Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 120

ElectricalElectrical

BasicsBasics

ChasingChasing Sparks”Sparks”

What is Electricity?

Everything that has substance and takes up space, whether it is solid, liquid, or gaseous, is made up of very small particles called atoms.

and takes up space, whether it is solid, liquid, or gaseous, is made up of very

What is Electricity?

Scientists believe all atoms have negatively charged particles known as electrons, which revolve around a central core, or nucleus. This nucleus is believed to be positively charged, and to contain other particles known as protons and neutrons.

This nucleus is believed to be positively charged, and to contain other particles known as protons

What is Electricity?

Electrons in the inner orbit or orbits are known as bound electrons.

Those in the outer orbit are called free electrons, and can be easily forced out of their orbits, flowing from one atom to another.

orbit are called free electrons , and can be easily forced out of their orbits, flowing

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Current Current Flow Flow The “electron theory” states that current flow is the organized, forced movement

The “electron theory” states that current flow is the organized, forced movement of free electrons in a specific direction.

Continuous current flow in only one direction is known as “DC” or “Direct Current.”

in a specific direction. Continuous current flow in only one direction is known as “DC” or

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Flow that alternates back and forth is called “Alternating Current.”

A good conductor is a material that has many free electrons, such as copper. Lead and gold have large numbers of free electrons.

is a material that has many free electrons, such as copper. Lead and gold have large

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Good conductors readily transmit electricity.

The force that causes electrons to move from one atom to another is called electromotive force (EMF).

electricity. The force that causes electrons to move from one atom to another is called electromotive

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Electromotive force is caused by a difference in electrical potential and is measured in volts, also referred to as voltage.

force is caused by a difference in electrical potential and is measured in volts , also
force is caused by a difference in electrical potential and is measured in volts , also

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

When electrons begin to flow, the effect is felt instantly all along the surface of the conductor, very much as force can be felt all the way through a row of billiard balls.

all along the surface of the conductor, very much as force can be felt all the

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Some older cars and heavy equipment had their positive battery terminal connected to the chassis or frame and the negative side of the circuit was switched. Practically no production vehicle uses this configuration today.

and the negative side of the circuit was switched. Practically no production vehicle uses this configuration

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Today’s vehicles have their negative terminal battery terminal connected to the chassis or frame, also known as ground.

TheThe positivepositive feedfeed wireswires toto vehiclevehicle componentscomponents allall originateoriginate atat thethe positivepositive batterybattery terminalterminal

components components all all originate originate at at the the positive positive battery battery terminal terminal

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

When a switch is closed, current flows from the battery negative post to chassis ground, through the load and switch, and to the positive terminal.

flows from the battery negative post to chassis ground, through the load and switch, and to

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Even though the ground has the excess of electrons, the positive post is the one that is generally regarded as “hot.”

though the ground has the excess of electrons, the positive post is the one that is

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

ElectronElectron theorytheorysupposes current flow to be from negative to positive, while “Conventional Theory” supposes the current flows from positive to negative.

be from negative to positive, while “ Conventional Theory ” supposes the current flows from positive

CurrentCurrent FlowFlow

Thus, the current in automotive circuits is usually traced from the source (battery) to the load (bulb, motor, etc.) and then to ground.

automotive circuits is usually traced from the source (battery) to the load (bulb, motor, etc.) and

SourcesSources ofof ElectricityElectricity

A battery is a chemical source of electricity. It contains a number of positive plates and an equal number of negative plates.

a chemical source of electricity. It contains a number of positive plates and an equal number
a chemical source of electricity. It contains a number of positive plates and an equal number

SourcesSources ofof ElectricityElectricity

TheThe positivepositive andand negativenegative platesplates areare immersedimmersed inin anan electrolyteelectrolyte solutionsolution composedcomposed ofof waterwater andand sulphuricsulphuric acid.acid.

electrolyte solution solution composed composed of of water water and and sulphuric sulphuric acid. acid.
electrolyte solution solution composed composed of of water water and and sulphuric sulphuric acid. acid.

SourcesSources ofof ElectricityElectricity

WhenWhen thethe batterybattery isis charged,charged, aa chemicalchemical reactionreaction ofof thethe acidacid onon thethe platesplates resultsresults inin anan excessexcess ofof electronselectrons collectingcollecting onon thethe negativenegative plates.plates.

an excess excess of of electrons electrons collecting collecting on on the the negative negative plates.
an excess excess of of electrons electrons collecting collecting on on the the negative negative plates.

SourcesSources ofof ElectricityElectricity

IfIf aa conductorconductor isis connectedconnected betweenbetween thethe plates,plates, currentcurrent (electrons)(electrons) willwill flowflow throughthrough thethe conductorconductor fromfrom oneone plateplate toto thethe other.other.

flow flow through through the the conductor conductor from from one one plate plate to to
flow flow through through the the conductor conductor from from one one plate plate to to

ElectromagneticElectromagnetic

InductionInduction

WhenWhen aa conductorconductor connectedconnected toto aa closedclosed circuitcircuit isis passedpassed throughthrough aa magneticmagnetic field,field, currentcurrent isis producedproduced inin thethe conductor.conductor.

a a magnetic magnetic field, field, current current is is produced produced in in the the
a a magnetic magnetic field, field, current current is is produced produced in in the the

ElectromagneticElectromagnetic

InductionInduction

Alternators,Alternators, generators,generators, andand variousvarious inductiveinductive sensorssensors useuse thisthis principleprinciple toto dodo theirtheir work.work.

inductive inductive sensors sensors use use this this principle principle to to do do their their

StaticStatic ElectricityElectricity

Static Static Electricity Electricity Electrons Electrons can can move move from from one one body body

ElectronsElectrons cancan movemove fromfrom oneone bodybody ofof mattermatter toto anotheranother byby friction.friction. ScuffingScuffing youryour shoesshoes onon carpetcarpet onon aa cold,cold, drydry dayday cancan causecause aa nicenice zap!zap!

shoes on on carpet carpet on on a a cold, cold, dry dry day day can

LightningLightning isis anotheranother formform ofof staticstatic

electricityelectricity dischargingdischarging fromfrom thethe atmosphereatmosphere toto thethe earth.earth.

electricity electricity discharging discharging from from the the atmosphere atmosphere to to the the earth. earth.
electricity electricity discharging discharging from from the the atmosphere atmosphere to to the the earth. earth.

ElectricalElectrical CircuitsCircuits

ElectricalElectrical CircuitsCircuits

Electrical Electrical Circuits Circuits An electrical circuit is a complete path for current flow… basically defined

An electrical circuit is a complete path for current flow… basically defined as being froma power source to a load component that has resistance and uses electricity to do its work, and finally a ground path back to the negative terminal of the power source.

CircuitCircuit ComponentsComponents

One component necessary for all circuits is a power source. In an automobile, the power
One component
necessary for all
circuits is a power
source.
In an automobile, the power source is the
battery when the engine is switched off and the
alternator when the engine is running
the power source is the battery when the engine is switched off and the alternator when

CircuitCircuit ComponentsComponents

Conductors are

wires and cables, usually protected from each other and ground by insulation, and they carry the current in an electrical circuit.

usually protected from each other and ground by insulation, and they carry the current in an
usually protected from each other and ground by insulation, and they carry the current in an

CircuitCircuit ComponentsComponents

Note: In an automotive circuit, the vehicle chassis and the engine block are actually conductors in the

Note: In an automotive circuit, the vehicle chassis and the engine block are actually conductors in

circuit.

CircuitCircuit ComponentsComponents

Circuit Circuit Components Components Controls (switches) are necessary to turn the circuit on and off.
Circuit Circuit Components Components Controls (switches) are necessary to turn the circuit on and off.

Controls (switches) are necessary to turn the circuit on and off.

CircuitCircuit ComponentsComponents

The Load is a device

that uses up electricity and turns it into work.

Light bulbs and motors are among the examples of loads in an automotive circuit

electricity and turns it into work. Light bulbs and motors are among the examples of loads
electricity and turns it into work. Light bulbs and motors are among the examples of loads
electricity and turns it into work. Light bulbs and motors are among the examples of loads

CircuitCircuit ComponentsComponents

The Circuit

Protector is a

device that protects the conductors and components in a circuit in case of an overload.

Circuit Protector is a device that protects the conductors and components in a circuit in case
Circuit Protector is a device that protects the conductors and components in a circuit in case

CurrentCurrent WillWill FlowFlow

IF IF

The switch is closed

• The circuit protector is not open

• The switch is closed • The circuit protector is not open • Charge is available

• Charge is available

Ohm’sOhm’s LawLaw

Ohm’s Law is the basic rule for the relationships between voltage, current, and resistance.

1. CURRENT FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO VOLTAGE

2. CURRENT FLOW IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO RESISTANCE

Ohm’sOhm’s LawLaw

1. CURRENT FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO VOLTAGE:

Simply put, this means that an increase in VOLTAGE will cause an INCREASE in current

flow. This is true because voltage is, in effect, electrical “pressure.” The higher the voltage, the higher the pressure, thus the higher the current flow. Remember:

1 volt pushes 1 amp through 1 ohm.

Ohm’sOhm’s LawLaw

2. CURRENT FLOW IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO RESISTANCE

This statement means that an increase in RESISTANCE will cause a

PROPORTIONAL TO RESISTANCE This statement means that an increase in RESISTANCE will cause a DECREASE in

DECREASE in current flow.

PROPORTIONAL TO RESISTANCE This statement means that an increase in RESISTANCE will cause a DECREASE in

Ohm’sOhm’s LawLaw

High current flow… Added resistance… Lower Current flow
High current
flow…
Added
resistance…
Lower Current
flow

Ohm’sOhm’s LawLaw

VoltageVoltage

equalsequals

CurrentCurrent

timestimes

Resistance Resistance

“E” is used to denote volts.
“E” is used to
denote volts.

I” denotes current.

R” denotes resistance.

Ohm’sOhm’s LawLaw

1 volt pushes 1 amp through 1 ohm, right? Okay, how many amps will 12 volts push through 6

ohms?

Law Law 1 volt pushes 1 amp through 1 ohm, right? Okay, how many a m
Law Law 1 volt pushes 1 amp through 1 ohm, right? Okay, how many a m
Resistance — 2 ohms Draw — 5 Amps Resistance — 2 ohms Draw — 6
Resistance — 2 ohms
Draw — 5 Amps
Resistance — 2 ohms
Draw — 6 Amps
10
12
volts
volts

VoltageVoltage isis likelike

PressurePressure

VoltageVoltage isis likelike PressurePressure

Voltage Voltage is is like like Pressure Pressure NOTE: Increasing voltage in a given circuit always

NOTE:

Increasing voltage in a given circuit

always

increases

current

draw.

is like like Pressure Pressure NOTE: Increasing voltage in a given circuit always increases current draw.

VoltageVoltage isis likelike PressurePressure

VoltageVoltage isis alsoalso expressedexpressed asas aa “difference“difference inin potential”potential” whenwhen itit refersrefers toto electromotiveelectromotive forceforce causedcaused byby aa differencedifference inin electricalelectrical chargescharges betweenbetween twotwo pointspoints inin aa circuit.circuit.

in in electrical electrical charges charges between between two two points points in in a a

CurrentCurrent

Current Current Current Current is is the the flow flow of of electrons electrons between between

CurrentCurrent isis thethe flowflow ofof electronselectrons betweenbetween twotwo pointspoints inin aa closedclosed circuitcircuit thatthat havehave aa differencedifference inin potential.potential.

CurrentCurrent

Current Current The The unit unit of of measurement measurement to to determine determine current current

TheThe unitunit ofof measurementmeasurement toto determinedetermine currentcurrent flowflow isis thethe ampereampere (abbreviated(abbreviated “amp”).“amp”).

CurrentCurrent

Current Current One One ampere ampere is is defined defined as as the the movement movement

OneOne ampereampere isis defineddefined asas thethe movementmovement ofof oneone coulombcoulomb

ofof electronselectrons pastpast aa givengiven pointpoint inin oneone second.second. AA coulombcoulomb isis oneone billionbillion billionbillion electrons.electrons.

CurrentCurrent

Current Current Current Current is is thus thus a a measure measure of of the the

CurrentCurrent isis thusthus aa measuremeasure ofof thethe raterate ofof electricalelectrical flow.flow.

ItIt cancan alsoalso bebe knownknown asas amperageamperage oror drawdraw,, andand isis measuredmeasured withwith anan ammeterammeter

CurrentCurrent

Current Current When When two two loads loads are are connected connected parallel, parallel, as as

WhenWhen twotwo loadsloads areare connectedconnected parallel,parallel, asas inin thethe illustrationillustration onon thethe left,left, eacheach drawsdraws currentcurrent independentlyindependently ofof thethe other.other.

CurrentCurrent

InIn thethe picture,picture, bulbbulb AA drawsdraws 22 amps,amps, whilewhile bulbbulb BB drawsdraws 11 amp.amp.
InIn thethe picture,picture,
bulbbulb AA drawsdraws
22
amps,amps, whilewhile
bulbbulb BB drawsdraws
11
amp.amp. TheThe
totaltotal currentcurrent
flowflow inin thethe
circuitcircuit isis 33
amps.amps.
BB drawsdraws 11 amp.amp. TheThe totaltotal currentcurrent flowflow inin thethe circuitcircuit isis 33 amps.amps.

CurrentCurrent

InIn thethe picture,picture, bulbbulb AA drawsdraws 22 amps,amps, whilewhile bulbbulb BB drawsdraws 11 amp.amp.
InIn thethe picture,picture,
bulbbulb AA drawsdraws
22
amps,amps, whilewhile
bulbbulb BB drawsdraws
11
amp.amp. TheThe
totaltotal currentcurrent
flowflow inin thethe
circuitcircuit isis 33
amps.amps.
BB drawsdraws 11 amp.amp. TheThe totaltotal currentcurrent flowflow inin thethe circuitcircuit isis 33 amps.amps.

CurrentCurrent

Current Current Important: Important: The The total total current current draw draw in in a a

Important:Important:

TheThe totaltotal currentcurrent drawdraw inin aa parallelparallel circuitcircuit equalsequals thethe sumsum ofof thethe individualindividual currentcurrent draws.draws.

CurrentCurrent

IfIf thethe samesame twotwo bulbsbulbs areare connectedconnected inin seriesseries insteadinstead ofof parallel,parallel, theirtheir combinedcombined resistanceresistance willwill bebe 1818 ohmsohms

of of parallel, parallel, their their combined combined resistance resistance will will be be 18 18

CurrentCurrent

Current Current 0.67 amps X 18 ohms = 12 v 12 v/ 18 ohms = 0.67

0.67 amps X 18 ohms = 12 v

12 v/ 18 ohms = 0.67 amps

Current Current 0.67 amps X 18 ohms = 12 v 12 v/ 18 ohms = 0.67

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance is an opposition to current flow offered by a load or a resistor.

Resistance Resistance Resistance is an opposition to current flow offered by a load or a resistor.
Resistance Resistance Resistance is an opposition to current flow offered by a load or a resistor.

ResistanceResistance

EvenEven conductorsconductors havehave somesome resistance;resistance; forfor example,example, aa piecepiece ofof 2222 gaugegauge coppercopper wirewire 6060 feetfeet longlong hashas oneone ohmohm ofof resistance.resistance. LargerLarger diameterdiameter wireswires havehave lessless resistance.resistance.

ResistanceResistance

HeatHeat generallygenerally causescauses resistanceresistance toto increaseincrease inin aa conductorconductor oror connection.connection.

ResistanceResistance

AnAn interestinginteresting andand somewhatsomewhat volatilevolatile relationshiprelationship existsexists betweenbetween heatheat andand resistanceresistance inin electricalelectrical wiring…wiring…

exists between between heat heat and and resistance resistance in in electrical electrical wiring… wiring…

ResistanceResistance

SinceSince everyevery connectionconnection hashas somesome resistance,resistance, thatthat resistanceresistance producesproduces heat…heat…

has has some some resistance, resistance, that that resistance resistance produces produces heat… heat…

ResistanceResistance

andand thatthat heatheat producesproduces moremore resistanceresistance,, whichwhich inin turnturn producesproduces moremore heatheat untiluntil currentcurrent finallyfinally stopsstops flowingflowing andand thethe componentcomponent fails.fails.

current current finally finally stops stops flowing flowing and and the the component component fails. fails.
current current finally finally stops stops flowing flowing and and the the component component fails. fails.

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance When When resistors resistors are are in in series series , , the the

WhenWhen resistorsresistors areare inin seriesseries,, thethe totaltotal resistanceresistance isis thethe sumsum ofof thethe individualindividual resistances…resistances… 6+66+6 == 1212

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance When When resistors resistors are are in in parallel parallel , , the the

WhenWhen resistorsresistors areare inin parallelparallel,, thethe totaltotal resistanceresistance equalsequals thethe sourcesource voltagevoltage divideddivided byby thethe combinedcombined currentcurrent draw.draw.

the the source source voltage voltage divided divided by by the the combined combined current current

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance With With a a 12 12 volt volt supply, supply, how how much much

WithWith aa 1212 voltvolt supply,supply, howhow muchmuch amperageamperage wouldwould eacheach ofof thesethese resistorsresistors pull?pull?

how how much much amperage amperage would would each each of of these these resistors resistors

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance So each 6 ohm resistor will pull 2 amps. And 2 + 2 =

So each 6 ohm resistor will pull 2 amps. And 2 + 2 = 4

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance Okay, Okay, if if the the total total circuit circuit pulls pulls 4 4

Okay,Okay, ifif thethe totaltotal circuitcircuit pullspulls 44 ampsamps,, howhow manymany ohmsohms ofof resistanceresistance wouldwould thethe totaltotal circuitcircuit have,have, basedbased onon aa 1212 voltvolt supply?supply?

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance Let’s Let’s try try a a different different combination. combination. With With a a

Let’sLet’s trytry aa differentdifferent combination.combination. WithWith aa 1212 voltvolt source,source, howhow muchmuch totaltotal resistanceresistance wouldwould thisthis parallelparallel circuitcircuit have?have?

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance Amps Amps Amps + Amps Equals Equals + Amps Amps total. total.
Resistance Resistance Amps Amps Amps + Amps Equals Equals + Amps Amps total. total.

Amps Amps

Amps+ Amps

EqualsEquals

+

Amps Amps

total.total.

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

ResistanceResistance

Resistance Resistance

Voltage Drop

Voltage Drop It’s a basic rule for closed circuits that the voltage “used up” or “dropped”

It’s a basic rule for closed circuits that the voltage “used up” or “dropped” in the loads must be equal to the source voltage.

Voltage Drop

Voltage Drop The voltmeter at point A will measure the source voltage. If the voltage measurement

The voltmeter at point A will measure the source voltage.

If the voltage measurement is taken at point B, what will the voltage be?

Voltage Drop

Voltage Drop Did you say zero volts? You’d be right. The voltage drop is equal to

Did you say zero volts? You’d be right.

The voltage drop is equal to 12 times zero, which comes to zero volts.

Voltage Drop

When two or more loads are in series:

1. The voltage drop of each load is equal to current draw times resistance.

(E = I X R)

more loads are in series: 1. The voltage drop of each load is equal to current

Voltage Drop

2. The sum of all voltage drops equals the source voltage.

Voltage Drop 2. The sum of all voltage drops equals the source voltage.

Voltage Drop

That is, the closer you move your probe to the ground side of a circuit

Voltage Drop That is, the closer you move your probe to the ground side of a

Voltage Drop

…the lower the measured voltage will be.

Voltage Drop …the lower the measured voltage will be.

Voltage Drop

Thus in the example shown here:

Total Resistance = 6 ohms, and draw = 2 amps.

Voltage Drop Thus in the example shown here: Total Resistance = 6 ohms, and draw =

Voltage Drop

The voltage drop at the brightness control is 2 amps x 3 ohms, which equals 6 volts.

Voltage Drop The voltage drop at the brightness control is 2 amps x 3 ohms, which

Voltage Drop

Thus available voltage to the bulb is only 6 volts

Voltage Drop Thus available voltage to the bulb is only 6 volts

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula If all the resistances are equal, divide the resistance of one

If all the resistances are equal, divide the resistance of one alone by the number of resistors.

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example, 12/4 = 3 ohms resistance.

In this example,

12/4 = 3 ohms resistance.

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

If there are only two resistances, multiply their values and divide by the sum of their values.

by Formula If there are only two resistances, multiply their values and divide by the sum

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

In this example:

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example:
Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example:

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula For any three or more resistances, first find their “reciprocals,” then

For any three or more resistances, first find their “reciprocals,” then add the reciprocals together and divide the total by one.

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example:

In this example:

Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example:
Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example:

Power Sources and Grounds

Power Sources and Grounds

Power Sources

Power Sources The storage battery provides current to all electrical systems when the key is on
The storage battery provides current to all electrical systems when the key is on and
The storage
battery
provides
current to all
electrical
systems
when the key
is on and the
engine is off.

Power Sources

The generator maintains the charge in the battery after the engine is started and supplies electrical current to all electrically powered equipment.

charge in the battery after the engine is started and supplies electrical current to all electrically
charge in the battery after the engine is started and supplies electrical current to all electrically

Grounds

Case Grounds are used where the component itself is securely attached to a well-grounded part of the vehicle.

Grounds Case Grounds are used where the component itself is securely attached to a well-grounded part

Grounds

Remote Grounds are used where the component itself is not grounded

Grounds Remote Grounds are used where the component itself is not grounded

or

Grounds

where the remote ground

is used to control the

component. Examples are reversible motors (power windows, door locks) and instrument panel warning indicator lamps.

Reading Schematics

Reading Schematics
Basic Rule: The top of most schematics is usually “hot” and the bottom is usually
Basic Rule: The top
of most schematics
is usually “hot” and
the bottom is
usually “ground”.
Power is fed to the fuse Let’s start by tracing power from hot to ground
Power is fed to the fuse
Let’s start
by tracing
power from
hot to
ground
Through circuit 295
and connector C172
The male side of the
connector is C172M,
while the femaile side
is C172F.
Okay, let’s stop right
here. Where is
Connector C172?
How do you find it?
Most wiring books have a location view like this.

Most wiring books have a location view like this.

Using the numbers and letters, find C172 at A 6

Using the numbers and letters, find C172 at A 6

Notice that C172F is on the left and C172M is on the right… These are

Notice that C172F is on the left and C172M is on the right… These are mating connectors.

Find circuit 295 . What is the pin number ? What color is the wire

Find circuit 295. What is the pin number? What color is the wire? Write down both pieces of information.

Locate the wire where it passes through a connector

Locate the wire where it passes through a connector Now we not only know where C172
Now we not only know where C172 is
Now we not only
know where C172
is
…we also know what the connector pinout looks like, AND
…we also know
what the connector
pinout looks like,
AND
C172 is …we also know what the connector pinout looks like, AND …we know which pin

…we know which pin is number 34 on the connector

There are three things we should notice about this current path.

three things we should notice about this current path. #1: The truck could have either of

#1: The truck could have either of two switches, depending on whether it is equipped with a manual or automatic transmission. This is drawn as an “alternate current path.”

#2: the wires going into and out of the switch in question both pass through

#2: the wires going

into and out of

the switch in question both pass through connector C172.

#3: After the circuit passes through the switch, the circuit number changes from 295 to 140.

Find circuit number 140. What is the pin number? Write it down.

Find circuit number 140. What is the pin number? Write it down.

We know now that pins 34 and 32 are both part of the backup lamp
We know now that
pins 34 and 32 are
both part of the
backup lamp
circuit and that
either pin could be
the cause of a
problem.

With that in mind, we inspect all four pins, i.e., the MALE and FEMALE pins 34 and 32. Finding no problem, we move on

Now the circuit passes through a splice and two more connectors. The splice could be

Now the circuit passes through a

splice and two

more connectors. The splice could be a problem, but it is usually taped into the harness and can be difficult to locate. It should be examined last.

Let’s find connector C148 in our location drawing:

Let’s find connector C148 in our location drawing:

Find D10 on the grid and locate connector C148.

Find D10 on the grid and locate connector C148.

This pinout legend is slightly different. Find circuit 140 and double check the wire colo

This pinout legend is slightly different. Find circuit 140 and double check the wire color to make sure we’re still on track… Write down the pin number.

Once again, we can find the connector on the vehicle, then locate the pin in that connector so that we can check the integrity of the circuit at the connector.

Now let’s go on to find C411 the same way

Now let’s go on to find C411 the same way

Find F7 on the grid and locate connector C411.

Find F7 on the grid and locate connector C411.

The circuit number we’re looking for is still 140. Find it and write down the

The circuit number we’re looking for is still 140. Find it and write down the pin number. Once again, we can go to this connector, find the pin in question, and check the circuit.

Our last inline connector is C 403. Let’s find it on the vehicle like we

Our last inline connector is C 403. Let’s find it on the vehicle like we did the others.

Find E10 on the grid and locate connector C403.

Find E10 on the grid and locate connector C403.

The circuit number we’re looking for is still 140. Find it and write down the

The circuit number we’re looking for is still 140. Find it and write down the pin number. Once again, we can go to this connector, find the pin in question, and check the circuit. By this time we should have a pretty good idea where the problem is, if we haven’t already found it.

One more potential problem point is the ground, namely G104. Let’s locate it.

One more potential problem point is the ground, namely G104. Let’s locate it.

Find E10 on the grid and locate connector G104.

Find E10 on the grid and locate connector G104.

…but on the schematic the ground looks very close to the lamps. Distance is not

…but on the schematic the ground looks very close to the lamps. Distance is not indicated on a schematic…

Notice that the ground for the backup lamps is at the opposite end of the vehicle from the lamps…

a schematic… Notice that the ground for the backup lamps is at the opposite end of