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CHAPTER 1

1.

INTRODUCTION
In this age of digital technology, every device and its operation has become

digital based. Now with digital based door lock systems, it is easier to control the door movement of the car or house. The new automated door lock system does not need a key to lock or unlock the door of the car or house. This digital door entry system is in fact controlled by cell-phone which is actually performing the role of remote over here. The keyless door remote is an electronic circuit based device. This remote transmits DTMF signals via air to another device of the system installed in the car door or house door.. The keyless car remote can be operated from any corner of the world. The working of this locking system is very simple. You just have to carry the cell phone with yourself and you can control the locks from anywhere without any problem. It works on the entry number. The owner has to press that entry number on the cell phone for controlling the locking system. The entry number is unique in nature and so is the remote device of an automatic keyless system. You can install a keyless entry system in your house as well as in your vehicle. Now, a days theft cases are increasing everywhere and the key based locking system is no longer a safe option. It is quite easy for thieves and robbers to open the traditional key based doors either with duplicate keys or some other way. Therefore for safety of your house and vehicle, this system can be installed. With this system, you will never be in tension of leaving your house and vehicle out of your supervision. Not only this ,it also help us to move out of some really odd situations like you locked the door and left and in your absence other members came back and then they have to wait outside if they were not having key with themselves.

1.1 Motivation
Keyless entry has been a luxury whose availability is confined primarily to vehicles. The cell phone security system takes this idea of keyless entry and transforms it into a convenient, versatile security system that utilizes cell phone technology and the landline telephone network. By taking advantage of caller identification and dual-tone multi-frequency signaling, the security system has the ability to introduce two-levels of security. The first level will be decoding the calling partys identification information while the second level would consist of the user attempting a password entry over the phone.. By combining the mobility of this telecommunication medium with microcontrollers, the system achieves a secure, convenient, and automated form of security for a place of residence.

1.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION


The cell phone security system is the result of a fusion of a creative idea with an attempt to motivate change. Even though modern technology has allowed for the automation of many aspects of domestic lifestyles, from automatic motion sensing lights to automatic garage door openers, home security has not seen much benefit from this revolution. Household entry has long been a very manual routine with little effort to automate the process. Entry into a residence is still primarily limited to a manual process which involves inserting a key into a bolt and physically moving the locking-mechanism

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT


The fundamental requirements for the cell phone security system remained fixed throughout the design process. The goal was to design a system which would allow the user automated and convenient access to their home security system through a telephone network. The fundamental objectives of the system include: 1. Correctly decode the DTMF signals from the user. 2. Correctly decode caller identification information from the phone line. 3. Allow the user to automatically lock the entryway. 4. Allow the user to automatically unlock the entryway. 2

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF PROJECT


The cell phone security system aims to change this. The system takes advantage of the widespread acceptance of cell phones in todays society in conjunction with the deep-rooted standards of the landline telephone network to introduce automation and convenience. The system will allow a user to use their cell phone to place a call into their home security system. Once the system verifies the caller, the caller is then allowed to attempt a password entry. Upon successfully entering a password, the system will automatically unlock the door and grant entrance. This automation introduces a form of secure, keyless entry into a residence along with the convenience of a fully responsive security system monitor. The system will primarily interface with telephony protocols which include dual tone multi frequency (DTMF), caller identification (CID), and some applicable telephony circuit standards.

1.5 ORGANIZATION OF DOCUMENTATION


In this project documentation we have initially put the definition and objective of the project as well as the design of the project which is followed by the implementation and testing phases. Finally the project has been concluded successfully and also the future enhancements of the project were given in this Documentation.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1

INTRODUCTION
Design for an automated door locks(smart key less entry), Biometric

attendance, lecture theater/hall monitor system, railway station display, Automated Parking System, gps navigation system, Circuit Encoder ARC M3EA from Artech for RF Remote Control, pic16f877 interfaced to max sonar ez1 sensor, Infrared Head phone, Microcontroller application, The first method of DTMF generation provides two PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) outputs on pins G3 and G2 of the G port for 100 ms. These two PWM outputs represent the selected high band and low band frequencies respectively, and must be combined externally with an LM324 op amp or equivalent feedback circuit to produce the DTMF signal DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency) is associated with digital telephony, and provides two selected output frequencies (one high band, one low band) for a duration of 100 ms. DTMF generation consists of selecting and combining two audio tone frequencies associated with the rows (low band frequency) and columns (high band frequency) of a push-button touch tone telephone keypad. According to the current article, DTMF was first introduced to the public at the NY World's Fair in 1964. It was, however, in full "field test" usage in multiple small towns in the US by then. Most notably, it was first used in Findlay Ohio in 1960 and then in Greensburg, PA in 1961.

WHAT IS DUAL TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY


DTMF is the global standard for audible tones that represent the digits on a phone keypad with touch-tone land-line phones, pressing a key on the dial pad generates the corresponding DTMF tone for that key. The land-line phone system can then "listen" and decode that tone to determine which key was pressed, enabling 4 dialing.

Mobile phone networks use digital signals instead of DTMF for direct dialing, but DTMF is still used over mobile phones to navigate automated systems such as phone menus, and for secondary dialing, such as using a calling card. Each DTMF "tone" is actually two tones - a low-frequency tone and a high-frequency tone combined. (Hence the name "dual tone multi-frequency".) Looking at the standard phone keypad as a grid, the low tone corresponds to the row, while the high tone corresponds to the column.

2.2 EXISTING SYSTEM


In the existing system of the project we had use the doors in lock systems keys are obsolete they are use man power open and close the doors. It requires the human energy.

2.3 DISADVANTAGES OF EXISTING SYSTEM


As mentioned above the earlier system has use the doors in lock systems keys are obsolete there are no use of the electrical devices there are use the mechanical systems. After being inspired by the mechanical door opening system in that. I mean c'mon, door locks with keys are obsolete. Everyone uses them. Theyre so old fashioned! ...The second part of this project was to build a DTMF decoder by use of mobile with the soft wares requirements.

2.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM


As the above disadvantages cant be solved with in this application has been Proposed and also the handling will be much improved than the existing system as we are implementing the special method called door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder. Here the door lock through telephone using this is control the over all door locking system there open are close the is process will take by D.C motors and LEDS that can final operate.

CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
After analyzing the requirements of the task to be performed, the next step is to analyze the problem and understand its context. The first activity in the phase is studying the existing system and other is to understand the requirements and domain of the new system. Both the methods are equally important but the first system states as a basis of giving the functional specifications and then successful design of the proposed system. Understanding the properties and requirements of a new system is more difficult and requires creative thinking as well as understanding of existing system is also difficult. Improper understanding of present system can lead diversion from solution

3.2 Hardware requirement


3.2.1 DC Motors Industrial applications use dc motors because the speed-torque relationship can be varied to almost any useful form -- for both dc motor and regeneration applications in either direction of rotation. Continuous operation of dc motors is commonly available over a speed range of 8:1. Infinite range (smooth control down to zero speed) for short durations or reduced load is also common. Dc motors are often applied where they momentarily deliver three or more times their rated torque. In emergency situations, dc motors can supply over five times rated torque without stalling (power supply permitting).

Fig. 3.2.1 DC motor Dynamic braking (dc motor-generated energy is fed to a resistor grid) or regenerative braking (dc motor-generated energy is fed back into the dc motor supply) can be obtained with dc motors on applications requiring quick stops, thus eliminating the need for, or reducing the size of, a mechanical brake. Dc motors feature a speed, which can be controlled smoothly down to zero, immediately followed by acceleration in the opposite direction -- without power circuit switching. And dc motors respond quickly to changes in control signals due to the dc motor's high ratio of torque to inertia. DC Motor types: Wound-field dc motors are usually classified by shuntwound, series-wound, and compound-wound. In addition to these, permanentmagnet and brushless dc motors are also available, normally as fractionalhorsepower dc motors. Dc motors may be further classified for intermittent or continuous duty. Continuous-duty dc motors can run without an off period. DC Motors - Speed control: There are two ways to adjust the speed of a wound-field dc motor. Combinations of the two are sometimes used to adjust the speed of a dc motor. DC Motor - Shunt-field control: Reel drives require this kind of control. The 7

dc motor's material is wound on a reel at constant linear speed and constant strip tension, regardless of diameter. Control is obtained by weakening the shunt-field current of the dc motor to increase speed and to reduce output torque for a given armature current. Since the rating of a dc motor is determined by heating, the maximum permissible armature current is approximately constant over the speed range. This means that at rated current, the dc motor's output torque varies inversely with speed, and the dc motor has constant-horsepower capability over its speed range. DC Motors - Selection: Choosing a dc motor and associated equipment for a given application requires consideration of several factors. DC Motors - Speed range: If field control is to be used, and a large speed range is required, the base speed must be proportionately lower and the motor size must be larger. If speed range is much over 3:1, armature voltage control should be considered for at least part of the range. Very wide dynamic speed range can be obtained with armature voltage control. However, below about 60% of base speed, the motor should be de-rated or used for only short periods. DC Motors - Speed variation with torque: Applications requiring constant speed at all torque demands should use a shunt-wound dc motor. If speed change with load must be minimized, a dc motor regulator, such as one employing feedback from a tachometer, must be used. When the dc motor speed must decrease as the load increases, compound or series-wound dc motors may be used. Or, a dc motor power supply with a drooping volt-ampere curve could be used with a shunt-wound dc motor. DC Motors - Reversing: This operation affects power supply and control, and may affect the dc motor's brush adjustment, if the dc motor cannot be stopped for switching before reverse operation. In this case, compound and stabilizing dc motor windings should not be used, and a suitable armature-voltage control system should supply power to the dc motor. DC Motors - Duty cycle: Direct current motors are seldom used on drives that run continuously at one speed and load. Motor size needed may be determined by either the peak torque requirement or heating. DC Motors - Peak torque: The peak torque that a dc motor delivers is limited by that load at which damaging commutation begins. Dc motor brush and commentator damage depends on sparking severity and duration. Therefore, the dc motor's peak torque depends on the duration and frequency of occurrence of the overload. Dc motor peak torque is often limited by the maximum current that the power supply can deliver. Dc motors can commutate greater loads at low speed without damage. NEMA standards specify that machines powered by dc motors must deliver at least 150% rated current for 1 min at any speed within rated range, but most dc motors do much better. 8

DC Motors - Heating: Dc motor temperature is a function of ventilation and electrical/mechanical losses in the machine. Some dc motors feature losses, such as core, shunt-field, and brush-friction losses, which are independent of load, but vary with speed and excitation. The best method to predict a given dc motor's operating temperature is to use thermal capability curves available from the dc motor manufacturer. If curves are not available, dc motor temperature can be estimated by the power-loss method. This method requires a total losses versus load curve or an efficiency curve. For each portion of the duty cycle, power loss is obtained and multiplied by the duration of that portion of the cycle. The summation of these products divided by the total cycle time gives the dc motor's average power loss. The ratio of this value to the power loss at the motor rating is multiplied by the dc motor's rated temperature rise to give the approximate temperature rise of the dc motor when operated on that duty cycle. Selecting DC motors Sizing a DC motor to accurately meet a set of requirements can be a thankless task. Having to choose between brush-type or brushless motors can complicate the selection. Even experienced designers may sometimes overlook critical motor parameters and find problems after the system is up and running. In the worst case, starting over may be the only alternative. Experts, however, use an expedient procedure to properly size and select dc motors. This procedure is based upon an accurate definition of the target system parameters and designer experience. Dc motor parameters: Fortunately, several motor parameters are the same for both brush-type and brushless dc motors. One of these is motor constant; Km. It is important but widely overlooked. It is used during motor sizing because it is a figure of merit of the motor power-to-torque ratio. Km is proportional to the ratio of peak torque, Tp, to peak power, Pp, at stall: Km = Tp / Pp. Km is also proportional to the ratio of torque sensitivity, Kt, to motor terminal resistance, Rm:Km = Kt / Rm. After the required Km has been determined, a candidate motor with this value or greater is selected from a catalog. The motor is only a candidate at this point because other factors must be determined. As the design selection progresses, some trade-offs typically take place. For example, the motor must also satisfy physical size and inertia requirements. Winding resistance is a major factor in motor selection because it seriously affects Km. Winding resistance and motor current produce power loss in the form of heat and motor temperature rise (TPR). These losses are also referred to as I2R losses and directly degrade motor efficiency.

Most motor windings are copper wire which has a positive temperature coefficient. A winding temperature rise from 25 to 155C increases wire resistance as much as 50%. Likewise, a proportional decrease in resistance occurs for temperature drops. A three-step procedure determines the value of resistance change from a specified initial power input. First, a quality factor, F, is computed from known wattage and temperature. Second, the hot-condition wattage, Wh is calculated. Third, the quality factor is used to find final temperature rise, Trf.

Quality factor is:

Where Wc = initial input power, cold, W; TPR = motor temperature rise, C/W; and Tamb = ambient temperature, C.

Hot wattage is Wh = (F)(Wc). The final temperature is Trf = (Wh)(TPR).

However, factor F is valid only over a restricted range of values for a part of the denominator, where n = Wc(TPR)/(234.5 + Tamb). If n >1, then F is negative or infinity, signifying thermal runaway that burns open the motor. But if n <1, then F is positive and the motor will stabilize at Trf or less. Core losses: Hysteresis and eddy currents in the core also make motor temperature rise. At high speeds, these losses can produce as much or more heat than I 2R losses. Core losses depend primarily on the motor design. Design factors affecting those losses include lamination thickness, flux densities in the armature, and frequencies generated in the core that depend upon the number of poles and speed. Catalog specifications may not include core loss data, so designers must measure it by testing several sample motors. The data may also be available directly from the motor manufacturer. Ambient temperature is the third most important factor determining motor temperature rise. A motor having a winding temperature rating of 155C and operating in an ambient temperature of 100C has only a 55C allowable temperature rise. Core losses and I2R losses quickly cut the 55C margin under load. An ideal room ambient temperature of 25C, by comparison, allows a 130C temperature rise. Use of heat sinks and air or fluid cooling moderates the temperature rise value considerably. The TPR rating of the motor per watt of input power, C/W, is usually in the catalog or data sheet for unmounted motors. The TPR for the same motor, but mounted, TPR can be 25% of the unmounted value. A conservative designer could ignore the reduced TPR in his calculations. But he would specify a motor much larger and more expensive than necessary. Magnet properties: Dc motors use a variety of permanent-magnet materials. Early designs employed ceramic or ferrite and AlNiCo magnets. These materials 10

are still widely applied, however, in automobiles and other areas where low cost as well as reliability is important. Newer designs use rare-earth samarium-cobalt and neodymium magnets. Most magnets have stable magnetic properties within the normal operating temperature range of the motor. But some magnets have a higher temperature coefficient than others. High temperature-coefficient magnets may become too weak if operated at high temperatures for extended periods. Depending on the magnetic material and slope of the motor's magnetic circuit, torque degradation may result over a wide temperature range. Ceramic or ferrite magnets lose about 0.13% / C of their remanence above 25C, while rare earth and AlNiCo may lose only 0.03% / C. But this loss is generally reversible if the temperature is kept within the motor rating. Colder temperatures are seldom a problem. Since the coefficient curve is linear, magnets are stronger at lower temperatures. Some grades of rare-earth magnets are more sensitive to temperature than others. Magnets in the neodymium family may have irreversible magnetic losses under wide temperature changes. These magnets have the highest maximumenergy product (MEP), a figure of merit, of any commercial magnet now available. High MEP comes at a premium and should not be lost to temperature extremes. Neodymium magnets are continually being improved with lower temperature coefficients to make them as stable as other rare-earth grades. Peak loads applied to AlNiCo and ceramic dc motors can degrade their magnetic properties. AlNiCo motors have a peak current rating which usually corresponds to a point above the knee of the B/H curve. Current exceeding this rating, caused by either a current spike or a constant dc input, are over the knee and cause permanent demagnetization. A demagnetized AlNiCo motor may only provide 50 to 60% of its original torque. Fortunately, rare-earth magnets are not as sensitive to demagnetization as AlNiCo and ceramic. Motor sizing: Motor sizing takes into account all the above motor parameters and specifications. Also, the motor inertia and load must be defined for both transient and steady-state conditions. This inertia is critical since torque during acceleration exceeds torque at constant speed. Two examples explain the sizing of dc motors for typical applications. The first example considers the selection and sizing of a brush-type dc motor. The second concerns a sterile outer-space environment requiring a brushless dc motor.

3.2.2 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)


LED's are special diodes that emit light when connected in a circuit. They are frequently used as "pilot" lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the circuit is closed or not. As a clear (or often colored) epoxy case enclosed the heart of an LED, the semi-conductor chip.

Fig. 3.2.2.1: SYMBOL OF LED 11

Fig. 3.2.2.2: CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF LED

Working The most important part of a light emitting diode (LED) is the semiconductor chip located in the center of the bulb as shown. The chip has two regions separated by a junction. The p region is dominated by positive electric charges, and the n region is dominated by negative electric charges. The junction acts as a barrier to the flow of electrons between the p and the n regions. Only when sufficient voltage is applied to the semi-conductor chip, can the current flow and the electrons cross the junction into the p region.

Fig. 3.2.2.3 Semi conductor Chip In the absence of a large enough electric potential difference (voltage) across the LED leads, the junction presents an electric potential barrier to the flow of 12

electrons. When sufficient voltage is applied to the chip across the leads of the LED, electrons can move easily in only one direction across the junction between the p and n regions. In the p region there are many more positive than negative charges. In the n region the electrons are more numerous than the positive electric charges. When a voltage is applied and the current starts to flow, electrons in the n region have sufficient energy to move across the junction into the p region. Once in the p region the electrons are immediately attracted to the positive charges due to the mutual Coulomb forces of attraction between opposite electric charges. When an electron moves sufficiently close to a positive charge in the P region, the two charges "re-combine. Each time an electron recombines with a positive charge; electric potential energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. For each recombination of a negative and a positive charge, a quantum of electromagnetic energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with a frequency characteristic of the semi-conductor material (usually a combination of the chemical elements gallium, arsenic and phosphorus). Only photons in a very narrow frequency range can be emitted by any material.

Color of L.E.D
LED's that emit different colors are made of different semi-conductor materials, and require different energies to light them.

Fig 3.2.2.4 color of L.E.D The color of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, not by the coloring of the 'package' (the plastic body). LEDs of all colors are available in uncolored packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 13

'water clear'). The colored packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent.

3.2.3 POWER SUPPLY UNIT BLOCK DIAGRAM


Step Down Transformer Bridge Rectifier Positive Charge Capacitor Positive Voltage Regulator IC 7805

LPF

Fig 3.2.3.1 Block diagram As we all know any invention of latest technology cannot be activated without the source of power. So it this fast moving world we deliberately need a proper power source which will be apt for a particular requirement. All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel ICs only work with a DC supply ranging from _+5v to _+12. we are utilizing for the same, the most cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230v-50Hz and stepping down , rectifying, filtering and regulating the voltage. This will be dealt briefly in the forth-coming sections. STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer it can either be stepped down or up depending on the value of DC needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230v/15-0-15v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V AC across the secondary winding . One alteration of input causes the top of the transformer to be positive and the bottom negative. The next alteration will temporarily cause the reverse. The current rating of the transformer used in our project is 2A. Apart from stepping down AC voltages , it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries. BRIDGE RECTIFIER In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a solid state diode. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily in one direction at proper biasing condition . As AC is applied to the diode, electrons only flow when the anode and cathode is negative. Reversing the polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow. For a positive cycle, two diodes are connected to the positive voltage at the top winding and only one diode conducts . At the same time one of the other two 14

diodes conducts for the negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward bias for that diode. In this circuit due to positive half cycleD1 & D2 will conduct to give 10.8v pulsating DC. The DC output has a ripple frequency of 100Hz. Since each altercation produces a resulting output pulse, frequency = 2*50 Hz. The output obtained is not a pure DC and therefore filtration has to be done. VOLTAGE REGULATORS The voltage regulators play an important role in any power supply unit. The primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter circuit in providing a constant DC voltage to the device. Power supplies without regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC liner voltage. With a regulator connected to the DC output, the voltage can be maintained within a close tolerant region of the desired output. IC7812 and 7912 is used in this project for providing +12v and 12v DC supply.

3.2.4 MICROCONTROLLER
The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit

microcomputer with 8k bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM)The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile 11Memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and Pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer .By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. Features The AT89C52 provides the following standard features 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory 128 bytes of Internal RAM (128 x 8-bit) 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters Five vector two-level interrupt architecture A full duplex serial port Three-level Program Memory Lock Six Interrupt Sources 15

On-chip oscillator and clock circuit

PIN DIAGRAM

. Fig. 3.2.4.1 89c52 Microcontroller

Pin Description
VCC: Supply voltage. GND: Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. 16

The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups.

The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs .As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to externaldata16-bitaddresses (MOVX@DPTR).Inthisapplication,itusesstrongmemoryuses pullupswhenemitting1s.Duringaccessestoexternaldatamemorythatuses8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI); Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port internal

3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups .Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below:

17

Port Pin P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7

Alternate Functions RXD (serial input port) TXD (serial output port) INT0 (external interrupt 0) INT1 (external interrupt 1) T0 (timer 0 external input) T1 (timer 1 external input) WR (external data memory Write strobe) RD (external data memory read strobe) Fig 3.2.4.2 Table of 89c52

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALEdisable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.
PE SN

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, twice each machine cycle, except that two each access to external data memory.
E A
P E SN

P E SN

is activated

activations are skipped during

/VPP

External Access Enable must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to 18

FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, latched on reset.


E A

E A

will be internally

should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions.

Oscillator Characteristics XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

OSCILLATOR CONNECTIONS

Fig 3.2.4.3 oscillator connections

At89c51: Types of Memory


The 89c51 has three very general types of memory The memory types are On-Chip Memory, External Code Memory, and External RAM 19

Fig 3.2.4.4 Types of memory On-Chip Memory refers to any memory (Code, RAM, or other) that physically exists on the microcontroller itself. On-chip memory can be of several types, but we'll get into that shortly. External Code Memory is code (or program) memory that resides off-chip. This is often in the form of an external EPROM. External RAM is RAM memory that resides off-chip. This is often in the form of standard static RAM or flash RAM.
Code Memory:

Code memory is the memory that holds the actual 89c51 program that is to be run. This memory is limited to 64K and comes in many shapes and sizes: Code memory may be found on-chip, either burned into the microcontroller as ROM or EPROM. Code may also be stored completely off-chip in an external ROM or, more commonly, an external EPROM. Flash RAM is also another popular method of storing a program. Various combinations of these memory types may also be 20

used--that is to say, it is possible to have 4K of code memory on-chip and 64k of code memory off-chip in an EPROM .When the program is stored on-chip the 64K maximum is often reduced to 4k, 8k, or 16k. This varies depending on the version of the chip that is being used. External RAM: As an obvious opposite of Internal RAM, the 89c51 also supports what is called External RAM. As the name suggests, External RAM is any random access memory which is found off-chip. Since the memory is off-chip it is not as flexible in terms of accessing, and is also slower. For example, to increment an Internal RAM location by 1 requires only 1 instruction and 1 instruction cycle. To increment a 1-byte value stored in External RAM requires 4 instructions and 7 instruction cycles. In this case, external memory is 7 times slower .What External RAM loses in speed and flexibility it gains in quantity. While Internal RAM is limited to 128 bytes (256 bytes with an 8052), the 89c51 supports External RAM up to 64K. On-Chip Memory As mentioned, the 89c51 includes a certain amount of on-chip memory. On-chip memory is really one of two types: Internal RAM and Special Function Register (SFR) memory. The layout of the 89c51's internal memory is presented in the following memory map..

21

Fig 3.2.4.5 on chip memory As is illustrated in above map, the 89c51 has a bank of 128 bytes of Internal RAM. This Internal RAM is found on-chip on the 89c51 so it is the fastest RAM available, and it is also the most flexible in terms of reading, writing, and modifying its contents. Internal RAM is volatile, so when the 89c51 is reset this memory is cleared.

Register Banks The 89c51 uses 8 "R" registers which are used in many of its instructions. These "R" registers are numbered from 0 through 7 (R0, R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, and R7). These registers are generally used to assist in manipulating values and moving data from one memory location to another the Accumulator. Thus if the Accumulator (A) contained the value 6 and R4 contained the value 3, the Accumulator would contain the value 9 after this instruction was executed. However, as the memory map shows, the "R" Register R4 is really part of Internal RAM. Specifically, R4 is address 04h. This can be see in the bright green section of the memory map. But, the 89c51 has four distinct register banks. When the 89c51 is first booted up, register bank 0 (addresses 00h through 07h) is used by 22

default. However, your program may instruct the 89c51 to use one of the alternate register banks; i.e., register banks 1, 2, or 3. In this case, R4 will no longer be the same as Internal RAM address 04h. For example, if your program instructs the 89c51 to use register bank 3, "R" register R4 will now be synonymous with Internal RAM address 1Ch. The concept of register banks adds a great level of flexibility to the 89c51, especially when dealing with interrupts (we'll talk about interrupts later). However, always remember that the register banks really reside in the first 32 bytes of Internal RAM. BIT MEMORY The 89c51, being a communications-oriented microcontroller, gives the user the ability to access a number of bit variables. These variables may be either 1 or 0. There are 128 bit variables available to the user, numbed 00h through 7Fh. The user may make use of these variables with commands such as SETB and CLR. For example, to set bit number 24 (hex) to 1 you would execute the instruction: SETB 24h It is important to note that Bit Memory is really a part of Internal RAM. In fact, the 128 bit variables occupy the 16 bytes of Internal RAM from 20h through 2Fh. Thus, if you write the value FFh to Internal RAM address 20h youve effectively set bits 00h through 07h. Bit variables 00h through 7Fh are for user-defined functions in their programs. However, bit variables 80h and above are actually used to access certain SFRs on a bit-by-bit basis.

89c51: Basic Registers


The Accumulator The Accumulator, as its name suggests, is used as a general register to accumulate the results of a large number of instructions. It can hold an 8-bit (1byte) value and is the most versatile register the 89c51 has due to the shear number of instructions that make use of the accumulator. More than half of the 89c51s 255 instructions manipulate or use the accumulator in some way.

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The "R" registers: The "R" registers are a set of eight registers that are named R0, R1, etc. up to and including R7.These registers are used as auxillary registers in many operations. To continue with the above example, perhaps you are adding 10 and 20. The original number 10 may be stored in the Accumulator whereas the value 20 may be stored in, say, register R4. To process the addition you would execute the command The "B" Register: The "B" register is very similar to the Accumulator in the sense that it may hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value. The "B" register is only used by two 89c51 instructions: MUL AB and DIV AB. Thus, if you want to quickly and easily multiply or divide A by another number, you may store the other number in "B" and make use of these two instructions .Aside from the MUL and DIV instructions, the "B" register is often used as yet another temporary storage register much like a ninth "R" register. The Data Pointer (DPTR): The Data Pointer (DPTR) is the 89c51s only user-accessible 16-bit (2byte) register. The Accumulator, "R" registers, and "B" register are all 1-byte values. DPTR, as the name suggests, is used to point to data. It is used by a number of commands which allow the 89c51 to access external memory. When the 89c51 accesses external memory it will access external memory at the address indicated by DPTR. While DPTR is most often used to point to data in external memory, many programmers often take advantage of the fact that its the only true 16register available. It is often used to store 2-byte values which have nothing to do with memory locations. The Program Counter (PC) The Program Counter (PC) is a 2-byte address which tells the 89c51 where the next instruction to execute is found in memory. When the 89c51 is initialized PC always starts at 0000h and is incremented each time an instruction is 24

executed. It is important to note that PC isnt always incremented by one. Since some instructions require 2 or 3 bytes the PC will be incremented by 2 or 3 in these cases The Stack Pointer (SP) The Stack Pointer, like all registers except DPTR and PC, may hold an 8-bit (1-byte) value. The Stack Pointer is used to indicate where the next value to be removed from the stack should be taken from.

3.3 Software Requirement Specification


One core strength of the Sensor Integration Group is the common software product, Multi-Input Data Acquisition System (MIDAS), which can simultaneously communicate with each interface. The software leverages the symmetric multi-processor capabilities and is highly multithreaded -- thus capable of handling several I/O and processing tasks simultaneously. Multiple tasks can run independent of one another or coordinate for increased acquisition capacity or parallel operations. The software can be synchronized across multiple servers for additional capacity or remote acquisition capabilities. MIDAS is supported under both the Windows and Linux platforms. The PC Test Set 2000 is an engineering software tool for the Windows platform designed to acquire and process multi-channel data and provide display and analysis tools. Designed for use in conjunction with acoustic sonar systems, the PC Test Set acquires raw data from a telemetry source and transforms it into the time, spectral, or spatial domains. The data is calibrated and displayed for the user who can use the built-in tools to analyze the data. In addition, the PC Test Set has automated tools to inform technicians of the health of the sonar system.

3.3.1 User Requirements


This Multi channel system build with the use of embedded system it often runs with limited computer hardware resources such as small or no keyboard, 25

screen, and little memory. Simple embedded devices use buttons, LEDs, and small character- or digit only displays, often with a simple menu system. The rise of the World Wide Web has given embedded designers another quite Different option: providing a web page interface over a network connection. This Avoids the cost of a sophisticated display, yet provides complex input and display Capabilities when needed, on another computer. This is successful for remote, Permanently installed equipment. In particular, routers take advantage of this ability. Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as: Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc. Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, JTAG, SPI, SSC and ESSI Universal Serial Bus (USB) Networks: Controller Area Network, Lon Works, etc Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Unit.

3.3 Software requirements Overview of KEIL CROSS C COMPILER


It is possible to create the source files in a text editor such as Notepad, run the Compiler on each C source file, specifying a list of controls, run the Assembler on each Assembler source file, specifying another list of controls, run either the Library Manager or Linker (again specifying a list of controls) and finally running the Object-HEX Converter to convert the Linker output file to an Intel Hex File. Once that has been completed the Hex File can be downloaded to the target hardware and debugged. Alternatively KEIL can be used to create source files; automatically compile, link and covert using options set with an easy to use user interface and finally simulate or perform debugging on the hardware with access to C variables and memory. Unless you have to use the tolls on the command line, the choice is clear. KEIL Greatly simplifies the process of creating and testing an embedded application.

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1. Click on the Keil uVision Icon on Desktop 2. The following fig will appear. 3. Click on the Project menu from the title bar 4. Then Click on New Project 5. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own
folder sited in either C:\ or D:\

6. Then Click on save button above. 7. Select the component for u r project. i.e. Atmel. 8. Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel

9. Select AT89C51 10. Then Click on OK 11. The Following fig will appear 12. Then Click either YES or NOmostly NO
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13. Now your project is ready to USE 14. Now double click on the Target1, you would get another option Source group
1

15. Click on the file option from menu bar and select new 16. The next screen will be as shown in next page, and just maximize it by double
Clicking on its blue boarder.

17. Now start writing program in either in C or ASM 18. For a program written in Assembly, then save it with extension . asm and
for C based program save it with extension .C

19. Now right click on Source group 1 and click on Add files to Group Source

20. Now you will get another window, on which by default C files will appear. 21. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file 22. Click only one time on option ADD 23. Now Press function key F7 to compile. Any error will appear if so happen.

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24. If the file contains no error, then press Control+F5 simultaneously. 25. The new window is as follows 26. Then Click OK 27. Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar, and check your required port. 28. Drag the port a side and click in the program file. 29. Now keep Pressing function key F11 slowly and observe. 30. You are running your program successfully.
A project contains enough information to take a set of source files and generate exactly the binary code required for the application. Because of the high degree of flexibility required from the tools, there are many options that can be set to configure the tools to operate in a specific manner. It would be tedious to have to set these options up every time the application is being built; therefore they are stored in a project file. Loading the project file into KEIL informs KEIL which source files are required, where they are, and how to configure the tools in the correct way. KEIL can 29

then execute each tool with the correct options. It is also possible to create new projects in KEIL. Source files are added to the project and the tool options are set as required. The project can then be saved to preserve the settings. The project also stores such things as which windows were left open in the simulator/debugger, so when a project is reloaded and the simulator or debugger started, all the desired windows are opened. KEIL project files have the extension.

Simulator/Debugger:
The simulator/ debugger in KEIL can perform a very detailed simulation of a micro controller along with external signals. It is possible to view the precise execution time of a single assembly instruction, or a single line of C code, all the way up to the entire application, simply by entering the crystal frequency. A window can be opened for each peripheral on the device, showing the state of the peripheral. This enables quick trouble shooting of mis-configured peripherals. Breakpoints may be set on either assembly instructions or lines of C code, and execution may be stepped through one instruction or C line at a time. The contents of all the memory areas may be viewed along with ability to find specific variables. In addition the registers may be viewed allowing a detailed view of what the microcontroller is doing at any point in time. The Keil Software 8051 development tools listed below are the programs you use to compile your C code, assemble your assembler source files, link your program together, create HEX files, and debug your target program.Vision2 for Windows Integrated Development Environment: combines Project Management, Source Code Editing, and Program Debugging in one powerful environment. C51 ANSI Optimizing A51 Macro C Cross Compiler: creates relocatable object modules from your C source code, source code, assembler into the final absolute object module, 30 LIB51 Library BL51 Linker/Locator: combines relocatable object modules created by the compiler and Assembler: creates relocatable object modules from your 8051 assembler

Manager: combines object modules into a library, which may be used by the linker, OH51 Object-HEX Converter: creates Intel HEX files from absolute object modules.

CHAPTER 4 4. DESIGN
4.1 INTRODUCTION
this project, we propose door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder system that is Supposed to replace existing hardware and door key systems. The Proposed system is advanced.

4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Mobile

8051 Micro controller Power Crystal circuit Supply

ULN Driver

Crystal oscillator

Stepper motor

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Fig. 4.2: BLOCK DIAGRAM

4.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION


In the figure shows the block diagram of the door lock through telephone using DTMF decoder .In this diagram it consist of 8051 micro controller ,mobile, crystal circuit, ULN driver, and stepper motor. When we call to the mobile which is connected to the microcontroller its automatically receives the call from another mobile. At the time of call going on if we press the button 2 on other mobile which we called, it transfer the command to the microcontroller as door close then the uln drive increases the power from 5v to 50v that time motor will rotate and the motor automatically closes the door. It is useful if we are forgetting to lock the door in hurry we may close it by using mobile. At the same time if we press 3 on other mobile the motor will rotate one more time then the door will automatically open.

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4.4 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

Fig 4.4 Schematic diagram The above fig shows the schematic diagram of door lock through mobile phone using DTMF decoder. In port1 P1.5, P1.7 is connected for mobile. And in port2 P2.0 to P2.6 is connected for ULN driver. From ULN driver one DC Motor is connected. This DC motor is in contact with the door for automatically closing that door. The power for motor to work will come from the ULN driver which is connected to the microcontroller in the ports of P2.0 to P2.6 and 40th pin Vcc. The power supply which is regulated as 5v DC from 230v AC is connected to the microcontroller in 20th pin as ground and 40th pin as Vcc.

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CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS


5.1 INTRODUCTION
The implementation part is the most important phase of the project. In this phase, we code the entire project in the chosen software according to the design laid during the previous phase. The code has to be in such a way that the door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder requirements are satisfied and also not complicated for the transition i.e., the door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder compiling and processing at the controller is made by this code. The code should be efficient for dump to the controller. In this manner, we can dump this code to the controller by using Flash jet.

5.2 IMPLEMENTAION
The door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder is implemented by using microcontroller of 8051. The Embedded C code for this door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder will dump to this microcontroller by using keil software.

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Fig 5.2 Dumping of program

5.3 RESULTS
The testing of implemented circuit about the by use of the door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder is implemented the was D.C motor will rest state the hade set will connect to GSM as shown in below figures.

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Fig. 5.3.1: Door Lock through Telephone Using DTMF Decoder The above diagram shows the cell phone is GSM the is given to power supply and 250v and to 9v D.C power supply and also to connect to D.C motor to operation was will be done .

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Fig 5.3.2 Out Put of Door Lock through Telephone Using Dtmf Decoder The output of the GSM is operate then call that mobile to an other mobile so that call activated and press the 1 button and D.C motor will rotate start then press 2 button the D.C motor will be stopped.

CHAPTER 6
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CONCLUSION
We can also extend this project The implementation of door lock through telephone using dtmf decoder is implemented is done successfully. The communication is properly done without any interference between different modules in the design. Design is done to meet all the specifications and requirements. Software tools like Keil Uvision Simulator, Proload to dump the source code into the microcontroller, Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram have been used to develop the software code before realizing the hardware. Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. The performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design. The total circuit is completely verified functionally and is following the application software. It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability, flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption to counting purpose by making some changes in the Hardware module By using this circuit and proper power supply we can implement various applications Such as fans, door locking systems, etc. By modifying this circuit and using two relays we can achieve a task of opening and closing the door. We can also extend this project to counting purpose by making some changes in the Hardware module

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REFERENCES 1. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Rolin D.McKinla


The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems Using Assembly and C, Pearson Education Inc.., 2006, Second Edition.

2. Kenneth J.Ayala; The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming, and


Application; West Publishing Company, USA ,1991

3. B.Ram ; Computer Fundamentals Architecture and Organization ; New Age


International (P) Ltd., Publishers @2000, Third Edition

4. Horn, Delton T. ; Electronic Components A Complete Reference For Project


Builders ; McGraw-Hill/Tab Electronics @1991

5. E Balagurusamy ; Programming In ANSI C ; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing


Company Ltd@2008,Fourth Edition

REFERENCES ON THE WEB


http://www.google.com http://books.google.com http://www.atmel.com http://www.8051projects.net http://www.ijens.org

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