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Load Important Terms and Factors (i) Connected load.

It is the sum of continuous ratings of all the equipment connected to supply system. Unit : Watt (W). (ii) Maximum demand. It is the greatest demand of load on the power station during a given period. The knowledge of maximum demand is very important as it helps in determining the installed capacity of the station. Unit: Watt (W). (iii) Demand factor. It is the ratio of maximum demand on the power station to its connected load. The knowledge of demand factor is vital in determining the capacity of the plant equipment.
Demand factor = maximum demand connecetd load

(iv)Average load. The average loads occurring on the power station in a given period (day or month or year) is known as average load or average demand.
Units generated per day (kWh ) Energy consumed in a day = 24 hours 24 hours

Daily average load =

Monthly average load =

Units generated per month ( kWh ) Energy consumed in a month = Number of hours in a month number of hours in a month

Annual average load =

Unit generated in a year (kWh ) Energy consumed in a year = 8760 hours 8760 hours

(v) Load factor. The ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a given period.
Average load Total Energy C onsum ed during a period = peak load M axim um D and 24hr em

D aily Load Factor ( L.F .) =

Annual

L.F . =

total anual energy peak load 8760 hr

Example 1.1

The maximum demand on a power station is 100 MW. If the annual load factor is 40%, calculate the total energy consumed in a year. Solution: Energy consumed in a year = Max. demand x hours in a year x L.F.
= 100 10 6 8760 0.40 = 3.504 10 11 = 3504 10 5 kW h

Example 1.2 A generating station has a connected load of 43 MW and a maximum demand of 20 MW and the unit generated being 61.5 x 106 kWh per annum. Calculate: (i) the demand factor (ii) load factor Solution: (i) (ii)
Demand factor = Max .demand 20 = = 0.465 Connected load 43

Average demand =

Unit generated in a year 61 .5 10 6 = = 7020 .5kW 8760 hrs 8760

Example 1.3 A 100 MW power station delivers 100 MW for 2 hours, 50 MW for 6 hours and is shut down for the rest of each day. It is also shut down for maintenance for 45 days each year. Calculate the annual load factor. Solution: The generated unit on working hour:
= (100 2 ) + ( 50 6 ) = 500 M h W

Operation days in a year = 365 45 = 320 days in a year The unit generated in a year: = 500 MWh x 320 = 160000 MWh Annual load factor = Max .demand working hours 100 %
Energy consumed in a year

160000 100 % = 20.8% 100 ( 320 24 )

Examples 1.4 A diesel station supplies the following load to the various consumers: Industrial consumer Commercial establishment Domestic power Domestic light : 1500 kW : 750 kW : 100 kW : 450 kW

If the maximum demand of the station is 2500 kW and the number of kWh being supplied per year is 45 x 105, determine: (i) Average load in a year (ii) Annual load factor Solution: (i) (ii) Annual average load = Annual load factor =
Unit generated in a year 45 10 5 = = 513 .7 kW 8760 hours 8760

Annual average load 100 % Max .demand 513.7 = 100% = 20.5% 2500

Example 1.5 A power station has the following daily load cycle: Time in hours Load in MW 6-8 20 8 - 12 40 12 - 16 60 16 - 20 20 20 - 24 50 24 - 6 20

Load in MW

(i) Plot the load curves (ii) Plot the load duration curves (iii) Calculate the total energy being supplied in a day 70 (iv)Calculate the daily load factor
60 50 40

Solution:

1. The 30 curves load


20 10

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

time (hrs)

2. The load duration curves

Load in MW
60 50 40 30 20 10 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

3.

Total energy supplied = ( 20 2 ) + ( 40 4 ) + ( 60 4 ) + ( 20 4 ) + ( 50 4 ) + ( 20 6 )


= 840 M Wh = 840 10 3 kW h Hours duration

4.

Daily load factor =

Total energy consumed in a day 100 % Max .demand 24 hrs 840 10 3 = 100 % 60 10 3 24 = 58.33%

Tutorial 1 1. Give the advantages and disadvantages of the electrical power generation station which using the following energy sources: a. Sun b. Water c. Wind d. Nuclear

2. Discuss the difference between base load, intermediate load and peak load. 3. State the advantages of National Grid System. 4. Explain the significance of daily load curves. 5. Discuss the difference between load duration curves and load curves. 6. A generating station has a connected load of 40 MW and a maximum demand of 20 MW. The units generated to supply the consumer are 60 x 106 kWh. Calculate (i) the demand factor and (ii) the load factor [Ans: (i) 0.5 (ii) 34.52% ] 7. A generation station has the following daily load cycle: Time (hours) Load (MW) 0-6 20 6-10 25 10-12 30 12-16 25 16-20 35 20-24 20

Draw the load curve and fond: (i) maximum demand (ii) Total unit generated per day (iii) average load (iv)load factor [Ans: (i) 35 MW (ii) 560 x 103 kWh (iii) 23333 kW (iv) 66.67%] 8. A power station has to meet the following load demand: Load A Load B Load C 50 kW 30 kW 20 kW 10 am till 6 pm 6 pm till 10 pm 4 pm till 10 am

Plot the daily load curve and determine: (i) Unit generated per day (ii) load factor [Ans: (i) 880 kWh (ii) 52.38%] 9. A generating station supplies the following consumers loads: Industrial consumer Commercial establishment Domestic power Domestic light : 1500 kW : 750 kW : 100 kW : 450 kW

If the maximum demand on the station is 2500 kW and the number of kWh generated per year is 60 x 105, determine the annual load factor. [ Ans: 27.43% ] 10. The annual load of a substation is given in the following table. During each month, the power is assumed constant at an average value. (i) Obtain the plot of the annual load curve. (ii) Calculate the average load (iii) Determine the annual load factor Annual Load System Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Load (MW) 8 6 4 2 6 12 16 14 10 4 6 8 [ Ans: (ii) 8.02 MW (iii) 50.14% ]