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Conductivity of Solutions: The Effect of Concentration

Abstract: In this experiment, I studied the effect of increasing the concentration of the ionic compounds NaCl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 on conductivity. Conductivity was measured by gradually increasing the concentration by adding drops of the compounds to distilled water.

Procedure/ Lab Materials: Gathered lab materials: 100mL beaker, stirring rod, ring stand, utility clamp, Data Calculator. Set up lab materials according to instructions provided in lab. Added 70mL of dionized water to a 100mL glass beaker. Gathered a NaCl dropper, a CaCl2 dropper, and a AlCl3 dropper. Activated calculator and connected conductivity probe. Tested conductivity of water with vernier conductivity probe. Recorded conductivity of the water and labeled as drop 0. Added first drop of 8 1.0M NaCl to water. Stirred solution thoroughly with glass stir rod. Tested conductivity of the solution with conductivity probe. Recorded conductivity of 1.0M NaCl on data sheet as drop 1. Continued adding a drop at a time and testing/recording data for 1.0M NaCl. After 8th drop of NaCl was tested and recorded, cleaned probe and beaker. Refilled 100mL beaker with 70mL of deionized water. Tested conductivity of deionized water and recorded as drop 0 for 1.0M CaCl2. Repeated steps and tests from 1.0M NaCl for 1.0M CaCl2. After 8th drop of CaCl2 was tested and recorded, cleaned probe and beaker. Refilled 100mL beaker with 70mL of deionized water. Tested conductivity of deionized water and recorded as drop 0 for 1.0M AlCl3. Repeated steps and tests from 1.0M CaCl2 for 1.0M AlCl3. After 8th drop of AlCl3 was tested and recorded, cleaned probe and beaker. Put up lab equipment and cleaned lab area.

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Analysis: The experiment showed that the conductivity increased as concentration increased. Also, when there are more ions in solution, the conductivity increases such as when aluminum chloride has a higher conductivity value than calcium chloride and sodium chloride even though the concentrations are the same. I learned that the more ions a compound has the more conductive it is, aluminum chloride has four ions, sodium chloride has two ions and calcium chloride has three ions, therefore aluminum chloride is the best conductor. Lab Question Responses: 1. The appearance of the graphs appears to linear relationships among the concentration. The graph shows that as the concentration increased, the conductivity increased. 2. The conductivity increased when the concentration increased meaning that there is a direct relationship between conductivity and concentration. 3. The chemical equations for the dissociation of NaCl, CaCl2, AlCl3: Dissociation of NaCl: NaCl Na+ (aq) + ClDissociation of CaCl2: CaCl2 Ca+2 (aq) + 2ClDissociation of AlCl3: AlCl 3Al+3 (aq) + 3Cl4. The graph with the largest slope was the aluminum chloride graph with a slope of about 279.65 and the graph with the smallest was sodium chloride with a slope of about 99.042. The reason for the differences in the slopes is because there are more ions in the aluminum chloride solution than in the sodium chloride solution. Aluminum chloride has more ions than sodium chloride; therefore it will be more conductive.

Conclusion: I found that the amount of chlorine atoms present in the compounds did affect the conductivity of the solution. The reason why is because of an increased amount of ions in solution will cause an increase in conductivity.

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