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1. (a) X, Y and Z are three elements with atomic numbers less than twenty. The following table provides some information about these elements : @ @ Gi) Ww) In which group of the Periodic Table should Z be placed ? Classify X, Y and Z as metal or non-metal, and explain your classification. X and Z can form a compound A, while Y and Z can form a compound B, (1) Draw the electronic structures of A and B, showing the outermost electrons only. (2) Explain whether A or B would have the higher melting point. (3) Explain whether X acts as an oxidizing or a reducing agent in the formation of A. Under what condition would X react with the oxide YO, ? Write an equation for this reaction. (12 marks) (b) The chart below shows two routes by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted to fertilizers that can be used by plants : Atmospheric nitrogen Ammonium compounds Fertilizers used by plants (ij) What is the natural process that can convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitric acid in Route 1? Write balanced equations to illustrate this process. (i) (1) Name the industrial process for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia in Route II, and write a balanced equation for the conversion. (2) Knowing that this process is exothermic, give TWO conditions that can theoretically give a high yield of ammonia and explain your answer. (iti) Assuming that the effectiveness of a fertilizer is directly proportional to its nitrogen content per unit mass, determine by calculation whether ammonium nitrate {NH,NO,} or urea [(NH,)2CO] is the more effective fertilizer. {Relative atomic masses : H = 1, C = 12, N= 14, O = 16) (13 marks) 2 (a) Temperature (CC) 14.80 g of a dibasic acid (H, X) were dissolved in distilled water and made up to 100.0 cm?. The acid solution was then added, 5.0 cm at a time, to 50.0 cm® of 2.0 M sodium hydroxide solution in a polystyrene cup. The resultant solution was stirred and the temperature after each addition of the acid solution was recorded until a total volume of 75.0 cm* of acid had been added. The results @ @ (ii) ) ” wi) ret 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Volume of H,X solution added (cm*) Explain why a polystyrene cup was used in this experiment. (1) What is meant by the term “dibasic acid” ? (2) Write an equation for the complete neutralization of H.X by sodium hydroxide solution. (An ionic equation will NOT be accepted.) Explain ‘the rise and fall in temperature shown in the graph. What was the maximum temperature reached in this experiment ? What volume of acid solution was required to neutralize the sodium hydroxide solution in the polystyrene cup ? Calculate the concentration (in mol dm~) of the H,X solution and hence deduce the relative molecular mass of H2X. (12 marks)