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American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci.

, 5 (2): 284-295, 2009


ISSN 1818-6769
IDOSI Publications, 2009
Corresponding Author: Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
284
Fruit Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Quran and
Ahadith and Their Ethnomedicinal Importance
Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Mir Ajab Khan, Muhammad Aslam Khan,
1 1 2
Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Fazal-ur-Rehman and Shazia Sultana
1 1 3 1
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
1
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies and Research Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
3
Abstract: In view of the importance of this study comprehensive detailed data was collected from Holy Quran,
Ahadith`s books and books written on the Islamic medicines. Present findings confined to 10 fruit plant species
belonging to 10 genera of 9 families. The plant species are: Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mats. & Nakai,
Cucumis sativus L., Cydonia oblonga Mill. Ficus carica L., Olea europea L., Phoenix dactylifera L.,
Punica granatum L., Salvadora persica L., Vitis vinifera L. and Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. mentioned in
Holy Quran and Ahadith. Complete macro & microscopic detailed morphological features of these species were
discussed. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by English
name, Arabic name, family, habit and habitat, part used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran
and, Ahadith. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethnobotanical importance of fruits
in the light of Islam. A table comprising, distribution in world, flowering period and chemical constituents, is
given.
Key words: Ethnomedicinal study %Pakistan %Holy Quran %Ahadith
INTRODUCTION Fruits, eaten raw or consumed as fresh juice, are
Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to the body. The low level of sodium in fruits plays an
man. There are many references to fruits in ancient important role for people who would like to avail of a salt-
literature. Vedas state that the fruits form the base of the free diet. Dry fruits like apricots, raisins and dates are
Food of Gods. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, storehouses of calcium and iron, essential for the
date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly strengthening of bones and maintaining good blood,
fruits of God. The people in ancient times regarded fruits respectively. Custard apple too is an excellent calcium
to be endowed with magic or divine properties. They gave source. If you are unwell, consume fruits in the form of
them due reverence and dedicated them to their gods and fresh juice only. One or two fruits a day cleans the
goddesses. They also used their designs in decorating digestive tract and aids easy bowel action [2].
temples, vestments or ceremonial garments and sacred Plants are an essential component of the universe.
vessels. Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of Human beings have used plants as medicine from the very
man. They contain substantial quantities of essential beginning of time. After various observations and
nutrients in a rational proportion. They are excellent experimentations medicinal plants were identified as a
sources of minerals, vitamins and enzymes. They are source of important medicine, therefore, treatment
easily digested and exercise a cleansing effect on the through these medicinal plants, began in the early stages
blood and the digestive tract. Persons subsisting on this of human civilization [3]. Approximately 70% of the
natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, the homeopathic drugs are prepared from the fresh plants.
ailments caused by the intake of unnatural foods can be Similarly more than 90% of tibbi medicines are prepared
successfully treated by fruits. Fresh and dry fruits are from herbs. Pakistan is very rich in plants of medicinal
thus not only a good food but also a good medicine [1]. value [4].
excellent ways to retain and balance the moisture level in
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009
285
In Islam diseases are cured in two ways, first the cure vegetable, medicinal and industrial products. Data
of soul through prayers and second the cure of ailments inventory constitutes botanical name, family, Quranic
through medicines. The Holy Quran is one of the name, English name, local names, Arabic name, habit and
reference books describing the importance of plants used habitat, parts used, medicinal uses and references cited
for different ailments in various Surahs. The Holy Quran from Holy Quran and books of Ahadith. A table
says: And the earth He has put down (laid) for the comprising S. #., botanical name, distribution in world,
creatures. Theirin are fruits, date palms producing flowering and fruiting period and chemical constituents,
sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing dates). And also corn, is given at the end.
with (its) leaves and stalks for fodder and sweet-scented
plants. Then which of the blessings of your lord will you Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mats. & Nakai
both (jinn and men) deny? [5].
Our Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used
certain herbs and recommended various medicinal plants
for cure of common diseases. The Prophet (Sallallaho
Alayhi Wasallam) frequently commented upon the nature
and value of various foods and spices. These comments
were noted by his wives and companions (Radiallaho
Anhum) and remain available to us today [6].
Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinal
flora and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work
was conducted to investigate ethnobotanical uses and
create awareness about the fruit plant species enlisted in
Holy Quran, Ahadith for the welfare of human
communities throughout the world.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research work was conducted by reviewing the
Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Comprehensive
and detailed information about 10 fruit plant species of
ethnobotanical importance mentioned in the Holy Quran
and Ahadith were collected from these sources. Plants
species were arranged in systematic order of botanical
names in alphabetic order followed by family, Quranic
name, Arabic name, English name, habit and habitat, part
used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy
Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Correct botanical
names, their families and identification of plants were
done by using flora of Pakistan
.
RESULTS
Present findings were confined to 10 fruit plant
species belonging to 10 genera of 9 families enlisted in
Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The plant
species are: Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis sativus.,
Cydonia oblonga. Ficus carica Olea europea, Phoenix
dactylifera, Punica granatum, Salvadora persica,
Vitis vinifera and Zizyphus mauritiana which are used
throughout the world for various aspects such as food,
English Name: Water Melon
Local Name: Tarbooz
Arabic Name: Bitteekh
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Habit & Habitat: Annual climber or trailer, cultivated.
Part used: Fruit and seeds.
Medicinal uses: Kidney pain clears the urine and
stomach, facial beauty, increase
immunity, jaundice and have cold
effects.
References from Ahadith
C Narrated Sahl bin Sad Al-Sadi (Radiyallahu Anhu):
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) ate ripe
dates with water melon [7].
C Hazrat Abdullah Bin Abbas (Radiyallahu Anhu )
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)
said, Water melon is diet as well as drink. It washes
and purifies the urinary bladder. It increases the
sexual power [8].
C Hazrat Aisha (Radiyallahu Anha) narrates that
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) ate water
melon with fresh dates [8].
Cucumis sativus L.
English name: Cucumber
Local name: Khira
Arabic name: Qissa, Khiarun
Family Name: Cucurbitaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual trailer or climber, cultivated
herb.
Parts used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Cooling, diuretic, tonic and
vermifuge, diuretic, purgative.
References from Holy Quran
C Srah 2. Al-Baqarah, Verse. # 61: And (remember)
when you said, O Ms (Moses)! We can not
endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us
to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its
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286
herbs, its cucumbers, its Fm (wheat or garlic), its diseases of the heart and makes the babies
lentils and its onions. [5]. handsome [8].
References from Ahadith Ficus carica L.
C Narrated Abdullah bin Ja'far (Radiyallahu Anhu ): I
saw Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)
eating fresh dates with cucumber [Bukhari, Muslim,
Tirmizi, Ibne Maja [9].
C Abdullah bin Ja'far (Radiyallahu Anhu ) reported: I
saw Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)
eating cucumber with fresh dates [8].
C Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (Radiyallahu
Anha): My mother intended to make me fat to send
me to the (house of) the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho
Alayhi Wasallam). But nothing which she desired
benefited me till she gave me cucumber with fresh
dates to eat. Then I became very fat [9].
Cydonia oblonga Mill.
English Name: Quince
Local Name: Bahi References from Ahadith
Arabic Name: Safarjal C Hazrat Abu Darda (Radiallaho Anho) narrates that
Family: Rosaceae Rasullullah (Sallallhu Alayhi Wasallam) said, Eat fig,
Habit & Habitat: Small tree (shrub) found in dry rocky for it cures the piles and is useful for rheumatism [8].
places, foothills and cultivated on C Hazrat Abu Darda (Radiallaho Anho) narrates that
the plains. someone presented the Prophet a plate of figs and he
Medicinal uses: Heart diseases, diarrhea, said, Eat figs! If I would say a certain type of fruit
endocarditis, pericarditis, dysentery was sent down to us from the heavens I would say
References from Ahadith piles and is useful for rheumatism.[10]
C Hazrat Talha bin Ubaid Ullah (R.A) narrated that
Rasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said: This Olea europea L.
(Quince) makes the heart strengthen, makes the
breath pleasant and relieves (removes) the burden of
the chest [8].
C Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A) narrated that
Rasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said, Eat
the Quince (Safarjal) because it cure the heart attack
and relieves(removes) the burden of the chest
[8].
C Hazrat Anus bin Malik (R.A) narrated that
Rasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said: the
burden of the heart is removed by eating of the
Quince [8].
C The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said,
"Eat quince, for it sweetens the heart. For Allah has
sent no prophet as His messenger without feeding
him on the quince of Paradise [8].
C Rasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said, Feed
your pregnant women on quince, for it cures the
English Name: Figs
Local Name: Anjeer
Arabic Name: Teen
Family: Moraceae
Habit & Habitat: A small tree cultivated in poor soil
Part used: Bark, leaves, Milk
Medicinal uses: Remove kidney and urinary bladder
stone, release intestinal pain, pile,
dyspepsia and anorexia.
References from Holy Quran
C Surrah Teen, Verse. #. 1-4: By the fig and the olive.
By mount Sinai. By this city of security
(Makkah).Verily,We created man in the best
stature(mould) [5].
its a fig because it has no seeds. It ends (cures) the
English Name: Olive
Local Name: Zaitoon
Arabic Name: Zaitoon
Family: Oleaceae
Habit & Habitat: An erect branched cultivated tree.
Part used: Fruit and oil
Medicinal uses: Strengthen body muscles, slow
down aging, clear the blood, remove
the measlesspot, piles, tuberculosis,
eczema, baldness, kidney pain,
pancreas pain, maleness, common
cold, stomach and respiratory
diseases.
References from Holy Quran
C Surah 6. Al-Anm, Verse. # 99: And out of the date-
palm and its spathe come forth clusters of dates
hanging low and near and gardens of grapes, olive
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287
and pomegranates, each similar (in kind) yet different Wasallam) that we should treat the Pleurisy with
(in variety and taste). Look at their fruits when they Qust-e-Behri (Qust Sheerin) and olive oil. [12].
begin to bear and the ripeness thereof. Verily! In
these things there are signs for people who believe Phoenix dactylifera L.
[5].
C Surah 16. An-Nahl, Verse. # 11: With it He causes to
grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms,
the grapes and every kind of fruit. Verily! In this
isindeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for
people who give thought [5].
C Surah 24. An-Nr, Verse. # 35: Lit from a blessed
tree, an olive, neither of the east (i.e. neither it gets
sun-rays only in the morning*) nor of the west (i.e. it
gets sun-rays in the afternoon*), whose oil would
almost glow forth (of itself), though no fire touched
it. [5].
*According to Yousa Ali [11], this olive tree is not
localized. It is neither of the east nor of the west. It is
universal, for such is Allahs light.
C Surrah Teen, Verse. #. 1-4: (see under the reference of
Ficus).
References from Ahadith
C Hazrat Abu huraira (R.A.) narrated that Rasullullah
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said Eat the olive oil
and massage it over your bodies since it is a holy
(mubarak) tree. [8]
C Hazrat Alqama Bin Amir (R.A) narrates that Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said, There is olive oil
for you, eat it, massage over your body, since it is
effective in Heamorrhoids (Piles). [8].
C Hazrat Aqba Bin Amir (R.A) narrates that the Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) stated, You have the
olive oil from this Holy (mubarak) tree, treat yourself
with this, since it cures the Anal fissure (Basoor).
[7].
C Hazrath Abu Hurairah (R.A) narrates that the Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) stated, Eat the olive oil
and apply it (locally), since there is cure for seventy
diseases in it, one of them is Leprosy. [8, 12].
C Khalid Bin Saad (R.A.) narrates, I came to Madinah
with Ghalib Bin Al Jabr. Ghalib became ill during the
journey. Ibn Abi Ateeq came to see him and told a
narration from Hazrat Aisha(R.A.) that the Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) told about the cure in
Kalonji. We crushed a few seeds of Kalonji and mixed
it with olive oil and dropped in both nostrils, after
which Ghalib became healthy. [12].
C Hazrat Zaid Bin Arqam (R.A ) narrates, We have
been directed by the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi
English Name: Date palm
Local Name: Khajoor
Arabic Name: Balah
Family: Arecaceae
Habit & Habitat: Cultivated tree, may be found self
grown.
Part used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Heart diseases, skin diseases,
antidote, swelling of kidney,
intestinal pain, heart attack, wound
healer, diarrhea, labour pain, sexual
weakness, stomach pain, piles,
physical strengthing, shrill the
voice, liver disorders.
References from Holy Quran
C Surah Al-Bakara, Verse 266: Would any of you
wish to have a garden with date-palms and vines
[5].
C Surah 16. An-Nahl, Verse. # 11: (see under the
references of Olea).
C Surah-An-Nahl, Verse 67: And from the fruits of
date-palms and grapes, you drive strong drink and
goodly provision [5].
C Surah Israa,Verse 91: Or you have a garden of
date-palms and grapes and cause rivers to gush forth
in their midst abundantly. [5].
C Surah Al-Mumenoon, Verse 19: Then We brought
forth for you therewith gardens of date-palms and
grapes, wherein much fruit is for you and whereof
you eat [5].
C Surah Yaseen, Verse 34: And we have made therein
gardens of date-palms and grapes and we have
caused springs of water to gush forth therein [5].
C Surah Al-Anm Verse. # 99: (see in the references of
Olea).
C Surah Ar-Rad. Verse. # 4: and date-palms, growing,
into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise
(one stem root for every palm), watered with same
water [5]. .
C Surah 19. Maryam, Verse. # 25: And shake the trunk
of the date-palm towards you, it will let fall fresh
ripe-dates upon you. [5].
C Surah Yaseen. Verse: 34: And We have made therein
gardens of date-palms and grapes and We have
caused springs of water to gush forth therein [5].
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C Surah 55. Ar-Rahmn, Verse. # 11-28: Therein are References from Holy Quran
fruits, date-palms producing sheathed fruit-stalks
(enclosing dates) [5].
C Surah 80. Abasa, Verses. # 27-29: And We cause
therein the grain to grow and grapes and clover
plants (i.e.green fodder for the cattle) and olives and
date-palms [5].
References From Ahdith
C Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (Radiyallahu Anhuma)
narrated that The Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi
Wasallam) said, "There is a tree among the trees
which is similar to a Muslim (in goodness). Its leaves
do not fall. What is that tree? The Prophet (Sallallahu
Alayhi Wasallam) himself said, that is the date palm
tree. [8, 12].
C Hazrat Sad bin AbiWaqas (R.A) narrated that
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, "He
who eats seven dates of Madina (Ajwa dates) every
morning, will not be affected by poison and magic on
the day he eats them." [8, 12].
C Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbass (Radiyallahu Anhuma)
narrated that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi
Wasallam) said, The Ajwah is from Paradise and it
is an antidote against poison. The Kamah (truffles) is
a type of Manna and its water (extract) cures the eye
[7, 8].
C Abdullah ibn Jaafar radiyallahu anhu says, I saw
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) eating
*Qitha (cucumbers or snake cucumber) with fresh
dates. [8,13].
C Hazrat Aisha (Radiyallah Anha) reports that,
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) ate
watermelon with fresh dates. [8].
* In Arabic the word Qitha is used for both
cucumber-khira and snake cucumber-kakri.
Punica granatum L.
English Name: Pomegranate
Local Name: Anar
Arabic Name: Rumman
Family: Punicaceae
Habit & Habitat: Tree, cultivated in the area.
Part used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Stomach cough, hepatitis, muscle
pain, heart and liver diseases, piles,
eye diseases, dental problems, oral
diseases, diarrhea and dysentery.
C Surah Al-Anm Verse. # 99: (see under references of
Olea )
C Surah Al-Anm Verse. # 141: (see under references
of Olea )
C Surah Ar-Rahman Verse. # 68-69: (see under
references of Olea )
References from Ahadith
C Hazrat Anas bin Malik (Radiyallahu Anhu) narrated
that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said,
"There is not a pomegranate which does not have a
pip from one of the pomegranates of the Garden (of
Jannah) in it." [8, 12].
C Hazrat Ali bin Abi Talib (Radiyallahu Anhu) narrated
that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) said,
"Pomegranate and its rind strengthen digestion
(stomach)" [12].
Salvadora persica L.
Family: Salvadoraceae
Quranic Name: Khamt
Arabic Name: Shajar-e-Miswak, Al-arak, Khardal
English name: Tooth brush tree, Mustard tree
Local names: Jhal (Saraiki) Playman (Pashto),
Pilu(Urdu).
Tibb name(s): Pilun, Jhal
Habit and Habitat: Shrub or small tree found in rocky
slopes and sandy area.
Parts used: Whole plant.
Flowering period: March-June.
Folkmedicinal uses: Useful in rheumatism and scurvy,
antidote to poison. Useful in
biliousness, asthma and cough,
poultice for tumour and pile. Fruit
edible, carminative, diuretic and
deobstruent.
References from Quran
C Sura Saba, Verse. # 16: But they turned away (from
the obedience of Allah), so we sent against them
Sail Al-Arim (flood released from the dam) and we
converted their two gardens into gardens producing
bitter bad fruit and tamarisks and some few lote-trees
[5].
References from Ahadith
C Hazrat Jabbir Bin Abdullah (Radiyallah Anhu)
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi
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289
Wassallam) said, The black coloured Kapas (fruit of C Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, You
Salvadora) is the best (finest) one [13, 8]. have resaisins (Munaqqa) which make the colour of
C Hazrat Aaisha (Radiyallah Anha) narrates that the face handsome and remove the phlegm [7, 8].
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, C Narrated Abdullah bi Abbass (R.A): Raisins were
Miswak purifies the mouth and is a cause of Allahs soaked for Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam).
pleasure [Bukhari (13,8]. He used to drink this syrup that day, the next day
C Hazrat Abu-Hizat-us-Sabahi (Radiyallah Anhus) and sometimes the third day [8].
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)
gave him a twig of Salvadora (Al-Arak) and said, Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
Use it as miswak [8].
C Hazrat Abu Zaidul-Ghafqi (Radiyallah Anhus)
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)
said, Miswak is of three types. If Salvadora is not
available then (use) Anum and Batum [8].
Vitis vinifera L.
English Name: Grapes Parts used: Fruit, leaves, wood.
Local Name: Munaka Folkmedicinal uses: Treatment of abscesses and
Arabic Name: Inab wounds, anodyne and tonic, styptic
Family: Vitaceae and purifying blood
Habit & Habitat: Perennial vine, cultivated for fruit
purposes. References from Quran
Part used: Fruit juice C Sura Saba, Verse. # 16: ( see under reference
Medicinal uses: Common cold, relax body and brain Salvadora).
muscles, stomach diseases, cooling C Surah 53. An-Najm, Verses 13, 14: And indeed he
effects on body, cough, kidney and (Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saw him [
urinary bladder pain, liver and lung Jibril (Gabriel)] at a second descent (i.e. another time).
disorders, dog bite, remove weary, Near Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (a lote-tree of the outmost
clear the face and cancer. boundary over the seventh heaven beyond which
References from Holy Quran When that covered the lote-tree which did cover it
C Surah Al-Bakara, Verse 266: (see under the reference [5].
of Phoenix). C Sura Waqiya, Verse. # 27, 28: And those on the Right
C Surah-An-Nahl, Verse 67: (see under the reference of hand-how (fortunate) will be those on the Right
Phoenix). Hand? (They will be) among thornless lote-tree [5].
C Surah Israa,Verse 91: (see under the reference of
Phoenix). References from Ahadith
C Surah Abasa, Verses 27, 28: (see under refereces of C Hazrat Ahmad Zahbi (Rahmatullah ALayhi) narrates,
Phoenix.) The first fruit eaten by Hazrat Adam (Alayhi
C Surah l-Mumenoon, Verse 19: (see under the Sallam) after His descent on the earth, was the fruit
reference of Phoenix). of the Zizyphus [8, 14].
C Surah Yaseen, Verse 34: (see under the reference of C Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas narrates that Rasulullah
Phoenix). (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, Wash (pointing
C Surah An-Naba, Verses 31,32: Verily, for the towards a person who died at Arafat) him with water
Muttaqun, there will be a success (Paradise), Gardens and leaves of sidar [8].
and vineyards (5). Ibn Al-Qaeem considers its fruit very useful for the
References from Ahadith [9].
C Narrated Abu Huraira (R.A): The Prophet said, "Don't Note: There is contradiction about the plant (Cidar)
call the grapes Al-Karm, (because) Al-Karm is the mentioned in the Holy Quran. According Farooqi [8,
heart of the Mumin [8]. 15] and Chughtai [14] the word Sidar does not mean
Quranic Name: Sidar
Arabic Name: Nabaq, Sidar
English Name: Indian jujube
Local Name: Ber, Bera.
Family: Rhamnaceae
Habit and Habitat: Wild and cultivated found in dry
area and rocky places.
none can pass). Near it is the Paradise of Abode.
treatment of diarrhea and weakness of the stomach
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290
Zizyphus sp. (ber in urdu) but it is used for another what is that? Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaho Alayhi
plant Cedrus sp.(Labnani deodar in hindi and urdu).
While the commentators of the Quran and Ahadith
consider it Zizyphus mauritiana (ber or beri). As
there exists difference of opinions, therefore, it needs
further investigation.
DISCUSSION
Fruits have highly beneficial natural effect on the
human system. Taking of fruits or fruit juice is the most
pleasant way of hydrating the organism. The water
absorbed by sick persons in this manner has an added
advantage of supplying sugar and minerals at the same
time. Clinical observations have shown that potassium,
magnesium and sodium contents of the fruit act as a
diuretic and dieresis-frequency of urination is
considerably increased when fruits and fruit juices are
taken. They lower the urine density and thereby
accelerate the elimination of nitrogenous waste and has a hypotensive action. A fatty oil in the seed, as well
chlorides. Fruits furnish minerals to the body. Dried fruits
such as apricots, raisins and dates are rich in calcium and
iron. These minerals are essential for strong bones and
good blood respectively. The fibrous matter in fruits,
cellulose, aids in the smooth passage of the food in the
digestive tract and easy bowel action. The sugars and
organic acids contained in fruits also increase their
laxative effect. Hence, regular use of fruits prevents and
cures constipation [2].
Cure of diseases through medicinal plants is always
a salient feature of Islamic teaching and preaching. Islamic
medicine started from Hazrat Adam (Alayhi Salam) and
was completed at Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayhi
Wasallam) but search and compiling of these medicines is
still continued through out the world [16]. The Holy
Quran is the eternal and everlasting basis of Islam. It
cotains signs and verses which have been leading people
of different ages and of different academics and
intellectual background to believe in Islam. The Holy
Quran from the very start has a claim that it covers every
aspect of life and is full of wisdom. It speaks We have
neglected nothing in the Book [17].
Imam Ahmed narrated that Usamah bin
Shuraik(Radiallaho Anhuma) said: I was with the Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) when the Bedouins came to
him and said O messenger of Allah, should we seek
medicine? He said, Yes, O slaves of Allah seek medicine,
for Allah has not created a disease except that he has also
created its cure, except for one illness they said And
Wasallam) said Old age [12].
Citrullus lanatus (water melon-bittikh) has many
references in Ahadith. Hazrat Abdullah Bin Abbas
(Radiyallahu Anhuma) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho
Alayhi Wasallam) said, Water melon is a diet as well as
drink. It washes and purifies the urinary bladder. It
increases the sexual power [8].
Sahl bin Sad Al-Sadi (Radiyallahu Anhu) Narrates
that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) ate ripe date
with water melon [Ibne Maja, Tirmizi (Ghaznavi, 1991)]. In
Tirmidhi and other narrations, in explaining this, Sayyidina
Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam also said, The cold
effect of one removes the heat of the other and the heat of
one removes the cold effect of the other. [12, 14].
The seed of Citrullus lanatus (Water melon-battikh)
is demulcent, diuretic, pectoral and tonic. It is sometimes
used in the treatment of the urinary passages and has
been used to treat bed wetting. It is a good vermifuge and
as aqueous or alcoholic extracts, paralyze tapeworms and
roundworms. The fruit, eaten when fully ripe or even
when almost putrid, is used as a febrifuge.It is diuretic,
being effective in the treatment of dropsy and renal
stones. It contains the substance lycopine (which is also
found in the skins of tomatoes). This substance has been
shown to protect the body from heart attacks. The rind of
the fruit is prescribed in cases of alcoholic poisoning and
diabetes [18].
Cucumis sativus (Cucumber-qitta') is another plant
that has many references in Holy Quran and Ahadith.
The ripe cucumbers dispel heat and are diuretic. Eating
dates with green cucumber is said to cause weight gain
[18].
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (Radiallaho Anha):
My mother intended to make me fat to send me to the
(house of) the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam). But nothing which she desired benefited me
till she gave me cucumber with fresh dates to eat. Then I
became fat as she desired [9].
The seed is cooling, diuretic, tonic and vermifuge.
25-50 grams of the thoroughly ground seeds (including
the seed coat) is a standard dose as a vermifuge and
usually needs to be followed by a purgative to expel the
worms from the body. A decoction of the root is diuretic
[9].
It is believed that cucumber helps in reducing
swelling around the eyes or the big dark circles under
your eyes. This is world-wide treatment which is being
used to its maximum extent.
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009
291
Cydonia oblonga (Quince-safarjal) is said that to eat saturated with oil and covered with emery is used as a
quince on an empty stomach is good for the soul. Cold substitute for a hone [18]. .
and dry, quince is astringent to the stomach and it checks Olea europea (Olive-zaytun) is another plant that has
excessive menstrual flow. A few seeds placed in water many references in Holy Quran and Ahadith. Almighty
will, after a few minutes, form mucilage which is an Allah has said, "By the Fig and Olive; By Mount Sinai
excellent remedy for cough and sore throat, especially in and By this land which is made safe. Surely we created
the young. Quince is also excellent for pregnant women, man of the best stature [17]. In Ahadith it is said that
gladdening their hearts. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho eat the olive oil and applied it on the body, it is cure of
Alayhi Wassallam) said, "Eat quince, for it sweetens the seventy diseases. The saying of Holy Prophet (Sallallaho
heart. For Allah has sent no prophet as His messenger Alayhi Wasallam) about medicines are spread over 200
without feeding him on the quince of Paradise. For quince books in the world [9].
increases the strength up to that of forty men." [18]. No doubt , the Olive is a very useful tree. Its name
The fruit is antivinous, astringent, cardiac, has been mentioned in most of the holy books like
carminative, digestive, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, Tourat and Injeel. This tree is found in Syria and its
pectoral, peptic, refrigerant, restorative, stimulant and bordering countries as well as in some parts of the world.
tonic. The unripe fruit is very astringent, a syrup made A renowned scholar Shabir Ahmad Usmani states that
from it is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and is since the trees of Olive and Fig have many advantages,
particularly safe for children. The fruit and its juice, can be they have some thing common with biology of man. So
used as a mouthwash or gargle to treat mouth ulcers, gum the creator has mentioned the names of Man, Fig and
problems and sore throats. Olive together in the Quran. In this context, the holy
The leaves contain tannin and pectin. Tannin can be Prophet (PBUH) has said: Use the Olive Oil in your meals
used as an astringent whilst pectin has a beneficial effect and also use it for massage. For this Oil is obtained from
on the circulatory system and helps to reduce blood a tree full of blessings. It is so remarkable that the Holy
pressure [18]. Prophet (PBUH) had stressed the use of Olive Oil and the
Ficus carica (Fig-teen) In the first Quranic verses in recent medical research has proved that the substitution
Sura al Teen, the medicinal advantages of the fig are of saturated fats with unsaturated fats lowers the serum
discussed-the Quran says: I swear by the Fig and the cholesterol level, due to the direct cholesterol lowering
Olive (Sura no. 95: verse no. 1). Fig plant is one of the effects of unsaturated fats. Other workers have also noted
only five plants mentioned in the Quraan, along with that unsaturated oil (including olive oil) has more
olives, grapes, pomegranate and dates. Hadith literature beneficial potential than the saturated vegetable oil and
provide us with an event related to the fig: According to butter fat. Furthermore, among the unsaturated edible oils,
Abu Darda (Radiallaho Anhu) someone presented figs to olive oil is more beneficial than corn oil as regards the
the prophet Muhammed (God's blessing and peace be serum lipid profile. Considerable evidence has led to the
upon him) and he began distributing it among his suggestion that a diet high in olive oil is particularly
followers. He said: Eat it as it cures various diseases. beneficial with regard to increasing high density
According to Ibn Seereen, a scholar in the science of lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels which is a protective
dreams, figs, if seen in dreams, denote wealth and agent against atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease.
prosperity. The benefits I have restricted myself to Many workers have proved that increased intake of olive
mentioning here is an indication of the compassion, Allah oil icreased HDL level. The function of HDL is to pick up
feels for human beings [19]. the cholesterol from periphery and to take it to the liver
The fruit is mildly laxative, demulcent, digestive and and to excrete it through bile. Now a days olive oil is
pectoral. The unripe green fruits are cooked with other advised by the physicians in cases of stroke, hemiplegia
foods as a galactogogue and tonic. The roasted fruit is and paraplegia [17]. The massage of olive oil over the
emollient and used as a poultice in the treatment of body tones up the muscles and organs, it relieves
gumboils, dental abscesses etc. The fruit is often dried for muscular pains. It relieves the Sciatic and arthritis. It is a
later use and this dried fruit is a major item of commerce. good Diuretic, hence is used in Ascites. It also removes
Syrup of figs, made from the fruit, is a well-known and the kidney stones. [12].
effective gentle laxative that is also suitable for the young Phoenix dactylifera (Date-Nahal) The date palm is
and very old.Wood-pliable but porous and of little value. playing an important role in the history of mankind. Its
It is used for hoops, garlands, ornaments etc. When importance and versatility are borne out by the fact that
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009
292
this fruit and its blessed palm find mention in the Holy The rind of the pomegranate fruit is greatly
Quran more than 20 times. Starting with verse 23, there are
three references to it in Sura Maryam alone. Verse 25 and
a part of verse 26 of Maryam read as: And shake towards
thyself the trunk of the date palm tree, it will let fall fresh
ripe dates upon thee (25). So eat and drink and cool
your eyes (26).
This verse has a tremendous scientific significance as
dates are reported to yield three times more energy than
cereals. [20].
Experiments have also shown that dates contain
some stimulants that strengthen the muscles of the uterus
in the last months of pregnancy. This helps the dilation of
the uterus at the time of delivery on one hand and reduces
the bleeding after delivery on the other. Dieticians
consider dates as the best food for women in confinement
and those who are breast-feeding. This is because dates
contain elements that assist in alleviating depression in
mothers and enriching the breast-milk with all the
elements needed to make the child healthy and resistant
to disease. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has
emphasized the importance of dates and their
effectiveness in the growth of the fetus. He has also
recommended they be given to women [12].
Modern dietary institute now recommends dates to
be given to children suffering from a nervous nature or
hyperactivity. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)
has also recommended dates as a medicine for heart
troubles. Modern science has also proved the
effectiveness of date, in preventing diseases of the
respiratory system.
Dates are also important in keeping up the health of
eyes. It is quite effective in guarding against night-
blindness. In the early years of Islam, dates served as
food for Muslim warriors. They used to carry them in
special bags hung at their sides. They are the best
stimulant for muscles and so the best food for a warrior
about to engage in battle [12].
Punica granatum (Pomegranate-rumman) is a good
food and a medicine of great value. It is a tonic for heart
patients, highly efficacious in the inflammation of the
stomach and effective to check heart pain. The juice of the
fruit is an excellent cooling beverage and allays thirst. It
acts as a good medicine for both diarrhea and dysentery.
For many ailments such as colitis, anemia, jaundice, high
blood pressure, piles and arthritis, its juice is an effective
medicine. When given with honey, it reduces biliousness.
Pomegranate fruit is also prescribed in many disorders
under the Homeopathic medicine system.
responsible for its good keeping quality. The fruit can be
kept for up to six months [12].
All parts of the plant contain unusual alkaloids,
known as 'pelletierines', which paralyse tapeworms so that
they are easily expelled from the body by using a laxative.
The fruit is a mild astringent and refrigerant in some fevers
and especially in biliousness. It is also cardiac and
stomachic. The dried rind of the fruit is used in the
treatment of amoebic dysentery, diarrhea etc. It is a
specific remedy for tapeworm infestation [18].
Miswak (tooth brush) is one of the products of
Salvadora persica as mentioned in its ethnobotanical
uses. The use of Miswak is one of the sunnah of the Holy
Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). The Prophet
(Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) himself used it frequently at
various occasions such as when entering and leaving the
home, reciting the Holy Quran, before and after sleeping,
on Friday, when Fasting and before every prayer. Abu
Hurairah (R) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi
Wasallam) said: 'Was it not for my fear of imposing a
difficulty on my Ummah I would have ordered that the
Miswaak be used for every Salaat [10].
The dentists and gastro-entrologists agree that oral
hygiene helps in the prevention of most of the diseases of
oral cavity and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). According to
the report of the research done in Cape Town S. Africa
Miswak contains large amount of tannic acid (Tannins).
The tannins prevent the adherence of the bacteria to the
teeth. It is an established fact that Streptococcus viridans
attacking the heart valves and damaging them come from
the mouth. So the use of Miswak is a preventive measure
against many diseases of the teeth, G.I.T. and heart [17].
The research conducted recently by dentist Almas K.
proved that Chlorhexidine gluconate CHX 0.2% and
miswak extract 50 % had a similar effect on dentin in the
control group. Bacterial plaque is solely responsible for
the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases.
There different mechanical and chemical methods
available for the maintenance of oral health through
plaque control. Tooth brushes and miswak (chewing
sticks) are widely used for the mechnical removal of
plaque. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) is one the best-
proven anti plaque agents.
It is said that CHX 0.2% and miswak extract 50% had
similar effect on dentin in the control group. Miswak
extract removed more smear layer as compared to CHX.
Further research is needed in vivo to compare the effects
of CHX and miswak extract on periodontally involved
teeth and teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity [21].
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009
293
The dried fruits of grapes (Vitis vinifera) are the 2. Hopkins, S., 2006. Importance Of Fruits In Diet.
raisins, sultanas and currants of commerce. Different
varieties producing the different types of dried fruit.
Grapes are a nourishing and slightly laxative fruit that can
support the body through illness, especially of the gastro-
intestinal tract and liver. Because the nutrient content of
grapes is close to that of blood plasma, grape fasts are
recommended for detoxification.
The fresh fruit is antilithic, constructive, cooling,
diuretic and strengthening. A period of time on a diet
based entirely on the fruit is especially recommended in
the treatment of torpid liver or sluggish biliary function.
The fruit is also helpful in the treatment of varicose veins,
haemorrhoids and capillary fragility. The dried fruit is
demulcent, cooling, mildly expectorant, laxative and
stomachic. [18]. Dried grapes (raisins) were ranked second
in scientific tests to identify the most antioxidant rich
fruits and vegetables. On this basis, raisins have to be an
excellent 'protective-value-for-money' choice.
Interestingly, recent tests on the anti-oxidant
effectiveness of various commercial fruit put fresh red
grapes at number six in anti-oxidant effectiveness against
damaging oxidative processes in cells [22].
The fruit of Indian lote tree (Zizyphus mauritiana) is
very useful for human beings. It is eaten in fresh and dried
form in Pakistan.
Muhammad Ahmad Zahbi (Rahmat ullah Alayhi)
narrates the following hadith: The first fruit eaten by
Hazrat Adam (Alayhi Sallam) after His descent on the
earth, was the fruit of the Zizyphus [14].
Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (Radiallahu Anhu)
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said,
Wash (pointing towards a person who died at Arafat) him
with water and leaves of sidar [8].
Ibn Al-Qaeem considers its fruit very useful for the
treatment of diarrhea and weakness of the stomach [9].
The folkmedicinal uses of Zizyphus mauritiana in
Pakistan are: the leaves are useful to treat scabies and
other skin diseases. Fruits are mucilaginous, pectoral
styptic, considered to purify blood and improve digestion.
These are cooling, astringent and useful in bilious
affections [23].
It is concluded that herbal medicines are being widely
used in the world because of better cultural accept ability,
least injurious with none or much reduced side effects.
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2
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Table 1: Phytogeography and Chemical constituents of Fruits
Distribution Flowering
Botanical names in world Period Chemical constituents
1.Citrullus lanatus Native of the Kalahari region, Jan-May Fruit contains citrullin, carotene and pectin. Vitamin C, Nacin, Riboflavin,
cultivated throughout Tropics Thiamine, minerals also present Juice also contains alenine, arginene, glutamic
acid, glycine, leucine and valine. Sucrose is the major sugar present. A honey
like syrup is prepared from juice [8].
2. Cucumis sativus Cultivated throughout Almost Fruit contains enzyme erepsin, proteolytic enzymes, ascorbic acid, oxidase, succinic
the tropical and subtropical through and malic dehydrogenases. Odorous constituents also present. Iron, Vit. B1 also
countries of the world. out the year present. Seeds contain fatty oil with 40% linoleic acid and 38% oleic acid [8].
3. Cydonia oblonga S. Europe-Mediterranean. April-May Fruit contains glucoside, malic acid, tartaric acid, uronic acid. Seed kernel contains
Ei; Europe; France; Iraq; amgydalin tannin and mucilage, 19% fixed oil containing 42% oleic acid, 40%
Jerusalem; Spain; Turkey; Us. linoleic acid. Mucilage is composed of 33% larabinose, uronic acid and xylose
[8].
4. Ficus carica Mediterranean Region and Feb.-Mar. Fruits contains pentose, amino acid, tyrosin, enzyme, cravin, lipase, protease and
S.W.Asia.: Afghanistan; sugar.
Pakistan and India. Australia; By chromatographic methods, about 30 groups of various lipid compounds
Senegal; South Africa; Spain; belonging to the classes of neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids have
Turkey; Us; Venezuela been identified from the fruit of the fig tree. The main groups are triacylglycerols,
free and esterified sterols, mono-and digalactosyldiglycerides, ceramide
oligosides, cerebrosides, esterified sterol glycosides and phosphatidylglycerols.
In the fatty acid composition, linoleic, linolenic, oleic and palmitic acids
predominated (>90%) [24]. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are
quercetin and luteolin [25].
5. Olea europea Afghanistan, Pakistan April-May In leaves and fruits of the olive tree, a phenolic seco-iridoid called oleuropein is
and Kashmir found; it is the hypotensive principle. The mesocarp (of fruit) contains about
55% of oil. Olive oil is composed, like all vegetable oils of fatty acids bound to
the alcohol glycerol. Typically, the following fatty acids are found in olive oil:
66% oleic acid, 12% linoleic acid, 9% palmitic acid, 5% eicosenoic acid and 5%
palmitoleic acid. Olive oil may contain up to 1.5% of an acyclic triterpene
hydrocarbon, squalene.
The desired flavour of olive oil is dominated by aldehydes (hexanal and 2-
hexenal). Furthermore, higher aldehydes, primary alcohols (mainly C6
compounds like hexanol, 2-hexene-1-ol, 3-hexene-1-ol) and their acetic acid
esters contribute to the characteristic olive oil aroma. Lastly, hemiterpenoid
volatiles were found (3-methyl butanal, 4-methoxy-2-methyl-butanethiol, ethyl
esters of 2-and 3-methyl butyric acid). The flavour components, however, depend
on variety and geographic origin of the oil [26].
6. Phoenix dactylifera N.Africa, India Mar-April Vitamin A, B, C, pectin, sugars in fruit Oxalic acid from seeds (stones) [8]. When
(Rajistan, Maharashter), dates are mature, they contain reasonable amounts of vitamins A, B1, B2 and
Iraq, S.Arabia, Pakistan. niacin. Dates are a good source of potassium, calcium and iron and also contain
chlorine, copper, magnesium, sulphur and phosphorous. The sugar content of
ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fat and mineral
products including copper, sulphur, iron, magnesium and fluoric acid. Dates are
high in fiber and an excellent source of potassium [27].
7. Punica granatum S.E. Europe to April-July Sugars, Vit. C and Iron from fruit juice. Tannic acid from rind. Alkaloid
E. Asia-Himalayas. pelletierine from bark [8].
(China; Egypt; Ethiopia; The major class of phytochemical present in pomegranate is the polyphenols and
Europe; India; Iraq; Israel; includes flavonoids, condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins. Hydrolysable
Java; Malaya; Mexico; tannins are predominant polyphenols found in pomegranate juice and account
Kurdistan; Peru; Spain; for 92% of its antioxidant activity. Pomegranate seeds are rich in sugars,
Turkey; Us; Venezuela) polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids, vitamins, polysaccharides, polyphenols and
minerals and have high antioxidant activity. When crushed and dried, the seeds
produce an oil with 80% punicic acid, the 18-carbon fatty acid, along with the
isoflavone genistein, the phytoestrogen coumestrol and the sex steroid estrone.
The seed coat of the fruit contains delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-
diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin-3-
glucoside and pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside with delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside
being the major anthocyanin in pomegranate juice[28].
8. Salvadora persica Pakistan, India and Arabia. March-June. Root and twigs contain alkaloid trimethyl amine, inorganic salts. Resin and
tannin [8]. They contain salvadorine, chlorides, fluorides in large amount, silica,
sulphur, Vit. C and small quantities of tannins, saponins, flavenoids and sterol
[29].
9.Vitis vinifera France, Germany, Spain, May-July Fruits contain oxalic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and racemic acid. High
Pakistan and India percentage of sugar is present in fruits. Vit. B, carotene, Vit. P, also present.
Vit. P is responsible for checking the bleeding. Invertase, hexodinase, catalase,
ascorbic acid oxidase and peroxidase also reported [8].
10. Zizyphus mauriiana India, Ceylon, Pakistan, July-Sept. Sugars and vitamins [8].When in blossom, Zizyphus mauritiana, emanates a strong
Afghanistan, China, fecal odour. The substances responsible for this scent were analysed, which showed
Australia, benzaldehyde as major constituent. Minor benzenoids, aliphatic carboxylic acids,
Trop. Africa. aldehydes, hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes were also observed. It
was also found that skatole (3-methyl-indole) is responsible for the fecal odour
and vanillin for the sweety odour [30]. The cyclopeptide alkaloids,mauritine-K
and sativanine-K have been isolated from the root bark of Zizyphus mauritiana
and their structures established by spectral and chemical evidences.Mauritine-K
is a new cyclopeptide alkaloid and sativanine-K is the first report from Z.
mauritiana.Mauritine-K exhibited significant antifungal activity [31].
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
ISSN 1680-5194
Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2009
1472
Aromatic Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Quran and
Ahadith and Their Ethnomedicinal Importance
Sarfaraz Khan Marwat , Muhammad Aslam Khan , Fazal-ur-Rehman and Inayat Ullah Bhatti
1 2 3 3
University Wensam College, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
1
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies and Research, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
3
Abstract: In view of the importance of this study comprehensive detailed data was collected from Holy Quran,
Ahadith`s books and books written on the Islamic medicines. Present findings confined to 15 Aromatic plant
species belonging to 14 genera of 10 families. The plant species are: Acorus calamus L., Artemisia maritima
L., Boswellia carterii Birdw., Boswellia serrata Birdw., Cinnamomum camphora L., Citrus spp., Commiphora
molmol Engl. ex Tschirch, Crocus sativus L., Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng., Dryobalanops aromatica
Gaertn. F., Lawsonia inermis L., Majorana hortensis Moench. Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and
Thymus serpyllum L. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed
by English name, Arabic name, family, parts used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran and
Ahadith. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethno medicinal uses and create
awareness about the Aromatic plant species mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith for the welfare of
human communities throughout the world.
Key words: Ethno medicinal study, Aromatic plants, Holy Quran and Ahadith
INTRODUCTION
Aromatic plants possess odorous volatile substances,
which occur as essential oil, green exudates, balsam
and oleoresin in one or more parts, namely root, wood,
stem, leaf, flower and fruit. The term essential oil is
concomitant to fragrance or perfumes because these
fragrances are oily in nature and they represent the
essence and active constituents of plants (Skaria et al.,
2007). An essential oil is the actual aroma which is
extracted and it is this aroma which is used in
aromatherapy to treat a number of ailments (Falsetto,
2008). The essential oils which impart the distinctive
aromas are complex mixtures of organic constituents
(Simon, 1990). There are about three hundred essential
oils in general use today by professional practitioners,
but the average household could fulfill all its likely needs MATERIALS AND METHODS
with about ten (Belt, 2009a). The research work was conducted by reviewing the Holy
Plants are an essential component of the universe. Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Comprehensive and
Human beings have used plants as medicine from the detailed information about 15 Aromatic plant species
very beginning of time (Marwat et al., 2009a). An mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith were collected
estimated 50,000-70,000 plant species are used in from these sources. Plants species were arranged in
traditional and modern medicine throughout the world. systematic order of botanical names in alphabetic order
These species make an essential contribution to followed by family, Quranic name, Arabic name, English
healthcare and along with species used more for their name, habit and habitat, part used, medicinal uses and
aromatic properties, in herbal products, references cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic
pharmaceuticals and fragrances (Medicinal Plant books.
Specialist Group, 2007).
In Islam diseases are cured in two ways, first the cure of
soul through prayers and second the cure of ailments
through medicines (Marwat et al., 2009b). The Holy
Quran from the very start has a claim that it covers every
aspect of life and is full of wisdom. It speaks We have
neglected nothing in the Book (Khan et al., 1994). Our
Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used certain
herbs and recommended various medicinal plants for
cure of common diseases. His recommendations were
noted by His Wives (Radiallaho Anhuma) and
Companions (Radiallaho Anhum) and remain available
to us today (Dar-ul-Iman healing, 2000).
Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinal
flora and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work
was conducted to investigate ethnomedicinal uses and
create awareness about the Aromatic plant species
mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith for the welfare
of human communities throughout the world.
RESULTS
Present findings were confined to 15 Aromatic plant
species belonging to 14 genera of 10 families enlisted
in Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The plant
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
1473
species are: Acorus calamus L., Artemisia maritima L., References from Ahadith:
Boswellia carterii Birdw., Boswellia serrata Birdw., C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho)
Cinnamomum camphora L., Citrus spp., Commiphora narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
molmol Engl. ex Tschirch, Crocus sativus L., Wasallam) said, Fumigate Olibanum (lubban) and
Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng., Dryobalanops Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen) in your houses
aromatica Gaertn. F., Lawsonia Inermis L., Majorana (Farooqi, 1998).
hortensis Moench., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhiallaho Anho)
vulgare L. and Thymus serpyllum L. which are used narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
throughout the world in number of perfumery, flavouring Wasallam) said, Fumigate Sage brush (Karmala,
and pharmaceutical compounds. Data inventory Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and Thyme (Satar) in
constitutes botanical name, family, English name, local your houses (Farooqi, 1998).
names, Arabic name, parts used, medicinal uses and
references cited from Holy Quran and books of Ahadith. Botanical name : Boswellia carterii Birdw.
Botanical name : Acorus calamus L. English name (s) : Olibanum, Indian Frankincense,
Family : Acoraceae Arabic Frankincense, Salai
English name (s) : Calamus, Sweet flag guggal
Local name : Zareera Arabic name : Labban
Arabic name (s) : Zareera, Oudulwaj Local name : Lubban
Flowering period : May-July Parts used : Dried resin, collected from
Parts used : Leaves and rhizome. stems and trunk.
Medicinal uses : Rhizome: Emetic, antispasmodic, Medicinal uses : Burseraceae plant family
carminative, analgesic, stomachache, insectifuge, nerve members (Boswellia carteri etc.) possess the medicinal
tonic. Given in dyspepsia, colic, remittent fever, epilepsy property of being expectorant and therefore particularly
bronchial, granular tumours and snake-bite. Useful helpful in treating bronchitis; they are also useful in
against moths and lice. Also employed for kidney and healing wounds and ulcers and reducing scar tissue.
liver troubles, rheumatism and eczema.
References from Ahadith: C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho)
C Hazrat Aisha (Radhi Allaho Anha) narrates that I narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
myself applied the perfume of Grass Mytle (Zareera) Wasallam) said, Fumigate your houses with
to the Holy Prophet at the time of wearing and Olibanum (lubaan, labaan) and Thyme (Satar)
removal of Ihram (unstitched, preferably white, (Farooqi, 1998 and Ghaznavi, 1991).
pieces of cloth) during the Farewell Hajj (Farooqi, C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho)
1998; Al Qadr, 2007). narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
C One of the Holy Wives (Radhi Allaho Anha) of The Wasallam) said, Fumigate your houses with
Holy Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, Olibanum (lubban) and Sage brush (Karmala,
One day the Holy Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe Afsanteen) (Farooqi, 1998 and Ghaznavi, 1991).
Wasallam) came to me and there was pimple on
my finger. He asked, have you grass mytle? I told, Botanical name : Boswellia serrata Birdw.
yes. He (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, apply it Family : Burseraceae
on the pimple (Farooqi, 1998). Engish name (s) : Indian Bedellium, frankicense
Botanical name : Artemisia maritima L. Sallaki
Family name : Compositae (Asteraceae) Arabic name : Kundar
English name (s) : Sage brush, Santonica, Worm Parts used : The most important derivative of
seed, ajvain. Boswellia serrata tree is the
Local name (s) : Kirmala, Afsanteen Boswellia Gum Resin.
Arabic name : Afsanteen Medicinal uses : Diaphoretic, diuretic, astringent,
Flowering period : August-September. emmenagogue. Used in nervous diseases,
Parts used : Seeds, floral buds and leaves. rheumatism, skin eruption. Chiefly used in incense.
Medicinal uses : Artemisia (Karmala, Afsanteen) is Ingredient of ointments.
used as antiperiodic, deobstruent, stomachache, tonic
and anthelmintic. It is given internally in dyspepsia, References from Ahadith:
jaundice, flatulence and worms. It is used externally as C Hazarat Abdullah bin Abbas (Radhi Allaho Anho)
antiseptic. narrated that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
Family : Burseraceae
References from Ahadith:
Loal name (s) : Gogle Guggal, Salai Guggal,
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
1474
Wasallam) soaked Kundar at night. He mixed Arabic name (s) : Utraj, Turanj
brown sugar in it and drank. He said, it is the best Flowering period : Spring season
remedy for memory and urine problem (Farooqi, Medicinal uses : Fruits-Nutritive, cardiotonic,
1998). refrigerant, carminative, stomachic, appetizer. Cures
C Hazrat Anus bin Malik (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrated, catarrh, urinary calculus. Leaves and peel are highly
Some one complained to Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe
Wasallam) against his memory. He (Salallaho
Alaihe Wasallam) said, take kundar (Boswellia
serrata) and soak it in water and drink that water
early in the morning. It is a useful phytotherapy for
memory (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Cinnamomum camphora L. *
Family : Lauraceae
English name (s) : Camphor Tree, camphor laurel,
gum camphor
Local name : Kafoor
Arabic name : Kafoor
Part used : Leaves and branches
Medicinal uses : Sedative, anodyne, antiseptic,
diaphoretic, anthelmentic, stimulant, carminative. Used
as insecticide. Toxic causing headache, nausea,
excitement, confusion and delirium.
References from Holy Quran
Surah 76. Al-Insan or Ad-Dahr, Verse #. 5: Verily, the
Abrar (the pious and righteous), Shall drink of a cup (of
wine) mixed with (water from a spring in Paradise
called) Kafur (Al-Hilali and Khan, 1996).
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Umm-e-Attiah Ansariah (Radhi Allaho Anha)
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe
Wasallam) came to us, when His Daughter (Radhi
Allaho Anha) died. He said, give Her a bath three or
five times and it will be better to use cedar (beri)
leaves and water for a bath and apply camphor after
that (Farooqi, 1998).
Note: Two types of plants of different families have been
a source of camphor from ancient time. One of these is
a tree of Malaysia (Dryobalanops aromatica) of family
Dipterocarpaceae and the other one is a tall tree of
China and Japan (Cinnamomum camphora) of family
Lauraceae. The camphor of Malaysia is obtained from
the bark of Dryobalanops aromatica while that of
Chinese camphor is obtained from the wood of
Cinnamomum camphora (by freezing the essence of its
wood). The substance camphor-Kafoor (said to be used
in funeral rites) mentioned in the above and other
Ahadith, is actually the name of Itar-e-Hinna (perfume of
Lawsonia inermis) and correct pronunciation Kafoor is
Qafoor (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Citrus spp.
Family : Rutaceae
English name (s) : Lemon, Citron
Local name (s) : Narangi, lemu, mita lemu etc.
medicinal.
References from Ahadith:
C Lemon has many benefits for you. It strengthens the
heart and prevents heart failure (Farooqi, 1998).
C Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari (Radhi Allaho Anho)
narrated that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe
Wasallam) said: The example of a momin
(believer) who reads the Quran is like that of
Turanj which has a pleasant smell and a sweet
taste (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Commiphora molmol Engl. ex
Tschirch
Family : Burseraceae
English name : Myrrh
Local name : Murmukey
Arabic name : Mur
Parts used : Gum of stem
Medicinal uses : Germicides, wound healer, old
cough, oral fragrance, baldness, swelling of urinary
bladder.
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho)
narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
Wasallam) said, Fumigate your houses with Sage
brush (Karmala, Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and
Thyme (Satar) (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Crocus sativus L.
Family : Iridaceae
English name (s) : Saffron, Meadow crocus, Saffron
crocus.
Local name : Zaffron
Arabic name : Zaffron
Parts used : Rhizome
Medicinal uses : As a medicinal plant, saffron has
traditionally been considered an anodyne, aphrodisiac,
antispasmodic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant
and sedative. The plant has been used as a folk remedy
against scarlet fever, smallpox, colds, insomnia,
asthma, tumors and cancer. Given to promote eruptions
in measles. In over doses, saffron is toxic.
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Ibne Umar (Radhiallaho Anho) narrates that
one person asked Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe
Wasallam) what a muhrim should wear? He said
(replied), do not wear clothes (ihram) dyed with
waras and saffron (Farooqi, 1998).
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
1475
C Hazrat Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates Wasallam) came to us, when His Daughter (Radhi
that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam)
forbade men to apply saffron (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.)
Spreng
Family : Poaceae
English name : Camel Grass
Local name : Izkhir
Arabic name : Izkhir
Parts used : Leaves, stems and rhizomes
Medicinal uses : Tonic, antispasmodic, febrifuge,
intestinal disinfectant, antimalaria and against Guinea
worm, antispasmodic, diuretic, to treat the cough of
infants and children. Also used as astringent and
febrifuge. Oil is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates
that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said
about Makkah, Its thorn must not be plucked. Its
trees might not be cut Some one among the
Quraish begged (wanted) permission of cutting
Camel grass (izkhar) to use it in their homes and
shrines. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe
Wasallam) permitted, yes, yes, except izkhar,
except izkhar (Farooqi, 1998).
C Hazrat Khabab (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates, When
Hazrat Musab bin Umair (Radhi Allaho Anho) was
killed in the battle of Uhud and we found such a
sheet for a shroud (coffin) which was too short for
his size. When it was drawn to cover the head, the
feet would be exposed and when it was drawn to
cover the feet, the head would become uncovered.
The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said:
Cover his head with the sheet and his feet with the
Izkhir leaves (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.
F.
Synonym : Dryobalanops camphora Colebr.
Family : Dipterocarpaceae
English name : Borneo camphor, Malayan
camphor, Sumatra camphor.
Local name : Kafoor
Arabic name : Kafoor
Medicinal uses : Sedative, anodyne, antiseptic,
diaphoretic, anthelmentic, stimulant, carminative. Used
as insecticide. Toxic causing headache, nausea,
excitement, confusion and delirium.
References from Holy Quran: Marzanjush; Zatar, Satar (M.
Surah 76. Al-Insan or Ad-Dahr, Verse #. 5: See under
Cinnamomum camphora L.*
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Umm-e-Attiah Ansariah (Radhi Allaho Anha)
narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe
Allaho Anha) died. He said, give Her a bath three or
five times and it will be better to use cedar (beri)
leaves and water for a bath and apply camphor after
that (Farooqi, 1998).
Note: See Note under Cinnamomum camphora L.
Botanical name : Lawsonia inermis L.
Family : Lythraceae
English name : Egyptian Privet-Henna
Local name : Mehandi
Arabic name : Henna, Faghia (Kalli)
Parts used : Leaves
Medicinal uses : Henna has been used for
astringent, antihemorrhagic, intestinal antineoplastic,
cardio-inhibitory, hypotensive and sedative effects,
amoebiasis, headache, jaundice and leprosy. Its
extracts show antibacterial, antifungal and ultraviolet
light screening activity, antifertility activity in animals and
may induce menstruation.
References from Ahadith:
C Whosoever complained of pain in legs, the Prophet
(Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) advised him to apply
Henna (on the legs)." (Farooqi, 1998).
C Umm Salamah (Radi Allaho Anha) as commenting;
"The Prophet (Sallallaho Alayi Wasallam) never
suffered from a wound or a thorn without putting
Henna on it" (Mutmainaa, 2003).
C Jahzma (Radi Allahu Anho), the wife of Bashir Bin
Khasasia (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates, "I saw
Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam)
coming out of the house. He was coming after
taking bath; therefore, he was shaking his hairs.
The colour of Henna was visible on his head."
(Mutmainaa, 2003).
C Abdullah bin Burayda (Radi Allahu Anho) narrates
that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) said,
"the lord of sweet-smelling blossoms in this world
and the next is Henna blossom" (Farooqi, 1998).
C Hazrat Anas (Radi Allaho Anho) also relates that the
Prophet (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) loved sweet-
smelling blossoms, especially that of Henna
(Mutmainaa, 2003).
Botanical name : Majorana hortensis Moench.*
Family : Lamiaceae/Labiatae
English name : Marjoram
Local name (s) : Marva khusa, Marzanjosh
Arabic name (s) : Mardaqoush, Mardaqush,
syriaca)
Parts used : Whole plant
Medicinal uses : Whole plant-stimulant, tonic,
rubefacient. Given in colic, diarrhea, hysteria,
rheumatism, toothache and earache. Useful in
gynaecological disorders.
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
1476
References from Ahadith: that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said,
Hazrat Anus bin Malik (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that there is Marzanjosh (Marjoram) for you. It is very
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, there is effective medicine for cold (Ghaznavi, 1991).
Marzanjosh (Marjoram) for you. It is very effective * Two types of Marzanjosh are found in Egypt and Arabia.
medicine for cold (Ghaznavi, 1991). One is known as Wild Marzanjosh (Origanum vulgare L.)
Botanical name : Ocimum basilicum L. hortensis Moench). Both are medicinal herbs containing
Family : Lamiaceae pleasant aromatic oil like thyme (Ghaznavi, 1991).
English name : Sweet Basil
Local name : Rehan, Niazbo Botanical name : Thymus serpyllum L.
Arabic name : Rehan Family : Labiatae (Lamiaceae)
Parts used : Leaves and seeds English name (s) : Thyme, Wild thyme
Medicinal uses : Fever, cough, common cold, Local name (s) : Sattar Ban-ajwain, Jangli Podina
eczema, baldness, vaginal swelling, pemples, arthritis, Arabic name (s) : Satar, Zatar
muscles pain, antidote, pain killer, tuber closes, asthma, Part used : Leaves
piles, hepatitis, consception, malaria and heart Medicinal uses : The whole plant is anthelmintic,
diseases. antioxidant, strongly antiseptic, antispasmodic,
References from Holy Quran expectorant, sedative and tonic. Internally, it is taken in
Surah Ar- Rahman, Verse #. 12, 13: Therein are fruits, the treatment of bronchitis, catarrh, laryngitis, flatulent
date-palms producing sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing indigestion, painful menstruation, colic and hangovers.
dates). And also corn, with (its) leaves and stalk for Externally, it is applied to minor injuries, mastitis, mouth,
fodder, and sweet-scented plants (Al-Hilali and Khan, throat and gum infections.
1996).
Surah Al-Waqia, Verse #. 88, 89: Thus, then, if he be of C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho)
those Nearest to Allah, (there is for him) rest and narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
satisfaction and a Garden of Delight (Ali, 1989). Wasallam) said, Fumigate Sage brush (Karmala,
References from Ahadith: your houses (Farooqi, 1998).
C Hazrat Abu Usman (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that C Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho)
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe
Whom Ocimum is offered, might not refuse Wasallam) said, Fumigate Olibanum (lubaan,
(Farooqi, 1998). labaan) and Thyme (Satar) in your houses
C Hazrat Abi Nam (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that (Farooqi, 1998 and Ghaznavi, 1991).
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said,
These (Hazrat Hassan and Hazrat Hussain Radi
Allaho Anhomaa) are ocimum (fragrance or fragrant
flowers) for me in the world (Farooqi, 1998).
Note: Rehan (O. basilicum) is considered to be Tulsi (O.
sanctum) by some people, but it is incorrect. Both are
different species (Farooqi, 1998).
Botanical name : Origanum vulgare L.*
Family : Lamiaceae/Labiatae
English name : Marjoram
Local name : Jungli Marzanjosh
Arabic Name : Marzanjosh
Parts used : Leaves
Medicinal uses : Essential oil from leaves and
flowering tops used for toothache, sprains, stiff and
paralysis. Seeds and leaves useful as remedy for colic.
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Anus bin Malik (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates
and the other one as Halu Marzanjosh (Majorana
carminative, deodorant, diaphoretic, disinfectant,
References from Ahadith:
Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and Thyme (Satar) in
DISCUSSION
Aromatic plants (having an aroma; fragrant or sweet-
smelling) synthesize and preserve a variety of
biochemical products, many of which are extractable and
useful as chemical feed stock or raw materials for
various scientific investigations. Many secondary
metabolites of plants are commercially important and
find use in number of perfumery, flavouring and
pharmaceutical compounds. Hence aromatic plants are
generally referred to as natural-biochemical-factories or
chemical goldmines (Skaria et al., 2007).
The essential oils which impart the distinctive aromas
are complex mixtures of organic constituents (Simon,
1990). They are nearly all comprised of some
combination of alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones,
acids, esters, oxides, lactones, coumarins and
furocoumarins. The result of this means that most
essential oils are anti-inflammatory; anti-viral; anti-
fungal; detoxifying; circulatory; anti-spasmodic;
analgesic and decongestant (Falsetto, 2008).
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
1477
As early as 4000 BC the great Sumerian civilization had Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates
discovered that most aromatic plants and shrubs have
powerful antiseptic properties, making them natural
healers for external wounds and skin infections and as
infusions for internal ailments (Highet, 1999).
A close look at checklist of aromatic plant species tells
us that these plants are not of Arabic origin but The Holy
Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam), gave the
references of such plants that are not only grown in Arab
countries but exist through out the world. This shows
that the Holy Prophet was light for the entire world. The
Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) liked
perfume (aroma) very much. The Holy Prophet
(Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, From your world,
women and Taib (perfume) were made beloved to me
and the comfort of my eye is the prayer (Al Qadr, 2007).
Narrated Hazrat 'Aisha (Radi Allaho Anha): I used to
perfume Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam)
with the best scent available till I saw the shine of the
scent on his head and shine beard. Narrated Hazrat
'Azra bin Thabit Al-Ansari (Radi Allaho Anho): When I
went to Thumama bin 'Abdullah, he gave me some
perfume and said that Anas (Radi Allaho Anho) would
not reject the gifts of perfume. Anas (Radi Allaho Anho)
said: The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) used
not to reject the gifts of perfume (Al Qadr, 2007). Our Holy
Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used certain
herbs and recommended various medicinal plants for
cure of common diseases (Farooqi, 1998).
The Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)
recommended Acorus calamus (zareera) for the
treatment of pimple (Abscess). One of the Wives (Radi
Allaho) of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said,
Once the messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wasallam) came by when I had a pimple on my finger.
He said: Do you have a Tharirah (arum) I said, yes. He
said, place it on the pimple. He then said, Say, O Allah
who transforms the big to small and small to big, make
what I am suffering small (Farooqi, 1998; Al Qadr,
2007). In addition to its use as perfume the Zareera has
numerous medicinal uses as well. It is useful in
whooping cough and sciatica. In Arab Zareera was also
used as fragrance at the time of Hazrat Musa Alayi
Salam (Farooqi, 1998).
Artemisia maritima (Karmala, Afsanteen), Boswellia spp.
(Olibanum, Frankincense-Luban), Commiphora molmol
(Myrrh-murmuki) and Thymus serpyllum (Thyme-Satar)
are other aromatic and medicinal plants which have
been recommended by the Holy Prophet (Salallaho
Alaihe Wasallam) for fumigation in the houses.
Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhiallaho Anho) narrates
that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said,
Fumigate Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen), Myrrh
(murmuki) and Thyme (Satar) in your houses (Farooqi,
1998).
that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said,
Fumigate your houses with Olibanum (lubaan, labaan)
and Thyme (Satar) (Farooqi, 1998; Ghaznavi, 1991).
Artemisia maritima (Karmala, Afsanteen), leaves and
flowers are antispasmodic, stimulant, cardiac, tonic and
anthelmintics. Decoction or infusion of leaves is used in
ague intermittent and remittent fever. Locally the fresh
leaves are soaked in water kept over night and the water
is taken as vermifuge (Amhrwo, 2001). The flowering
tops are used in indigenous medicine as anthelmintic,
deobstruent and stomachic. The drug santonin obtained
from the flowering tops is specific for round worms. It is
also used for removing thread worms from the small
intestine (Zaman and Khan, 1970).
Boswellia carterii and B. serrata (Frankincense-luban)
belong to family Burseraceae. Plants of this family
possess the medicinal property of being expectorant
and are, therefore, particularly helpful in treating
bronchitis. They are also useful in healing wounds and
ulcers and reducing scar tissue (Falsetto, 2009).
Frankincense was used by doctors, dentists, chemists
and beauticians since as early as 3000 BC and some of
the biggest buyers of this highly prized resin were the
embalmers (Highet, 1999).
Cinnamomum camphora L. has occasionally been used
internally in the treatment of hysteria, but in modern day
herbalism it is mainly used as the essential oil and
internal use is not advised. The wood and leaves are
analgesic, antispasmodic, odontalgic, rubefacient,
stimulant. An infusion is used as an inhalant in the
treatment of colds and diseases of the lungs. The plant
is more commonly used in the form of the essential oil
which can be obtained by distillation of the chipped
branches, trunk and wood of the tree, or from the leaves
and twigs. Wood 24-40 years old is normally used. The
essential oil is anthelmintic, antirheumatic,
antispasmodic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic,
sedative and tonic. It is used externally in liniments for
treating joint and muscle pains, balms for chilblains,
chapped lips, cold sores, skin diseases etc and as an
inhalant for bronchial congestion (Plants For a Future,
2008).
Citrus spp. Lemons are just one example of the simple
bounties Allah has provided us with. In addition to their
nutritional benefits, lemon (its oil) is used in
aromatherapy, as a muscle relaxant and a skin and
circulation stimulant. Rubbed on the face, lemons open
up the pores releasing heat and refreshing the skin.
Eaten during pregnancy, lemons help build the
developing baby's bones. Lemons also aid in the
digestion of heavy meals and in the assimilation of
protein, calcium, zinc and vitamins. Lemons also have
cholesterol-lowering properties, thus preventing hair
loss and even causing hair regeneration. They
counteract cases of anxiety and depression; stimulate
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (9): 1472-1479, 2009
1478
the liver and the gall bladder, causing a release in cleansing the digestive tract of all noxious substances
congestion; stimulate the formation of valuable
leukocytes in the fight against viral and infectious
diseases and stimulate the lymphatic system in cases
of cellulite and obesity (Al Qadr, 2007).
Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is another aromatic plant
mentioned in Ahadith. Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallaho
Alaihe Wasallam) informed us of the beneficial
elements contained in Henna over 1400 years ago. One
tradition of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam)
cited in At-Tirmidhi, records Umm-e-Salamah (Radi
Allahu Anho) as commenting; "The Prophet (Sallallaho
Alaihe Wasallam) never suffered from a wound or a
thorn without putting Henna on it" Another tradition
mentioned in As-Sahih Bukhari and Abu Dawud Sharif
says, "Whenever somebody came to Prophet
Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) with
complaints of headache, he directed him to undergo
cupping and whosoever complained of pain in legs, was
advised to apply Henna." The Perfume made from
henna flowers is very sweet and strong. In a well known
hadith, cited in As-Suyuti's 'Tibb an-Nabi' it is recorded
that Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, "the
lord of sweet-smelling blossoms in this world and the
next is Henna blossom" (Mutmainaa, 2003). The actual
Henna plant is sometimes called the "Magic Plant"
because it has great healing effects. It contains
ingredients to be antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-
hemorrhagic. Henna is useful is healing athlete's foot,
fungal skin infections, headaches, burning of the soles
and palms and local inflammation. The leaves and
seeds act as cooling agents for the head and body
(Mutmainaa, 2003).
Izkhir (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) leaves, stems or the
rhizomes are used in the therapeutic traditional ones, as
well of internal use, like tonic, antispasmodic, febrifuge,
intestinal disinfectant, as external, like disinfecting
funerary, antimalaria and against Guinea worm. In
Egyptian this plant has a good reputation to be an
antispasmodic and a renal diuretic. It has been
established by various authors that the active ingredient
responsible for the antispasmodic activity is a
sesquiterpenediol, the cryptomeridiol. A recent
ethnobotanic study shows that this plant is used in
traditional pharmacopoeia in Burkina Faso to treat the
cough of infants and children (Yentema et al., 2007).
Myrrh (Commiphora molmol is thick, yellow, gummy
resin extracted from a shrub. Essential oils like myrrh
have considerable medicinal properties as ancient
Egyptian physicians surmised. Myrrh was extensively
used to embalm the dead (Highet, 1999). The herb is
particularly beneficial for treating bronchitis, asthma,
cold and catarrh or running nose. It acts against all viral
and bacterial infections, all other diseases as well as
invigorates the bodys immune (resistance) system. The
herbs action to augment digestion also helps in
as well as function as a remedy for common
detoxification and anti-inflammation. This quality of myrrh
is especially useful in treating arthritis, rheumatism as
well as gout (GmbH, 2008).
Sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench.) is
considered as highly medicinal like other members of
the same family such as mint, basil etc. It is considered
expectorant, carminative and tonic. It is reported to be
useful in asthma, hysteria and paralysis. Its oil is used
as an external application for sprains, bruises, stiff and
paralytic limb and toothache. It is also used for hot
fomentation in acute diarrhea. Leaves and seeds are
reported to provide a ready remedy for colic (Indian food,
2009).
Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil-Raihan) acts principally
on the digestive and nervous systems, easing
flatulence, stomach cramps, colic and indigestion. The
leaves and flowering tops are antispasmodic, aromatic,
carminative and digestive, galactogogue, stomachic and
tonic. The mucilaginous seed is given in infusion in the
treatment of gonorrhoea, dysentery and chronic
diarrhoea. It is said to remove film and opacity from the
eyes. Extracts from the plant are bactericidal (Plants For
a Future, 2008).
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) has a beneficial effect
upon the digestive and respiratory systems and is also
used to promote menstruation. The leaves and flowering
stems are antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue,
diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, stimulant,
stomachic and mildly tonic. The plant is taken internally
in the treatment of colds, influenza, mild feverish
illnesses, indigestion, stomach upsets and painful
menstruation. This plant is one of the best natural
antiseptics because of its high thymol content (Plants
For a Future, 2008).
Thyme (Thymus serpyllum) has been used by mankind
since pre-recorded times. Ancient Greeks derived its
name from one of its many uses: "to fumigate." During
the period of the Black Plague, doctors wore "nose gays"
and masks that included thyme when visiting sick rooms
and clinics. Thyme was used as incense in religious
ceremonies and as a funeral herb. The dried flowers are
also used to repel moths from clothing (Belt, 2009b).
The antiseptic abilities found in the volatile phenolic
compounds, thymol and carvacrol, in thyme make it ideal
in combating bad breath, gum disease, gastric
problems caused by viruses or bacteria, eczema, burns,
ringworm, psoriasis, parasitic infections, sore throats
and body odour. However, thyme should not be used by
pregnant women or by children as it can act as a uterine
stimulant and is toxic in high doses (Burns, 2000).
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hymeherb.htm. Accessed March 25, 2009.
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American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
ISSN 1818-6769
IDOSI Publications, 2009
Corresponding Author: Mushtaq Ahmad, Department of Plant Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
126
Useful Medicinal Flora Enlisted in Holy Quran and Ahadith
Mushtaq Ahmad, Mir Ajab Khan, Sarfaraz Khan Marwat,
1 1 1
Muhammad Zafar, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Tamoor Ul Hassan and Shazia Sultana
1 2 1 1
Department of Plant Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies and Research Gomal University, Dera Ismail, Khan, Pakistan
Abstract: The present research work is a part of check list of medicinal flora and their uses enlisted in Holly
Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The main aim of this study is to establish how the different parts or
aspects of plant based Islamic medicines (Tibb) such as use of medicinal plants, health principle, hygiene,
practice, thought and culture when taken together, demonstrate both wholeness as a system and systematic
nature of plant based Islamic medicines. In view of the importance of this study comprehensive and detailed
data was systematically collected from Holly Quran, Ahadith`s books, Islamic history and books written on the
Islamic medicines. Present findings confined to 32 medicinal plants species belonging to 30 genera of 23 families
of plant kingdom. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by
English name, Arabic name, family, habit and habitat, distribution, part used, medicinal uses and references
cited from Holly Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. It is concluded that herbal medicines are being used by
about 80% of the world population, mainly developing countries for primary health care because of better
cultural acceptability, better compatibility with human body and lesser side effects. It is recommended that plant
based industries should be developed in the light of Islamic teaching and research.
Key words: Medicinal flora %Checklist %Uses %Holly Quran and Ahadith
INTRODUCITON Almustaghfri, Zia uddin Almukadasi, Shams uddin Albali,
Cure of diseases through medicinal plants is always Muhammad Abu Baker Alkaim, Jalal uddin Alseuoti and
a salient feature of Islamic teaching and preaching. Islamic Abdul Razzaq Bin Mustafa Altanki did a great work in this
medicine started from Hazrat Adam (Alaihe Salaam.) and field. The books written in this era Alnabvi fee Mannafal
was completed at Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Makalat by abdul Razzaq Altanki is a good one. The
Wasallaam) but search and compiling of these medicine is other book which is best and still available is Kanzulamal
still continued after the death of Holy Prophet Muhammad Fee Sanan Walakwal also provide us much more
(Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallaam) through out the world. information about medicines of Holy Prophet (Sallallaho
Al-Quran is one of the best reference book describing Alaihe Wasallaam) [2].
the importance of plants in different Surahs as in The climax of Islamic medicines started from Abu Bin
Al-Momeenoon, Al-Rehman, Al-Bakra and Al-Inaam. Our Zakria Alrazi. He wrote his famous book Haddi Kabeer
Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallaam) used and while the book Kamal-ul-Sannat by Ali Bin Abbas is
recommended medicinal plants for various ailments and also a good one [3] These medicinal plants continue to be
food [1]. extensively used as major source of drugs for the
The history of Islamic medicine started form second treatment of many ailments. There is now growing
century of Hijra, Abdul Malik Bin Habib Undlasi compiled awareness to encourage indigenous production and
his first book Tib-e-Nabvi. In third century of Hijra processing of these plants used in different cultures and
Muhammad Bin Abu Bakar Ibne Ulsani and Abu Naeem religious. Present investigation does not mean that the
Isphani compiled their books on this topic. In the same era plant and plant parts which are described in Holy Quran
other Muslim scholars like Ali bin Mossa Raza and Imam for medicinal purposes but described for other purposes.
Kazim Bin Jaffar also worked on Islamic medicines. In the But in this study emphasis was on medicinal uses as used
fourth century of Hijra Muslims Scholars like Abi Jaffar in different cultures, traditions and religions. In this
Kahal ibne Tarkhan, Muhammad bin Ahmed Zahabi,
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
127
research medicinal uses of these plants are experience of alphabetic order followed by English name, Arabic name,
different communities of world. Holy Quran is considered family, habit and distribution, part used, medicinal uses
to be the reference for the citation of these plants. Honey and references cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith and
which is the product of different plant species is Islamic books. Correct botanical names, their families and
described for medicinal purpose in the Holy Quran. identification of plants were done by using of available
Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinal flora literature [4-8]. Correct botanical nomenclature was
and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work was also confirmed by comparing with already known
conducted to prepare checklist, investigate medicinal uses specimens of herbarium of Quaid-i-Azam Univeristy,
and create awareness about the medicinal flora enlisted in Islamabad-Pakistan.
Holy Quran, Ahadith, Islamic literature and culture for the
welfare of human communities throughout the world. RESULTS
MATERIALS AND METHODS Present findings were confined to 32 plant species
The research work was conducted by reviewing Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. These plants are
the most acceptable literature given in Holly Quran, not only used in Islamic countries but also throughout the
Ahadith and Islamic books. Comprehensive and detailed world for various aspects such as medicinal, food and
information about medicinal plants were collected from industrial products. Data inventory constitute botanical
these sources. The notation given in the Islamic books name, English name, local names, Arabic name, family,
were also cited and confirmed from Holly Quran and habit and distribution; parts used, medicinal uses and
Ahadith. Check list and medicinal inventory of plants references cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic
was arranged in systematic order of botanical names in books.
belonging to 30 genera of 23 families enlisted in Holly
1. Acorus calamus L.
English Name: Sweet flag
Local Name: Zareea
Arabic Name: Zareera, Oudulwaj
Family: Acoraceae
Habit and Habitat: Perennial herb found in marshy places and along riverbanks.
Distribution: N. and C. America, Europe, Asia.
Part used: Roots
Medicinal uses: Eye diseases, stomach pain, liver and intestinal disorder, heart diseases,
conception, eczema, paralysis, asthma, hysteria, madness, malaria and arthritis
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari (Ravia: Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqa) Kitabul-libas [9].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
2. Agaricus campestris L.
English Name: Mushroom
Local Name: Khunbii
Arabic Name: Esh El-Ghorab
Family: Agaricaceae
Habit and Habitat: Fleshy fungus found in terrestrial and moist habitat.
Distribution: Cosmopolitan
Part used: Whole part
Medicinal uses: Eye diseases, clear eyes, physical strength, germicide, arthritis, paralysis, parkensis,
muscle pain, headache and dizziness
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
128
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari (Ravi: Saeed Bin Zaid) [9].
C Sahih-Al-Muslim. Ravi: Saeed bin Zaid. Kitabul Ashraba[12].
C Ibne-Majja. Ravi: Saeed Bin Zaid [11].
3. Allium cepa L.
English Name: Onion
Local Name: Piaz
Arabic Name: Basal
Family: Alliaceae
Habit and Habitat: Cultivated annual herb
Distribution: Pakistan, India, China, Russia, America and European countries
Part used: Bulb, leaves and seeds.
Medicinal uses: Antidote, Stomach diseases, cholera, Diarrhoea, throat infection, common cold,
cough, fever, influenza, ear pain, improve sperm production, clear face and skin
spots, appetizer, headache, hepatitis, piles, eye diseases, baldness, constipation,
menstruation and intestinal diseases.
References from Holy Qurn Verse #. 68, Surah Baqra [13]
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari (Ravi: Jabir bin Abdullah) Kitabut-Tib [9]
C Muslim (Ravi: Jabir Bin Abdullah) Chap. Abwab ul Attamah [12].
C Ibne Maja (Ravi: Mahdan Bin Abu Talah) [11]
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10]
4. Allium sativum L.
English Name: Garlic
Local Name: Lahson
Arabic Name: Soom
Family: Alliaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual cultivated erect herb
Distribution: Egypt, Italy, France, Pakistan, China, India and USA
Part used: Bulb
Medicinal uses: Antidote, wound healer, dog bite, paralysis, digestive problems asthma, parkensis,
intestinal pain worms, cough, hysteria, headache, tuberculosis.
References from Holy Quran Verse #. 61, Surah Baqra [13].
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari (Ravi: Hazrat Anas), Kitab ul Tamaih [9]
C Muslim (Ravi: Abu Ayub) [12].
C Ibne Majja (Ravi: Umer bin Alkhitab) [11].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10]
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
129
5. Beta vulgaris L.
English Name: Beet roots
Local Name: Choqandar
Arabic Name: Silq, banjar
Family: Chenopodiaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual or perennial cultivated vegetable.
Distribution: India, North Africa, Europe, Ireland and Pakistan
Part used: Roots and leaves
Medicinal uses: Eczema, baldness, liver infection, muscle weakness, skin disease, hepatitis, arthritis,
kidney pain, headache, womb diseases and vaginal pain
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari. Ravi: Sahal bin Sahad. Kitabul-Athama [9].
C Ibne Majja. Kitabut-Tib [11].
6. Boswellia carterii Birdw.
English Name: Indian frankincense
Local Name: Lobban
Arabic Name: Leeban
Family: Buseraceae
Habit and Habitat: Tree
Distribution: Somalia, Ethopia, Oman, Yemen
Part used: Gum of stem
Medicinal uses: Germicide, stomach pain, wound healer, throat swelling and infection, eczema,
cough, tuberculosis, arthritis and insecticide.
References from Ahadith
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim, Tibb-e-Nabvi [10].
C Baihaqi [14]
7. Boswellia serrata Birdw.
Engish Name: Frankincense
Loal Name: Gogle
Arabic Name: Kundur
Family: Burseraceae
Habit and Habitat: An armed shrub or tree common on stony grounds and hillocks.
Distribution: India and Pakistan
Part used: Gum of stem
Medicinal uses: Increase memory, clear urine, diarrhea, oral wounds, tongue infection, throat
diseases, piles, clear the blood blocking, lungs infections, testes and anus swelling,
and baldness.
References from Ahadith
C Tibe-Nabvi and Jadeed Science(Ravi: Ans Bin Malik (R.A) [2].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim, Tibb-e-Nabvi [15].
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
130
8. Cassia senna L.
English Name: Senna
Local Name: Sana, sanamakki
Arabic Name: Sanamakki
Family: Caesalpiniaceae
Habit and Habitat: A perennial herbaceous plant usually found on sandy grounds.
Distribution: Pakistan, India, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Eriteria, Somalia Republic, Saudi
Arabia, Kenya and Mozambique
Part used: Leaves and fruit
Medicinal uses: Cold effect on body, intestinal pain, remove the poisonous material from stomach,
piles, waist pain, arthritis and eczema. Plant is also used as laxative and stimulant.
References from Ahadith
C Ibne Majja (Ravi: Abu bin Um-e-Haram) [11].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
9. Cichorium intybus L.
Engish Name: Chicory
Loal Name: Kasni
Aabic Name: Hind-Baa
Family: Asteraceae
Habit and Habitat: Cultivated annual herb or may be found as weed in Trifolium field.
Distribution: Europe, New Zealand, Pakistan, and India
Part used: Leaves, flower, roots and seeds.
Medicinal uses: Cough, antidote, cold effect on body, eye diseases, hepatitis, liver diseases, remove
the blockage of kidney and urethra, headache, throat disease, kidney stones and
diarrhea
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari. Ravi: Mohd Bin Abu Bakar Al-Kaim [9].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
10. Cinnamomum camphora L.
English Name: Camphor tree
Local Name: Kafoor
Arabic Name: Kafoor
Family: Lauraceae
Habit and Habitat: Tree or shrub cultivated for ornamental and commercial purposes.
Distribution: India, Sri Lanka, Japan and China
Part used: Leaves and branches
Medicinal uses: Tetanus, parkensis, hysteria, tuberculoses, headache, liver and kidney pains, oral
and teeth swelling, cholera, breast pain, inner wounds, sexual stimulant. Tropical
uses of camphor is stimulant and muscle relaxant.
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
131
References from Holy Quran Verse 15, 1, Surah Al insane.
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari, Chapt. Kitab ul Tib [9].
C Muslim (Ravi: Um-e-Atiya) Kitabul-Janayez [12].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
11. Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura:
English Name: Water melon
Local Name: Tarbooz
Arabic Name: Al Bataigh
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual trailer, cultivated for fruit purposes.
Distribution: America, China, Africa, India and Pakistan.
Part used: Fruit and seeds.
Medicinal uses: Kidney pain, clear the urine and stomach, facial beauty, increase immunity, jaundice
and have cold effects.
References from Ahadith
C Ibne Majja. Ravi: Sahal bin Sahad. Kitabul-Al Athama [11].
C Trimzi (2 Ed. Chap. Abwab ul Tamiah [14].
nd
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
12. Citrus aurantifolia L.
English Name: Lime
Local Name: Sangtra or Narangi
Arabic Name: Laymun
Family: Rutaceae
Habit and Habitat: A small fruit tree cultivated in the plains and foothills.
Distribution: India, Pakistan, Spain and America
Part used: Fruit, juice, bark and seeds
Medicinal uses: Antidote, remove spot from skin, piles, common cold, stomach disorder, ant
peristalsis, decrease, thrust, hepatitis, heart diseases, cough, liver infection, cholera,
diabetes, intestinal pain, pimples, skin depletion and leukoria
References from Ahadith Bukhari. Ravi: Abu Mussa Alasharri [9].
13. Commiphora molmol Engl. ex Tschirch:
Syn: C. myrrha Nees.
English Name: Myrrh
Local Name: Murmukey
Arabic Name: Murr
Family: Burseraceae
Habit and Habitat: Perennial plant
Distribution: Ethopia, Iran, Thailand and West- Arabia
Part used: Gum of stem
Medicinal uses: Germicides, wound healer, old cough, oral fragrance, baldness, swellingof urinary
bladder
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
132
References from Ahadith Baihaqi Shabalaiman. Ravi: Abdullah bin Jaffer. [14].
14. Cydonia oblonga Mill.
English Name: Quince
Local Name: Bahi
Arabic Name: Safarjal
Family: Rutaceae
Habit and Habitat: Wild tree found in foothills and cultivated on the plains.
Distribution: Pakistan, Burma, Indo-China, at 1200 m alt.
Part used: Whole plant
Medicinal uses: Heart diseases, diarrohea, endocarditis, pericarditis, dysentery
References from Ahadith
C Ibne Majah. (Ravi: hazrat Talha). Kitabul Athama [11].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
C Hayat ul Hawan ul Kabri [16].
15. Ficus carica L.
English Name: Figs
Local Name: Anjeer
Arabic Name: Teen
Family: Moraceae
Habit and Habitat: A small tree cultivated in poor soil
Distribution: Mediterranean Region and S.W.Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Part used: Bark, leaves, Milk
Medicinal uses: Remove kidney and urinary bladder stone, release intestinal pain, pile, dyspepsia
and anorexia.
References from Holy Quran Verse #.1-4, Surrah Teen. [14]. 13
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari [9].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
16. Flemingia grahamiana Wight and Arn.
English Name: Memcylon (Tintura)
Local Name: Kamaila
Arabic Name: Warus
Family: Fabaceae
Habit and Habitat: Tree
Distribution: Sudan, Yemen and Sri Lanka
Part used: Leaves extract
Medicinal uses: Tuberculosis, throat infection, constipation, eczema, piles, leukoria, swelling,
germicides, kidney and urinary bladder stone and hysteria
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
133
References from Ahadith
C Ibne Majja. Ravi: Zaid Bin Arkam [11].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
17. Hordeum vulgare L.
English Name: Barley
Local Name: Jao
Arabic Name: Shair
Family: Poaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual cultivated herb
Part used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Fever, weakness, increase immunity, heart diseases, kidney pain, intestinal ulcer,
maintain cholesterol level, jaundice and have cooling effect.
Distribution: India, Pakistan and America
References from Ahadith
C Trimzi [14]
C Bukhari [Ravia: Hazrat Ayesha (Chap; Haiz ul Shahir] [9].
C Bukhari. Ravia: Aisha. Kitabul-Athama [9].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
18. Lagenaria siceraria Standl.
English Name: Squash
Local Name: Kaddo
Arabic Name: Yakteen, Daba
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual trailer, cultivated for vegetable.
Distribution: Found all over the world.
Part used: Fruit and leaves
Medicinal uses: Arthritis, Maleness, Headache, fever, Madness, Piles, lungs infection, common
cold, kidney and liver disorder and heart diseases.
References from Holy Quran Verse.# 48, Surah Younis
References fromAhadith
C Bukhari, Kitab ul Tamamiah [9]
C Ibn e Maja, Chap Bab ul Daba [11].
C Ibn e Maja. Ravi: Anas. Kitabul-athama [10].
19. Lawsonia inermis L.
English Name: Hina
Local Name: Mehndi
Arabic Name: Henna
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
134
Family: Lythraceae
Habit and Habitat: Perennial fragrant shrub, widely cultivated.
Distribution: Africa and Asia.
Part used: Leaves, branches and flowers
Medicinal uses: Wound healer, headache, increase memory, cool effect, stimulator, protect the
rupture of skin, skin softer, heal the muscle and chicken pox wound, baldness,
constipation, vaginal pain, leuckoria
References from Ahadith
C Trimzi [14]
C Tib-e-Nabvi. Ravi: Hazrat Ayesha [2].
C Bukhari, Kitab ul Tib [9].
C Ibne Majja. Ravi: Salma, Kitbu-Tib [11].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
20. Lens culinaris Medic.
English Name: Lentils
Local Name: Masoor
Arabic Name: Adas
Family: Papilionaceae
Habit and Habitat: Small, annual herb, cultivated as pulse.
Distribution: Native country uncertain, widely cultivated in Europe, Asia etc.
Part used: Seeds
Medicinal uses: Maleness, measle, paralysis, common cold, parkensis, face clearness, eye infection,
digestive diseases.
References from Holy Quran Holy Quran, Verse #. 61, Surah Al Baqra [13].

References from Ahadith
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim, Tibb-e-Nabvi (Urdu Tans. by Hakim Azizur Rehman Azmi and Mukhtiar
Ahmad Nadvi) [15].
21. Lepidium sativum L.
English Name: Water cress
Local Name: Hubbe-Rishad
Arabic Name: Habbul Rashad
Family: Brassicaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual weed of both cultivated and wild habitat.
Distribution: Abyssinia, Afghanistan
Part used: Leaves and juice
Medicinal uses: Germicide, insecticide, body pain, arthritis, eczema, maleness, anorexia,
constipation, menstruation and digestive problems.
References from Ahadith Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [9].
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
135
22. Nigella sativa L.
English Name: Black Seed
Local Name: Clongy
Arabic Name: Hubatul-sudda
Family: Ranunculaceae
Habit and Habitat: An annual erect herb.
Distribution: Turkey, Italy, India and Pakistan.
Part used: Seeds
Medicinal uses: Hysteria, common cold, asthma, constipation, urine blockage, anorexia, aerophagy,
flatulence, dyspepsia, gastric acute, gastro enteritis, dog bites, diabetes, kidney
stone, milk production, baldness, gas trouble, brain disorders, pneumonia, cough,
maleness, appendicitis, labor pain, facial clearness, pimples, fatness, typhoid,
parkensis, piles, swelling, weakness, eczema, diarrhea, malaria, digestive disorders,
allergy, wound healer, hearing problems, ear pain and swelling, memory increases,
paralysis, heart diseases, antiperistalsis, intestinal worms, liver pain, waist pain,
sexual weakness, common fever, ascities, menstruation, ulcerative colitis, crohan`s
diseases.
References from Ahadith
C Bukhri. Ravi: Abu Huraira (Chap. Kitab ul Tib) [9].
C Ibne-Majja. Ravi: Salum Bin Abdullah [11].
C Ibn-e-Maja. Ravi: Abu Hurrera. Kitabu-Tib [11].
C Tirmizi. Ravi: Abu Hurrera [14].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Ravi: Abu Hurrera. Zadul Maad [10].
23. Ocimum basilicum L.
English Name: Sweet basil
Local Name: Rehan, Niazbo
Arabic Name: Rehan
Family: Lamiaceae
Habit and Habitat: An annual plant cultivated for ornamental purposes
Distribution: Grown in India, Malay Archipelago, Australia, W. Asia, Arabia.
Part used: Leaves and seeds
Medicinal uses: Fever, cough, common cold, eczema, baldness, vaginal swelling, pemples, arthritis,
muscles pain, antidote, pain killer, tuber closes, asthma, piles, hepatitis,
consception, malaria and heart diseases.
References from Holy Quran Verse #. 12, 13, Surah Al Rahman [13].
References from Ahadith
C Bukhri. Ravi: Abu Musa Al Asharii [9].
C Trimzi (Bab ul Tib) [14].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
136
24. Olea europea L.
English Name: Olive
Local Name: Zaiytoon
Arabic Name: Zaiytoon
Family: Oleaceae
Habit and Habitat: An erect branched cultivated tree.
Distribution: Found in Central Asian countries
Part used: Fruit and oil
Medicinal uses: Strengthen body muscles, slow down aging, clear the blood, remove the
measlesspot, piles, tuberculosis, eczema, baldness, kidney pain, pancreas pain,
maleness, common cold, stomach and respiratory diseases.
References from Holy Quran
C Verse #.191, Surah Alanam; verse #. 99, Surah Alanam; verse #. 11, Surah Alnahal; verse #. 35, Surah Alnnor;
verse #. 1-4, Surah Teen [13].
References from Ahadith
C Bukhri, Ravi: Khalid Bin Sahad [9].
C Trimzi, Abwab ul Tamah [14].
C Ibne Majja, Ravi; Zahid Bin Arkum [11].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
25. Phoenix dactylifera L.
English Name: Date palm
Local Name: Khajoor
Arabic Name: Nahal, Balah, Tammar, Rutab, etc.
Family: Arecaceae
Habit and Habitat: Cultivated tree, may be found self grown.
Distribution: N.Africa, India (Rajistan, Maharashter), Iraq, S.Arabia, Pakistan.
Part used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Heart diseases, skin diseases, antidote, swelling of kidney, intestinal pain, heart
attack, wound healer, diarrhea, labour pain, sexual weakness, stomach pain, piles,
physical strengthing, shrill the voice, liver disorders.
References from Holy Quran
Verse #.6, Surah Baqra; verse #. 99, Surah Al Anam; verse #. 4, Surah Al Rahad; verse #. 11, 27, Surah Al Nahal;
verse #. 91, Surrah Al Israa; verse #.36, Surah Al Kahaf; verse #. 23, 25, Surah Mariam; verse #.148, Surah Shurah;
verse #. 71, Surah Taha; verse #. 34, Surah Yaseen; verse #. 60, Surah Al Qamar; verse #. 11-28, Surah Rahman;
verse #. 7, surah Al Haqqa; verse #. 39, Surah Abbus [13].

References from Ahadith
C Ibne Majja. Ravi-Bussar (R.A) [11].
C Trimzi [14].
C Bukhri. Ravi Ans Bin Malik [9].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Ravi: Ibn-e Umer. Zadul Maad [10]
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
137
26. Punica granatum L.
English Name: Pomegranate
Local Name: Anar
Arabic Name: Rumman
Family: Punicaceae
Habit and Habitat: Tree, cultivated in the area.
Distribution: Chilli, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and European countries
Part used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Stomach cough, hepatitis, muscle pain, heart and liver diseases, piles, eye diseases,
dental problems, oral diseases, diarrhea and dysentery.
References from Holy Quran
Verse #. 99, Surah-Al Anam; verse #. 141, Surah Al Anam; verse #. 69, Surah Rehman.

References from Ahadith Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].

27. Salvadora persica L.
English Name: Tooth brush tree
Local Name: Peelu
Arabic Name: Arak
Family: Salvadoraceae
Habit and Habitat: Shrub or small tree found in rocky slopes and sandy area.
Distribution: Found in desert parts of the world.
Part used: Branches and roots
Medicinal uses: Dental diseases, arthritis, piles eczema, oral diseases, headache, antidote, diabetes,
digestive problems.
References from Ahadith
C Bukhri. Ravi: Jabbir Bin Abdullah (Chap. Kitab ul Tib) [9]
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Ravi: Zadul Maad [10].
28. Saussurea lappa L.
English Name: Costus
Local Name: Kuth
Arabic Name: Kustul Bahri
Family: Asteraceae
Habit and Habitat: Annul wild herb
Distribution: European countries, In Pakistan (Kashmir and Northern Areas)
Part used: Roots
Medicinal uses: Phyrngitis, headache, maleness, remove swelling, common cold, good in parkansis,
constipation, vaginal pain, strengthen heart, liver, tuberculosis.
References from Ahadith Tib e Nabvi and modern Science [2].
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
138
29. Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
English Name: Fenugreek
Local Name: Maithi
Arabic Name: Helba
Family: Papilionaceae
Habit and Habitat: Annual cultivated leafy vegetable
Distribution: Pakistan, Kashmir, India, S. Europe, Orient, Arabia, Ethiopia
Part used: Seeds and leaves.
Medicinal uses: Throat infection, swelling, body pain, cough, stomach pain, piles, dandruff,
baldness, breast pain, lungs infection, diabetes, ulcer, diarrhea and gas trouble.
Powerful tonic, back pain, seeds in powder form used for diabetes, lactogogue i.e.
to stimulate milk production in mammary glands.
References from Ahadith Tib-e-Nabvi.[( Ravi: Qasim Bin Abdul Rehman) [2].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Ravi: Ahmed Zahbi, Zadul Maad [10].
30. Thymus serpylum L.
English Name: Wild thyme
Local Name: Sattar Ban - ajwain
Arabic Name: Zatar
Family: Lamiaceae
Habit and Habitat: Wild annual herb
Distribution: Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan
Part used: Leaves
Medicinal uses: Germicides, pain remove of stomach, liver, common cold, kill the insect of belly and
cough in strengthen lungs.
References from Ahadith
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Ravi: Mohd Ahmed Zahbi.Tibb-e-Nabvi [16]

31. Vitis vinifera L.
English Name: Grapes
Local Name: Munaqqa
Arabic Name: Inab
Family: Vitaceae
Habit and Habitat: Perennial vine, cultivated for fruit purposes.
Distribution: France, Germany, Spain, Pakistan and India
Part used: Fruit juice
Medicinal uses: Common cold, relax body and brain muscles, stomach diseases, cooling effects on
body, cough, kidney and urinary bladder pain, liver and lung disorders, dog bite,
remove weary, clear the face and cancer.
References from Holy Quran
Verse #. 160, Surah- Al Nahal; verse #. 91, Surah Israa; verse #. 28, Surah-Abasa; verse #. 266 Surah-Al-Bakara;
verse #.11, 67, Surah-Al- Nahl; verse #. 32, Surah-Al-Kahf; verse #. 19, Surah-Al-Mumenon; verse #. 34, Surah-Yaseen;
verse #. 78, Surah-An-Naba and verse #. 99, Surah-Al-Anaam. [13].
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
139
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari Ravi: Ibne-Abbas [9].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Ravi: Zadul Maad [10]
32. Zingiber officinale Roscoe.
English Name: Ginger
Local Name: Adrak or Sonth
Arabic Name: Zanjabil
Family: Zingiberaceae
Habit and Habitat: Cultivated herb with underground perennial stem.
Distribution: Bangladesh, Yaman, Oman, Seralone, India and Pakistan
Part used: Fruit
Medicinal uses: Intestinal pain, anorexia, dyspepsia, headache, diarrhea, constipation, intestinal
swelling, dog bite, stomach disorders, sexual weakness, digestive stimulant, cooling
effect on body, increase urine production.
References from Holy Quran Verse #. 68, Surah Al Baqra [13].
References from Ahadith
C Bukhari, Ravi-Abdullah Bin Jaffer (R.A) [9].
C Muslim, Ravi Abdullah Bin Jaffer (R.A) [12].
C Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim. Zadul Maad [10].
DISCUSSION attacks. Up to 1959, the people of Dubai, Qatar, Abu
History of Islamic medicine in its true context can and Khubus (bread). In ancient, dates were the major
thus be defined as a body of knowledge of medicine that source of food for the people of Middle East. In modern
was inherited by the Muslim in the early phase of Islamic times many products of food have been prepared from
history (40-247 AH/661-861 AD) from mostly Greek dates. In Holy Quran it is said Your God is that who has
sources but to which became added medical knowledge made different kinds of orchids and gardens for you,
from, Persia, Syria, India and Byzantine. In Islam diseases those have colorful crops of Phoenix dactylifera, Olea
are cured in two ways, first the cure of soul through europea (olive) and Punica granatum (pome grenate).
prayers and second the cure of ailments through Their shapes and tastes are similar as well as different
medicines [17]. The Holy Quran is one of the reference also. Eat these fruit when ripen but keep the share of poor
books describing the importance of plants used for relatives and needy and do not waste them (Holy Quran:
different ailments in various Surahs. Our Holy Prophet 141, Surah- Al-Anam). Olea europea (olive) is another
used certain herbs and recommended various medicinal plant that has many references in Holy Quran and
plants for cure of common diseases. He recommended Ahadith. And it is used for skin diseases baldness and
Hordeum vulgare (Barley) for heart diseases, constipation pain killer. In Ahadith it is said that eat the olive oil and
and vigorous [18]. apply it on the body, it is cure of seventy diseases
A close look at checklist of medicinal flora tells us (Abu Naeem. Ravi. Hazrat Abu Haraira). The saying of
that these plants are not of Arabic origin but The Holy Holy Prophet (PBUH) about medicines are spread over
Prophet (PBUH), gave the references of such plants that 200 books in the world [19].
are not only grown in Arab countries but exist through Now a days there is much interest in medicinal plants
out the world. This shows that the Holy Prophet was light through out the world including developed countries like
for the entire world. From this study it is found that China, Germany, France, Japan, USA and UK. Similarly in
Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm) has highest number of developing countries like Pakistan and India, the benefits
references in The Holy Quran. This plant is used for of modern medicines and health care reach only to small
digestive problems, piles, sexual diseases and heart percentage of population. These could hardly reach the
Dhabi and Saudi Arabia used to have breakfast with dates
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (1): 126-140, 2009
140
large mosses living in the rural areas. Moreover in remote 7 Ali, S.I., 1977. Papilionaceae. In: E.Nasir and S.I.Ali,
areas of the world where per capita income of people is Flora of Pakistan, Karachi, pp: 38-320.
very low, it becomes more difficult to buy complicated and 8. Nasir, Y.J. and R.A. Rafique, 1995. Wild Flowers of
expensive prescriptions. Hence there is a need for the Pakistan. T.J. Roberts. Oxford University Press,
inclusion of herbal medicines at primary health care level, Karachi, pp: 298.
since there long standing use is plant drug reasonably 9. Al Bukhari, M.B.I., 1938. Sahi ul Bukhari. Noor
guarantee their medicinal efficacy and safety [20]. In this Muhammad Maalik Book Dept. Near Jamia Masjid
study an effort was also made to review the active Dehli-India. pp:105-107, 204,222, 245-248, 362, 817-
constituents of these medicinal plants [21]. 820, 836, 849-57.
The necessity for exploration for such useful data 10. Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim, Zadul Maad,
from Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books has long Nafees Academy, Karachi, pp: 314-585
been felt with the increasing need of drugs, medicines 11. Ibn-e-Maja, Abdullah Muhammad bin Yazid,
and other useful products. In this way present approach Kitabul Athama,Mehtab Co., Tajiran Kutab, Lahore.
of this study can be adopted to record the medicinal 3: 99, 118, 150, 151, 157, 445.
uses of plants for welfare of human beings. This study 12. Alhajaj, M.B., Sahih Muslim, Kitabul Ashraba,
is the logical and applicable step in directions towards Babul- Adab-u-Thaam, Maktaba Rehmania, Lahore,
the ultimate goal of development of natural plant based Pakistan, 5:183, 281, 326.
industry in the light of Islamic history through out the 13. Al-Hilali, M.T. and M.M. Khan, 1985. The Noble
world for prosperity and safety of the human beings. Quran: English Translation of the meaning and
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Holy Quran. Madinah, KSA.
Special gratitude is expressed to Khawaja Hafiz Peer Nabatat, Adwiya Aur Ghizain. Ilm-o-Irfan Pulishers,
Muhammad Abdul Haq, Darya Sharif District Attock- 9-lower Mall, Aqab Mian Market, Urdu Bazar Lahore,
Pakistan for their moral support in Islamic studies. pp: 39-230.
Authors are also grateful to Hafiz Qari Azhar Mehmood 15. Al-Jozi (Aljawziyya), Ibn-ul Qayyim.Tibb-e-Nabvi
and Muhammad Shakeel, Islamic Institute of Bangai (Urdu Tans. by Hakim Azizur Rehman Azmi and
District Attock-Pakistan for fruitful suggestion and Mukhtiar Ahmad Nadvi) Kutab Khana Shan-e-Islam,
references during this research work. Urdu Bazar Lahore, pp: 488-489.
REFERENCES Jadidah. Mohaqiqah. Al Baroot, Lubnan. pp: 349.
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Al Faisal, Lahore, Pakistan, 1(2): 1-14. Pait ke Beemarian. 13 Ed. Alfaisal Publishers,
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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
ISSN 1680-5194
Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2009
530
Vegetables Mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith and Their
Ethnomedicinal Studies in Dera Ismail Khan, N.W.F.P., Pakistan
Sarfaraz Khan Marwat , Mir Ajab Khan , Muhammad Aslam Khan , Mushtaq Ahmad ,
1 1 2 1
Muhammad Zafar , Fazal-ur-Rehman and Shazia Sultana
1 3 1
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
1
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies and Research, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
3
Abstract: The present research work is based on nine herbaceous plant species: Agaricus campestris L.,
Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Beta vulgaris L. Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.) Mats. & Nakai, Cucumis sativus
L., Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe.
mentioned in Holy Quran and Ahadith. These plants were collected from Dera Ismail Khan District, NWFP,
Pakistan, during 2007. This is a part of check list of medicinal flora and their uses enlisted in Holy Quran,
Ahadith and Islamic literature. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethnobotanical
importance of vegetables in the light of Islam. In view of the importance of this study related comprehensive
and detailed data was collected. Complete macro and microscopic detailed morphological features of these
species were discussed. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names,
family followed by Quranic name, Arabic name, English name, Local/vernicular name, habit and habitat, parts
used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran and Ahadith. It is concluded that herbal
medicines are being widely used in the world because of better cultural acceptability, least injurious with
none or much reduced side effects.
Key words: Ethnomedicinal study, Pakistan, Holy Quran and Ahadith
INTRODUCTION
Vegetables are those herbaceous plants whose part or
parts are eaten as supporting food or main dishes and
they may be aromatic, bitter or tasteless. The nutrient
contents of different types of vegetables vary
considerably and they are not major source of
carbohydrates compared to starchy foods which form the
bulk of food eaten, but contain vitamins, essential amino
acids as well as minerals and antioxidants. Vegetables
are included in meals mainly for their nutritional values;
however some are reserved for sick and convalescence
because of their medicinal properties (Mensah et al.,
2008).
Pakistan is among those countries where traditional
unani medicine is popularly practiced among a large
fragment of its population. Traditional unani medicine
originated in Greece, founded by ancient Greek
philosophers and was used/documented by Muslims
during the glorious period of Islamic civilization. It was
brought to the Indo-Pak Subcontinent by Muslim
scholars and practiced here for centuries (Hassan,
2001).
Life and diseases go together where there is life,
diseases are bound to exist. Dependency and
sustainability of man and animal life has been revolving
around plants through their uses as food, fibers and
shelter, but also plants have been used to control and
ease diseases, therefore, the use of plants as
medicines is an ancient and reliable practice (Arshad
and Rao, 2001).
Cure of diseases through medicinal plants is always a
salient feature of Islamic teaching and preaching.
Islamic medicine started from Hazrat Adam (A.S.) and
was completed at Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) but search
and compiling of these medicines is still continued
through out the world (Nasr, 1976).
The Holy Quran is the eternal and everlasting basis of
Islam. It contains signs and verses which have been
leading people of different ages and of different
academics and intellectual background to believe in
Islam. The Holy Quran from the very start has a claim
that it covers every aspect of life and is full of wisdom. It
speaks We have neglected nothing in the Book (Khan,
et al., 1994).
History of Islamic medicine in its true context can thus be
defined as a body of knowledge of medicine that was
inherited by the Muslim in the early phase of Islamic
history (40-247 AH/661-861 AD) from mostly Greek
sources but to which became added medical knowledge
from, Persia, Syria, India and Byzantine.
Ahadith [the sayings of Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)] have also described the
importance of many plant species. Farooqi (1998) in his
book Ahadith Mein Mazkoor Nabatat, Adwiyah Aur
Ghizaen in English Plants, Medicines and Food
Mentioned in Ahadith has reported about 70 plants and
plant products.
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
531
Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinal C Sa'id bin Zaid (R.A.) reported: I heard Allah's Apostle
flora and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work
was conducted to investigate ethnobotanical uses and
create awareness about the plant species enlisted
in Holy Quran, Ahadith for the welfare of human
communities throughout the world.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research work was conducted by reviewing the Holy
Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Comprehensive and
detailed information about 9 herbaceous vegetable
plants of ethnobotanical importance mentioned in the
Holy Quran and Ahadith were collected from these
sources. Plants species were arranged in systematic
order of botanical names in alphabetic order followed by
family, Quranic name, Arabic name, English name, habit
and habitat, part used, medicinal uses and references
cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books.
Correct botanical names, their families and identification
of plants were done by using flora of Pakistan
.
RESULTS
Present findings were confined to 9 herbaceous
vegetable plant species belonging to 8 genera of 7
families enlisted in Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic
literature. These plants are Agaricus campestris L.,
Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Beta vulgaris L.
Citrulus lanatus (Thunb.) Mats. and Nakai, Cucumis
sativus L., Lagenaria siceraria, Trigonella foenum-
graecum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. which are
used throughout Pakistan for various aspects such as
vegetable, medicinal and industrial products. Data
inventory constitutes botanical name, family, Quranic
name, English name, local names, Arabic name, habit
and habitat, distribution; parts used, medicinal uses and
references cited from Holy Quran and books of Ahadith.
Agaricus campestris L.
English Name : Mushroom
Local Name : Khumbi
Arabic Name : Esh El-Ghorab
Family : Agaricaceae
Habit and Habitat : Fleshy fungus, terrestrial and moist
places
Part used : Whole part
Medicinal uses : Eye diseases, clear eyes, physical
strength, germicide, arthritis,
paralysis, parknesis, muscle pain,
headache and Dizziness
References from Ahadith:
C Saeed bin Zaid (R.A.) narrates that I heard the
Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallum) saying,
"Truffles are like Manna (i.e. they grow naturally
without man's care) and their water heals eye
diseases."(Farooqi, 1998)
(Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallum) as saying: Truffles
are a kind of 'Manna' and their juice is a medicine
for the eyes
C Sa'id bin Zaid (R.A.) reported Allah's Messenger
(Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallum) as saying: Truffles
are a kind of 'Manna' which Allah the Glorious and
Exalted, sent down upon the people of Israil, and its
juice is a medicine for the eyes (Farooqi, 1998)
Hazrat Suhaib (R.A.) reported Rasulallah (may peace be
upon Him) as saying: Truffles are a kind of 'Manna'
which Allah sent down upon Bani Israil and their juice is
a medicine for the eyes (Farooqi, 1998).
Abu Huraira (R.A.) narrates: one day the companions of
Rasulullah (SAW) said to Him (SAW), Truffles are the
small pox of the earth. Upon this Rasulullah (SAW)
said, Truffles are 'Manna' and their juice is the medicine
for the eyes (Farooqi, 1998).
Allium cepa L.
English Name : Onion
Local Name : Piaz
Arabic Name : Basal
Family : Alliaceae
Habit and Habitat : Herbacous, cultivated in the field
Part used : Rhizome, leaves and seeds
Medicinal uses: Antidote, Stomach diseases, cholera,
Diarrhoea, throat infection, common cold, cough, fever,
influenza, ear pain, improve sperm production, clear face
and skin spots, appetizer, headache, hepatitis, piles, eye
diseases, baldness, constipation, menstruation and
intestinal diseases.
References from Holy Qurn (Verse #. 61, Chapter #.1-
Surah Al Baqarah): And (remember) when you said, O
Ms (Musa)! we cannot endure one kind of food. So
invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the
earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fm (wheat or
garlic), its lentils and its onions. He said, Would you
exchange that which is better for that which is lower? (Al-
Hilali and Khan, 1985).
References from Ahadith
C Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: (R.A.) the Prophet said,
"Whoever has eaten garlic or onion should keep
away from us or should keep away from our
mosque (Farooqi, 1998)
C Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Qurrah (R.A.): the Apostle of
Allah (peace_be_upon_him) forbade these two
plants (i.e. garlic and onions) and he said: He who
eats them should not come near our mosque. If it is
necessary to eat them, make them dead by cooking,
that is, onions and garlic (Ahmad, 1988)
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
532
C Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (R.A.): Khalid References from Ahadith:
(R.A.) said: Abu Ziyad Khiyar ibn Salamah (R.A.)
asked Aisha (R.A.) about onions. She replied: The
last food which the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho
Alayhi Wassallam) ate was some which contained
onions (Ahmad, 1988)
C Mahdan Bin Abu Talah narrates: Rasulullah
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, those who eat
onion and garlic should eat them in cooked form
(Khan, 2001)
Note: He who eats onion should make its odour die by
cooking it well.
Allium sativum L.
English Name : Garlic
Local Name : Lahson
Arabic Name : Soom
Family : Alliaceae
Habit and Habitat : Annual cultivated erect herb
Part used : Rhizome
Medicinal uses : Antidote, wound healer, dog bite,
paralysis, digestive problems,
asthma, parkensis, intestinal pain
worms, cough, histerea,
headache, tuber closes
References from Holy Quran (Verse #. 61, Chapter # 1
- Surah Al Baqarah): And when you said O Moses We
will not have patience or We will not endure on food (of)
one (kind) so you pray for us (to) your Lord he brings out
for us whatever sprouts or germinates (in) the earth of its
vegetables or herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic
and its lentils and its onions (Rafai, 1990).
References from Ahadith:
C Hazrat Anas bin Malik (R.A.) narrated: the Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, "Whoever has
eaten garlic should not come to our mosque
(Farooqi, 1998)
Khalid (R.A.) said: Abu Ziyad Khiyar ibn Salamah (R.A.)
asked Aisha (R.A.) about onions. She replied: The last
food which the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam) ate was some which contained onions
(Ahmad, 1988).
Beta vulgaris L.
English Name : Beet roots
Local Name : Chakandar
Arabic Name : Banjar
Family : Chenopodiaceae
Habit and Habitat : Cultivated vegetable, Terrestrial
Part used : Roots and leaves
Medicinal uses: Eczema, baldness, liver infection,
muscle weakness, skin disease,
hepatitis, arthritis, kidney pain,
headache, womb diseases and vaginal
pain
C Narrated Sahl bin Sad (R.A.): there was a woman
amongst us who had a farm and she used to sow
Silq (a kind of vegetable) on the edges of streams
in her farm. On Fridays she used to pull out the Silq
from its roots and put the roots in a utensil. Then
she would put a handful of powdered barley over it
and cook it. The roots of the Silq were a substitute
for meat. After finishing the Jumua prayer we used
to greet her and she would give us that food which
we would eat with our hands and because of that
meal, we used to look forward to Friday (Abdullah,
2005)
C Narrated Umm al-Mundhar bint Qays al-Ansariyyah:
the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)
came to visit me, accompanied by Ali who was
convalescing. We had some ripe dates hung up.
The Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)
got up and began to eat from them. Ali also got up
to eat, but the Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam) said repeatedly to Ali: Stop, Ali, for you
are convalescing and Ali stopped. She said: I then
prepared some barley and beet-root and brought it.
The Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)
then said: Take some of this, Ali, for it will be more
beneficial for you (Ahmad, 1988)
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura
English Name : Water melon
Local Name : Tarbooz
Arabic Name : Al Bataigh
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Habit and Habitat : Shrub, Terrestrial
Part used : Fruit and seeds
Medicinal uses : Kidney pain clears the urine and
stomach, facial beauty, increase
immunity, jaundice and have cold
effects
References from Ahadith:
C Narrated Sahl bin Sad Al-Sadi (R.A.): Rasulullah
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used to eat ripe date
with water melon (Ghaznavi, 1991)
C Hazrat Abdullah Bin Abbas (R.A.) narrates that
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said,
Water melon is diet as well as drink. It washes and
purifies the urinary bladder. It increases the sexual
power (Farooqi, 1998)
C Hazrat Aisha (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used to eat water
melon with fresh dates (Farooqi, 1998)
Cucumis sativus L.
English name : Cucumber
Local name : Khira
Arabic name : Qissa, Khiarun
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
533
Family Name : Cucurbitaceae C Narrated Anas (R.A.): I was a young boy when I once
Habit and Habitat : Trailing annual, terrestrial herb
Distribution : Cultivated throughout the tropical
and subtropical counties of the
world
Parts used : Fruit
Medicinal uses : Cooling, diuretic, tonic and
vermifuge, diuretic, purgative
References from Ahadith:
C Narrated 'Abdullah (R.A.) bin Ja'far bin Abi Talib
(R.A.): I saw Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam) eating fresh dates with cucumber
(Abdullah, 2005)
'Abdullah (R.A.) bin Ja'far reported: I saw Allah's
Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) eating
cucumber with fresh dates (Farooqi, 1998).
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (R.A.): my mother
intended to make me fat to send me to the (house of) the
Apostle of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). But
nothing which she desired benefited me till she gave me
cucumber with fresh dates to eat. Then I became very
fat (Ghaznavi, 2000).
Lagenaria siceraria L.
English Name : Squash
Local Name : Kaddo
Arabic Name : Yakteen, Daba
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Habit and Habitat : Prostrate with tendrils herb
Part used : Fruit and leaves
Medicinal uses : Arthritis, Maleness, Headache,
fever, Madness, Piles, lungs
infection, common cold, kidney
and liver disorder and heart
diseases
References from Holy Quran: (As-Saaffat, Chapter #
37, Verse # 146): And We caused a plant of gourd to
grow over him (Al-Hilali and Khan, 1985)
References from Ahadith:
C Narrated Ishaq bin 'Abdullah (R.A.) bin Abu Talha
(R.A.): I heard Anas bin Malik (R.A.) saying, "A tailor
invited Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam) to a meal which he had prepared.
Anas bin Malik (R.A.) said, "I accompanied Allah's
Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam0 to that meal.
He served the Prophet with bread and soup made
with gourd and dried meat. I saw the Prophet
(Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) taking the pieces of
gourd from the dish." Anas (R.A.) added, "Since that
day I have continued to like gourd" (Abdullah, 2005)
was walking with Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam). Allah's Apostle entered the house of
his slave tailor and the latter brought a dish filled
with food covered with pieces of gourd. Allah's
Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) started
picking and eating the gourd. When I saw that, I
started collecting and placing the gourd before him.
Then the slave returned to his work. Anas (R.A.)
added: I have kept on loving gourd since I saw
Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) doing
what he was doing (Abdullah, 2005)
C Narrated Anas bin Malik (R.A.): a tailor invited the
Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) to a meal
which he had prepared and I went along with the
Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). The tailor
presented barley bread and soup containing gourd
and cured meat. I saw the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi
Wassallam) picking the pieces of gourd from
around the dish and since then I have kept on liking
gourd (Ghaznavi, 2000)
C Anas bin Malik (R.A.) reported: a tailor invited Allah's
Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) to a meal
which he had prepared. Anas bin Malik (R.A.) said:
I went along with Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho
Alayhi Wassallam) to that feast. He presented to
Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)
barley bread and soup containing pumpkin and
sliced pieces of meat. Anas (R.A.) said: I saw
Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam)
going after the pumpkin round the dish, so I have
always liked the pumpkin since that day (Azami and
Nadvi, 1985)
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
English Name : Fenugreek
Local Name : Maithi
Arabic Name : Helba
Family : Papilionaceae
Habit : Cultivated leafy vegetable
Part used : Seeds and leaves
Medicinal uses : Throat infection, swelling, body pain,
cough, stomach pain, piles, dandruff,
baldness, breast pain, lungs
infection, diabetes, ulcer, diarrhea
and gas trouble. Powerful tonic, back
pain, seeds in powder form used for
diabetes, lactogogue i.e., to
stimulate milk production in
mammary glands
References from Ahadith:
C Qasim Bin Abdul Rehman (R.A.) narrates that
Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said,
Seek cure by (using) fenugreek (Ghaznavi, 1991)
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
534
C In another hadith Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi through medicines. The Holy Quran is one of the
Wassallam) said, If my followers (Ummat) knew reference books describing the importance of plants
the importance of the fenugreek then they will buy it used for different ailments in various Surahs. Our Holy
by gold of equal weight (Ghaznavi, 1991). Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used certain
Zingiber officinale Roscoe herbs and recommended various medicinal plants for
English Name : Ginger cure of common diseases. He recommended Agaricus
Local Name : Adrak or onth campestris L (Mushroom-truffle) for eye diseases.
Arabic Name : Zangbeal Saeed bin Zaid (R.A.) Narrates that I heard the Prophet
Family : Zingiberaceae (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) saying, "Truffles are like
Habit : Cultivated herb with underground Manna (i.e., they grow naturally without man's care) and
perennial stem their water heals eye diseases "(Farooqi, 1998). Hazrat
Habitat and Abu Huraira (R.A.) collected the water of 3, 5 or 7
distribution : Terrestial and Bangladesh, Yaman, mushrooms and put it in a small bottle. He then gave it
Oman, Seralone, India and Pakistan to a bleared eye maid servant (laundi) to use it for the
Part used : Fruit said eye disease. She cured after using the water of
Medicinal uses : Intestinal pain, anorexia, dyspepsia, mushrooms (Chughtai, 2005). Allium cepa although
headache, diarrhea, constipation, rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion
intestinal swelling, dog bite, has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and
stomach disorders, sexual when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will
weakness, digestive stimulant, promote the general health of the body. It is extensively
cooling effect on body, increase used as spice, condiment and vegetable in kitchen. The
urine production bulbs are stimulant, digestive expectorant and
References from Quran: (Surah Ad-Dahr Chapter # 76, remove pus from sores. Fresh onion juice is a very
Verse # 17): And they will be given to drink there of a useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites,
cup (of wine) mixed with Zanjabil (ginger) (Al-Hilali and grazes (Shahidullah, 2000). When warmed the juice can
Khan, 1985). be dropped into the ear to treat earache. The bulb are
References from Ahadith: modic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge,
C Abu Saeed Khudri (R.A.) narrated: The rular of hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontriptic, stomachic and
Rome presented a basket of gingers in the honour tonic. When used regularly in the diet it offsets
of Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) as a tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart
gift. He gave every one a piece of ginger. He also attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and
gave one piece of it to me (Farooqi, 1998) tooth decay (Plants for a Future, 2008).
DISCUSSION
Vegetables are important protective food and highly
beneficial for the maintenance of health and prevention
of disease. They contain valuable food ingredients which
are essential for the proper functioning of the body.
Vegetables contain various medicinal and therapeutic
agents and are valued mainly for their high vitamin and
mineral content. Faulty cooking and prolonged careless
storage can however destroy these valuable elements.
To drive maximum benefits of their nutrients, vegetables
should be consumed fresh as far as possible. Most
vegetables are best consumed in their natural raw state
in the form of salads (Husain, 2002).
From time immemorial humans have used plants to
alleviate their sufferings from diseases. Approximately
70% of the homeopathic drugs are prepared from the
fresh plants. Similarly more than 90% of tibbi medicines
are prepared from herbs. Pakistan is very rich in plants
of medicinal value (Nasreen and Khan, 2001).
In Islam diseases are cured in 2 ways, first the cure of
soul through prayers and second the cure of ailments
aphrodisiac. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to
anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispas-
Allium sativum L. has been held in high esteem for its
health building qualities for centuries. It contains high
percentage of minerals and vitamins. It also contains
traces of iodine, sulphur and chlorine. It is regarded as
a rejuvenator. It is found to remove toxins and revitalize
blood. The ethers in garlic juice is so potent and
penetrating that they help to dissolve accumulated
mucous in the sinus cavities, in bronchial tubes and
lungs. It has been found effective in Asthma. It has an
antiseptic effect (Husain, 2002).
Its bulbs are used as flavouring agent, spice,
carminative, aromatic and condiment. It is effective in
heart diseases and blood pressure. It dissolve fats. It is
used in folklore and veterinary medicines locally. Its juice
is mixed with milk to cure T.B., asthma and whooping
cough (Shahidullah, 2000).
Garlic contains a wealth of sulfur compounds; most
important for the taste is allicin (diallyl disulphide oxide),
which is produced enzymatically from alliin (S-2-
propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) if cells are damaged; its
biological function is to repel herbivorous animals.
Allicin is deactivated to diallyl disulphide; therefore,
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
535
Table 1: Phytogeography and Key to the Identification of vegetables
Botanical
Names Distribution in world Distribution in Pakistan Flowering period Diagonstic characters
Agaricus Widely distributed and Found in all the provinces Season: June-Oct., Growing alone or gregariously in fields,
campestris L. common in North America of Pakistan occasionally in spring. meadows, lawns and grassy areas. Cap:
3-11 cm; convex occasionally nearly flat;
whitish; smooth and glossy to fibrous to
nearly wooly or scaly. Gills: Free from the
stem (stipe); deep pink becoming brown and
then dark chocolate brown in maturity. Stipe:
2-6 x1-2.5 cm thick; more or less equal. Taste:
Pleasant. Spore: Dark chocolate brown.
Allium cepa L., Native country probably Commonly cultivated Summer months Bulbs clustered, cylindrical to ovoid or almost
Persia etc.; cultivated in Pakistan rounded; coats papery, white or brownish
everywhere in the world as or reddish. Scape up to 1 m tall, stout, fistular.
in Brazile, Chile, China, Leaves cylindrical, fistular. Umbels spherical,
Cuba, Egypt France, densely flowered. Flowers stellate. Pedicels
Germany Ghana; Guatemala; 3-4 times as long as the tepals. perianth
India; Iraq; Kurdistan; Malaya leaves (tepals) greenish-white 4-5 mm long.
Mexico Pakistan; Peru; Russia; Filaments exerted.
Salvador; Spain; Turkey; US;
Allium sativum L. At present garlic is grown Commonly cultivated Summer months Bulbs ovoid with 6-10 bulblets; scale white.
all over the world from the in Pakistan. Scapes up to 1 m tall; spathe long-beaked.
equator to latitudes of 50 Leaves linear, flattened. Umbels with bulbils
o
in both hemispheres. and flowers. Perianth leaves white, lanceolate,
acuminate. Filaments shorter than the perianth
leaves
Beta vulgaris L. Europe; N.Africa; Asia; Widely cultivated in March-May Annual or perennial, erect, branched and leafy,
widely cultivated (beet). vegetable gardens. green to purplish-violaceous; roots slender
to tuberous with sugar storage. Cauline leaves
rhombic-oblong to linear-lanceolate. Stem
glabrous, glaucous, reddish-green. Flowers
in dense, spicate clusters sessile. Perianth
segments ovate-oblong, green. Stigmas 2.
Citrullus Native of the Kalahari region, Attock district; Rawalpindi January-May Annual, trailer. Tendrils 2-3 fid. Leaves ovate,
lanatus L. cultivated throughout Tropics district; Laiha; Sibi district; deeply 3-5-lobed. Male flowers on c.20(-40)
Nawab Shah; Hyderabad; mm long pedicel. Female flowers on c. 6cm
Karachi district. long pedicel. Fruit large, subspherical, c. 30
cm or more in diameter, green mottled with
longitudinal stripes; mesocarp fleshy;
indehiscent. Seeds ovate in outline c. 10x5
mm, black or rarely red, smooth.
Cucumis Cultivated throughout the Cultivated throughout Almost through Annual, trailing or climbing herb. Stem angular
sativus L. tropical and subtropical Pakistan. out the year with hairs. Tendrils simple. Leaves 12-18
countries of the world. cm long, 3-8 lobed . Sepals spreading. Corolla
yellow. Anther 3-4 mm long. Fruit oblong and
obscurely trigonous or Cylindric; when young
sparsely tuberculated otherwise smooth and
glabrous.
Lagenaria A pantropical species of Cultivated throughout Almost through Annual climber or trailer. Tendril 2-fid. Stem
siceraria Asian and African origin. Pakistan and Kashmir. out the year densely hairy. Leaves broadly ovate or
(Molina) reniformor sub-orbicular, obscurely 3-5 lobed.
Standley Both male and female flowers solitary. Corolla
white. Anther oblong; thecae triplicate. Ovary
void, villous. Fruit of variable shapes: long,
round or bottle-shaped.
Trigonella Of doubtful origin, widely Cultivated in all provinces April Erect, annual, 10-50 cm tall herb. Leaf
foenum- cultivated. Southern Europe; of Pakistan and Kashmir pinnately trifoliate, leaflets obovate to
graecum L. Orient; Arabia; Ethiopia; oblanceolate, dentate or incised. Flowers
Pakistan; Kashmir ; India. 1-2 in leaf axils. Corolla yellowish white,
sometimes tinged with lilac. Fruit 5-11
mm long, 3-5 mm broad, 10-20 seeded.
Zingiber Widely cultivated in Widely cultivated in A biennial herb with root stock bearing many
officinale tropical Asia the plains of Pakistan sessile tubers; leafy stem 90 120 cm. high;
Roscoe leaves 15-32x1.5 cm.; Spike oblong cylindric;
bracts pointed; corolla segments greenish,
lip small purplish black, mid-lobe not notched;
stamens dark purple
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
536
minced garlic changes its aroma if not used Ummul Mu'minin (R.A.): My mother intended to make me
immediately. In the essential oil from steam distillation, fat to send me to the (house of) the Apostle of Allah
diallyl disulphide (60%) is found besides diallyl (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam). But nothing which she
trisulphide (20%), diallyl sulfide, ajoene and minor desired benefited me till she gave me cucumber with
amounts of other di- and polysulphides. Sulfur fresh dates to eat. Then I became fat as she desired
compounds of this kind are typical for the onion family (Ghaznavi, 2000). The seed is cooling, diuretic, tonic and
(Katzer, 2008). Beta vulgaris (Beet Root) Beet root is a vermifuge. A 25-50 g of the thoroughly ground seeds
very useful vegetable. Beet juice is considered as one of (including the seed coat) is a standard dose as a
the best vegetable juice. It contains phosphorus, vermifuge and usually needs to be followed by a
calcium, iron, Vitamin B and C. Beet root possesses purgative to expel the worms from the body.
anti-cancer properties and is thus useful in the A decoction of the root is diuretic (Plants for a Future,
prevention of cancer (Chughtai, 2005). 2008). It is believed that cucumber helps in reducing
Roots contain leucine, tryptophane, valine, alanine, swelling around the eyes or the big dark circles under
phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamine, glutamic acid, your eyes. This is world-wide treatment which is being
ornithine, 5 other amino acide, 0.01% essential oil with used to its maximum extent.
farnesol. Leaves contain quercitin glucoside, a vitexin A close look at checklist of medicinal flora tell us that
combination with glucose, xylose and 3-hydroxytyramine, these plants are not of Arabic origin but The Holy
$-sitosterol and a suite of organic acids, oxalic-, Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam), gave the
tricarballyl-, aconitic-, ferulic-. Roots, herbage and seeds references of such plants that are not only grown in Arab
contain raphanol and coniferin (C H O ), Vit. A, B and C countries but exist through out the world. This shows
16 22 8
and betaine. Roots contain a crude oil with palmitic, that the Holy Prophet was light for the entire world.
oleic, erucic and gamma-aminobutyric acids, free and Lagenaria siceraria (gourd) was liked very much by The
bound invertase and pectolytic enzymes (James, 1983). Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam).
Due to its high iron content it regenerates and Narrated Anas bin Malik (R.A.): a tailor invited the
reactivates Red Blood Cells (RBC) and supplies fresh Prophet to a meal which he had prepared and I went
oxygen to the body. Hence extremely useful in the along with the Prophet. The tailor presented barley bread
treatment of Anaemia Beet gets rid of dandruff. By boiling and soup containing gourd and cured meat. I saw the
the top and root of the beet in water and later the water Prophet picking the pieces of gourd from around the
used on your head. After half an hour the head is dish and since then I have kept on liking gourd (Saboor,
washed with simple water. This process is practiced 1999).
twice a week (Kevin, 2007). This is very useful Narrated Aisha (R.A.): rasullulah (Sallallaho Alayhi
phytotherapy for removal dandruff. Wassallam) said to me, O Aishah when you are going
To fight appendicitis one should use the combination of to cooke (prepare) a meal from cure meat add to it
beet and cucumber juice 100 ml, mixed with 300 ml of gourd, because the gourd strengthens the sad hearts
carrot juice. If this is consumed twice daily, it may just do (Chughtai, 2005).
the needful (Kevin, 2007). The gourd has special importance according to Ahadith.
Citrullus lanatus, the seed is demulcent, diuretic, It is eaten eagerly. The experienced hakims have been
pectoral and tonic. It is sometimes used in the treatment advising the use of gourd oil (Roghan-e-Kaddu) for the
of the urinary passages and has been used to treat bed treatment of diseases of brain and blood pressure for
wetting. It is a good vermifuge and has a hypotensive years.
action. A fatty oil in the seed, as well as aqueous or The pulp around the seed is purgative. A poultice of the
alcoholic extracts, paralyze tapeworms and crushed leaves has been applied to the head to treat
roundworms. The fruit, eaten when fully ripe or even headaches. The flowers are an antidote to poison. The
when almost putrid, is used as a febrifuge. It is diuretic, stem bark and the rind of the fruit are diuretic. The fruit is
being effective in the treatment of dropsy and renal antilithic, diuretic, emetic and refrigerant.
stones. It contains the substance lycopine (which is also The seed is vermifuge. A poultice of the boiled seeds
found in the skins of tomatoes). This substance has has been used in the treatment of boils. Taken with
been shown to protect the body from heart attacks and, Achyranthes spp the seed is used to treat aching teeth
in the case of the tomato at least, is more effective when and gums, boils etc. Extracts of the plant have shown
it is cooked. antibiotic activity. In many parts of China 3 grams per day
The rind of the fruit is prescribed in cases of alcoholic of this species (the report does not say what part of the
poisoning and diabetes. plant) has been used as a single treatment for diabetes
The root is purgative and in large dose is said to be a mellitus (Plants for a Future, 2008).
certain emetic (Plants for a Future, 2008). Cucumis Trigonella foenum-graecum has got great importance in
sativus (Cucumber) is another plant that has many Ahadith. Qasim Bin Abdul Rehman (R.A.) narrates that
references in Holy Quran and Ahadith. Narrated Aisha, Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, Seek
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
537
cure by (using) fenugreek (Ghaznavi, 1991). In another of plants for welfare of human beings. This study is the
hadith Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) said, If logical and applicable step in directions towards the
my followers (Ummat) know the importance of the ultimate goal of development of natural plant based
fenugreek then they will buy it by gold of equal weight industry in the light of Islamic history through out the
(Ghaznavi, 1991). world for prosperity and safety of the human beings.
Fenugreek is much used in herbal medicine. It has a
wide range of medicinal applications. It is a powerful
tonic. It is useful for Back pain (backache). Seeds in
powder form are used for diabetes (Ahmad, 2004).
Use of one teaspoonful of the powder of its seeds daily
is recommended locally for the treatment of gout and
diabetes. A paste of seeds and leaves is applied to
reduce swellings and inflammation. Seeds are soaked
in water to get mucilage, which is locally used to keep
the skin soft (Shah, 2007). The powder of seeds can be
used externally as a poultice for abscesses, boils, burns
etc.
Compounds extracted from the plant have shown
cardiotonic, hypoglycaemic, diuretic, antiphlogistic and
hypotensive activity. One of its constituent alkaloids,
called 'trigonelline', has shown potential for use in
cancer therapy. The seed contains the saponin
diosgenin, an important substance in the synthesis of
oral contraceptives and sex hormones, whilst saponins
in the plant have been extracted for use in various other
pharmaceutical products (Plants for a Future, 2008).
Note: The seeds should not be prescribed medicinally
for pregnant women since they can induce uterine
contractions (Plants for a Future, 2008).
Zingiber officinale Rosc. It is another herbaceous plant
which has a reference in Holy Quran. And they will be
given to drink there of a cup mixed with Zanjabil. Verse:
17, Surah Ad-Dahr. According to Yousaf Ali the word
Zanjabil literally means Ginger. In eastern medicine
ginger is administered to give warmth to the body and
zest to the taste. Now a days there is much interest in
medicinal plants through out the world including
developed countries like China, Germany, France,
Japan, USA and UK. Similarly in developing countries
like Pakistan and India, the benefits of modern
medicines and health care reach only to small
percentage of population. These could hardly reach the
large mosses living in the rural areas. Moreover in
remote areas of the world where per capita income of
people is very low, it becomes more difficult to buy
complicated and expensive prescriptions. Hence there
is a need for the inclusion of herbal medicines at
primary health care level, since there long standing use
is plant drug reasonably guarantee their medicinal
efficacy and safety (Ahmad et al., 2004).
The necessity for exploration for such useful data from
Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books has long been
felt with the increasing need of drugs, medicines and
other useful products. In this way present approach of
this study can be adopted to record the medicinal uses
REFERENCES
Abdullah, M.M., 2005. Urdu Translayion of Al-Sahih Al-
Bukhari. Idara-e-Islamiyat, Lahore, 3: 119, 203, 205,
233, 236.
Ahmad, M., M.A. Khan, M. Arshad and M. Zafar, 2004.
Ethnophytotherapical approaches for the treatment
of diabetes by the local inhabitants of District Attock
Pakistan). Ethnobotanical Leaflets. http://www.siu.
edu/~ebl/leaflets/phyto.htm.
Ahmad, M.M., 1988. Urdu Translation of Sunan-e-Abu
Daud. Almisbah, Lahore, 4: 904.
Al-Hilali, M.T. and M.M. Khan, 1985. The Noble Quran:
English Translation of the meaning and
commentary. King Fahd Complex for the printing of
Holy Quran. Madinah, K.S.A., pp: 13.
Azami, H.A.R. and and M.A. Nadvi, 1985. Tib-i-Nabvi
urdu translation Dar-ul-Ishat. Maulavi Musafir
Khana, Urdu Bazar Karachi, 1: 426, 869.
Arshad, M. and A. Rao, 2001. Medicinal Plants of
Cholistan Desert In: Medicinal Plants of Pakistan,
pp: 1.
Chughtai, T.M., 2005. Shafi Dawa-een Shafi Ilaj. Azan-
Sahr Publications near Main Gate Mansoora. Multan
Road Lahore, pp: 40, 83, 101.
Farooqi, I., 1998. Ahadith Mein Mazkoor Nabatat, Adwiya
Aur Ghizain. Ilm-o-Irfan Pulishers, 9-lower Mall,
Aqab Mian Market, Urdu Bazar Lahore, pp: 151-152,
168.
Ghaznavi, K., 1991. Tibb-e-Nabvi and Modern science.
Al-Faisal Nasheeran Wa Tajeeran-e-Kutab. Urdu
Bazar Lahore, Pakistan, 1: 50, 334.
Ghaznavi, K., 2000. Tib-i-Nabvi and Modern science. Al-
Faisal Nashiran Wa Tajiran-i-Kutab. Urdu Bazar
Lahore, Pakistan, 2: 276, 321.
Hassan, H.M., 2001. Use of Traditional Unani Medicine
for Primary Health Care. In: Medicinal Plants of
Pakistan, pp: 17.
Husain, M.S., 2002. Wonder Vegetables. Indiadiets.com.
James, A.D., 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops.
unpublished. Center For New Crops and Plants
Products, Purdue University. Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA, pp: 494-4600.
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newrop/duke_energy/
Beta_vulgaris.html.
Katzer, G., 2008. Gernot Katzers Spice Pages.
http://www.unigraz.at/~katzer/engl/Alli_sat.html.
Khan, A.W.Z., 2001. Urdu Translation of Sunan-e-Ibn-e-
Maja. Mehtab Company. Tajaran e-Kutab, Lahore, 3:
115.
Pak. J. Nutr., 8 (5): 530-538, 2009
538
Kevin, P., 2007. Beet - A Great Fighter of Diseases. http:// Plants For a Future, 2008. Edible, medicinal and useful
www. di sabl ed- wor l d. com/ ar t man/ publ i sh/
beets.shtml.
Khan, A.S., M.A. Khan, H.A. Din, H.U. Khan and M.
Tayyab, 1994. Some Scientific Facets of Quran and
Sunnah (of the Prophet Muhammad, Peace Be
Upon Him) in The Field of Medicine. Pak. J. Health,
31: 7-10.
Mensah, J.K., R.I. Okoli, Ohaju-Obodo and K. Eifediyi,
2008. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical
properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by
Edo people of Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7: 2304-
2309. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB.
Nasreen, U. and M.A. Khan, 2001. Some Problematical
Medicinal Plants of Pakistan, pp: 117.
Nasr, S.H., 1976. Islamic Science-An illustrated study.
Westerham Press, Ltd., Westerham, Kent
(England), pp: 15.
plants for healthier world. http://www.pfaf.org/
database/plants.php?
Rafai, J.U.N., 1990. The Quran Translation and Study
Juz 1 (Part-1). Taha Publishers Ltd. 1, Wynne Road
London SW9 OBB, pp: 54 .
Saboor, A.H., 1999. Tibb-e-Nabvi aur Modern science wa
Tajrabat-e-Attiba. Saboor Klinik Burji Wala, Jhang
Saddar, pp: 75.
Shahidullah, 2000. Ethnobotanical Studies of District
Bannu (M. Phil Thesis), N.W.F.P. Department of
Biological Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University
Islamabad, Pakistan, pp: 53.
Shah, G.M., 2007. Plants and Plant Resources of Siran
Valley, Mansehra, N.W.F.P., Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis.
Department of olant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam
University, Islamabad. P-206.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2003; 33:4445
COMMUNICATIONS
HUMAN GENETICS IN THE HOLY QURAN AND SUNNA
A.M. Adam, Department of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Islam is fundamentally rooted in the Holy Quran, which
has been in existence for more than 14 centuries, and
the Sunna, a collection of sayings and practices of Prophet
Muhammad. In recent times, Islamic scientists have once
more turned to these primary sources in a quest for an
alternative view of certain scientific principles and to
look for new ideas from this fountain of knowledge. This
paper traces various fundamental principles of human
genetics within the Holy Quran and Sunna and compares
these with the source of the same knowledge in Western
science.
SEX DETERMINATION AT FERTILISATION
When Spallanzani discovered the process of fertilisation
in 1775 by studying frogs, he did not know at what point
the sex in the frog embryo was determined in this
process.
1
X and Y chromosomes were discovered in the
beetle by N.M. Stevens in 1905 but he doubted that
these chromosomes were sex determinants in the zygote,
and thought that they were simply part of the genetic
make-up and were associated with secondary sexual
characteristics.
2
In 1919, Morgan and Bridges, while
studying the Drosophila fly, found that the X and Y
chromosomes pl ay an i mportant rol e i n sex
determination.
3
However, the knowledge of sex
determination in mammals had to wait until 1959 for
Jacobs et al. studying humans, and for Welshons and
Russell in their study of the mouse in the same year, to
show that mammals resemble the plant Melandrium in
that the Y chromosome is male-determining. This paved
the way for the concept that spermatozoa determine the
eventual sex of the baby by containing either the X or
the Y chromosome.
4
The Holy Quran describes fertilisation in some detail
and has done this in nine stages;
5
it has gone even further
to show at what point in human embryology sex is
determined.
Allah says that He did create the pairs, male and female.
From a sperm drop when lodged.
6
This verse clearly
states that the sex of the offspring is determined soon
after a sperm drop is lodged. This is repeated for emphasis
in another verse, which states: and He out of semen
made both sexes, male and female.
7
PROPERTIES OF CHROMOSOMES
The carriage of characteristics from the parents to the
offspring is also described in several places in the Holy
Quran. Allah says:
From [part of] a sperm drop He hath created him,
and then immediately programmed him [his future].
8
And Allah did create you from dust; then from [part
of] a sperm drop; then made you pairs [after the
stage of the sperm drop]. And no female conceives,
or lays down [her load] but with His knowledge.
9
These two verses refer indirectly to two very important
properties of nuclear chromosomes: the first refers to
semen carrying the characteristics of the individual and
the second suggests the pairing of genetic characteristics.
In a tradition related to the Prophet:
Um Sulaim came to Allahs messenger [peace be upon
him] and said, Is it necessary for a woman to take a
bath after she has a wet dream [nocturnal discharge]?
The Prophet replied, Yes, if she notices a discharge.
Um Salamah then covered her face [shyly] and asked,
O Allahs messenger! Does a woman get a discharge
[fertile fluid]? He replied, Yes and that is why the
child also resembles the mother.
10
This passage shows that a woman participates equally in
the process of fertilisation and that her characteristics
and traits are also passed on to the child through
substances (which are now identified as chromosomes)
that are contained in her fertile fluid, a fact that was not
so obvious to Hamm and Leeuwenhoek who, after seeing
spermatozoa for the first time, misinterpreted their role
and thought that spermatozoa contained small fully formed
babies (see Figure 1).
1
EXISTENCE OF RECESSIVE GENES
Abu-Huraira narrated:
A man came to Prophet Muhammad [peace be upon
him], and said: O Allahs prophet, a black child has
been born for me! The Prophet asked him, Do you
have camels? The man replied, Yes. The prophet
asked him, What colour are they? The man replied,
Red. The Prophet said, Is there a grey one among
them? The man replied, Yes. The Prophet said,
Whence comes that? He said, maybe it [the colour]
was pulled out by a hidden trait. The Prophet said,
maybe your sons [colour] was pulled out [by a
trait].
11
The Holy Quran exhibits here both wisdom and the
44
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2003; 33:4445
COMMUNICATIONS
45
highest degree of justice. More than ten centuries before
Gregor Mendel was born, history took shape in a
monastery garden! No adverse judgement was passed
and no sanction applied on this mans wife, and the colour
of her offspring was explained as some concealed trait
from the family background. The existence of a dominance
of certain hereditable traits needs no explanation, as it is
obvious that a red camel would bear a red offspring.
GENE PENETRANCE
In a tradition narrated by Anas, Prophet Muhammad said,
And if a mans discharge preceded that of the woman,
then the child resembles the father, and if the womans
discharge preceded that of the man, then the child
resembles the mother.
13
The implication behind this is that if spermatozoa are
lodged long before ovulation then the activation of the
male genes will be at a more advanced stage than those
in the ovum, and therefore they will play a greater role
in showing the characteristics gained from the father
especially if these genes follow codominance (with variable
penetrance) or have complex inheritance characteristics.
It may be of some importance to recall that when the
Holy Quran was written, womens rights were non-
existent and many a female baby was buried alive to
avoid the shame of a family bearing a female child, her
mother ostracised for bringing shame to the family. The
above two verses state clearly that if there is anybody
responsible for the sex of the baby it is the father.
This statement also has an important bearing on the
di spensi ng of j usti ce: a woman beari ng a dark-
complexioned child when both she and her husband are
of a lighter complexion is certainly and naturally possible.
This applies to those communities in which individuals
vary in their skin colouring. This also prevents the use of
hearsay evidence to convict and condemn an innocent
woman for adultery on the basis that a child is not to the
satisfaction of the father.
One of the greatest trusts given to a man is when
somebodys daughter or sister is given to him to hold
her as his lawfully wedded wife. Therefore, he should not
burden his wife with false accusations and abuse.
REFERENCES
1 Moore KL. The Developing Human: Clinically Orientated
Embryology. Third Edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders;
1982; 810.
2 Stevens NM. Studies in spermatogenesis with a special
reference to the accessory chromosome. Carn Inst Wash
Publ 1905; 36:33.
3 Morgan TH, Bridges CB. The origin of gynandromorphs.
Carn Inst Wash Publ 1919; 278:122.
4 Sturtevant AH. A History of Genetics. New York: Harper
and Row Publishers; 1965; 83.
5 Adam AM. The many processes of fertility science in the
Holy Quran. JIMA 1998; 30:747.
6 Glorious Quran. Chapter 53, Verse 456.
7 Glorious Quran. Chapter 75, Verse 39.
8 Moore, op. cit. ref. 1, 34a.
9 Glorious Quran. Chapter 35, Verse 11.
10 Khan MM. Sahih al-Bukhari. New Delhi: Nusrat Ali Nasri;
1984; 197.
11 Moore KL. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented
Embr yol ogy, wi th Isl ami c Addi ti ons. Philadelphia: WB
Saunders; 1982; 140b.
12 Soper R Biological Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press; 1990; 838.
13 Ibid., 68.
FIGURE 1
A line drawing depicting spermatozoa containing a small
fully formed baby.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol. 8(1), January 1995, p.51-62

STUDIES ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY

DILNAWAZ SHEIKH, SHAMS-UZ-ZAMAN, S. BAQIR NAQVI,
M. RAFI SHEIKH* AND GHULAM ALI**
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy
Department of Microbiology
University of Karachi, Karachi-75270
**Department of F. Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Karachi

ABSTRACT

Ten samples of crude and processed honey were used to determine antimicrobial
activity against twenty five species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria,
commonly encountered in human infections. The antifungal activity was
checked against ten parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Most of the samples of
honey used in the study showed broad spectrum antibacterial and promising
antifungal activity.

Introduction

The Holy Quran, the heritage of Islamic Sciences, has time and again emphasized
the medicinal virtue of honey. The last scripture enlists honey as a miraculous food in a
separate surah, "AI-Nahl (The Bee)".
1l


And they Lord commands the bee, saying:

"Make thee houses in the mountains and in the trees and in what they (people)
build-up, then eat of all the fruits and walk thou the ways of thy Lord made easy.
He produces from her inside a drink of various hues, in which there is healing
for mankind. Most surely in this there is a sign for people who think".

Honey is the most primitive nourishing and healing agent. It is a thick, syrupy,
translucent, pale yellow or yellowish brown liquid deposited in the honey comb by the
bee, Apis mellifera Linn. (Family: Apidae). It has a characteristics odour and a sweet,
faintly acidic taste. It contains: invert sugar (62-83%), sucrose (0-8%), dextrin (0.26-7%)
together with water and traces of other nutrients.
7
Honey is levorotatory and is acidic to
litmus paper.
5
It is a unique mixture having fat soluble as well as water soluble vitamins.
8



Antimicrobial activity of honey 52
During the 16th and 17th centuries it was recommended as a cure for almost every
thing.
2
It is a simple, effective and inexpensive healer of wounds. It has been used in the
treatment of infected wounds in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre with excellent results.
1


Honey also serves as a substitute for glucose in oral rehydration solutions containing
electrolytes. The correct dilution of honey and the presence of electrolytes in the oral
solution must be maintained.
9


In Soviet Union, honey is commonly used as a base for ointments and has very
successfully been applied in surgical dressings for open wounds and burns to avoid septic
infections. It is also used for many minor ailments of animals.
10


In the pharmaceutical preparations it is used as a sweetening, flavouring and
demulcent agent. It is used as an excepient for preparing pills and masses and as a
flavouring agent in gargles, linctuses, and cough mixtures.
18


Materials and Methods

10 samples of locally manufactured, imported and crude samples of honey were
procured from the market and from the hives (Table 1) in order to determine their an-
timicrobial activities.

In the present study 25 species of common pathogenic and non- pathogenic bacteria
and 10 species of fungi were used. Eleven bacteria were Gram positive and four-teen
were Gram negative (Tables 2, 3). Among the fungi, nine species were pathogenic and
only one specie was saprophytic and non-pathogenic (Table 6).

A comparative study of antimicrobial activity has been carried out by the procedure
described by Bhakuni et a1.
3
and Baqir et al.
2
. The sample exhibiting maximum
antimicrobial activity was fractionated into partly purified alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal
portions, in order to find which portion contained antimicrobial constituents.

Preparation of Test Samples:
10 mg of honey samples were taken in 50 ml sterile volumetric flask. The volume
was made up with sterile distilled water for a dilution of 20% w/v.

Separation of Alkaloidal and Non-Alkaloidal Fractions of Honey:
Crude honey sample (F) which indicated promising antimicrobial activity, w
fractionated into alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions by chemical method so as to
determine which portion possessed maximum antimicrobial activity.
Sheikh et al. 53
20 mg of honey (sample F) was extracted with ethanol (EtOH) three times. The
EtOH extracts was acidified with 10% HCI and extracted with CHCI3 to remove the non-
alkaloidal portion. The acidic aqueous fraction was then basil
-
led with NH
3
and extracted
thoroughly with CHCl
3
. The mass when examined on TLC plate showed several spots
indicating several constituents which gave coloured reactions with Dragendroff reagent.

Antimicrobial Assay:
The tests were run in triplicate. Petri plates were prepared with trypticase soy gar. 1
ml of the diluted culture was poured on each plate. Wells of 5 mm diameter (ap-
proximately) were cut with sterile cork borer in the inoculated agar. The wells were filled
with test samples with the help of sterile droppers. Similarly in control plates wells were
filled with sterile distilled water. The plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37C. At the
end of incubation period the inhibition zones were measured. The results were tabulated
in Tables 2, 3, 4, 5.

Antifungal Assay:
The tests were run in triplicate. 2 gm of honey was mixed with 8 ml sterile molten
Sabouraud dextrose agar and was poured into sterile petri plates. 1 ml of 10
-2
dilution in
strile 0.9% NaCl of the two-day fungal cultures were spotted on dried Sabouraud agar
plates. The plates were incubated at 25C for 5 days. The results were noted as heavy
growth (H), scanty growth (S) and no growth (N). In ontrol plates no honey was
incorporated in Sabouraud dextrose agar. The results were tabulated in Tables 6, 7.


Results and Discussion

The Holy Quran intimates honey as the healing for all kinds of diseases. Honey is a
divine drug quoted in all the scriptures. The therapeutic value of honey was under-scored
in various literatures. It occupied a prominent place in traditional medicine. It is used in
all the systems of medicine for the treatment of a number of human ailments such as
wound infection, diarrhoea, dehydration, paralysis particularly facial paralysis,
amenorrhoea, dropsy, chest infection, jaudice, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections,
carcinoma of vulva, deafening ear, fever, tetanus, boils, skin strains and skin infections.

The antimicrobial effect of honey has been reported by a number of workers (1, 5, 9,
10, 18, 25) but most of these reports are conflicting and are not substantiated by enough
scientific proof. The present study was carried out so as to determine the antimicrobial
effects of honey using prescribed scientific procedures.


Antimicrobial activity of honey 54
The important conclusions which can be drawn from the present study can be
summarized as such. Firstly, honey has broad spectrum antimicrobial and prominent
antifungal activity as indicated by Tables 2-7. In our study seven species of Gram posi-
tive cocci and four species of Gram positive bacilli were used. With the exception of
Streptococcus faecalis, all the Gram positive organisms were inhibited by samples A and
B (Langanese and crude honey). However this specie was inhibited by samples E, F, G,
H, I and J. Thus the present study is in confi
r
mation with previous reports of Cavanaugh
et a1,
5
Warnecke et al.
24
and Obaseiki et al.
13
The control plates did not show any
inhibition.

Secondly, studies on species of Corynebacterium (C. dipfheriae, C. hoffmani, C.
xerosis) have not previously been reported. The present study reveals that all the three
species were inhibited by honey samples A, B, F, H and J. Honey samples C and D
(Marhaba, Hamdard) showed no activity against these organisms. In fact these two
samples exhibited activity only against four Gram positive cocci i.e. M. lysodeikticus, S.
aureus, S. laths and S. pyogenes (Table 2).

Similar results are reported with Gram negative bacteria (Table 3). Samples A, B, E,
F, G and H very effectively inhibited the growth of nearly all Gram negative organisms
used in the study with the exception of E. coil 97 which was resistant to most of the
honey samples. As far as the Gram negative organisms are concerned the present reports
conforms the findings of Obaseiki et al.
13
and Ibrahim.
12


Thirdly, the present study seems to be fast report in literature with respect to Vibrio
cholerae. As indicated in Table 3, all the samples of honey produced large zones of
inhibition against this organism. This importance of this finding lies in the fact that honey
can be used in oral rehydration solution for treating cholera patients.

As far as fungi are concerned, only two reports could be traced (13, 14). These
reports indicated that honey had promising activity against Candida albicans and
Aspergillus niger. Present study seems to be the first report indicating activity against
dermatophytes (M. ferrogenium, T. longfeuseus, T. mentagrophyte, T. semmie, T. ton-
surance) and parasitic fungi (Allescheria boydii) and saprophytic (Mucor mucaralis).
Including two species of Aspergillus i.e. A. flavus, A. niger and C. albicans, ten species of
fungi were used. Honey seems to be much less effective on fungi than bacteria (table 6).
The finding which is most interesting is that as compared to other honeys, Capilano
honey (I) from Australia seems to be most effective against most of the species of fungi
used in the study. This sample did not show promising activity against bacteria.

Sheikh et al. 55
Among the different samples of honey used in the study sample F, the crude honey
procured from a bee-hive of Karachi University, showed maximum activity. An attempt
was made to fractionate this sample of honey into alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions
by chemical method. Both the alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions of honey exhibited
similar activity indicating the antimicrobial system was present in both the fractions of
honey (Tables 4, 5, 7).

It has been suggested that three major system are responsible for the antimicrobial
activity of honey i.e. inhibine, high osmotic pressure and acidity.
10


Inhibine
The initial report on inhibine, an antibacterial substance in honey was presented by
Cavanagh et al.
5
who stated that inhibine content of honey was reduced by sunlight.
Thereafter several workers reported various physical and chemical properties of the
substance, the exact constitution of which is still unknown.
13,17,19


High osmotic pressure
Honey is basically a supersaturated solution of carbohydrates, the osmotic pressure of
honey creates a very effective antimicrobial system.
4,5,6,10


Acidity
The general range of honey pH is 3.2-4.5. This high degree of acidity prevents the
growth of many bactrial forms.
10,22,25

From the results of the present study the most important conclusion which can be
drawn is that the antimicrobial activity is maximum in the crude honey. The three
samples of fresh crude honey used in the study showed much better activity than the
processed honeys. It can be suggested that during the processing the active components
were partially inactivated.

And above all this humble study scientifically proves what ever is indicated in Surah
"AI-Nahl".

"He produces from her inside a drink of various hues, in which there is healing for
mankind. Most surely in this there is a sign for a people who think".
11





Antimicrobial activity of honey 56

Sheikh et al. 57











Antimicrobial activity of honey 58















Sheikh et al. 59












Antimicrobial activity of honey 60















Sheikh et al. 61





References

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Review
The heart and cardiovascular system in the Qur'an and Hadeeth
Marios Loukas
a,
, Yousuf Saad
a
, R. Shane Tubbs
b
, Mohamadali M. Shoja
c
a
Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University, School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies
b
Pediatric Neurosurgery, Birmingham, AL, USA
c
Clarian Neuroscience Institute, Indianapolis Neurosurgical Group, Indiana University Department of Neurosurgery-Indianapolis, IN, USA
a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 7 May 2009
Accepted 12 May 2009
Available online xxxx
Keywords:
Cardiovascular system
History of cardiology
History of medicine
Cardiovascular system and religion
Descriptions of the human anatomy derived from religious texts are often omitted from the medical
literature. The present review aims to discuss the comments and commentaries made regarding the heart
and cardiovascular system as found in the Qur'an and Hadeeth. Based on this review, it is clear that these
early sources both had a good comprehension of these parts of the body.
2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
1. Introduction
Progress within the 20th century alone has produced an immense
amount of literature and understanding in anatomy, medicinal health,
and the correlation between the two. Our comprehension of the two,
however, would not be possible without the important discoveries
and critical observations of our predecessors such as the Father of
Medicine Hippocrates (463370 BC), the Father of Modern Anat-
omy Andreas Vesalius (15141564), and Abu Ali al-Husain ibn
Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna) [1] and [2]. While the contributions of
Galen and Hippocrates are well known, contributions to medicine by
numerous religious texts including the Hindu Vedas, JudeoChristian
Bible and Talmud, and the Islamic Qur'an and Hadeeth (prophetic
sayings of Mohammad) are often omitted from the literature.
Found within the Qur'an and Hadeeth are accurate descriptions of
anatomical structures, surgical procedures, physiological character-
istics, and medical remedies. In particular, prophylaxis of general
diseases is emphasized by encouraging physical activity, herbal and
organic remedies, and spiritual revitalization. Notably, within these
two texts, is the emphasis on the heart and blood as both a vehicle for
life and as an organ central to affecting emotion and attitude.
Furthermore, the lifestyle prescribed by these Islamic traditions
promotes longevity of life, prevention of cardiovascular diseases,
and discourages risk factors associated with such diseases. Therefore,
it is evident that the authors of the texts had a good understanding of
both the etiology and pathology of many diseases of the heart and
cardiovascular system.
Althoughthere is a considerable amount of informationinthe Qur'an
and Hadeeth about general medicine and anatomy, there is a lack of
reliable and critical research. Hence, the purpose of this review is to
accurately present the anatomical and medical contributions of the
Qur'an and Hadeeth, with specic focus on the cardiovascular system.
2. History of the Qur'an and Hadeeth
The entire Qur'an is believed to be the direct word of God
according to Muslims, revealed to the Prophet Mohammad through
the Angel Gabriel over a span of 23 years (610632 AD). Though
revealed during these years, the transmission of the verses was
conducted orally until it was compiled and canonized the year after
Mohammad's death. The exegesis of the Qur'an was carried out by
scholars in later centuries, the most popular being made by Ibn Kathir
in the 14th century. The Hadeeth are the sayings, rulings, advices,
actions and habits of the Prophet Mohammed which are distinct from
the direct words of God and were also transmitted orally until they
were organized into a comprehensive permanent record in the 9th
century. Scholars of the time were meticulous in their work and
employed stringent rules as to which sayings of Mohammad would be
included in the compilation to ensure accuracy and authenticity. Only
the sayings that had a strong, credible line of transmission were
collected and written. Both the Qur'an and the Hadeeth were used
when creating the Islamic law Shariah, Path.
3. General views about medicine in Qur'an and Hadeeth
History has shown an antagonistic relationship between religion
and science, as the authority and power exerted by the Christian
Church during the Middle Ages and Renaissance stied open scientic
International Journal of Cardiology xxx (2009) xxxxxx
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1473 444 4175x2005; fax: +1473 444 2887.
E-mail addresses: edsg2000@yahoo.com, mloukas@sgu.edu (M. Loukas).
IJCA-12055; No of Pages 5
0167-5273/$ see front matter 2009 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.05.011
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
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j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ i j car d
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inquiries into natural phenomena, even if such empirical observations
were substantiated by rational thought and calculations. This
inharmonious relationship signicantly slowed the progress of
scientic discoveries and advancements, compelling scientists to
work in secret out of fear of the. During the same period, the vast
Islamic empire was the epicenter of all academia, as major cities
consisted of large libraries containing the world's knowledge
translated from most languages into Arabic. Unlike the Christian
Church, Islamic teachings strongly encouraged and supported scien-
tic research which led to many advancements and discoveries [3]. In
fact, the Qur'an and Hadeeth recognize the pursuit of knowledge as
being an act of worship to God. This supportive attitude towards
scientic observation and opinion has resulted in numerous scientic
achievements and the adoption of a tolerant attitude toward the
expression and discussion of scientic observation and opinion.
The Qur'an and Hadeeth even include some of the discoveries
made during the time of its creation. According to the Qur'an and
Hadeeth, God created disease and God also created a treatment for
every disease. There is a prophetic tradition where Mohammad has
been reported to have said that for every disease there is a remedy,
and when the remedy is made apparent, the disease is cured by the
permission of God [4]. Therefore, people are encouraged to pray, but
also seek out treatments. Anything that harms the body, mind and
soul must be treated. It is for this reason that physicians were highly
valued members of the community and Mohammad called upon them
to treat illnesses. This demonstrates that Islam was compatible with
medicine; the need for medical treatment was accepted and required.
In the Qur'an and Hadeeth, two different forms of treatment can be
foundspiritual healing and physical healing. There are at least six
verses which discuss divine healing. The medium through which this
healing occurs is via the teachings and revelation of the Qur'an, a
scripture that has been revealed as a mercy and healing to those who
think [5]. This form of healing treats, specically, the heart, as God
removes rage form their hearts [6]. The Qur'an mentions hidden
ailments meaning doubt, impurity, hypocrisy, disbelief, and falsehood,
attributed as diseases of the heart. Proverbs and stories in the Qur'an
discuss faith and loyalty to the divine and state that they who
sincerely trust will cure thenwhen they are ill [7]. Although spiritual
healing is most mentioned in the Qur'an, it would be erroneous to
claim that the practice of medicine was meant only for the divine.
While the scripture and remembrance of God is supposed to heal
the hidden ailments of people, many Muslim physicians found
treatment options in the Qur'an and the Hadeeth. Physical ailments
and their treatments are discussed in the Qur'an and Hadeeth, such as
abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, leprosy, and mental illness. Moham-
mad is reported to have said that healing is in three things: a gulp of
honey, cupping, and cauterizing, but that cauterization should be a last
resort [8]. Honey was offered as treatment for many illnesses, such as
abdominal discomfort and diarrhea. Honey contains the therapeutic
contents sugars, vitamins, anti-microbials, among other things. Black
cumin was also a source of treatment [9], as was At-Talbina (a porridge
prepared from milk, honey, and white our [10], Indian incense for
throat trouble and pleurisy, eating dates protected against poison [11],
breastfeeding [12], ablution and forgiveness. Furthermore, the well of
Zam Zam, a miraculously generated source of water in Mecca was
believed to be a treatment for fevers [13]. Thus, the Qur'an and Ha-
deeth offer treatments for numerous illnesses common in Arabia
during that time, establishing the important concept that Islamic
tradition recognizes treatments for the illnesses and the treatments
must be sought out and provided to patients.
Both preventative and therapeutic medicines are discussed in the
Qur'an and Hadeeth; however, it is prevention of human sins, illnesses
and diseases that is most emphasized. In the Islamic doctrine, human
illness was prevented through compulsory hygienic practices. The
importance of cleanliness was emphasized in prophetic traditions. For
instance, Mohammad states that while praising God is half of faith,
cleanliness is the other half [14]. In another tradition, Mohammad is
reported to have said that surgical circumcision, clipping or shaving
the pubes, cutting the nails, plucking or shaving the hair under the
armpits and clipping (or shaving) the moustache are all acts that
benet the body and thus bring one closer to God [15]. In addition, the
transmission of certain diseases that were communicable by touch
and air was known, which is why the idea of quarantining the sick was
encouraged and practiced. Narrations exist where Mohammad
admonishes healthy individuals to ee from a lepers as you ee
froma lion [16] and the narration also warns those who are healthy to
keep away from those who are sick.
Furthermore, the Qur'an forbids foods to be eaten that can easily
transmit food-borne diseases such as Trichinella, Taeniasis and
Neurocysticercosis, as can be seen in the following verse; Forbidden
to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the esh of swine, and that on
which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath
been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or
by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild
animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is
sacriced on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat)
by rafing with arrows: that is impiety [17]. Noise pollution is also
mentioned in the Hadeeth, where Mohammad encourages his
followers not to speak in a loud voice or to engage in any act that
consisted of loud sound, which is why drumming, blowing of a horn,
and ringing bells were all turned down by Mohammad when it came
to deciding how to deliver the call for prayer. Alcohol is also forbidden
in Islam, as is made clear by the Qur'anic injunction. Therefore, it is
apparent that the Qur'an discouraged actions that might adversely
affect the body such as extremely loud noise and unsanitary food.
Indeed, these Qur'anic verses motivated health consciousness.
Verses from the Qur'an and many prophetic sayings deal with
public and individual health, both resources heavily emphasizing the
cardiovascular system. The importance of the heart to the human
being as an organ for survival in Islam, as well as the organ of the
human psyche is a critical to understanding Islamic teachings. Hence,
this rest of this review will focus in on Qur'anic understanding of the
cardiovascular system.
4. The cardiovascular system
Various aspects of the cardiovascular system are mentioned in
both the Qur'an and the Hadeeth. The Qur'an and the Hadeeth discuss
the importance of the heart, blood and its circulation and howthey are
vital to the maintenance of life.
4.1. Blood and circulation
Blood is mentioned in several passages of the Qur'an and Hadeeth.
In general, blood is mentioned in relation to lineage and identity,
menstruation, slaughtering of animals for consumption, and
embryology.
The relationship between God and man is illustrated in the
following verse; We created manWe know what his soul whispers
to him: We are closer to him than his jugular vein [18]. The Qur'an
establishes the intimate relationship with God and humans by
asserting that God, in fact, is even more intimate with His creation
than this vital blood vessel. By noting the importance of the internal
jugular vein and its connection with the heart, the authors of the
Qur'an were well aware of the vitality of blood and the heart to the
maintenance of life. It was also known that blood circulation reached
all parts of the body and is an important element to life [19].
Another great vessel mentioned in the Qur'an is the Al-Aatn or
aorta We would certainly have seized his right hand and cut off his
Al-Watn, [20]. Al-Watn has been translated into different, yet similar
words, including aorta [21], life-artery [20] and [21], and simply
artery [21]. This verse is taken to mean that if the Prophet
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Mohammed was lying about the teachings of God, then God would
have grabbed the Prophet Mohammad's arm and cut a vital artery,
certainly killing Mohammad. This verse conrms that 1. Blood was
indeed viewed as a vehicle for life and 2. The artery directly leading
from the heart is vital to survival. By analyzing the different
translations and exegesis of Al-Watn, it can be safely assumed that
it is the aorta that the author of the Qur'an is referring to in this verse.
Blood is also mentioned numerous times in verses discussing food.
For instance, the intake of blood is completely forbidden, and all of the
blood of a slaughtered animal must be drained at the time of the
slaughter as the carotid arteries and jugular veins are severed. There
seems to be an acknowledgement in the Qur'an that some blood is
impure and can contain and transmit pathogens leading to disease. In
addition, during menstruation, women are to abstain from sexual
intercourse and the ritual prayer because menstrual blood is
considered impure. However, not all blood is impure, as Mohammad
distinguishes between menses and blood from a blood vessel; if a
woman's uterine vessels are to rupture causing bleeding, the
restrictions placed on a female during menstruation does not apply
[22]. Blood is also used when the Qur'an describes the early stages of
the embryo as congealed blood or blood clot (to be discussed later
in the paper). Thus, we nd several comments of blood in the Qur'an
as an impurity, as spreading disease, a sign of lineage, and in relation
to women's health.
4.2. Heart
The heart is mentioned numerous times in both the Qur'an and
Hadeeth and is used in many different contexts, such as in the
heart or from the heart. The repetitive use of the concept of the
heart illustrates its centrality to the core of every individual. Firstly,
the importance of the heart is demonstrated in the fact that we nd
different states of the heart in the three groups of people that the
Qur'an describes; the mu'minun (Believers) have hearts that are
alive, the karun (the rejecters of faith) have hearts that are dead, and
the munaqun (the hypocrites) have hearts that are diseased. The two
general types of heart that are described are the extensively described
spiritual heart and the physical heart.
In general, religious scholars discuss two types of (spiritual) heart
diseases: shubahat which relate to one's level of understanding and
trust, and shahawat which are desires of the self and become diseases
when they grow out of proportion. Emotions, attitudes, knowledge,
diseases, desires, truthfulness, actions and intentions are all rooted in
the heart. As such, the heart is the core of every human being, as it is
directly involved in the relationship between the individual and God,
it governs all actions, and it is the possessor of all emotional faculties.
Thus, the role the heart plays in Islam is given much more importance
and emphasis than the physiological function and purpose ascribed to
the heart in traditional science.
The Qur'an shares with the Hadeeth a metaphorical description of the
heart as a possessor of emotional faculties, thus giving the heart many
characteristics that modern science attributes to the brain. As is popularly
stated in Islamic culture, every action is dependent upon intentions [23],
and what counts is [to God] the intention of your hearts [24]. These
actions, whether good or bad determine the health of the heart,
namely if it is a sound or diseased heart. A diseased heart is one lled with
qualities such as doubt [25], hypocrisy [26], and ignorance [27] among
many others. Possessors of such qualities have a hardened, diseased
heart [28]. Other malaise qualities contributing to a diseased heart
includes blasphemy, rejection of truth, deviation, sin, corruption,
aggressiveness, negligence, fear, anger, and jealousy, among others.
Considering the physical, social, and emotional impact these
characteristics can have on a person, the author of the Qur'an asserts
there hath come to you a direction fromyour Lord and a healing for
(for the diseases) in your hearts [29]. This is so because neither
money nor children will benet [on the Day of Resurrection] except
whoever meets God with a sound heart (emphasis added) [30]. It is
important to note the link between knowledge and the heart; the
perverse heart and the heart lled with knowledge, faith, belief and
wisdomare antagonistic in nature, and it is the latter that is favored by
the author of the Qur'an [31].
Although there are multiple Qur'anic verses and prophetic
traditions regarding the spiritual heart, a fewbut important references
have certainly been made about the anatomy and physiology of the
physical heart as a vulnerable organ vital to the human being. We rst
see the heart referred to as a muscle and not in a metaphorical sense in
a prophetic tradition, where it is stated, Beware! There is a piece of
esh in the body if it remains healthy the whole body becomes
healthy, and if it is diseased, the whole body becomes diseased.
Beware, it is the heart [32]. This tradition holds true if taken either
literally or spiritually. Furthermore, there is a prophetic tradition that
discusses heart surgery, extraction of a blood clot, and treatment of
the heart as follows: the Angel Gabriel came to Mohammad as a child
while he was playing with playmates, lay him prostrate on the
ground and tore open his breast and took out the heart from it and
then extracted a blood-clot out of it and said, That was the part of
Satan in thee. And then he washed it with the water of Zam Zam in a
golden basin and then it was joined together and restored to its place
[33]. Thus, although rudimentary and perhaps even metaphorical, the
surgery described required knowledge of the anatomical and
physiological importance of the heart to the healthy functioning of
the body and the detrimental effects of a thrombus.
4.3. Cardiovascular disease
Although not outwardly mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadeeth, the
lifestyle that the authors of the Qur'an encourage drastically decreases
the chances of individuals developing such cardiovascular diseases
such as heart diseases, blood clots, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis
via the following ways: engaging in spiritual activities, moderate
eating, physical labor, reducing anger and jealousy, eliminating
greediness, and abstention of forbidden foods and drinks.
The Islamic prayer is performed at least ve times a day and
consists of a series of movements entailing standing, prostrating, and
sitting. When performing prayer, the author of the Qur'an discourages
lazily performing prayer as performed by the Hypocrites [34]; thus, a
lethargic and carelessness approach to prayer neither obtains any
spiritual nor physical benet to the state of health. Also, the amount of
prostrations, and thus physical movement, during a prayer varies from
one prayer to the next. We nd that increased number of prostrations
in a prayer (i.e. physical movement) correlates with the time of day
whenone usually eats, possibly to help digest food and, in the long run,
reduce the chances of thrombus formation. In addition, the author of
the Qur'an states, Truly it is in the remembrance of God that the hearts
nd peace [35]. It is said that Mohammad advised people not to go to
sleepimmediatelyafter meals, for that wouldleadtoa hardeningof the
heart [36]. It was also advised not to engage in strenuous physical
activity after eating.
The physical movements during prayer also help prevent deep vein
thrombi. Repetitive standingsitting actions throughout the day
activate the muscle pump in leg muscles (such as the gastrocnemius
and soleus), which increase the venous return to the heart upon
standing and displaces blood from peripheral to central veins, thus
preventing edema and decreasing the probability of forming thrombi.
Furthermore, Mohammad encouraged the consumption of foods such
as white meat of sh that are low in fat and help decrease serum
cholesterol levels. He also encouraged the consumptionof whole-grain
brain for higher ber intake.
The author of the Qur'an and Mohammad have discouraged the
consumption of pig meat, probably due to the diseases which they
transmit (i.e. Trichinella, Teniasis, etc) and because of its high content
in fat and calories. Finally, the consumption of alcohol is also forbidden
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[37]; although the author of the Qur'an acknowledges the benets of
alcohol, He also states that more harm than benet exists in its
consumption [38]. Alcoholism affects virtually all organs of the body
including the liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, heart and brain and
can cause numerous problems including liver cirrhosis, pancreatic
insufciency, cancer, hypertension and heart disease. Thus, the
likelihood of obtaining various cardiovascular diseases is signicantly
decreased through the lifestyle encouraged by the Qur'an and Hadeeth.
5. Contributions to medicine
Experimental embryology is a fairly recent discovery, its roots
beginning with the invention of the microscope in the 17th century.
Even so, the idea that the human being developed in stages to form
the fetus rather than in a miniature human form present in a gamete
developed much later in history as more accurate stages in
embryological development were described with the introduction of
technologically advanced equipment. The Qur'an and the Hadeeth
provide detailed, accurate descriptions of the major events that occur
during embryological development. The terminology used by the
author of the Qur'an is characterized by descriptiveness, accuracy,
ease of comprehension, and integration between description of
appearance and main internal processes and the timing of sexual
development, fetal development and the acquisition of a human
appearance are also discussed [39].
Although many verses in the Qur'an and prophetic traditions
discuss the development of the embryo, only two will be described
below. It is remarkable to note that the descriptions presented in these
7th century texts closely resemble the various stages of the embryo.
We [God] created man froma quintessence of clay. We then placed
himas a nutfah (drop) in a place of settlement, rmly xed, then We
made the drop into an alaqah (leech-like structure), and then We
changed the alaqah into a mudhah (chewed-like substance, somite
stage), then We clothed the bones with lahm (muscles, esh), then
We causedhimto growandcome into being and attainthe denitive
(human) form. So, blessed be God, the best to create [40].
When forty-two nights have passed over the conceptus, God
sends an angel to it, who shapes it (into human form), makes its
hearing, sight, skin, muscles and bones [41].
Shortly after the death of Mohammad, not only did his followers
vastly expand the Islamic empire, but they also became scientic and
medical innovators and educators. The Islamic empire, for more than
1000 years, remained the most advanced and civilized empire in the
world, and the inspiration of all the scientic and medical discoveries
and practices stemmed from the teachings of the Qur'an and the Ha-
deeth, teachings that strongly encouraged and supported the drive to
seek knowledge and to make scientic achievements and discoveries.
For instance, a fewcenturies after the death of Mohammad, the medical
education that developed closely resembled what we have today. The
curriculum consisted of training in the basic sciences, which included
anatomy being taught by dissecting apes, skeletal studies, and didactics,
and clinical training, where therapeutics, pathology, surgery, and
orthopedics were taught [42]. Licensing examinations and boards
were rst established and required within the Islamic empire beginning
931 A.D. The transmission of various diseases was well known around
this time, which led to the creation of different wards at hospitals which
treated different illnesses. Also, this was the rst time in history where
leprosy and mental illnesses were not viewed as demonological events
but as treatable, physical diseases [43]. This era was also the rst time
where patient records were written and stored.
There were numerous other contributions made by a number of
Muslim physicians in various elds of medicine, including medical
education, hospitals, bacteriology (Al-Razi), anesthesia (rst oral
anesthetics by Avicenna), psychotherapy (Najab ud din Mohammad),
surgery (Abu al-Qasim Khalaf Ibn Abbas Al-Zahrawi), ophthalmology
(Ibn al-Haytham), pharmacology (Masail Hunayn), cancer treatment
(Avicenna), physiology (Al-Ash'ath) and anatomy (Ibn Nas) [44].
Most notable of these to cardiovascular anatomy was the ndings of
Ibn al-Nas, a 13th century Syrian physician, who boldly rejected
Galen's assertion that there was a direct (but invisible) passage
through the interventricular septum between the right and left
ventricles. Ibn al-Nas, who wrote medical, theological and philoso-
phical works, made his greatest contribution in Sharh tashrih ibn Sina
(Explanation of the Dissection of Avicenna), as he asserted that
there was no direct interventricular opening and outlined, for the rst
time in history, the pulmonary circulation:
The blood, after it has been rened in this cavity [i.e., the right
ventricle], must be transmitted to the left cavity where the [vital]
spirit is generated. But there is no passage between these two
cavities; for the substance of the heart is solid in this region and
has neither a visible passage, as was thought by some persons, nor
an invisible one which could have permitted the transmission of
blood, as was alleged by Galen. The pores of the heart there are
closed and its substance is thick. Therefore, the blood after having
been rened, must rise in the arterious vein [i.e., pulmonary
artery] to the lung in order to expand in its volume and to be
mixed with air so that its nest part may be claried and may
reach the venous artery [i.e., pulmonary vein] in which it is
transmitted to the left cavity of the heart. This, after having been
mixed with the air and having attained the aptitude to generate
the [vital] spirit. That part of the blood which is less rened is used
by the lung for its nutrition [45].
Ibnal-Nas is oneof numerous examples of themoderncontribution
of the teachings of the Qur'an andHadeeth to modern medicine. Muchof
the scientic discoveries and advancements during the Renaissance
were largely inuenced by the works of various Islamic physicians and
scientists.
6. Conclusions
The Qur'an and prophetic traditions and sayings of Mohammad
were religious, spiritual, and scientic and inuenced medical and
anatomical texts. In particular, specic emphasis is given to the
components of the cardiovascular system. The heart is extensively
described as both an organ of psyche, intelligence, and emotion, as
well as an important body of the organ that can be harmed such as
exhibiting thrombi. An in-depth analysis of the contribution of Islamic
medicine in anatomy, physiology, and health is severely lacking in the
West and, if conducted, would uncover that discoveries made by
European scientists were actually made centuries prior, within the
vast Islamic empire. Perhaps European scientists during the Middle
Ages and beyond failed to benet from the discoveries of the
neighboring Islamic empire for multiple reasons, including poor
translations [46] and the unreadiness of the medical establishment to
give prominence to observation and study over the word of ancient
authority [47]. As newadvances in technology and medicine continue
to grow at an exponential rate today, there is time to reect and
appreciate the Islamic contribution to medicine. It is for this reason
that the discoveries and medical revelations in Qur'an should not be
ignored or forgotten.
Acknowledgement
The authors of this manuscript have certied that they comply
with the Principles of Ethical Publishing in the International Journal of
Cardiology [48].
4 M. Loukas et al. / International Journal of Cardiology xxx (2009) xxxxxx
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Please cite this article as: Loukas M, et al, The heart and cardiovascular system in the Qur'an and Hadeeth, Int J Cardiol (2009), doi:10.1016/j.
ijcard.2009.05.011
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Please cite this article as: Loukas M, et al, The heart and cardiovascular system in the Qur'an and Hadeeth, Int J Cardiol (2009), doi:10.1016/j.
ijcard.2009.05.011
2 JISHIM 2006, 5
I. Al-Jami` al-Sahih (Sahih al-Bukhari)
of Imam Bukhari
Al-Jami` al-Sahih, known as Sahih al-Bukhari, is
a recognized collection of hadiths of the Prophet
(s.a.w) (1). It was compiled by Muhammad b. Isma`il
al-Bukhari (194-256/ 810-870). The hadiths were ar-
ranged in 97 books (kutub, the plural of kitab) with
3,450 chapters (abwab, its singular is bab). They we-
re classified according to subject matters on Fiqh. In
addition, the other subjects such as theology, ethics
and medicine are found as a separated kitab in Sahih
al-Bukhari. The Sahih al-Bukhari is recognized by
the overwhelming majority of the Muslim scholars to
be one of the most authentic collections of the hadith
or Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w) (2).
Imam Bukhari spent sixteen years compiling the
hadiths of the Prophet (s.a.w), and ended up with
2,602 hadiths (9,082 with repetition). Sahih al-Bu-
kahri has been commented by many scholars. Among
them are al-`Alam al-Sunan fi Sharh Sahih Bukhari
by al-Kirmani (717-786/1318-1385); `Umdah al-Qa-
ri by Badr al-Din `Ayni (762-855/1361-1452); Fath
al-Bari by Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani (773 852/1372-
1449); and Irshad al-Sari li Sharh Sahih Bukhari by
al-Qastalani (851- 923/1148-1518).
Al-Bukharis criteria for acceptance of hadiths in-
to his collection were amongst the accepted criteria
of Muslim scholars of hadith. Each report in his col-
lection was checked for compatibility with the
Quran, and the veracity of the chain of reporters had
to be painstakingly established. It is not merely its
authenticity that makes this particular collection ari-
sing interested by Muslim scholars, but also the vital
role it played in developing the concept of health,
Health And Medicine In The Islamic Tradition Based
On The Book Of Medicine (Kitab Al-Tibb) Of
Sahih Al-Bukhari
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH*
* Senior Lecturer Faculty of Human Ecology Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
e-mail: inasanis@hotmail.com
This article attempts to study the book of medicine (kitab al-tibb) in Sahih al-Bukhari. The book of medicine appears in the bo-
ok 76 which consists of 58 chapters with 105 traditions (hadiths). The titles of each chapter in the book of medicine reflect the con-
tent of traditions regarding the medicine and what is related to it. The book of Medicine (kitab al-tibb) gives primarily idea on the
conditions of Muslims in the time of Prophet (s.a.w), how did they prevent and treat the disease. It is found that most of al-tibb al-
nabawi is preventive medicine (al-tibb al-wiqa`i) rather than therapeutic medicine (al-tibb al-`ilaji), and has been practiced in the ti-
me of the Prophet (s.a.w) and even after.
Key words: Islamic Medicine; Medicine of the Prophet (al-Tibb al-Nabawi); Kitab al-Tibb of Sahih al-Bukahri; Imam Bukhari (194-
256/ 810-870).
Summary
* This article is part of my Health and Medicine in the Light of the Book of Medicine (Kitab al-Tibb) in Sahih Bukhari. It was pre-
pared while I was a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies (OCIS). I would like to express my deepest thank to
the Director of OCIS, Dr. F.ANizami for giving me the golden opportunity to conduct my research at the Centre as well as for the
funding that I received from the Centre. Currently, the author is a Senior lecturer at the Department of Government and Civilizati-
on Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
E-mail: nurdeng@putra.upm.edu.my
medicine, prevention and treatment of disease rele-
vance to this age (3).
II. Views on al-Tibb al-Nabawi
(Medicine of the Prophet)
The book of Medicine (kitab al-tibb) of Sahih al-
Bukhari reflects Imam Bukharis view on the scope
of medicine in Islam. The scope of medicine has be-
en explained in the very well known commentaries of
Sahih al-Bukhari namely Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih
al-Bukhari of Ahmad b. Ali Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d.
852/1449) and Umdat al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukha-
ri of Abu Muhammad Mahmud Ahmad al-`Ayni (d.
855/1452), both were living in the era when medical
literature over flows with all sorts of medical discip-
lines, on the meaning of medicine. It was probably in
consequence of reading those literatures that they we-
re in preference to hold that medicine of the Prophet
as other medical sciences is so broad, meaning that, it
does not only refer to what had been said and practi-
ced in the time of Prophet but it reaches and includes
as it does into every field of human medical research,
activity and thought at all time. To do so, one should
know the problem and cause of certain cases, then, he
should try to solve it by consulting hadiths of the
Prophet (s.a.w) relating to medicine as well as anci-
ent and contemporary medical books (4).
So, it was at the time when medical systems were
introduced and practiced widely by Muslims, Ibn Ha-
jar and Ibn Ahmad al-Ayni were very concerned in
giving the scope of medicine of the Prophet in broad
sense especially when they found that Imam Bukhari
was in favor to name one of his chapters (kutub, its
singular is kitab) as kitab al-tibb (the book of medi-
cine) rather than kitab al-tibb al-nabawi (the book of
the medicine of the Prophet). Having this in mind,
they clarified the word al-tibb in the linguistic and
medical perspectives. Ibn Hajar, for example, held
that the word tibb in Arabic language was used to
denote al-hadhaq bi al-shai` (perfect knowledge of
thing and skill in doing it). Those who possess the
skill of treatment and healing are called Tabib (5). It
also carries other meanings such as to amend, resto-
re, adjust, improve, correct, as well as kindness, ex-
pertise, judiciousness, skillfulness, resourcefulness,
competence, maturity, habit, regular practice, perspi-
cacity, intelligence, sophistication, cleverness, effici-
ency, ability to negotiate, mastering with consumma-
te skills, finesses, along with aspiration and glad ti-
dings. After understanding this, Ibn Ahmad al-Ayni
underlined that medicine is the knowledge of the sta-
tes of human body (Ahwal Badn al-Insan) in health
and decline in health (disease); its purpose is preser-
ving health and adopting suitable measures for resto-
ring health whenever lost (al-tibb huwa `ilm yu`raf
bihi ahwal al-badn al-insan min jihhat ma yasihhu
wa yazul `anhu al-sihhat li tahfizu al-sihhah hasiluhu
wa tastariddu raza`iluhu) (6).
According to the above, the restoration of lost he-
alth is the second aim of Islamic medicine. Basically,
the restoration of health in Islamic traditional system
consists of a number of different therapies or treat-
ments, notably using a gulp of honey, cupping and
cauterization. Later on, medicaments, psycho-spiritu-
al healing, and surgical intervention were introduced
when many Muslims had learnt from other civilizati-
on. As in Greek medicine, Islamic medicine gives
very clear distinction between mufradah (simple) and
murakkabah (compound) drugs. In this regard, physi-
cians are advised, if possible, to avoid treating dise-
ases with compound drugs if it effects the weakening
of the body. This was an extremely attractive theory
which actually provided valuable prevention of dise-
ases because the compound medicines are likely to
have more side effects. Those people whose foods
are, for the most part, simple have very few ailments,
and their treatment also consists of simple medicines.
But for city dwellers that are used to compound foods
need compound medicine as well (7).
However, there are people who define medicine of
the Prophet (al-Tibb al-Nabawi) as medical treat-
ments, prescriptions of diseases, prevention, health
promotion and spiritual aspects that were recommen-
ded by Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) to his compani-
ons, and what does not come from the Prophet (s.a.w)
is, therefore, not considered as medicine of the Prop-
het. It is because of this understanding and attitude
that practicing al-Tibb al-Nabawi, according to this
school of thought, is part of following the sunnah of
Prophet (s.a.w) and those who follow other methods
of healing are, therefore, not truly following the sun-
nah of Prophet and probably Islamic teaching too. It
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH HEALTH AND MEDICINE IN THE ISLAMIC TRADITION BASED ON
THE BOOK OF MEDICINE (KITAB AL-TIBB) OF SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
3 JISHIM 2006, 5
seems that this narrow interpretation of the scope of
medicine of the Prophet seemingly does not hold true
meaning of the concept of health and medicine in Is-
lamic tradition.
III. Division of Medicine
In the introduction of his commentary of Sahih
Bukhari of Kitab al-Tibb, Ibn Hajar divides the scien-
ce of medicine into two types namely Tibb Jasad
(physical medicine) and Tibb Qalb (spiritual medici-
ne). Ibn Hajar praises the value and usefulness of me-
dicine, and stresses the primary importance of Tibb
al-Jasad and Tibb al-Qalb because they are associ-
ated (8). There is a symbiotic relationship between
the two kinds of medical knowledge, as one would
find it impossible to achieve one form of medical sci-
ence without the other. This implies that Muslims
should be fully aware of spiritual and physical medi-
cine because, in Islam, the breath and the body, the
soul and matter, the faith and the world have been ac-
corded equal importance. If this is so, the, Ibn Hajars
division of medicine, implies that one is able to obta-
in the happiness in this world and in the hereafter as
long as he is physically and spiritually healthy, and it
can be achieved by the art of medicine, which preser-
ves and restores the health (9).
In trying to reconstruct an aspect of the Greek me-
dicine, we found another division of medicine given
by Ibn Ahmad al-`Ayni, in his introduction to `Um-
dah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari. It is interesting
that after giving a clear definition of the science of
medicine, as mentioned before, he divided the scien-
ce of medicine into two main parts namely the the-
oretical (al-`ilm) and the practical science (al-`amal).
The former, according to him, is the true knowledge
of the intended subject in the mind of mankind by
which it can administer and put into practice (ma`ri-
fah haqiqah al-maqsud wahuwa maudu` fi al-fikr al-
ladhi yakunu bihi al-tadbir) and the latter is the ex-
ternal part of the subject in humans mind by which
man is able to put into practice directly either through
the sense or hand (surgery) (khuruj dhalik al-maudu
fi al-fikr ila al-mubashirah bi al-hiss wa al-amal bi
al-yadd) (10).
To give further explanation, Ibn al-`Ayni asserted
that the theoretical medicine comprised of three ma-
jor branches. First, al-`ilm bi al-umur al-tabiah (the
science of natural affairs), that concerned with the
functioning of structures, organs, and parts of the hu-
man body viewed as a living organism. It also inclu-
ded the science of anatomy. Second is al-ilm bi al-
umur al-lati laysat bi tabiah (the science of non natu-
ral affairs) (11). This idea, which was originally in-
troduced by Greek medical doctors, most notably Hi-
pocrates and Galen, was known in Greaco Islamic
system as al-darurah al-sitta and later known as sex
res non naturals in Latin. Non-natural affairs referred
to the necessary elements for survival and yet they
were not natural or to the extent that they can be in
some sense manipulated by humans in order to pre-
vent and treat diseases. These six necessary factors
for the preservation of health were air, movement and
rest, food and drink, sleeping and waking, retention
and excretion, which include bathing, defecation, uri-
nation and coitus.
The third type of theoretical medicine is known as
al-ilm bi al-umur al-kharijah an al-amr al-tabiah
(things outside nature) (12). It is rather unfortunate
that we know so little about this because Ibn al-Ayni
did not explain what he means by al-ilmu bi al-umur
al-karijah an al-amr al-tabi`ah. However, it would
be easy to interprete it correctly, if we refer to the ha-
dith of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) who said: Truly,
in the body there is a morsel of flesh, and when it is
corrupt the body is corrupt, and when it is sound the
body is sound. Truly, it is the qalb (heart) (13). The
hadith implies that when there is equilibrium in the
nature of the body with the nature of heart, the body
stays healthy. When equilibrium is lost, things beco-
me contra-natural and disease is produced.
The above as has been mentioned is theoretical as-
pect of medicine. Having known theory alone would
not permit physician to interpret medical science cor-
rectly. Thus, we see that Ibn al-`Ayni emphasized that
a physician should master the second kind of medici-
ne that is known as al-`amal (practical science). This
is related to practical medicine that comprised of two
braches namely preventive medicine (hifz al-Sihhah)
and therapeutic (ilm al-ilaj) medicine. The former,
hifz al-sihhah), is preventing and preserving the state
of the body in its nature, the state in which human be-
ings function normally and in sound and perfect con-
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH HEALTH AND MEDICINE IN THE ISLAMIC TRADITION BASED ON
THE BOOK OF MEDICINE (KITAB AL-TIBB) OF SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
4 JISHIM 2006, 5
dition: in healthy body, mind and spirit. It is generally
acknowledged that hifz al-sihhah is the most impor-
tant branch of Islamic medicine since it is primarily
concerned with the prevention and preservation of
health rather than with cure. In truth, perfect health is
a wish that humans crave for because it is one of the
Creators greatest blessings after faith. In order to
show the importance of prevention and preservation
of health amongst his followers, the Prophet (s.a.w)
said: There are two gifts of which many men are
cheated: health (al-sihhah) and leisure (al-faragh)
(14). By linking al-sihhah (health) and al-faragh (le-
isure) together has its significant. It stresses the fact
that Muslims should take good care of their health
and always strive to remain in a healthy state because
if he is in a healthy state, he would be able to fulfill
his duty towards God during leisure (al-faragh) by
acquiring both spiritual and physical knowledge, so
that his soul will reach the ultimate goal namely the
appreciation of God.
While he was discussing practical medicine, Ibn
Ahmad al-Ayni asserted that the purpose of ilm al-ilaj
(therapeutic medicine) is above all to support the na-
tural striving of the body to return to its natural, he-
althy state. Looking to the nature of the practical me-
dicine, many Muslim scholars both religious and me-
dical authorities, considered practical medicine both
hifz al-sihhah (preventive medicine) and therapeutics
(ilm al-ilaj), as the noblest science in Islam because its
subject matter is human body who is the noblest being
of God (15). In line with this, Abu Bakr Rabi b. Ah-
mad al-Akhwini al-Bukhari, who lived in the tenth
century, in his Hidayat al-Mutaallim (Guide for Stu-
dent) articulated that wise men have once said that it
is incumbent upon every person to learn the basic of
Islamic law, because when a person knows its Law, he
is immune from going astray. Next, a Muslim must
study some basic medicine in order to preserve health,
so that quack doctors will not be able to dispense the-
ir mistreatments. In addition, he must learn some skill
to earn his livelihood by lawful means (16).
IV. Hadiths on Prevention of Illness and
Preservation of Health
Imam Bukhari is well aware that the task of medi-
cine, which is unanimously agreed, is concerned
three major fields namely: promotion of health, pre-
vention of illness and restoration of health. In regard
to the former, Imam Bukhari deals with the promoti-
on of health and preventive measures against disease.
As we know, most of early Islamic medical tradition
is preventive medicine (al-tibb al-wiqa`i) rather than
therapeutic medicine (tibb al-`ilaji), which is no do-
ubt considered as an advanced concept given the le-
vel of scientific knowledge at that time. Even Imam
Bukhari does not provide specific chapter on preven-
tion of disease, however, he mentions numerous pre-
ventive measures against disease scattered in several
books of his Sahih Bukhari such as cleanliness, use
of tooth stick (siwak), food, bath and exercise. Other
preventive measures in Sahih Bukhari include: qua-
rantine for epidemics, precaution against al-judham
(leprosy); precaution against disease that may occur
as a result of falling a fly in the liquid; forbidding
drinking al-khamr, forbidding suicide, precautions of
fire in the house, etc.
Preservation of health should be the primary ob-
ject of medicine in which a physician has to give, and
not the disease. Throughout Islamic civilization, the
primary goal of the medical system is to maintain he-
alth rather than to cure the disease or restore it whe-
never lost. This is in harmony with the objective of
Islamic law that keeping health is better than the tre-
atment of disease. In other words, the real purpose of
medical is to save human life and to improve the suf-
ferings of living beings (17). Precaution against lep-
rosy was commonly known in the time of the Prophet
(s.a.w). The Prophet (s.a.w) advised people to run
away from the leper as one would run away from a li-
on (farra min al-judham kama tafarra min al-asad)
(18). This strong command is an effective method of
preventing the spreading of leprosy from one to anot-
her. It was believed that leprouss breath intensifies
until he gave the disease to another person who came
into contact with him. Similarly, if a woman sleeps
with a leper, he transmits the disease to her. She may
become leprous. In Arabic medical literature, leprosy
(al-Judham) is known as the lions disease. This
clearly reveals that the disease makes the sufferers
skin and face very harsh and gives the appearance of
a lion. In the early development of Islam, peoples be-
lieved that leprosy caused the patient to carry out des-
truction on whoever approaches or comes near him,
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as a lion would. As we know, leprosy, mainly affects
the skin, the peripheral nerves and also the eyes, apart
from some other structures. Leprosy has plagued
mankind since the very beginning of recorded his-
tory. Many civilizations were affected such as China,
Egypt, India and Islam. Yet, there was not much sci-
entific treatment of leprosy during that time (19).
Imam Bukhari mentioned interesting examples of
preventive measures taken by the Prophet (s.a.w)
when a fly falls into the liquid. According to the
Prophet (s.a.w.), a fly carries poison and antidote. In
the last chapter of kitab al-tibb of Sahih Bukhari, Bab
idha waqa al-dhubab fi al-ina, which contains
only one tradition of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w),
Imam Bukhari reported that the Propeht (s.a.w) said:
If a fly falls in the vessel of any one of you, let him
dip the whole of it (into the vessel) and then throw it
away, for on one of its wings there is a disease and on
the other is healing (20). According to Abu Tayyib
al-Tabari as quoted by Ibn Hajar (773852/1372-
1449), the hadith does not stress on cleanliness (al-
taharah) and impurity (al-najasah) matter. Rather, it
stresses on how to prevent the disease as a result of a
fly falling into the vessel of liquid (bayan al-tadawi
min darar al-dhubab) (21). In other words, the hadith
inspire us about the medical aspect of fly, which pro-
vide the necessary means and religious justification
for the preservation of health. The Prophet (s.a.w) en-
couraged the ummah to preserve her health by asking
her to dip the fly into the vessel completely, if, unfor-
tunately, it falls into the vessel of food or drink. This
is because, when a fly touches a liquid food, it infects
the liquid with its pathogens, therefore the fly must
be dipped in order to release the antidote counter ba-
lancing the pathogens (22).
In his Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar (773852/1372-
1449) supports the stand that a fly carries some pat-
hogens on parts of its body, including the antidote for
those pathogenic organisms. He further asserts that
Thumama (r.a) and other companions were with Anas
when a fly fell into a vessel. Anas motioned with his
hand and immersed it (faghamasahu) three times,
then recited: Bismillah and he said that truly, this
was what had been done by the Messenger of Allah
(23). Immediately after mentioning the event, Ibn
Hajar comments: I found nothing among the vari-
ants to identify the wing that carries the antidote but
one of the Ulama` said he observed that the fly pro-
tects itself instinctively. Naturally, the left wing has
been protected by the right one. In other words, one
side is poison and the other the antidote (24). Ibn Ha-
jar (773852/1372-1449) also discusses another in-
terpretation of the statement fa inna fi ihda janahay-
hi (for on one of its wings). It carries an abstract
meaning as the words of God wakhfid lahuma janah
al-dhull (and out of kindness, lower to them the wing
of humanity) (surah al-Isra (17): 24). This implies
that the poison may be understood the pride (takab-
bur) occurring in ones soul causing him to disdain
eating that food or avoid and discard it altogether,
while the antidote takes places by suppressing the so-
ul and forcing it to be humble (25).
It is no wondered that al-Khatabi, although chal-
lenged by the people in his time, was asserting in an
affirmative way that, the poison of a fly is in the front
wings while the remedy is in the back wings. Ibn Ha-
jar (773852/1372-1449) related the story by al-Kha-
tabi that some people commented the hadith and siad:
How can it be possible that both illness and healing
are present in the front wings and the cure in the back
wings? He replied: this was questioned that a fool
would ask. This is because many of Gods creations
possess opposite characteristics i.e., hot and cold, and
wet and dry. These temperaments are opposites of
each others. If Allah (s.w.t) has been able to create
thousands of combinations of them, then surely it
cannot be denied that He can also placed both poison
and its cure in some creatures such as a fly. Al-Kha-
tabi added that it is a great wisdom to create a fly with
poison and antidote. This is because the fly would al-
ways keep its antidote wing so that it may be able
to fly away. This behavior is divinely-inspired ins-
tinct similar to that of the bees and the ants (26).
We may safely assume that the diseases caused by
flies i.e., malaria, typhoid, cholera, eye disease and
others, occurred in Prophets time because flies infec-
ted the food, sat on the eyelids of sleeping children
and spread diseases of eye. We have no evidence that
there was a particular disease that was caused by fly
and the specific drug for that disease during the time
of Prophet (s.a.w). Nevertheless, one fact is clear was
that the Prophet (s.a.w) reminded his Ummah that if
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6 JISHIM 2006, 5
a fly falls into the vessel of any one of them, they we-
re to dip the whole of fly into the vessel and then
throw. This was to prevent them from the disease that
may occur because of fly. Furthermore, we also learn
from the hadith about the purity of fly and on the wa-
ter and liquid where fly may also be found dead. The
consensus among Muslim Jurists is that the fly is pu-
re (al-dhubab tahir) and does not spoil a liquid even
if its quantity is small and even if fly dies in it except
according Imam al-Shafi`i, if one of the aspects of the
liquid is affected i.e., changing smell, color, taste)
(27). On the other hand, based on Prophets com-
mand liyanzi`uhu (throw it way), some Shafis ju-
rist concluded that a liquid becomes impure while
Abu Hanifah said it is not impure (annaha la tanjis)
(28).
V. Hadiths on Healing of Diseases
Imam Bukhari also mentioned hadiths relating to
the methods of treatment of disease which was prac-
ticed in the time of Prophet (s.a.w). It is found that
the method of treatment of disease in the time of the
Prophet (s.a.w) was considered advance method gi-
ven the level of scientific knowledge at the time. In
this regard, medicine of Prophet is not only history
but it is history as well as medicine. So, if general
history is an instrument of life, the medical history is
an instrument of medical life. Though it seems that
the modern way of treatment of disease is better than
in Prophetic method of treatment of disease partly be-
cause the Prophetic medicine is not based on medical
experiments but rather on inspiration, experience
from the previous culture and tradition. In many ob-
vious cases, many companions of Prophet (s.a.w) co-
uld treat a patient suffering from certain diseases du-
ring that time successfully without any knowledge of
medicine as practiced today but they merely followed
the instruction of the Prophet (s.a.w) relating to the
treatment of disease i.e., a gulp of honey, cupping (hi-
jamah), and cauterization (kayy: to burn a wound
with hot metal or a chemical to stop the blood or stop
it becoming infected).
Hadiths on healing in three things (al-Shifa fi
Thalatha) were reported by Imam Bukhari (194-256/
810-870), in his Kitab al-Tibb (book of medicine),
Bab al-Shifa fi Thalatha (chapter on healing is in
three things). Two of them were narrated by Ibn `Ab-
bas and another was by Jabir b. Abd Allah. First:
Healing is in three things: a gulp of honey, cupping,
and branding with fire (cauterizing), however, I for-
bid my followers to use branding with fire (cauteriza-
tion) (al-Shifa fi thalatha: sharbat `asal, wa shartah
mihjam, wa kayyah nar, wa anha ummati `an al-
kayy). Second: Healing is in three things: cupping,
a drink of honey and cauterization (branding with fi-
re) but I forbid my followers to use cauterization (al-
Shifa fi Thalatha: fi Shartati Mihjam, aw Sharbat
Asal, aw Kayy bi Nar, wa Anha Ummati an al-
Kayy). In another version, it was narrated by Jabir
bin Abdullah that he heard the Prophet said: If there
is any healing in your medicines, then it is in cup-
ping, a drink of honey or branding with fire (cauteri-
zation) that suits the ailment, but I dont like to be
(cauterized) branded with fire (29).
In his interpretation of the above hadiths, Ibn Ha-
jar (773852/1372-1449) reminded us that the treat-
ment of disease does not predestine only three met-
hods of healing namely a gulp of honey, cupping, and
branding with fire (cauterizing). In trying to answer
the question, why did the Prophet (s.a.w) mention
only three methods of healing?, Ibn Hajar clarified
that the Prophet (s.a.w) mentioned only three met-
hods of healing mainly because they were usul al-
`ilaj, the principle of treatment of disease. In additi-
on, it was widely known among the Arab in that time.
It is possible that this belief was the result of Mus-
lims discoveries during that time that the cause of di-
sease was mainly blood (damawi) or yellow bile (saf-
rawi) or black bile (sawdawi) or phlegm (balghi)
(30). This implies that the Arab in that time viewed
the nature of disease in terms of philosophy and loo-
ked upon it as a disturbance in the equilibrium of the
bodys blood, yellow bile (safrawi), black bile (saw-
dawi) and phlegm (balghi) (30). Thus, the disease,
which is caused by one of them should be treated eit-
her by hijamah (taking the impure blood from the
body) or honey. If we failed to treat a disease by the
mentioned method, then, it must be treated by caute-
rization or surgery as in our time. The latter could not
be more than a last option to which physicians had to
consider when a gulp of honey, cupping and pharma-
ceutical treatments failed.
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When we pondering this method of treatment of
disease, one finds that the treatment of disease, in the
time of Prophet (s.a.w), was basically according to
the nature of disease and to know its treatment, they
were advised to know its cause and symptom (ma`ri-
fatuhu bitahqiq al-sabab wa al-alamah). That is why
before commenting the method of healing as high-
lighted in the hadith, Ibn Hajar had to clarify two
types of diseases namely material disease (mard ma-
diyyah) and non material disease (mard ghayra ma-
diyyah). The former is referred to the disease caused
by hotness (al-hararah), coldness (al-baridah). The
latter is divided into wet (rutbah), dry (yabisah) and
compound (murakkabah). The non material disease,
according to Ibn Hajar, is treated by what has been
said in the hadith fever is from the heat of Hell, so
abate fever with water (31).
In the light of this evidence, we feel much more
confidence to say that the body and the soul of man-
kind have the possibility to be healthy or sick, balan-
ced or imbalanced. Imbalance of the body is like fe-
ver, headache and other physical illness, while that of
the soul is like anger, anxiety, sadness and similar
symptoms. The former diseases should be treated
through the medical methods involving the use of ho-
ney, cupping and cauterization, while the latter sho-
uld be treated by spiritual method of treatments. In
certain cases, one was encouraged to use the spiritu-
al treatment rather than physical treatment for many
reasons. First, in seeking to be healed from the dise-
ase of the body, the patients bear the bitterness of me-
dications, the suffering of cauterization as well as
spending large sums of money for medical treatment
and care. On the other hand, the care and refinement
of the soul which is far more important, is more plea-
sant and rewarding and less costly to treat and resto-
re (32). Secondly, if the disease was caused by the
Jinn and evils, therefore, the ordinary medical thera-
pies were insufficient. Instead, it has to be cured by
giving the effort that may help to end the evil spirits
influence i.e., by strengthening faith in God. This is
because, if a persons soul was fortified with strong
faith, the evil spirits could not easily influence a
Muslim. In other words, the spiritual disease is appe-
ared as a result of the lack of faith and misery of the
soul. In this case, the spiritual disease has to be cured
by spiritual treatment.
A. Honey: Healing for Men
(Shifa li al-Nas)
In Islamic medical system, as in most other medi-
cal systems, honey is considered as healthy drink. We
are not surprising Imam Bukhari entitled chapter fo-
ur of his Kitab al-Tibb (book of medicine) as al-Da-
wa bi al-Asal wa Qawlihi Ta`ala Fihi Shifa li al-Nas
(treatment with honey and the statement of Allah:
where is healing for men). At this place, Imam al-
Bukhari mentioned three ahadith on honey together
with its value which is emphasized in many verses of
the Quran. In Surah al-Nahl verses: 68-69, Allah
(s.w.t) describes honey as Shifa li al-Nas: And thy
Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on tre-
es, and in (mens) habitations; Then to eat of all the
produce (of the earth), and find with skill the spaci-
ous paths of its Lord: there issues from within their
bodies a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing
for men: verily in this is a sign for those who give
thought. In view of this benefit, it is worth to menti-
on one of the most well known hadith, in regard to
the medical benefits of honey, that has been menti-
oned by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih Bukhari in Kitab
al-Tibb (book of medicine), Bab al-Dawa bi al-`Asal
waqawl Allah Ta`ala fihi Shifa li al-Nas (chapter on
treatment with honey and the statement of Allah:
where is healing for men). Accordingly, the Prophet
(s.a.w) said: A man came to the Prophet and said:
My brother has some abdominal trouble. The Prop-
het (s.a.w) replied to him let him drink honey. The
man came for the second time and the Prophet repli-
ed to him, let him drink honey. He came for the
third time and the Prophet replied, let him drink ho-
ney. He returned again and said, I have done that.
The Prophet (s.a.w) then said, Allah has said the
truth, but your brothers abdomen has told a lie (sa-
daqa Allah wa kadhiba Batn Akhika). Let him drink
honey. So he made him drink honey and he was cu-
red (33).
From the above hadith, the treatment of disease
was very simple. May be because the Prophet (s.a.w)
knew what made the patient sick because he was
aware of the well-known method of treatment of di-
arrhea (34). In that time, diarrhea was treated by ma-
king the patient vomit or by giving him laxative me-
dicine to increase the flow by taking honey. In relati-
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on to this, the hadith is concerned about a man who
came to the Prophet (s.a.w) and said that his brother
was suffering from dysentery (istatlaqa batn) (35).
To cure this disease, the Prophet (s.a.w) recommen-
ded honey. He came back and reported honey had do-
ne no good to his brother. The Prophet (s.a.w) was
again advised to take honey. He came back the third
and also the fourth time and said he had seen no im-
provement. The Prophet (s.a.w) said: The statement
of God is true and the stomach of your brother lies
(sadaqa Allah wa kadhiba Batn Akhika) (36).
Apparently, the brothers patient claimed that he
had followed the instruction of Prophet (s.a.w), but it
was no consequences. Thus, we cannot conclude the
discussion on this hadith without giving a few words
about the meaning of the saying of Prophet (s.a.w):
The statement of God is true and the stomach of yo-
ur brother lies (sadaqa Allah wa kadhiba Batn Akhi-
ka) (37).
It is important to understand the hadith especially
the Prophets statement, The statement of God is
true and the stomach of your brother lies. Before we
give the correct interpretation of this statement, there
are two major remarks, which derive from the hadith,
that we have to put into consideration. First, the Prop-
het (s.a.w) was aware of the disease and the cure that
was suitable for the patient since he was surely beli-
ef of the benefit of honey for patient. It is the nature
of honey to expel whatever is left of whatever has
collected in the stomach and the intestines. Secondly,
the Prophet (s.a.w) instructed the patient to take ho-
ney for many times to make sure it may cure positi-
vely the disease. The patient should not lose patience
for his suffering of illness because, sometime, certa-
in diseases take many years to cure and in natural
way can take at least months (38).
Now, after giving remarks on the above hadith, it
is worth to give the view of commentators in regard
to the saying of Prophet: The statement of God is
true and the stomach of your brother lies. Some of
them, i.e., Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, al-Hasan and al-
Qadi `Ayyad, viewed that honey is not only the fac-
tor of healing because all are connected with God
who is a Healer (huwa al-shafi). This mean that, in
any medical treatments, doctors are only attempting
to cure, it is Allah who cures, Allah huwa al shafi.
This interpretation is a reminder that men should not
be arrogant by attributing cure to themselves and not
Allah (s.w.t). Thus, if we relate this idea with the sta-
tement, the statement of God is true and the stomach
of your brother lies, we may conclude that someti-
mes the measures that humans take to cure a disease
may not be sufficient on their own to alleviate and ea-
se the condition; it is Allahs divine intervention and
mercy that brings about the complete cure (39).
Of course, there is no sharp different between the
above view with the following. It is equally obvious
that the commentators of hadith seem to agree that
the hadith referred to a particular kinds of stomach
disease namely diarrhea. It is mostly occurred when
mucus (a liquid produced in parts of body such as in
nose) clings to the bowels and interferes with the pro-
cess of absorption. With this illness, it is honey that
expels the excess moisture. Because, the moisture is
driven out and expelled downwards when honey is
eaten. In Umdah al-Qari, Ibn Ahmad al-Ayni expres-
sed and recognized that drinking honey may open up
the obstructions of the blood vessels, dissolve the ex-
cessive food by evacuating the stomach and intesti-
nes and clear the chest and liver (40). Furthermore,
al-Baghdadi was of the opinion that honey, which
contains a variety of sugar and mineral, is good to pu-
rify what in the veins and stomach. Consequently, it
is a potential to make the blood to circulate better and
provide more air to areas of the body such as the bra-
in (41).
It is clear from the above discussion that we can-
not understand the Prophets prescription of honey as
the way for treatment of disease unless we know
what disease he was fighting. The Prophet (s.a.w)
was well aware that diarrhea was caused by indiges-
tion (tukhma) resulting from overeating. Thus, he ga-
ve the correct treatment by asking the patient to drink
honey. The reason why the Prophet (s.a.w) had said
the patients stomach lied was that he knew that the
dosage had not been sufficient, because it had not sta-
unched the diarrhea and the Prophet (s.a.w) wanted to
stress that honey was the correct cure but in this case
it had to administer several times.
While it seems quite certain that honey is the most
suitable prescription for the patient, as mentioned in
the hadith, now, if someone are facing similar prob-
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lem, can honey be used effectively? This needs the
clarification and understanding the other part of ha-
dith, fihi shifa li al-Nas (in it (honey) is healing for
men). This is because some people believe that ho-
ney is beneficial for all kinds of diseases and for all
people. To answer this claim, Ibn Hajar clarified that
the statement, fihi shifa li al-Nas, did not means
that honey is suitable to use for all people because the
words li al-Nas designated that honey was only sui-
table for some people and not for all people. This
means that honey is possibly harmful for some peop-
le who live in hot region (42). In other words, honey
cannot be cured for all kinds of disease.
B. Cupping (al-Hijamah)
In a number of medical systems, from Greek to
Malay traditional medicine, illness believed to be
caused by harmful and dirty blood must be treated by
taken out the dirty blood. Under this influence, peop-
le believed that wherever part of the body, from head
to toe, become ill, hijamah can be used as the right
measure for treatment. Therefore, if we wish to know
the history of treatment of disease in the light of al-
Tibb al-Nabawi, we must study hijamah because it
was widely practiced by the Prophet (s.a.w) and his
companions and this method of healing is still alive
in many Muslim countries.
We were told that the Prophet (s.a.w) and his com-
panions always had practiced al-hijamah in several
occasions from the time he was at home to the time
that he was in the state of Ihram. It is very regrettab-
le that we do not have very clear rational explanation
why cupping was so popular in the time of Prophet,
but one fact is nevertheless clear that hijamah is very
easy to practice, just using a jar or a similar material.
A jar is attached to the skin surface, so that the dirty
blood, air, toxic and other harmful substance flow to
the surface of the skin. Then, harmful substance may
remove from the body. Secondly, it is because the
dwellers of the Arabian peninsular and countries of
hot climate are the most suitable people to be cupped.
This is because the blood of people who dwell in that
region is thinner (raqiq) and is drawn closer to the
surface of the skin (tamil ila zahir al-abdan) (43).
As we expected, many ahadith would be recorded
in Kitab al-Tibb of Sahih Bukhari. They were recorded
from chapter eleven to chapter fifteen of kitab al-tibb.
One of these five chapters is Bab al-Hijamah min al-
Da (cupping as a treatment for disease). In this chap-
ter, Imam Bukhari mentioned that Jabir bin Abdullah
narrated that he visited al-Muqanna while he was ill-
ness. Jabir said, I will not leave till he gets cupped, for
I heard Allahs Apostle saying, There is healing in
cupping. Secondlt, Imam Bukhari reported that Al-
lahs Apostle was cupped on the middle of his head at
Lahy Jamal on his way to Mecca while he was in a sta-
te of Ihram. Thirdly, Imam Bukhari reported that: Al-
lahs Apostle was cupped on his head. Lastly, al-Buk-
hari reported that the Prophet commanded the cupping
to be used and said: There are no remedies comparab-
le to cupping and blood letting (44).
While interpreting the above ahadith, there are
two general remarks that we may draw. First, there is
no specific time to practice cupping because the
Prophet (s.a.w) was cupped at day and night and so-
metime during Ihram. However, we have to keep in
mind that if blood cupping is done in the wrong pla-
ce and times or when it is not needed, then it weakens
the faculties and it remove both healthy humors as
well as harmful ones. That is why medical doctors
advise, for safety purpose, that cupping should be
avoided by those who is suffering from enteritis, by
whoever is on the road to recovery, by whoever is
very old, weak liver or stomach, who suffers from
palsy of the face or feet and by women who are preg-
nant or who have just given birth or who are menstru-
ating.
Secondly, it seems quite certain that the Prophet
(s.a.w) was cupped on his head. That is why Imam
Bukhari entitled one of the chapters of his kitab al-
tibb as al-hijamah ala al-ra`s (cupping on the head).
In truth, the view that headache was caused by dirty
blood in the head was widely spread among the anci-
ent people, and sucking of harmful blood was there-
fore a chief method of treatment. We are not surpri-
sing to hear that the Prophet (s.a.w) was cupped on
his head to treat headache and similarly when a man
who complained to the Prophet (s.a.w) about a pain
in the head, the Prophet (s.a.w) recommended him to
get cupped (45).
With advance of method of treatment, people ha-
ve observed that the use of leech, as a means of suc-
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king blood from the affected parts of human body,
was similar to cupping (hijamah). In other words, the
use of leech and other modern methods of healing
can be regarded as a substitute for cupping. In Gra-
eco-Arab medicine, leech-therapy occupied an im-
portant place. Ibn Sina and al-Baghdadi, for examp-
le, wrote specific section to leech in their al-Qanun fi
al-Tibb and al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb respectively. Ac-
cording to Ibn Sina, the application of leech is more
useful than cupping in letting off the blood from dee-
per parts of the body. Treatment by the use of leech is
desirable in skin disease. For al-Baghdadi, the use of
leech was the best way for skin disease, wet and chro-
nic ulcers. Leech is also used for reducing the weight
of fatty and fleshy people. They can be used repea-
tedly, but one should be aware of the risk of cross-in-
fections. Leech may also be used as a means of clea-
ning the tissues especially after micro-surgical opera-
tions. Since there is possibly risk over using leech, al-
Baghdadi and other Muslim physicians suggested
that the leech was needed to be cleansed. The dirt or
dust clinging to a leech should be wiped off before
application. When leech has sucked out the blood and
tend to drop down, salt should be sprinkled on the af-
fected part of the human body. The following is al-
Baghdadis words:
When they are to be used, they should
be kept away for a day and then applied.
If a leech does not stick, fresh blood
should be poured or thoroughly smas-
hed and pounded clay sprinkled over the
affected part and if the affected part is
free of any wound, the part should be
rubbed till it becomes red (46).
C. al-Kayy: Branding with Fire
(Cauterization)
Al-Kayy is another method of treatment of disease
in the time of Prophet (s.a.w) and even after (47). In
the time of Prophet, al-kayy or hot metal was used as
a way to burn a wound to stop the blood or stop it be-
coming infected (48). The question now arises, is for-
bidden (haram) to use al-kayy for medical purpose?
If not, why did the Prophet discourage his Ummah to
use cauterization even though he had known that it
might give many medical benefits. While commen-
ting the ahadith on al-kayy, some commentators of
Sahih Bukhari like Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Ibn Ahmad
al-Ayni and al-Qastalani had attempted to give the
reasons behind the wisdom of the Prophet (s.a.w)s
words I forbid my followers to use (cauterization)
branding with fire (wa `anha `an ummati an al-
kayy) as recorded in the following ahadith: The
Prophet (s.a.w) said, If there is any healing in your
medicines then it is a cupping operation, or branding
(cauterization), but I do not like to be (cauterized)
branded (49). In another version, Imam Bukhari re-
ported that the Prophet (s.a.w) said, Healing is in
three things: cupping, a gulp of honey or cauterizati-
on, (branding with fire) but I forbid my followers to
use cauterization (branding with fire) (50).
Though some commentators of hadith understood
that the Prophet (s.a.w) prohibited his followers to
use cauterization, however, Ibn Hajar did not inter-
pret the words wa anha an ummati an kayy (I forbid
my followers to use cauterization) as prohibition
(al-nahy) but abhorrent or undesirable (makruh). He
argued that it is undesirable to use cauterization if it
may cause the pain and menace to a patient (51). It is
quite reasonable to accept this reason because by na-
ture cauterization (al-kayy) may cause the patient in
pain, menace and produce the side effect. This is the
reason why the Prophet (s.a.w) did not like al-kayy
(cauterization) as the right method of healing.
In order to give further evidence that cauterization
is not prohibited in Islam, Ibn Hajar quoted the hadith
which was reported that the Prophet (s.a.w) had him-
self cauterized the wound of Sa`d b. Mu`ad (52) and
also the wound of As`ad b. Zararh in order to stop the
bleeding (anna al-nabiy (s.a.w) kawa As`ad b. Za-
rarh min syawkihi) (53). Also, Ibn Hajar mentioned
that Ibn Umar (r.a) used to use cautery for treating fa-
cial palsy. This is according to the report of Abu Zu-
bayr who said: I saw Ibn Umar one day, and he was
branding the forehead of a man who had a slight fa-
cial palsy. From all these evidences, Ibn Hajar conc-
luded that the prohibition against utilizing cautery
applies for as long as completed trust in Allah (s.w.t)
is lacking. During Prophets time, there were people
who they think that it is the cauterization itself which
cures the affliction. In other words, they believed that
if cautery had not been used, then the patient would
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH HEALTH AND MEDICINE IN THE ISLAMIC TRADITION BASED ON
THE BOOK OF MEDICINE (KITAB AL-TIBB) OF SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
11 JISHIM 2006, 5
have perished. This kind of cauterization practiced,
according to Ibn Hajar, is prohibited. On the other
hand, cautery is permitted when it is perceived as be-
ing the appropriate means to affect a cure, but not the
essential cause of the cure because Allah (s.w.t) alo-
ne cures and grants good health and not cauterization.
This means that humans try, but it is Allah who cures,
Allah huwa al Shafi. Humans should not be arrogant
by attributing cure to themselves and not Allah
(s.w.t). Of course, human cannot refuse to take me-
asure to cure disease claiming that Allah (s.w.t) will
take care of it. This is because, it is true that Allah cu-
res but in some cases that cure operates through the
agency of humans. Sometimes the measures that hu-
mans take to cure a disease may not be sufficient on
their own to alleviate the condition. It is Allahs divi-
ne intervention and mercy that brings about the
complete cure (54).
Ibn Ahmad al-`Ayni viewed the hadith, i.e., hea-
ling is in three things: cupping, a gulp of honey or ca-
uterization, (branding with fire) but I forbid my fol-
lowers to use cauterization (branding with fire), as
preference from one thing over another. This means
that as long as medicine conceived disease in terms
of philosophy and looked upon it as a disturbance in
the equilibrium of bodys humors, cauterization co-
uld not be more than a last resort to which physicians
had to recourse when the treatment by honey and
cupping failed. In this case, the Prophet (s.a.w) pre-
ferred honey, blood letting over cauterization and it
does not means that cauterization is prohibited (ha-
ram) in medical treatment (55).
Although al-Qastalani was aware that Ibn Hajar
and al-Aynis interpretation of the hadith are har-
mony with the Islamic law, he, in his Irshad al-Sari li
Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, did not hesitate to add that
al-kayy was not as other ways of treatment as far as
side effect is concerned. In case of cauterization (al-
kayy), it might give medical benefits and harmful as
in the case of al-khamr (intoxicating drink) which ac-
cording to the Quran, it might give both beneficial
and harmful for mankind, but harmful is more (56).
Al-Dhahabi took a similar attitude to the tradition
concerning the prohibition of cauterization. He cla-
imed that the cautery of bleeding wounds was per-
missible especially when it was knows to be the best
possible cure for a particular illness but it was forbid-
den as a preventive measure.
For those who said that cauterization is forbidden
in medical purpose are mainly based on the hadith re-
lated by Ibn Abbas that the Prophet (s.a.w) said: If
the cure ultimately depends on either scarification, or
drinking honey or cauterization with fire, then I abso-
lutely forbid cauterization. It is regrettable that this
school of thought does not give further explanation
and justification of the hadith.
From the above analysis, it would be a great mis-
take to prohibit the cauterization today. If it is forbid-
den in Islam, the surgery should be also forbidden.
Therefore, it is right to conclude that it is perfectly
correct to recommend al-kayy (cauterization) as the
method of treatment of disease when all other reme-
dies i.e., a gulp of honey and cupping have failed. In
other words, it is fully permitted when there is no ot-
her alternative or no other remedy has proved suc-
cessfully. In this case, there can be no objection to
use cauterization so long as it is done cautiously and
we remain aware of its negative effects.
Conclusion
The previous studies have revealed to us of the
importance of Kitab al-Tibb in Sahih Bukahri. It gi-
ves primarily idea on the conditions of Muslims in
the time of Prophet (s.a.w), how did they prevent and
treat the disease. It is found that most of al-tibb al-na-
bawi is preventive medicine (al-tibb al-wiqa`i) rather
than therapeutic medicine (al-tibb al-`ilaji). Its met-
hod of prevention was considered advance, given the
level of scientific knowledge that existed at the time.
As far as the treatment of disease is concerned, the
hadiths of the Prophet (s.a.w) in Kitab al-Tibb of Sa-
hih Bukahri gives us the idea throws on how did the
Muslim had been treated, if he was sick. It is found
that the treatment of disease was mainly based on the
cause of disease. These remarks lead to the conclusi-
on that we should not use al-tibb al-nabawi (medici-
ne of the Prophet) without empirical research because
of changes in medicinal plants and environment as
well as the meaning of linguistic terms. Thus the con-
ditions for which these remedies were prescribed in
the first century of hijrah may not be exactly the sa-
me as the conditions we are dealing with today. The-
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH HEALTH AND MEDICINE IN THE ISLAMIC TRADITION BASED ON
THE BOOK OF MEDICINE (KITAB AL-TIBB) OF SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
12 JISHIM 2006, 5
refore, if we wish to have a complete account of
Prophetic medicine, we shall not be satisfied by re-
ferring to the writing of traditionalist scholars in the
past without referring to new discoveries made by the
researchers after the demise of Prophet (s.a.w).
REFERENCES
1. Hadith (its plural is ahadith) is the sayings (aqwal), the ac-
tions (af`al) and the tacit approval (taqrir) of the Prophet
Muhammad (s.a.w). In other words, the ahadith of the Prop-
het are divided into three parts: al-qawliyah, the traditions
which are statements and sayings of the prophet; the second
is al-filiyah that is the traditions that is derived from the de-
eds of the holy prophet, and third, al-taqririyah (the traditi-
ons of the tacit approval), is taken from the Prophets silen-
ce or tacit approval regarding deeds which had occurred
with his knowledge. The collections of ahadith were offici-
ally began with Umayyad Caliph Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz
(d. 101/720)s instruction, for the first time to Abu Bakr b.
Muhammad b. Amr b. Hazm, al-Zuhri and others to collect
ahadith of Prophet (s.a.w). al-Zuhri was the first who recor-
ded them. Later, in the third century of Hijrah, scholars of
^adIth devoted their life and energy in shifting the hadith
examining the narrators and ensuring their authenticity for
preserving the ahadith of Prophet (s.a.w). From the middle
until the end of third century, there was a serious collection
of ahadith. These collections were well-known with the
successful compiled six textual collections of the ahadith
namely of Imam Bukhari (d. 256/ 870), Imam Muslim (d.
261/875), Abu Dawud (d. 275/888), al-Tarmidhi (d.
279/892), al-Nasai (d. 303/915), Ibn Majah (d. 273/886)
etc. (For details, see M.M. Azami, Studies in Early Hadith
Literature (Indiana: American Trust Publications, 1978); M.
Hamidullah, Early Compilation of Hadith, Islamic Review,
May, 1949).
2. To give an accurate explanation and interpretation of aha-
dith in Sahih Bukhari, the author will consult many impor-
tant commentaries of Sahih Bukhari most notably Umdah
al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari by Badr al-Din `Ayni (762-
855/1361-1452), 25 vols. (Beirut: Dar Ihya al-turath al-
`Arabi, n.d); Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih Bukhari by Ibn
Hajar al-`Asqalani (773852/1372-1449), 13 vols. (Beirut:
Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyyah, 1989).
3. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of effort to study the
medical aspect of Sahih Bukhari. Because, most of Muslim
scholars have been repeated attempts at writing common
aspects of Sahih Bukhari such as the study of fiqh (Islamic
jurisprudence), tafsir al-quran (exegesis), ilm al-kalam
(theology), ethics or manner (akhlaq), sirah al-nabawiyyah
(history of Prophet), and al-Isnad wa al-Matan (narration
and text of hadith).
4. Huasin F. Nagamia, Islamic Medicine History and Current
Practice, in Journal of the International Society for the
History of Islamic Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 4 October 2003,
19-30.
5. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sahrh Sahih al-Bukhari, 13 vols.
(Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyyah, 1989), 10: 165; Al-Ayni,
Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 25 vols. (Beirut:
Dar Ihya al-Turath al-`Arabi, n.d), 21: 229.
6. Al-`Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 25 vols.
(Beirut: Dar Ihya al-turath al-`Arabi, n.d); 21: 229.
7. Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Tibb al-Nabawi (Beirut: Muassasah al-
Risalah, 1985), 146.
8. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, 10: 165.
9. It is extremely important to mention here that Abu Zayd al-
Balkhi (d. 322/934), in his Masalih al-Abdan wa al-Anfus
(Sustenance for Body and Soul) and al-Kindis Risalah fI
al-HIlah li Daf` al-Ahzan (Epistle on Expedients to Relief
Sufferings and Sorrows), reminded us that since mans
construction is from both his soul and his body, therefore,
human existence cannot be healthy without this ishtibak.
For this reason, al-Balkhi criticizes medical doctors who
only concentrate on physical illness but neglect psychologi-
cal aspects or mental illness of the patients. This is because,
according to al-Balkhi, if the body gets sick the nafs loses
much of its cognitive and comprehensive ability and fails to
enjoy the desirous aspects of the life. If nafs gets sick, the
body may also find no joy in life and may eventually deve-
lop a physical illness. Hence, the psychological condition is
considered as one of the main factors for physical health.
Subsequently, when a mans psyche becomes strong, the
bodily nature is also strengthened, because the two coope-
rate in repelling and overcoming diseases. (See, Al-Balkhi,
Masalih al-Abdan wa al-Anfus (Sustenance for Body and
Soul), 270-3.
10. Al-`Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 21: 229.
11. Al-`Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 21: 229.
12. Al-`Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 21: 229.
13. Sahih al-Bukari, Kitab al-Iman, Bab Fadl man Istabra li di-
nihi.
14. Sahih al-Bukari, Kitab al-Riqaq, Bab al-Sihhah wa al-Fa-
ragh wala `aysh illa `aysh al-Akhirah.
15. Ibn Hindu, Miftah al-Tibb wa Minhaj al-Tullab, ed. Mahdi
Mohaghegh and M.T. Daneshpajuh (Tehran: Tehran Uni-
versity, 1989), 25-29.
16. Abu Bakr Rabi b. Ahmad al-Akhwini al-Bukhari, Hidayat
al-Mutaallim (Meshed: Meshed University Press, 1965),
14. Cf. al-Ruhawi, Adab al-Tabib, ed. Marizan `Asiri (Ri-
yadh: Markaz al-Malik Faysal li al-Buhuth wa al-Dirasat al-
Islamiyyah, 1992), 208; Fazlur Rahman, Health and Medi-
cine in the Islamic Tradition (New York: Rossroad Publis-
hing Company, 1989; repr. Kuala Lumpur: S. Abdul Maje-
ed & Co, 1993), 39 (page reference is to the reprint edition).
17. It would be interesting to mention in relation to this discus-
sion that Ibn Jazlah (d. 493/1100) drew a parallel between
the strength or health of the body and the supplies of the tra-
veler. The wise person must prepare his supplies for trave-
ling according to the distance intended, for if the supplies
end before the destination is reached, the traveler perishes.
However, if the supplies are sufficient for the entire journey,
he is safe. This is parallel to the health of human being. If
the body has sufficient strength, it will be able to overcome
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH HEALTH AND MEDICINE IN THE ISLAMIC TRADITION BASED ON
THE BOOK OF MEDICINE (KITAB AL-TIBB) OF SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
13 JISHIM 2006, 5
an illness, however, if strength is not sufficient and the body
weakens before the end of the illness, the person is in dan-
ger and requires treatment together with the care of a physi-
cian. See, Joseph Salvatore, Tabulated Compendium in the
Eleventh Century as Represented in the Works of Ibn Jaz-
lah, 55.
18. Imam Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, kitab al-tibb, Bab al-Jud-
ham.
19. For details on infectious disease such as leprosy, cholera,
thyphus in the Muslim world, see Aysegul Demirhan Erde-
mir and Oztan Oncel, Development of the Foundations of
Quarantine in Turkey in the Nineteenth Century and its Pla-
ce in the Public Health, in Journal of the International So-
ciety for the History of Islamic Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 4 Oc-
tober 2003, 42-44.
20. Other version of hadiths was mentioned by Ahmad b. Han-
bal in his al-Musnad, al-Nasai in his Sunan and Ibn Majah.
It was reported that: Sa`id b. Khalid said: I went in to see
Abu Salama. He brought us some butter and date pastry. A
fly fell into the dish. Abu Salama began to submerge it
(yamquluhu) with his finger. I said: Uncle! what are you
doing? He said: Truly, Abu Said al-Khudri (r.a) told me
that the Messenger of Allah said: In one of the flys tow
wings there is poison and in another, its antidote. If it falls
into food, submerge it in it; for it sends the poison first and
keeps the cure last.
21. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 10: 308.
22. Possibilities for use of bacteriophages in disease control are
discussed in the article Smaller Fleas... Ad infinitum: The-
rapeutic Bacteriophage Redux in Proceedings of the Nati-
onal Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
[PNAS] Vol. 93 No. 8 (April 16, 1996), 3167-8.
23. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 10: 307.
24. Malik Badri, The Aids Crisis: an Islamic Socio-Cultural
Perspective (KL: ISTAC, 1998), 224.
25. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 10: 308.
26. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 10: 309.
27. Al-Qastalani, Irshad al-Sari, 5: 304-5.
28. Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 10: 309.
29. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab Shifa fi thalatha.
30. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani (773852/1372-1449), Fath al-Bari
fi Sharh Sahih Bukhari,13 vols. (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-`il-
miyyah, 1989), 10: 170.
31. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 171.
32. Badr al-Din `Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari,
21: 231.
33. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab al-Dawa bi al-Asal wa-
qawl Allah Ta`ala fihi Shifa li al-Nas.
34. It is described as frequent and excessive discharging of the
bowels producing abnormally thin watery stools, usually as
a symptom of gastro-intestinal upset or infection.
35. The disease of the lower intestine caused by infection with
bacteria, protozoa or parasites and marked by severe diarr-
hea, inflammation and passage of blood and mucus.
36. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab al-Dawa bi al-asal.
37. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab al-Dawa bi al-asal.
38. Badr al-Din `Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari,
21; 232.
39. Badr al-Din `Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari,
21; 233.
40. Badr al-Din `Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari,
21; 232.
41. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 172.
42. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 172.
43. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 186.
44. Sahih Bukhari, kitab al-tibb, Bab al-Hijamah min al-Da.
45. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 187-8.
46. Al-Baghdadi, Kitab al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb, 1: 299.
47. In relation to this, it is worth to mention that the process of
destroying tissue by heating or freezing it is known at the
present as electrocautery. It is done by using a small tool
which has an electric current running through it. So that it
is able to cauterize or burn the tissue. Normally, this method
of treatment, electrocautery, is a safe procedure and is routi-
nely used in surgery to burn unwanted or harmful tissue.
Sometime, a small electrode is applied to the skin near the
surgery site. This is used to collect the electricity from the
body and safely discharge it back to the machine. A groun-
ding pad is placed on the persons body (usually the thigh)
before the surgery starts to protect the patient. Of course, it
causes a patient in painful and menace compared to a gulp
of honey and cupping.
48. In relation to this, al-Suyuti was of the opinion that the verb
hasama (cut off, terminate) is the synonym of kawa (caute-
rize). From this point of view, he explained that hasama al-
damm anhu bi al-kayy means qata`a al-damm anhu bi al-
kayy that is to stop blood from bleeding by cautery. (Ibn Ha-
jar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 170-1).
49. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, Bab man iktawa aw kawa
ghyrihi wa fadl man lam yaktawi.
50. Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Tibb, bab al-shifa fi thalatha.
51. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 170.
52. Ibid, 10: 170.
53. Ibid, 10: 170, Badr al-Din `Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sa-
hih Bukhari, 21: 231.
54. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, 10: 171; .
55. Badr al-Din `Ayni, Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari,
21: 233.
56. Al-Qastalain, Irshad al-Sari, 12: 413, Ibn Hajar al-`Asqala-
ni, Fath al-Bari, 10: 171.
Dr. Nurdeen DEURASEH HEALTH AND MEDICINE IN THE ISLAMIC TRADITION BASED ON
THE BOOK OF MEDICINE (KITAB AL-TIBB) OF SAHIH AL-BUKHARI
14 JISHIM 2006, 5
Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
1

Statistical Profile of Holy Quran and Symmetry of Makki and
Madni Surras

Muhammad Khyzer Bin Dost (Corresponding author)
Hailey College of Commerce, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
E-mail: khyzer_bin_dost@hotmail.com

Dr. Munir Ahmad
Rector, National College of Business Administration & Economics, Lahore, Pakistan.
E-mail: drmunir@brain.net.pk

Abstract
In this paper, probabilistic approach has been made in the study of Makki, Madani and Mixed Suras of the Holy
Quran. Using the word-size and word-length of Ayats, these Suras are categorized by word-length and a frequency
distribution is obtained. The paper highlights the constructional characteristics of the two types of Suras in the Holy
Quran. We have also discussed the dispersion and shapes of word-size and word-length of Makki and Madni Surras
at other compositions of Surras as introduced by Quran Mufassirs and scientists.
Keywords: Quran, Statistical profile, Frequency distribution of Ayats.
1. Introduction
Muslims and non-Muslims have done tremendous work on various aspects of the Holy Quran in respect of its
detailed Tafseers, its indexing counting of words, letters vowels number of occurrences of certain words, numerical
wonders of Quranic texts including miracles. The Quran provides laws and regulations of living in a society,
educating Muslims on relations with relatives, neighbors, friends and foes, working relations with others,
management of jobs etc. It guides people on almost every human activity. It is full of knowledge.
Quran is such a Holy book which has numerous purposes and objectives for different people. One may study the
Holy book with specific questions in mind and will find answers during its reading. It has been noted by many
Mufassirs that the Ayats and Suras are not arranged in chronological order but are placed at appropriate locations by
the will of God and as such the chronological order is not important for the present study as compared to the
placement of Ayats and Sura in the Quran.
Al-Dargazelli (2004) had identified numerical pattern of the Holy Quran based on verses, he has only used basic
descriptive statistics and computed frequency tables of verses. He has given number of verses for each Sura and
identified the Suras by Makki and Madani. Al-Dargazelli. (2004) has also worked on Muntasir Mir groupings. In
this paper, we have made an attempt to study various Suras, Manzils and Groups of Holy Quran statistically on the
basis of lengths of words. The purpose is to find underlying statistical structures of Suras. The similarities and
differences among Makki, Madani and other groupings of Suras in Quran are highlighted.
It needs to point out that numerical study of Quran does not display the beauty of Quran. The beauty of Quran lies in
the Ayat structure and their meanings. The beauty of Quran given in the Quran lies in the construction of Ayats and
Surras. No earthly human being can produce a single Ayat or Surra even with the help of Jins. However it is possible
for any one to induct any number of word(s) in to any document in any language of same size. For example letter
is can be written in a couple of hundred times that are divisible by any other number say 7 or 9. One may count all
is and if it is not divisible by 7 then some sentences can be added with letter is so it is divisible by 7. As such
beauty of Surras does not lie in numbers but its beauty is in the Ayat and Surras meanings. We have also attempted
to look at the symmetry of Makki and Madni surras by studying the Skewness and Kurtosis.





Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
2

Authors numerical miracle pointed out are given bellow.
Table 1: Pair of Words in Quran

Sr. # Pair of Words with Frequency
1. Muhammad (saw) 4 Shareeah
2. Eblees 11 Seek refuge from Eblees
3. Miss lead people 17 Dead people
4. Speaking publicly 18 Publicizing
5. Men 24 Women
6. Tongue 25 Sermon
7. Zakat 32 Barakah
8. Muslimeen 41 Jihad
9. Mind 49 Noor
10. Benefit 50 Corrupt
11. People 50 Messenger
12. Magic 60 Fitnah
13. Spending 73 Satisfaction
14. Museebah 75 Thanks
15. Al-Malaikah 88 Al-Shayateen
16. Hardship 114 Patience
17. Al-Dunya 115 Al-Akhira
18. Al-Hayat 145 Al-Mout

(See Al-Suwaidan 2006).

2. Some Basic Statistics of Suras and Verses
The Holy Quran is divided in to 30 Chapters (Paras) and each chapter is subdivided in to sections (Rukus) and each
section is further divided into Ayats (Verses). There are a total of 114 Suras in Holy Quran. The Sura is identified as
Makki and Madani Sura. The Suras, chapters and sections are sometimes overlapped. Sura and sections can be
continued (run) over chapters, but Suras are complete units. Suras are subdivided into Ayats. The Suras and Ayats
and their placements in the Quran are ordained by God.
From these 114 Suras of Quran, 89 are Makki Suras and 25 are Madani Suras. Similarly there are 6236 Ayats of
which 4725 Ayats are Makki and 1511 are Madani Ayats. The mean number of Ayats per Sura is calculated to be
51.72, whereas Makki Suras have a calculated mean of 41.87 and Madani Suras have the mean 82.56 showing that
Madani Suras are larger than Makki Suras with respect to lengths of Ayats. The range of Madani Sura, Ayats size is
also larger than Makki Suras which mean that the variation in Madani Suras are more than the Makki Suras (See Al-
Dargazelli 2004). This fact has also been noted by many Mufassirs.
The total number of letters in Holy Quran is 322,564 and total words are 86,872 showing the mean number of letters
per word is 3.71. In Madani Suras the total number of letters is 124755 and the total number of words is 33,247
showing the mean number of letters per word is 3.75. In Makki Suras, the total number of letters is 197,809 and the
number of words is 53,625 showing the mean is 3.69. Details are given in the Tables at Appendix A
2.1 Analysis of Verses
Al-Dargezelli (2004) has discussed the basic statistics of verses, but he has made some unintentional mistakes in
applications of the methods. In this section, various aspects of the verses are presented. This study shall hereafter
refer verses as Ayats. The Ayat-size by words and Ayat-size by letters is calculated. This gives a comprehensive
insight into the structure of Ayats. The Table 1 below exhibits the number of Ayats, words, letters and words per
Ayat, letters per Ayat and letter per word.



Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
3

Table 2: Numbers of Ayats, words , letters and Ayat-size by word, Ayat-size by letters and word-size by
letters of Makki and Madani Sura

Suras No Ayats No. letters No words Ayat-size
by letters
Ayat-size
by words
Word-size
words
Makki 4725 197,809 53,625 41.87 11.34 3.69
Madani 1511 124,755 33,247 82.57 22.00 3.75
Total 6236 322,564 86,872 51.73 13.93 3.71

It is noted by all early authors that Madani Ayats are longer than the Makki Ayats. It is evident this characteristic by
Ayat-sizes by letters and by words from the Table 1. Madani Ayats are almost twice as much as Makki Ayats both
by letters and by the words. Similarly the Madani word size is also larger than Makki word. In fact the Madani Ayat
size is larger than all Ayats in the Holy book.
If we further examine the distribution of Suras over Ayat sizes by words, we find some interesting aspect of the
Suras as shown in Table 2 below. We note that 58 of 89 Makki Suras have smaller Ayats of size 1 to 10 Ayats per
Sura whereas 23 of 25 Madani Suras have larger Ayats of size 15 and above. This confirms early authors work that
Madani Suras have longer Ayats than Makki Suras. One thing is different that the word sizes by letters are almost
similar. Further, we may note that of 32 Suras of Ayat size 1to 5. Thirty one (31) Suras are Makki and only one Sura
is Madani. On the other side of the Ayat size of 20 and above, of 17 Suras, 15 Suras are Madani and only 2 are
Makki Suras.
Table 3: Distribution of Suras by Ayat-size by words

Ayat Size Makki Madani Total
1-5 31 1 32
5-10 27 27
10-15 11 1 12
15-20 18 8 26
20-25 2 12 14
25-30 - 3 3
31 and above
Total 89 25 114

4. One-letter and Two-letter Words
In this section a study of the words with one letters and two letters per word is conducted. In the Holy Quran, there
are 9,398 words with one letter per word and 14,646 words with two letters per word. It shows that there are 10.82%
of words with one letter and 16.96% words with two letters per word, showing that there are 27.78% words with
two- and one - letters word. It may be noted that there are more than one fourth of words that have 1 and 2 letter-
words in the Holy Quran. The distribution of 1and 2 letter -words of Makki and Madani Suras may be seen in the
Table 3 below:
Table 4: Word size by type of Suras

Word size All Suras Makki Suras Madani Suras
One 9,398 (10.82%) 5,558 (6.40%) 3840 (4.42%)
Two 14,646 (16.96%) 9,286 (10.69%) 5,360 (6.27%)
One & Two 24,044 (27.78%) 14,844 (17.09%) 9,200 (10.69%)

Similarly, we may study the largest word sizes. Words containing 9 or 10 letters are the largest words. There are 23
words in all Suras that have 10 letters each, whereas there are 129 words with 9 letters each in the Holy Quran. Of
all Suras, 46 Suras have 9 letter -words and 14 Suras have 10 letter -words. Of Makki Suras, 31 Suras have 9 letter-
words and similarly of Madani Suras, only 15 Suras have 9 letter words and of Makki Suras, only 8 Suras have 10
letter-words and of Madani Suras only 6 Suras have 10 letter -words. The following Table 4 summarizes the
information:

Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
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Table 5: Word sizes by Makki and Madani Suras

Word Size Makki Madani Total
Nine 31 15 46
Ten 8 6 14
Nine & Ten 39 21 60

It is important to see that Makki Suras have more number of 9 and 10 letter-words in the Holy Quran. If we look at
the number of words with 9 or 10 letters, we note that there are 152 such words of which 129 words have 9 letters
and 23 words have 10 letters. Of 9 letter-words, there are 76 words in Makki Suras and 53 in Madani Suras. Makki
Suras have more number of 9 letter-words as compared to Madani Suras. Similarly, of 23 words of 10 letters, there
are 13 in Makki Suras and 10 words are Madani. In 10 letters -words, Makki Suras have more 10 letter-words than
Madani Suras. This may be seen from the Table 6:
Table 6: Letter sizes by Makki and Madani Suras

Letter Size Makki Madani Total
Nine 76 53 129
Ten 13 10 23
Nine & Ten 89 63 152

Statistical tools can be used to understand the numerical beauty of the Holy Quran. This study has provided a basis
for conducting further analysis of the Holy book on similar lines. The present study is still under progress and it is
anticipated that further relationships will be identified from the data collected for the research.
5. Symmetry of Makki and Madni Surras.
In order to study the Skewness and kurtosis of Makki and Madni Surras, we have constructed bivariate table of 1
and 2 -3 in tables 1 and 2 below. It is seen that Makki Surras are closer to symmetrical functional from than
Madni Surras. There are 41/89 Makki Surras whose 1 and 2 lie between (-1 to +10 and (+2 to +4) respectively
whereas 7/25 Madni Surras 1 and 2 lie in (-1 to +1) and (+2 to +4) respectively. Almost half of Makkii Surras
have 1 (-1 to +1) and a little more than 50% Surras have 2 -3 in (-1 to +1) interval. For Madni Surras, only 8
Surras out of 25 have 1 in the interval (-1 to +1) and 10 out of 25 have 2 -3 in the interval (-1 to +10.

Graphical representation of ( 1 , 2 -3) are given in Fig (1) and (2).


















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Table 7: Bivariate Table of Makki Surras




















































B2
B1
-2 , -
1
-1 , -
0
0 , 1 1 ,
2
2 ,
3
3 ,
4
4 ,
5
5 ,
6
6 ,
7
Total
(-4 to -3) 1 1
(-3 to -2) 1 1
(-2 to -1) 2 2
(-1 to -0) 3 19 22
(0 to 1) 2 1 17 3 23
(1 to 2) 1 2 8 11
(2 to 3) 6 6
(3 to 4) 1 6 7
(4 to 5) 2 2
(5 to 6) 2 1 3
(6 to 7) 1 2 3
(7 to 8) 1 1
(8 to 9) 1 1
(9 to 10) 1 1
(10 to 11) 2 2
(19 to 20) 1 1
(24 to 25) 1 1
(50 to 51) 1 1
Total 2 9 39 29 7 1 1 - 1 89
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Table 8: Bivatiate Table of Madni Surras




















































B2
B1
(-1 to -0) (0 to 1) (1 to 2) (2 to 3) Total
(-4 to -3)
(-3 to -2)
(-2 to -1) 1 1 2
(-1 to -0) 1 3 4
(0 to 1) 1 2 1 4
(1 to 2) 1 4 5
(2 to 3) 1 1
(3 to 4) 3 3
(4 to 5) 2 1 3
(5 to 6) 1 1
(6 to 7)
(10 to 11) 1 2
(11 to 12) 1 1
Total 3 7 11 3 25
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Fig (1)
Graphical representation of ( 1 , 2 -3) of Makki Surras






















Fig (2)
Graphical representation of ( 1 , 2 -3) of Madni Surras


























Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
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References
1. Al-Dargazelli,S. (2004). A Statistical Studies of Holy Quran. [Online] Available:
http//www.quranicstudies.com/printout104.html
2. Al-Shalabi,R.G.,Kanaan,J.M., Jaam, A. H. and Hilat, E. ( 2004).Stop-word removal algorithm for Arabic
language. Proceedings of 1
st
International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies
from theory to applications.( Damascus, Syria April, 2004) IEEE, France, 545-550 .
3. Al-Suwaindan, T. (2006). The numerical miracles in the Holy Quran. [Online] Available:
http//islamicweb.com/beliefs/science/numbers.html.
4. Mir, M. (1999). Is the Quran a shapeless book. Renaissance, August, 1999.
Naik A. Z. (2004). The Quran and the modern science: compatible or incompatible. Islamic Research
Foundation. [Online] Available: www.Alya.org
5. Naji, A., Kanaan, M., Ghassan , N, K. Bani, M. and Basal, I. M. Statistical Classifier of the Holy
QuranVerses ( Fateha and Yaseen chapters) Journal of Applied Science,15(3),580-583.
6. Rosty, Stefan (2007). A statistical analysis of the Holy Quran. [Online] Available:
.http//pressthat.wordpress.com/2007/05/06/62truthbook.
7. Dost and Ahmed, (2007). A short note on the statistical analysis of Surra Baqra and Surra proceedings of
3
rd
National conference on statistical sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
8. Dost, Ahmed and Ahmed (2007). A Short note on the frequency distribution of Quran word length,
proceedings of 9
th
Islamic Countries Conference on Statistical Sciences, Kula Lumpur Malaysia.


Appendix A1
Table A1: Some Basic Statistics on Holy Quran
No of
Sura
No of
Ayat
No of
Words
No of
Letters
Mean letter per
Word
Mean word
per Ayat S.D C.V
1 7 27 117 4.33 3.86 1.73 39.97
2 286 6860 25637 3.74 23.99 1.70 45.39
3 200 3934 14642 3.72 19.67 1.73 46.59
4 176 4228 15971 3.78 24.02 1.75 46.32
5 120 3163 11894 3.76 26.36 1.70 45.29
6 165 3440 12458 3.62 20.85 1.71 47.08
7 206 3694 14071 3.81 17.93 1.74 45.64
8 75 1436 5337 3.72 19.15 1.79 48.05
9 129 2846 10865 3.82 22.06 1.84 48.19
10 109 2018 7406 3.67 18.51 1.67 45.60
11 123 2127 7615 3.58 17.29 1.59 44.38
12 111 1956 7140 3.65 17.62 1.60 43.79
13 43 974 3461 3.55 22.65 1.63 45.87
14 52 929 3446 3.71 17.87 1.70 45.88
15 99 727 2809 3.86 7.34 1.85 47.87
16 128 2079 7655 3.68 16.24 1.74 47.20
17 111 1747 6491 3.72 15.74 1.70 45.73
18 110 1735 6407 3.69 15.77 1.60 43.39
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19 98 1081 3828 3.54 11.03 1.58 44.55
20 135 1481 5292 3.57 10.97 1.56 43.67
21 112 1310 4904 3.74 11.70 1.76 47.02
22 78 1434 5161 3.60 18.38 1.64 45.64
23 118 1166 4372 3.75 9.88 1.74 46.44
24 64 1478 5596 3.79 23.09 1.76 46.46
25 77 1016 3721 3.66 13.19 1.66 45.41
26 227 1457 5498 3.77 6.42 1.82 48.16
27 93 1282 4683 3.65 13.78 1.68 45.89
28 88 1582 5802 3.67 17.98 1.66 45.21
29 69 1118 4188 3.75 16.20 1.78 47.52
30 60 918 3377 3.68 15.30 1.71 46.49
31 34 616 2118 3.44 18.12 1.55 45.02
32 30 409 1522 3.72 13.63 1.64 44.17
33 73 1501 5619 3.74 20.56 1.83 48.99
34 54 995 3512 3.53 18.43 1.65 46.87
35 45 872 3159 3.62 19.38 1.61 44.43
36 83 805 3002 3.73 9.70 1.72 46.01
37 182 954 3780 3.96 5.24 1.90 47.98
38 88 818 2993 3.65 9.30 1.69 46.36
39 75 1269 4731 3.73 16.92 1.64 43.94
40 85 1342 4986 3.72 15.79 1.64 44.05
41 54 896 3288 3.67 16.59 1.71 46.61
42 53 980 3422 3.40 18.49 1.44 42.22
43 89 941 3518 3.74 10.57 1.74 46.49
44 59 380 1437 3.78 6.44 1.70 44.86
45 37 552 1998 3.62 14.92 1.67 46.19
46 35 717 2610 3.64 20.49 1.66 45.74
47 38 615 2376 3.86 16.18 1.78 46.11
48 29 638 2463 3.86 22.00 1.81 46.93
49 18 386 1492 3.87 21.44 1.80 46.49
50 45 423 1475 3.49 9.40 1.56 44.84
51 60 395 1500 3.80 6.58 1.73 45.65
52 49 341 1290 3.78 6.96 1.74 45.96
53 62 407 1402 3.44 6.56 1.66 48.27
54 55 383 1442 3.77 6.96 1.62 43.08
55 78 383 1569 4.10 4.91 1.63 39.84
56 96 430 1696 3.94 4.48 1.90 48.23
57 29 670 2472 3.69 23.10 1.73 46.97
58 22 526 1993 3.79 23.91 1.69 44.55
59 24 499 1921 3.85 20.79 1.82 47.22
60 13 393 1531 3.90 30.23 1.86 47.86
61 14 244 942 3.86 17.43 1.74 45.00
62 11 194 743 3.83 17.64 1.66 43.24
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63 11 201 782 3.89 18.27 1.85 47.52
64 18 287 1067 3.72 15.94 1.76 47.29
65 12 316 1173 3.71 26.33 1.58 42.52
66 12 283 1068 3.77 23.58 1.64 43.43
67 30 364 1315 3.61 12.13 1.52 42.17
68 52 327 1262 3.86 6.29 1.80 46.62
69 52 285 1114 3.91 5.48 1.73 44.20
70 44 240 943 3.93 5.45 1.74 44.29
71 28 264 950 3.60 9.43 1.73 48.02
72 28 320 1091 3.41 11.43 1.49 43.74
73 20 227 841 3.70 11.35 1.65 44.53
74 56 290 1012 3.49 5.18 1.62 46.55
75 40 180 665 3.69 4.50 1.58 42.64
76 31 278 1069 3.85 8.97 1.70 44.09
77 50 198 818 4.13 3.96 1.89 45.78
78 40 201 771 3.84 5.03 1.75 45.59
79 46 197 749 3.80 4.38 1.62 42.73
80 42 151 551 3.65 3.60 1.60 43.87
81 29 122 424 3.48 4.21 1.61 46.38
82 19 89 323 3.63 4.68 1.70 46.88
83 36 179 737 4.12 4.97 1.85 44.80
84 25 123 436 3.54 4.92 1.51 42.62
85 22 124 455 3.67 5.64 1.78 48.49
86 17 70 240 3.43 4.12 1.59 46.47
87 19 82 291 3.55 4.32 1.54 43.42
88 26 102 386 3.78 3.92 1.52 40.16
89 30 154 569 3.69 5.13 1.68 45.41
90 20 92 334 3.63 4.60 1.71 47.22
91 15 69 234 3.39 4.60 1.71 50.37
92 21 89 310 3.48 4.24 1.84 52.85
93 11 50 167 3.34 4.55 1.48 44.29
94 8 29 101 3.48 3.63 1.21 34.85
95 8 37 151 4.08 4.63 1.52 37.15
96 19 76 284 3.74 4.00 1.53 40.85
97 5 32 110 3.44 6.40 1.39 40.43
98 8 103 392 3.81 12.88 1.65 43.23
99 8 38 157 4.13 4.75 1.70 41.03
100 11 44 164 3.73 4.00 1.74 46.78
101 11 38 156 4.11 3.45 1.97 47.98
102 8 28 92 4.29 3.50 1.72 40.09
103 3 18 59 3.83 6.00 1.98 51.60
104 9 35 134 3.83 3.89 1.52 39.81
105 5 24 96 4.00 4.80 1.44 36.12
106 4 18 71 4.00 4.50 1.71 42.87
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107 7 27 112 4.15 3.86 1.79 43.18
108 3 11 42 3.82 3.67 1.78 46.58
109 6 30 96 3.20 5.00 1.61 50.19
110 3 22 79 3.59 7.33 1.59 44.37
111 5 27 81 3.00 5.40 1.21 40.30
112 4 17 48 2.82 4.25 1.13 40.06
113 5 26 70 2.69 5.20 1.19 44.28
114 6 21 76 3.62 3.50 1.47 40.49
6236 86872 322564 3.71 13.94

Appendix A2
Table A2: Number of Ayats, Words, Letters Means and Standard deviations of Makki Surras

No of
Sura
No of
Ayat
No of
Words
No of words
per Ayat (mean)
No of
Letters
Mean
Letter per
word
S.D C.V
1 7 27 3.857 117 4.33 1.7321 39.97040325
6 165 3440 20.848 12458 3.62 1.7052 47.08437743
7 206 3694 17.932 14071 3.81 1.7386 45.64172519
10 109 2018 18.514 7406 3.67 1.6734 45.59734397
11 123 2127 17.293 7615 3.58 1.5890 44.38390941
12 111 1956 17.622 7140 3.65 1.5984 43.78816401
14 52 929 17.865 3446 3.71 1.7018 45.87784334
15 99 727 7.343 2809 3.86 1.8495 47.86830694
16 128 2079 16.242 7655 3.68 1.7380 47.20163901
17 111 1747 15.739 6491 3.72 1.6989 45.72541167
18 110 1735 15.773 6407 3.69 1.6022 43.38720631
19 98 1081 11.031 3828 3.54 1.5777 44.55436875
20 135 1481 10.970 5292 3.57 1.5606 43.67318853
21 112 1310 11.696 4904 3.74 1.7586 47.02479789
23 118 1166 9.881 4372 3.75 1.7414 46.44292425
25 77 1016 13.195 3721 3.66 1.6625 45.40723076
26 227 1457 6.419 5498 3.77 1.8174 48.16295654
27 93 1282 13.785 4683 3.65 1.6761 45.89477858
28 88 1582 17.977 5802 3.67 1.6582 45.21298016
29 69 1118 16.203 4188 3.75 1.7802 47.52273163
30 60 918 15.300 3377 3.68 1.7103 46.49140331
31 34 616 18.118 2118 3.44 1.5480 45.02101002
32 30 409 13.633 1522 3.72 1.6436 44.16860578
34 54 995 18.426 3512 3.53 1.6542 46.86513625
35 45 872 19.378 3159 3.62 1.6097 44.43355825
36 83 805 9.699 3002 3.73 1.7158 46.0100804
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37 182 954 5.242 3780 3.96 1.9012 47.98241912
38 88 818 9.295 2993 3.65 1.6918 46.3605376
39 75 1269 16.920 4731 3.73 1.6383 43.94334833
40 85 1342 15.788 4986 3.72 1.6365 44.04630744
41 54 896 16.593 3288 3.67 1.7104 46.60873084
42 53 980 18.491 3422 3.40 1.4355 42.22003309
43 89 941 10.573 3518 3.74 1.7381 46.49061636
44 59 380 6.441 1437 3.78 1.6966 44.86358062
45 37 552 14.919 1998 3.62 1.6719 46.18952338
46 35 717 20.486 2610 3.64 1.6629 45.73548519
50 45 423 9.400 1475 3.49 1.5636 44.83986629
51 60 395 6.583 1500 3.80 1.7334 45.64533818
52 49 341 6.959 1290 3.78 1.7388 45.96310698
53 62 407 6.565 1402 3.44 1.6628 48.27004925
54 55 383 6.964 1442 3.77 1.6219 43.07771954
55 78 383 4.910 1569 4.10 1.6320 39.8378119
56 96 430 4.479 1696 3.94 1.9024 48.23388116
67 30 364 12.133 1315 3.61 1.5234 42.16739998
68 52 327 6.288 1262 3.86 1.7994 46.6245543
69 52 285 5.481 1114 3.91 1.7276 44.19805565
70 44 240 5.455 943 3.93 1.7402 44.29030162
71 28 264 9.429 950 3.60 1.7281 48.02405051
72 28 320 11.429 1091 3.41 1.4912 43.73880053
73 20 227 11.350 841 3.70 1.6499 44.53408284
74 56 290 5.179 1012 3.49 1.6243 46.54570897
75 40 180 4.500 665 3.69 1.5753 42.63938239
76 31 278 8.968 1069 3.85 1.6956 44.09393973
77 50 198 3.960 818 4.13 1.8912 45.77683209
78 40 201 5.025 771 3.84 1.7487 45.58836962
79 46 197 4.378 749 3.80 1.6246 42.72862086
80 42 151 3.595 551 3.65 1.6008 43.87023007
81 29 122 4.207 424 3.48 1.6120 46.38319629
82 19 89 4.684 323 3.63 1.7015 46.88298079
83 36 179 4.972 737 4.12 1.8471 44.80091771
84 25 123 4.920 436 3.54 1.5109 42.62402679
85 22 124 5.636 455 3.67 1.7794 48.49310465
86 17 70 4.118 240 3.43 1.5932 46.46848013
87 19 82 4.316 291 3.55 1.5408 43.41836891
88 26 102 3.923 386 3.78 1.5197 40.15758339
89 30 154 5.133 569 3.69 1.6777 45.40753346
90 20 92 4.600 334 3.63 1.7143 47.22039437
91 15 69 4.600 234 3.39 1.7083 50.37182395
92 21 89 4.238 310 3.48 1.8409 52.85167988
93 11 50 4.545 167 3.34 1.4792 44.28874711
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94 8 29 3.625 101 3.48 1.2136 34.84690403
95 8 37 4.625 151 4.08 1.5162 37.15140627
96 19 76 4.000 284 3.74 1.5264 40.8466893
97 5 32 6.400 110 3.44 1.3898 40.42957811
100 11 44 4.000 164 3.73 1.7436 46.77972895
101 11 38 3.455 156 4.11 1.9699 47.98478119
102 8 28 3.500 92 4.29 1.7182 40.09248567
103 3 18 6.000 59 3.83 1.9778 51.59525656
104 9 35 3.889 134 3.83 1.5240 39.80693912
105 5 24 4.800 96 4.00 1.4446 36.11575593
106 4 18 4.500 71 4.00 1.7150 42.87464629
107 7 27 3.857 112 4.15 1.7911 43.17788631
108 3 11 3.667 42 3.82 1.7787 46.58398896
109 6 30 5.000 96 3.20 1.6060 50.18822331
110 3 22 7.333 79 3.59 1.5934 44.37349207
111 5 27 5.400 81 3.00 1.2089 40.29803499
112 4 17 4.250 48 2.82 1.1311 40.06017609
113 5 26 5.200 70 2.69 1.1923 44.28479262
114 6 21 3.500 76 3.62 1.4655 40.49340769
Total 4725 53625 11.34 197809 3.69

Appendix A3
Table A3: Numbers of Ayats, word, letters and Means and Standard deviations of Madani Suras

No of
Sura
No of Ayat Average No of
words
No of
Words
No of
Letters
Mean
Letter
per word
S.D C.V
2 286 23.99 6860 25637 3.74 1.6984 45.388402
3 200 19.67 3934 14642 3.72 1.7342 46.593296
4 176 24.02 4228 15971 3.78 1.7498 46.321240
5 120 26.36 3163 11894 3.76 1.7030 45.288010
8 75 19.15 1436 5337 3.72 1.7857 48.046026
9 129 22.06 2846 10865 3.82 1.8396 48.188129
13 43 22.65 974 3461 3.55 1.6299 45.867810
22 78 18.38 1434 5161 3.60 1.6426 45.640223
24 64 23.09 1478 5596 3.79 1.7591 46.460663
33 73 20.56 1501 5619 3.74 1.8338 48.986261
47 38 16.18 615 2376 3.86 1.7814 46.110272
48 29 22.00 638 2463 3.86 1.8116 46.926744
49 18 21.44 386 1492 3.87 1.7968 46.486064
57 29 23.10 670 2472 3.69 1.7331 46.973116
58 22 23.91 526 1993 3.79 1.6878 44.545418
59 24 20.79 499 1921 3.85 1.8179 47.221248
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60 13 30.23 393 1531 3.90 1.8645 47.860591
61 14 17.43 244 942 3.86 1.7371 44.995125
62 11 17.64 194 743 3.83 1.6562 43.243489
63 11 18.27 201 782 3.89 1.8488 47.519603
64 18 15.94 287 1067 3.72 1.7582 47.292778
65 12 26.33 316 1173 3.71 1.5784 42.521807
66 12 23.58 283 1068 3.77 1.6390 43.429971
98 8 12.88 103 392 3.81 1.6453 43.231196
99 8 4.75 38 157 4.13 1.6953 41.033230
Total 1511 22.00 33247 124755 3.75

Appendix A4
Table A4: Words per Ayat, Standard deviations, coefficient of variation, 1 and 2 of Makki Suras

Surra
Nu
Mean

S.D

C.V

1 2
1 3.8571 1.3452 34.8752 0.3521 -0.3025
6 20.8485 10.0745 48.3224 1.1287 0.9412
7 17.9320 10.2088 56.9305 1.1022 0.8326
10 18.5138 8.7174 47.0860 1.1311 1.6758
11 17.2927 7.2697 42.0390 0.8681 0.9757
12 17.6216 8.5089 48.2866 1.1200 1.6606
14 17.8654 9.0338 50.5658 1.2986 1.9168
15 7.3434 2.9903 40.7211 1.2047 2.0264
16 16.2422 6.6649 41.0346 0.6599 0.0853
17 15.7387 5.4784 34.8084 0.7691 0.2582
18 15.7727 8.2946 52.5885 1.1344 1.0126
19 11.0306 4.8065 43.5739 1.6976 6.3581
20 10.9704 6.4112 58.4411 1.1033 1.6856
21 11.6964 4.2614 36.4331 0.8014 0.1119
23 9.8814 5.3576 54.2192 2.0102 5.4461
25 13.1948 4.8802 36.9861 0.8215 0.7136
26 6.4185 2.8959 45.1174 2.0730 8.2165
27 13.7957 5.9720 43.2886 1.5954 4.3431
28 17.9773 7.0335 39.1246 0.4098 0.4132
29 16.2029 6.9379 42.8190 0.5075 0.1911
30 15.3000 7.0140 45.8433 0.5617 0.4573
31 18.1176 9.0110 49.7360 0.1307 -0.6546
32 13.6333 5.5490 40.7021 0.0624 0.2823
34 18.4259 8.0578 43.7309 0.9510 0.2347
35 19.3778 9.3597 48.3012 0.3109 -0.5623
36 9.6988 3.9346 40.5683 0.6578 1.7916
37 5.2418 2.4420 46.5873 3.7596 24.3203
38 9.2955 5.4734 58.8821 2.7161 10.5436
39 16.9200 8.5531 50.5503 0.9494 0.2602
40 15.7882 7.6222 48.2775 1.1191 1.5642
Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
15

41 16.5926 7.7155 46.4997 0.5530 0.3464
42 18.4906 8.7346 47.2381 0.6613 1.0348
43 10.5730 4.5524 43.0571 1.0765 1.6419
44 6.4407 2.5139 39.0316 0.3284 -0.0663
45 14.9189 5.9971 40.1981 0.0392 -0.0108
46 20.4857 9.7268 47.4808 1.1082 3.1948
50 9.4000 3.3056 35.1664 0.5940 -0.0068
51 6.5833 2.5465 38.6804 0.1992 -0.3076
52 6.9592 3.2975 47.3830 1.9857 7.9494
53 6.5645 5.8467 89.0657 2.9370 9.0645
54 6.9636 1.9623 28.1788 0.2357 -0.6898
55 4.9103 2.4345 49.5804 2.4349 10.2465
56 4.4792 1.9028 42.4809 1.4652 3.5912
67 12.1333 3.3086 27.2690 0.1682 -0.3965
68 6.2885 3.1644 50.3202 0.8752 -0.0781
69 5.4808 2.7260 49.7373 1.7100 5.2672
70 5.4545 2.3373 42.8506 0.8387 0.1044
71 9.4286 5.0216 53.2599 0.8140 -0.5563
72 11.4286 2.8078 24.5680 0.5084 0.7915
73 11.3500 18.8882 166.4163 4.3614 19.3145
74 5.1786 8.7430 168.8306 6.9975 50.8998
75 4.5000 1.0622 23.6038 0.4730 -0.0615
76 8.9677 2.3019 25.6691 0.4977 1.9482
77 3.9600 1.5513 39.1742 1.2309 1.1386
78 5.0250 3.1743 63.1705 2.4366 6.2089
79 4.2826 1.7469 40.7908 1.4012 3.6262
80 3.5952 0.9642 26.8195 0.2306 -0.2447
81 4.2069 1.3464 32.0047 1.5754 4.9456
82 4.6842 1.7655 37.6903 1.4189 3.5451
83 4.9722 1.8281 36.7669 -0.1349 -0.8902
84 4.9200 1.7059 34.6722 1.2844 2.0737
85 5.6364 3.9345 69.8062 1.8212 2.2384
86 4.1176 1.2690 30.8179 0.7931 0.5957
87 4.3158 1.7014 39.4225 2.3959 6.7502
88 3.9231 1.2304 31.3627 0.7153 0.2905
89 5.1333 2.4738 48.1903 1.4910 2.2507
90 4.6000 1.9574 42.5531 1.8919 5.3072
91 4.6000 1.3522 29.3967 1.4559 2.1770
92 4.2381 1.8413 43.4470 0.8346 -0.1709
93 4.5455 1.1282 24.8193 -0.9033 1.6575
94 3.6250 0.5175 14.2772 -0.6441 -2.2400
95 4.6250 2.4458 52.8831 1.7514 3.6586
96 4.0000 1.3333 33.3333 0.4715 -0.1355
97 6.4000 2.0736 32.4007 1.9178 3.8778
100 4.0000 1.5492 38.7298 0.3945 -0.3472
101 3.4545 1.4397 41.6754 -0.5037 -1.2992
102 3.5000 1.1952 34.1494 0.0000 -1.4560
103 6.0000 5.2915 88.1917 1.4579 0.0000
104 3.8889 0.7817 20.1018 0.2160 -1.0413
105 4.8000 1.4832 30.9008 0.5516 0.8678
Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences Vol.1 2008
16

106 4.5000 2.5166 55.9247 1.1293 2.2271
107 3.8571 1.3452 34.8752 0.3521 -0.3025
108 3.6667 0.5774 15.7459 -1.7321 0.0000
109 5.0000 1.2649 25.2982 -0.8894 -0.7813
110 7.3333 1.1547 15.7459 -1.7321 0.0000
111 5.4000 1.5166 28.0847 1.7488 3.7240
112 4.2500 1.7078 40.1841 -0.7528 0.3429
113 5.2000 1.0954 21.0663 -0.6086 -3.3333
114 3.5000 1.2247 34.9927 -0.4899 -1.4667

Appendix A5
Table A5: Words per Ayat, Standard deviations, coefficient of variation, 1 and 2 of Madni Suras
Surra
Nu
Mean

S.D

C.V

1 2
2 23.9860 15.8920 66.2551 2.5585 11.6524
3 19.6700 10.4252 53.0004 1.5947 4.9094
4 24.0227 13.9644 58.1301 1.8183 4.4431
5 26.3583 14.4768 54.9229 1.5203 2.1470
8 19.1467 8.9980 46.9953 1.5551 3.8307
9 22.0620 8.6112 39.0317 1.3919 3.0790
13 22.6512 11.0602 48.8284 0.9821 0.8574
22 18.3846 11.0445 60.0744 2.6115 10.2816
24 23.0938 15.2114 65.8682 2.1938 5.6098
33 20.5616 13.1667 64.0350 2.2272 6.2748
47 16.1842 9.9807 61.6692 1.7010 3.3044
48 22.0000 12.2066 55.4843 1.0646 1.7415
49 21.4444 9.7873 45.6402 0.6688 -0.3351
57 23.1034 10.7349 46.4647 0.9906 0.0858
58 23.9091 12.8356 53.6851 1.2881 1.3909
59 20.7917 9.9301 47.7600 1.3347 1.0169
60 30.2308 18.0100 59.5750 0.9731 -0.8729
61 17.4286 8.6799 49.8027 1.1684 0.4961
62 17.6364 5.8185 32.9913 0.0074 -1.6668
63 18.2727 4.6710 25.5627 -0.3331 -1.1517
64 15.9444 5.5357 34.7186 0.6584 1.2152
65 26.3333 10.7478 40.8144 0.1544 -0.5745
66 23.5833 10.3261 43.7857 1.0770 1.6588
98 12.8750 6.5995 51.2584 -0.0800 -0.9937
99 4.7500 1.1650 24.5256 -0.0904 -1.6133






Teachings and Reflections of Qur'an and Sunnah About Science,
Engineering, Technology and Management
ABDUL RASHID SHAIKH *
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses some of the teachings and reflections from Qur'an and Sunnah
about science, engineering, technology, and management. Qur'an and Sunnah
provide complete guidance about every thing, and invite mankind for observation,
thinking, understanding the creation, and acquiring the knowledge. Some Ayat
and Ahadith which mention some basic tools and techniques and some related to
modern theories and trends are also quoted. As a result of new spirit of inquiry
and struggle, the Muslim scientists developed the method of controlled experiment
and other techniques which form the basis of modern science, engineering and
technology. They also wrote a good number of highly valuable books. That
knowledge was transferred to Europe, where it was advanced further, but without
guidance of Qur'an and Sunnah. This resulted in certain material benefits but
gave rise to adverse effects related to belief and moral aspects. In order to safeguard
these aspects, an important aspect of Tawheed is presented which explains the
reality of cause and effect phenomena.

All science rests on the idea that similar events occur in
similar circumstances. The scientific facts are verifiable,
reproducible and communicable. A scientist is basically
interested to study the natural systems and phenomena in
order to know certain aspects about the Will of Allah
subhanahu wa ta 'aia about His creation. The engineering
and technology mainly deal with designing, manufacturing/
constructing, using/operating and maintaining machines,
systems, structures, processes etc. for the benefit of
mankind. This is accomplished by applying scientific and
empirical knowledge and techniques to the materials and
forces created by Allah subhanahu wa [a 'a/a. Management
deals with planning, execution and control in order to
achieve desired objectives.
Qur 'an is a Book for the guidance of all mankind in every
walk of life, including as to how the man should seek
empirical knowledge, what method must he use and what
procedure he should follow. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala
says "For you we have revealed the Book which manifests
the facts about all things, a guide, a blessing and a good
news to those who submit to Allah" [Surah 16:89]. The
Sunnah is the explanation and implementation of Qur'an
by Prophet Mohammad sallallaho alaihe wasallam. Qur'an
emphasizes to follow sunnah by saying "And whatsoever
the Prophet gives you, take it; And whatsoever he forbids,
abstain (from it)" [Surah 59:7].
2. IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING
& TECHNOLOGY IN THE LIGHT OF
QUR'AN AND SUNNAH
Qur'an has mentioned various aspects of natural systems
and phenomena. They include animals, birds, plants, crops,
Earth, Sun, Moon, stars, minerals, day & night, raining etc.
The Qur'an has also given indications about many
technologies directly. These include, iron, armour,
metallurgy, mi ni ng, woodworking, ship bui ldi ng,
transportation, communication, wind power, glass,
agriculture, grain storage, textile, lighting system, aerial
and space travel, etc. In one Hadith it is said "Try to get
your earnings from the hidden treasures of the Earth ", an
indication to advance and develop agriculture, mineralogy,
mining and other related fields.

*Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro.
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, VOLUME 1, NO. 1, JANUARY-JUNE, 2000
1. INTRODUCTION
Teachings and Reflections of Qur 'an and Sunnah About Science, Engineering, Technology and Management
It is evident from the history that the progressive attitude
was adopted and encouraged by the Prophet sallaltaho
alaihe wasallum [1,2,3]. For the first time the Arabs saw a
deep trench in Ghazwah Ah 'zab. Hazrat Salman Farsee gave
the suggestion and the trench was demarcated, designed
and dug under the direct guidance of the Prophet sallallaho
alaihe wasallum. For learning and importing the technology of
armoured cars and mobile weapons called Manjnek,
Dababa and Zaboor, the Prophet sallallaho allaihe
wasallum sent Sahabah to Syria. That technology, perhaps
the latest at that time, was used in Ghazwah Ta'if'[1,2,3]. It
may be noted that Syria was not Muslim state at that time.
Therefore technology could be transferred from any suitable
country.
Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala orders the Muslims in Qur'an
"Against them make your strength ready to the utmost of
your power, including steeds of war, to strike tenor into
(the hearts of) the enemies of Allah, your own enemies and
others whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know"
[Surah 8:60]. In one Hadith, it is said "And equip your
selves against them (the enemies) with as much force as you
can. Behold! power lies in hitting the target, Behold! power lies
in hitting the target, Behold! power lies in hitting the target".
[Al-Hadith: Muslim]. In the above verse and the Hadith we
are strictly ordered to develop a well defined level of military
power, specially the systems capable to destroy the enemy
targets. Such development surely needs appropriate
advancement in many fields including science, engineering,
technology and management. It means Qur'an and Sunnah
teach us to make advancement in these fields.
3, DEVLOPMENTOFSPmrrABOUTOBSERVAnON,
THINKING, UNDERSTANDING CREATION,
AND ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
There are over 500 references in the Holy Qur'an that
invite man to Tanadhur (observation), Tadahbur
(deliberation), Tazakkur (recollection), Tafakkur
(consideration, thinking), Tabassur (understanding,
reflection) and Ta'aqqul (rationalization) on the natural
phenomena and creation [4]. One of the constant prayers of
the Prophet sallallaho alaihe wasallum was "My Lord, show
me the nature of things as they are". The observable aspect of
reality is emphasized by Qur'an in several verses throughout
the book [5 - 8], One of the verses is as follows: " Assuredly in
the creation of Heavens and the Earth; and in the alteration
of night and day; and in the ships which pass through the
sea for the profit of mankind; and in the rain which Allah
sends down from the skies, giving life to the Earth after its
death, and scattering over it all kinds of
cattle; and in the change of the winds and in the clouds
that are made to do service between the heavens and the
Earth, are signs for those who understand" [Surah2:164].
At other places Qur'an says:
"Do you not see, that Allah has subjugated everything in the
Heaven and in the Earth to you " [Surah 31:20]; "// is He,
Who has created for you all things that are in the Earth " [Surah
2:29]; "Travel on Earth and see how He originated creation"
[Surah 29:20].
The very first Qur'anic verses revealed to the Prophet
sallallaho alaihe wasallam contained the information about
"reading and writing" [Surah 96:1,4]. Qur'an andSunnah
emphasize on acquiring knowledge and teach us the prayer
"My lord! Grant me increase in knowledge" [Surah
20:114], In Hadith it is said "The word of wisdom is the lost
property of the believer;
so wherever he finds it, he has a better claim on it"
[Tirmidhi ]. In one Hadith it is said that query is the solution to
ignorance [Sunan Abu Dawud ].
4. GUIDANCE ABOUT BASIC CONSIDERATIONS,
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Qur'an says that weights and meaures be kept in perfect
condition (well calibrated)[Surah 17:35] and measurements be
made correctly [Surah 55:9]. Emphasis on considerations for
timings is also laid. At one place Qur'an says " They are
but signs to mark fixed periods of time or mankind" [Surah
2:89]. At another place Qur'an says "Prayers are enjoined
on believers at stated timings
1L
[Surah 4:103]. Qur'an also
gives importance and orders for documentation by saying " O
ye who believe ! when ye deal with each other, in
transanction involvingfuture obligations in a fixed period of
lime, reduce them to writing " [Surah 2:282]. Overall
importance of written and physical standards is also
indicated [Surah 57:25].
Qur'an stresses on careful observation and research by
saying "Then turn your eyes again and again" [Surah
67:4]. Qur'an also exhorts to verify the news (information)
when reported by dissolute person [Surah 49:6]. At one
place Qur'an suggests to use "Analogy" and study the
related situation by saying "So learn a lesson (through
Analogy), O ye with eyes (to s e e ) " [Surah 59:2],
Determination for direction of Ka'ba and calculations of
Inheritance and of Zakat require certain depth of
mathematics. At another place Qur'an says "Man should
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, VOLUME 1, NO. 1, JANUARY-JUNE, 2000

not follow that whereof he has no knowledge" [Surah
17:36]. In one Hadith, it is said "Jffe seek refuge from that
knowledge which carries no utility " [Sunnan Ibne Ma/ah].
Economy is very much stressed and unnecessary
expenditure and wastage is prohibited. Qur'an says " Eat
and drink, but waste not by excess " [Surah 7:31].Taking
care of safety and security measures, doing jobs in a nice
and preferred way, and giving importance to aesthetic
aspects are also included in the teachings of Qur'an and
Sunnah. Allah ^ubhanahu wa ta 'ala says "On no soul does
Allah place a burden greater than it can hear [Surah
2:286].This Ayah guides us for, assigning the jobs
appropriately(both in quantity and quality) to employees
according to their capabilities(physical,mental etc. ), and
also loading other things (animals, machines, structures etc.)
as per their specifications/capabilities.These are
important considerations for modern engineering design
and manufacturing.
The long travel and performance of Haj, need sufficient
planning, discipline, team-work spirit. The Holy Prophet
Mohammad sallallaho alaihe wasallum said "Any one who
treats a patient without being in possession of the
experience would be responsible for the loss suffered by
the patients" [Abudaud and Nasai]. Qur'an says: O you
who believe! Fulfil your undertakings ( and promises)
[Surah 5:1]. To conduct affairs by mutual consultations; to be
on safe side and be away from doubtful acts; are taught in
Qur'an and Sunnah. Qur'an also indicates two main
aspects to be assessed in the candidate for staffing/
recruitment: "-Potential for t he rel at ed job" and
"Trustworthiness" [Surah 28:26]. Much emphasis is laid on
taking proper care of subordinates; making payments to
labour in time; and also for contributing to human welfare in
general and taking care of subordinates and labour in
particular. Also a believer is supposed neither to deceive
others nor get deceived from others. These considerations
along with few more quoted above are very much needed for
the purpose of management. In a Hadith it said that
pl anni ng and management is the highest level of
intelligence.
5. TEACHINGS ABOUT HEALTH CARE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Islam has laid great stress on personal hygiene, frequent
bathing, brushing the teeth, ablution before the prayers five
times a day, also clean clothes an* hair and even use of
perfumes. Circumcision as part of personal hygiene is
compulsory for the Muslims [9]. Considering the
precautionary measures regarding health, Qur'an allows the
postponement of compulsory fasting of Ramadhan for those
who are ill or on journey [Surah 2:185]. A physician after
staying for six months in Madina reported to the Prophet
sallallaho alaihe wasallam that during the period of his
stay, no patient visited him. The Prophet sallallaho alaihe
wasallam told him, "We are the people who eat when we are
hungry and we withdraw when we still have some appetite
".
The Prophet sallallaho alaihe wasallam said "For every
ailment, there is a treatment" [Bukhari and Muslim], Once
the Prophet sallallaho alaihe wasallam instructed the
Sahabah to consult two physicians for a patient, thus
recommended a medical board [2]. In Madina, some lady
physicians also treated the lady patients [9]. The Prophet
sallallaho alaihe wasallum advised the Muslims not to visit a
country where a pestilence is raging, but also, not to flee from
it if they find themselves there [Bukhari and Muslim]. In Islam,
pork, intoxicants, adultery are strictly prohibited and
smoking is also disliked. This is all in agreement with
modem medical theories also.
In one Hadith, it is said that "By Allah, in whose Hand is my
life, the bondman (of Allah) does not become a believer unless
he likes far his brother what he likes for himself [Bukhari
and Muslim]. In another Hadith, it is said that removing a
hurdle from the path, is one of the branches of faith. In one
Hadith, a place with smoke has been given analogy with
bad society. Tree plantation, pollution free water,
cleanliness of public places etc. have also been stressed
upon in Sunnah. Such teachings educate for setting up an ideal
society including solutions to environmental issues.
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1, NO. 1, JANUARY-JUNE, 2000
Abdul Rashid Shaikh
Teachings and Reflections of Qur 'an and Sunnah About Science, Engineering, Technology and Management
6. SOME EXAMPLES OF CORRELATION
BETWEEN AYATAND AHADITH RELATED
TO MODERN THEORIES, FINDINGS AND
TRENDS
Qur' an says " Soon we will show them signs in the (furthest)
regions (of the Earth), and in their own souls, until it
becomes manifested to them that this is the fact." [Surah
41:53]. In this verse it is told that from time to time, right up
to the last day, novel signs and blessings of Allah
subhanahu wata'ala, will continue to appear [3].
In one paper, references are given to 1274 Ayat (verses)
concerning various branches of science, engineering and
technology [10]. Dr. Haluk Nurbaki in his book, Verses
from the Holy Qur'an and the Facts of Science, has
discussed 50 major topics mainly related to contemporary
sciences [11]. Under one of the topics he has quoted the
verse "O Believers, guard yourselves and your families
from afire whose fuel is men and stones" [Surah 66:6].
Then he has pointed out that in modern coal fired power
stations the stone is generally burnt along with fuel.
Qur'an says "You should not commit adultery, for it is
shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the way (to other
evils)" [Surah 17:32].The physician will interpret this Ayah
from the point of prvention of many sexual diseases such as
AIDS. But from socialogy point of view, it will be looked as a
form of low morality leadindtothe collapse of society. Qur'an
says "He maketh their breast close and constricted as if they
rad to climb up to skies "[Surah 6:125J. In this Ayah there
is indirect mentioning that low oxygen and decrease of
atmospheric pressure in high altitudes causes breath
problem [ 10 ]. At another place Qur'an says "Those who
reject our signs, we shall soon cast into the fire: As often as
their skins are roasted through, we shall change them for
fresh skins, that they may taste the penalty [Surah 4:56]. It
may be noted that if skin is roasted, it becomes insensitive
to temperature.
On the basis of a research work done at an observatory in
USA, one author [ 12] has written about a recent discovery of
comets of ice descending to Earth from the Heavens,
which is in accordance with the Quranic Verses [Surah 2:22,
24:43], The truthfulness of Quranic Verses [Surah 76:2;
22:5; 23:13,14] which mention the various human embryo
development stages have been observed by various eminent
embryologists of the present age [13]. Qur'an says "Then
Allah sent a raven (crow), who scratched the ground to
show him how to hide the dead body of his brother " [Surah
5:31], This shows that one can learn something useful from
the study of birds and animals (Zoology). In Surah Yusuf, a
method is mentioned for preservation of grain [Surah
12:47]. This method was tested in an Agriculture University
and has been reported to be quite successful even today
[14].
Some Ayat of Qur'an do mention IF THEN statements,
similar to those of modern expert systems. For example,
Qur'an says: IF his shirt is torn from the back, THEN she is
the liar [Surah 12:47]. The Qur'an says "And (He has
created) horses, mules and donkeys, for you to ride and
use for show, and has created other things of which ye
have no knowledge" [Surah 16:8]. In this sentence Qur'an
has foretold all types of transportation-means upto last day
[3].
Prophet Mohammad sallallaho alaihe wasallam also taught
complicated phenomena with the help of graphical models
drawn by him.
7. CONTRIBUTION OF MUSLIM SCHOLARS
TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY
It has been found that the followers of Islam devoted
themselves whole-heartedly to the acquisition of
knowledge. Soon after the advent of Islam, the Muslims
achieved leadership of the civilized world as much in
learning and scholarship as in the political and military
powers. On the basis of internal and direct evidence, Dr.
Muhammad Raziuddin Siddiqui, has established the fact
that the Method of Controlled Experiment was evolved by
some Muslim scientists [5]. This method is the essence of
modern scientific investigation and discovery. In support of
his claim he has mentioned the scientific works of many
Musl i m schol ars related In t he fi el ds of Mathematics,
Astronomy. Chemistry. Ri ol ot i y and Medi ci ne. The
intellectual world can not forget the unique contribution to
sci ent i fi c creativity of s uch l oweri ng personalities like
Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Zakariya Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Haitham,
Al-Bairuni, IbnSina, Al-Kindi, Al-Khawarzmi, Al-Jazari,
Al-Farabi and many others.
Western historians also recognize now the Islamic origin of
scientific methods. Robert Briffault in his book, Making of
Humanity, Sir Oliver Lodge in his book, Pioneers of
Science, and George Sarton in his encyclopedic work,
Introduction to the History of Science, give ample testimony to
this fact [5]. Donald R. Hill in his recent book, Islamic
Science and Engineering, has written a complete chapter
titled as, Transmission of Islamic Knowledge to Europe
[15]. An English Professorof History of Technology writes:
"Europe began to import inventions, directly from Arab
nations at those points in Spain and Italy where Europe
and the Islamic world met. Many familiar mathematical
and geometrical terms algebra, algorithm, zero, nadir, etc.
are Arabic in origin" [16]. .*
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1, NO, 1, JANUARY-JUNE 2000

Two American authors of a book, write: "New Universities
arose in Basra, Kufa, Cairo, Toledo and Cordoba. The
Library of Cordoba ( Kurtaba of Muslim Spain ) in 900
(A.D) contained no less than 600,000 books, its catalog
was published in 44 volumes. This is astonishing in view of
the fact that the library of French king in 1300 (A.D)
consisted of slightly more than 400 titles. Really there is
nothing astonishing about it at all. Western Europe was
barbarous. Islam and the Eastern Roman empire constituted
all that was civilized'
1
[17].
8. IMPORTANT POINT OF TAWHEED TO
EXPLAIN CAUSE AND EFFECT
PHENOMENA
Quran says ""Listen carefully, for Him in to create and to
command" [Surah 7:54]. At anotherplace Quran says "And if
Allah willed, He could take away, their faculty of hearing and
seeing" [Surah 2:20]. Here the actual desired effects are
being related directly to the Will of Allah subhanahu wa
ta'ala. Although apparent causes mentioned for these effects
are also the thunder and the lightning but the real cause is
the Will of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala. Qur'an also indicates
that Allah subhanahu wa ta 'ala has created each and every
thing in a particular form and has also provided guidance to
it [Surah 20:50]. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala says "Hast thou
not turned thy vision to thy Lord? How He dofh prolong
shadow!" Surah 25:45]. Here variation in the length of
shadow is being related directly to Allah subhanahu wa
ta'ala, although apperant cause of this phenomenon is the
Sun and the rotation of Earth. This is because Allah
subhanahu wa ta'ala has created the form and guidance of
everything including Sun and Earth.
Once Prophet Mohammad sallallaho alaihe wasallum told a
physician "You are simply a friend and Allah is the
physician (in fact) ", In one Hadith it is said that one person
inquired from Prophet sallallaho alaihe wasallum if he
should tie his camel with rope or rely on Allah. The Prophet
sallallaho alaihe wasallam replied that he should tie his
camel and also rely on Allah. In this case, Allah subhanahu
wa ta'ala is the Absolute and Sole provider of security
which is the ultimate needed effect. Although the capability
for security has been empirically correlated with the strength of
rope. In fact it is the will of Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala
which acts as the real cause of all apparent causes, which are
otherwise supposed to be effective in themselves.
At another place Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala gives an
example "It is He, who has made the ships subject to you,
that they may sail through the sea by His command" [Surah
14:32]. Islamic way to teach science calls for an important
modification in the present trend. As an example we may
say "Look at the wonderful Wisdom of Allah (Sunnatullah}
discovered by Archimedes" instead of simply saying
"Archimedes' Principle". In this regard, some scholars have
given quite suitable suggestions [4,18,19],
9. SCOPE OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY IN SHARI'AH
The actions which have been prescribed by the Shari'ah as
Farz,Vajib, Mustahib, Haram and Makrooh, can not be
altered, whereas those actions which are declared as Mu 'bah by
the Shari 'ah, are left optional [3]. Practically the former
actions are relatively small in number as compared to the
latter which are Mu 'bah. In Islam, the novelty has not been
the basis for rejection of progressive actions. On the
contrary the progressive attitude has been encouraged,
provided the objectives and the related working procedure
are not against Islamic shari'ah [3].
Allama Justice Muhammad Taqee Usmani has mentioned
three points which a Muslim has to bear in mind while
carrying out SE&T work [3]. These points may be
summarized as follows:
(i) Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala is the Absolute and
Sole Creator of every effect at every instant and
every thing is under His commandment. So a
Musl i m believes "Glory to Him, who has
subjugated these to us (for our use), and we were
not capable (of subjugating them by ourselves) "
[Surah 43:13].
(ii) Subjugation of the creation or the controlling of
the natural forces is not the ultimate goal and basic
purpose of creation of mankind. Allah subhanahu
wa (a 'ala says "/ created the Jinn and Mankind,
only to worship Me" [Surah 51:56];
(iii) The various inventions and control over natural
forces are to be utilized as per teachings of Qur'an
and Sunnah
Islam has potential and steering power to provide both spirit as
well as guidance for the advancement of science,
engineering and technology in such a way that its adverse
impacts on belief and moral aspects, as experienced by the
West, could be safely avoided. This is because the Creator
says "The religion before Allah is Islam" [Surah 3:19].
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE ^TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1, NO. 1, JANUARY-JUNE. 2000 -
Abdul Rashid Shaikh
Teachings and Reflections ofQur 'an and Sunnah About Science, Engineering, Technology and Management
10. CONCLUSIONS
(1) This is a preliminary study and needs more
collective effort, appropriate arrangement and
additions.
(2) Qur' an and Sunnah basically guide us for
achieving real success in both worlds. They
provide guidance or every thing, including science,
engineering, technology and management.
(3) Qur'an and Sunnah provide spirit and teach us to
make advancement in the fields of modern science,
engineering, technology and management.
(4) It is the miracle of Qur'an that its teachings are
applicable for all times up to the last day. Majority
of verses quoted here, could also be applied to
other fields and aspects.
(5) Allah subhanahu wa ta 'ala has created each and
every thing in a particular form and has also
provided guidance to it. In fact it is the will of
Allah subhanahu wa ta 'ala which is the real cause of
all apparent causes. These points need to be
taught to the students and general public in a well
planned manner.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author is grateful to the authorities of Mehran
University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro, for
providing facilities. .
REFERENCES
[1] Shaikh, A. R., "Developing S&T Facilities for the Defence
Needs of the Ummah", COMSTECH International
Conference, pp.574-594, Islamabad, March 1995,.
[2] Kattanee, Allama A. H., "Al-Tarateebul Idariyah", (Urdu
Translation) Idaratul Qur'an wal Uloomul Islamiyah, Karachi,
1991.
[3] Usmani, Allama Justice M. T., "Islam Aur Jiddat Passandi",
(Urdu), Maktaba Darul Uloom, Karachi, 1993.
[4] Kazi, M.A., "Conceptual Framework of Islamic Educational
System", Islamic Thought & Scientific Creativity, Islamabad,
Vol. 3, No.2, pp. 7-24, 1992,
[5] Siddiqui, M. R., "Islamic Sci ent i fic Thought and
Contributions of Muslims", ibid, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 27-44,1991.
[6] Qureshi, M.M., "A Basis For the Integration of Modern
Scientific Studies With Islamic Thought", ibid, Vol.1, pp.
19-36, January-March, 1990.
|7J Kazi, M.A., "The Pursuit of Scientific Knowledge in Islam",
ibid, Vol.1, No.l, pp. 5-18, January-March, 1990.
[8] Nadvi, Allama M. S., "Qur'an, Science Aur Musal'maan",
(Urdu), Majlis Nashriyate Islam, Karachi, 1989.
[9] Rauf, A., "State of the Art in the Field of Science During the
Days of the ProphefMohammed (SAW)", S&T in the Islamic
World, Vol.8, No.l, pp,41- 58, January-March, 1990.
[10] Jamil, M,, et. al., "Scientific Themes in the Holy Qur'an",
COMSTECH Conference, Islamabad, pp. 135-150, March
1995.
[11 Nurbaki, H., "Verses From the Holy Kuran and the Facts of
Science", (English Translation), Indus Pub. Corp., Karachi,
1992.
[12] Syed, I. B., "Comets of Ice Descending to Earth From the
Heavens, As Confirmed by Science", S & T in Islamic World,
Vol.8, No.2, pp. 115-119 Islamabad, April-June, 1990.
[13] Si ddi qui , H.R., "The Development of Human Embryo
Scientific Findings and Quranic Revelations", ibid, 6(3), pp.
139-150, July-September, 1988.
[14] Shah, F.II., et. al., "Quranic Method of Storage of Wheat",
Islamic Thought and Scientific Creativity, Vol. 2 No,2, pp,23-
28, June, 1991.
[15] Hi l l , D. R., "Islamic Science and Engineering", Edingurgh
University Press, 1st Hdition, 1993.
[ 16] Carclwell, D., "The Fontana History of Technology", Fonlana
Press, pp.30, 31, London, 1994.
[17] Harold, V. A., Bowen, 0., and Kettering, C. F., "A Short
History of Technology", The Thomas Alva Edison Foundation,
Inc., New Jersey (I..C. Cat Card No. 54-7059), pp.29, 1954.
[18] Afandi. Allama H., "Science Aur Islam", (Urdu translation
of AI-Risalah Hamccdiyyah), Idara Islamiyal, Lahore, 1984.
[19] M. M. Qurashi, "Charact er-Bui l di ng As An Integral
Component of Curri cul um", S&T in Isl amic World,
Islamabad, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 109-123, April-June 1995.
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 1, NO. 1, JANUARY-JUNE, 2000
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayat Surahsofwhichthenumberofayat Surahsofwhichthenumberofayat Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaregreater saregreater saregreater saregreater
thansequencenumber thansequencenumber thansequencenumber thansequencenumber

Ifthereappearsapositivevalueotherthanzerowhenwe
subtract the sequence number from the number of ayats of a
surah, then it means the number of ayats is greater than the
sequencenumberinsuchsurah.

Example:

Difference Difference Difference Difference=numberofayatssequencenumber


Difference Difference Difference Difference=71=6

If the difference is a negative figure, then this means the


numberoftheayatsissmallerthanthesequencenumber.

The surahs of whichtheirnumber of ayats isgreaterthan


the sequence number and the differences are shown in the list
below:

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat Difference Difference Difference Difference
1 Al-Ftia 7 6
2 Al-Baqarah 286 284
3 lImrn 200 197
4 Al-Nis 176 172
5 Al-Midah 120 115
6 Al-Enm 165 159
1
Al-
Ftia
7
Thenumber
ofayats
Thesequence
number
Thenameof
thesurah
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaregreaterthansequencenumber

61
7 Al-Arf 206 199
8 Al-Anfl 75 67
9 Al-Tawbah 129 120
10 Ynus 109 99
11 Hd 123 112
12 Ysuf 111 99
13 Al-Rad 43 30
14 Ibrhm 52 38
15 Al-ijr 99 84
16 Al-Nal 128 112
17 Al-Isr 111 94
18 Al-Kahf 110 92
19 Maryam 98 79
20 h 135 115
21 Al-Anbiy 112 91
22 Al-ajj 78 56
23 Al-Muminn 118 95
24 Al-Nr 64 40
25 Al-Furqn 77 52
26 Al-Shuar 227 201
27 Al-Naml 93 66
28 Al-Qaa 88 60
29 Al-Ankabt 69 40
30 Al-Rm 60 30
31 Luqmn 34 3
33 Al-Azb 73 40
34 Saba 54 20
35 Fir 45 10
36 Ysn 83 47
37 Al-afft 182 145
38 d 88 50
39 Al-Zumar 75 36
40 Al-Mumin 85 45
41 Fuilat 54 13
42 Al-Shr 53 11
43 Al-Zukhruf 89 46
44 Al-Dukhn 59 15
51 Al-Dhriyt 60 9
BinarySymmetricBook d dr r. .e en ng g. .h ha al li is sa ay yd de em mi ir r
www.symmetricbook.com

62
53 Al-Najm 62 9
54 Al-Qamar 55 1
55 Al-Ramn 78 23
56 Al-Wqiah 96 40
List-16
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis48.

Nowletslookatsurahswhichhaveoddandevennumber
of differences (number of ayats - sequence number), out of such
48surahs.

Thesurahsofwh Thesurahsofwh Thesurahsofwh Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater ichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater ichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater ichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater


thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber
difference difference difference difference

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat Difference Difference Difference Difference
3 lImrn 200 197
5 Al-Midah 120 115
6 Al-Enm 165 159
7 Al-Arf 206 199
8 Al-Anfl 75 67
10 Ynus 109 99
12 Ysuf 111 99
19 Maryam 98 79
20 h 135 115
21 Al-Anbiy 112 91
23 Al-Muminn 118 95
26 Al-Shuar 227 201
31 Luqmn 34 3
36 Ysn 83 47
37 Al-afft 182 145
40 Al-Mumin 85 45
41 Fuilat 54 13
42 Al-Shr 53 11
44 Al-Dukhn 59 15
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaregreaterthansequencenumber

63
51 Al-Dhriyt 60 9
53 Al-Najm 62 9
54 Al-Qamar 55 1
55 Al-Ramn 78 23
List-17
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis23 23 23 23.

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsisgreater


thanthesequencenumbersandhasan thanthesequencenumbersandhasan thanthesequencenumbersandhasan thanthesequencenumbersandhasaneven even even evennum num num number ber ber ber
difference difference difference difference

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat Difference Difference Difference Difference
1 Al-Ftia 7 6
2 Al-Baqarah 286 284
4 Al-Nis 176 172
9 Al-Tawbah 129 120
11 Hd 123 112
13 Al-Rad 43 30
14 Ibrhm 52 38
15 Al-ijr 99 84
16 Al-Nal 128 112
17 Al-Isr 111 94
18 Al-Kahf 110 92
22 Al-ajj 78 56
24 Al-Nr 64 40
25 Al-Furqn 77 52
27 Al-Naml 93 66
28 Al-Qaa 88 60
29 Al-Ankabt 69 40
30 Al-Rm 60 30
33 Al-Azb 73 40
34 Saba 54 20
35 Fir 45 10
38 d 88 50
39 Al-Zumar 75 36
BinarySymmetricBook d dr r. .e en ng g. .h ha al li is sa ay yd de em mi ir r
www.symmetricbook.com

64
43 Al-Zukhruf 89 46
56 Al-Wqiah 96 40
List-18
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis25 25 25 25.

Now lets look at the sequence numbers of the surahs of


whichtheirnumberofayatsisgreaterthanthesequencenumbers:

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsi Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsi Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsi Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsisgreater sgreater sgreater sgreater


thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd
sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers

XX
No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat
1 Al-Ftia 7

27 Al-Naml 93
3 lImrn 200

29 Al-Ankabt 69
5 Al-Midah 120

31 Luqmn 34
7 Al-Arf 206

33 Al-Azb 73
9 Al-Tawbah 129

35 Fir 45
11 Hd 123

37 Al-afft 182
13 Al-Rad 43

39 Al-Zumar 75
15 Al-ijr 99

41 Fuilat 54
17 Al-Isr 111

43 Al-Zukhruf 89
19 Maryam 98

51 Al-Dhriyt 60
21 Al-Anbiy 112

53 Al-Najm 62
23 Al-Muminn 118

55 Al-Ramn 78
25 Al-Furqn 77

List-19
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis25 25 25 25.

Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaregreaterthansequencenumber

65
Thesurahsof Thesurahsof Thesurahsof Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsisgreater whichtheirnumberofayatsisgreater whichtheirnumberofayatsisgreater whichtheirnumberofayatsisgreater
thanthesequencenumberandwhichhave thanthesequencenumberandwhichhave thanthesequencenumberandwhichhave thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveeven even even even
sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers

XX
No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat
2 Al-Baqarah 286

26 Al-Shuar 227
4 Al-Nis 176

28 Al-Qaa 88
6 Al-Enm 165

30 Al-Rm 60
8 Al-Anfl 75

34 Saba 54
10 Ynus 109

36 Ysn 83
12 Ysuf 111

38 d 88
14 Ibrhm 52

40 Al-Mumin 85
16 Al-Nal 128

42 Al-Shr 53
18 Al-Kahf 110

44 Al-Dukhn 59
20 h 135

54 Al-Qamar 55
22 Al-ajj 78

56 Al-Wqiah 96
24 Al-Nr 64

List-20

As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number


ofsuchsurahsis23 23 23 23.

Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation


The number of the surahs of which their number of ayats is larger than the
sequence number and which have odd sequence number is 25 25 25 25. On the other hand, the
number of those which have even number difference of (number of ayats- sequence
number) is also 25 25 25 25.
The number of the surahs of which their number of ayats is larger than the
sequence number and which have even sequence number is 23 23 23 23. On the other hand,
the number of those which have odd number difference of (number of ayats- sequence
number) is also 23 23 23 23.

Letsseetheresultswhichoutcomecollectively:

BinarySymmetricBook d dr r. .e en ng g. .h ha al li is sa ay yd de em mi ir r
www.symmetricbook.com

66
1 A l - F t i a 7
2 A l - B a q a r a h 286
3 l I m r n 200
4 A l - N i s 176
5 A l - M i d a h 120
6 A l - E n m 165
7 A l - A r f 206
8 A l - A n f l 75
9 A l - T a w b a h 129
10 Y n u s 109
11 H d 123
12 Y s u f 111
13 A l - R a d 43
14 I b r h m 52
15 A l - i j r 99
16 A l - N a l 128
17 A l - I s r 111
18 A l - K a h f 110
19 M a r y a m 98
20 h 135
21 A l - A n b i y 112
22 A l - a j j 78
23 A l - M u m i n n 118
24 A l - N r 64
25 A l - F u r q n 77
26 A l - S h u a r 227
27 A l - N a m l 93
28 A l - Q a a 88
29 A l - A n k a b t 69
30 A l - R m 60
31 L u q m n 34
32 A l - S a j d a h 30
33 A l - A z b 73
34 S a b a 54
35 F i r 45
36 Y s n 83
37 A l - a f f t 182
38 d 88
39 A l - Z u m a r 75
40 A l - M u m i n 85
41 F u i l a t 54
42 A l - S h r 53
43 A l - Z u k h r u f 89
44 A l - D u k h n 59
45 A l - J t h i y a h 37
46 A l - A q f 35
47 M u a m m a d 38
48 A l - F a t 29
49 A l - u j u r t 18
50 Q f 45
51 A l - D h r i y t 60
52 A l - r 49
53 A l - N a j m 62
54 A l - Q a m a r 55
55 A l - R a m n 78
56 A l - W q i a h 96
57 A l - a d d 29
58 A l - M u j d a l a h 22
59 A l - a s h r 24
60 A l - M u m t a i n a h 13
61 A l - a f f 14
62 A l - J u m u a h 11
63 A l - M u n f i q n 11
64 A l - T a g h b u n 18
65 A l - a l q 12
66 A l - T a r m 12
67 A l - M u l k 30
68 A l - Q a l a m 52
69 A l - q q a h 52
70 A l - M a r i j 44
71 N 28
72 A l - J i n n 28
73 A l - M u z z a m m i l 20
74 A l - M u d d a t h t h i r 56
75 A l - Q i y m a h 40
76 A l - I n s n 31
77 A l - M u r s a l t 50
78 A l - N a b a 40
79 A l - N z i t 46
80 A b a s a 42
81 A l - T a k w r 29
82 A l - I n f i r 19
83 A l - M u a f f i f n 36
84 A l - I n s h i q q 25
85 A l - B u r j 22
86 A l - r i q 17
87 A l - A l 19
88 A l - G h s h i y a h 26
89 A l - F a j r 30
90 A l - B a l a d 20
91 A l - S h a m s 15
92 A l - L a y l 21
93 A l - u a 11
94 A l - I n s h i r 8
95 A l - T n 8
96 A l - A l a q 19
97 A l - Q a d r 5
98 A l - B a y y i n a h 8
99 A l - Z i l z l 8
100 A l - d i y t 11
101 A l - Q r i a h 11
102 A l - T a k t h u r 8
103 A l - A s r 3
104 A l - H u m a z a 9
105 Al-Fl 5
106 Q u r a y s h 4
107 A l - M n 7
108 A l - K a w t h a r 3
109 A l - K f i r n 6
110 A l - N a r 3
111 T a b b a t 5
112 A l - I k h l 4
113 A l - F a l a q 5
114 A l - N s 6
number of ayats > sequence number number of ayats > sequence number
NO. SURAH AYAT
(number of ayatssequence number)
ODD NUMBER DIFFERENCE
(number of ayatssequence number)
EVEN NUMBER DIFFERENCE
ODD sequence number EVEN sequence number
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23 25 25 23
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsare Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsare Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsare Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaresmaller smaller smaller smaller
thansequencenumber thansequencenumber thansequencenumber thansequencenumber

Now lets perform the same analysis which we have made
for the surahs that have the number of their ayats greater than
theirsequencenumberforthesurahsofwhichhasthenumberof
surahssmallerthanthesequencenumber.

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsissmallerthan
the sequence number and the differences are shown in the list
below:

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat Difference Difference Difference Difference
32 Al-Sajdah 30 -2
45 Al-Jthiyah 37 -8
46 Al-Aqf 35 -11
47 Muammad 38 -9
48 Al-Fat 29 -19
49 Al-ujurt 18 -31
50 Qf 45 -5
52 Al-r 49 -3
57 Al-add 29 -28
58 Al-Mujdalah 22 -36
59 Al-ashr 24 -35
60 Al-Mumtainah 13 -47
61 Al-aff 14 -47
62 Al-Jumuah 11 -51
63 Al-Munfiqn 11 -52
64 Al-Taghbun 18 -46
65 Al-alq 12 -53
66 Al-Tarm 12 -54
67 Al-Mulk 30 -37
68 Al-Qalam 52 -16
69 Al-qqah 52 -17
70 Al-Marij 44 -26
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68
71 N 28 -43
72 Al-Jinn 28 -44
73 Al-Muzzammil 20 -53
74 Al-Muddaththir 56 -18
75 Al-Qiymah 40 -35
76 Al-Insn 31 -45
77 Al-Mursalt 50 -27
78 Al-Naba 40 -38
79 Al-Nzit 46 -33
80 Abasa 42 -38
81 Al-Takwr 29 -52
82 Al-Infir 19 -63
83 Al-Muaffifn 36 -47
84 Al-Inshiqq 25 -59
85 Al-Burj 22 -63
86 Al-riq 17 -69
87 Al-Al 19 -68
88 Al-Ghshiyah 26 -62
89 Al-Fajr 30 -59
90 Al-Balad 20 -70
91 Al-Shams 15 -76
92 Al-Layl 21 -71
93 Al-ua 11 -82
94 Al-Inshir 8 -86
95 Al-Tn 8 -87
96 Al-Alaq 19 -77
97 Al-Qadr 5 -92
98 Al-Bayyinah 8 -90
99 Al-Zilzl 8 -91
100 Al-diyt 11 -89
101 Al-Qriah 11 -90
102 Al-Takthur 8 -94
103 Al-Asr 3 -100
104 Al-Humaza 9 -95
105 Al-Fl 5 -100
106 Quraysh 4 -102
107 Al-Mn 7 -100
108 Al-Kawthar 3 -105
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaresmallerthansequencenumber

69
109 Al-Kfirn 6 -103
110 Al-Nar 3 -107
111 Tabbat 5 -106
112 Al-Ikhl 4 -108
113 Al-Falaq 5 -108
114 Al-Ns 6 -108
List-21
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis66 66 66 66.

Nowletslookatsurahswhichhaveoddandevennumber
of differences (number of ayats - sequence number), out of such
66surahs.

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsissmaller smaller smaller smaller


thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber thanthesequencenumbersandhasanoddnumber
differ differ differ difference ence ence ence

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat Difference Difference Difference Difference
46 Al-Aqf 35 -11
47 Muammad 38 -9
48 Al-Fat 29 -19
49 Al-ujurt 18 -31
50 Qf 45 -5
52 Al-r 49 -3
59 Al-ashr 24 -35
60 Al-Mumtainah 13 -47
61 Al-aff 14 -47
62 Al-Jumuah 11 -51
65 Al-alq 12 -53
67 Al-Mulk 30 -37
69 Al-qqah 52 -17
71 N 28 -43
73 Al-Muzzammil 20 -53
75 Al-Qiymah 40 -35
76 Al-Insn 31 -45
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70
77 Al-Mursalt 50 -27
79 Al-Nzit 46 -33
82 Al-Infir 19 -63
83 Al-Muaffifn 36 -47
84 Al-Inshiqq 25 -59
85 Al-Burj 22 -63
86 Al-riq 17 -69
89 Al-Fajr 30 -59
92 Al-Layl 21 -71
95 Al-Tn 8 -87
96 Al-Alaq 19 -77
99 Al-Zilzl 8 -91
100 Al-diyt 11 -89
104 Al-Humaza 9 -95
108 Al-Kawthar 3 -105
109 Al-Kfirn 6 -103
110 Al-Nar 3 -107
List-22
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis34 34 34 34.

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberoftheayatsissmaller smaller smaller smaller


thanthesequencenumbersandhasan thanthesequencenumbersandhasan thanthesequencenumbersandhasan thanthesequencenumbersandhasaneven even even evennumber number number number
difference difference difference difference

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat Difference Difference Difference Difference
32 Al-Sajdah 30 -2
45 Al-Jthiyah 37 -8
57 Al-add 29 -28
58 Al-Mujdalah 22 -36
63 Al-Munfiqn 11 -52
64 Al-Taghbun 18 -46
66 Al-Tarm 12 -54
68 Al-Qalam 52 -16
70 Al-Marij 44 -26
72 Al-Jinn 28 -44
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaresmallerthansequencenumber

71
74 Al-Muddaththir 56 -18
78 Al-Naba 40 -38
80 Abasa 42 -38
81 Al-Takwr 29 -52
87 Al-Al 19 -68
88 Al-Ghshiyah 26 -62
90 Al-Balad 20 -70
91 Al-Shams 15 -76
93 Al-ua 11 -82
94 Al-Inshir 8 -86
97 Al-Qadr 5 -92
98 Al-Bayyinah 8 -90
101 Al-Qriah 11 -90
102 Al-Takthur 8 -94
103 Al-Asr 3 -100
105 Al-Fl 5 -100
106 Quraysh 4 -102
107 Al-Mn 7 -100
111 Tabbat 5 -106
112 Al-Ikhl 4 -108
113 Al-Falaq 5 -108
114 Al-Ns 6 -108
List-23
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis32 32 32 32.

Now lets look at the sequence numbers of the surahs of


whichtheirnumberofayatsissmallerthanthesequencenumbers:

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsissmaller smaller smaller smaller


thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveodd
sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers


No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat
45 Al-Jthiyah 37

83 Al-Muaffifn 36
47 Muammad 38

85 Al-Burj 22
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72
49 Al-ujurt 18

87 Al-Al 19
57 Al-add 29

89 Al-Fajr 30
59 Al-ashr 24

91 Al-Shams 15
61 Al-aff 14

93 Al-ua 11
63 Al-Munfiqn 11

95 Al-Tn 8
65 Al-alq 12

97 Al-Qadr 5
67 Al-Mulk 30

99 Al-Zilzl 8
69 Al-qqah 52

101 Al-Qriah 11
71 N 28

103 Al-Asr 3
73 Al-Muzzammil 20

105 Al-Fl 5
75 Al-Qiymah 40

107 Al-Mn 7
77 Al-Mursalt 50

109 Al-Kfirn 6
79 Al-Nzit 46

111 Tabbat 5
81 Al-Takwr 29

113 Al-Falaq 5
List-24
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis32 32 32 32.

Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsis Thesurahsofwhichtheirnumberofayatsissmaller smaller smaller smaller


thanthesequencenumberandwhichhave thanthesequencenumberandwhichhave thanthesequencenumberandwhichhave thanthesequencenumberandwhichhaveeven even even even
sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers sequencenumbers

XX
No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat

No. No. No. No. Surah Surah Surah Surah Ayat Ayat Ayat Ayat
32 Al-Sajdah 30

82 Al-Infir 19
46 Al-Aqf 35

84 Al-Inshiqq 25
48 Al-Fat 29

86 Al-riq 17
50 Qf 45

88 Al-Ghshiyah 26
52 Al-r 49

90 Al-Balad 20
58 Al-Mujdalah 22

92 Al-Layl 21
60 Al-Mumtainah 13

94 Al-Inshir 8
62 Al-Jumuah 11

96 Al-Alaq 19
64 Al-Taghbun 18

98 Al-Bayyinah 8
66 Al-Tarm 12

100 Al-diyt 11
68 Al-Qalam 52

102 Al-Takthur 8
70 Al-Marij 44

104 Al-Humaza 9
Surahsofwhichthenumberofayatsaresmallerthansequencenumber

73
72 Al-Jinn 28

106 Quraysh 4
74 Al-Muddaththir 56

108 Al-Kawthar 3
76 Al-Insn 31

110 Al-Nar 3
78 Al-Naba 40

112 Al-Ikhl 4
80 Abasa 42

114 Al-Ns 6
List-25
As it can be seen inthelist hereinabove the total number
ofsuchsurahsis34 34 34 34.

Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation Evaluation


The number of the surahs of which their number of ayats is smaller than
the sequence number and which have odd sequence number is 32 32 32 32. On the other hand,
the number of those which have even number difference of (number of ayats-
sequence number) is also 32 32 32 32.
The number of the surahs of which their number of ayats is smaller than
the sequence number and which have even sequence number is 34 34 34 34. On the other
hand, the number of those which have odd number difference of (number of ayats-
sequence number) is also 34 34 34 34.

Letsseetheresultswhichoutcomecollectively:

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Ysn.BytheHakmQurn Ysn.BytheHakmQurn Ysn.BytheHakmQurn Ysn.BytheHakmQurn
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1 A l - F t i a 7
2 A l - B a q a r a h 286
3 l I m r n 200
4 A l - N i s 176
5 A l - M i d a h 120
6 A l - E n m 165
7 A l - A r f 206
8 A l - A n f l 75
9 A l - T a w b a h 129
10 Y n u s 109
11 H d 123
12 Y s u f 111
13 A l - R a d 43
14 I b r h m 52
15 A l - i j r 99
16 A l - N a l 128
17 A l - I s r 111
18 A l - K a h f 110
19 M a r y a m 98
20 h 135
21 A l - A n b i y 112
22 A l - a j j 78
23 A l - M u m i n n 118
24 A l - N r 64
25 A l - F u r q n 77
26 A l - S h u a r 227
27 A l - N a m l 93
28 A l - Q a a 88
29 A l - A n k a b t 69
30 A l - R m 60
31 L u q m n 34
32 A l - S a j d a h 30
33 A l - A z b 73
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43 A l - Z u k h r u f 89
44 A l - D u k h n 59
45 A l - J t h i y a h 37
46 A l - A q f 35
47 M u a m m a d 38
48 A l - F a t 29
49 A l - u j u r t 18
50 Q f 45
51 A l - D h r i y t 60
52 A l - r 49
53 A l - N a j m 62
54 A l - Q a m a r 55
55 A l - R a m n 78
56 A l - W q i a h 96
57 A l - a d d 29
58 A l - M u j d a l a h 22
59 A l - a s h r 24
60 A l - M u m t a i n a h 13
61 A l - a f f 14
62 A l - J u m u a h 11
63 A l - M u n f i q n 11
64 A l - T a g h b u n 18
65 A l - a l q 12
66 A l - T a r m 12
67 A l - M u l k 30
68 A l - Q a l a m 52
69 A l - q q a h 52
70 A l - M a r i j 44
71 N 28
72 A l - J i n n 28
73 A l - M u z z a m m i l 20
74 A l - M u d d a t h t h i r 56
75 A l - Q i y m a h 40
76 A l - I n s n 31
77 A l - M u r s a l t 50
78 A l - N a b a 40
79 A l - N z i t 46
80 A b a s a 42
81 A l - T a k w r 29
82 A l - I n f i r 19
83 A l - M u a f f i f n 36
84 A l - I n s h i q q 25
85 A l - B u r j 22
86 A l - r i q 17
87 A l - A l 19
88 A l - G h s h i y a h 26
89 A l - F a j r 30
90 A l - B a l a d 20
91 A l - S h a m s 15
92 A l - L a y l 21
93 A l - u a 11
94 A l - I n s h i r 8
95 A l - T n 8
96 A l - A l a q 19
97 A l - Q a d r 5
98 A l - B a y y i n a h 8
99 A l - Z i l z l 8
100 A l - d i y t 11
101 A l - Q r i a h 11
102 A l - T a k t h u r 8
103 A l - A s r 3
104 A l - H u m a z a 9
105 Al-Fl 5
106 Q u r a y s h 4
107 A l - M n 7
108 A l - K a w t h a r 3
109 A l - K f i r n 6
110 A l - N a r 3
111 T a b b a t 5
112 A l - I k h l 4
113 A l - F a l a q 5
114 A l - N s 6
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34 32 32 34

International Seminar on Islamic Science and Technology (InSIST08): Reviving The


Supremacy of Islamic Science, Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, 18-19 March 2008.

THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF THE SEVEN-YEAR-CULTIVATION RULE OF THUMB (7-Y-C
RoT) IN FARMING MANAGEMENT

by

Abdul Hamid b. Hj. Mar Iman, Ph.D.
Centre for Real Estate Studies,
Faculty of Engineering & Geoinformation Science,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81310 UTM, Skuai, Johor Darul Taazim.
e-mail: hamid@fksg.utm.my
academic portal: http://ac.utm.my/web/hamidiman

Abstract

Underlying the verses describing a prophetic interpretation of an Egyptian Kings dream about seven
lean cows devouring seven fat ones and seven dry ears of corn withering around seven green ones
are some principles that remain to be further uncovered in farming research. The relevance of the
principles probably lies in the science and economics of farming management. Firstly, seven-year-
cultivation period is a basis for many crop production systems, especially in terms of efficiency and
major production decisions. Secondly, seven-year-cultivation period is also a basis for analyzing the
cyclical nature of many agricultural crops. This paper discusses some examples of agricultural crop
systems that demonstrate such characteristics. It is found that the agronomic and economic aspects
of crop production are logically tied to the concept of seven-year time horizon and, therefore, it makes
sense to strategize farming management on a seven-year cycle basis.

Key words: Seven-year-cultivation rule of thumb (7-Y-C RoT), farming management.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The prophetic rule of thumb about seven-year-cultivation period (7-Y-C RoT) in farming based on
Prophet Yusofs interpretation of an Egyptian Kings dream has set some important scientific and
economic principles in the agricultural sector since the old times. The principles laid down in the 7-Y-C
RoT is recorded in the al-Quran, surah Yusof: verses 43-49 as follows (adapted from Yusof Ali):

43. And the King (of Egypt) said: "Verily, I saw (in a dream) seven fat cows whom seven lean ones
were devouring - and of seven green ears of grain and (seven) others dry. O notables! Explain to me
my dream, if it be that you can interpret dreams." 47. [(Yusof] said: "For seven years you shall
devote yourself assiduously or steadily
*
to raising crop as usual and that (the harvest) which you reap
you shall leave in ears, (all) - except a little of it which you may eat. 48. "Then will come after that,
seven hard (years), which will devour what you have laid by in advance for them, (all) except a little of
that which you have guarded (stored). 49. "Then thereafter will come a year in which people will have
abundant rain and in which they will press (wine and oil)."

* Notes: The word means persevere in, persist in, devote oneself assiduously or steadily to, apply oneself
eagerly to; to work hard, be diligent; to keep doing, keep on, continue to do, do persistently or regularly.

In brief, the above interpretation of dream is as follows: Farmers will sow for seven years diligently
whereby there will be seven years of bumper harvest in the country. From the harvests, it is better to
store and preserve the required quantity of grain in clusters because, next, there will be a famine
lasting for another seven years during which the preserved stores of grain shall be utilized for feeding
the famine-struck people and little quantity shall be used for cultivation. Afterwards, there will be a
year in which the people shall have heavy rains and bumper crops. They shall press grapes.

2
These verses underline a number of major scientific principles and/or aspects in farming
management. The verses clearly stipulate that the harvest should be stored and preserved for
consumption and growing materials. These have set the general principles in farm production and
food system management.

Farm production involves, among other things, the major aspects related to rotational farming
(applicable to animal production as well); seeds storage/breeding stock; crop and animal breeding
while food management involves, among things, the major aspects related to alleviating the effects of
agricultural cycle (including buffer stock); production planning; and consumption.

There could a question: what is the wisdom of seven-year cultivation strategy? The prophetic 7-Y-C
RoT is by no means a decree. It was, in the first place, a ta`bur by a prophet who has been divinely
inspired by Allah but, then, it was a management strategy that has a great wisdom in it. It sets some
general principles on aspects of farming management, especially with regards to crop and animal
production, for ensuring a well-managed economy. The main concern of any farming management is
to minimize the impacts of environmental uncertainties on the economic and social well-being of a
particular country. Thus, the only strategy for minimizing such impacts is proper management of the
farming system.

The next section discusses a brief background on ancient Egyptian farming system. This is followed
by the background to the quranic interpretation of the verses on the Kings dream. Theoretical and
empirical discussions on the scientific principles of 7-Y-C RoT are given in the ensuing sections. The
last section concludes this paper.

2.0 A BRIEF ACCOUNT ON ANCIENT EGYPTIAN FARMING SYSTEM

Like its modern version, the ancient Egyptian agriculture was largely dependent upon the Nile river
system. Throughout the history, the main water source for farming was the Nile. Rainfall was almost
non-existent in Egypt, and the Nile has always been the source of water for raising crops and animals
(Harris, 2001).The agriculture along the Nile was based on growing winter crops after the annual
floods had subsided (Cowen, 2008). However, crops were also grown in other seasons. The principal
crops of ancient Egypt included emmer (a type of wheat), barley, and flax (Robinson, 1961; Mellersh,
1962; James, 1979; Romano, 1990). Wheat and barley were the staple food of which bread and beer
were made, respectively. Other popular fruits and vegetables in the Egyptian ancient times were
dates, figs, grapes peas, beans, and cucumbers.

The people of Egypt have always been working closely with the seasons and understanding their
change. Crops used to be harvested three times a year (). This means, many ancient Egyptian
farmers used to grow either short-term or mixed crops. Due to the seasonality of groundwater from the
Nile river system, the ancient Egyptian farmers have devised a sophisticated irrigation system since
4,000 years ago (Gadalla, 2005; Cowen, 2008).

However, no mans power can overcome Allah Almightys power. Famine was a critical problem of
national importance to the ancient Egyptian farming system whereby the first terrible drought that
lasted for seven years nicknamed as Famine Stela was said to have taken place during the reign of
Djoser, the Pharoahs third dynasty king (Lichtheim, 1980; Haiying, 1998; Wilkinson, 1999). The place
of calamity was believed to be Sehel Island, Aswan, in the southern Egypt. During this time, the Nile
was said to have not flooded the nearby lands for years. Because of their obstinence and rejection of
Allah as the only God to be worshipped, Allah sent various disasters upon Pharaoh and his subjects.
The abovementioned period of extreme drought in Egypt was one of these. This occurred as a lesson
to Pharaoh and his subjects as mentioned in the al-Quran:

We seized Pharaoh's people with years of drought and scarcity of fruits so that hopefully they would
pay heed (al-Araaf: 130).

3
It was recorded in the Egyptian history that the 7-year good harvest and 7-year famine did really
occurred long before Prophet Yusofs interpretation of the Kings dream. The water level of the Nile fell
tremendously and the country was hit by a severe drought. Since water was terribly crucial for the
Egyptians, the drought directly threatening their very livelihood. Agricultural products diminished in
availability and famine ensued. However, there were no reliable records as to how many times
draught has struck the ancient Egypt.

Some accounts mentioned that a severe famine struck the ancient Egypt again during the Kings rule
at a time before Prophet Yusofs was born. At the Prophet Yusofs adulthood time, however, by Allahs
leave and due to Prophet Yusofs divine foresight and planning, the calamity did not take place. The
country did not face a shortage of food. During the first seven years of famine he supplied grain to the
people according to their minimum needs and stored the rest in the newly-built granaries. By the time
the seven good years were over, the granaries were full. With the Prophets Yusofs wisdom, the
years of famine have been salvaged through a well-managed system of farming (including seed
storage) and food consumption management.

Prophet Yusuf was then made a minister in charge of, among other things, finance and agriculture.
One of his agricultural and food management strategies was to make a brief tour of Egypt to assess
the best locations where intensive cultivation could be carried out. He allocated extra money to the
farmers in the most fertile areas of the Nile so that they would be able to grow the maximum amount
of grain. He also ordered the construction of huge storehouses (granaries), capable of storing several
hundred tons of the surplus grain.

3.0 BACKGROUND TO THE QURANIC INTERPRETATION OF VERSES

Although there are slight differences in the use of terminologies in interpreting surah Yusof verses 43-
49 among the scholars, their ijmaali interpretation does not deviate very much from each other. For
example al-Tabari and al-Ghurnathi give the following interpretations.

Table 1: Comparative interpretations of verses
Interpreter Quranic key words Interpretation
Al-Tabari (d. 310 H)


(Fat cows)

(The fat)

(Seven lean)

(Lean cows)

(The green)

(Dry out)

(Years of fertility)

(The fertile)

(Years of infertility no crop at all)

(Years of draught and infertility)

(The fertile years)

(The infertile, the draught)

Jazii al-Ghurnaathi (d. 741 H)


Fat cows

Lean cows

(Fertile, fruitful, productive)
(Infertile, fruitless, unproductive)
(Seven years)

Based on the interpretation of Jazii al-Ghurnaathai (d. 741 H), the words seven fat cows mean cows
that became fat for seven years and seven lean cows mean cows that became thin for seven years.
Based on some clues in verse 46, scholars have concluded that the fat and lean conditions of
these cows occurred at different time periods. This means, the verses refer to different time periods of

4
fertility (or productivity) and infertility (or unproductivity). For example, Jazii al-Ghurnaathii mentioned
(Jazii):



(So, he taught them a strategy whereby they survive during years of fertility as well as years of
infertility)

Prophet Yusofs interpretation of the Kings dream points to at least two main phenomena of the
physical world: cyclic nature of the environment (and, thus, agricultural production) and strategies to
alleviate the impact of the changing environment in terms of good farming and food system
management.

4.0 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF 7-Y-C RoT IN FARMING

The keywords seven years may not necessarily mean exactly seven years. It can mean within or in
the region or plus-minus seven years. It may also mean a medium-term period during which some
important farming strategies and decisions should be made. These approximations could be true
perhaps in light of the Egyptian farming of the time at which Prophet Yusof passed his divine
recommendations to the King. Nevertheless, the seven-year mythical principles can be broadly
applied to the modern farming management in many ways. Discussion follows.

4.1 Agronomic Aspects

In general, agricultural crops can be divided into short-term (e.g. arable) and long-term (perennial)
crops. Irrespective of their life structure, one important goal of agronomic practices is to protect soil
resources (e.g. maintaining soils biological quality) and improving production potential (e.g. best crop
combination and cultivation system).

For short-term crops, seven-year rotation system is a common practice in many parts of the world.
However, this depends, among other things, on the nature agricultural system practiced and the
climate of the country. Table 2 shows an example of crop systems practised in some countries.

Table 2: Example of Seven-Year Arable Crop Systems
Country Type of farming Example of general crop rotation system
1. Former Soviet Union in general
[1]
Arable System 1 (5-year): W-W-B-O-F
System 2 (6-year):
Option 1 W-W-W-B-B-F
Option 2 W-W-W-B-O-F
Option 3 W-W-W-O-O-F
System 3 (7-year): W-W-W-W-B-O-F

2. Ukraine [2] Arable System 1 (6-year): F-W-W-S-B-C
3. United States Arable Various systems (5-7 years)
United Kingdom (Pfiffner et al.,
1993)
Arable System 1 (7-year): Bt-Bt-Bt-Bt-Bt-Bt-Bt
Notes: B = barley; Bt = beetroot; C = corn; F = fallow; O = oat; S = sunflower; W = wheat

In the case of organic farming, successful organic production begins with crop rotation to break up
cycles of weeds, pests and diseases. Fairly simple rotation guidelines can be followed, for example,
by selecting three crop rotation elements over a seven-year period without using the same element
consecutively (Goforth, 2008). This means, there are fallows in between the years.

The right combination of rotation systems can be part of farming success (Pfiffner et al., 1993;
Bowman, 2002). For example, a farmer with 25 years of farming experience in the U.S. used a typical

5
seven-year rotation in planting an over-wintering rye cover crop followed by soybeans; a fall-planted
small grain; a legume/grass mix frost-seeded into the grain in late winter; several years of hay or
pasture; corn; another rye cover-soybeans sequence; cereal grain frost-seeded with a legume/grass
mix; finishing with a fallow year when the forage mix growth is clipped but left to replenish soil organic
matter. The seventh years crop was found to be an enrichment and regeneration of soil biological
life. The soil benefits which improved and protect succeeding crops easily offset the opportunity cost
plus clipping and $20 per acre in taxes. A late seeding of buckwheat for grain in the seventh summer
and then a fall seeding of rye to restart the rotation combine to provide a needed break in the legume
cycle that has prevented a buildup of soil disease organisms. In Russia, cultivation of 7 types of a
seven-year crop rotation system of fodder crops produced the highest yield (average of 10.92 t/ha)
and the best humus balance (+2.31 t/ha) when using crop rotations of pea, barley, and grasses;
lucerne and grasses; winter rye and sorghum, and maize (Stupakov et al., 2001).

Yield response needs sufficient time to show even in short-term cash crops. Although there is no
hard-and-fast rule for assessing crop performance, a seven-year period is commonly perceived to be
a reasonably sufficient duration for observing yield response to manuring and other treatments. For
example, wheat grain yield responds to nitrogen rates in the first five while to potassium rates in the
first two years of seven years of growth. Grain nitrogen content can be affected in six of seven years
of growth (Girma et al., 2006). The effect of organic farming on the production of crops under a mixed
organic system, a stockless all arable farming system, and a horticultural enterprise was assessed
over the first seven-year experiment with a potential for a further experiment over the second seven-
year phase (Leake, 1999; CWS Farms Group, 2002). In some farming research such as the livestock
production, a period of five to seven years is considered sufficiently long enough to produce reliable
field results on breeding and/or feeding (Dwayne Rohweder and Ken Albrecht).

Yield reduction due to soil compaction can reach a substantial proportion in a period of seven years.
For example, in Ohio, reductions in crop yields are 25% in maize, 20% in soybeans, and 30% in oats
over a seven-year period (Lal, 1996). Remedial agronomic practices are needed after such a period to
prevent further loss of crop output. In another context, a complete nutrient recycling in arable crops
occurs in seven year and with rotational cropping, this cycle may be somewhat modified.

Some aspects of farm husbandry such as pest and disease control take just enough time make an
impact. In the case of citrus farming, for example canker takes a farmer a seven-year trip before he
can start making money again. It includes two years' worth of quarantine on the land and five years
before the farmer can start getting any real production off those trees. So, there are about seven
years' worth of no cash income at all. [3]

4.2 Farm Economics

Crop production optimisation strategy normally necessitates calculation of short-term or medium-term
profit from a particular enterprise. For instance, whether one could recoup capital investments within
the seven-year period needed to depreciate them (Thompson, 1997). In agricultural property
valuation, the concept of seven-year profit capitalisation has been accepted by the court as a basis for
estimating the value of rubber plantation. Such a principle may have some economic basis since long-
term investments such as those in perennial crop and livestock have some components of medium-
term income and profit profiles, during which important production decisions need to be known. For
instance, some long-term crops such as oil palm and rubber have a span of productive age of about
20 years, which is divided into three production stages whereby the outputs follow the law of
diminishing returns (Figure 1). Stage I is an irrational stage at which there tends to be under-
employment of input. Stage II, at which there is full employment of inputs, is a rational stage. Stage III
is again an irrational stage for a different reason, i.e. over-employment of input. On average, the
length of each stage is about seven years.




Figure 1: Principles of production efficiency
(Notes: Figures at the bottom are based on the study case Bukit Lawiang oil plam plantation)

These stages also reflect three important production events. The terminal point of Stage I is
characterized by maximum profit is at A; the point of maximum revenue at B; while the point of
terminal productive cycle at C. Each stage can have a time-span of around 7 years.

Study Case

To illustrate the above three events, a study case was chosen, namely the Tabung Haji oil palm
plantation at Bukit Lawiang, Kluang, Johor. A summary of production area is shown in Table 3 while the
basic production profile is shown in Table 4.

Table 3: Production area of Tabung Haji oil palm plantation, Bukit Lawiang, Kluang, Johor
Block Planted year Area (ha.)
PM 82A
PM 83B
PM 84A
PM 84B
PM 84C
PM 84D
PM 85A
PM 85B

Building/office/quarters
Hilly forest/vacant land
1982
1993
1984
1984
1984
1984
1985
1985
219
356
334
282
269
296
105
128

12
13
Total 2,014


6
Using the data in columns 2 and 4 of Table 4, a production prediction curve was estimated as FFB =
6.205 + 2.0548*year - 0.0622*year
2
where year represents the age of oil palm trees from field
transplanting. Based on output mean differential adjustment technique (Hamid, 2000) the equation was
used to further predict the FFB production for years 16 through 28. It was then multiplied by price of FFB
per ton to obtain total revenue curve. Two essential production functions were then estimated as follows:

7
Table 4: Production data of Tabung Haji oil palm plantation, Bukit Lawiang, Kluang, Johor
Year Age
(Year)
Total output (ton
FFB)
FFB/ha (ton) FFB price
(RM/ton)
Production cost
(RM/ton)
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
33,593.22
36,057.28
40,956.37
45,142.11
38,142.00
40,207.59
45,581.18
43,334.00
41,900.00
46,000.00
42,000.00
16.89
18.13
20.59
22.70
19.18
20.21
22.92
21.79
21.07
23.13
21.12
120.49
157.01
184.07
170.77
270.77
286.41
234.24
210.00
210.00
210.00
210.00
77.72
85.00
82.62
80.26
105.3
107.54
113.95
95.00
93.00
90.00
92.00
Note: FFB = fresh fruit bunch.

TREV = 0.771785 + 798.035*YEAR - 21.84*YEAR
2
(1)
TCOS = 250*YEAR (2)

where TREV = total revenue and TCOS = total cost.

Using equations (1) and (2) above, three fundamental aspects of production decisions in oil palm
cultivation can be analysed (see Figure 2). Firstly, the point at which profit is the highest, i.e. the point is
when MR = MC, i.e. at point A. Secondly, age of maximum yield is achieved when MR =
d(TREV)/d(Year) = 0, i.e. at point B. With the production function given, this point can be ascertained by
mathematical differentiation of the function. Thirdly, age at which replanting is needed is when profit is
equals zero, i.e. at point C.

(a) Age of highest profit

MR = d(TREV)/d(YEAR) = 798.035 - 43.68*YEAR.
MC = d(TCOS)/d(YEAR) = 250
At point A, MR = MC. Thus, 798.035 - 43.68*YEAR = 250
YEAR = (798.035 250)/43.68 = 12.55

(b) Age of maximum revenue

TREV = 0.771785 + 798.035*YEAR - 21.84*YEAR
2

d(TREV)/d(Year) = 798.035 - 43.68*YEAR
At point B, MR = d(TREV)/d(Year) = 0. Thus,
YEAR = 798.035/43.68 = 18.27

(c ) Age of replanting
= TREV - TCOS = 0
= 0.771785 + 798.035*YEAR - 21.84*YEAR
2
- 250*YEAR = 0
= (548.035 - 21.84*YEAR)*YEAR = -0.771785

The logical solution is 548.035 - 21.84*YEAR = -0.771785
YEAR = 548.806786/21.84 = 25

The summary of the above calculation is shown in Table 5.




Table 5: Three important production events in oil plam
Production stage Criteria Remarks
Point of maximum
profit
When MR = MC (where MC = 250)
Calculation: Year = 12.6

Achieved after about 9 years
from first production (3.5
years of age)

Point of maximum
revenue
When MR = 0
Calculation: Year = 18.3

Achieved about 6 years after
age of maximum profit

Point of terminal
production
When TREV - TCOS = 0
Calculation: Year = 25
Achieved about 7 years after
age of maximum revenue


From Table 5, it can be said that the 7-Y-C RoT is useful in the production planning of long-term crop.
For such a crop, the manager should embark on an efficient approach to produce the highest profit
within seven years after the first year of FFB production. From this point, he knows that production
rate is going to decline whereby the rate will reduce to zero when the production reaches the
maximum level of revenue over the next seven years. The final seven years is a period that prepares
the manager for a replanting scheme.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SEVEN-YEAR PERIOD IN FOOD MANAGEMENT

UNDERSTANDING CYCLES

One important aspect of 7-Y-C RoT is related to seasonal fluctuation in agricultural production and
output price or simply called agricultural cycle. This cycle is reflected in the successions of good
period and abundant yields or favourable prices (period 1); followed by dry period, bad growth, bad
harvest, famine, and unfavourable product prices (period 2); and finally rainy period, good growth,
good harvest, abundant yields, and favourable product prices again (period 1). This cycle is illustrated
in Figure 2.



Figure 2: The concept of cycle

Agricultural cycle can last for a few, say five to seven years. Examples of such a phenomenon were 5-
year production cycle starting in 2000 in China (China Daily, 7/3/2008); seven-year downward trend in
wheat production starting in 1998 in the U.S. (USDA, 2004a, 2004b). The El Nio that affects
agricultural production can develop every 4 to 7 years (Strock and Everett, 2002). Output price cycles
in some crops such oil palm and soya bean have an average cycle length of seven years (Figure 3).



8


Figure 3: Price fluctuation in crude palm oil (CPO) and soya bean oil (source: PT SMART Tbk, 2006)

One of the challenges as a result of agricultural cycles is to stabilize production and/or price. As
shown in Figure 3, both oil palm and soya ben faced a tremendous pressure to increase their market
prices during the periods of 1989-1990, 1994-1996, 1999-2001, and 2003-2005. Therefore, it is crucial
to understand such changes and to put up farming strategy during such periods. Indeed, this is a
difficult task.

One widely adopted agricultural risk stabilizing strategy is agricultural contract scheme. In this context,
seven-year contract schemes in agricultural subsidies have become the common ground in many
countries, especially to alleviate the impacts of production and price risks since producers normally
rely totally on the marketplace. USDAs Risk Management Agency, for instance, has an agricultural
support scheme whereby producers receive fixed payments over a seven-year period, on a declining
basis (Kintzle, 2005).

FOOD SUSTAINABILITY

Food production has the fundamental function of providing necessary nutrition to the society
permanently. In order to achieve this goal, agricultural sustainability is a must. This needs a well-
managed farming system. Among other things, the key food sustainability strategy is well-managed
food production, consumption, and stock systems. This, in turn, requires a thorough understanding of
life cycle stages of the food system. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an analytical method used to
evaluate the resource consumption and environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or
activity. In agriculture, food LCA uses indicators that address economic, social, and environmental
aspects of each life cycle stage: origin of (genetic) resource, agricultural growing and production, food
processing, packaging and distribution, preparation and consumption, and end of life (Heller and
Keoleian, 2000).

The basic principle of this has been laid down by Prophet Yusof himself. Firstly, he recommended
continuous food production through seven good years or cultivation. Secondly, he recommended
grain storage for seeds propagation. Thirdly, he allocated the budget for agricultural production and
building storage and processing facilities. Fourthly, during the following seven famine years, he
allocated the amount of stored grains to the Egyptian people according to per capita minimum
requirement. This way, he managed to avoid starvation and control the prices of grains. Prophet
Yusofs approach to providing grain storage has set the principle in the use of buffer stock for many
commodities in the modern worlds economies as a strategy of facing production and economic

9

10
cycles. Rubber, cocoa, etc. are examples of such commodities. The concept was then broadened to
include processed foodstuff. For example, as a result of shortage of supply and rising prices Malaysia
has made a move by creating buffer stock for controlled consumer food items such as sugar, cooking
oil, and flour in 2008. It has done so for rice in the 1960s.

One very crucial aspect of food sustainability, as taught by Prophet Yusof, is food production planning.
The main objective is to ensure food sufficiency through farm production. We may have wondered
how he has planned crop cultivation for a 14-year period to ensure food security. The principle lies in
the sustainability mentioned above. A simple example of cultivation planning is as follows:

Od = Cd x Sf x Dt x Pt [where P
o
(1 + g)
n
] (3)

Rr = Od/[Fd x (1 Fl)] (4)

Ac = Rr/Og (5)

where Od = minimum annual dry-weight-equivalent dietary (ADWED) needs of the population; Cd =
minimum daily per capita per serving dietary needs of a particular type of grain crop; Sf = frequency of
daily intake of that grain food; Dt = number of days of annual consumption of that grain type; Pt =
population size in a particular year; Po = population size in the base year; g = populations annual net
growth (%);n = number of years of growth; Rr = minimum required annual fresh-weight grain (AFWeG)
production (metric ton); Fd = dry food content conversion factor (per tonnage basis); Fl = processing &
marketing inefficiency factor (per tonnage basis); Ac = total minimum annual area of cultivation
(AAoC) needed (ha.); and Og = potential grain production (metric ton/ha.).

Let say Po = 100,000; g = 2%; t = 7; Cd = 0.2 kg; Sf = 2; Dt = 365; Og = 35 metric tons/ha.; Fd = 0.45;
and Fl = 0.15. The solutions for the above models are tabulated as follows:

Table 6: Hypothetical example of grain production functions
Year Population Minimum ADWED needs
(metric ton)
Minimum AFWeG
production (metric ton)
Total minimum AAoC
needed (ha.)
0
100,000 14,600.00 38,169.93 1,090.57
1
102,000 14,892.00 38,933.33 1,112.38
2
104,040 15,189.84 39,712.00 1,134.63
3
106,121 15,493.64 40,506.24 1,157.32
4
108,243 15,803.51 41,316.36 1,180.47
5
110,408 16,119.58 42,142.69 1,204.08
6
112,616 16,441.97 42,985.55 1,228.16
Total
108,540.54 283,766.11 8,107.60
Average
106,204 27,135.13 70,941.53 2,026.90

Table 7: Hypothetical example of grain production planning
Year Minimum AFWeG production (metric ton) Total minimum AAoC needed (ha.)
Current Future Current Future
0
38,169.93
-
1,090.57 -
1
38,933.33
-
1,112.38 -
2
39,712.00
-
1,134.63 -
3
40,506.24
-
1,157.32 -
4
41,316.36
-
1,180.47 2,702.53
5
42,142.69
141,883.06
1,204.08 2,702.53
6
42,985.55
141,883.06
1,228.16 2,702.53

11
Since the first good seven years should be planned to provide a buffer stock for the next bad seven
years, the minimum AFWeG production at the end of the first seven years should be twice the total
AFWeG figure (row 9, column 4) in Table 6. In the same way, the total minimum AAoC needed at the
end of the first seven years should be twice the total AAoC figure (row 9, column 5) in Table 6. In
general, the total area of cultivated land should be doubled beginning from the fifth of the first seven
years while crop output should be doubled beginning from the sixth and seventh years.

IMPLICATIONS OF THE 7-Y-C ROT

A question that perhaps worth pondering is: do we need to change our farming management strategy
from a five-year to a seven-year basis? This paper does not provide the answer for the question since
it did not carry out a comparative analysis of farming management in that way. Nevertheless, there is
reason to believe that resource use and production optimality may be best achieved over a seven-
year period. Therefore, there can be an opportunity to strategize the management of agricultural
sector on a seven-year basis to achieve such optimality.

Russia has ever done this a long time before (Rutland, 1985). Korea has also done this whereby
together with its First Six-Year Plan (1971-76), the Second Seven-Year Plan (1978-84) and Third
Seven-Year Plan (1985-1992) have, among other things, aimed at the improvement of rural living
conditions and rural infrastructure; expansion of food grain production to achieve self-sufficiency;
development of land and water resources to protect farmers from unfavorable climatic conditions;
accelerated farm mechanization so as to free farm workers from heavy manual labor (1998; 1999).

CONCLUSION

The 7-Y-C RoT was a prophetic interpretation of a dream that took a place thousands of years ago. It
was then repeated in the al-Quran through a story in surah Yusof. Since al-Quran is a miracle, there
must be a great wisdom behind the event. This paper has discussed the basic principles underlying 7-
Y-C RoT in farming management. Although the discussion is far from conclusive, there is some
reason to believe that 7-Y-C RoT has some scientific rationales for farming practices. Among other
things, there is evidence to believe that various aspects in farming changes crucially over a seven-
year period. In other words, seven-year period can be said to be a crucial period during which
agricultural phenomena change.


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