nakh (tiger claws) and wore a chilkhat (chain- mail armour) under his clothing for the meeting. What transpired during the meeting was not recorded by scribes, but folklore has it that Afzal Khan pretended to graciously embrace Shivaji as per custom and attempted to stab Shivaji in the back with a kataar(a short waist-hostered dagger). Shivaji's agility, strength and his armour in addition to being prepared for such an occurance helped him survive this attack. Shivaji sharply drew his wagh nakh and counter-attacked, disemboweling Afzal Khan. Afzal Khan's bodyguard Sayyed Banda responding to this incident lunged at Shivaji but was intercepted by Jiva Mahala, Shivaji's personal bodyguard, cutting off one of Sayyed Banda's hands with a Dandpatta (Pata - a medieval weapon). Meanwhile, Afzal Khan stumbled out of the tent, clutching his gushing entrails to get help and collapsed into a waiting palanquin, but was swiftly decapitated by Shivaji's associate Sambhaji Kavji Kondhalkar, before he could raise further alarm.. Krishnaji Bhaskar - a Brahmin who was legal advisor to Afzal Khan - too attacked Shivaji as Afzal Khan stumbled out of the tent. He swung with his sword at Shivaji's head. Shivaji reacted quickly and killed Krishnaji. In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought in the dense forest of Jawli on November 30, 1659, Shivaji's armies attacked Bijapur's (Afzal Khan's) forces and engaged them in swift flanking manoeuvers. Soon after the slaying Afzal Khan, Shivaji sped up the slope towards the Pratapgarh fort with his lieutenants and ordered cannons to be fired. This was a signal to his infantry, which had been strategically placed under the cover of the densely vegetated valley, to immediately attack Afzal Khan's forces. Maratha troops under Kanhoji Jedhe attacked 1,500 musketeers and routed them at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan was wounded and subsequently fled, abandoning his hapless soldiers who were subsequently decimated by the Maratha troops. Commander Moropant Pingale led the infantry on the left flank of the Adilshahi troops. Adilshah's artillery was rendered ineffective by the sudden attack at close quarters. At the same time commander Ragho Atre swiftly attacked Adilshahi cavalry before it was fully prepared for battle and almost completely wiped it out. Shivaji's cavalry headed by Netaji Palkar rushed towards Wai in hot pursuit of retreating Adilshahi forces who were attempting to join their reserve forces stationed there. The retreating forces of Afzal Khan were engaged in battle and were routed.
16

This clear and unambiguous victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.

17

CONCLUSION In short, even though Shivaji lived over 300 years ago, his policies were quite modern. Many of his principles would be very relevant when seen in this light. Whether one wishes to become a chief engineer, a well-known doctor, a lawyer, or a successful businessperson, he/she must have the art of attracting and retaining loyal followers. He/she must also ha ve a clear vision of the future that that be stated briefly preferably in a single sentence. Both of these qualities are crucial to becoming a leader. Shivaji provides a perfect model to follow in order to become a leader. He was also a successful manager and once again, this quality is very relevant for success in todays competitive world whether or not you work in the private or public sector, whether or not your official job title contains the adjective "manager."

18

BIBLIOGRAPHY History Textbook Std. IV www.shivajimaharaj.org www.chhatrapati-shivaji.com www.chhatrapati-shivaji.com www.freeindia.org www.freeindia.org www.punepages.com www.wikipedia.com

19

Centres d'intérêt liés