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A LOGICAL SYSTEM THAT DERIVES KNOWLEDGE

FROM DIRECT, SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION


A LOGICAL SYSTEM THAT DERIVES KNOWLEDGE
FROM DIRECT, SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION

• COMMON SENSE VS. SCIENCE


• POOR PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY THAN RICH PEOPLE TO BREAK THE LAW
– YES, BUT WE TEND TO PROSECUTE THE POOR MORE, AND WE CREATE LAWS THAT
SEEM TO ENSURE WE WILL PROSECUTE THE POOR MORE OFTEN

• MOST POOR PEOPLE IGNORE OPPORTUNITIES TO WORK


– IT IS TRUE FOR SOME, BUT NOT ALL POOR PEOPLE, AND KEEP IN MIND THAT HALF OF
THOSE CLASSIFIED AS POOR ARE NOT EXPECTED TO BE WORKING (E.G., CHILDREN,
THE ELDERLY, ETC.)

• WORLDWIDE, MOST PEOPLE MARRY BECAUSE THEY ARE IN LOVE


– IN MOST SOCIETIES, MARRIAGE HAS LITTLE TO DO WITH LOVE
TO BEGIN WITH, THERE ARE JUST
TWO SIMPLE REQUIREMENTS:
• LOOK AT THE WORLD USING THE
SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
– ONE SEES A VARIETY OF SOCIAL
BEHAVIORS THAT CALL OUT FOR
FURTHER INVESTIGATION
• BE CURIOUS AND ASK QUESTIONS
– TAKE OFF THE “SOCIAL BLINDERS”
THAT STOP MAKING ONE CURIOUS
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
• SELECT AND DEFINE TOPIC
• LITERATURE REVIEW IS
CONDUCTED
• ASSESS REQUIREMENTS FOR
STUDY
• DEVELOP KEY QUESTIONS TO ASK
• CONSIDER ETHICAL ISSUES
• DEVISE A RESEARCH STRATEGY
• COLLECT THE DATA
• INTERPRET THE FINDINGS
• STATE CONCLUSIONS
• PUBLISH THE FINDINGS
Sociological Investigation FOR SYSTEMATICALLY
CARRYING OUT SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

• EXPERIMENTS
• OBSERVATIONS STUDIES
- Non-participant observation study
- Participant observation study
- Case study
• SURVEYS
– Questionnaires and interviews
– Impressionistic research
• ARCHIVAL RESEARCH
• ACTION RESEARCH
SOCIAL RESEARCH HAS LIMITATIONS
• HUMANS ARE TOO COMPLEX TO
PRECISELY PREDICT ACTIONS
• HAWTHORNE EFFECT ON SUBJECTS
• THE AMOUNT OF DIVERSITY AND
SOCIAL CHANGE FOUND IN SOCIETY
RESULTS IN CONTINUAL CHANGE
• TRUE OBJECTIVITY IS DIFFICULT, IF
NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE
RESEARCH CAN BE HARMFUL AS WELL AS HELPFUL
TO SUBJECTS AND THE COMMUNITIES IN WHICH THEY LIVE

• FINDINGS MUST BE DISCLOSED IN FULL WITHOUT OMITTING


SIGNIFICANT DATA
• RESEARCHERS MUST BE WILLING TO SHARE THEIR DATA
WITH OTHERS WHO WISH TO REVIEW IT
• PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS AND PRIVACY OF THE SUBJECTS
TAKING PART
• SUBJECTS ARE ENTITLED TO CONFIDENTIALITY
• SUBJECTS MUST BE MADE AWARE OF THE TRUE PURPOSE OF
RESEARCH
• MAINTAIN AN AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS FOR SUBJECTS
IN CERTAIN RESEARCH ENVIRONMENTS