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Chapter 3, 4, and 5 Exercise

Professional Managers: Should They Be Licensed? In most consulting firms and engineering research institutes, many (perhaps all) of the professional-level employees, managers, and senior administrators may be professional engineers or geoscientists. However, in many manufacturing companies, very few (perhaps none) of the managers may be engineers. Manufacturing companies typically have only a small group of engineers who advise senior managers, who are typically trained in business or accounting. Moreover, the managers usually recognize their first priority as being the production activities of the plantobtaining raw materials, shipping the products, and hiring and firing employeesand see engineering activities as secondary. As an engineering employee, does it make a difference to you whether your manager is a licensed engineer, with recognized credentials and subject to the Code of Ethics of the provincial Association? Explain your answer in a few sentences. Suggest at least one situation where having an engineer as manager would be critically important. Professional Licensing and Insurance Requirements 1. Should all engineers and geoscientists who offer services to the general public be required to hold (primary) liability insurance? 2. Should all engineers and geoscientists who offer services to the general public be required to satisfy experience or competence requirements that are higher than the basic requirements to be licensed as a professional engineer? 3. Consider question 2, and apply it specifically to engineers and geoscientists employed by the federal, provincial, and municipal governments. These professionals provide services to the general public, although as government employees they do not actually offer their services to the public. Since they provide services to the general public, should all government-employed engineers and geoscientists be required to satisfy experience or competence requirements that are higher than the basic requirements to be licensed as a professional engineer? 1

Privatization of Inspection Services Some governments have suggested cost-reduction measures to reduce the number of federal, provincial, and municipal engineers involved in inspection and quality-control activities. It is proposed that these duties be transferred to engineers in private practice. For example, instead of a government engineer inspecting a facility, as is frequently required by various laws, the owner of the facility would be required to hire an engineer to perform the inspection and prepare a compliance report. The government would merely perform the clerical task of ensuring that an inspection was performed, and that the facility complied with the law, as assured by the engineers report. Write a brief essay on the advantages and disadvantages of this proposal from the perspectives of cost reduction and efficiency, maintenance and enforceability of standards, availability of service, and potential for conflict of interest. Is a government-employed engineer more or less likely to enforce standards than an engineer in private practice? If possible, relate your point of view to the tragedies at Walkerton, Ontario, and the Westray mine in Nova Scotia, or to other well-known engineeringrelated problems.

Fatal Tower Collapse: Would this Happen in Canada? A fatal accident occurred in the United States during the construction of a 300 metre (1000 ft) television tower. The tower and antennae were designed by an antenna engineering company (the engineers); however, that company had no responsibility for erection of the tower. The rigging contractor (the riggers) was hired to erect the tower. The riggers had many years of experience and were considered expert in the erection of such towers, since they had erected several similar towers. However, in the final stages of construction, a problem arose: the last tower section had several antenna baskets mounted on it, and the hoisting system could not lift the tower section without damaging the baskets. Before the tower sections were fabricated, the riggers had approved the lifting lugs designed by the antenna engineers, but apparently no one had noticed that the lugs were not long enough to keep the cable clear of the baskets. The lugs were well placed for the crane to lift the final tower section from the delivery truck; however, when the section was rotated into a vertical position, the cranes lift cables touched the baskets. The riggers asked the antenna engineers for permission to remove the antenna baskets and reattach them later. The engineering company refused to agree, since removal would void the warranty on the antennae. The riggers did not have an engineer on staff; even so, they redesigned the lifting lugs to make them longer. The riggers then approached the chief engineer of the antenna engineering company and asked for an opinion on the redesigned lugs. The chief engineer declined to examine the redesigned lugs and refused to comment on them. The chief engineer was concerned that any comment or opinion might imply an assumption of liability for the redesigned lugs. The rigging contractor proceeded to construct the redesigned lugs and install them on the tower section. During the lifting operation, the bolts sheared in the redesigned lugs. The falling tower section demolished the partly constructed tower, and everything fell to the ground. Seven people on the tower, or on the ground near the tower, were killed. Since the entire lifting operation was being recorded by a television crew, the sequence of the collapse was evident, and the cause of the failure was soon found. The redesigned lugs were judged to be faulty, and the bolt strength was half what the bolt manufacturers specifications stated. Both the rigging contractor and the bolt manufacturer were sued. The antenna engineering company was not sued, but the question has been raised as to whether its chief engineer acted ethically in refusing to examine the lug redesign. (Continue next page) 3

Questions: Please answer the following questions: 1. Did the chief engineer act ethically when he refused to examine the lug redesign? In retrospect, it may seem obvious that a small effort by the chief engineer might have saved the lives of seven people. However, the contracts clearly delineated separate responsibilities for tower design and tower erection. Should an engineer be asked, at the last minute, to assume responsibility for an important task, when the erection experts are unable to do so? 2. If the chief engineer had examined the lug redesign and approved it, would he have assumed responsibility for the damage and deaths? If he had examined it and judged it as unsatisfactory, would he have been obliged to redesign it? If so, would he have been assuming responsibility for the redesign? If not, who would have redesigned it? Should the chief engineer have advised the riggers to hire an engineer? 3. Who was responsible for ensuring that the original lugs were properly designed for lifting? Was the rigging company practising engineering when it approved the original lug design?

Chapter 6, 7, and 8 Exercise

1- What is the purpose of human life? Since we are all human, we should be able to respond easily, but do not be surprised if you find that this simple, basic question is unanswerable. Is the purpose of life to ensure the survival of our species? Is it to maximize economic gain? Is it to maximize individual pleasure? If so, what kind of pleasure? Is it to ensure a balanced natural ecosystem on earth? Is it related to a higher power? Is it all of these things, or is it something different from any of these? 2- Philosophy studies and uses concepts such as truth, justice, beauty, and goodness, yet these terms are very difficult (perhaps impossible) to define. Try to define these four terms objectively, without using circular definitions, synonyms, or subjective opinions, so that your definition would be true for all cultures, for all time. Consult a dictionary and textbooks on philosophy to prepare your answer. Submit your best definitions, regardless of the difficulty in defining these well-known terms objectively. The Dilemma of Public Welfare and Free Expression All Codes of Ethics require, in some form, that the welfare of the public be paramount, or the primary responsibility of the engineer or geoscientist. Yet at the same time, many codes insist that an engineer or geoscientist refrain from expressing an opinion publicly on engineering or geoscientific matters unless certain conditions are satisfied. Obviously, protecting the public welfare may often require a person to express an opinion publicly, so these two clauses could be in conflict. Review the Code of Ethics for your jurisdiction. Does your code contain both of these clauses? Under what conditions does your code allow an engineer or geoscientist to express an opinion publicly?

The Ethics of Job Offers Assume that you are a professional engineer or professional geoscientist and that you have been employed for several years by a major corporation. Consider the following cases in which you are offered a better-paying job by a company that competes with your employer. Under which of the following circumstances would it be ethical for you to discuss and/or accept an offer of employment? (Explain your reasons, in a few sentences, for each case.) (a) You have a friend who works for the competitor, and at a social gathering he tells you about the job opportunity, simply as a friendly gesture. (b) Your friend in (a) tells you about the job opportunity because his employer has a recruitment drive underway, and your friend will receive a bonus if you are hired. (c) You are offered the job after submitting a proposal on a project for which the competitor is also bidding. If you are hired, you will be expected to implement the competitors proposal (if it is the offer selected).

Gift or Bribe? Albert Baker, P.Eng., is assistant manager of the engineering department for a large Canadian city. He has been assigned to supervise the construction of a new sewage treatment plant since he participated in designing the plant. The construction contract has been awarded, after a competitive bidding process, to the Zenith Construction Company. About ten days before construction is to begin, Baker finds a gift-wrapped case of rye whisky on his doorstep (approximate value: $600). A card attached to the box says, To an esteemed colleague. We look forward to a long and professional relationshipZenith Construction. Is it ethical for Baker to accept this gift? If possible, justify your answer using your provincial or territorial Code of Ethics.

Revising a Contract Error Assume that you are an engineer or geoscientist employed by a government agency. A contractor working under your supervision discovered a minor error in your measurements that required the contractor to supply additional materials to a project. The error is your fault, but the work was completed properly. However, to pay the contractor, a very complex set of bureaucratic contract revisions must be made, which will take time, delay repayment, and may require embarrassing explanations. However, the contractor is also carrying out a later stage of the work, so it would be possible to inflate the contractors expenses on the later work to compensate for your error. You face an ethical dilemma. Most ethical theories would say that you should admit your error and rectify it. Kant, in particular, would say that you have an obligation to tell the truth and to disclose the true reason for the payment. Conversely, a utilitarian approach would say that if the contractor is paid the right amount, the end result will be the same, and less effort will have been expended to achieve it. Obviously, more information would be useful here. Question: What additional facts or conditions might compel an ethical person to insist on the first choice (explaining your error)? What factors, if any, might permit an ethical person to select the second choice (inflating the later expenses)?

Ethical Applications of Electronic Design You are the engineering manager of a company that manufactures optical temperature-sensing equipment used in quality control. Your equipment detects hot spots in mechanical or electronic equipment while in operation and indicates where overheating problems are occurring. Your company is approached by a Mr. X, who wants you to adapt your sensing equipment to measure human skin temperature. The proposal involves measuring skin temperatures and capturing a picture (or thermograph) on a screen for electronic storage and retrieval. Mr. X makes it clear to you that all monitoring will be done secretly, from a distance, without the knowledge of the people being observed. After some discussion with the engineers in your group, you realize that the project is feasible and would most likely succeed. As an engineering manager, what ethical issues would you consider before you agreed to develop the device, assuming that Mr. X is: (a) a provincial health official, and the device is to be used to identify people suffering from fever and prevent them from entering hospitals and spreading disease? (b) a police inspector, and the device is to be used to assist lie detector (polygraph) tests of people suspected of crimes? (c) a private entrepreneur, and the device is to be used to identify people who blush easily, on the hypothesis that they could be more easily swayed to purchase products? (d) completely anonymous, wishes to pay in cash, and refuses to divulge the precise purpose of the device?

Chapter 9, 10, and 11 Exercise

Conflict of Interest: Degrees of Conflict A. Your employer has assigned you the task of hiring and supervising a temporary assistant to help a survey crew, when needed. The assistant carries equipment and clears sight lines for the surveyors in rough bush country. The work is casual and unscheduled. You regularly hire a relative who is chronically unemployed. No one is aware that the person is your relative, and you justify the hiring on availability you can call your relative at any time and offer the casual employment. When your relative is unavailable (a rare occurrence), you contact a local labour pool. You receive no payment or reward from your relative other than good will. You are a consulting engineer and own a small electronic design company. You often bid on and receive contracts for the design of new digital devices. You instruct your engineers to design the circuit boards with dimensions and features that make it easier for a local circuit-board company to manufacture. Unknown to your client or your employees, you are a director and silent partner in the circuit-board company, and your designs give the company a slight edge in bidding on the manufacture of the devices. You justify your actions on the basis that you are familiar with circuit-board companys manufacturing facilities, so the final device is more likely to meet specifications. No client or competitor has ever complained. You are the chief design engineer in a small machine design and fabrication factory. When your shop is overloaded with work (which occurs often) you hire other local machine shops to do work such as milling, gear hobbing, and NC lathe work. One of the shops is owned by a man who is engaged to your sister. Your colleagues and employer are not aware of this fact. His machine shop is one of the best, cooperation with your staff has been excellent, and his company receives the bulk of the work you let out. You do not believe you have a conflict of interest because you do not favour this person (in fact, through meeting him at family gatherings, you have grown to detest the man at a personal level). Should you have to disclose your personal feelings or your family connection when no preference has been offered or requested? 9



Pirated Software You are a professional engineer or geoscientist with your own consulting business. You have several very competent professional and auxiliary staff. Over the years, many software packages have been illegally duplicated, usually by your computer technologist, who obtained some software from a previous employer, and obtained much more from a local computer repair store. You suspect that most of this software has been copied illegally, and although you didnt ask the technologist to obtain the software, you admire his initiativethe software certainly improves the efficiency and productivity of the office. What risks are you taking by using this pirated software? What, if anything, should you do about it? Supplanting a Professional Action to supplant a colleague has always been considered unethical. Supplanting is defined as intervening in the clientengineer relationship of a colleague and, through inducements or persuasion (or derogatory comments), convincing the client to fire the engineer and hire the intruding engineer. Supplanting is specifically forbidden by several Codes of Ethics (and it is prohibited indirectly by other clauses in almost all codes).


Supplanting a Professional


A consulting engineer writes a personal note to the mayor of the municipality(who is also a personal friend), stating that a large road-paving job is being poorly done, and is poorly monitored by an overworked Municipal Engineer. The consulting engineer suggests that the mayor should convince the Municipal Engineer to hire additional engineering help. The consulting engineer does not mention himself, personally, but it is expected that he would compete for any contract that would be awarded for this task. Is this a case of supplanting? A geoscientist travelling as a passenger on a commercial airliner finds himself seated, coincidentally, next to the major shareholder of a large copper mine being developed in a foreign country. During the seven-hour flight overseas, the two passengers discuss the mines development. Although the geoscientist has little personal knowledge of the mine, it becomes clear that the mine development is being carried out very slowly, perhaps because of the geotechnical personnel, who are nationals of the foreign country. The geoscientist suggests that Canadian personnel might be able to speed the process up, and offers to visit the mine and discuss the matter with the mine manager, provided that the shareholder arranges a formal invitation. Is this a case of supplanting? A consultant is bidding on a fairly large design contract for a city building. By coincidence, the consultants daughter plays sports with the daughter of the city official who collects the bids and (with other members of the building committee) awards the contract. During a fundraising event for the daughters sports team, the consultant and the city official get into a conversation about the project. The city official mentions that bidding may be very close on the project, because a new design engineering company has recently established an office in the city. The consultant replies that the building committee would be wise to avoid the new design company because of the cost overruns, thefts, and misappropriation that occurred on their last big job. The consulting engineer is correct in the statement about cost overrunsthe new companys recent project ran grossly over budget; however, the mention of thefts and misappropriation was speculation. Is this a case of supplanting? 11



The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol asks everyone to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. If ratified, it will commit governments to meet specified reduction targets by 2010. The developing countries are dismayed at suggestions that they should spend money on energy conservation and pollution control when developed countries were not subject to these controls until recently, and even now exhibit conspicuous over consumption of resources. Questions (a) Will the Kyoto Protocol improve this situation or make this situation worse for the developing countries? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Kyoto Protocol, as seen by the developing countries versus the wealthy Western countries? If you were a professional engineer or geoscientist in a developing country, would you support the Kyoto Protocol? What energy conservation and energy tax policies would you recommend your country adopt to assist its success?


(c) As a Canadian professional engineer or geoscientist, do you support the Kyoto Protocol? What energy conservation and energy tax policies would you recommend we adopt to assist in its success?

Waste Dumping You are the chief manufacturing engineer in a large factory. During a night shift, the workers inadvertently pour several barrels of a toxic degreasing solvent compound into a drain that leads to the sanitary sewer. Who should be notified of such a spill, under the municipal and provincial laws for your jurisdiction? Would you notify anyone different (or additional) if the spill had been made directly into a local large lake or navigable river?


Lead Pollution: What Are the Harmful Effects? The Romans were excellent organizers and rulers (the Latin word ingenium evolved into the English word engineering), yet their piping systems were made of lead. In fact, the term plumbing comes from the Latin word for lead, plumbum. However, lead is a cumulative poison that builds up in the body. Investigate the theory that lead poisoning from water supply pipes played a role in the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. In particular, answer the following questions: (a) What are the harmful effects of ingesting lead? Could lead later pipes permit lead to enter the drinking water? What regulations are in place (or proposed) by the federal and provincial governments for controlling lead disposal? (b) Compare the allegation of widespread lead poisoning in Roman times with todays pollution problems. Can you see an analogy with global warming, genetic manipulation, depletion of the ozone layer, or any other current environmental issue? Explain or support your answer.


Chapter 12, .
Software Validation Chapter 12 discusses the importance of testing or validating any software that is used by engineers or geoscientists for analysis purposes. Software guidelines published by several provincial Associations state clearly that engineers are responsible for verifying that results obtained by using software are accurate and acceptable. This implies that some testing is required before the software is used for critical applications. However, shouldnt the software developer have more accountability? Consider the cases where the developer is a software engineer and the program user is not technically trained. For example, consider software developed for health care use. If a medical doctor relies on software that supplies incorrect data concerning a patient, would the medical doctor be liable? Are medical doctors required to test the software in the same way required of engineers and geoscientists? University Discipline for Computer Plagiarism You are a member of a university tribunal that investigates allegations of cheating, decides guilt, and assigns penalties. A professor has discovered that two final-year students submitted almost identical homework assignments. The professor requires homework assignments to be submitted as computer files, and compares the files for possible copying or collusion. Both of the accused students (one male, one female) have admitted that they share computer passwords, accounts, and files freely, because they live together and often use the same home computer. However, each claims to have completed the work independently, and claims that the other person then copied the work without permission. The date stamp shows that the male student submitted the work first. The female student claims that it is her work, but that she made a few minor revisions to her assignment and that during this delay, her boyfriend submitted it first. Attempts to verify the facts by checking computer records have been unsuccessful, and it is genuinely unclear who is telling the truth. However, since their stories contradict, one of the accused must be lying. At the tribunal, the professor testifies that students are warned several times every term about the universitys policy on offences such as plagiarism. A student convicted by the tribunal on a first (Continue next page) 14

academic offence is suspended from classes for one term (four months) and loses the terms tuition fees. Conviction on a second offence results in expulsion from the university. The professors position is that the students have committed two offences: plagiarism (or collusion), and failure to maintain computer security. These offences are both dishonest and unprofessional. Professionals are expected to control valuable corporate data. Keeping university computer passwords secure is good training, and the university is the professions main guardian.

Questions: As a member of the tribunal, how would you decide this case? Who is guilty, and what penalty should be assigned? Is sharing passwords, accounts, and files really an academic offence? Is submitting a duplicate file really plagiarism? Does it matter that the tribunal cannot determine which student completed the assignment and which student copied it? Is the universitys usual punishment for academic offences too lax, about right, or too severe? Would your opinion depend on the ages of the students, and on whether they were in their first year rather than their final year?

Racial Discrimination in Promotion You are a fairly senior professional engineer in a major manufacturing corporation. A younger, recently licensed engineer works with you in the plant. After a few years, an opening for advancement arises, at a level similar to yours. The younger employee asks you to support his promotion. You appreciate his hard work and agree that he should be promoted. You approach your boss with the promotion proposal, but your boss, in private, disagrees because he doesnt want to promote a person who is a visible minority. You persist, but the boss says quite clearly that he will not agree with the promotion because the other employees dont want a visible minority as their leader. You recognize that the boss is abusing his authority and discriminating on the basis of the employees race. The Code of Ethics does not explicitly forbid discrimination on the basis of race, but such discrimination is certainly prohibited by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. What should you do in this situation? Does it make any difference if your boss is also a professional engineer? 15

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Sexual harassment, as defined in Chapter 13, includes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. In other words, it means that someone is annoying you with unwelcome actions of a sexual or gender-related nature. Which of the following would be considered sexual harassment, and what action would be appropriate, in the circumstances? (a) A married co-worker touches your genital area inappropriately while offering you a ride home after work. A similar action is repeated in the workplace the following week. The co-worker is not your boss, but is someone with whom you work regularly. An older female boss makes grossly offensive jokes and remarks about mentheir activities and anatomy during work hours. You must work with her on a fairly close basis, over a period of several days, during budget preparations that occur quarterly. You find that her conduct is unprofessional and that working with her is unpleasant. A young male employee constantly spouts sexual innuendo and makes sexual requests or suggestions to you privately, but never when any witnesses can overhear. You sometimes notice him staring at you. You have told him you are not interested in him, but this seems to have no effect. An employee in the machine shop has sexually explicit posters along the full length of a private locker door in a change room. The locker is closed throughout the day, but is open at starting time and quitting time, when employees must change into protective clothing to work in an electronics room. You are offended and find the posters unprofessional.





Competence, Discipline and Safety The Act or regulations in every province and territory include incompetence as a basis for disciplinary action (such as removal of a licence to practice). The question of incompetence typically becomes apparent after an incident (a failure, accident, or similar event) in which a safety hazard causes damage or injury. Disciplinary action is too late in these case the damage has already occurred. However, very few engineering or geoscience programs include a course devoted to safety principles or accident prevention. Questions 1. Should a design engineer or geoscientist who has never taken a formal course of instruction in safety principles or accident prevention be allowed to design a hazardous structure or device? What does your provincial or territorial Code of Ethics say about competency in this case? What disciplinary action could result if an injury or death resulted from a hazardous device designed by an engineer or geoscientist who has no formal education in safety principles or accident prevention? 2. Did your course of study include accident prevention instruction? If not, how can you show that you are competent to design a hazardous product? In general, what action should you take if a design requires safety expertise beyond your present knowledge?


TrueFalse Examination Questions 1. A Professional Engineer must ensure that clients understand the full extent of his or her responsibilities. True: ____ False: ____ 2. It is voluntary, and not mandatory, for a Professional Engineer to strive to keep informed about new techniques in his or her field of endeavour. True: ____ False: ____ 3. A Professional Engineer may criticize the work of a fellow engineer publicly if he or she first advises the fellow engineer of the intention to do so. True: ____ False: ____ 4. If a person is working under the direct supervision of a Professional Engineer who assumes all responsibility, the subordinate is still required to be registered. True: ____ False: ____ 5. Unless a person is registered or licensed by the Association of Professional Engineers of any province, that person may not imply that he or she is entitled to engage in professional engineering. True: ____ False: ____ 6. As far as work is concerned, a Professional Engineers first responsibility is to the employer. True: ____ False: ____


7. A Professional Engineer may seal plans that have been prepared neither by himself or herself nor under his or her personal direction. True: ____ False: ____ 8. A Professional Engineer may be compensated by more than one interested party for the same service without the consent of all interested parties. True: ____ False: ____ 9. All specifications and reports must be sealed by the Professional Engineer who has done the work involved. True: ____ False: ____ 10. Council may ask witnesses to attend an inquiry on a discipline matter and has the power to ensure attendance. True: ____ False: ____ 11. If a member is found guilty of unprofessional conduct, the most severe penalty Council may mete out is a reprimand.

True: ____ False: ____ 12. Council may initiate an inquiry where professional misconduct is suspected, even though no written complaint has been received. True: ____ False: ____ 13. A Professional Engineer, having first advised his or her fellow engineer of the intention to do so, may accept a commission to review the work of the fellow engineer. True: ____ False: ____ 14. It is not mandatory for a Professional Engineer to report a colleague whom he or she feels is engaged in unethical practice. True: ____ False: ____


15. A Professional Engineer has no responsibility for the professional development of engineers in his or her employ. True: ____ False: ____ 16. If a Professional Engineer in charge of an assignment is overruled by his or her superior or client, the engineer should present clearly the consequences to be expected from the proposed deviations and then complete the assignment, provided that the ruling of the superior or client does not jeopardize public property, life, or the environment. True: ____ False: ____ 17. The objects of the Association are primarily to (a) ensure that the rights and interests of all engineers in the province are protected. True: ____ False: ____ (b) ensure that the public interest is served and protected through the competent and ethical practice of engineering within the province. True: ____ False: ____ 18. Registration as a full member of the Association may be granted if the following education and experience requirements are met: (a) The applicant has an accredited engineering degree and has experience that is satisfactory to Council. True: ____ False: ____ (b) The applicant has passed the examinations required by Council and has a minimum of six years of satisfactory engineering experience. True: ____ False: ____ 20


19. The practice of engineering, as defined by the Act, covers a broad range of activities. However, the following persons are considered exempt from the provisions of the Act. (a) those who were doing engineering work before the Act became law True: ____ False: ____ (b) technicians working under the direct and personal supervision of professional engineers True: ____ False: ____ (c) land surveyors, architects, electricians, and enginemen, provided they do not engage in the practice of engineering. True: ____ False: ____ (d) those who have ten or more years of good engineering experience and feel they are competent have a basic right to work as an engineer. True: ____ False: ____


20. Mr. X, a registered member of another provincial Association, is transferred to Manitoba by his company and has taken up permanent residence in Winnipeg. His new title is Chief Design Engineer for Western Canada. For the past two months he has been the sole designer of a commercial building in Manitoba. He uses his title and P.Eng. after his name on his business card. He has not become a member of the Manitoba Association. Assess the following statements: (a) Membership in the other provincial Association allows Mr. X to practise engineering in Manitoba; therefore, he does not have to become a member of APEM. True: ____ False: ____ (b) Mr. X should have applied for registration with APEM on arrival in Manitoba. True: ____ False: ____ (c) Mr. X should immediately apply for a temporary licence to practise in Manitoba. True: ____ False: ____ (d) Mr. X is in contravention of the Act since he is practising engineering and hence is liable for the penalty under the Act. True: ____ False: ____ (e) Mr. X is in contravention of the Act for using P.Eng. after his name. True: ____ False: ____