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TANK FOUNDATION DESIGN PROCEDURE

TANK FOUNDATION module, which is supported by AFES. 1. Tank Foundation Module The type of storage tanks normally encountered in refinery, petrochemical and other industrial plants have cylindrical shells, essentially flat bottoms, and either cone roofs or float roofs. Tank size may range from 10 to 200 feet in diameter with height from 16 to 56 feet.

AFES Modules Suggested conditions for Tank Foundation Type is as below.

Guideline and Recommendation for the design of Tank Foundations


Tank Foundation Type Earth Foundations with a Crushed stone Ringwall Earth Foundations with a Concrete Ringwall Reinforced Concrete Slab

Conditions to be considered

The subgrade has adequate bearing capacity and acceptable settlements When the anchorage is not necessary

Large tanks, tanks with heavy or tall shells and self-supported roofs impose a substantial load on foundation under shell Can be used where high foundation uplift forced are encountered resulting form internal pressure or wind/seismic loading to provide for anchorage Allows very good leveling of the periphery of the bottom and the shell which is positioned on it Can used in congested areas with space limitations Relatively high cost than the crushed stone ringwall foundation

Pile supported foundation where soil bearing pressures are very low

Advantage

The most economical type of tank foundation Provides uniform support of the tank bottom by dissipating concentrated loads in a granular pattern

The reinforced concrete slab is very recommendable when the level of the underground water is high

Disadvantage

Possible the uneven settlement which cause additive effort in the future Difficult to construct flat level plane of the

The foundation is very expensive

bottom of the shell of the tank ( Leveling Ring)

Catastrophic failure of the bottom is possible if a leak starts and washes out the underlying

Application (Design Basis to be applied)

support Large Diameter Tanks

Small Diameter Tanks

All Tanks

Table 1-1 Tank Foundation Design Guide

Notes Regions of low seismicity or in seismic areas where the tank diameter to height ratio is such that there is no uplift of the tank shell or small sloshing effect. The magnitude of lateral forces, overturning moments, and associated hydrodynamic mass be determined to assess their impact on tank shell and foundation design A concrete leveling ring can be used under the tank shell in the gravel ring wall foundation. This leveling ring is 200mm deep by 300mm wide unreinforced concrete whose primary function is to provide a stable level base upon which the fabricator can build the tank shell wall. Additional advantages of the leveling ring are to distribute concentrated shell loads on to the gravel ring wall and minimize edge settlement under seismic condition

2. Tank Foundation Design Process

Start

Choose Project Create Structure Input Foundation Geometry (=Node Data)

Assign Foundation Module (=Foundation Type: Tank1 tTTank1)

Input Feature Data (=Footing, Pier Shape, Dimension)

Set Footing Bar, Pier Bar

IF Pile Foundation, Array Pile Data

Set Anchor Bolt/Box

Input Equipment Data Input Load Case/Combination

Structural Calculation sheets

Take Off Bill of Materials

Generate Construction Drawing

Generate 3D Modeling Data

END

3. Tank Foundation Data Input

1. Click New/Open Project to generate Tank Foundation in Toolbar icon Menu. Choose Project that you want to work on in Project Dialog Window. Ex) This is example of choosing KCI_MKS Project.

AFES Main GUI : Open/Select Project

2. Click Create New Structure Icon to input Structure Name in Toolbar Icon Menu. Add : Input Structure Name in New Structure Name dialog, then OK command button.

Add New Structure

3. Click Geometry Data Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then you can see Geometry : Foundation Location Plan (Node Data) Dialog. Input the coordinates of Tank Foundation, then click Add command button. Input Tank Foundation, and click Save Command button. Note) Choose Foundation or Spread Row that you want to edit, then click Delete to delete Node. EX) Make a Node to locate Tank Foundation by clicking Add. Input coordinates and click Save command button.

Input/modify Geometry Data

4. Click Assign Foundation Grouping Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu. The Structure Group Dialog as below is shown. There are four types of Foundation as below.

Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4 1, 3 Node uses Type 1(Footing : Circle) for Modeling. 2, 4 Nodes use Type 2(Footing : Octagon). 5 Node use Type 3(Circle Ring). 6 Node uses Type 4(Footing : Polygon Ring, Pier

Circle Ring Wall). a) Steps below is how to specify Type 1 Module for 1, 3 Nodes. 1. Click New Command Button. 2. Input Group Name in Group Name Input Box, then choose Group Type Tank_1 in Group Type Input Box. 3. Choose Non Pile Fdn, or Pile Fdn. Based on Condition. 4 Click Same Size button to apply same size and reinforced steel data for two different foundation. A standard foundation for input Data can be chosen in Combo Box. Choose Node to assign from Using node list, click > button, and click Save to set up Foundation Module.

b) Steps below are how to specify Type 2 Module for 2, 4 Nodes. The standard shape of Type 2 module is Octagonal and Pier is Circle Ring Wall. Note) Shape of Footing can be converted in Feature Dialog Window. Click New Command Button. Input Group Name in Group Name Box. Choose Tank_1 for Group Type. Choose Non Pile Fdn, or Pile Fdn based on condition of Soil.

Choose Pile Foundation. Choose Node to assign from Using node list Click > and Save to specify Foundation Module.

Assign Structure Group

c) Steps below are how to specify Type 3 Module for 5 Nodes. The standard shape of Type e module is Circle Ring Wall. Click New Command Button. Input Group Name in Group Name Box. Choose Tank_1 for Group Type. Choose Block foundation, then Soil Condition is automatically chosen to

Non Pile Fdn. This foundation does not support Pile Foundation. Click Difference Size( Each Foundation) button to apply different size and reinforced steel data for two different foundation. Choose Node to assign from Using node list Click > and Save to specify Foundation Module.

Assign Structure Group

d) Steps below are how to specify Type 4 Module for 6 Nodes. The standard shape of Type 4 module is Polygon Ring, and Circle Ring Wall for Pier. Note) Shape of Footing can be converted in Feature Dialog Window. Click New Command Button. Input Group Name in Group Name Box. Choose Tank_1

for Group Type. Choose Non Pile Fdn based on Soil Condition. Foundation Module only supports Soil Foundation. Choose Node to assign from Using node list Click > and Save to specify Foundation Module.

Assign Structure Group

5. Choose TANK-FDN-01 in Combo Box. Click Feature Data (Dimension) Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Feature Input Dialog as below is shown. Steps to specify Type 1 Module is as below.

Choose Footing Tab in Dialog Box. Choose Soil Name. Check Allowable Bearing Pressure of Soil Foundation using the information of Soil Name, which is input in Bearing Capacity of Soil Tab of Setting of Constant Dialog. This is Input Box when you want to design Footing by Element. (You do not need to choose currently.) Choose Footing Shape as a Circle. Input Footing Diameter. Input Height of Footing. Input Lean Concrete and Crushed Stone Thickness. Input Soil Height. (Standard of Footing Top: Upward +, Downward -) Input a projecting part of Dimension of Lean Concrete and Crushed Stone to horizontal direction. (Standard of Footing Edge.) Click Save Command Button to save Data.

input Feature : Footing

Choose a Pier Tab in Dialog Box. Choose Pier Shape as a Circle Ring.

Input Pier Diameter. Input Wall Thickness. Input Pier Height. Input Grout. Move the Pier with eccentricity by inputting in Offset X/Y Direction. Click Save Command Button to save Data.

Input Feature : Pier

6. Choose TANK-FDN-02 in Combo Box.

Click Feature Data (Dimension) Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Feature Input Dialog as below is shown. Steps to specify Type 2 Module is as below. Most of steps are same as Type 1, but choose Octagon Shape in Footing Shape Combo Box. Click Save Command Button to save Data.

Input Feature : Footing

7. Choose TANK-FDN-03 in Combo Box. Click Feature Data (Dimension) Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Feature Input Dialog as below is shown. Steps to specify Type 3 Module is as below. Most of steps are same as Type 1. Click Save Command Button to save Data.

Input Feature : Footing

8. Choose TANK-FDN-04 in Combo Box. Click Feature Data (Dimension) Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Feature Input Dialog as below is shown. Steps to specify Type 4 Module is as below. Most of steps are same as Type 1, but choose Circle Ring Shape in Footing Shape Combo Box. Click Save Command Button to save Data.

Input Feature : Footing

9. Choose Foundation in Group Combo Box. Click Feature Data (Dimension) Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Reinforcement Input Dialog as below is shown. Choose Footing Tab in Input Box. Choose one of the Bar Array Types Input reinforcing bar information fitting to Bar Array Type. 1 &3 Bar Types can choose only the information of Bottom reinforcing bar. Choose size of Footing Top & Bottom reinforcing bar. You can choose either Number or Spacing Input.

Note) You can choose Using Bar in Material and Unit Weight Tab of Setting of Constant. Bar DB that AFES can support is ASTM A615, KS D 3504, BS 4449, SAUDI ARABIAN, TS 708, ES 272-74, and TIS 2725. You can add BAR DB if you e-mail to jbchoe@gsconst.co,kr. Input Footing Clear Cover in Clear Cover Tab of Setting of Constant. It applies to all chosen Foundation. Data inputted in Setting of Constant are save in unit of Current Project.

Input Reinforcement Data

Choose Pier Tab in Input Box. Tie Array, Spiral Array (Tie Bar) is only used for PM Diagram Analysis of Pier. It does not apply to Ring Wall Pier. Choose Top Tie Bar Size, and input Spacing. Note) The Main Reinforcing bar due to Hoop Tension of Ring Wall is 10-D22 reinforcing bar. The Bar shape of Ring Wall Pier is . (Main bar is Side Bar.)

The shape of Side Bar is

Change Data of Pier, and click Save Command Button.

Input Reinforcement Data Input Information of reinforcing bar in Pier Tap for Ring Wall Footing.

Input Reinforcement Data

10. Choose Foundation to array Piles in Combo Box. Pile Data Icon in Toolbar Icon is generated only when choosing Pile Foundation. Click Pile Data Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Pile Array Form Dialog as below is shown. Choose Pile Name in Input Box. Check Allowable Pile Capacity of Pile Foundation using the information of Pile Name, which is input in Capacity of Pile Tab of Setting of Constant Dialog Click View Group Reduction box after inputting Pile Data, then you can check the overlap of Pile to Pile. Default Data is 1.5 x Pile Diameter from Footing Edge, and Pile to Pile is 2.5 x Pile Diameter. Default Data to check overlap can be changed in Design/Auto Design/Set Parameters window. Click Insert Command button or Generation (New) command button to arrange Piles again.

Input Pile Data

Click Generation (New) command button, then the picture below is shown. Choose Circle or Rectangular for Pile Array. Below is example of Circle Array. Decide how many Circles are needed to arrange Pile. Choose 3 Circle Arrays. Diameter of the first Pile Circle is 1200 mm. Arrange 3 piles with 60 Start Angle. Diameter of the second Pile Circle is 3000 mm. Arrange 6 piles with 30 Start Angle. Diameter of the third Pile Circle is 4000 mm. Arrange 10 piles with 120 Start Angle. Choose Base Point when you arrange Pile. (Example of arranging Piles based on Footing Center.) Refer to the picture for more input information. Input Pile Data, and click Save Command Button.

Input Pile Data

Example below is display result using Pile Generation (New) Wizard. Data can be converted by clicking Save Command Button after changing X/Y Coordination and Arranged Dia. of Spread Sheet. Piles can be added by clicking Insert, Generation (Add) Command Button. Click Delete Command Button to delete piles.

Input Pile Data

11. Choose Foundation to input Anchor Bolt/Box Data in Combo Box. Layout of Anchor Bolts Dialog is shown when clicking Anchor Bolts/Box Data Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu. Layout of Anchor Bolts is information for drawing. AFES program does not examine

Anchor Bolt. Choose who is going to supply Anchor Bolt in Bolt Data. Choose whether Anchor Bolt & Box uses Unified or Metric Units. Data in Anchor Bolt Size is different depends on Units. Note) Anchor Bolt Type & Size can be converted by Anchor Bolt Tab Box of Setting of Constants. Input Bolt Size, Projection, and Bolt Length. You do not need to input Bolt Size, Projection, and Length Data if Using Anchor Box in Anchor Box is checked. Choose Anchor Bolts Array Type. (Rectangular, Circle Array) If you choose Circle Array, Input Start Angle, Number of Anchor Bolt, and Anchor Bolt Circle Diameter, and click Draw Command Button. To change Anchor Bolt coordinates, change Spread Sheet and click Save Command Button. You can add Anchor Bolt by clicking Add Command Button. If you add Anchor Bolt on Circle Array, it changes to Rectangular Array.

Input Anchor Bolt/Box Data To delete all Anchor Bolt Data & input new data, choose Anchor Bolts Array Type, input Data, and click Draw Command Button.

12. Choose Foundation to input Equipment Data in Combo Box. Click Equipment Data Icon in Toolbar Icon, then Equipment Assign Dialog is shown. To input specific information of Equipment, you have to input Equipment Name & Type. Choose Equipment Node in Spread Sheet, and input Equipment Name. Click Save Command Button in Toolbar Icon, and assign Equipment to Large Storage Tank. Note) Tank1 Type assigns automatically the Equipment Type as Large Storage Tank. Click delete to delete Assigned Equipment.

Input Equipment Data

Click Input Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu after Equipment Assign, the dialog below is shown. Chose Equipment Type. The shape of Tank is changed according to Type. Input Equipment Diameter. Input Default Data as Pier to Pier Center value in AFES. Input Equipment Shell/ Insulation/Fire Proofing Thickness. Input an Equipment Height & Bottom Plate Height. Input Equipment Empty, Operation, and Test Weight.

Input Internal Friction Angle of Soil. Input a Filling Material Name, Unit weight, and Thickness for Ring Wall. Note) Thickness1 + Thickness 2 of Ring Wall should be same as Pier Height. Input a Data for Sump Pit. To save Data, click Save button.

Input Equipment Data

13. Choose Foundation to input Load Case/ Combination in Combo Box. Click Load Case/Combination Icon in Toolbar Icon Menu, then Loads & Combination Dialog is shown. The default load cases for a tank foundation that AFES generates are as follows: a) Operating

b) Empty(=Erection) c) e) f) Test Y Wind X Earthquake d) X Wind

g) Y Earthquake

The default allowable or unfactored load combinations for a tank foundation generated by AFES depend on the concrete design code selected. For eg if ACI code is selected, the combinations are as follows: a) c) e) f) DL + Oper DL + Oper + Y Wind DL + Oper + Y EQ DL + Empty(=Erec)

b) DL + Oper + X Wind d) DL + Oper + X EQ

g) DL + Empty(=Erec) + X Wind h) DL + Empty(=Erec) + Y Wind i) j) DL + Empty(=Erec) + X EQ DL + Empty(=Erec) + Y EQ

k) DL + Test

The default ultimate or factored load combinations for a tank1 foundation generated by AFES depend on the concrete design code selected. For eg if ACI 318 - 1999 is selected, the combinations are as follows: a) 1.4DL + 1.4Oper b) 1.05DL + 1.05Oper + 1.275 X Wind c) 0.9DL + 0.9Oper + 1.3 X Wind d) 1.05DL +1.05Oper + 1.275 Y Wind e) 0.9DL + 0.9Oper + 1.3 Y Wind f) 1.05DL + 1.05Oper + 1.403 X EQ g) 0.9DL + 0.9Oper + 1.43 X EQ h) 1.05DL + 1.05Oper + 1.403 Y EQ i) 0.9DL + 0.9Oper + 1.43 X EQ

j) 1.4DL + 1.4Empty(=Erec) k) 1.05DL + 1.05Empty(=Erec) + 1.275 X Wind l) 0.9DL + 0.9Empty(=Erec) + 1.3 X Wind m) 1.05DL + 1.05Empty(=Erec) + 1.275 Y Wind n) 0.9DL + 0.9Empty(=Erec) + 1.3 Y Wind o) 1.05DL + 1.05Empty(=Erec) + 1.403 X EQ p) 0.9DL + 0.9Empty(=Erec) + 1.43 X EQ q) 1.05DL + 1.05Empty(=Erec) + 1.403 Y EQ r) 0.9DL + 0.9Empty(=Erec) + 1.43 X EQ s) 1.0DL + Test

Note) 1. Input Load Case Name & Load Case Value in Load Case Window, and make a Load Combination in Load Combination Window. 2. Make Load Combination using Import Function in Load Combination Window, and go to Load Case Window, then Load Case is automatically input. After following 1 or 2 steps above, input Load Case Value for each pier. Default Load Combination in AFES has the function that can design Tank Foundation by importing Vessel_Load_comb_1.txt file in Data Directory.

Pier External Loading Sign Convention is as below. Axial Loads (Fz), Shear Loads (Fx, Fy), Moment(Mx, My, Mz) Axial Loads are negative downwards. Shear are positive if applied in the positive direction of X and Y Axis. Moments Mx are positive if applied in the counter-clockwise direction about the positive (+X) axis. Moments My are positive if applied in the clockwise direction about the positive (+Y) Axis.

Click Load Case Icon, then Loads Case Dialog is shown.

a) Choose Node to add Load Case. (EX. Choose Node 1, 3.) b) Choose Unassigned Load Case in Show state of Load Case. c) Choose Load Case in List Box, and click Save Command Button. d) To add more Load Cases, repeat step c). Added Load Case is displayed in Spread. e) If you finish adding Load Cases, click Finish Command Button.

Input Load Case Data

f) To add Load Case, click Edit node list, choose Unassigned Load Case and Load case, then click Save Command Button. g) To delete Load Case, choose Load Case and click Remove Command Button. h) To input Load Case value, choose Load Case and input values in Spread Sheet, then click Save Command Button. Note) SW : Default Load Case of AFES is SELF WEIGHT. Fy (=-1) means that automatically calculate Foundation Self Weight to the direction of Vertical Downward.

Click Load Combination Icon, then Loads Combination Dialog is shown. a) Click New Command Button. b) Input Load Combination Name. c) Choose Load Cases using Shift Key, then click > Command Button. d) Input Factor Value. e) Choose Elastic Strength(=Stability) or Ultimate Strength (=Reinforcement/Shear) Check for Load Combination. f) To use Safety Factor used for Sliding and Overturning Moment Check, choose Combo Box when it is for Stability Check. AFES can use 4 Safety Factor. Choose Factor for Allowable Increase in Combo Box. Note) Set up Sliding, Overturning, and Allowable Increase in Setting of Constants. g) Click Save Command Button to save the values. h) Repeat step a) ~ g).

4. Tank Foundation Design 1. Choose a Foundation Group. The steps for Foundation design is as follow. Click Foundation Analysis/Design Icon in Toolbar Menu, then Analysis and Design Dialog Window is shown as below. Choose Regular Shaped Foundation Design Method (=Default), and click OK Command Button.

2. There is a Dialog with several Design Methods. Detail of Select Load Distribution Method is as follow. Choose whether External Load on Pier Top go to Concentrated Force or Uniform Load. More specific explanation of Shear & Reinforcement Design for MAT Module is as follow. Choose a Critical Point to apply to Foundation based on Building Code. Choose a Maximum Point to design Foundation with Allowance. It is a typical rule designing with Maximum Value in Mat Foundation. Detail of Structural Analysis Design of Foundation is as below. The Conventional Rigid Method 1 : Analyze Foundation with internal force caused y external force. The Conventional Rigid Method 2 : Analyze based on the fact that the sum of external force and internal force is 0. Click Go to Diagram Command Button to see SFD, BMD Diagram. Click Go to Summary Command Button to see Summary Sheet.

Example of clicking Go to Diagram Command Button is as below. SFD, BMD Diagram can be seen in case of Footing/Group/Load Combination. In case of Tank Foundation, you can input values in Number of Moment Dist. Point to assume concentrated load as distributed load. Click Next Command Button to see Summary Sheet.

Choose Load Combination for Foundation Design. To draw several plans in Layout Plan, you can adjust using Number of Match Point Tab.

Summary Sheets of calculation sheet is as below. You can save as PDF File Format in any

Directory. Click Show Detail Report Command Button to see detailed calculation sheet.

Detailed calculation sheet is as below.

Print out Reports by clicking Option Icon in Toolbar Menu.

Click Design/Interactive Design/Ring Wall Design to design Ring Wall.

To design a Ring Wall Pier, choose Footing in Footing List and Pier in Pier List, then click Calculation (One) Command Button. Detail Report Tab is activated, and Design Result of Ring Wall is displayed. Click Calculation (All) Command Button to design multiple Ring Wall. Detail Report Tab is activated, and Design Result of Ring Wall is displayed.

5. Material Calculation for Tank Foundation To calculate Materials for Foundation, click Take Off Bill of Material Icon in Toolbar Menu. Input Spec. for Material Calculation, and click Calculation button. To apply a same input Spec. to other Foundation, click Save Command Button.

Materials Report for Foundation is as below. It displays Data, Summary Table, Calculation BOM, and Calculation Rebar. Rebar, Net BOM, here does not consider Bar Bending.

6. Tank Foundation Drawing Generation

AFES interfaces directly with AutoCAD, and MicroStation to create a construction drawing. Click Export DXF File Icon in Toolbar Menu to generate construction drawing. Click Option Command Button to adjust Parameters for Drawing Generation. Click OK Command Button to generate drawing.

Option for drawing generation is as below. Data changes for Sheet, Font, Layers, Entity, Drawing (=Bar Leader Type, Bar Bending Include or Not), Bar Bending (=Rebar DB) can be saved. You can choose a single rebar that you want to calculate for Bar Bending calculation. You can verify the adjusted value in Standard Tab of drawing. Ex) If you use #-, choose ASTM A 615 and adjust values. Click OK Command Button after finishing set up.

AFES provides the viewer below. AFES automatically save drawings in Directory/ DxfData/ Project No. Standard Tab is the value used for construction drawing. Layout Tab is plan drawing of foundation location The rest of Tabs are Foundation Detail Drawing.

7. 3D Modeling Data Refer to PDS_PDMS_User_Manual_English.pdf Manual for 3D Modeling Data generation. .