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A WATER

RESOURCES TECHNICAL

PUBLICATION

ENGINEERING MONOGRAPH

No.1 4

Beggs Deformeter Stress Analysis of Single-Barrel Conduits


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

Mission

of the Bureau

of Reclamation
of the Interior is of the Nations

The Bureau of Reclamation of the U.S. Department responsible for the development and conservation water resources in the Western United States.

The Bureaus original purpose *to provide for the reclamation of arid and semiarid lands in the West today covers a wide range of interrelated functions. These include providing municipaland industrial water supplies; hydroelectric power generation; irrigation water for agriculture; water quality improvement; flood control; river navigation; river regulation and control; fish and wildlife enhancement; outdoor recreation; and research on water-related design, construe tion, materials, atmospheric management, and wind and solar power. Bureau programs most frequently are the result of close cooperation with the U.S. Congress, other Federal agencies, States, local governmen ts, academic institutions, water-user organizations, and other concerned groups.

A WATER

RESOURCES

TECHNICAL

PUBLICATION

Engineering

Monograph

No.

14

Beaus Deformeter Stress Analvsis


vu I

of Single-Barrel Conduits
By H. B. Phillips and I. E. Allen
Experimental Design Analysis Section, Technical Engineering Analysis Branch, Office of Chief Engineer, Denver, Colorado

United

States

Department

OF the Interior

BUREAU OF RECLAMATION

As the Nations principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This includes fostering the wisest use of our land and water resources, protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical places, and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The Department assesses our energy and mineral resources and works to assure that their development is in the best interests of all our people. The Department also has a major responsibility for American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in Island Territories under U.S. Administration.

ENGINEERING MONOGRAPHS are prepared and used by the technical staff of the Bureau of Reclamation. In the interest of dissemination of research experience and knowledge, they a,re made available to other interested technical circles in Government and private agencies and to the general public by sale through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

First Printing: 1952 First Revised Edition: 1965 Second Revised Edition: 1968 Reprinted: 1986

U.S. GOVERNMENT WASHINGTON

PRINTING : 1968

OFFICE

For saleby the Superintendentof Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or the Bureauof Reclamation,Attention 822A, DenverFederalCenter, Denver, Colorado 80225.

CONTENTS

PW

INTRODUCTION.

.............................................

1 3

APPLICATION................................................ DETERMINATION APPENDIX: OF NORMAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION. ..

5 57

THE BEGGS DEFORMETER

.. ..................

FIGURES
No.

1. Dimensions of conduits and location of points studied. Shapes A,

2. 3.
4.

5.
6.

7. 8. 9.
10. 11.

12.
13.

14. 15. 16.

B,andC............................................,... Dimensions of conduits and location of points studied. Shapes D, E,andF............................................... Dimensions of conduits and location of points studied. Shapes circular, square, and G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C . . . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for concentrated vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C. . . . Coefficiepts for moment, thrust, and shear for concentrated vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C. . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for vertical arch load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C . . . . . . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for VerticaLarch load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and C . ; . . . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for dead weight of conduit.ShapesA,B, andC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform horizontal load on bothsides. ShapesA, B, and C.. .*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coafticients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular horizontal loadonbothsides.ShapesA,B,andC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . CJoefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform internal radialload.ShapesA,B, andC.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular internal radial load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, and c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . * . . * . ., . . . .

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

22
... ill

NO.

17. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular internal radial load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes A, B, andc~............................,..................... 18. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular external hydrostatic load including dead load. Shapes A, B, and C. . . . . 19. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . , . . . . . 20. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . 21. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for concentrated vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . 22. Coefhcients for moment, thrust, and shear for concentrated vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . 23. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . . . . . 24. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F . . . . 25. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for vertical arch load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . . . 26. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for vertical arch load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . 27. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for dead weight of conduit. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform horizontal load on both sides. Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular horixontal loadonbothsides.ShapesD,E,andF.. . . .................. 30. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform internal radial load, Shapes D, E, and F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular internal radial load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F...................................................... 32. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular internal radial load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes D, E, and F....,................................................. 33. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular external hydrostatic load including dead load. Shapes D, E, and F . . . . . . . 34. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, andG.................................................. 35. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, andG.................................................. 36. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for concentrated vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, and G.................................................. 37. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for concentrated vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, andG.................................................. iv

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

37

38 39

40

41

42

43

NO.

38. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular vertical load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, andG.................................................. 39. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular vertical load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, and G...................................................... 40. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for vertical arch load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, and G . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for vertical arch load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, andG.................................................. 42. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for dead weight of conduit. Shapes circular, square, and G.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform horizontal load on both sides. Shapes circular, square, and G. . . . . . . . . . . . . 44. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular horizontal load on both sides. Shapes circular, square, and G. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for uniform internal radial load. Shapes circular, square, and G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular internal radial load and uniform foundation reaction. Shapes circular, squ~e,andG............................................ 47. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular internal radial load and triangular foundation reaction. Shapes circular, square, and G.......................................... 48. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular external hydrostatic load including dead load. Shapes circular, square, andG.................................................. 49. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for triangular external hydrostatic load including dead load with conduits assumed to float.AUshapes......................................... 50. Coefficients for moment, thrust, and shear for horizontal passive pressure. Circular shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. Beggs Deformeter apparatus and shape B conduit model. . . . . . . . .

44

45

46

47 48 49 50 51

52

53

54

55 56 58

TABLE
NO.

1. Correction factors for difTerent radii of curvature.

. .......... .....

INTRODUCTION

This monograph presents the results of the stress analysis, by means of the Beggs Deformeter apparatus, of nine shapes of single-barrel conduits. A partial analytical check was made using the least work method to determine the redundant reactions for all shapes due to a uniform vertical load and a uniform horizontal load. All personnel of the Experimental Design Analysis Section, including several rotation engineers who had training assignments in the section, assisted in the experimental work and computations. In particular, the assistance of W. T. Moody in computing the analytical solutions, and the work of H. E. Willmann, who prepared the drawings and also assisted in the experimental work and computations, is gratefully acknowledged. The nine shapes of conduits studied are those most widely used in Bureau of Reclamation structures. All except shape D and the square shape have semicircular top portions of uniform thickness. They can be further described as follows : 1. Shape A: horseshoe-shaped interior with a horizontal exterior base. 2. Shape B: circular-shaped interior with a horizontal exterior base. 3. Shape C: circular-shaped interior with a curved exterior base. 4. Shape D: circular-shaped interior with a square-shaped exterior. 5. Shape E: uniform thickness with a horizontal base. 6. Shape F: uniform thickness of horseshoe shape. 7. Shape G: transition between shape B and shape E with fillets of W r radius in lower interior corners. 8. Circular shape of uniform thickness. 9. Square shape of uniform thickness. Reaction coefficients for bending moment, thrust, and shear at selected locations along the centroidal axis of the conduits have been determined for 15 different loading conditions.
1 See Appendix for description of this instrument.

The 15 loading follows : 1. &I33

conditions

considered

are as

top with

f3YJ3 foundation. foundation. foundation. foundation. foundation. foundation. foundation. foundation. foundation. both sides.

2. I1113 top with m

3. 4.

1 I

top with top with top with top with top with top with

tflf3 P-U Efm P-U Efa3 P-U PXI

5. hEr. 6. Q 7. P-Y 8. 1/

9. Dead load with 10. Uniform 11. B

horizontal

horizontal internal

both sides. radial. t3333 foundation. YV foundation. dead

12. Uniform
13. b 14. b 15. R load.

internal radial with internal external radial with hydrostatic

including

Figures 1, 2, and 3 show cross sections of each shape, giving the dimensions and the location of points at which the reaction coefficients have been determined. Each shape was analyzed for three values of crown thickness, t, expressed in terms of the internal crown radius, r. These three values were t==rJ2, t=r/3, and t=r/6. A conduit of unit length was considered in the analysis. Bending moment, thrust, and shear coefficients were determined at the various locations shown, and are expressed in terms of unit intensity of loading and unit internal crown radius. Multiplying the reaction coefficient by the proper load factor gives the total bending moment, thrust, or shear at the centroid of the section under consideration.

APPLICATION

The reaction coefficients determined in the study are tabulated in figures 4 through 50 for the various shapes and loading conditions. The reaction coefficients are given for points on the right side of the conduits only, since the conduits and loadings are symmetrical about the vertical centerline. The shear reactions on the left side of the vertical centerline will have an opposite sign from those given for the points on the right side. Consistent units should be employed when using these data. Thus, if loads are expressed in pounds per square inch, all dimensions of the conduit must be expressed in inches. The bending moment will then be in inch-pounds per inch of conduit length and the thrust and shear in pounds per inch of conduit length. If the load is expressed in terms of pounds per square foot, the dimensions of the conduit must be expressed in feet, and the bending moment will be in foot-pounds per foot of conduit length and the thrust and shear in pounds per foot of conduit length. It will be noted that the bending moment in inch-pounds per inch is numerically equal to the bending moment in foot-pounds per foot. One should bear in mind that this analysis assumes no restraint to the deformation of the conduit. In some cases this restraint, or passive pressure, may be important. Some work on passive pressures on tunnel linings through rock has been done by R. S. Sandhu.2 By using his method for determining the intensity of the passive pressure, and using the moment, thrust, and shear coefficients
2 Sandhu, R. S., Design of Concrete Linings for Large Underground Conduits, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, December 1961, pp. 737-750.

for a circular conduit given by figure 50, the effect of restraint may be approximated. The foundation load distribution due to a vertical load on the conduit must be assumed, and is influenced by the modulus of elasticity of the foundation material. As the foundation modulus increases, the foundation load distribution approaches a concentration at the outside corners of the conduit, and as it decreases the load approaches a uniform distribution. For all vertical loading conditions except three, two distributions were assumed, viz., uniform, and triangular with zero at the center and maximum at the outside corners. For the dead load the assumed foundation reaction is minimum at the center varying linearly to a maximum at the outside corners, with the intensity at the center equal to the intensity of the weight of the conduit at the center of the base. For the triangular internal radial load the assumed foundation reactions were uniform, and triangular with zero at the outsides and maximum at the center. For the triangular external hydrostatic load; including dead load, the unit weight of the conduit material and the unit weight of water were assumed to be 150 and 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, respectively. With these assumptions the weight of the conduit for the t=r/6 case, except shape D, is less than the uplift, causing the conduit to float. The reaction is assumed to be uniformly distributed across the top. The coefficients for this assumption (conduit floating) are given in figure 49. In the other figures of this loading condition, tension is assumed to develop uniformly along the foundation.

DETERMINATION OF NORMAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

In a curved beam the neutral axis will not be coincident with the centroidal axis, and the normal stress distribution on radial lines, due to moment, will not be linear. However, the radius to the neutral axis and the normal stress distribution may be determined by the following equations, derived from the Winkler-Bach theory for curved beams: 3

T y,, e

is the thrust at the centroidal axis is the distance from the neutral axis to the point of interest (positive outward) is the distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis.

As t decreases e approaches zero, and the ug distribution approaches linearity. a#, as computed by equation (2), is only for a constant thickness section. Where the section thickness is not constant, the distribution of stresses must be determined by some other method, such as photoelasticity. The extreme fiber stress in a constant thickness curved beam due to bending moment may be determined by the equation: Mt CT)=Krr where (Tb is M is t is I is K is (3)

t rn=Gqqq
where is T is r, is t is In is
r,

(1)

the the the the the

radius to the neutral axis internal radius external radius wall thickness (rO-r> log to the base e, T ue=-+ t MY, (r,+y& (2)

the extreme fiber Stress the bending moment at the section the width of the section the moment of inertia of the section the factor by which the extreme fiber stress, assuming linear distribution, is modified to correct for curvature. The following equation for K was obtained by equating equations (2) and (3) : (4) The values of K and e for the t/r ratios used in this study are tabulated below:
TABLE l.-Correction factors for different radii of curvature

where
a0

K is the normal stress in the tangential direction is the bending moment at the centroidal axis
Glenn, Advanced Mechanics Book Co., Inc., New York, of Materials, 1946, pp. 217-

t Inside fiber 42 r/3 r/6 1.153 1.105 1. 054 o;EP 0.880 0.912 0.951

e . 0. 0168r 0.008Or 0. 0021r 6

3 Murphy, McGraw-Hill 219.

3 ONW 8

S3dVHS

03lOlllS

SlNlOd

JO

NOllWOl

ONV

SllfMN03

A0

SNOISN3WlCl

SISAlVNV SS3US U313WYOd30 llnQN03 13clWle 319NIS


66Of JlLZf JbSOZO 3Nl-l JOLL612 'I 0 LZLS'Z JSS6bO JZbLf 90 JfbZSf.2 0 HION JCZCOSI ILIZb Jf6990 JblbSO iad OIJV

SO038

OfbE. I

1 OOEOE

1 OLILb

I 1

(zJ)oW

01 6 II IlNlOd Z 0
I

3NI-l

10

HI

3dWS

3dVHS

+nOqO

(O~!J(blUUI~S

Symmetrical about vertical centerline-m

I+----..._

Svmmctrical

about

L,_

A ---------SHAPE D

D --_--_-_ Lea
SHAPE

+j+AJ+&
E

Centraidal

oxis

LA-+SHAPE F

I
A D Area(#) For length of lines for Points 6 thru ond 9 thru 14, se6 Shapc 8. 7

It=flt=5lt=fl
0.33333r I. 50000r 4.4635 0.33333~ I.33333r 2.7773 0.33333 r I. l6667r I. Z895

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


DIMENSIONS OF CONDUITS AND LOCATION F OF POINTS STUDIED

SHAPES

0, E, AND

Symmetrical obout vertical centerline--za

A+-----

-%.

CIRCULAR

SQUARE

SHAPE

t=+
Arto(r*)

t-i
2.4433

t=+
1.1345 Arco(r*)

t-f 5.0000

t=f 3.llII

t=f 1.4444

3.9t70

BEGGS
DIMENSIONS OF

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


CONDUITS AND LOCATION
SOUARE, CIRCULAR,

SHAPES

OF AN!

POINTS
G

STUDIED

FIGURE

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
+ Sign convantion

FOR MOMENT,
LOADSHAPES UNIFORM A, 8,

THRUST,
AND C

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

UNIFORM

VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION

X- PEL-372

FlGUPE

a L 9 m

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
UNIFORM VERTICAL

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD-TRIANGULAR SHAPES A, B,

THRUST,

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION AND C

X-PEL-373

FIGURE

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
CONCENTRATE6i&CAL

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD SHAPES A, -UNIFORM 6,

THRUST,

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION AND C

X-PEL-374

~~~,
to.536 to.716 t1.361 to.444 -to.632 tl.21 I

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
CONCENTRATED

FOR MOMENT,
SHAPES A, 6,

THRUST,
AND C

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

LOAD -TRIANOVLAR

FOUNDATION

5EP

8.lDlO

X-PEL

- 375

BEGGS
TRIANGULAR

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
LOAD A, -

COEFFICIENTS

THRUST,

AN0

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL SHAPES

UNIFORM 8, AND

FOUNDATION C

X-PEL-

1034

14

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANSULAR

FOR MOMENT,
SHAPES A, 8,

THRUST,
AND C

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

LOAD - TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION

SEP.

20,

Is*4

X-PEL-IO35

15

NOTEg represents the vea*ht per unit


volume of soil cover the conduit sect,on with those of the on the arch of I un,+s consistent rod,us r

: 03
U-F

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL ARCH

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD SHAPES UNIFORM A, B,

THRUST,
FOUNDATION AND C

AND

SHEAR

REACTION

SEP.

28.

1964

X-PEL-1036

16

FIQURE

I I

t.-a(r+t) ..i ! 10 Ia
NOTE: g represents the weight per unit volume of soil cover on the arch of the conduit sectton in units consjstent with those of the radius r

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL ARCH

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD-TRIANGULAR SHAPES A, 0,

THRUST,
FOUNDATION AND C

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

NOTES c represents the weight per unit volume concrete or other motertal m units consistent wth Ihose of the radius r. See Figure I for net area of shapes

of

BEGGS

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
DEAD SHAPES

COEFFICIENTS
+ Sign convmtion

THRUST,

AND

SHEAR

WEIGNT OF CONDUIT A, B, AND C

X-PEL-1037

18

FIGURE

13

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS OEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
UNIFORM

FOR MOMENT,
HORIZONTAL SHAPES A, 8,

THRUST,
BOTH C AND

AND
SIDES

SHEAR

LOAD

t - r6

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR

FOR MOMENT,
HORIZONTAL SHAPES A,

THRUST,
LOAD C BOTH

AND
SIDES

SHEAR

E,

AND

X-PEL-379

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENT,
INTERNAL A, 8, SHAPES

THRUST,
RADIAL AN0 C

AND

SHEAR

UNIFORM

LOAD

21

Wessun vertical

ditiribution along C of conduit -:

Wessure vertical

dlstnbution along e ot conduit. --,

NOTE: w represents the wright par unit volume of woier in units consistent with those of the radius P.

SINGLE BARREL CbNDUlT BWGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


+ Sign convention

COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR INTERNAL

FOR MOMENT,
RADIAL SHAPES LOAD

THRUST,
- UNIFORM

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION

A, 8, AND C

POINT

T 7

s F

Pressure vwticol

distribution obrq C of conduit-..

NOTE : I represents the weight par volume of water In units consiat*nt with those of the radius r.

unit

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
+ Sqn convention

FOR MOMENT,
RADIAL LOAD SHAPES A, 0,

THRUST,
AND C

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

TRIANGULAR

INTERNAL

- TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION

23

Deod one-half

weight of of conduit

Dead 0

WeiQht

of

NOTES: Y rWWS~tr the WlQht per I+ volume of water in units consistent with those of the radws r The assumed WeiQht per unit volume of the conduit I?) IsOw/62.4.

Tenston is assumption

assumed that

to develop the conduits

at

the foundotion. For the float see Figure 49.

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENT, THRUST, AND
LOAD

SHEAR

TRIANGULAR EXTERNAL HYDROSTATIC INCLUDINQ DEAD LOAD SHAPES A, 0, AND C

x-

PEL-

1039 -.I

24

FISURE

19

ftttttfftttftttt?f?ful--I

.-1

BEGGS
UNIFORM

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
LOAD SHAPES D, UNIFORM E, AND

COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL

THRUST,
F

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION

SEP

ea.

1964

x-

PEL-

1040

25

BEGGS
UNIFORM

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
LOAD SHAPES D, E,

COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL

THRUST,
AND F

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION

x- PEL-

104 I

26

FIGURE

el

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
CONCENTRATED
+ Sign convention

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD D, SHAPES
E,

THRUST,
AND F

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

UNIFORM

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-1042

27

FIQURE

22

t) I +
2vcr

t=j

t = 5

BEGGS
CONCENTRATED + Sign conventlo

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
LOAD SHAPES D, E,

COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL

THRUST,
AND F

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-

1043

FIGURE

23

BEGGS
TRIANGULAR + Sign convention

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
LOAD SHAPES D, E,

COEFFICIENTS

THRUST,
AND F

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

UNIFORM

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-1044

29

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR

FOR MOMENT,
SHAPES D. E,

THRUST,
AND F

AN0

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

LOAD - TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-1045

30

Note:

No

vertical

arch

lood

on

Shape

D.

POINT

T
-a

S nrl

1101E: g rmprwentr the weight per unit VO~U~C of soil cover on the arch of the conduit section in units consister with those of the radius r.

11 SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENT, THRUST, AND SHEAR
VERTICAL ARCH LOAD SHAPES - UNIFORM 0. E, FOUNDATION AN0 F REACTION

Sign

convention s

X-PEL-IO46

31

FIGURE

26

Note:

No

vertlcol

arch

load

on

Shape

0.

NOTE: g represents the weight per unit volume of soil cover on the arch of the conduit section I nits c:onsis+en, with +hose of the rod,* r

BEGGS iD
i
c I + Sign convention VERTICAL

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
LOAD-TRIANGULAR SHAPES D, E,

COEFFICIENTS
ARCII

THRUST,
FOUNDATION AND F

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

SEP. es. ,964

X-PEL-1047

32

NOTES c represents the ueiqht per unit volume concrete or other moterod in units consistent wth those of the radius r. See Figure 2 for net orea ot shows.

of

BEGGS

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
DEAD WEIGHT D, OF E, SHAPES

COEFFICIENTS
+ Slqn convantion

THRUST,
CONDUIT AND F

AND

SHEAR

SEP.

2%

1964

X -PEL-1048

33

-y

h -

BEGGS

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
HORIZONTAL SHAPES D, LOAD E, AND

COEFFICIENTS
UNIFORM

THRUST,
BOTH F

AND
SIDES

SHEAR

X-PEL-

1049

34

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR

FOR MOMENT,
IfORltONTAL SHAPES 0, E,

THRUST,
LOAD AND F BOTH

AND

SHEAR

SIOES

X-PEL-

1010

35

FIGURE

30

BEGGS

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
INTERNAL SHAPES D, E,

COEFFICIENTS
t Sign Convention

THRUST,
RADIAL AND F LOAD

AND

SHEAR

UNIFORM

X-PEL-

1051

36

FIGURE

31

Pressure vertical

distribution along k of conduit-.:

Pressure vertical

dirtributlon along C of conduit--%.

NOTE: u represents the weight par unit volumr of voter in units consistent with those of the radius r.

BEGGS
TRIANGULAR + Sign convention

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


FOR MOMENT,
RADIAL SHAPES LOAD D, E.

COEFFICIENTS
INTERNAL

THRUST,
UNIFORM AND F

AND
FOUNDATION

SHEAR
REACTION

X-PEL-IO52

37

FIGURE

39

t = i
Pressure vertical distribution olonp t of oonduit..

t = f

t=f

Pressure vertical

dishlbution olonp C of Conduit-.,

Pressure
VWtiCOI

distribution along C of conduit-.,

NOTE: Y represents the weight per unit wotunw of rater in units consistent with thow of the radius r.

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANOULAR INmNAL

R)R MOMENT,
RADIAL

THRUST,

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

LOAD - TRIANGULAR D, E, AND F

FOUNDATION

SHAPES

x-PEL-IO63

38

FIQIJRE

33

Dead on5-half t-f, t-i, t-i.

Y ei ht of o P conduit

D5ad one-halt t-:* .t -f* t = f.

wight af of mndult 5.SeIwr* 5.55. I.55OW wr

D5od one-hall

r5Wt of of conduit

w;155: w reprewnb the wlght p.r unit VOhmw of ratw In unite con5lrtent with tho55 of th. rodiu5 r. Th5 ouumod roight p51 unit voIum5 of t)u conduit I5 l5Ow/55.4.

Tension is assumed to olsumption that the

develop

conduits

at the foundation. For the float see Figure 49.

SINGLE ARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORM1 TER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENT, THRUST, AND
LOAD

SHEAR

TRIANGULAR EXTERNAL HYDROSTATIC INCLUDINQ DEAD LOAD SHAPES D, E, AND F

39

utttttrtltrltttttttt11 L --f
SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS
CQEFFICIENTS
UNIFORM + Sign convention SHAPES CIRCULAR, SGUARE, AND G VERTICAL

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD UNIFORM

THRUST,

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-I055

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
UNIFORM VERTICAL SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD TRIANGULAR CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
SQUARE,

AN0
AND G

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-1056

41

FIGURE

36

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
CONCENTRATED SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD CIRCULAR, -

THRUST,
SPUARE,

AND
AND 0

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

UNIFORM

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-

1057

42

: a 2

7 ___ f LlLzziJ I

--r----

, -i I:

(( _ ,

(I w a. a is

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
CONCENTRATED SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
SQUARE,

AND
AND 0

SHEAR
REACTION

VERTICAL

TRIANOULAR

FOUNDATION

X-PLL-

1058

43

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR + Sign convention SHAPES CIRCULAR, SQUARE, AND 0 VERTICAL

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD -

THRUST,

AND

SHEAR
REACTION

UNIFORM

FOUNDATION

SEP.

ee,

1964

X-PEL-IO59

FIGURE

39

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR VERTICAL SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
SQUARE,

AND
AND G

SHEAR
REACTION

TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-1060

45

FIQURE

40

t-f
I

t-L

t-S-

utttltffttflnmltms.:
o.*l446(r

l t1..-a

Note:

No

vertical

arch

1006

on

square

shopc.

NOTE: g represents ttm wight par unit volume of wil cover on the arch of the conduit section in units conrirteni with those of the rodiur r.

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
FOUNDATION SQUARE.

AN0
AND 6

SHEAR

ARCH LOAQ - UNIFORM

REACTION

SEP.

Le.

1964

X-PEL-IO61

46

Note :

No

vertical

arch

load

on

square

shape.

-f 0 1(r+t)

nom:

g represents the n@ht PM unit volum. of ~11 COYW on the arch of +he conduit aaction in units consistent with those of the radius

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
VERTICAL ARCH SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
LOAD - TRIANDULAR CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
SQUARE,

AND
AND B

SHEAR
REACTION

FOUNDATION

X-PEL-106R

47

FIQURE

42

NOTES: c represents VOlumC of concrete in units consirtant radius r. See FIgwe 3 for

the weight per unit or other motwial with those ot the net or.x of sh.,,xs.

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
+ Sign conwntion

FOR MOMENT,
DEAD WElSHf CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
SQUARE,

AND
AND 0

SHEAR

OF CONDUIT

SHAPES

SEP. PI.

I,d.

X-PEL-1063

4-a

-1

h p-

-1

h p-

-04

h b-

-4

h )r-

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
UNIFORM SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
HORIZONTAL CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
BOTH SQUARE,

AN0
SIDES 0 AND

SHEAR

LOAO

x-

PEL-

IO64

49

FIQURE

44

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANQULAR SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
HORIZONTAL CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
LOAD BOTH SQUARE,

AND
AND 0

SHEAR

SIDES

50

FIQURL -- 45

I-t

I)

, 0

,..
I-I

D
+ Sign convention

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFDRMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
INTERNAL CIRCULAR.

THRUST,
RADIAL SQUARE,

AND
AN0 Q

SHEAR

UNIFORM

LOAD

X-PLL-

1055

51

Prrrrum vertical

distribution along e of conduit-.,

Pressure vertical

distribution along E of conduit.,

NOTE w reweeentr the weight per unit volume of voter in units consistent wlh those of the radius r.

+ )I
I
mL q > r SEP. er, 1964 X-PEL-1067 + Sqn convention

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFlClENfS
TRIANGULAR INTERNAL SliAPES

FOR MOMENT,
RADIAL LOAD CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
UNIFORM SOUARE,

AND
FOUNDATION AND G

SHEAR
REACTION

52

FIQURE

47

Pressure

distribution

along

Pressure vertical

distribution along C of conduit-.,

Pressure vertlcol

distribution along c of conduit-..

NOTE:

w repmsante volume of rater with those of

the rodtur

the weight per unit in units conristrnt

r.

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANGULAR + Sinp convmtion INTERNAL SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,
RADIAL LOAD CIRCULAR,

THRUST,
SQUARE,

AND
G

SHEAR
REACTION

TRIANGULAR

FOUNDATION AND

SEP.

er,

1004

X - PEL-IO68

53

hod wai ht of one-holf f COIldUll

D*Od wqht of one-half of conduit 6.010 wr t-f, t - 5, 5.7.0 wr 1.75* wr t-f,

MOTES:w r5pr555nts the w5ipht p5r unit volum* of water In units conatmt with those of th5 rodlur r. Ths owumed weight p5r unit voIum5 of th5 conduit I5 150~/6~.4. ,+ D

Tension is assumed ta develop at the foundation. Far the assumption that the conduits float rep Figure 49.

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS
TRIANWLAR
SHAPES

FOR MOMENT,

THRUST,

AND
LOAD Q

SHEAR

EXTERNAL HYDROSTATIC INCLUDING DEAD LOAD CIRCULAR, SOUARE, AND

X-PEL-1069

54

SHAPE
POINT 7 M T wr

A
S

SHAPE

0 -1

SHAPE

SHAPE

SUAPE

SHAPE

CIRCULAR

SOUARE

Top rtoction of uniform

is ossumed to be intensity, v.

For loading diagram, t sign convention, ond the assumption that the conduits do not floot see Figures 16, 33, ond 48. Note: Shape D does not floot

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENT, THRUST, AN0
LOAD

SHEAR

TAIANQULAR EXTERNAL HYDAOSTAtlO INCLUDINS DEAD LOAD CONDUITS ASSUMED ALL t,EP. em, 1944

TO FLOAT

SHAPES i x- PEL1070

1-1
2

r -0.218 ~~
L

I +0.5301 I
to.512

0 -0.137 -0.265

II
II

-0.

IB3

I to.471
I

II

6 -0.236

~l--o.t -I, -0.135

50 I z.412 --I -...-I I +0.39q

r- a
-

-0.196

1 -0.164
11 -0.109

1 to.455
1 to.4061

1 -0.122

-0.107

ll -0.090

-0.238

8
9 1 IO II I2 I3

1+0.2l

to.082

to.306

t 0. I79

to.073

to.272

to.149 II- +0.069

~t0.103~t0.242~t0.420~i+0.065~t0.215~+0.373
I-0.024itO.3751 I-0.130 -0.196 I-O.218 l+o.459 to.512 I +0.530

H
+ 0.357 + 0.398 to.412

Sign

convention

SINGLE BARREL CONDUIT BEGGS DEFORMETER STRESS ANALYSIS


COEFFICIENTS FOR MOMENT,
PASSIVE CIRCULAR

THRUST,
PRESSURE SHAPE

AN0

SHEAR

HORIZONTAL

56

APPENDIX: THE BEGGS DEFORMETER

This study has been made, using the Beggs Deformeter apparatus 4 6 e (figure 51). The basis of the method is a direct application of Maxwells Theorem of Reciprocal Deflections, which states that. for any two points on a structure, the ratio of the displacement at the fist point to the load causing it, applied at the second point, is equal to the ratio of the displacement at the second point to the load causing it, applied at the fist point. Displacements are measured in the load directions. In the general application of this method of stress analysis, an elastic scale model of the structure under consideration is deformed at a cut in the model by use of a special set of gage blocks and plugs. Three sets of plugs are used to apply a rotational, a normal, and a shearing displacement at the gage block. Microscopes equipped with filar eyepieces are used to measure the model deflections at points corresponding to the load points of the actual structure. Deflections are measured in the direction of the prototype loads. No loads are applied to the model. Deflections of the model are read at prototype load points for displacements applied at the gage block. The difference in microscope readings is a measure of the model deflection induced by the change at the gage block from the first position of the plugs to the second position of the plugs. From Maxwells Theorem the following equations may be written for the redundant reactions at the cut section: For a concentrated load For a distributed load

SFPF
S

Sl=$

pes dl dl

TI==PF
T

Tl= $spe,
T

where

d, is the angular rotation ds is dT is


eM is es is eT is I is

MI is
n

P
p $

is is is is

T1 is
The

applied at the cut by the moment plugs the displacement applied at the cut by the shear plugs the displacement applied at the cut by the thrust plugs the measured deflection at a load point, in the direction of the load, due to d, the measured deflection at a load point, in the direction of the load, due to ds the measured deflection at a load point, in the direction of the load, due to dT the load length the redundant moment reaction at the cut the scale factor (prototype to model) a load acting at a point on the prototype the load intensity on the prototype at the deflection point the redundant shear reaction at the cut the redundant thrust reaction at the cut. unknowns in these equations are

only

MI, T,, and S,.


In the actual operation of the Beggs Deformeter the arithmetic is simplified by the use of calibration factors based on the plug dimensions and the eyepiece scales. An influence line through points obtained by multiplying the deflection ordinates by the proper calibration factor gives directly the magnitude of the moment, thrust, or shear at the gage block position for a unit traveling load. It should be pointed out that the Beggs Deformeter method automatically takes into account the strain energy in a structure due to moment, thrust, and shear as well as haunch effects and other shape changes.

-.

M,=PFn
.

MI=:
M s

pe,dl

4 Beggs, G. E., An Accurate Solution of Statically Indeterminate Structures by Paper Models and Special Gages, Proceedings ACI, vol. XVIII, 1922, pp. 58-78. 5 McCullough, C. B., and Thayer, E. S., Elastic Arch iii&es, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1931, pp. 2826 Phillips, H. B., and Allen, formeter Theory and Technique, Denver, Colo., July 1965. I. E., The Beggs DeBureau of Reclamation,

57

FIGURE

51.

-Beggs

Deformeter

apparatus

and

shape

B conduit

model.

58
GPO 850-512

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