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MARKETING A PHNG VI VIC QUNG B THNG HIU THNH PH H CH MINH.

M u Trong thi i ngy nay, hot ng Marketing khng ch dng li phm vi doanh nghip, mt ngnh ngh, hay mt lnh vc hoc sn phm no , m n ang c pht trin ngy cng tng v mnh m trong phm vi mt vng, khu vc, a phng (tnh, thnh ph) v quc gia. H thng v m v vi m u tr nn ngy cng quang trng trong pht trin kinh t v tr thnh cha kha thng xuyn i vi s tng trng bn vng i vi cc a phng cc nc ang pht trin. Marketing vi m (Micro-marketing) l ton b nhng hot ng no ca doanh nghip hng vo vic hon thnh nhng mc tiu ca t chc thng qua vic d on nhu cu ca khch hng v iu khin lung sn phm/dch v n tn khch hng nhm tha mn ti a nhu cu ca h. Marketing v m(Macro-marketing) l mt quy trnh nhm vo vic iu khin v iu chnh lung sn phm/dch v t nh sn xut n khch hng, bng cch no tip cn c cung v cu ca th trng v ph hp vi cc mc tiu kinh t vn ha- x hi, chnh tr, php lut, cng ngh v mi trng sinh thi ca x hi. Nhng thch thc trong cnh tranh trn lnh vc ton cu i hi cc quc gia, tnh, thnh ph phi thay i cch nhn ca h. Li th so snh ca cc yu t sn xut c bn khng cn l iu kin tin quyt pht trin kinh t na. L do l tt c u mang tnh tng i. Khi nn kinh t th gii ngy cng c xu hng ton cu ha, th li th trong vic xut khu ti nguyn thin nhin hay lao ng r ngy cng m nht (Fairbanks v Lindsay 1997). Tng lai pht trin cc a phng khng ty thuc vo v tr a l, kh hu, ti nguyn thin nhin. Tng lai pht trin ca a phng ty thuc vo chuyn mn, k nng ng gp, phm cht ca con ngi v t chc ti a phng (Philip Kotler). Cc a phng ngy nay phi t thn vn ng nh mt doanh nghip. Theo nh hng th trng, cc nh lnh o cn bit xy dng a phng mnh

thnh mt sn phm hp dn, ng thi cn bit cch qung b cc nt c th ca sn phm ny mt cch hiu qu n cc th trng mc tiu ca mnh. Chin lc Marketing a phng i hi a phng khng ch nm vng nhu cu ca khch hng m cn hiu bit su sc cc quy trnh ra quyt nh ca khch hng c gii php thch hp thu ht khch hng v vi a phng. Thnh ph H Ch Minh (TP HCM) l trung tm kinh t ln nht nc. Cc hot ng kinh t, vn ha, chnh tr, x hi trn a bn Thnh ph l mt b phn ca nn kinh t nc ta, c v tr t bit quan trng trong vng kinh t trng im pha Nam. Vic qung b hnh nh Thnh ph, cng nh vic xc nh v ch ra nhng li th ca n c tc dng rt tch cc thu ht v gi c nhn ti, thu ht u t trong nc v nc ngoi, pht trin xut khu v du lch, trn c s m xc nh c nh hng chin lc Marketing ca Thnh ph mt cch ng n, gp phn lm cho nn kinh t ca Thnh ph cng nh cc lnh vc khc nhau ca cuc sng ngi dn TP HCM c pht trin bn vng Marketing a phng l g? Vai tr ca tip th i vi vic pht trin kinh t ca cc quc gia c cc nh qun tr v tip th cp n t nhiu thp nin qua (Vd. Drucker 1958; Reddy & Campbell 1994, Kotler & ctg. 1993, 2002). Nhiu quc gia tuy khng c ngun ti nguyn v nhn lc di do nhng nh c chin lc v chng trnh tip th ca mnh hiu qu v bin a phng ca mnh thnh nhng ni pht trin bn vng. Cc nc NICs chu nh, Hn Quc, Singapore, Hong Kong, vv. l cc v d in hnh. Cc quan im v tip th thng tp trung vo chc nng vi m hn l chc nng v m ca n. ng v mt v m, cc nh tip th tp trung vo vai tr ca tip th pht trin kinh t ca mt quc gia, mt a phng (Reddy & Campbell 1994). Tuy nhin, khi cp n tip th th thng hiu l n v c bn tip th. Mt thng hiu c th l mt sn phm hu hnh, mt dch v, hay mt thnh ph, mt quc gia. Nh vy v mt tip th, chng ta c th xem mt a phng hay mt quc gia c th l mt thng hiu, gi l thng hiu a phng phn bit vi thng hiu sn phm hay dch v ca cc n v kinh doanh. Vi quan im ny, xt v nguyn l tip th th tip th mt thng hiu a phng v tip th thng hiu sn phm hu hnh hay dch v khng c g khc nhau (Reddy & Campbell 1994). D nhin, v mt tip th c th, th 2

chng trnh tip th thng hiu a phng cng c nhng c trng ring ca n. iu ny cng tng t nh chng trnh tip th cho thng hiu sn phm hu hnh hay thng hiu dch vu, hay l chng trnh tip th cho hng cng nghip hay hng tiu dng. Sn phm hu hnh v dch v cng c nhng c th ring, sn phm cng nghip v sn phm tiu dng cng c nhng c th ring, cho nn cc chng trnh tip th c th ca chng phi ph hp cho tng trng hp c th. Vn th hai, quan im tip th a phng cho rng tip th a phng khc bit vi tip th sn phm v dch v l nh tip th. i vi thng hiu l sn phm hu hnh hay dch v, nh tip th l b phn tip th ca doanh nghip. Vi thng hiu a phng th nh tip th bao gm nhiu thnh phn khc nhau nh chnh quyn a phng, cng ng kinh doanh v cng ng dn c. Tuy nhin, cng cn ch rng, theo quan im hin i th tip th khng phi l chc nng ca b phn tip th m l ca mi thnh vin trong cng ty. Nh vy chc nng tip th ca mt a phng l cng vic ca mi thnh vin trong a phng . Nh vy, v mt nguyn tc th khng c s khc bit gia nh tip th thng hiu a phng v nh tip th thng hiu sn phm v dch v. Tip th a phng lin quan n 3 nhm chnh, c minh ha Hnh 1 (Kotler & ctg. 1993, 2002). Th nht l khch hng ca mt a phng. Cng nh tip th thng hiu sn phm hay mt dch v, nh tip th a phng cn phi xc nh th trng hay khch hng mc tiu ca a phng mnh. Khch hng mc tiu ca mt a phng c th bao gm cc nh u t, cc nh sn xut kinh doanh, cc nh xut khu, cc tng hnh dinh ca cc cng ty, khch du lch, hi ngh v cc chuyn vin. Th hai l cc yu t ca a phng tip th cho khch hng. Cc yu t tip th ny c th l h tng c s, con ngi, hnh tng v cht lng sng v cc c trng hp dn ca a phng. Cui cng l cc nh hoch nh tip th a phng. Nhm cc nh hoch nh tip th a phng bao gm chnh quyn a phng, cng ng kinh doanh, v cng dn ti a phng . Nhng thnh phn ny tham gia vo vic hoch nh k hoch tip th cho mt a phng.

Cc cp ca tip th a phng

Th trng muc tieu Nha xuat khau Yeu to tiep th Du khach, ai bieu C s ha tang Nhom hoach nh Dan c ac trng hap dan Ke hoach tiep th a phng: Phan tch, tam nhn, hanh ong Khu vc Chnh kinh doanh quyen Con ngi Nha au t

Chuyen gia

An tng a phng va chatlng song Tong hanh dinh, van phong ai dien cong ty

Nha san xuat

Ngun: Kotler & ctg. (2002:45) Lm th no Marketing a phng? Cc a phng c nhng cch thc Marketing thng hiu ca mnh khc nhau. Thng thng cc nh Marketing a phng s dng cc chin lc Marketing thng hiu a phng l: (1) Marketing hnh nh a phng (Image); (2) Marketing c trng ni bt (Attraction) ca a phng; (3) Marketing h tng c s a phng; v (4) Marketing con ngi ca a phng. Marketing hnh nh a phng c thc hin thng qua vic to nn mt hnh nh tt, mt hnh tng hp dn, c n tng cho cc th trng mc tiu ca a phng. Cch thc hin thng qua vic xy dng cc lun c c o cho thng hiu a phng mnh lm hp dn khch hng mc tiu. Th d Singapore s dng lun c c o l Singapore- mt con rng kinh t chu

Paris Th nh sng i vi TP HCM, mt s gi c lin quan n hnh nh ca thnh ph nh: (1) TP HCM- Li vo ng Nam - The door of ASEAN (2) TP HCM- Thnh ph nng ng sng to HCMC Dynamic anh Creative. Marketing c trng ca a phng thng c thc hin thng qua vic u t vo cc im ni bc ca a phng mnh. Cc im ni bc ny c th do thin nhin u i, lch s li, hay do a phng xy dng nn. V d: Bali ca Indonesia, Angkor wat ca Campuchia, Kuala Lmpur vi ta nh Petronas. TP HCM vi cng Nh rng, Dinh thng nht, a o C chi. Marketing h tng c s a phng nh h thng giao thng tin li v hin i nh ng xe in ngm, ng b, sn bay, cng bin, mng li thng tin lin lc, cc cng vin khoa hc. Marketing con ngi ca a phng thng qua vic s dng nhn vt ni ting (nh bang Guyinat min Bc n vi cu khu hiu y l ni sinh ra ca Mahatma Gandhi cc a phng cng thng Marketing trnh chuyn nghip ca cc lc lng lao ng ca a phng mnh cho khch hng mc tiu. Rt nhiu nh Marketing cho rng tip th mt a phng ng ngha vi vic chiu th, qung b a phng . Tuy nhin, chiu th, qung b mt a phng ng vai tr t quan trng nht trong qu trnh tip th mt thng hiu a phng. Tng t nh tip th thng hiu sn phm v dch v ca doanh nghip, tip th thng hiu a phng l lm cho thng hiu ca mnh tha mn nhu cu ca th trng mc tiu hiu qu hn thng hiu ca cc i th cnh tranh. thnh cng, mt a phng phi lm sao ngi dn, khu vc kinh doanh hi lng vi cng ng, cng nh p ng c nhng k vng ca nh u t, khch du lch. C nhiu cch thc mt a phng cn phi u t gia tng cht lng sng, kh nng thu ht u t v khch du lch. Nhng thnh phn to nn mt chin lc cnh tranh cho a phng c th bao gm (1) hoch nh th, (2) c s h tng, (3) h thng dch v, v (4) im vui chi, gii tr. hp dn khch hng mc tiu, a phng phi c mt thit k th hp l v mt k hoch pht trin kh thi tng sc hp dn ca a phng

mnh v khch hng ca a phng lun c mt n tng no v c im ca a phng m h mun n. Hai l a phng phi xy dng v duy tr mt c s h tng ph hp vi mi trng t nhin. Ba l, a phng phi pht trin mt h thng dch v c cht lng tha mn nhu cu ca cng ng dn c v khu vc kinh doanh. Cui cng l a phng phi xy dng cc im gii tr hp dn c dn, khch u t v khch du lch. Mt vn mang tnh chin lc trong thit k chin lc tip th a phng m nh tip th a phng cn phi ch tm thc hin l xy dng v qung b hnh tng ca a phng cho th trng mc tiu. Vic xy dng mt hnh tng lun lun i i vi vic iu chnh cc hnh tng tiu cc ca khch hng mc tiu v a phng. Hnh tng ca mt a phng c th nh ngha l mt tng hp cc tng, lng tin, du n m khch hng cm nhn v a phng . Hnh tng th hin c ng mt tp nhng ng hnh (associations) ca a phng (Kotler & ctg. 2002:229). D nhin, nhng nhm khch hng khc nhau s c nhng n tng v a phng khc nhau. Chnh v vy, cc nh tip th a phng cn phi thc hin phn khc th trng chn th trng mc tiu cho a phng mnh. Cc nghin cu nh tnh v nh lng s gip cho nh tip th thc hin cng vic phn khc th trng v chn th trng mc tiu cho a phng cng nh khm ph ra cc thuc tnh hp dn ca a phng i vi th trng mc tiu. Cng cn ch l th trng ca mt a phng c bao gm nhiu thnh phn khc nhau nh c dn, khch du lch, cc nh u t, chuyn gia, vv. Trong tng th trng ny c nhiu khc khch hng khc nhau. V d nh th trng cc nh u t c th chia thnh cc nh u t trong nc, ngoi nc, v cc nh u t trong hay ngoi nc li bao gm nhiu khc nh na. Nh vy, nh tip th a phng phi da vo tm nhn v mc tiu ca a phng, cng nh c im ca th trng c chin lc phn khc th trng v chn th trng mc tiu thch hp cho a phng mnh. Trn c s th nh tip th a phng mi xy dng c hnh tng ca a phng cho th trng mc tiu c th. Mt s nguyn tc c bn ca mt hnh tng a phng m nh tip th cn ch khi xy dng. Mt l hnh tng phi c tnh thuyt phc khch hng mc tiu, ngha l c gi tr v to c nim tin cho h. Mt hnh tng c gi tr khi n ph hp vi thc trng ca a phng . Hn na, khch hng phi tin

vo n. Th d khi Hi ng Pht trin Thng mi Hong Kong tip th mt hnh tng l Siu th kinh doanh chu . Hnh tng ny c th ph hp vi thc trng ca Hong Kong, tuy nhin cc nh u t c th nghi ng l t chc ny tung ra mt cu khu hiu qu ng. Th hai, mt hnh tng phi n gin nhng hp dn v mang tnh phn bit cao. Mt hnh tng n gin s gip trnh nhm ln cho khch hng mc tiu. Tuy nhin to c n tng tt cho h th hnh tng ca a phng phi hp dn. c trng hp dn s kch thch khch hng lng ham mun tiu dng a phng, ngha l h mun u t vo a phng nu l khch hng u t hay chn a phng l im du lch nu l khch hng du lch, vv. Mt im quan trng na l hnh tng ca mt a phng cn phi phn bit vi hnh tng ca cc a phng cnh tranh. V d c rt nhiu thnh ph chu thng t mt hnh tng l Mt ni mn khch hay Mi trng kinh doanh tt nht. Mt hnh tng m a phng mnh v a phng cnh tranh cng c th khng th thu ht c khch hng. Mt khi xy dng c hnh tng cho a phng, cc nh tip th thng s dng cc cng c th hin hnh tng . C nhiu cch th hin. Th nht, nh tip th c th dng lun c tip th (thng c gi l cu khu hiu) thng t hnh tng ca a phng cho th trng mc tiu. V d nh Nam c dng lun c Th gin, x lng, khm ph, thng thc, Hong Kong vi Thnh ph ca cuc sng, Singapore vi Th ca du lch, hay Osaka vi Thin ng th thao, v.v Cng c th hai nh tip th thng dng l cc kin trc c o ca a phng. V d nh Sydney vi nh ht Opera, Bc Kinh vi Vn l Trng thnh, Agra vi n Taj Mahal, v.v Xy dng cc s kin c o cng l cng c cc nh tip th a phng tip th hnh tng a phng mnh. Th d nh Hi thuyn rng Trung Quc hay Festival quc t m nhc rng ma Borneo thuc M Lai, v.v Khi c c cng c gii thiu hnh tng a phng cho khch hng mc tiu, nh tip th phi thit k chin lc qung b hnh tng a phng. Cng tng t nh tip th thng hiu sn phm hay dch v ca cc doanh nghip, c hng lot phng tin qung b hnh tng a phng m nh tip th a phng c th s dng nh qung co, khuyn mi, cho hng c nhn, tip th trc tip, v quan h cng ng. S pht trin ca cng ngh thng

tin, nh s ra i ca mng Internet, cung cp nhiu phng tin qung b hu hiu. Nh tip th a phng phi bit thit k mt chin lc truyn thng thch hp v phi hp chin lc ko v y trong chiu th cho tng th trng mc tiu c th qung b hnh tng ca a phng mnh t hiu qu cao nht. Tm li Nhng ni dung c bn ca Marketing thng hiu a phng khng khc bit g so vi marketing thng hiu ca doanh nghip. Quy trnh Marketing thng hiu TP HCM phi bt u bng vic nh gi hin trng ca thnh ph H Ch Minh, nhn dng y nhng im mnh, im yu, nhng c hi v nguy c (SWOT) trc ht cc lnh vc: dn c, thu ht u t, pht trin du lch v xut khu. Trn c s , nh Marketing Thnh ph xy dng tm nhn v mc tiu cho Thnh ph. Tip theo, thit k chin lc Marketing cho thnh ph mnh. Cng vic ny bao gm vic xc nh th trng (khch hng) mc tiu, xy dng v nh v hnh nh thng hiu Thnh ph v chin lc qung b Thnh ph. Sau , l hoch nh cc chng trnh Marketing v cui cng l qun l vic thc hin, kim sot nh gi cc chng trnh . GS. TS H c Hng- Tng thut (Cng nhm thnh vin nghin cu ti Thc trng v gii php Marketing a phng ca TP HCM)