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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Objectives
1. Understand the concept of arrays 2. Learn the steps involved in using arrays - declaring, creating, initialising and processing arrays. 3. Use objects as array elements. 4. Use multidimensional arrays. 5. Recognise the difference between arrays and strings. 6. Use and manipulate strings.

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Declaring Array Creating Array


Declaring an Array
Syntax :
datatype[] arrayName;

or
datatype arrayName[];

Example double[] myList; or double myList[];


MANAGEMENT & SCIENCE UNIVERSITY

TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Creating an Array
Because an array is object, the declaration does not allocate any space in memory for the array. q Elements cannot be assigned before array is created. q new operator can be used to create the array. q Syntax to create array
q

arrayName = new datatype[arraysize];

Example MyList = new double[10];


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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Combine declaration and q creation Syntax for declaring and creating an array in one statement.
datatype[] arrayName = new datatype[arraysize];

or
datatype arrayName[] = new datatype[arraysize];

Example
double[] myList = new double[10];

myList[0] myList[1] myList[2] myList[3] myList[4] myList[5]

The array myList has 10 elements of double type and integer indices from 0 to 9.

myList[6] myList[7] myList[8] myList[9]

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Initialising Array Processing Array


q

When arrays are created, the elements are assigned the default value as follow: Default value Types of variables 0 \u0000 false null Numeric primitive datatype char boolean object

The array elements are accessed through the index (must start from 0).
6

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Arrays of Objects
Declaring an Array of Objects
q Syntax

for declaring an array of objects

classname[] arrayobjectName = new classname[arraysize]

or
classname arrayobjectName[] = new classname[arraysize];

Example Box[] boxArray = new Box[10];

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Copying arrays
Using for loop
q

Copying individuals elements. Example

for (int i =0; i< sourceArrays.length;i++){ targetArray[i] = sourceArray[i]; }

MANAGEMENT & SCIENCE UNIVERSITY

TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Using arraycopy() method


q

Syntax to use arraycopy()


arraycopy(sourceArray,src_pos,targetArray,tar-pos, length)

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Example of Using arraycopy() method


class TestCopyWitharrayCopy {public static void main(String arg[]) { sourceArray =1 00,5 0,2 0,800} int[] {00,2 5 3 ; int[] targetArray = new int[sourceArray.length]; System.out.print(" \nSourceArray :" ); printArray(sourceArray); System.out.print(" \nTarget Array :" ); printArray(targetArray); System.arraycopy(sourceArray,0,targetArray,0,sourceArray.length); System.out.print(" \nSourceArray :" ); Output of the printArray(sourceArray); System.out.print(" \nTarget Array :" ); printArray(targetArray);} static void printArray(int[] a) {for(int i= a.length;i+) 0;i< + System.out.print(" "+ a[i]);} }

program

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Effect of using (=) operator


q

Using (=) operator does not copy the content of the array newList = list;

Changes the value of newList with list and whatever changes happen in array newList will affect the list array.

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Example of using (=) operator to copy array


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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

public static void printList(String s, int[] list) {System.out.print(s + " " ); for (int i= list.length;i+) 0;i< + System.out.print(list[i] + " " ); Output of the program System.out.print(" ); \n" } }

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Multidimensional Array
Usually used to represent a matrix or a table. q Declare and initialize two dimensional array q Two subscript are used, one for the main array and the other one for the array contained within the main array.
q

Example
int[][] matrix = new int[5][5];

or
int matrix[][] = new int[5][5];

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Example
public class Test2D_Array{ public static void main(String [] args){ int [][]x={{10,20,30,40},{40,30,20,10},{10,20,30,40}}; int total=0; for(int i=0;i<3;i++){ for(int j=0;j<4;j++){ total= total + x[i][j]; } } System.out.println(Total: +total); } }
X[0][0] X[1][0] X[2][0]

Memory representation
X[0][0] X[0][1] X[0][2] X[0][3]

10 40 10

20 30 20

30 20 30

40 10 40
15

Output of the program Total: 300


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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

String
String class
q q q

The java.lang.String class represents character strings. Can create a string with class String using keyword new Syntax to create a string : String newString = new String(s); or String newString = String constant;

Example String message = new String Welcome To Java; String message = Welcome To Java;
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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

String comparisons
q

Method equals() can be used for the equality comparison of the contents of objects. (string1.equals(string2) )

Method compareTo() is can be used to compare strings. (string1.compareTo(string2) )

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Example Program of Using == operator, equals() and compareTo() method to compare string
class TestCom pareString { public static void m ain(String arg[]) { String string1 = " M anagem & Science University ent "; String string2 = "M anagem & Science ent Univer sity"; if (string1.equals(string2)) System .out.println("string1 and string2 have else System .out.println("string1 and string2 if (string1.com pareTo(strin g2) == 0) System .out.println("string1 and string2 are else System .out.println("st ring1 and string2 } } the sam contents"); e are not equal"); the sam "); e are different ");

Output of the program

string1 and string2 have the same contents string1 and string2 are the same
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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

String concatenation
Combines two strings using + operator. q Extracts substring from a string using substring() method
q

String length
Gets the length of a string. q Uses length() method
q

Splitting string
Strings can be separated according to characters q Uses split() method
q

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Example program to concatenate string and using substring() and length() methods
class TestString{ public static void main(String arg[]) { String string1 = " Welcome to MSU "; String string2 = "Management & Science University "; String string3 = string1 + string2; String string4 = string1.substring( 0,11) + string2; System.out.println("string3 : " +string3); System.out.println("string4 : " +string4); System.out.println("Length of string 3: " + string3.length()); System.out.println("Length of string 4: " + string4.length()); } }
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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Output:
string3: Welcome to MSU Management & Science University string4: Welcome to Management & Science University Length of string3: 46 Length of string4: 42

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TCS 2044 JAVA PROGRAMMING

CHAPTER 3 ARRAY AND STRING (Week 6)

Example using split() method


class TestSplitString{ public static void main(String [] args){ String s1= Welcome to Java Programming; String [] s2 = s1.split(//s); for(int i=0; i<s2.length; i++){ System.out.println(+s2[i]); } } }

Output: Welcome to Java Programming

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