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Modified from Lynn Miriello

Mr. Piekarski

Fungi AP Biology Guided Reading Chapter 31 Name __________________________

The concept that gives students the most difficulty in this chapter is the varying life cycles. First focus on the diagram on page 619 and then move on to the other cycles. 1. How do fungi acquire their nutrients? Fungi aquire their nutrients by absorption. 2. What are exoenzymes and how does surface area connect with this concept? They decompose complex molecules to the simipler compunds that fungi can use. 3. Define the following terms concerning the body structure of fungi: a. Hyphae- is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus. In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth. b. Chitin- It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi c. Mycelium- the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. d. Septa- cross walls in which the hyphae are divided. e. Coenocytic- is a multinucleate cell. It can result from multiple nuclear divisions without accompanying cell divisions, or from cellular aggregation followed by dissolution of the cell membranes inside the mass. f. Haustoria- is the hyphal tip of a parasitic fungus or of the root of a parasitic plant that penetrates the host's tissue, but stays outside the host cell membrane. g. Mycorrhizae- is a symbiotic (generally mutualistic, but occasionally weakly pathogenic) association between a fungus and the roots of a plant.[2] 4. What is the difference between ectomycorrhizal fungi and endomycorrhizal fungi? Ecto occurs outside of the fungi while the endomycorrhizal occurs outside of the fungi. 5. What are the signaling molecules that assist in sexual reproduction of fungi called? Zygosporangium helps the in the sexual reproduction of fungi. 6. Define these terms associated with sexual reproduction in fungi: a. Plasmogamy- is a stage in the sexual reproduction of fungi. In this stage, the cytoplasm of two parent mycelia fuse together without the fusion of nuclei, as occurs in higher terrestrial fungi.

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Modified from Lynn Miriello

Mr. Piekarski

Fungi b. Heterokaryotic- refers to cells where two or more genetically different nuclei share one common cytoplasm. c. Dikaryotic- The dikaryon is a nuclear feature which is unique to some fungi, in which after plasmogamy the two compatible nuclei of two cells pair off and cohabit without karyogamy within the cells of the hyphae. d. Karyogamy- the fusion of pronuclei of two cells, as part of syngamy, fertilization, or true bacterial conjugation.

7. Complete the following diagram that represents a generalized life cycle of a fungi.

8. How do molds and yeast reproduce? They both reproduce asexually. 9. How is it believed that fungi evolved? They may have been able to reproduce sexually.

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Modified from Lynn Miriello

Mr. Piekarski

Fungi 10. Complete the diagram below concerning the phylogeny of fungi.

11. What about chytrids are unique among fungi? They are able to help in the reproduction of the fungi. 12. What are the general characteristics of Zygomycetes? They are mostly terrestrial in habitat, living in soil or on decaying plant or animal material. 13. Complete the following diagram of the life cycle of the zygomycete.

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Modified from Lynn Miriello

Mr. Piekarski

Fungi

14. Why is a zygosporangium, despite being 2n, not a typical zygote? It is a multinucleate structure. 15. What are microsporidida? constitute a phylum of spore-forming unicellular parasites. 16. What type of endomycorrihzae do glomeromycetes have and what is special about it? They reproduce outside of the fungi which makes them able to be endomycorrihzae.

17. What are the general characteristics of Ascomycetes? What is their common name? They are asexual they produce enormus numbers of asexual spores. 18. What are Ascomycetes asexual spores called? They are called conidia. 19. Complete the following diagram of the life cycle of an ascomycete.

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Modified from Lynn Miriello

Mr. Piekarski

Fungi

20. What are the general characteristics Basidiomycetes? They are decomposers of wood and other plant materials. 21. Complete the following diagram of the life cycle of a basidiomycete.

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Modified from Lynn Miriello

Mr. Piekarski

Fungi 22. What are the three broad categories of symbiotic relationships between fungi and other organisms list and DESCRIBE them below. a. Predators- they are predators because they can paralyze their prey inm order to kill them. b. Parasites- They are able to feed on living creatures. c. Decomposers- able to break things down in order to live.

23. Table below is for your study and review

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