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CHAPTER 2: BODY COORDINATION 2003 1 The figure shows the impulse pathway of an action Rajah menunjukkan laluan impuls

bagi satu tindakan Receptor Reseptor

Spinal cord Saraf tunjang

Effector Efektor The action refers to Tindakan tersebut ialah A A knee jerk Sentakan lutut B Chewing food Mengunyah makanan 2

C D

Reading a book Membaca buku Walking on a rope Berjalan di atas tali

Harris picks some tomatoes. What type of action is this? Harris memetik beberapa biji tomato. Apakah jenis tindakan itu? A A reflex action C A voluntary action Tindakan refleks Tindakan terkawal B A capillary action D An involuntary action Tindakan kapilari Tindakan luar kawal The figure shows one of the human endocrine glands. Rajah menunjukkan satu daripada kelenjar endokrin manusia.

3.

Gland Kelenjar

What is the immediate effect on a person if the gland is removed? Apakah kesan serta merta yang dihadapi oleh seseorang sekiranya kelenjar ini di buang? A The blood pressure increases Tekanan darah meningkat B The metabolic rate becomes low Kadar metabolisme badan rendah

C D 2004 1

The blood sugar level increases Aras gula dalam darah naik The secondary sex characteristics are not developed Ciri seks sekunder tidak berkembang

The diagram shows a neuron. Rajah menunjukkan satu neuron X

What is labelled X? Apakah bahagian yang berlabel X? A Axon B Dendrite Akson Dendrit C Dendron D Myelin sheath Dendron Mielin Salut 2 The diagram shows a part of the human nervous system. Rajah menunjukkan sebahagian sistem saraf manusia.

S What is labelled S? Apakah yang berlabel S? A Cerebrum B Cerebellum Serebrum Serebelum 3

Spinal cord Saraf tunjang

D Medulla oblongata Medula oblongata

The diagram shows the endocrine glands. Which of the following glands A, B, C or D is the pancreas? Rajah menunjukkan kelenjar endokrin. Antara A, B, C dan D yang manakah kelenjar pankreas?

C D

2005 1 The diagram shows an impulse pathway. Rajah menunjukkan satu lintasan impuls. Spinal cord Saraf tunjang Receptor Reseptor Effector Efektor Which of the following actions involves the impulse pathway? Antara tindakan berikut, yang manakah melibatkan lintasan impuls itu? A Swallowing food Menelan makanan B Dancing with music Menari dengan iringan muzik C Walking on a tight rope Berjalan di atas tali yang diregangkan D Blinking of the eyes to protect from dust Mengedip mata untuk mencegah kemasukan habuk 2 The diagram shows the structure of a human brain. Which part of the brain controls involuntary actions? Rajah menunjukkan struktur otak manusia. Bahagian otak yang manakah mengawal tindakan luar kawal? Impulse Impuls

Deficiency of which element causes the thyroid gland to swell? Kekurangan unsur yang manakah menyebabkan kalenjar tiroid membengkak? A Calcium B Sodium C Iron D Kalsium Natrium Besi

Iodine Iodin

2006 1 Diagram 5 shows a type of neurone. Rajah 5 menunjukkan sejenis neuron. Cell body Badan sel Dendrite Dendrit

Skin Kulit Diagram 5 Rajah 5 The neurone carries an impulse from Neuron itu membawa impuls dari A The effector to the central nervous system Efektor ke sistem saraf pusat B The central nervous system to the effector Sistem saraf pusat ke efektor C The receptor to the central nervous system Reseptor ke sistem saraf pusat D The central nervous system to the receptor Sistem saraf pusat ke reseptor 2 The following information shows the parts that are involved in a reflex arc. Maklumat berikut menunjukkan bahagian yang terlibat dengan arka refleks. PQRSTMotor neurone Neuron motor Effector Efektor Intermediate neuron Neuron perantaraan Sensory neurone Neuron deria Receptor Reseptor

Which of the following impulse pathways is correct? Antara yang berikut, laluan impuls yang manakah betul? A P Q R S T C R P B T S R P Q D T S

S P

Q R

T Q

Diagram 6 shows the structure of a human brain. Which of the parts A , B, C or D controls the body equilibrium? Rajah 6 menunjukkan struktur otak manusia. Antara bahagian A, B, C dan D yang manakah mengawal keseimbangan badan. A

C B D Diagram 6 Rajah 6 2007 1 Diagram 1 shows the impulse pathway in nervous coordination. Rajah 1 menunjukkan lintasan impuls dalam koordinasi saraf. Stimuli Rangsangan Impulse Impuls Receptor Reseptor

R Response Gerakbalas Effector Efektor

Diagram 1 Rajah 1 Which of the following represents R? Antara yang berikut, yang manakah mewakili R? A Eyes B Brain C Mata Otak 2

Glands Kelenjar

Muscle Otot

What is meant by body coordination? Apakah maksud koordinasi badan? A To coordinate bodys growth Menyelaras pertumbuhan badan B To coordinate position and balance of the body Menyelaras kedudukan dan keseimbangan badan C To coordinate bodys responses towards any stimuli Menyelaras gerak balas badan terhadap sebarang rangsangan D To coordinate secretion of hormone by endocrine gland Menyelaras perembesan hormon oleh kelenjar endokrin

Diagram 2 shows a type of neurone. Rajah 2 menunjukkan sejenis neuron.

Cell body Badan selt

Dendrite Dendrit

Diagram 2 Rajah 2

Nucleus Nukleus

What is the function of this neurone? Apakah fungsi neuron ini? A Receives impulses from receptor. Menerima impuls dari reseptor B Receives impulses from central nervous system Menerima impuls dari sistem saraf pusat C Transmits impulses from motor neurone to effector Menghantar impuls dari neuron motor ke efektor D Transmits impulses from sensory neurone to motor neurone Menghantar impuls dari neuron deria ke neuron motor 2008 1 Diagram 1 shows the structure of a human brain. Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur otak manusia.

X Diagram 1 Rajah 1 Which activity is controlled by X? Aktiviti yang manakah dikawal oleh X? A Eating B Learning Makan Belajar C Thinking Berfikir D Breathing Bernafas

A teenage girl has not shown the development of her secondary sexual characteristics. Which of the following is malfunctioning? Seorang remaja perempuan tidak menunjukkan perkembangan ciri-ciri seks sekundernya. Antara yang berikut, yang manakah gagal berfungsi dengan baik? A Ovary B Adrenal C Pancreas D Thyroid Ovari Adrenal Pankreas Tiroid Diagram 2 shows the human nervous system. Which parts A, B, C or D is a spinal nerve? Rajah 2 menunjukkan sistem saraf manusia. Antara bahagian A, B, C dan D yang manakah merupakan saraf spina?

Diagram 2 Rajah 2 2009 1 Diagram 1 shows the pathway of an impulse in a reflex arc. Rajah 1 menunjukkan laluan impuls dalam arka reflex. Receptor Reseptor
Impulse Impuls

Effector Efektor

What are P, Q and R? Apakah P,Q dan R? P Sensory neurone Neuron deria Relay neurone Neuron perantaraan Motor neurone Neuron motor Sensory neurone Neuron deria Q Relay neurone Neuron perantaraan Motor neurone Neuron motor Sensory neurone Neuron deria Motor neurone Neuron motor R Motor neurone Neuron motor Sensory neurone Neuron deria Relay neurone Neuron perantaraan Relay neurone Neuron perantaraan

A B C D

2.

Which is the correct pathway of body coordination? Laluan manakah yang betul dalam koordinasi badan? A. Stimuli receptors central nervous system effectors responses Rangsangan reseptor sistem saraf pusat efektor gerak balas B. Receptors stimuli central nervous system responses effectors Reseptor rangsangan sistem saraf pusat gerak balas efektor C. Receptors stimuli responses central nervous system effectors Reseptor rangsangan gerak balas sistem saraf pusat efektor D. Stimuli central nervous system receptors effectors responses Rangsangan sistem saraf pusat reseptor efektor gerak balas

3.

Diagram 2 shows part of the human central nervous system. Which part A, B, C or D, controls the heart beat? Rajah 2 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada system saraf pusat manusia. Antara bahagian A, B, C dan D, yang manakah mengawal denyutan jantung?

2010 1. Diagram 1 shows the structure of a neurone. Which part A, B, C or D is the axon? Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur suatu neuron. Antara bahagian A, B, C atau D, yang manakah adalah akson?

Diagram 1 Rajah 1

2.

Diagram 2 shows the impulse pathway in a human knee-jerk. Rajah 2 menunjukkan lintasan impuls dalam sentakan lutut manusia. Stimulus Rangsangan Receptor Reseptor Diagram 2 Rajah 2 What is X? Apakah X? A. Brain Otak C. Tendon Tendon Effector Efektor

B. D.

Muscle Otot Spinal Cord Saraf Tunjang

3.

Diagram 3 shows the structure of a human brain. Rajah 3 menunjukkan struktur otak manusia.

Diagram 3 Rajah 3

What is controlled by X? Apakah yang dikawal oleh X? A. Reflex action Tindakan reflex C. Body posture Postur badan ANSWER: 2003 1. 2. 3. 2009 1. A 2. A 3. C 2004 1. 2. 3. 2010 1. C 2. D 3. B 2005 1. D 2. B 3. D 2006 1. C 2. B 3. C

B. D.

Voluntary action Tindakan terkawal Body balance Keseimbangan badan

2007 1. B 2. C 3. D

2008 1. D 2. A 3. C

CHAPTER 2 : BODY COORDINATION 2003 SECTION B 1 Figure 5 shows an impulse pathway when a student accidentally touches a hot pot. Rajah 5 menunjukkan suatu lintasan impuls apabila seorang pelajar tersentuh periuk panas.

FIGURE 1 (a) Name P, Q and R in the boxes provided in figure 1. Namakan P, Q dan R dalam kotak yang disediakan pada Rajah 5 [3 marks] (b) What happens to R when the student accidentally touches the hot pot? Apakah yang berlaku pada bahagian R apabila pelajar ini tersentuh periuk panas? [1 mark] (c) (i) What type of action is involved in (b)? Apakah jenis tindakan yang terlibat di (b)? (ii) Which part of the nervous system controls the action in (c)(i)? Bahagian manakah pada sistem saraf yang mengawal tindakan di (c)(i)? [2 mark]

2004 3 (a)

SECTION B State four differences between voluntary action and involuntary action. Nyatakan empat perbezaan antara tindakan terkawal dan tindakan luar kawal. [4 marks] Figure 10 shows several activities conducted by a student. Rajah 10 menunjukkan beberapa aktiviti yang dijalankan oleh seorang murid.
Conducting an Experiment Menjalankan eksperimen

(b)

Writing menulis Action Tindakan Reading membaca

Discussing berbincang

Figure 10 Rajah 10

Study the above activities. Explain how you would develop a concept based on the information in Figure 10. Kaji tindakan di atas.Terangkan bagaimana anda boleh membina konsep berdasarkan maklumat yang diberi dalam Rajah 10. Your explanation of the concept should include the following : Terangkan bagaimana anda membina suatu konsep berdasarkan maklumat dalam Rajah 10. Identify two common characteristics Kenal pasti dua ciri sepunya Develop initial concept Membina konsep awal Give other examples and non-examples in relation to the concept memberikan contoh lain dan bukan contoh yang berkaitan dengan konsep Explain the actual concept Jelaskan konsep sebenar [6 marks]

2005 5

SECTION B Figure 5.1 shows the endocrine system of a man. Rajah 5.1 menunjukan sistem endokrin seorang lelaki.

(a)

(i)

FIGURE 5.1 Name gland R. Namakan kelenjar R [1 mark]

(ii)

What will happen to the man if gland R secretes less hormone? Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada lelaki tersebut jika R merembeskan kurang hormon? [1 mark]

(b)

(i)

Name gland S. Namakan kelenjar S. [1 mark]

(ii)

State one function of the hormone secreted by gland S. Nyakatakan satu fungsi hormone yang dirembeskan oleh kelenjar S. .. [1 mark]

(c)

Figure 5.2 shows individual X who has an abnormal height as compared to individual Y who is normal. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan individu X yang mempunyai ketinggian yang luar biasa berbanding individu yang normal.

FIGURE 5.2 (i) Based on the endocrine system, what causes the abnormal height in individual X? Berdasarkan system endokrin ,apakah yang menyebabkan individu X mempunyai ketinggian yang luar biasa? [1 mark] (ii) Name the endocrine gland involved in (c)(i). Namakan kelenjar endokrin yang terlibat dalam (c)(i). . [1 mark] 2006 5 SECTION B Diagram 5.1 shows a student kicking a ball. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan seorang pelajar sedang menendang bola.

DIAGRAM 5.1

(a)

State the type of action in Diagram 5.1. Nyatakan jenis tindakan dalam Rajah 5.1. [ 1 mark ]

(b)

(i)

Between X, Y and Z which one controls the student's action? Circle your answer in Diagram 5.2. Antara X,Y dan Z yang manakah mengawal tindakan pelajar itu? Bulatkan jawapan anda dalam Rajah 5.2.

Diagram 5.2 Rajah 5.2 (ii) Name the part which you have circled in 5(b)(i). Namakan bahagian yang anda bulatkan dalam 5(b)(i).

[ 1 mark ]

. [ 1 mark ]

(c)

The impulse pathways for the student's action while kicking the ball is shown in Diagram 5.3. Lintasan impuls bagi tindakan pelajar itu ketika menendang bola ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 5.3.
Eye Neurone P Brain Neurone Q Effector R

DIAGRAM 5.3

(i)

Name neurone P. Namakan neuron P. [ 1 mark ]

(ii)

What is effector R? Apakah efektor R? [ 1 mark ]

(d)

What will happen to the student if neurone Q is injured? Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada pelajar itu sekiranya neuron Q mengalami kecederaan? .. ... [ 1 mark ]

2008 5

SECTION B Diagram 5 shows a stretch receptor in human muscle. Rajah 5 menunjukkan reseptor regang pada otot manusia.

Diagram 5 (a) Name structure P in the box provided in Diagram 5. Namakan struktur P dalam petak yang disediakan di Rajah 5. [1 mark] State one part of the human body, other than at a muscle, in which a stretch receptor can be found. Nyatakan satu bahagian pada badan manusia, selain daripada di otot, di mana reseptor regang boleh didapati . [1 mark] (c) State two functions of a stretch receptor. Nyatakan dua fungsi reseptor regang. 1. ............................................................................................................ 2. ............................................................................................................ [2 marks]

(b)

(d)

Mark () the activities that involved a stretch receptor. Tandakan () bagi aktiviti yang melibatkan reseptor regang.

[2 marks]

2009 5.

SECTION B Diagram 5.1 shows the structure of a neurone. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan struktur suatu neuron.

(a)

Base on Diagram 5.1, mark () the type of neurone in the box provided. Berdasarkan Rajah 5.1, tanda () jenis neuron dalam petak yang disediakan. Sensory neurone Neuron deria Relay neurone Neuron perantaraan Motor neurone Neuron motor

(b)

(i)

Name X. Namakan X. [1 mark]

(ii)

State two functions of X. Nyatakan dua fungsi X. 1. 2 .. [2 mark]

(c)

Name Y. Namakan Y. [1 mark]

(d)

Diagram 5.2 shows the pathway of an impulse. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan laluan suatu impuls. Central nervous system Sistem saraf pusat

Receptor Reseptor

Effector Efektor

Mark () the location of neurone in Diagram 5.2 Tandakan () kedudukan neuron dalam Rajah 5.2 [1 mark] 2010 5. SECTION B Diagram 5.1 shows two types of neurone. Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan dua jenis neuron.

Neurone A Neuron A

Neurone B Neuron B (a) Name the type of neurone shown in Diagram 5.1

Namakan jenis neuron yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 5.1. (i) (ii) (b) Neurone A/Neuron A: Neurone B/Neuron B: [ 1 marks] [ 1 marks]

Name the structure labeled X at neurone B. Namakan struktur yang berlabel X pada neuron B. [1 mark]

(c)

What is the function of structure X? Apakah fungsi struktur X? [1 mark]

(d)

Fill in the boxes below with the correct neurone for the impulse pathway. Isikan petak di bawah dengan neuron yang betul bagi suatu lintasan impuls. Receptor Receptor Central nervous system Sistem saraf pusat Effector Efektor

[1 mark] (e) Diagram 5.2 shows the part of a human brain. A student has lost his body balance and could not coordinate his leg and hand movements. In Diagram 5.2, mark () the part of the brain which is injured. Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan bahagian otak manusia. Seorang murid telah kehilangan keseimbangan badan dan tidak dapat mengkoordinasi pergerakan kaki dan tangan. Pada Rajah 5.2, tandakan () bahagian otak yang mengalami kecederaan. Cerebrum Serebrum

Cerebellum Serebellum Medulla oblongata Medula oblongata ANSWERS:

2003 2004 2005 5. (a) (i) Thyroid gland / Kelenjar tiroid (ii) Myxoedema (lower metabolic rate), cretinism (retarded growth), weight gain, retarded development of the brain. Miksedema (kadar metabolism kurang cergas), kretinisme (kadar pertumbuhan tulang rangka terbantut), berat ditambah, perkembangan mental yang lembap (b) (i) Testis / Testis (ii) Produces testosterone which controls the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as the production and development of sperms Menghasilkan testosteron yang mengawal perkembangan ciri seks sekunder lelaki seperti menghasilkan dan mengawal perkembangan sperma. (c) (i) Excessive amounts of hormones which control growth Jumlah hormon yang mengawal pertumbuhan tulang rangka berlebihan (ii) Pituitary gland/Kelenjar pituitari 2006 5. (a) Voluntary action / Tindakan terkawal (b) (i) X (ii) Cerebrum / Serebrum (c) (i) Sensory neurone / Neuron deria (ii) Muscles of the lehs / otot-otot kaki (d) Effector R will not be able to receive impulses from the brain. As a result, effector R does not produce any response. Efektor R tidak akan dapat menerima impuls dari otak. Akibatnya efektor R tidak menghasilkan sebarang gerak balas. 2008 5. (a) P: Sensory nerve P: Gentian saraf deria (b) Tendon, ligaments or joints / Tendon ligament atau sendi (c) 1. To coordinate muscular activity / Mengkoordinasikan aktiviti-aktiviti yang melibatkan otot 2. For balancing or body coordination / Untuk mengimbangkan atau mengkoordinasikan badan (d) 2009 5. (a) (b) (i) Dendrire / Dendrit (ii) 1. Receives impulses from other neurons / Menerima impuls dari neuron yang lain 2. Transmits impulses to the cell body via the Dendron / Menghantar impuls ke badan sel melalui Dendron. (c) Effector or muscle fibres (any one)/Efektor atau gentian otot (mana-mana satu) (d) Central nervous system Sistem saraf pusat Receptor Effector
Reseptor Efektor

2010 5. (a) (i) Neurone A: Sensory neurone Neuron A : Neuron deria (ii) Neurone B: Motor neurone Neuron B: Neuron motor (b) X = axon X = akson (c) X transmits impulses from the cell body to an effector. i.e : A muscle or a gland X menghantar impuls daripada sel badan kepada efektor. Contoh: otot atau kelenjar. (d) Receptor sensory neurone (neurone A) Central nervous system motor neurone (neurone B) effector Reseptor neuron deria (neuron A) sistem saraf pusat neuron motor (neuron B) efektor (e) Cerebellum Serebelum