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ANA LYSIS OF /;lCTRIC M~ CHI/>'fRr


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RATING OF
ELECTRIC POWER CABLES

Ampacity Computations
for Transmission, Distribution,
and Industrial Applications
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Contents

Symbol.

PlIlRT I

0 " 91"

niii
MODEU~

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Circuit ThOOf)' /'i'h" rl. " " . h. . lor lMrmai Mod"U,R JJ


J, I lAtrodu<tion ) )
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PART IV

APPENDICES

361

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Preface

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_
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_
. Tr<llf'O">I....
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,...........ly ;n
: it< ......ao ~ to - '
...,... 11 _ _
oorI'<laIionII bod _
001 "' III< fino p\o<.. ...... oppli<
aI . _
"", _ _ ...... Jd"'"

w'"

of._

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It_

*'.....

ha,. ""'" ~ ...,.

Ampoci1y W<>rt I'I"l!rcwod _ I )' from .... ,..... of R""'.. hnal rqoon

....... Ntl><> .-I M<G'o<h p.II>I,Wd ""'" paper ..lbth

~lull )' ~

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.... lrnpJttan, ornpacily....,n by


Tboit _
......." ......_
"" ......

ad,.....,

_ia lllt

""" elf1i>dy P'" 0/1 of "'"

prin<ipk-o i

,.

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wOOl of

1911

.."" ,If

SUM."....

<of ""'I*'d) ' " ....,.,.,

""P:'

all~"1 _

lly. Ill.. ;. W1_ " ...... "" """,_ Ill< _>pl<'i!j' of .... .....-.., pn>I>I<rtt..
011< Nd><r -.j Mo;<;non ....,.,...101 'd"""",)' p<ap<t. ""... _ ~ io Nonh Americo
rdr< .. til< uloolalioo 1'f'IC"'lur<..-I to deI<rm,... ompo<i1y val
til< N<Ile<_M"G..",
method. "'-'....11', .... """'"""'" Ih>o tbry <1<,,";1><01 ;. _
"""PI< ....>.\<l ,,f _'II'
.........,. . . "'" _ . """ . . . aD onolor. b<t...- .... _
ot ....._ ,.....- and .11<
_ .ot_ , 80cll ottlloo< pri..,!P<t
well ~ ",,", ,,,. W "'" 1 ~7. _1001<-0. ....
_
_MctJ..,,,, po;> iI credtlcd ...... pop<f " hid , f<Jnns .... bai,l<o-lOOIl<m _ i l l '

Tho Noh<r-MAoo ~ Modt:l .. ,_ _ "'


il<ooch "',.1<1. ;, ho
111'
-'
ot <qUOIion>. I ..tl'O<1ivdt' ''''''"U'''' fur , """'" 8'eal<f
of u ble
&".
""' ...cal
"
II co....... _ , _ ;" <toe ......ld .....hal
from _ . m eld
iI oho 000<0, r", ,bd O<1ric 1I<.. ,"ll .. turn con borom<
" ro,k... iol aigh
'" ,
II .... ...... ~ and m<n 1100<.111' """"'" 11<..
1raMl'", oocfli<i<nl, Il>oo <toe Iloodl Model, II ohcriloe< .... ..,....
"'" ....1<1 he <I'<'!
fur ~ ;.... 01_
. , ..oil ..
_ icoll y
1I",..n,." I I; ;" .".
k dncribet produr< !boo "'" "" ....,j ... oietole c - ' "'..... til< he.. _ _ toy """"'
~ ;olloeo<e> other <_ _ IBOll> """"'" iI pmniI' OIltpOci1y <ok. lao""" fur "",1';;01<
_
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l<"", ,,,,, lode
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port" """",, ," P"'P"'~ Ih< ClGRE _
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H, o . -Ilb<tg 01
l'1IiI<d Kift&dom. ,.,. """" '10 of Moly. 101. McGroo!I of do< Unill
Sur<-.. H. R"'............. ,..and R WIcJdor"O" ,>I "'_ . h io.... ""'.. """"'......
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IEC ;:117
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of ubi< rating. A, Ih< ,;".., oI .. Tihna !lIi. boot. rh< lEe ......-kioI
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of_ .... J"o'I>!;,:"'"", ,-( II'CF-A lIlhIeo '" 1%7. lhe
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REFERENCES
T,. Low""" Ili, G,_-.l " -hoi; . S, V. ( I91'S). " UpgndIlIl! Ib< ompo<ny of Il l'l-f
"""'"'1'1'" cobl<
tEtE T""", 1't,"~d:><Ii,~ ... ><>I. 10, ,"", 1. pp , J- ~ ,
AE.IC CSI 90 119'JO~ '"Sj>ilic..""" ro. imprq_ popcr_io".a..d. ~I",_"""'"
~

<"""',,:

""'*'....,.., ry"" ."

A" 1e CS 2-'JO( I'I'JO). ""SpI<ilio:..;'-' f<I< imp<tJ.-d1'"l"""0IId _ _


po.,..- poIyl""l"'.
I<lo< ....._ <obi<. h;p .,......., P'r<
AE.IC 03-\10 II 'I'JO~ ""SjIdicaUono f<I< imp'......... POp<f_;"wIOIN. ...... mcoII<_
~ . ...... ~ _ filll ry""."
AEIC CS4--9J l1W3). ~lic_ ro. irn _ _ pap....... I_ _ aI>ol mt<lt...
~ oclf.....--.. bqoD<l ~Jkdnl ...."
AEIC C'U-'H ( 1_ . ""Sp>cillc" "'" lot <f<IO>liol.<d poIy<lhylen< """laI<d ",..1lI<d
raIO<l5 .......p46 ~ V,
" "Ie Q6.-87 ( 1987). ""SjIdicalM_ .... <11'_ _._ _ ~....,.......

''I'.'"

_<.. .

_~ ._'-5 _JIl !fl ~ V,'

AEIe CS1-'JJ l l....l ). "Spocilic....... ro. . rooo-liN.<d poly<lhylt1>< iolluiOlCd...., _

_ <_

'-""' tllrooIp

I l i l V."

Copyrighted maklnal

"

AEK" CS 'll~ 1I'lll'" "SPKili<.. ~.., lol.ri..lly i..... - ..... 00.0-1 pip< filkng
1"f"NI< ~. h;p>- ~ ... 1'"1'<-1)1'< c>hI<.AEiC GI-.fIlI ' 1_,. "'GInd< f... """I,COl' " <Jl AEIC ...... ","m in .ula1"", ...,...,.,...... II

,_ tor r<lf i~_ ...per_j


AEIC ozn , Ion: . -0.... for <I<.uiu l
II><

AEiC GI'IIJ ' 1'1'101.

I.'I , - ,,"

of " ..... joinI> l.1 ~ t V

"GIl'" rOf i..uJ""-"'" of ,,'Nded di<llri< .""'

' l _ ""-I (,/I kV

,"
~ ._

"" ".,to 0 8 H ','

AB C G.-'lO ( 1990,. " lIhd<o-J!_ """<Ied 1""" ,aM< pull'"l


" E1C G7\ll1 ( IYll0 l "'Go. ~'" plac""""" .... k f< .._
~.l .

t Vund<rJl_ <Ii<lnlJutit.. . .we..

JIri<Ie',"

.... <If 1Nlbl <b<.....".;,;

_II<""

Ai'iSIllEEE SI<IIJdord S7S l im ,. "Applicotit.. of o!I<.m__ nl


d"""" cab '" . 00 .... <&l<u.... ioo of indO<lto:l - . , . . _ <UtI'<Oll<

f<oo oinlk ......

.. <Illk

......h..

Ball. 1'.. H. 1'h1arol. /. D.. _ SOc'J'POf_ O. L ( 1m,. U. K_I!"'l'>t=><nh and In"""


"""'J>" for f<n'N >*<l u hl< ' 1........ """'. Ia'
C. _ <.
B"""" C. C.,I 9M ,. Ek< m. -C,,/lk. _ london,s" I
Pi
'" s.-.
Block. W, Z. l I9 ~9 ' . 1b< IrT'~"''')' ~ <lil<m...: ,""",Of ' fUl"'" <aUn<,' ~ ..
.... II'" IfEEII'ES T""""" " ;",, _ D1wil>.lli<.. ("<>Ill , """
!"<oo' Orlean>.
LA. Apt.

~ _1 .

Eo_ '.....

1'1ll9.

B... t ",riI, . 11 B.. .-.I _ .. U. D. B. f Aj><_ 1976 l - F.n'<d ''''~ ''I ,"'lIG bn<>.- T..........,_
Ji<oo ...... Vi......"""'... "'. 'I _l ~,
O GRE (19'l 6~ '"Tho ku ~ iooo of ronl _
, .. ~ of k>n>od ""'*'I ",0.1<>.' WG Qll of
<.lGRE SC 1 1. Ek....... "". M . pp . l'>--M. EnOl""' ;" 1<, _ . .... 76. p.48. MO)' 1911 1.
O G RE (198(". -F<Jr=;l oookd cabk>, Calculal"", fJf lhemlal lnn<i<ft....... <)'<h<
WG Ol' ofC\G R~ SC 1 1. Fl.",. . ..... HM. pp . 1.J...U

-.*

~ c. .~. ll """"' l ~ ".~,~

S-,,,."Ol,

PA S i~, flO . ~.

,,, "'!I>.... .

r _/I.EE r-..

""""'!lpr,

pp . 9!11J.-_

lEe Sumdard !!8 1197 8 ). ''Cooduc1on fJf i"",l_ . abl<o..* 2nd od . '" "'!'P.. IY!l1.
lEe Standard !1l7 ( 1_ . 1 911 ! ~ -cakulat"", fJf .... r o n l _ <Wfent "''''1 fit . - .
'1 00'\ "'"" f"" .... 1.. od , I%'!. 2nd <d, 1911!. :<rd cd. 19'/04~I\I%,
Ir SWId<nI 'Wl! , 19111l ' h _
,,~ Od Jo<lc<-1ric ~ "'...... ........ h fwd ..,.Ill<" r""" I ~ \I I<> JO ~ \1.*
IEEE '199-1> SOlWNlaJ,j 8 .1 ~ . " IEEE S,andaI'd--"""'.. coble ~io~ lab ....
F.l'Il.I' l 'lll ~ ,. " ~ ......b<d , .... f""""'-ooI<d nlgh-"",,,,,,,, oil ~ TIod _~ ) ""._
. ~.... m ~- ~ PR I El J(,J4, ""*'-~ 001 _'- RqIo'" I. 'y ,_

'.*

""""'Il~'. A . IO. ' I K\l.l ~

"'M,.""".illlll ........ ...,....,. A "'''''''ioooofEdi,"", UI""""i~

C_nin." N... y,

~y

K'. g. S. Y..... Hoi1\


,.,. r 1911h UnU'1/ ~....J _ .., ( -..bk. L>ndoo: r..-.og","" .
M...., . j f .. M, A, ( l9ll9l ' H,_
1Il ~ "" """"'" ubi< 'lfllIOCi'~' ..,.,. "",.
<en'od .. ,I>< li do IFEEJ1'S T,..,.,,,,_ mol 0.............. C.....F-"I",.;'....
Nro.~I.A

Mo<. C. II ~~ "1
lti>u-Imft, p, m.

27. 1_ .
do< ............

k,_ "'......, va><lltno Kobk ,'

Um_.........

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..... ,. -

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r"""" """~r S.,""""" PAS11. "", J. jIp, I ll~lll ' ,
Weedy. B M. (I 9 11!~ n...--I I"','1l" "/ L'......'ll....... S.""""'. 010:10<_. E.qland;
_

..,

Copyrighted maertal

2
Modes of Heat Transfer
and Energy Conservation
Equations

2.1

I IITRO D U C Tl O ~
A mpoc it~ oompolal'''''' of _ .. cobb fOQIti" 001....", of Ih< "'. Inrnkr equolK!ftO
.....iob <k ~ ... a M>.1i<...... r"'"""hip bel"a .... "'...._ C\OIfeQl " " ' ......_ _
....'hi. tho.obI< "'" i. if>""".. n<fi..,.. I.....
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Z.4 A'IAlYTlCAL tflSllS MUMERICAl MET1100S OF SOL\'l NG


HEAT TRAllSF(II!DUATlONS

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.Ion."""'_

REf ERENCES
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:inial,,,,"',,,,,'.

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1991
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1o<i <apability of , ...1"1""""-" All'f T"'..... mi. M. """ l. pp. 15!_l n

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3
Circuit Theory
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REFERENCES

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..... ""'__
_ _ fo< ~_cabl<o. ' IEEE T.....
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F. H . ( 1 9 ~ 1). "1b<nnaI ............ ' OII _


7O , pp.4~~ 1

CIG RE (0<1. 1972 ,. '"Co<m>o


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.-1_, I..... F;krt E:>ot ..

,obi<. r", <yeli< -J '''",',,_, - .

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I'M L
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"", 14, Pr, 61-%,


C IGRE lJ..., 1976 1. '-C"""", mi"~ 0( , ...... r", <)dO< O/Mf '''"''''''') lo0<Io. ",", 2Ern<fJ<1':,
dour...... re>poo< "' ...., r _ ." tI...."'. .." 44,
pp. J- I.

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"('...,,101>011 01 til< <yell, O/Mf "'""1""') ......'" 'Minp 0( , obi


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1m , Vnder .. f ",obI< JIIdiliono..
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of
ur<
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id1
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r.."... ..r ......., ... ..,..."' 11Io ~ity of
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_ . . - may <Ievdop IrOOnd

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Tho P"JbInorw...-lNllOWoyba>bcen "_ by
( 19M).
.. . .
_
11_ ). I..... l'" ,_<
_.... .....,.,iocal..J_ ooIuIiooI

prudur< forclbl looi"ll'obI< ompo<:itI<t lab..

~ 1d

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8 1ac ~

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.. >i..I<-<limen

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pnobI<m

w"' po........,..l 0IlIl .... -mol oqwoiof>< ""'" ooI ~

~i ..... iom

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~" ... -dlIl_ _ 110>oI.

by _

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,,,,,,o.""b.
modium, 0... or .... rusoo. fcf 1!Ii, .. ..... ..no:. _
""".. 01 <>p1_ i<Jm. ..... p!ly>ical
_
<1<..,..;0;. . ""'"""'"
phto<"""""
,<t)' ."<'<IIplicotod. _ ooJ<qua<e evaI

""p

..... ........ 01
"'" y<l
maoJe, In ",oS '" 1M 10m< ru ~
of "";~ mip"", 011._ ~'
C1GRE ( 1_ . ""' _ _ <imp&<
,"""..... II>OoloeI f<J< ... ooil ~ .. _ _ cabin. """ "';'" in m'
......
,I\cotinn vi <qUOlioo , 4 .)~ ~. 1M rrodel ""'.,...., adopl<d by Ih< lEe ..
_ ._ ",
<OJ tho elf

" " " " " " " ' _ ' IEC.I99) )

Tb< <--.,.
tu<1o Ill< _lai>d ~ by CIGRE ..b <an be ....,manLOd ..
foIl<M>. l.Ini>l ".,..
If> ""'~ I unif,,"" _
n:oi!li>'iIy: bu1 if .... ho.. wwpooll
_ . cable and _oe< <ernp
II< , .. ood_
"""". <tiI1<Il b""'" ... 00;1 "NI
dry
re>odUnJ io . - ...._
m<d no u.. "",bn'l Ihmol "";"""1 hil t>er
"'""
nriJ inol_. T1o< <nticol ,,_ _
IlIoo ;..
f<J< ,tie ....... of d!yjllll.
II< II...
.. '"' ""' !J'J'< vi ooil. i.. orili<>al ...,;" "", . . - . and _
"'"
0M0 tho ~
IIIIK'.... ;, it; _
- . .._
,tie ....roe< of <01...
~ Ill< <riIicaI1<nlpttOI
rio< " " ' - _
dry ..... ..Ill I,,,,,, . . . - . The
_ ~ ot .... _
m ... io<"""""
"'!hoi ponicoolar _ _"", "", (_
f ill, 4.21. An addooo<IaI .."""1"0 ...... 1!>00
lofcr-t ot
dry . . - 00.. "'"
.-.0 ,"" " - '" ......... t>ermal pott<no f""" """
"' th< ooiI .... """.. .
OfIly ......... """"""Ill valueo '" 10m< iooIbmno <!IanI" W""", II>< dry zone. Ill< ooil lw
""if"",,"y hi'"
of """"'"
~I '" i" .,,"" _
Ill< 1i>
....... dried" "'
"""" ilion I~ 'C. OUIoid< the dry roIlO. Ill< <Oil ""' "",fomr. III<nnal
~_nl '" <he .... _ _ """""'. Tho: . -.. ool ""'...... ~ '" ......
.._ " - ..................i,-iry ; ..,if""" ..... eo<~ ron<. and ,1>00 'ho ,~ .... are _
.......- and ~ 1..... f<J< fn<1ical fI'O<1'O"<',

,tIe ..-.....

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II.. m<thod "","Iol _ "" oppi lod ,,_
f_
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moNUf< mil''';''''' .... """'in ,'" folkJwi n, ","'iono b)' apply;"';
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"h<t< C i " "',,..... and " ;. It>< numb of <Of' in til< . obI<. .... " - _ U , ... u bI<
l<fJIp<r.>t.... and "'" 'n np....
of OIl i>oll><rm .. <Ii""""

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'. =P'<, ,,,,Iy. TIl< "".. ""'... .., , i_ 1' ........... (4.fi)
If .... now ..."'.......... ttl< "llion 1><1-. th< uN< ond tho 1', ;,w""" .no. out 110
""" it> re>nti.-i'y. b<oom<.. Pl . and ...... .... ro:-<" "-<s W, ....... in ~ .... 110",

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C<>mbollin, -",ion. (4 .9' .... l 4.1 OJ. ... <JIlWn II>< 1oI1oooin& focm of _

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Copyrighted matenal

..... 1 . """'10"1

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..... e _ _ nt ~, .. 1', -0.- .. the: cr,OOI/


Df .... boutIdory
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"""" on<! ~..,... _ . . . - . . .. _ n.. from jUlIO;'" (4.S C ,II<
cot>lo , un..,. .."",........ it."'IU"I '"

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ond W, _ W.lI .. J., .. J., 1+ W
... ol:ui. the: follow,., ......."'" for the: <WI'etO """l! ....,11I
taU. 1_

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Toll " (0 - 1149' 1" '
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p,.

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W< "'" _ _ .......... I ~ .l ' "'" l>oI ...... 1I<d by dl< odd""", of UI< .. nn
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-=

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of
ompI of """""'i<aI ond ..pm

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by 0.--; .. <Ii, ( 1979). In (O'O <b
...,j I. ""'" 00UIlIrin for tIot m hcaf 1"""""" ..

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r,

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",., _ . . . -.....
loti..... l S onol YJC . .
9, . 111< f<>I_l.. ......,;,.

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cril"," - . . . . . is ,
huI
d<ri>-M"'" ... . i.... i. Ito: I
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<lfl

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.. 141.. 1<n9; B!aIl....... 19l1-l: GrorneveId .. <Ii.. 1_: Bloi;t .. <Ii.. 1'182). T10t followi..
_
it. an "'''P'.. ioe of. ""'" puhI_ by Il<>nnali" 01. (I9'79).ICIG RE. 1'l92). I, ;.
........y pto<ti<.. .... had knaoa _
.. hi<h JO<Md<>
of m ' '''.. I<mp<''''... ond
rn;";.;,, 1_
from ~
~ i....... roo
). ..-.l ...h"'" i> ..I.,vely
oimpl< - ' bockt>l .p by ..pm
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Copynghted maenal

Tho method ldi<>"" ''"'' pM"""">lly okI<_ quantiI>eI' 41) .

""""oJ """""'"

,Yili<a1 d<v or ut.............. <2) . ""pion I"'w,",u, roc:


""'ie.1degree or "'.r.tlOII CM I>< d<'1<mP'I<d b)o ,t>< _ or . "'i,...."", 01. kl< ""'"
"""". ............ r.."" ,h<nOW ""'..... "y_....... W<nt _
Tho mipion
poramer i. otuin<d from mipioo. up<ri..-. In Ibe dtoorirJIioo of lbo ......."'....
""" Ih<ir ""'. ~ ;,. _
"'" ......~I ~ .. Ill< . _ ;,. ~ .~ lor
<a1tem .. ~ .. .

........... .... d j"';buhOll_ from lho ''"'' """'"

Th< <Til",o! ", ,,,,,",,,,"'" rio< or. ooiI ;. ...... _


... I.'~ '" k"'''''''l _ ' porame<er ~( K - I I ... 1'<>1

<till1

or ...........

' [ 11 - '.. 1, "',_


l-.~... - !l ('." - 'wl - (.. - ... ~ I- 4.1]

4~, _ ;;

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dcl!ro< of "'urali""

or !II< ..,;, "",,roIlo<I b)o

.... . . . - _

.......

An ..pmmcnlal m<IIlo<I of <!<mi.. ,Il< . 01.... or ........ ~ .. ~ _ b)o ~


( 1919) woJ ," CIG Rt: <19\121. r_ 4. 1 (C lO RE. '991) Ji- I!lo
of !he
""'_
.. . ono:I ~ .... ,ho critic al I<mper>l= no< 4~. .. . fIIo>co;o" or
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compI<t<ly ..... i< co.. ..._ drJoi.. "'" <><rut> _ " " ' .. am.. ... """,;lMU" "nl" ~

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in

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of " .;I
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>'01. I l l , !'P. IO:JO.- IOI6,
Block. W, Z. .. . . ($<p. 19lIh ............ ..... illy of "",10 >olj o<ml to "lld<tJ..... o>d
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Woo. I""" _ L- f ,,001 RepJrI of ErRl Rcoear<lt I'r>-jccI 1M ),

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BralI.<hnoM, H. t 1'4t, 1'lly"'oJ priJ>;;iP<> _ <oI<ulio~ ", _ ...~ of ...0....... ond ""..
_ .r..... <_ IlMCh<L- t TL R, ,.,,. /9, Be,b,,' V[)E VerI., .
CIGREt l ntl, ~ ...
p. ' l'Iall)' _
".....,;I. _ " Sl'"!"il\od.-hod _ , .... b<.oed ...lIlt mitlimal ""' i..-"..,..."", f 100'1 ~ -.l r_.., E_
.... In.!. PI'- 1I ~ 2 l .

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<_

C1G RE l ll: 1'1'1'2 ,. "D<Ierm,.... ioo. of 'o/u<o( "",itol l<mp<n<'" ri.. fn< .
_
fill """mol; i<m<>. WI/. 14j, 1'1'. 1$-:1'1
l!<Jnnui . E , (]nfl.";. . oM S<ppO . A. C191'J 1, "Soil _
..... kydroloP<oI _AM i.
lie< i. _ Joln8 und<fground <abk<." Pm<, IfE. """. 126,00, 6.

-C . lculmool of <he ..... Mi>Ry o( l""'~ <obi< _~"Y to


<ie>iln ...........~ ~- lEU ( ",... " , -, p. Sy....

E). IUd)'. !04. A. CAul_

.orilo..- .,(

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GrotoI<'vtId. G. L S";j<\e<1. A. L Koopnons. G . and V.........., J. (M Ol', I QoM ~ ' I ~


m<thod lQ calculate ,t>< ,",i<ol >ndn ..... f.." <llJi<II_...-ll' oo;b """'""' _
<_ ."
p",,_ I f . ,,~_ I) I. p"" C. ..... :t pp. ~ 1 _ Sl _
11......,. .1.0 ., lIld 8l.>ck. W_ Z. l M '1

1'1l! 1 ~

"T,_,--...._ond...... lramf..

in moi" ....... . - "".... ASMf r-.... ......, IOJ. I'I'_.176 _ .llI1.

l Ee H W lI. -Am<flI!m<,.. ) IU lEe p..obIi<.iooI U 7, C. I<>ol............. <UIIu..a- <WT<OI


...i<lJ: of _ _ ( 100\1 Iood r."'d .M"d' Io......,. K . C19"16, A ...... . - of lll< i.6u<ac< of ooit lhrnnlIl-...... llyOll .....
of di.. ribution <ol>k..- r--, lEE. .... , 12J ...,. 1. pp. 110 _71

"'III>

Copyrighted rnaklnal

Copyrighted matenal

5
Rating EquationsTransient Conditions

u IlITllooucno"
J. H. N<!I<r

be,.. h.. r........ r_

papor 'N<...... 11l64 . t>y

,"""...... _ _
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The 0l0fI0l " " " _ - . . '" "'" <1.....,01 pro!>Ittn of


",hd oJ",
;"'10<1<> <y<1i< . -_
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lemp<o'><u
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10
"'n ..... ;'fi""~_ In "'" Lo<ter <......... _ no"'" _ y...... cy<h< ...... of
<ahle<.
The _ , - - . .,.,...t>/}' "'Il'<r<nI fa"""", ..,.... <1mliI, could feJl'<""'" "'"
<WV<>
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d>or>lP ill tb< 1oodilo:I. , , _ 1..,), >;><rial """"" "lOY apply f Iii< durat ion of ,ho
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PART II
EVALUATION
OF PARAMETERS

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6
Dielectric Losses

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Copynghted maenal

Copyrighted maklnal

8
Joule Losses in Screens,
Sheaths, Armor, and Pipes

1.1 IliTR00lJCT1011

roII_

<_

0><b;1ri< ""'''' ond".... 100... from ><><loow... hove ~ody bono 00II>I<I<ml i. ~
6 and 7. Tho lb,'" """"'" af~
"'!hi .~
from
""
""-"" ond ,.....,.;"1 .-l:I .. ""'_ _ ......n0l_ Th<o< k"
_ I ",
.
lIlIlooa<l i. """" _ ....." b)' ..... <UrTrnl nO'O',", io ..... _
~
Sh<.oh k
"'" """"" dtJi<""bu. -.l COO b< di.-id!;""'
oodi"ll

<_ __

..... '11'< 0I1> di"', The>< ... k...... &..< IOciml loli.. <IIrT<Oll.
u..Io-<lOf'O ' _ if ..... ""otN or< _
.............
ond _
""""""'. .....,,6 ,-itwl>l< """"" 1 ,.ki. dl">l .-3 01_1oii1 ,,,,,,,;,,,;,,.

_01

,""'I""....

ro <ok!)
<t'f",, ~

Ed<ly
,; n ~ < -" inftpo<ti>o<oIlIo<_af
""" ,>1"
_
ootidl)' _

'hr..,.,... _

""""'" los """""", .. boOb


to-"">;ol . &.IJy
... """W<nbIy
Ier tkan <ir<'u1'''''1

..,11I,-< "'. _ _. ....

<_ _<-.. . ..- ro.._


iJno<I <uqo.

amoori.. aho foll _ _


a1 <"'_ ~ "" ''''' _
ond i............ _
. """'om! "",,Ie..,.,... . - .
..i
_ I",
h
). ....~ ~ ..."' ..--..1>..... 11>< IM_ m.-.
w i ", ox _
"""'" _ld to< ~ hi"'.
armor, .....
"""'" ""' ;, <a1<ulM<d .. if iO - . _
sI>eaIII. ar.l ..... .....'010oooo. _In! oI<p<ado _
........... ""' .......... ;. _fit_po;. _
....>holI) ' Io-...lod. ~ .-. hr<i
Ii<
""""', II>< k...... m e.............. "........ "",,", Iu 1\1 .....
........ _ .._
""",,"M<! r"'-'< of
""'>ok _ armor in plfallel _ _
- . . , . oquaI
.....
m" ...1.. or 'Il< ltIlOOf _
h d,an><t<f'>- Tho
pm._ oppIio< KI
.....
,.....,~"" <ohio tu.,,"'
1
h ond ....,.,.
"'..--... fw ...". .....
loi

'l'l"

~ ..

.....- ,

""".-..ich ..,.",........

_>

'"
Copyrighted maertal

,.
<aI>Ie>
_

armor. <do!y ~ kw.... "'lh< ......


"" <oM<> tw.... ...... \a('< Inrnf, bo<ll ldy

meulll<

'" ,"'II'<

I'<r ,

II<

on<! ~ 100.... in
0#.-_0lio.
_

<Wl'<tII ""

Ia;o< m.... b< " " " . _ ~ "''''' ,lit .rr"",

_if<

1ad._<_..

S<bnorin< uN
'f"<'i.aI~ ""'- 5i..l0..,.". IOC "",*" " .. <ubmorin<
""",""""""""'- <!I1f.. .. ....". ~ from ~ _ _ y at " dllcU : i.
_alI)'..-Jf<Id. "... ""' ............_ ... ....,
~-.I
. . laO<! .ilII """ ...... dtttano< b<tw<ca tfI<",. fur lbc>< " ' - .
0 ...01<... - .. dot lEe ~ J ll 9ll2l _ b< ~, _"" _ _ &<.,I ..
. 10 ,1oiJ,
<,,-<. _ .. ill iDlrodu<e f<quircd 1OOl. to """"""" 011< ond armor 100
1<.......
~ "'iIlI m<lollo< _
-.I
'" ....." t<pt<
,", _
hmori
~, ~.... ..-,U
1'""'11"< of lh< "'. ill
calculat""", Tho.
imf>I;n
-"., .,....._
;. apphc_ ",.- . laid i
_-...-.
Of Do otuo.
_
.. >IloII<
..- a.r.bnl _ . Tho _
i_ _ .. ",k..
........ ioMIl. ioo&~ioo oflh<
implan<e;" rd<tf<d to .... _
by B,...,IIi ..-l

<_

'I "'"

1.->0 ,(1 9 76 )

SHUTH IOMOIM6 AIIRANGlMfllTS

_
~ . .. ......Io-t c-' <I<r-t _ """""" , of f_
_ - " 1 l I il K . l nlacl..... - . , . .,
ilK
.......... _< _ _ dy_ _ . - .r,...110<

,of ..hi<i:I .. lh<

--.llllOOlimporullO

_
.. ,,(
fur oary " ' - ' caI!l< ....... mu>t b<. ......... _1o<tI<l< bondo<l .. 1oaK

in . ...... Thtf< . .

,hr_._",.._...
.
,
_III<
0lI<l <roo" bmdi

...... .""'.. boAdi ... iOIid


10 . ....1<.. ......,. hoi ...:Jl<oro

Iho

JIf'IlIO'I"'-I ... ,hi: _ _ <WmIl """ ,",,'" 0(


; ";: fU><>. I'>no<uIaf <. . _
be ... ,~ 1O ~

..... "' .... ...,alo ., _

>01 doaf from .... n..Ioo<d

OIl< y '" d>miMI"" Ill< itl</o.o;e(I ~ i


...... ' ooW _
.... no. "'''"'''..... et "'" i' _
II<-

in

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01

point

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0

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h <it dot _

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clrculol.,.

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III< Mol '"

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Copyrighted maertal

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II

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""'.... 10<

",1'05< in ,b< loop and ,ho

u_

-,II II< ....... <... ><d b)o <ddy

Th. _bod of _

<i f<'ll",n~ curmoI

.,11 b< ro, and ,lie: only

<wIT<'toU .

_S" """ ,h< __ to tic """'" 10 IKe ...._


of ,......,.cd
h.., .11'"1'''''''''
p<naIty of 111",. .01
<UrmII ......... In
1""_ . Ih< I<oJlh> and ,,1>1<
in ....-II _'ti<>ol '""J' ...,. be id<0<aI. and _ " " ,
<........ ,,-,II lor _
n t . Th< I<nJl" of . ",,11 _ _ and ,
'1'""''''
. . lim,t<d by tho vultOF' ..
w ton.,..... "'" ......... and bel_
and
<artll
do <"'''' _ . 1 p""tion. For IooJ 111M. Ill< ""'" ;0
0(
gf .. lid ;'d1.od<d ioIoo _ _. C,.,.. bond,. . . ~ ........ <all

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I><

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>wIotd .......,11 """'" dodopo""""'l)

The: """''-'"1 ......"'" dn<rilood


,... ..... <.......... ornnJ"d .)...
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"fI<-a _
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' n Ihi_. il i.. ron"ooo jQ<ti<. in Ione:... at>l< <",'\Ii.. or 1>< .-;1)' _
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Copynghted maenal

,.

"'" II l _ 01 f

.... _
tlurd 01 Ill< run.

.. 011<....... f il _I. I ~ "" """ . """ <obi< O<Cupl<'Iea<h

A. _
01_,.,.. po.o"" ...... be romNl<ml kl<n ~
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..""". _
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<11""".... '" ..... 1aI<d " ' U

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fut .... h f< of "'" ., .......

CIRCUlATING CURRENT I.OS$ES INSHEATH AIIOARMOR


Tho boo.i< eqoootioM for calntlatm, .lfcubl.... ......- 1M......_ _ 1opW by . ..........
.... """" ;n
1920" M<__ ... ..._1l'l27 L And,hl m Lond C_ tl ~:n. 1'1211. l<I
lOIn<
trOd. of 0<I<ly <Wmlto - . ""'_
io.
__ <l<nolop<d:
" ' _ """
off
,of 0<I<ly ,""""",, - . inoi,,,,Ik
rompored ,,"" citallat,"l
<UrT<tII loHeo. and
CGUkl be ipoted. Tho oqu.otioM prn<-.t ia IF(: 1'uIllk:.._
1I711\11l1lond io
N<fI<t.-M<'GtodI _1 1 ~1! oft . . . . In _ I!>< wOO< by Amoid
1 1~29~ ond;'- cdd)- _ 1oo.... ><q:O fut Iloe <a-.< of<- . .."" ~ ...........

--

.n"""

All 01 "" 1"'__ fut _

p ..... ill ..... _

......>Urn< \hat

".....

lfU',. I _ _ I<dj< of tho


,,, ....
""'n wtld _ ... no.." """ _ il "",.- .....,;,
_
.. _ ...
""'
,,'" ,ok.""""',
_"'" be ..........t: _
..._
CM be """'=ted
.."'""'" ratiol
boca . 1!cuIaIed. If 1l<OYrJ'.....
....... _
-.t _
;0,. ...... "" ""al<to_ ................;.cd _
Tho~

<UrI'NO . . . _

~ _""

I'''.:~ ;' ~ _

A. ,b.."........""', Ill< p_~ .... m........""" " ...-.- 11, " .......... <If......... <ao>l
by cf"", lat,", , _, (1',) and 0<1<1) ' lOffeIIb (1; ), Thus.

Tho _

fO<lOr ill """'" it II>oCOlllpOMld <If,


_ ..,." "'"' We .,
.. oodby ..,.
11;) Thut..

,.........(1;1....... f<I< ........;c......"."'""

'_''''Illl

A, h","_ ....... roo ';"P-n cobico ,,"" 1'Iw:allI. kaded .. ""'" <r<l> <If on
01 _ _ ""'" 10.o <a>oI ~ ,""'Iat
curr<fIl\ OR _
. An .1<ctn<a1

cr_

_ , "'" it dcfiood .. . """ <If......_ ""'''"''''


"'_
"'" ""'..... ," _ " t
a11. - . OR _ 1 _ , cm:oloo"" NIT'" - .
"""h .....
0<l<Iy <Urf<ftl
looon. -.t IIw:, """'PI<!y <l<.... 1IIOl< "'" c.........._ . Of "'-""'"'. . - ... "" C;",......'1lll
"""''''' ",lito! .... ...._
.. _
or _
.. on< po;no ""I)'. no. ' ,..".,Iao for tIw:

<ir<1Ol.."" <UrT<tOl 1ooooo ill ""'... -.t """"' .. ", . ,1npI "".....
(:...><1 .
..... . _ <ir<.... The """JIle. """""', -.... ,
"'""'" """.....". . . _
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-.or.
and

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A, _

11.1'11,

( I .))

I /. ~ .II'

( 1 4)

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wl>.""... , ..... " ~_ 5IIutlt and 1nftOf, rnpecli. .ly,

A. <an to< -.. f,o", .... ...,.. - " " ' " ' in
sb<"" MIl ormDf <....... _
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.......... """

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<UrT<fII .

01,,,,,,,,, f and t- CoIcuIoc. . of lb<t< impedan<eo "'


d1K1n.... in .... folio."", _
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. . . . - "1ho. ~ " k
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itl<IIo,.. .....". ono~;.. f"""
ft
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it>
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ft,. dolo

Copyrighted maertal

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Th<...,..... ""' < > f ~,,,,,,,,,,",,,,,. i""'oilinI- b.><h .... .." f-

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OIIly
1 proponiooD of
""""'" on tlk... ~ On
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hand. ft.,
ill.",*", by
_
lill<. 1.0\;. n<arIy oil of 'h<
curTNl. Th< IO<aI ftu. 1inUt< from
_
WI'f... of .... two oondudon 10 .... upp"
...n_ lli".,.... "" ~ .... r of
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in<lu<1an<n. """" of i_ i... oil of , be ~_

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of nu....... Ilol1..... ) po; 'ifIL,., 0I1 of


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n
ith,n
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........ _ _ .. 011
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oil inInnaI coNe indu<:tan<n,

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.......

" .. mean d1......... of til< "".. h. """


t... m<. . tlud.." of ..... .......... mm.

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ol'11o< in....
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+ 1./2l/ r,

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on;l lhid
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X/I, . Tho II.. d. witlu. d" _itdinl ......, _

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Tho.ao:h. , lwbe<n appnnimalcd

by". all

til< .....",.. 01"'" II... . ..... .... proportioII of <IlrmII

." a . Th< ~ i>Ji_ by


iO ....."..-. 10 tluI Ill< ;"" .....

""I.....t""""""~ i> 11I'I""',""""11 . ' _ by


,

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2u. . "
~

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......". .. alI air"'" all ." ..... ~_ Tho ,1II<rnaI inductan<eI

, 8.1 ))

lhict.n<u 01 til<
KJ... from .....

II.,

...... ......". _
or "' or< oro f."ly compIi.,.'ed. The armor 11I&)' ''' ' - ' ' II <tlIi1
_
by M.'- n... ... ........
00>;1
.
""'11 <WT<1IL In _.,." tII< .....,. """",1Id . . . . - II. '
" of it> _
.
n.. ~ lIu. w.. (lUI ~ by _
(l'Jn ond .. _ _ (IUI "",_ _
in .... IF 287 ( 1994. SWIdanL Tho ",..n<tic fl<1oh ..."hin .... lhrlAe.. ollh<......,._
~" ioo. <Jf ......iaIlk'Od <Unl. lick!-. The cil<lllal lick!- f..,..1Il< ""'"""""" and
""'....... ..my o", fann"""""" ""' ..... _ _
-1__ oI lh... . . -....... _
.. o"'f<'<'lll . The fi<k!- from Ih<
<UrmII, _
.... ........ fonn. The u inl
fi<k1 ;, rr=
m .. Ih< '''''''' l.lIIf"", 01.... ImIO< lk'Od d"cru , '" UN .. <II< _
- I.."

of.- """ ."

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