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Name: School: Territory:

Andrew Ellis Glenmuir High Jamaica

Year of Exam: 2011

Table of Contents Topic Statement of Aims Methodology Location of Study Area What contributes to the various forms of pollution in the market? Consequences of Pollution Cleaning of the Market Conclusion Bibliography Appendix Page

Statement of Aims
1. To identify the types of pollution present in the May Pen Market. 2. To describe the causes and consequences of the various types of pollution. 3. To discuss the efforts taken to reduce pollution in the market in May Pen, Clarendon.

Methodology

The May Pen Market was chosen as the area of study for Pollution. The study of Pollution was ideal for the area as it is a major place of commerce and transportation located near the town centre. The field study was conducted on the 20th of October 2010 between the hours of 9 a.m. and 11 a.m. For the field study, two main methods were used to collect information. An interview schedule was prepared with questions directed at vendors and customers of the market. See Appendix 1a. An observation sheet was also used. See Appendix 1b. A presentation was made by the Market Supervisor to the students on the 27th of October in the schools library. Secondary sources of information also aided the presentation of the information in the SBA.

What contributes to the various forms of pollution in the market?

First of all, what is pollution? Longman Geography for CSEC gives the definition as, the unclean state of the environment resulting in physical, chemical and biological changes that can seriously affect ecological systems. Pollution results from the improper disposal of waste, whether solid, liquid or gas. Fifty-eight out of the fifty-nine customers and vendors interviewed agreed that there is an issue of pollution in the May Pen Market.

Whatare the m types of pollution seen in ain the m et? ark

21%

25%

Garbage Vegitable Matter

6%

Offensive Odour Sewage 25% 23% Waste Water

The three main types of pollution may be observed in the May Pen Market. As seen, land pollution is greatest and is responsible for 48% of the pollution in the market. This can be credited to the fact that garbage is piled into heaps the majority of the time, instead of being placed into drums. These garbage heaps are disturbed by passing motor vehicles, carts and also by natural means such as wind and rain. Water pollution is the second major form of pollution, in the form of sewage and waste water. Waste water refers to water used to clean fish and other meats in the meat shops and fish market of the new Market House. Fish remains are placed in trenches running through the area. These remains are transported onto a concrete pavement and allowed to drain. As there is no control put to this drainage, it may run off in any direction leading to further pollution. Sewage also poses a problem as the drainage system of the entire market area is in disrepair. One result of this is a stagnant pool located at the back of the new market house. This attracts pigs and may lead to sewage entering the Rio Minho River which runs relatively close behind the market. Sewage from broken drains also contributes to this. The presence of puddles attracts infestation of insects, especially mosquitoes.

Offensive odour also presents itself. This may be from animal faeces, odour from the bathroom area, or from the fish market. Some of this may be due to the poor monitoring of vendors. Vendors own some of the animals, such as dogs, and those who travel from far to the market are forced to defecate and urinate outside as the bathrooms are closed after opening hours. As the name suggests, offensive odours may dissuade persons from making full use of the market. Another form of air pollution present is exhaust from vehicles coming from the car park that passes through the market. Dust pollution is also evident in areas where road construction is taking place. The causes of pollution are summarized in the following graph.

Whatare the m causesof pollution in the ain m et? ark


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Insufficient Bins and Skips No Specific Area of Disposal No Monitoring of Vendors Other No. of Vendors

The top two causes refer to garbage disposal-this puts pollution on an individual level. Monitoring of vendors refers to poor security personnel and regulations.

Consequences of Pollution Pollution in the market poses a threat to the health of both vendors and customers.

The health related effects of pollution vary on different degrees. Contrary to what one might believe, these are not caused by contaminated food but mainly from direct contact with the forms of pollution mentioned. Health issues such as skin rashes, coughing and itchy eyes are major. Coughing and asthma are also among the results. The extent to which pollution is evident in the market may also deter consumers from shopping in the market. Apart from this, pollution in the market affects the outside world indirectly. For example, sewage from broken drainage system enters the Rio Minho River. This contaminates the water that people who live downstream may use to for domestic purposes, or lead to poisoning or contamination of fish. Water pollution may lead to diseases such as cholera and encourage growth of other disease-causing organisms and bacteria.

Cleaning of the Market

According to Mr. Broadbell, Market Supervisor, the market is cleaned every evening by seven cleaners. This statement is affirmed by the responses of the vendors.

These cleaners carry out their tasks each evening in preparation for a 10 P.M. pickup by a garbage truck. Problems faced by the cleaners include the stealing of drums, vendors egesting outdoors and the improper disposal of garbage, for example garbage surrounding skips. A side from this, the market has not been washed in two months. The new market is normally washed every two weeks and old market every month. This is due to the tank being empty as well as the problems that the washing of the market would present to the current road construction. Efforts have been made to implement more garbage bins in the entire market area. This is however hindered by the stealing of these drums. The market supervisor proposes that a new tank will be set up and washing of the market would resume. This, he explains, by early 2011 after work on the road has been completed. Individual effort has been made by the market supervisor himself to clean up the market, this in the form of poisoning of dogs. The act however has been met by resistance from many vendors, some of whom own these dogs. Efforts have been made to clean out rodent infestation and also to prevent breeding up of mosquitoes, this by throwing the chemical DDVP (Dimethyl Dichloro-Vinyl Phosphate), an insecticide, in puddles that collect on the ground. There is a move to present a more capable security unit in the market. These officers would be in charge of ensuring proper use of the bathroom facilities, security for those who travel from far to the market and to prevent occupation of the market facilities by mentally unstable individuals and homeless persons. These persons contribute greatly to the offensive odour as stated by some vendors.

Conclusion

The matter of pollution is one that needs to be addressed in the May Pen market, this both on an official and an individual level. Evidently, there is a problem of garbage disposal that needs to be fixed. The presence of numerous piles is not only a turn-off to consumers in the market but also a health risk. Various other forms of pollution, such as sewage, offensive odour and waste water, also exist in the market. These are mainly due to bad waste disposal practices and poor regulation of the vendors. The cleaning of the market also poses a problem to its upkeep. However, numerous measures are being taken to ensure that the market is properly cleaned.

Bibliography

Paul Guiness et al, Geography for CSEC, Nelson Thornes, 2008 Marolyn Gentles et al, Longman Geography for CSEC, 2006

Appendix