1 Introduction
2 Fundamentals of Protection Practice
3 Fundamental Theory
4 Fault Calculations
5 Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
6 Current and Voltage Transformers
7 Relay Technology
8 Protection: Signalling and Intertripping
9 Overcurrent Protection for Phase and Earth Faults
10 Unit Protection of Feeders
11 Distance Protection
12 Distance Protection Schemes
13 Protection of Complex Transmission Circuits
14 AutoReclosing
15 Busbar Protection
16 Transformer and TransformerFeeder Protection
17 Generator and GeneratorTransformer Protection
18 Industrial and Commercial Power System Protection
19 A.C. Motor Protection
20 Protection of A.C. Electrified Railways
21 Relay Testing and Commissioning
22 Power System Measurements
23 Power Quality
24 Substation Control and Automation
25 Distribution System Automation
Appendix 1 Terminology
Appendix 2 ANSI/IEC Relay Symbols
Appendix 3 Application Tables
Chap2415 21/06/02 10:42 Page 4
• 2 • Fundamentals
of Protection Practice
Introduction 2.1
Reliability 2.4
Selectivity 2.5
Stability 2.6
Speed 2.7
Sensitivity 2.8
• 2 • Fundamentals
of P rotection P ractice
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate
and supply electrical energy to consumers. The system
should be designed and managed to deliver this energy
to the utilisation points with both reliability and
economy. Severe disruption to the normal routine of
modern society is likely if power outages are frequent or
prolonged, placing an increasing emphasis on reliability
and security of supply. As the requirements of reliability
and economy are largely opposed, power system design
is inevitably a compromise.
A power system comprises many diverse items of
equipment. Figure 2.2 shows a hypothetical power
system; this and Figure 2.1 illustrates the diversity of
equipment that is found.
T1 T2
380kV A
L2 L1A
L1B
380kV C 380kV B
Fundamentals of P rotection P ractice
L3 L4
T5 T6 T3 T4
T10 T11 T7 T8 T9
L7A
220kV D 380kV E
T14
L6
• 2•
Grid 380kV G
L7B substation L5
F
T15
T16 T17
T12 T13
L8
e 2.
Figure 2.2: Example power system
Figur
2 . 2 P R OT E C T I O N E Q U I P M E N T
The definitions that follow are generally used in relation
2 . 3 Z O N E S O F P R OT E C T I O N Feeder
ed
protection
To limit the extent of the power system that is (b) CT's on circuit side of circuit breaker
Fundamentals of P rotection P ractice
• 2• Zone 4
~
Zone 5 Zone 7
For practical physical and economic reasons, this ideal is Alternatively, the zone may be unrestricted; the start will
not always achieved, accommodation for current be defined but the extent (or ‘reach’) will depend on
transformers being in some cases available only on one measurement of the system quantities and will therefore
side of the circuit breakers, as in Figure 2.6(b). This be subject to variation, owing to changes in system
leaves a section between the current transformers and conditions and measurement errors.
as an incident and only those that are cleared by the 2.5.1 Time Grading
tripping of the correct circuit breakers are classed as
Protection systems in successive zones are arranged to
'correct'. The percentage of correct clearances can then
operate in times that are graded through the sequence of
be determined.
equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault,
This principle of assessment gives an accurate evaluation although a number of protection equipments respond,
of the protection of the system as a whole, but it is only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the
severe in its judgement of relay performance. Many tripping function. The others make incomplete
relays are called into operation for each system fault, operations and then reset. The speed of response will
and all must behave correctly for a correct clearance to often depend on the severity of the fault, and will
be recorded. generally be slower than for a unit system.
Complete reliability is unlikely ever to be achieved by
further improvements in construction. If the level of
2.5.2 Unit Systems
reliability achieved by a single device is not acceptable,
improvement can be achieved through redundancy, e.g. It is possible to design protection systems that respond
duplication of equipment. Two complete, independent, only to fault conditions occurring within a clearly
main protection systems are provided, and arranged so defined zone. This type of protection system is known as
that either by itself can carry out the required function. 'unit protection'. Certain types of unit protection are
Fundamentals of P rotection P ractice
If the probability of each equipment failing is x/unit, the known by specific names, e.g. restricted earth fault and
resultant probability of both equipments failing differential protection. Unit protection can be applied
simultaneously, allowing for redundancy, is x2. Where x throughout a power system and, since it does not involve
is small the resultant risk (x2) may be negligible. time grading, is relatively fast in operation. The speed of
response is substantially independent of fault severity.
Where multiple protection systems are used, the tripping
signal can be provided in a number of different ways. Unit protection usually involves comparison of quantities
The two most common methods are: at the boundaries of the protected zone as defined by the
locations of the current transformers. This comparison
a. all protection systems must operate for a tripping
may be achieved by direct hardwired connections or
operation to occur (e.g. ‘twooutoftwo’
may be achieved via a communications link. However
arrangement)
certain protection systems derive their 'restricted'
b. only one protection system need operate to cause property from the configuration of the power system and
a trip (e.g. ‘oneoutof two’ arrangement) may be classed as unit protection, e.g. earth fault
protection applied to the high voltage delta winding of a
The former method guards against maloperation while
power transformer. Whichever method is used, it must
the latter guards against failure to operate due to an
be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of
unrevealed fault in a protection system. Rarely, three
relay design. It also depends on the correct co
main protection systems are provided, configured in a
ordination of current transformers and relays with a
‘twooutof three’ tripping arrangement, to provide both
suitable choice of relay settings, taking into account the
reliability of tripping, and security against unwanted
possible range of such variables as fault currents,
tripping.
maximum load current, system impedances and other
• 2• It has long been the practice to apply duplicate related factors, where appropriate.
protection systems to busbars, both being required to
operate to complete a tripping operation. Loss of a
busbar may cause widespread loss of supply, which is 2 . 6 S TA B I L I T Y
clearly undesirable. In other cases, important circuits are The term ‘stability’ is usually associated with unit
provided with duplicate main protection systems, either protection schemes and refers to the ability of the
being able to trip independently. On critical circuits, use protection system to remain unaffected by conditions
may also be made of a digital fault simulator to model external to the protected zone, for example through load
the relevant section of the power system and check the current and external fault conditions.
performance of the relays used.
2.7 SPEED
2.5 SELECTIVITY The function of protection systems is to isolate faults on
When a fault occurs, the protection scheme is required the power system as rapidly as possible. The main
to trip only those circuit breakers whose operation is objective is to safeguard continuity of supply by
required to isolate the fault. This property of selective removing each disturbance before it leads to widespread
tripping is also called 'discrimination' and is achieved by loss of synchronism and consequent collapse of the
two general methods. power system.
common current transformers that would have to be The majority of protection relay elements have selfreset
larger because of the combined burden. This practice contact systems, which, if so desired, can be modified to
is becoming less common when digital or numerical provide hand reset output contacts by the use of
relays are used, because of the extremely low input auxiliary elements. Hand or electrically reset relays are
burden of these relay types used when it is necessary to maintain a signal or lockout
b. voltage transformers are not duplicated because of condition. Contacts are shown on diagrams in the
cost and space considerations. Each protection relay position corresponding to the unoperated or de
supply is separately protected (fuse or MCB) and energised condition, regardless of the continuous service
continuously supervised to ensure security of the VT condition of the equipment. For example, an
output. An alarm is given on failure of the supply and, undervoltage relay, which is continually energised in
where appropriate, prevent an unwanted operation of normal circumstances, would still be shown in the de
the protection energised condition.
c. trip supplies to the two protections should be A 'make' contact is one that closes when the relay picks
separately protected (fuse or MCB). Duplication of up, whereas a 'break' contact is one that is closed when
tripping batteries and of circuit breaker tripping coils the relay is deenergised and opens when the relay picks
may be provided. Trip circuits should be continuously up. Examples of these conventions and variations are
supervised shown in Figure 2.9.
Fundamentals of P rotection P ractice
d. it is desirable that the main and backup protections (or Self reset
duplicate main protections) should operate on different
principles, so that unusual events that may cause
failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other Hand reset
Digital and numerical relays may incorporate suitable `make' contacts `break' contacts
(normally open) (normally open)
backup protection functions (e.g. a distance relay may
also incorporate timedelayed overcurrent protection
elements as well). A reduction in the hardware required to
provide backup protection is obtained, but at the risk that Time delay on Time delay on
a common relay element failure (e.g. the power supply) pick up dropoff
will result in simultaneous loss of both main and backup
Figure 2.9: Contact types
protection. The acceptability of this situation must be
evaluated on a casebycase basis.
A protection relay is usually required to trip a circuit
2 . 10 R E L AY O U T P U T D E V I C E S breaker, the tripping mechanism of which may be a
solenoid with a plunger acting directly on the
In order to perform their intended function, relays must be mechanism latch or an electrically operated valve. The
fitted with some means of providing the various output power required by the trip coil of the circuit breaker may
signals required. Contacts of various types usually fulfil range from up to 50 watts for a small 'distribution'
this function. circuit breaker, to 3000 watts for a large, extrahigh
• 2• voltage circuit breaker.
2.10.1 Contact Systems The relay may therefore energise the tripping coil
directly, or, according to the coil rating and the number
Relays may be fitted with a variety of contact systems of circuits to be energised, may do so through the
for providing electrical outputs for tripping and remote agency of another multicontact auxiliary relay.
indication purposes. The most common types
encountered are as follows: The basic trip circuit is simple, being made up of a hand
trip control switch and the contacts of the protection
a. Selfreset relays in parallel to energise the trip coil from a battery,
The contacts remain in the operated condition only through a normally open auxiliary switch operated by
while the controlling quantity is applied, returning the circuit breaker. This auxiliary switch is needed to
to their original condition when it is removed open the trip circuit when the circuit breaker opens
b. Hand or electrical reset since the protection relay contacts will usually be quite
These contacts remain in the operated condition incapable of performing the interrupting duty. The
after the controlling quantity is removed. They can auxiliary switch will be adjusted to close as early as
be reset either by hand or by an auxiliary possible in the closing stroke, to make the protection
electromagnetic element effective in case the breaker is being closed on to a fault.
which usually interrupt their own coil current, the arrangement contains a healthy trip lamp, as shown in
auxiliary elements must be fast enough to operate and Figure 2.11(a).
release the flag before their coil current is cut off. This The resistance in series with the lamp prevents the
may pose a problem in design if a variable number of breaker being tripped by an internal short circuit caused
auxiliary elements (for different phases and so on) may by failure of the lamp. This provides supervision while
be required to operate in parallel to energise a common the circuit breaker is closed; a simple extension gives
tripping relay. preclosing supervision.
Figure 2.11(b) shows how, the addition of a normally
2.11.2 Shunt reinforcing closed auxiliary switch and a resistance unit can provide
supervision while the breaker is both open and closed.
Here the sensitive contacts are arranged to trip the
circuit breaker and simultaneously to energise the
auxiliary unit, which then reinforces the contact that is PR 52a TC
energising the trip coil.
Two contacts are required on the protection relay, since (a) Supervision while circuit breaker is closed (scheme H4)
it is not permissible to energise the trip coil and the
reinforcing contactor in parallel. If this were done, and PR 52a TC
more than one protection relay were connected to trip 52b
the same circuit breaker, all the auxiliary relays would be (b) Supervision while circuit breaker is open or closed (scheme H5)
energised in parallel for each relay operation and the
TC
• 2• indication would be confused. PR 52a
• 2•
• 3 • Fundamental Theory
Introduction 3.1
References 3.7
Chap31629 1/07/02 8:23 Page 17
• 3 • Fundamental Theor y
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The Protection Engineer is concerned with limiting the
effects of disturbances in a power system. These
disturbances, if allowed to persist, may damage plant
and interrupt the supply of electric energy. They are
described as faults (short and open circuits) or power
swings, and result from natural hazards (for instance
lightning), plant failure or human error.
To facilitate rapid removal of a disturbance from a power
system, the system is divided into 'protection zones'.
Relays monitor the system quantities (current, voltage)
appearing in these zones; if a fault occurs inside a zone,
the relays operate to isolate the zone from the remainder
of the power system.
The operating characteristic of a relay depends on the
energizing quantities fed to it such as current or voltage,
or various combinations of these two quantities, and on
the manner in which the relay is designed to respond to
this information. For example, a directional relay
characteristic would be obtained by designing the relay
to compare the phase angle between voltage and current
at the relaying point. An impedancemeasuring
characteristic, on the other hand, would be obtained by
designing the relay to divide voltage by current. Many
other more complex relay characteristics may be
obtained by supplying various combinations of current
and voltage to the relay. Relays may also be designed to
respond to other system quantities such as frequency,
power, etc.
In order to apply protection relays, it is usually necessary
to know the limiting values of current and voltage, and
their relative phase displacement at the relay location,
for various types of short circuit and their position in the
system. This normally requires some system analysis for
faults occurring at various points in the system.
The main components that make up a power system are
generating sources, transmission and distribution
networks, and loads. Many transmission and distribution
circuits radiate from key points in the system and these
circuits are controlled by circuit breakers. For the
purpose of analysis, the power system is treated as a
network of circuit elements contained in branches
radiating from nodes to form closed loops or meshes.
The system variables are current and voltage, and in
steady state analysis, they are regarded as time varying The representation of a vector quantity algebraically in
quantities at a single and constant frequency. The terms of its rectangular coordinates is called a 'complex
network parameters are impedance and admittance; quantity'. Therefore, x + jy is a complex quantity and is
these are assumed to be linear, bilateral (independent of the rectangular form of the vector Z∠θ where:
current direction) and constant for a constant frequency.
Z= (x+ y2
2
)
y
3 . 2 V E C TO R A L G E B R A θ = tan −1
x
A vector represents a quantity in both magnitude and
x = Z cos θ
direction. In Figure 3.1 the vector OP has a magnitude
Z at an angle θ with the reference axis OX. —
y = Z sin θ
…Equation 3.2
Figure
Y 3.1 From Equations 3.1 and 3.2:
—
Z = Z (cos θ + jsin θ) …Equation 3.3
P
and since cos θ and sin θ may be expressed in
exponential form by the identities:
Z
y e jθ − e − jθ
sin θ =
q 2j
X
0 x e jθ − e − jθ
cosθ =
2
Figure 3.1: Vector OP —
it follows that Z may also be written as:
Fundamental Theor y
—
It may be resolved into two components at right angles Z = Ze jθ …Equation 3.4
to each other, in this case x and y. The magnitude or Therefore, a vector quantity may also be represented
scalar value of vector Z is known as the modulus Z, and trigonometrically and exponentially.
the angle θ is the argument, or amplitude, and is written
—
as arg. Z. The conventional method of expressing a vector
—
Z is to write simply Z∠θ. 3 . 3 M A N I P U L AT I O N
This form completely specifies a vector for graphical OF COMPLEX QUANTITIES
representation or conversion into other forms. Complex quantities may be represented in any of the
For vectors to be useful, they must be expressed four coordinate systems given below:
—
algebraically. In Figure 3.1, the vector Z is the resultant a. Polar Z∠ θ
of vectorially adding its components x and y;
• 3• algebraically this vector may be written as: b. Rectangular x + jy
c. Trigonometric Z (cos θ + jsin θ)
—
Z = x + jy …Equation 3.1
d. Exponential Ze jθ
where the operator j indicates that the component y is The modulus Z and the argument θ are together known
perpendicular to component x. In electrical as 'polar coordinates', and x and y are described as
nomenclature, the axis OC is the 'real' or 'inphase' axis, 'cartesian coordinates'. Conversion between co
and the vertical axis OY is called the 'imaginary' or ordinate systems is easily achieved. As the operator j
'quadrature' axis. The operator j rotates a vector anti obeys the ordinary laws of algebra, complex quantities in
clockwise through 90°. If a vector is made to rotate anti rectangular form can be manipulated algebraically, as
clockwise through 180°, then the operator j has can be seen by the following:
performed its function twice, and since the vector has — —
Z1 + Z2 = (x1+x2) + j(y1+y2) …Equation 3.5
reversed its sense, then: — —
Z1  Z2 = (x1x2) + j(y1y2) …Equation 3.6
j x j or j2 = 1
(see Figure 3.2)
whence j = √1
Fundamental Theor y
in exponential form. operator is not a physical quantity; it is dimensionless.
When dealing with such functions it is important to The symbol j, which has been compounded with
appreciate that the quantity contains real and imaginary quadrature components of complex quantities, is an
components. If it is required to investigate only one operator that rotates a quantity anticlockwise through
component of the complex variable, separation into 90°. Another useful operator is one which moves a
components must be carried out after the mathematical vector anticlockwise through 120°, commonly
operation has taken place. represented by the symbol a.
Example: Determine the rate of change of the real Operators are distinguished by one further feature; they
component of a vector Z∠wt with time. are the roots of unity. Using De Moivre's theorem, the
nth root of unity is given by solving the expression:
Z∠wt = Z (coswt + jsinwt)
11/n = (cos2πm + jsin2πm)1/n
= Ze jwt
where m is any integer. Hence: • 3•
The real component of the vector is Zcoswt.
2 πm 2 πm
Differentiating Ze jwt with respect to time: 11/ n = cos + j sin
n n
d
Z e jwt = jw Z e jwt where m has values 1, 2, 3, ... (n1)
dt
From the above expression j is found to be the 4th root
= jwZ (coswt + jsinwt)
and a the 3rd root of unity, as they have four and three
Separating into real and imaginary components: distinct values respectively. Table 3.1 gives some useful
functions of the a operator.
d
dt
( )
Z e jwt = Z ( − w sin wt + jw cos wt )
'imaginary component', X, is the circuit reactance. When steady state terms Equation 3.12 may be written:
the circuit reactance is inductive (that is, wL>1/wC), the
current 'lags' the voltage by an angle φ, and when it is ∑E = ∑I Z …Equation 3.13
capacitive (that is, 1/wC>wL) it 'leads' the voltage by an
and this is known as the equatedvoltage equation [3.1].
angle φ.
It is the equation most usually adopted in electrical
When drawing vector diagrams, one vector is chosen as
network calculations, since it equates the driving
the 'reference vector' and all other vectors are drawn
voltages, which are known, to the passive voltages,
relative to the reference vector in terms of magnitude
which are functions of the currents to be calculated.
and angle. The circuit impedance Z is a complex
operator and is distinguished from a vector only by the In describing circuits and drawing vector diagrams, for
fact that it has no direction of its own. A further formal analysis or calculations, it is necessary to adopt a
convention is that sinusoidally varying quantities are notation which defines the positive direction of assumed
described by their 'effective' or 'root mean square' (r.m.s.) current flow, and establishes the direction in which
values; these are usually written using the relevant positive voltage drops and voltage rises act. Two
symbol without a suffix. methods are available; one, the double suffix method, is
used for symbolic analysis, the other, the single suffix or
Thus:
diagrammatic method, is used for numerical
calculations.
I = Im 2
In the double suffix method the positive direction of
E = Em 2 …Equation 3.11 current flow is assumed to be from node a to node b and
The 'root mean square' value is that value which has the the current is designated Iab . With the diagrammatic
same heating effect as a direct current quantity of that method, an arrow indicates the direction of current flow.
value in the same circuit, and this definition applies to The voltage rises are positive when acting in the
nonsinusoidal as well as sinusoidal quantities. direction of current flow. It can be seen from Figure 3.4
— — —
that E1 and Ean are positive voltage rises and E2 and
—
Fundamental Theor y
Ebn are negative voltage rises. In the diagrammatic
3.4.2 Sign Conventions method their direction of action is simply indicated by an
— —
In describing the electrical state of a circuit, it is often arrow, whereas in the double suffix method, Ean and Ebn
necessary to refer to the 'potential difference' existing indicate that there is a potential rise in directions na and nb.
between two points in the circuit. Since wherever such Figure 3.4 Methods or representing a circuit
a potential difference exists, current will flow and energy
will either be transferred or absorbed, it is obviously
necessary to define a potential difference in more exact Z3
terms. For this reason, the terms voltage rise and voltage I
drop are used to define more accurately the nature of the Z1 Z2
potential difference.
E1 E2
Voltage rise is a rise in potential measured in the
direction of current flow between two points in a circuit. • 3•
Voltage drop is the converse. A circuit element with a
E1E2=(Z1+Z2+Z3)I
voltage rise across it acts as a source of energy. A circuit
(a) Diagrammatic
element with a voltage drop across it acts as a sink of
energy. Voltage sources are usually active circuit a
Zab
b
elements, while sinks are usually passive circuit Iab
elements. The positive direction of energy flow is from Zan Zbn
sources to sinks.
Ean Ebn
Kirchhoff's first law states that the sum of the driving
voltages must equal the sum of the passive voltages in a
closed loop. This is illustrated by the fundamental n
equation of an electric circuit: EanEbn=(Zan+Zab+Zbn)Iab
(b) Double suffix
Ldi 1
dt C ∫
iR + + idt = e …Equation 3.12
Figure 3.4 Methods of representing a circuit
where the terms on the left hand side of the equation are
voltage drops across the circuit elements. Expressed in
Voltage drops are also positive when acting in the component of current, and is known as 'reactive power'.
direction of current flow. From Figure 3.4(a) it can be
— — — — As P and Q are constants which specify the power
seen that ( Z1+ Z2+ Z3) I is the total voltage drop in the
exchange in a given circuit, and are products of the
loop in the direction of current flow, and must equate to —
— — current and voltage vectors, then if S is the vector
the total voltage rise E1 E2. In Figure 3.4(b), the voltage —— —
— product E I it follows that with E as the reference vector
drop between nodes a and b designated Vab indicates — —
and φ as the angle between E and I :
that point b is at a lower potential than a, and is positive —
— S = P + jQ
when current flows from a to b. Conversely Vba is a …Equation 3.16
negative voltage drop. —
The quantity S is described as the 'apparent power', and
Symbolically: is the term used in establishing the rating of a circuit.
—
— — — S has units of VA.
Vab = Van  Vbn
— — —
Vba = Vbn  Van …Equation 3.14
3.4.4 SinglePhase and Polyphase Systems
where n is a common reference point. A system is single or polyphase depending upon whether
the sources feeding it are single or polyphase. A source
3.4.3 Power is single or polyphase according to whether there are one
or several driving voltages associated with it. For
The product of the potential difference across and the example, a threephase source is a source containing
current through a branch of a circuit is a measure of the three alternating driving voltages that are assumed to
rate at which energy is exchanged between that branch reach a maximum in phase order, A, B, C. Each phase
and the remainder of the circuit. If the potential driving voltage is associated with a phase branch of the
difference is a positive voltage drop, the branch is system network as shown in Figure 3.5(a).
passive and absorbs energy. Conversely, if the potential
difference is a positive voltage rise, the branch is active If a polyphase system has balanced voltages, that is,
and supplies energy. equal in magnitude and reaching a maximum at equally
Fundamental Theor y
Since the voltages are symmetrical, they may be system impedances may be converted to those base
expressed in terms of one, that is: quantities by using the equations given below:
— —
Ea = Ea MVAb 2
Zb 2 = Zb1 ×
— — MVAb1
Eb = a2 Ea
— — 2
Ec = a Ea kVb1
…Equation 3.17
Zb 2 = Zb1 ×
kVb 2 …Equation 3.20
where a is the vector operator e j2π/3. Further, if the phase
where suffix b1 denotes the value to the original base
branch impedances are identical in a balanced system, it
follows that the resulting currents are also balanced. and b2 denotes the value to new base
The choice of impedance notation depends upon the
complexity of the system, plant impedance notation and
3.5 IMPEDANCE NOTATION
the nature of the system calculations envisaged.
It can be seen by inspection of any power system
If the system is relatively simple and contains mainly
diagram that:
transmission line data, given in ohms, then the ohmic
a. several voltage levels exist in a system method can be adopted with advantage. However, the
b. it is common practice to refer to plant MVA in per unit method of impedance notation is the most
terms of per unit or percentage values common for general system studies since:
c. transmission line and cable constants are given in 1. impedances are the same referred to either side of
ohms/km a transformer if the ratio of base voltages on the
two sides of a transformer is equal to the
Before any system calculations can take place, the transformer turns ratio
system parameters must be referred to 'base quantities'
and represented as a unified system of impedances in 2. confusion caused by the introduction of powers of
either ohmic, percentage, or per unit values. 100 in percentage calculations is avoided
Fundamental Theor y
The base quantities are power and voltage. Normally, 3. by a suitable choice of bases, the magnitudes of
they are given in terms of the threephase power in MVA the data and results are kept within a predictable
and the line voltage in kV. The base impedance resulting range, and hence errors in data and computations
from the above base quantities is: are easier to spot
Most power system studies are carried out using
Zb =
(kV )
2
Right selection
where MVAb = base MVA 11.8kV 141kV 141 x 11=11.7kV
132
kVb = base kV
Simple transposition of the above formulae will refer the Figure 3.6: Selection of base voltages
ohmic value of impedance to the per unit or percentage
values and base quantities.
Having chosen base quantities of suitable magnitude all
—
voltage, find the percentage impedances to new base proportional to the potential difference V appearing
— ——
quantities. across the branch, that is, V = I Z .
12.5 × × = 20.1% The algebraic sum of all the driving voltages in any
75 (132 )2 closed path (or mesh) in a network is equal to the
algebraic sum of all the passive voltages (products of the
• 3• NOTE: The base voltages of the generator and circuits
impedances and the currents) in the components
are 11kV and 145kV respectively, that is, the turns
ratio of the transformer. The corresponding per unit branches, that is:
values can be found by dividing by 100, and the ohmic
value can be found by using Equation 3.19. ∑ E = ∑Z I
Alternatively, the total change in potential around a
Figure 3.7 closed loop is zero.
T1
G1
132kV 3.6.2 Circuit Theorems
overhead
lines From the above network laws, many theorems have been
G2
derived for the rationalisation of networks, either to
T2 reach a quick, simple, solution to a problem or to
represent a complicated circuit by an equivalent. These
theorems are divided into two classes: those concerned
Figure 3.7: Section of a power system with the general properties of networks and those
Fundamental Theor y
Any threeterminal network can be replaced by a delta or
star impedance equivalent without disturbing the N
external network. The formulae relating the replacement
of a delta network by the equivalent star network is as Figure 3.9: Typical power system network
follows (Figure 3.8):
— — — — — —
Zco = Z13 Z23 / (Z12 + Z13 + Z23)
Z AO Z NO
and so on. Z AN = Z AO + Z NO +
Z BO
Zao O Zbo Z12 0.75 ×18.85
a b 1 2 = 0.75 +18.85 +
0.45
Zco Z13 Z23 = 51 ohms
c
3
• 3•
Z BO Z NO
(a) Star network (b) Delta network Z BN = Z BO + Z NO +
Z AO
Figure 3.8:StarDelta
Figure 3.8: Star/Delta network
network reduction
transformation
0.45 ×18.85
= 0.45 +18.85 +
The impedance of a delta network corresponding to and 0.75
replacing any star network is: =30.6 ohms
— —
— — — Zao Zbo
Z12 = Zao + Zbo + ————————
—
Zco Z AO Z BO
Z AN = Z AO + Z BO +
and so on. Z NO
= 1.2 ohms (since ZNO>>> ZAOZBO)
Figure 3.10
0.4 x 30.6
Ω Correct circuit reduction must take account of this
0.4Ω 31
B B coupling.
I
N N P Zab Q
(b) Reduction of right active mesh Ib
Zbb
Figure 3.11: Reduction of active meshes:
(a) Actual circuit
Thévenin's Theorem
Considering each case in turn: The assumption is made that an equivalent star
network can replace the network shown. From
a. consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.13(a). The
inspection with one terminal isolated in turn and a
application of a voltage V between the terminals P
voltage V impressed across the remaining terminals
and Q gives:
it can be seen that:
V = IaZaa + IbZab
Za+Zc=Zaa
V = IaZab + IbZbb
Zb+Zc=Zbb
where Ia and Ib are the currents in branches a and
Za+Zb=Zaa+Zbb2Zab
b, respectively and I = Ia + Ib , the total current
entering at terminal P and leaving at terminal Q. Solving these equations gives:
Solving for Ia and Ib :
Za = Zaa − Zab
Ia =
(Zbb − Zab )V Zb = Zbb − Zab
Zaa Zbb − Zab
2
Zc = Zab …Equation 3.23
from which
see Figure 3.14(b).
Ib =
(Zaa − Zab )V
Zaa Zbb − Zab
2
c. consider the fourterminal network given in Figure
and 3.15(a), in which the branches 11' and 22' are
electrically separate except for a mutual link. The
V (Zaa + Zbb − 2 Zab ) equations defining the network are:
I = Ia +Ib =
Zaa Zbb − Zab
2
V1=Z11I1+Z12I2
so that the equivalent impedance of the original
circuit is: V2=Z21I1+Z22I2
Fundamental Theor y
I1=Y11V1+Y12V2
V Zaa Zbb − Zab2
Z= = I2=Y21V1+Y22V2
I Zaa + Zbb − 2 Zab …Equation 3.21
where Z12=Z21 and Y12=Y21 , if the network is
(Figure 3.13(b)), and, if the branch impedances are
assumed to be reciprocal. Further, by solving the
equal, the usual case, then:
above equations it can be shown that:
Z=
1
2
(Zaa + Zab ) …Equation 3.22 Y11 = Z22 ∆
(Figure 3.13(c)). Y22 = Z11 ∆
Y12 = Z12 ∆
b. consider the circuit in Figure 3.14(a).
∆ = Z11Z22 − Z122 …Equation 3.24
In order to evaluate the branches of the equivalent defining the equivalent mesh in Figure 3.15(b), and
mesh let all points of entry of the actual circuit be inserting radial branches having impedances equal
commoned except node 1 of circuit 1, as shown in to Z11 and Z22 in terminals 1 and 2, results in
Figure 3.15(c). Then all impressed voltages except Figure 3.15(d).
V1 will be zero and:
I1 = Y11V1
3.7 REFERENCES
I2 = Y12V1
3.1 Power System Analysis. J. R. Mortlock and
If the same conditions are applied to the equivalent M. W. Humphrey Davies. Chapman & Hall.
mesh, then:
3.2 Equivalent Circuits I. Frank M. Starr, Proc. A.I.E.E.
I1 = V1Z11 Vol. 51. 1932, pp. 287298.
I2 = V1/Z12 = V1/Z12
These relations follow from the fact that the branch
connecting nodes 1 and 1' carries current I1 and
the branches connecting nodes 1 and 2' and 1 and
2 carry current I2. This must be true since branches
between pairs of commoned nodes can carry no
current.
By considering each node in turn with the
remainder commoned, the following relationships
are found:
Z11’ = 1/Y11
Z22’ = 1/Y22
Fundamental Theor y
Z12’ = 1/Y12
Z12 = Z1’ 2’ = Z21’ = Z12’
Hence:
Z11’ = Z11 Z 22 Z2
12
_______________
Z22
Z22’ = Z11 Z22Z212
_______________
Z11
Z12 = Z11 Z22Z212
_______________
Z12 …Equation 3.25
A similar but equally rigorous equivalent circuit is
• 3• shown in Figure 3.15(d). This circuit [3.2] follows
from the fact that the selfimpedance of any circuit
is independent of all other circuits. Therefore, it
need not appear in any of the mutual branches if it
is lumped as a radial branch at the terminals. So
putting Z11 and Z22 equal to zero in Equation 3.25,
Z11
1 1 1'
Z12
Z11 Z12 Z12 Z12 Z12
Z12
C 2 2'
Z12
(c) Equivalent with all (d) Equivalent circuit
nodes commoned
except 1
• 4 • Fault Calculations
Introduction 4.1
References 4.7
Chap43045 21/06/02 9:57 Page 31
• 4 • Fault Calculations
4.1 INTRODUCTION
A power system is normally treated as a balanced
symmetrical threephase network. When a fault occurs,
the symmetry is normally upset, resulting in unbalanced
currents and voltages appearing in the network. The only
exception is the threephase fault, which, because it
involves all three phases equally at the same location, is
described as a symmetrical fault. By using symmetrical
component analysis and replacing the normal system
sources by a source at the fault location, it is possible to
analyse these fault conditions.
For the correct application of protection equipment, it is
essential to know the fault current distribution
throughout the system and the voltages in different
parts of the system due to the fault. Further, boundary
values of current at any relaying point must be known if
the fault is to be cleared with discrimination. The
information normally required for each kind of fault at
each relaying point is:
i. maximum fault current
ii. minimum fault current
iii. maximum through fault current
To obtain the above information, the limits of stable
generation and possible operating conditions, including
the method of system earthing, must be known. Faults
are always assumed to be through zero fault impedance.
4 . 2 T H R E E  P H A S E F A U LT C A L C U L AT I O N S
Threephase faults are unique in that they are balanced,
that is, symmetrical in the three phases, and can be
calculated from the singlephase impedance diagram
and the operating conditions existing prior to the fault.
A fault condition is a sudden abnormal alteration to the
normal circuit arrangement. The circuit quantities,
current and voltage, will alter, and the circuit will pass
through a transient state to a steady state. In the
transient state, the initial magnitude of the fault current
will depend upon the point on the voltage wave at which
the fault occurs. The decay of the transient condition,
until it merges into steady state, is a function of the
parameters of the circuit elements. The transient current
may be regarded as a d.c. exponential current
superimposed on the symmetrical steady state fault be added to the currents circulating in the system due to
current. In a.c. machines, owing to armature reaction, the fault, to give the total current in any branch of the
the machine reactances pass through 'sub transient' and system at the time of fault inception. However, in most
'transient' stages before reaching their steady state problems, the load current is small in comparison to the
synchronous values. For this reason, the resultant fault fault current and is usually ignored.
current during the transient period, from fault inception
In a practical power system, the system regulation is
to steady state also depends on the location of the fault
such that the load voltage at any point in the system is
in the network relative to that of the rotating plant.
within 10% of the declared opencircuit voltage at that
In a system containing many voltage sources, or having point. For this reason, it is usual to regard the prefault
a complex network arrangement, it is tedious to use the voltage at the fault as being the opencircuit voltage,
normal system voltage sources to evaluate the fault and this assumption is also made in a number of the
current in the faulty branch or to calculate the fault standards dealing with fault level calculations.
current distribution in the system. A more practical
For an example of practical threephase fault
method [4.1] is to replace the system voltages by a single
calculations, consider a fault at A in Figure 3.9. With the
driving voltage at the fault point. This driving voltage is
network reduced as shown in Figure 4.2, the load voltage
the voltage existing at the fault point before the fault
at A before the fault occurs is:
occurs.
Consider the circuit given in Figure 4.1 where the driving
— — Figure 4.2:
voltages are E and E’ , the impedances on either side of 2.5 Ω
— —
fault point F are Z1’ and Z1’’ , and the current through
— 1.55 Ω 0.39 Ω
point F before the fault occurs is I . A B
1.2 Ω
E' E''
V
Figure 4.2: Reduction of typical
power system network
— — —
V = 0.97 E’  1.55 I
N
1.2 × 2.5
V = 0.99 E '' + + 0.39 I
2.5 + 1.2
Figure 4.1: Network with fault at F — —
For practical working conditions, E’ 〉〉〉1.55 I and
— — — — —
— E’’ 〉〉〉1.207 I . Hence E’≅ E’’≅ V.
The voltage V at F before fault inception is: — —
— — —— — —— Replacing the driving voltages E’ and E’’ by the load
• 4• V = E  I Z‘ = E’’ + I Z’’ —
voltage V between A and N modifies the circuit as shown
— in Figure 4.3(a).
After the fault the voltage V is zero. Hence, the change
—
in voltage is  V . Because of the fault, the change in the The node A is the junction of three branches. In practice,
current flowing into the network from F is: the node would be a busbar, and the branches are
∆I = −
V
= −V
Z1' + Z1'' ( ) feeders radiating from the bus via circuit breakers, as
shown in Figure 4.3(b). There are two possible locations
Z1 Z1' Z1'' for a fault at A; the busbar side of the breakers or the
and, since no current was flowing into the network from line side of the breakers. In this example, it is assumed
F prior to the fault, the fault current flowing from the that the fault is at X, and it is required to calculate the
network into the fault is: current flowing from the bus to X.
If = −∆I = V
( Z1' + Z1'' ) The network viewed from AN has a driving point
impedance Z1 = 0.68 ohms.
Z1' Z1''
The current in the fault is V
By applying the principle of superposition, the load Z1 .
currents circulating in the system prior to the fault may
Let this current be 1.0 per unit. It is now necessary to Therefore, current in 2.5 ohm branch
find the fault current distribution in the various branches
of the network and in particular the current flowing from 1.2 × 0.563
= = 0.183 p.u.
A to X on the assumption that a relay at X is to detect 3.7
the fault condition. The equivalent impedances viewed and the current in 1.2 ohm branch
from either side of the fault are shown in Figure 4.4(a).
2.5 × 0.563
= = 0.38 p.u.
2.5Ω 3.7
Figure 4.3 Total current entering X from the left, that is, from A to
1.55Ω 0.39Ω
Figure 4.4 A B X, is 0.437 + 0.183 = 0.62 p.u. and from B to X is
1.2Ω
0.38p.u. The equivalent network as viewed from the
V relay is as shown in Figure 4.4(b). The impedances on
either side are:
N
(a) Three  phase fault diagram for a fault at node A 0.68/0.62 = 1.1 ohms
and
Busbar
Circuit breaker 0.68/0.38 = 1.79 ohms
A
The circuit of Figure 4.4 (b) has been included because
the Protection Engineer is interested in these equivalent
X
parameters when applying certain types of protection
relay.
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
The Protection Engineer is interested in a wider variety of
1.55Ω A 1.21Ω faults than just a threephase fault. The most common
fault is a singlephase to earth fault, which, in LV
systems, can produce a higher fault current than a three
V phase fault. Similarly, because protection is expected to
operate correctly for all types of fault, it may be
necessary to consider the fault currents due to many
N
different types of fault. Since the threephase fault is
(a) Impedance viewed from node A
unique in being a balanced fault, a method of analysis
that is applicable to unbalanced faults is required. It can
1.1Ω X 1.79Ω be shown [4.2] that, by applying the 'Principle of
Superposition', any general threephase system of
vectors may be replaced by three sets of balanced • 4•
V (symmetrical) vectors; two sets are threephase but
having opposite phase rotation and one set is cophasal.
These vector sets are described as the positive, negative
N
and zero sequence sets respectively.
(b) Equivalent impedances viewed from node X
The equations between phase and sequence voltages are
Figure 4.4: Impedances viewed from fault given below:
—
( )
1 fault branch changes from 0 to I and the positive
E1 = E a + aE b + a 2 E c — —
sequence voltage across the branch changes from V to V1 ;
3
replacing the fault branch by a source equal to the change
E2 =
1
3
( 2
E a + a E b + aE c
) in voltage and shortcircuiting all normal driving voltages
—
in the system results in a current ∆ I flowing into the
(
system, and:
E0 =
1
Ea + Eb + Ec
)
(V − V )
3 …Equation 4.2
1
where all quantities are referred to the reference phase ∆I = −
A. A similar set of equations can be written for phase Z1 …Equation 4.3
of unbalanced vectors voltages in the system due to the fault are greatest at the
source, as shown in the gradient diagram, Figure 4.6(b).
When a fault occurs in a power system, the phase
impedances are no longer identical (except in the case of X
threephase faults) and the resulting currents and Figure 4.6 ZS1 ∆Z '1 F Z ''1
voltages are unbalanced, the point of greatest unbalance
I '1 I ''1
being at the fault point. It has been shown in Chapter 3
Z '1 I1
that the fault may be studied by shortcircuiting all
normal driving voltages in the system and replacing the E' V1 E'
fault connection by a source whose driving voltage is
equal to the prefault voltage at the fault point. Hence, N
(a) System diagram
the system impedances remain symmetrical, viewed from
• 4• the fault, and the fault point may now be regarded as the I '1
N
point of injection of unbalanced voltages and currents
X I '1 Z '1
into the system.
V
This is a most important approach in defining the fault F
V '1+I '1∆Z '1
conditions since it allows the system to be represented V1
by sequence networks [4.3] using the method of N'
(b) Gradient diagram
symmetrical components.
Figure 4.6: Fault at F:
Positive sequence diagrams
4.3.1 Positive Sequence Network
During normal balanced system conditions, only positive 4.3.2 Negative Sequence Network
sequence currents and voltages can exist in the system, If only positive sequence quantities appear in a power
and therefore the normal system impedance network is a system under normal conditions, then negative sequence
positive sequence network. quantities can only exist during an unbalanced fault.
When a fault occurs in a power system, the current in the If no negative sequence quantities are present in the
fault branch prior to the fault, then, when a fault occurs, 4.4 EQUATIONS AND NETWORK CONNECTIONS
— —
the change in voltage is V2 , and the resulting current I2 FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FAULTS
flowing from the network into the fault is:
The most important types of faults are as follows:
−V2 a. singlephase to earth
I2 =
Z2 …Equation 4.5
b. phase to phase
The impedances in the negative sequence network are c. phasephaseearth
generally the same as those in the positive sequence
— — d. threephase (with or without earth)
network. In machines Z1 ≠ Z2 , but the difference is
generally ignored, particularly in large networks. The above faults are described as single shunt faults
because they occur at one location and involve a
The negative sequence diagrams, shown in Figure 4.7, are
connection between one phase and another or to earth.
similar to the positive sequence diagrams, with two
important differences; no driving voltages exist before In addition, the Protection Engineer often studies two
—
the fault and the negative sequence voltage V2 is other types of fault:
greatest at the fault point. e. singlephase open circuit
f. crosscountry fault
Figure 4.7 X By determining the currents and voltages at the fault
ZS1 ∆Z '1 I'2 F I''2 Z ''1 point, it is possible to define the fault and connect the
sequence networks to represent the fault condition.
I2 From the initial equations and the network diagram, the
Z '1
nature of the fault currents and voltages in different
V2 branches of the system can be determined.
N For shunt faults of zero impedance, and neglecting load
(a) Negative sequence network
current, the equations defining each fault (using phase
F neutral values) can be written down as follows:
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
X
a. Singlephaseearth (AE)
V2
V2 + I '2∆Z '1 Ib = 0
N Ic = 0
(b) Gradient diagram
V a = 0 …Equation 4.7
Figure 4.7: Fault at F:
Negative sequence diagram b. Phasephase (BC)
Ia = 0
4.3.3 Zero Sequence Network
The zero sequence current and voltage relationships Ib = −Ic
during a fault condition are the same as those in the V b = V c …Equation 4.8 • 4•
negative sequence network. Hence:
— —— c. Phasephaseearth (BCE)
V0 =  I0 Z0 …Equation 4.6
Ia = 0
Also, the zero sequence diagram is that of Figure 4.7,
— —
substituting I0 for I2 , and so on. Vb = 0
The currents and voltages in the zero sequence network V c = 0 …Equation 4.9
are cophasal, that is, all the same phase. For zero
sequence currents to flow in a system there must be a d. Threephase (ABC or ABCE)
return connection through either a neutral conductor or
Ia + Ib + Ic = 0
the general mass of earth. Note must be taken of this
fact when determining zero sequence equivalent circuits. Va = Vb
— — —
Further, in general Z1 ≠ Z0 and the value of Z0 varies
Vb = Vc …Equation 4.10
according to the type of plant, the winding arrangement
and the method of earthing. It should be noted from the above that for any type of
fault there are three equations that define the fault
conditions.
— —— ——
When there is a fault impedance, this must be taken into V  I1 Z1 = I2 Z2
account when writing down the equations. For example, —
and substituting for I2 from Equation 4.15:
with a singlephaseearth fault through fault impedance — — — —
— V = I1 ( Z1 + Z2 )
Zf , Equations 4.7 are rewritten: …Equation 4.17
Consider a fault defined by Equations 4.7 and by Figure Again, from Equation 4.9 and Equations 4.1 and 4.2:
4.8(a). Converting Equations 4.7 into sequence — — —
I1 = ( I2 + Io ) …Equation 4.18
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
From the above equations it follows that connecting the Hence, from Equations 4.2,
three sequence networks in parallel as shown in Figure
V0 = 1/3 Va
4.10(b) may represent a phasephaseearth fault.
V1 = 1/3 Va
A F Va V2 = 1/3 Va
Figure 4.10Ia Phasephaseearth fault
F1 F2 F0
Vb
B and therefore:
Vc Z1 Z2 Z0
C
Ib
N2 N0
V1 = V 2 = V0 = 1 3 V a
N1 V
Ic I a = I1 + I 2 + I 0 = 0 …Equation 4.28
Ia=0
Vb=0 From Equations 4.28, it can be concluded that the
Vc=0 sequence networks are connected in parallel, as shown in
(a) Definition of fault (b) Equivalent circuit Figure 4.12(b).
Figure 4.10: Phasephaseearth fault at F P Q
Va Va'
νa
4.4.4 Threephase Fault (ABC or ABCE) Ib Vb'
Vc νb I Vc'
c
Assuming that the fault includes earth, then, from νc
Equations 4.10 and 4.1, 4.2, it follows that: (a) Circuit diagram
V0 = V a
I1
P1
I2
P2
I0
P0
V1 = V 2 = 0 …Equation 4.23 N1 +ve
Sequence ν1
N2 ve
Sequence ν2
N0 Zero
Sequence ν0
and Network Q1 Network Q2 Network Q0
—
I0 = 0 …Equation 4.24
— (b) Equivalent circuit
Substituting V2 = 0 in Equation 4.5 gives:
—
I2 = 0 …Equation 4.25 Figure 4.12: Open circuit on phase A
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
—
and substituting V1 = 0 in Equation 4.4:
— —— 4.4.6 Crosscountry Faults
0 = V1  I1 Z1
A crosscountry fault is one where there are two faults
or
— —— affecting the same circuit, but in different locations and
V = I1 Z1 …Equation 4.26
— possibly involving different phases. Figure 4.13(a)
Further, since from Equation 4.24 Io = 0 , it follows from illustrates this.
— —
Equation 4.6 that Vo is zero when Zo is finite. The
equivalent sequence connections for a threephase fault The constraints expressed in terms of sequence
are shown in Figure 4.11. quantities are as follows:
a) At point F
A F Va
F1 F2 F0 I b + I c = 0
Vb 4•
B
Vc Z1 Z2 Z0 Va = 0 …Equation 4.29
•
C
N2 N0
Figure 4.11 I Ia V Therefore:
Ib N1
c
I a1 = I a 2 = I a 0
Ia+Ib+Ic=0
Va+Vb+Vc=0 V a1 + V a 2 + V a 0 = 0 …Equation 4.30
F F'
ae be
Ia1 I'a1
F1 F '1
Va1 V 'a1
N1 N '1
2
a I 'a2
F2 Ia2 I'a2 F '2 1 2
a
2
a V'a2
Va2 V 'a2
N2 N '2
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
aI 'a0
F0 Ia0 I'a0 F '0 1
a
aV 'a0
Va0 V 'a0
N0 N '0
• 4• ’ = aI a2
a2 I a1 ’ = I ’a0 4.5 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION
IN A SYSTEM DUE TO A FAULT
or
’ = a2I a2
I a1 ’ = aI ’a0 …Equation 4.33 Practical fault calculations involve the examination of
the effect of a fault in branches of network other than
and, for the voltages the faulted branch, so that protection can be applied
V ’b1 + V ’b2 +V ’b0 = 0 correctly to isolate the section of the system directly
involved in the fault. It is therefore not enough to
Converting:
calculate the fault current in the fault itself; the fault
’ + aV a2
a2V a1 ’ +V ’a0 = 0 current distribution must also be established. Further,
or abnormal voltage stresses may appear in a system
because of a fault, and these may affect the operation of
’ + a2V a2
V a1 ’ + aV ’a0 = 0 …Equation 4.34 the protection. Knowledge of current and voltage
The fault constraints involve phase shifted sequence distribution in a network due to a fault is essential for
quantities. To construct the appropriate sequence the application of protection.
networks, it is necessary to introduce phaseshifting The approach to network fault studies for assessing the
transformers to couple the sequence networks. This application of protection equipment may be summarised as
is shown in Figure 4.13(b). follows:
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
4.5.1 Current Distribution
I ' b = a 2 C1 I1
The phase current in any branch of a network is
determined from the sequence current distribution in the I ' c = aC1 I1
…Equation 4.38
equivalent circuit of the fault. The sequence currents are
As an example of current distribution technique, consider
expressed in per unit terms of the sequence current in
the system in Figure 4.14(a). The equivalent sequence
the fault branch.
networks are given in Figures 4.14(b) and (c), together
In power system calculations, the positive and negative with typical values of impedances. A fault is assumed at
sequence impedances are normally equal. Thus, the A and it is desired to find the currents in branch OB due
division of sequence currents in the two networks will to the fault. In each network, the distribution factors are
also be identical. given for each branch, with the current in the fault
The impedance values and configuration of the zero branch taken as 1.0p.u. From the diagram, the zero
sequence network are usually different from those of the sequence distribution factor Co in branch OB is 0.112 • 4•
positive and negative sequence networks, so the zero and the positive sequence factor C1 is 0.373. For an
sequence current distribution is calculated separately. earth fault at A the phase currents in branch OB from
Equation 4.35 are:
If Co and C1 are described as the zero and positive — —
Ia = (0.746 + 0.112) I0
sequence distribution factors then the actual current in —
a sequence branch is given by multiplying the actual = 0.858 I0
and
current in the sequence fault branch by the appropriate — — —
— — — I ’b = I ’c = (0.373 + 0.112) I0
distribution factor. For this reason, if I1 , I2 and I0 are
—
sequence currents in an arbitrary branch of a network = 0.261 I0
due to a fault at some point in the network, then the By using network reduction methods and assuming that
phase currents in that branch may be expressed in terms all impedances are reactive, it can be shown that
of the distribution constants and the sequence currents — —
Z1 = Z0 = j0.68 ohms.
in the fault. These are given below for the various
common shunt faults, using Equation 4.1 and the Therefore, from Equation 4.14, the current in fault
appropriate fault equations: V
branch I a =
0.68
j7.5Ω 0.08 n
j0.9Ω j0.4Ω V1' = V − I1 Z1 − ∑ C1 n ∆Z1 n
A
j2.6Ω 0 j1.6Ω
B
1
1.0 0.165 0.112
0.755 0.192 n
V 2 ' = − I 2 Z1 − ∑ C1 n ∆Z1 n
j4.8Ω
0.053
1
(b) Zero sequence network
n
V0 ' = − I 0 Z 0 − ∑ C 0 n ∆Z 0 n
j2.5Ω 0.183 1 …Equation 4.39
j1.6Ω j0.4Ω
A B
j0.75Ω 0 j0.45Ω
1.0 0.395 0.373
Using the above equation, the fault voltages at bus B in
0.422 j18.85Ω 0.556 the previous example can be found.
0.022 From the positive sequence distribution diagram Figure
(c) Positive and negative sequence networks 4.8(c):
— — — — — — — —
V’c = aV’1 + a2V’2 + V’0 and since Vbn = a2 Van , Vcn =aVan then:
— —
= 56.75a (6.74a2 + 2.25) VR = 3Vne …Equation 4.43
— —
V’c = 61.5 ∠116.4° volts where Vcn  neutral displacement voltage.
These voltages are shown on the vector diagram, Figure Measurements of residual quantities are made using
4.15. current and voltage transformer connections as shown in
Figure 4.16. If relays are connected into the circuits in
place of the ammeter and voltmeter, it follows that earth
4.6 EFFECT OF SYSTEM EARTHING
faults in the system can be detected.
ON ZERO SEQUENCE QUANTITIES
It has been shown previously that zero sequence currents
flow in the earth path during earth faults, and it follows Ia
A
that the nature of these currents will be influenced by Ib
the method of earthing. Because these quantities are B
Ic
unique in their association with earth faults they can be C
utilised in protection, provided their measurement and Vae
character are understood for all practical system Vbe
Vce
conditions. A
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
Under normal system operation there is a capacitance — —
4.6.2 System Z0 / Z1 Ratio
between the phases and between phase and earth; these — —
capacitances may be regarded as being symmetrical and The system Z0 / Z1 ratio is defined as the ratio of zero
distributed uniformly through the system. So even when sequence and positive sequence impedances viewed from
(a) above is satisfied, if the driving voltages are the fault; it is a variable ratio, dependent upon the
symmetrical the vector sum of the currents will equate method of earthing, fault position and system operating
to zero and no current will flow between any two earth arrangement.
points in the system. When a fault to earth occurs in a When assessing the distribution of residual quantities
system an unbalance results in condition (b) being through a system, it is convenient to use the fault point
satisfied. From the definitions given above it follows as the reference as it is the point of injection of
that residual currents and voltages are the vector sum of unbalanced quantities into the system. The residual
phase currents and phase voltages respectively. voltage is measured in relation to the normal phase
neutral system voltage and the residual current is • 4•
Hence:
compared with the threephase fault current at the fault
I R = Ia + Ib + Ic point. It can be shown [4.4/4.5] that the character of
these quantities can be expressed in terms of the system
and — —
Z0 / Z1 ratio.
…Equation 4.40
V R = V ae + V be + V ce The positive sequence impedance of a system is mainly
Also, from Equations 4.2: reactive, whereas the zero sequence impedance being
affected by the method of earthing may contain both
I R = 3 I 0 resistive and reactive components of comparable
— —
V R = 3 V0 …Equation 4.41 magnitude. Thus the express of the Z0 / Z1 ratio
approximates to:
It should be further noted that:
Z0 X R
V ae = V an + V ne = 0 − j 0
Z1 X1 X1
V be = V bn + V ne …Equation 4.44
V
I3φ =
Z1 1.5
Thus:
1.0 Residual voltage for
DoublePhaseEarth fault
IR 3
=
(2 + K )
…Equation 4.45
I3φ 0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 •
3 Z1
I R = 3I0 = − I1 Z0
Z1 + Z 0 K =
Z1
I1 =
(
V Z1 + Z 0 ) Figure 4.17: Variation of residual quantities
at fault point
2 Z1 Z 0 + Z12
Hence: 4.6.3 Variation of Residual Quantities
The variation of residual quantities in a system due to
3 V Z1 3V
IR = − = − different earth arrangements can be most readily
2 Z1 Z 0 + Z12 (
2 K + 1 Z1 ) understood by using vector diagrams. Three examples
have been chosen, namely solid faultisolated neutral,
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
b. Phasephaseearth (BCE)
• 4•
3K (a) Circuit diagram
VR = V
(2 K + 1 )
Iac
…Equation 4.48
c
VcF=Eac
n a(F)
The curves in Figure 4.17 illustrate the variation of the VbF VcF
— —
above residual quantities with the Z0 / Z1 ratio. The Iab
VbF=Eab VR
residual current in any part of the system can be b
obtained by multiplying the current from the curve by (b) Vector diagram (c) Residual voltage diagram
the appropriate zero sequence distribution factor.
Similarly, the residual voltage is calculated by Figure 4.18: Solid faultisolated neutral
subtracting from the voltage curve three times the zero
sequence voltage drop between the measuring point in
the system and the fault.
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
Ia X ZL F
A At relaying point X:
Iab — — — —
B VR = VXn + Vbn + Vcn
Iac
C
Ian
Iab Iab
Ia X
ZS IF ZL F
A
B
C
(a) Circuit diagram
IF
Iac IF
c
Vcf
(a) Circuit diagram • 4•
c
VR VFn VR VXn
VcX VcF
Figure 4.19: Solid faultresistance neutral Figure 4.20: Resistance faultsolid neutral
4.7 REFERENCES
4.1 Circuit Analysis of A.C. Power Systems, Volume I.
Edith Clarke. John Wiley & Sons.
4.2 Method of Symmetrical Coordinates Applied to
the Solution of Polyphase Networks. C.L.
Fortescue. Trans. A.I.E.E.,Vol. 37, Part II, 1918, pp
102740.
4.3 Power System Analysis. J.R. Mortlock and M.W.
Humphrey Davies. Chapman and Hall.
4.4 Neutral Groundings. R Willheim and M. Waters,
Elsevier.
4.5 Fault Calculations. F.H.W. Lackey, Oliver & Boyd.
Fa u l t C a l c u l a t i o n s
• 4•
Introduction 5.1
Synchronous machines 5.2
Armature reaction 5.3
Steady state theory 5.4
Salient pole rotor 5.5
Transient analysis 5.6
Asymmetry 5.7
Machine reactances 5.8
Negative sequence reactance 5.9
Zero sequence reactance 5.10
Direct and quadrature axis values 5.11
Effect of saturation on machine reactances 5.12
Transformers 5.13
Transformer positive sequence equivalent circuits 5.14
Transformer zero sequence equivalent circuits 5.15
Autotransformers 5.16
Transformer impedances 5.17
Overhead lines and cables 5.18
Calculation of series impedance 5.19
Calculation of shunt impedance 5.20
Overhead line circuits with or without earth wires 5.21
OHL equivalent circuits 5.22
Cable circuits 5.23
Overhead line and cable data 5.24
References 5.25
Chapt 54677 21/06/02 9:31 Page 47
around its periphery. This construction is unsuited to most common. Twostroke diesel engines are often
multipolar machines but it is very sound mechanically. derivatives of marine designs with relatively large outputs
Hence it is particularly well adapted for the highest (circa 30MW is possible) and may have running speeds of
speed electrical machines and is universally employed for the order of 125rpm. This requires a generator with a
2 pole units, plus some 4 pole units. large number of poles (48 for a 125rpm, 50Hz generator)
and consequently is of large diameter and short axial
The salient pole type has poles that are physically
length. This is a contrast to turbinedriven machines that
separate, each carrying a concentrated excitation
are of small diameter and long axial length.
winding. This type of construction is in many ways
complementary to that of the cylindrical rotor and is
employed in machines having 4 poles or more. Except in
special cases its use is exclusive in machines having more
than 6 poles. Figure 5.1 illustrates a typical large
cylindrical rotor generator installed in a power plant.
Two and four pole generators are most often used in Weak Strong Weak Strong
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
• 5•
IXad IX
Eo d
Similarly, for operation at zero leading power factor, the IXL
EL
stator m.m.f. would directly assist the rotor m.m.f. This V
m.m.f. arising from current flowing in the stator is known
as 'armature reaction'. I
(c)
It follows from the above analysis that, for steady state When a pole is aligned with the assumed sine wave
performance, the machine may be represented by the m.m.f. set up by the stator, a corresponding sine wave
equivalent circuit shown in Figure 5.4, where XL is a true flux will be set up, but when an interpolar gap is aligned
reactance associated with flux leakage around the stator very severe distortion is caused. The difference is treated
winding and Xad is a fictitious reactance, being the ratio by considering these two axes, that is those
of armature reaction and opencircuit excitation corresponding to the pole and the interpolar gap,
magnetomotive forces. separately. They are designated the 'direct' and
'quadrature' axes respectively, and the general theory is
known as the 'two axis' theory.
Xad XL
5 . 5 S A L I E N T P O L E R OTO R IqXq
IdXd
The preceding theory is limited to the cylindrical rotor
EO
generator. The basic assumption that the airgap is
IXd
uniform is very obviously not valid when a salient pole
rotor is being considered. The effect of this is that the flux E 'O
• 5• V
Lag Lead
Armature
reaction M.M.F.
Flux
Flux I
Iq
Quadrature axis
pole
ect axis po
Id
Direct
Quadr
Pole axis
Figure 5.5: Variation of armature reaction m.m.f. Figure 5.6: Vector diagram
with pole position for salient pole machine
5 . 6 T R A N S I E N T A N A LY S I S
XL
For normal changes in load conditions, steady state
theory is perfectly adequate. However, there are
occasions when almost instantaneous changes are
Xad
involved, such as faults or switching operations. When
this happens new factors are introduced within the
machine and to represent these adequately a
corresponding new set of machine characteristics is (a) Synchronous reactance
required. XL
The generally accepted and most simple way to
appreciate the meaning and derivation of these
characteristics is to consider a sudden threephase short Xad Xf
circuit applied to a machine initially running on open
circuit and excited to normal voltage E0.
Eg
Id =
Xd
…Equation 5.2
Figure 5.7: Flux paths of salient pole machine
where Eg = voltage on air gap line • 5•
An important point to note now is that between the
If the stator winding is then shortcircuited, the power initial and final conditions there has been a severe
factor in it will be zero. A heavy current will tend to reduction of flux. The rotor carries a highly inductive
flow, as the resulting armature reaction m.m.f. is winding which links the flux so that the rotor flux
demagnetising. This will reduce the flux and conditions linkages before the short circuit are produced by
will settle until the armature reaction nearly balances (Φ + ΦL). In practice the leakage flux is distributed over
the excitation m.m.f., the remainder maintaining a very the whole pole and all of it does not link all the winding.
much reduced flux across the airgap which is just ΦL is an equivalent concentrated flux imagined to link all
sufficient to generate the voltage necessary to overcome the winding and of such a magnitude that the total
the stator leakage reactance (resistance neglected). This linkages are equal to those actually occurring. It is a
is the simple steady state case of a machine operating on fundamental principle that any attempt to change the
short circuit and is fully represented by the equivalent of flux linked with such a circuit will cause current to flow
Figure 5.8(a); see also Figure 5.4. in a direction that will oppose the change. In the present
case the flux is being reduced and so the induced
currents will tend to sustain it.
For the position immediately following the application of The damper winding(s) is subjected to the full effect of
the short circuit, it is valid to assume that the flux linked flux transfer to leakage paths and will carry an induced
with the rotor remains constant, this being brought current tending to oppose it. As long as this current can
about by an induced current in the rotor which balances flow, the airgap flux will be held at a value slightly
the heavy demagnetising effect set up by the short higher than would be the case if only the excitation
circuited armature. So (Φ + ΦL) remains constant, but winding were present, but still less than the original
owing to the increased m.m.f. involved, the flux leakage open circuit flux Φ.
will increase considerably. With a constant total rotor
As before, it is convenient to use rated voltage and to
flux, this can only increase at the expense of that flux
create another fictitious reactance that is considered to
crossing the airgap. Consequently, this generates a
be effective over this period. This is known as the 'sub
reduced voltage, which, acting on the leakage reactance,
transient reactance' X ’’d and is defined by the equation:
gives the short circuit current.
It is more convenient for machine analysis to use the Subtransient current I ’’d = Eo …Equation 5.4
rated voltage E0 and to invent a fictitious reactance that X ''d
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
Eo or X’’d = XL + X’kd
Transient current I 'd =
X 'd
…Equation 5.3 and Xkd = leakage reactance of damper winding(s)
It is greater than XL, and the equivalent circuit is X’kd = effective leakage reactance of damper winding(s)
represented by Figure 5.8(b) where: It is greater than XL but less than X’d and the
corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in Figure
X ad X f
X 'd = +XL 5.8(c).
X ad + X f
Again, the duration of this phase depends upon the time
and X f is the leakage reactance of the field winding constant of the damper winding. In practice this is
approximately 0.05 seconds  very much less than the
The above equation may also be written as:
transient  hence the term 'subtransient'.
X’d = XL + X’f
Figure 5.9 shows the envelope of the symmetrical
where X’f = effective leakage reactance of field winding component of an armature short circuit current
The flux will only be sustained at its relatively high value indicating the values described in the preceding analysis.
while the induced current flows in the field winding. As The analysis of the stator current waveform resulting
this current decays, so conditions will approach the from a sudden short circuit test is traditionally the
steady state. Consequently, the duration of this phase
will be determined by the time constant of the excitation
winding. This is usually of the order of a second or less
Current
method by which these reactances are measured. in opposite directions at supply frequency relative to the
However, the major limitation is that only direct axis rotor. So, as viewed from the stator, one is stationary
parameters are measured. Detailed test methods for and the other rotating at twice supply frequency. The
synchronous machines are given in references [5.2] and latter sets up second harmonic currents in the stator.
[5.3], and include other tests that are capable of Further development along these lines is possible but the
providing more detailed parameter information. resulting harmonics are usually negligible and normally
neglected.
5.7 ASYMMETRY
5 . 8 M A C H I N E R E A C TA N C E S
The exact instant at which the short circuit is applied to
the stator winding is of significance. If resistance is Table 5.1 gives values of machine reactances for salient
negligible compared with reactance, the current in a coil pole and cylindrical rotor machines typical of latest
will lag the voltage by 90°, that is, at the instant when design practice. Also included are parameters for
the voltage wave attains a maximum, any current synchronous compensators – such machines are now
flowing through would be passing through zero. If a rarely built, but significant numbers can still be found in
Type of machine
Salient
pole synchronous
Cylindrical rotor turbine generators Salient pole generators
• 5•
Hydrogen Hydrogen/
Air Cooled 4 Pole Multipole
condensers Cooled Water Cooled
Short circuit ratio 0.50.7 1.01.2 0.40.6 0.40.6 0.40.6 0.40.6 0.60.8
Direct axis synchronous reactance Xd (p.u.) 1.62.0 0.81.0 2.02.8 2.12.4 2.12.6 1.753.0 1.41.9
Quadrature axis synchronous reactance Xq (p.u.) 1.01.23 0.50.65 1.82.7 1.92.4 2.02.5 0.91.5 0.81.0
Direct axis transient reactance X’d (p.u.) 0.30.5 0.20.35 0.20.3 0.270.33 0.30.36 0.260.35 0.240.4
Direct axis subtransient reactance X’’d (p.u.) 0.20.4 0.120.25 0.150.23 0.190.23 0.210.27 0.190.25 0.160.25
Quadrature axis subtransient reactance X’’q (p.u.) 0.250.6 0.150.25 0.160.25 0.190.23 0.210.28 0.190.35 0.180.24
Negative sequence reactance X2 (p.u.) 0.250.5 0.140.35 0.160.23 0.190.24 0.210.27 0.160.27 0.160.23
Zero sequence reactance X0 (p.u.) 0.120.16 0.060.10 0.060.1 0.10.15 0.10.15 0.010.1 0.0450.23
Direct axis short circuit transient time constant T’d (s) 1.52.5 1.02.0 0.61.3 0.71.0 0.751.0 0.41.1 0.251
Direct axis open circuit transient time constant T’do (s) 510 37 612 610 69.5 3.09.0 1.74.0
Direct axis short circuit subtransient time constant T’’d (s) 0.040.9 0.050.10 0.0130.022 0.0170.025 0.0220.03 0.020.04 0.020.06
Direct axis open circuit subtransient time constant T’’do(s) 0.070.11 0.080.25 0.0180.03 0.0230.032 0.0250.035 0.0350.06 0.030.1
Quadrature axis short circuit subtransient time constant T’’q (s) 0.040.6 0.050.6 0.0130.022 0.0180.027 0.020.03 0.0250.04 0.0250.08
Quadrature axis open circuit subtransient time constant T’’qo (s) 0.10.2 0.20.9 0.0260.045 0.030.05 0.040.065 0.130.2 0.10.35
NB all reactance values are unsaturated.
Table 5.1: Typical synchronous generator parameters
noting that XL normally changes in sympathy with Xad, rise to parasitic currents and heating; most machines are
but that it is completely overshadowed by it. quite limited in the amount of such current which they
are able to carry, both in the steady – state and
The value 1/Xd has a special significance as it
transiently.
approximates to the short circuit ratio (S.C.R.), the only
difference being that the S.C.R. takes saturation into An accurate calculation of the negative sequence current
account whereas Xd is derived from the airgap line. capability of a generator involves consideration of the
current paths in the rotor body. In a turbine generator
5.8.2 Transient Reactance X’d = XL + X’f rotor, for instance, they include the solid rotor body, slot
wedges, excitation winding and endwinding retaining
The transient reactance covers the behaviour of a rings. There is a tendency for local overheating to occur
machine in the period 0.13.0 seconds after a and, although possible for the stator, continuous local
disturbance. This generally corresponds to the speed of temperature measurement is not practical in the rotor.
changes in a system and therefore X’d has a major Calculation requires complex mathematical techniques
influence in transient stability studies. to be applied, and involves specialist software.
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
Generally, the leakage reactance XL is equal to the In practice an empirical method is used, based on the
effective field leakage reactance X’f, about 0.10.25p.u. fact that a given type of machine is capable of carrying,
The principal factor determining the value of X’f is the for short periods, an amount of heat determined by its
field leakage. This is largely beyond the control of the thermal capacity, and for a long period, a rate of heat
designer, in that other considerations are at present more input which it can dissipate continuously. Synchronous
significant than field leakage and hence take precedence machines are designed to be capable of operating
in determining the field design. continuously on an unbalanced system such that, with
XL can be varied as already outlined, and, in practice, none of the phase currents exceeding the rated current,
control of transient reactance is usually achieved by the ratio of the negative sequence current I2 to the rated
varying XL current IN does not exceed the values given in Table 5.2.
Under fault conditions, the machine shall also be capable
2
5.8.3 Subtransient Reactance X’’d = XL + X’kd of operation with the product of I 2 and time in
IN
The subtransient reactance determines the initial seconds (t) not exceeding the values given.
current peaks following a disturbance and in the case of
a sudden fault is of importance for selecting the breaking
capacity of associated circuit breakers. The mechanical
stresses on the machine reach maximum values that
depend on this constant. The effective damper winding
leakage reactance X’kd is largely determined by the Machine Maximum Maximum
leakage of the damper windings and control of this is Rotor Rotor Cooling Type (SN) I2/IN for (I2/IN)2t for
construction /Rating continuous operation during
only possible to a limited extent. X’kd normally has a (MVA) operation faults
value between 0.05 and 0.15 p.u. The major factor is XL motors 0.1 20
which, as indicated previously, is of the order of 0.10.25 generators 0.08 20
Salient indirect
• 5• p.u., and control of the subtransient reactance is synchronous
0.1 20
normally achieved by varying XL. condensers
motors 0.08 15
It should be noted that good transient stability is direct generators 0.05 15
obtained by keeping the value of X’d low, which synchronous
0.08 15
therefore also implies a low value of X’’d. The fault rating condensers
of switchgear, etc. will therefore be relatively high. It is indirectly cooled (air) all 0.1 15
not normally possible to improve transient stability indirectly cooled (hydrogen) all 0.1 10
performance in a generator without adverse effects on Cylindrical <=350 0.08 8
351900 Note 1 Note 2
fault levels, and vice versa. directly cooled
9011250 Note 1 5
12511600 0.05 5
5 . 9 N E G AT I V E S E Q U E N C E R E A C TA N C E I2 S 350
Note 1: Calculate as = 0.08 N
IN 3 x 104
Negative sequence currents can arise whenever there is
any unbalance present in the system. Their effect is to
set up a field rotating in the opposite direction to the
Note 2: Calculate as
()
I2 2
IN
t = 80.00545(SN350)
main field generated by the rotor winding, so subjecting Table 5.2: Unbalanced operating conditions for synchronous machines
the rotor to double frequency flux pulsations. This gives (from IEC 600341)
transmission system and in distribution systems for the transformer may be represented by Figure 5.10(b). The
following reasons: circuit in Figure 5.10(b) is similar to that shown in Figure
3.14(a), and can therefore be replaced by an equivalent
a. at the transmitting end, a higher stepup voltage
'T ' as shown in Figure 5.10(c) where:
ratio is possible than with other winding
arrangements, while the insulation to ground of the
Z1 = Z11 − Z12
star secondary winding does not increase by the
same ratio Z2 = Z22 − Z12
b. in distribution systems, the star winding allows a Z3 = Z12 …Equation 5.5
neutral connection to be made, which may be
important in considering system earthing Z1 is described as the leakage impedance of winding AA'
arrangements and Z2 the leakage impedance of winding BB'.
c. the delta winding allows circulation of zero Impedance Z3 is the mutual impedance between the
sequence currents within the delta, thus windings, usually represented by XM, the magnetizing
preventing transmission of these from the reactance paralleled with the hysteresis and eddy current
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
secondary (star) winding into the primary circuit. loops as shown in Figure 5.10(d).
This simplifies protection considerations If the secondary of the transformers is shortcircuited,
and Z3 is assumed to be large with respect to Z1 and Z2,
5.14 TRANSFORMER POSITIVE SEQUENCE then the shortcircuit impedance viewed from the
EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS terminals AA’ is ZT = Z1 + Z2 and the transformer can
be replaced by a twoterminal equivalent circuit as
The transformer is a relatively simple device. However, shown in Figure 5.10(e).
the equivalent circuits for fault calculations need not
necessarily be quite so simple, especially where earth The relative magnitudes of ZT and XM are of the order of
faults are concerned. The following two sections discuss 10% and 2000% respectively. ZT and XM rarely have to
the equivalent circuits of various types of transformers. be considered together, so that the transformer may be
represented either as a series impedance or as an
excitation impedance, according to the problem being
5.14.1 Twowinding Transformers studied.
The twowinding transformer has four terminals, but in A typical power transformer is illustrated in Figure 5.11.
most system problems, twoterminal or threeterminal
equivalent circuits as shown in Figure 5.10 can represent 5.14.2 Threewinding Transformers
it. In Figure 5.10(a), terminals A' and B' are assumed to
be at the same potential. Hence if the per unit self If excitation impedance is neglected the equivalent
impedances of the windings are Z11 and Z22 respectively circuit of a threewinding transformer may be
and the mutual impedance between them Z12, the represented by a star of impedances, as shown in Figure
5.12, where P, T and S are the primary, tertiary and
secondary windings respectively. The impedance of any
A B C
A B of these branches can be determined by considering the
• 5• Z11
shortcircuit impedance between pairs of windings with
E ~ Load
Z12
Z22
the third open.
A' B' C ' A' B'
Zero bus S
(a) Model of transformer (b) Equivalent circuit of model
Z1 =Z11Z12 Z2=Z22Z12 r1+jx1 r2+jx2
A B A B Zs
Secondary
Z3=Z12 R jXM
Zp
P Primary
A' B' A' B'
Zero bus Zero bus
(c) 'T' equivalent circuit (d) 'π' equivalent circuit Tertiary
ZT =Z1+Z2 Zt
A B
A' B' T
Zero bus
(e) Equivalent circuit: secondary winding s/c Zero bus
5.15 TRANSFORMER ZERO SEQUENCE The exceptions to the general rule of neglecting
EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS magnetising impedance occur when the transformer is
star/star and either or both neutrals are earthed. In
The flow of zero sequence currents in a transformer is
these circumstances the transformer is connected to the
only possible when the transformer forms part of a
zero bus through the magnetising impedance. Where a
closed loop for unidirectional currents and ampereturn
threephase transformer bank is arranged without
balance is maintained between windings.
interlinking magnetic flux (that is a threephase shell
The positive sequence equivalent circuit is still type, or three singlephase units) and provided there is a
maintained to represent the transformer, but now there path for zero sequence currents, the zero sequence
are certain conditions attached to its connection into the impedance is equal to the positive sequence impedance. • 5•
external circuit. The order of excitation impedance is In the case of threephase core type units, the zero
very much lower than for the positive sequence circuit; sequence fluxes produced by zero sequence currents can
it will be roughly between 1 and 4 per unit, but still high find a high reluctance path, the effect being to reduce
enough to be neglected in most fault studies. the zero sequence impedance to about 90% of the
The mode of connection of a transformer to the external positive sequence impedance.
circuit is determined by taking account of each winding However, in hand calculations, it is usual to ignore this
arrangement and its connection or otherwise to ground. variation and consider the positive and zero sequence
If zero sequence currents can flow into and out of a impedances to be equal. It is common when using
winding, the winding terminal is connected to the software to perform fault calculations to enter a value of
external circuit (that is, link a is closed in Figure 5.13). If zerosequence impedance in accordance with the above
zero sequence currents can circulate in the winding guidelines, if the manufacturer is unable to provide a
without flowing in the external circuit, the winding value.
terminal is connected directly to the zero bus (that is,
link b is closed in Figure 5.13). Table 5.3 gives the zero
sequence connections of some common two and three
winding transformer arrangements applying the above rules.
Connections and zero phase sequence currents Zero phase sequence network
a ZT a
b b
Zero bus
a ZT a
b b
Zero bus
a ZT a
b b
Zero bus
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
a ZT a
b b
Zero bus
a ZT a
b b
Zero bus
a ZT a
b b
Zero bus
ZT
Zero bus
Zs
a Zp a
Zt a
b b b
Zero bus
Zs
a a
• 5• Zp
Zt a
b b b
Zero bus
Zs
a Zp a
Zt a
b b b
Zero bus
Zs
a Zp a
Zt a
b b b
Zero bus
Zs
a Zp a
Zt a
b b b
Zero bus
5 . 1 6 A U TO  T R A N S F O R M E R S
ZT ZT
The autotransformer is characterised by a single a
2 2
a
continuous winding, part of which is shared by both the
high and low voltage circuits, as shown in Figure 5.14(a).
The 'common' winding is the winding between the low b Ze b
voltage terminals whereas the remainder of the winding,
belonging exclusively to the high voltage circuit, is
designated the 'series' winding, and, combined with the Zero potential bus
'common' winding, forms the 'seriescommon' winding (a) Two windings
between the high voltage terminals. The advantage of
using an autotransformer as opposed to a twowinding
transformer is that the autotransformer is smaller and a
5.16.2 Zero Sequence Equivalent Circuit With the equivalent delta replacing the star impedances
The zero sequence equivalent circuit is derived in a in the autotransformer zero sequence equivalent circuit
similar manner to the positive sequence circuit, except the transformer can be combined with the system
that, as there is no identity for the neutral point, the impedances in the usual manner to obtain the system
current in the neutral and the neutral voltage cannot be zero sequence diagram.
given directly. Furthermore, in deriving the branch
impedances, account must be taken of an impedance in 5.17 TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCES
the neutral Zn, as shown in the following equations,
In the vast majority of fault calculations, the Protection
where Zx, Zy and Zz are the impedances of the low, high
Engineer is only concerned with the transformer leakage
and tertiary windings respectively and N is the ratio
impedance; the magnetising impedance is neglected, as
between the series and common windings.
it is very much higher. Impedances for transformers
rated 200MVA or less are given in IEC 60076 and
N
Z x = Z L +3 Zn repeated in Table 5.4, together with an indication of X/R
( N +1) values (not part of IEC 60076). These impedances are
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
>200 by agreement
N
Z HT = Z s−t Table 5.4: Transformer impedances  IEC 60076
(1 + N ) …Equation 5.10
• 60 • Network Protection & Automation Guide
Chapt 54677 21/06/02 9:40 Page 61
MVA Primary Primary Taps Secondary kV Z% HV/LV X/R ratio MVA Primary kV Primary Taps Secondary kV Z% HV/LV X/R ratio
MVA Primary Primary Secondary Tertiary Z% X/R MVA Primary Primary Secondary Z% X/R
kV Taps kV kV HV/LV ratio kV Taps kV HV/LV ratio
20 220 +12.5% 7.5% 6.9  9.9 18 95 132 ±10% 11 13.5 46
20 230 +12.5% 7.5% 6.9  1014 13 140 157.5 ±10% 11.5 12.7 41
57 275 ±10% 11.8 7.2 18.2 34 141 400 ±5% 15 14.7 57
74 345 +14.4% 10% 96 12 8.9 25 151 236 ±5% 15 13.6 47
79.2 220 +10% 15% 11.6 11 18.9 35 167 145 +7.5% 16.5% 15 25.7 71
120 275 +10% 15% 34.5  22.5 63 180 289 ±5% 16 13.4 34
125 230 ±16.8% 66  13.1 52 180 132 ±10% 15 13.8 40
125 230 not known 150  1014 22 247 432 +3.75% 16.25% 15.5 15.2 61
180 275 ±15% 66 13 22.2 38 250 300 +11.2% 17.6% 15 28.6 70
255 230 +10% 16.5  14.8 43 290 420 ±10% 15 15.7 43
Table 5.6: Impedances of two winding distribution transformers 307 432 +3.75% 16.25% 15.5 15.3 67
– Primary voltage >200kV 346 435 +5% 15% 17.5 16.4 81
420 432 +5.55% 14.45% 22 16 87
437.8 144.1 +10.8% 21.6% 21 14.6 50
450 132 ±10% 19 14 49
600 420 ±11.25% 21 16.2 74
MVA Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Tertiary Z% X/R
kV Taps kV Taps kV HV/LV ratio 716 525 ±10% 19 15.7 61
100 66  33   10.7 28 721 362 +6.25% 13.75% 22 15.2 83 • 5•
180 275  132 ±15% 13 15.5 55 736 245 +7% 13% 22 15.5 73
240 400  132 +15% 5% 13 20.2 83 900 525 +7% 13% 23 15.7 67
240 400  132 +15% 5% 13 20.0 51 (a) Threephase units
240 400  132 +15% 5% 13 20.0 61
MVA/ Primary Primary Secondary Z% X/R
250 400  132 +15% 5% 13 1013 50 phase kV Taps kV HV/LV ratio
500 400  132 +0% 15% 22 14.3 51 
266.7 432/√3 +6.67% 13.33% 23.5 15.8 92
750 400  275  13 12.1 90 
266.7 432/√3 +6.6% 13.4% 23.5 15.7 79
1000 400  275  13 15.8 89 
277 515/√3 ±5% 22 16.9 105
1000 400  275  33 17.0 91 
375 525/√3 +6.66% 13.32% 26 15 118
333.3 500√3− ±10% 230√3−  22 18.2 101 375

420/√3 +6.66% 13.32% 26 15.1 112
(b) Singlephase units
Table 5.8: Autotransformer data
Table 5.7: Impedances of generator transformers
5.18 OVERHEAD LINES AND CABLES between conductors becomes Zm. However, for rigorous
calculations a detailed treatment is necessary, with
In this section a description of common overhead lines
account being taken of the spacing of a conductor in
and cable systems is given, together with tables of their
relation to its neighbour and earth.
important characteristics. The formulae for calculating
the characteristics are developed to give a basic idea of
the factors involved, and to enable calculations to be 5 . 1 9 C A L C U L AT I O N O F S E R I E S I M P E D A N C E
made for systems other than those tabulated. The self impedance of a conductor with an earth return
A transmission circuit may be represented by an and the mutual impedance between two parallel
equivalent π or T network using lumped constants as conductors with a common earth return are given by the
shown in Figure 5.15. Z is the total series impedance Carson equations:
(R + jX)L and Y is the total shunt admittance (G + jB)L, De
Z p = R +0.000988 f + j0.0029 f log10
where L is the circuit length. The terms inside the dc
brackets in Figure 5.15 are correction factors that allow …Equation 5.11
for the fact that in the actual circuit the parameters are Zm = 0.000988 f + j0.0029 f log10
De
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
D
distributed over the whole length of the circuit and not
lumped, as in the equivalent circuits. where:
With short lines it is usually possible to ignore the shunt R = conductor a.c. resistance (ohms/km)
admittance, which greatly simplifies calculations, but on dc = geometric mean radius of a single conductor
longer lines it must be included. Another simplification D = spacing between the parallel conductors
that can be made is that of assuming the conductor
f = system frequency
configuration to be symmetrical. The selfimpedance of
each conductor becomes Zp , and the mutual impedance De = equivalent spacing of the earth return path
= 216√p/f where p is earth resistivity (ohms/cm3)
R X R X
The above formulae give the impedances in ohms/km. It
should be noted that the last terms in Equation 5.11 are
G B G B very similar to the classical inductance formulae for long
straight conductors.
Series impedance Z = R + jX per unit length
Shunt admittance Y = G + jB per unit length The geometric means radius (GMR) of a conductor is an
(a) Actual transmission circuit equivalent radius that allows the inductance formula to
be reduced to a single term. It arises because the
sinh ZY inductance of a solid conductor is a function of the
Z
ZY internal flux linkages in addition to those external to it.
If the original conductor can be replaced by an
Y tanh ZY 2 Y tanh ZY 2 equivalent that is a hollow cylinder with infinitesimally
2 ZY 2 2 ZY 2 thin walls, the current is confined to the surface of the
conductor, and there can be no internal flux. The
(b) π Equivalent geometric mean radius is the radius of the equivalent
• 5• conductor. If the original conductor is a solid cylinder
Z tanh ZY 2 Z tanh ZY 2 having a radius r its equivalent has a radius of 0.779r.
2 ZY 2 2 ZY 2 It can be shown that the sequence impedances for a
symmetrical threephase circuit are:
sinh ZY
Y
ZY Z1 = Z2 = Z p − Zm
(c) T Equivalent Zo = Z p + 2 Zm
…Equation 5.12
Note: Z and Y in (b) and (c) are the total series where Zp and Zm are given by Equation 5.11.
impedance and shunt admittance respectively.
Z=(R+jX)L and Y=(G+jB)L where L is the circuit length.
Substituting Equation 5.11 in Equation 5.12 gives:
Z2Y2 Z3Y3 D
sinh ZY
=1+
ZY
+ + + ... Z1 = Z2 = R + j0.0029 f log10
ZY 6 120 5040 dc
tanh ZY ZY Z2Y2 17Z3Y3 De
= 1 + + + ... Zo = R +0.00296 f + j0.00869 f log10
ZY 12 120 20160 3
dcD 2
Figure 5.15: Transmission circuit equivalents …Equation 5.13
D
geometric mean radius of the conductor group. a b
Where the circuit is not symmetrical, the usual case,
symmetry can be maintained by transposing the
conductors so that each conductor is in each phase Conductor
position for one third of the circuit length. If A, B and C Radius r
are the spacings between conductors bc, ca and ab then
h
D in the above equations becomes the geometric mean
distance between conductors, equal to √ABC.
3
D'
Writing Dc = √
3
dcD2,
the sequence impedances in
ohms/km at 50Hz become:
Earth
3
ABC
Z1 = Z2 = R + j0.145 log10
dc
5 . 2 0 C A L C U L AT I O N O F S H U N T I M P E D A N C E
It can be shown that the potential of a conductor a
above ground due to its own charge qa and a charge qa
on its image is: a'
where h is the height above ground of the conductor and to the conductor spacing, which is the case with overhead
r is the radius of the conductor, as shown in Figure 5.16. lines, 2h=D’. From Equation 5.12, the sequence
impedances of a symmetrical threephase circuit are:
Similarly, it can be shown that the potential of a
conductor a due to a charge qb on a neighbouring D
Z1 = Z2 = − j0.132 log10
conductor b and the charge qb on its image is: r
D' D'
Va' =2 qbloge Zo = − j0.396 log10
D …Equation 5.16
3
rD 2 …Equation 5.18
where D is the spacing between conductors a and b and It should be noted that the logarithmic terms above are
D’ is the spacing between conductor b and the image of similar to those in Equation 5.13 except that r is the
conductor a as shown in Figure 5.14. actual radius of the conductors and D’ is the spacing • 5•
between the conductors and their images.
Since the capacitance C=q/V and the capacitive
reactance Xc =1/ωC, it follows that the self and mutual Again, where the conductors are not symmetrically
capacitive reactance of the conductor system in Figure spaced but transposed, Equation 5.18 can be rewritten
5.16 can be obtained directly from Equations 5.15 and making use of the geometric mean distance between
conductors, √ABC, and giving the distance of each
3
5.16. Further, as leakage can usually be neglected, the
self and mutual shunt impedances Z’p and Z’m in conductor above ground, that is, ha , h2 , hc , as follows:
megohmkm at a system frequency of 50Hz are:
ABC
3
Z1 = Z2 = − j0.132 log10
2h r
Z'p = − j0.132 log10
r 8 ha hbhb
Z0 = − j0.132 log10
D' r 3 A 2 B 2 C 2 …Equation 5.19
Z'm = − j0.132 log10
D …Equation 5.17
3.80
A B C 0.50
a a
A A
6.0
A=3.5m
U n (kV) a (m)
R2
3.3 0.55
6.6 0.67 R1
11 0.8
22
W
1
33 1.25 X
Y
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
1.75  K
2.00  N c
3.30 a 4.00
6.6 2
2.50 3.30 b
2
a d 3.50
2.50 a 2.8 2.8
2.70
a b c d a U n (kV) a (m)
3.5 3.5
3.50
63 kV(K) 3.0 3.7 3.0 1.4
Un(kV) a (m)
90 kV (N) 3.1 3.8 3.8 1.85 63 1.40
R1 R1 66 1.40
63 1.4
Y Y
• 5•
3.4 6.20
6.60 2 a
2.75 4.1 3.9 3.9
2
b
3.7 5.80
2.75
3.10 a
4.2 4.2
a=3.7m
b=4.6m 8.0 8.0
R1 R1
W W
Y Y
8.45
12.2 2.5
d
1.75 5.0
5.0 7.5 5.20
a
p
6.0
16.4 b
7.50
6.0
c
n1 n2
a b c d n n1 n2 p
n
R1 R2 A 3.5 3.8 4.1 2.8
9.5 5.0 4.5 6.3
B 4.2 4.5 4.8 2.8
W R1 9.8 5.0 4.8 6.3
C 4.2 4.5 4.8 2.8
X W
9.74 25.1
8.5
7.0
2.40 9.2 6.7 6.7
11.3 8.5
X X
7.5 20.0
0 0
10.0 • 5•
12.0
8.0 0 0 0
5.0
9.5
9.5 8.0
9.5 12.0
16.0
37.0
23.0
where:
De
Zaa = R +0.000988 f + j0.0029 f log10
dc
De
Zab = 0.000988 f + j0.0029 f log10
D
and so on.
The equation required for the calculation of shunt
voltage drops is identical to Equation 5.20 in form,
except that primes must be included, the impedances
being derived from Equation 5.17.
Figure 5.18: Typical overhead line tower
fourth column and substituting Jaa for Zaa, Jab for Zab , and
The development of these equations for double circuit
so on, calculated using Equation 5.21. The single circuit line
lines with two earth wires is similar except that more
• 5•
with a single earth wire can therefore be replaced by an
equivalent single circuit line having phase self and mutual terms are involved.
impedances Jaa , Jab and so on. The sequence mutual impedances are very small and can
It can be shown from the symmetrical component theory usually be neglected; this also applies for double circuit
given in Chapter 4 that the sequence voltage drops of a lines except for the mutual impedance between the zero
general threephase circuit are: sequence circuits, namely (ZOO’ = ZO’O). Table 5.10 gives
typical values of all sequence self and mutual impedances
V0 = Z00 I 0 + Z01 I1 + Z02 I 2 some single and double circuit lines with earth wires. All
conductors are 400mm2 ACSR, except for the 132kV
V1 = Z10 I 0 + Z11 I1 + Z12 I 2 double circuit example where they are 200mm2.
V2 = Z20 I 0 + Z21 I1 + Z22 I 2
…Equation 5.22
5.22 OHL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
And, from Equation 5.20 modified as indicated above and
Equation 5.22, the sequence impedances are: Consider an earthed, infinite busbar source behind a
length of transmission line as shown in Figure 5.19(a).
An earth fault involving phase A is assumed to occur at
F. If the driving voltage is E and the fault current is Ia
F
distance relay applications because the phase and earth
Source Line fault relays are set to measure Z2 and are compensated
for the earth return impedance (Z0Z1)/3.
~ C
It is customary to quote the impedances of a
transmission circuit in terms of Z1 and the ratio Z0/Z1 ,
~ B
since in this form they are most directly useful. By
definition, the positive sequence impedance Z1 is a
~ A function of the conductor spacing and radius, whereas
the Z0/Z1 ratio is dependent primarily on the level of
earth resistivity ρ. Further details may be found in
Chapter 12.
E
(a) Actual circuit
5.23 CABLE CIRCUITS
S Ic Z1 F
C The basic formulae for calculating the series and shunt
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
5 . 2 4 O V E R H E A D L I N E A N D C A B L E D ATA
The following tables contain typical data on overhead
Number of Layers Number of Al Strands GMR
lines and cables that can be used in conjunction with the
Is
Overall RDC
Stranding Wire Diameter Diameter (20°C) Stranding and wire Sectional areaTotal Approx. RDC
area (mm2) (mm) (mm) (Ohm/km) Designation diameter (mm) (mm2) area overall at 20 °C
(mm ) diameter (Ohm/km)
2
304.3 37 3.23 22.63 0.060 Dove 26 3.72 7 2.89 282.0 45.9 327.9 23.55 0.103
329.3 61 2.62 23.60 0.056 Teal 30 3.61 19 2.16 306.6 69.6 376.2 25.24 0.095
354.7 61 2.72 24.49 0.052 Swift 36 3.38 1 3.38 322.3 9.0 331.2 23.62 0.089
380.0 61 2.82 25.35 0.048
Tern 45 3.38 7 2.25 402.8 27.8 430.7 27.03 0.072
405.3 61 2.91 26.19 0.045
456.0 61 3.09 27.79 0.040 Canary 54 3.28 7 3.28 456.1 59.1 515.2 29.52 0.064
506.7 61 3.25 29.26 0.036 Curlew 54 3.52 7 3.52 523.7 68.1 591.8 31.68 0.055
(a) ASTM Standards Finch 54 3.65 19 2.29 565.0 78.3 643.3 33.35 0.051
Bittern 45 4.27 7 2.85 644.5 44.7 689.2 34.17 0.045
Overall RDC Falcon 54 4.36 19 2.62 805.7 102.4 908.1 39.26 0.036
Stranding Wire Diameter Diameter (20°C)
area (mm2) (mm) (mm) (Ohm/km) Kiwi 72 4.41 7 2.94 1100.0 47.5 1147.5 44.07 0.027
11.0 1 3.73 3.25 1.617 (a) to ASTM B232
13.0 1 4.06 4.06 1.365
14.0 1 4.22 4.22 1.269
14.5 7 1.63 4.88 1.231 Stranding and wire Sectional area
Total Approx. RDC
16.1 1 4.52 4.52 1.103 Designation diameter (mm) (mm2) area overall at 20 °C
18.9 1 4.90 4.90 0.938 (mm ) diameter (Ohm/km)
2
Aluminium Steel Aluminium Steel (mm) ASTM B399  37 3.962 456.2 27.7 0.073
CANNA 59.7 12 2 7 2 37.7 22.0 59.7 10 0.765 ASTM B399  37 4.176 506.8 29.2 0.066
CANNA 75.5 12 2.25 7 2.25 47.7 27.8 75.5 11.25 0.604 (a) ASTM
CANNA 93.3 12 2.5 7 2.5 58.9 34.4 93.3 12.5 0.489
No. Wire Sectional Overall RDC
CANNA 116.2 30 2 7 2 94.2 22.0 116.2 14 0.306
Standard Designation of Al diameter area diameter at 20°C
CROCUS 116.2 30 2 7 2 94.2 22.0 116.2 14 0.306 Strands (mm) (mm2) (mm) (Ohm/km)
CANNA 147.1 30 2.25 7 2.25 119.3 27.8 147.1 15.75 0.243
BS 3242 Box 7 1.85 18.8 5.6 1.750
CROCUS 181.6 30 2.5 7 2.5 147.3 34.4 181.6 17.5 0.197
BS 3242 Acacia 7 2.08 23.8 6.2 1.384
CROCUS 228 30 2.8 7 2.8 184.7 43.1 227.8 19.6 0.157
BS 3242 Almond 7 2.34 30.1 7.0 1.094
CROCUS 297 36 2.8 19 2.25 221.7 75.5 297.2 22.45 0.131
BS 3242 Cedar 7 2.54 35.5 7.6 0.928
CANNA 288 30 3.15 7 3.15 233.8 54.6 288.3 22.05 0.124
BS 3242 Fir 7 2.95 47.8 8.9 0.688
CROCUS 288 30 3.15 7 3.15 233.8 54.6 288.3 22.05 0.124
BS 3242 Hazel 7 3.3 59.9 9.9 0.550
CROCUS 412 32 3.6 19 2.4 325.7 86.0 411.7 26.4 0.089
BS 3242 Pine 7 3.61 71.6 10.8 0.460
CROCUS 612 66 3.13 19 2.65 507.8 104.8 612.6 32.03 0.057
BS 3242 Willow 7 4.04 89.7 12.1 0.367
CROCUS 865 66 3.72 19 3.15 717.3 148.1 865.4 38.01 0.040
BS 3242  7 4.19 96.5 12.6 0.341
(d) to NF C34120 BS 3242  7 4.45 108.9 13.4 0.302
Table 5.14: Overhead line conductor data  aluminium BS 3242 Oak 7 4.65 118.9 14.0 0.277 • 5•
conductors steel reinforced (ACSR). BS 3242 Mullberry 19 3.18 150.9 15.9 0.219
BS 3242 Ash 19 3.48 180.7 17.4 0.183
BS 3242 Elm 19 3.76 211.0 18.8 0.157
BS 3242 Poplar 37 2.87 239.4 20.1 0.139
BS 3242 Sycamore 37 3.23 303.2 22.6 0.109
BS 3242 Upas 37 3.53 362.1 24.7 0.092
BS 3242 Yew 37 4.06 479.0 28.4 0.069
BS 3242 Totara 37 4.14 498.1 29.0 0.067
BS 3242 Rubus 61 3.5 586.9 31.5 0.057
BS 3242 Araucaria 61 4.14 821.1 28.4 0.040
(b) BS
No. Wire Sectional Overall RDC No. of Wire Sectional Overall RDC
Standard Design. of Al diameter area diameter at 20°C Standard Designation Al diameter area diameter at 20°C
Strands (mm) (mm2) (mm) (Ohm/km) Strands (mm) (mm2) (mm) (Ohm/km)
CSA C49.1M87 10 7 1.45 11.5 4.3 2.863 NF C34125 ASTER 22 7 2 22.0 6.0 1.497
CSA C49.1M87 16 7 1.83 18.4 5.5 1.788 NF C34125 ASTER 344 7 2.5 34.4 7.5 0.958
CSA C49.1M87 25 7 2.29 28.8 6.9 1.142 NF C34125 ASTER 546 7 3.15 54.6 9.5 0.604
CSA C49.1M87 40 7 2.89 46.0 8.7 0.716 NF C34125 ASTER 755 19 2.25 75.5 11.3 0.438
CSA C49.1M87 63 7 3.63 72.5 10.9 0.454 NF C34125 ASTER 93,3 19 2.5 93.3 12.5 0.355
CSA C49.1M87 100 19 2.78 115.1 13.9 0.287 NF C34125 ASTER 117 19 2.8 117.0 14.0 0.283
CSA C49.1M87 125 19 3.1 143.9 15.5 0.230 NF C34125 ASTER 148 19 3.15 148.1 15.8 0.223
CSA C49.1M87 160 19 3.51 184.2 17.6 0.180 NF C34125 ASTER 1816 37 2.5 181.6 17.5 0.183
CSA C49.1M87 200 19 3.93 230.2 19.6 0.144 NF C34125 ASTER 228 37 2.8 227.8 19.6 0.146
CSA C49.1M87 250 19 4.39 287.7 22.0 0.115 NF C34125 ASTER 288 37 3.15 288.3 22.1 0.115
CSA C49.1M87 315 37 3.53 362.1 24.7 0.092 NF C34125 ASTER 366 37 3.55 366.2 24.9 0.091
CSA C49.1M87 400 37 3.98 460.4 27.9 0.072 NF C34125 ASTER 570 61 3.45 570.2 31.1 0.058
CSA C49.1M87 450 37 4.22 517.9 29.6 0.064 NF C34125 ASTER 851 91 3.45 850.7 38.0 0.039
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
CSA C49.1M87 500 37 4.45 575.5 31.2 0.058 NF C34125 ASTER 1144 91 4 1143.5 44.0 0.029
CSA C49.1M87 560 37 4.71 644.5 33.0 0.051 NF C34125 ASTER 1600 127 4 1595.9 52.0 0.021
CSA C49.1M87 630 61 3.89 725.0 35.0 0.046 (e) NF
CSA C49.1M87 710 61 4.13 817.2 37.2 0.041
CSA C49.1M87 800 61 4.38 920.8 39.5 0.036 Table 5.15 (cont): Overhead line conductor data  aluminium alloy.
CSA C49.1M87 900 61 4.65 1035.8 41.9 0.032
CSA C49.1M87 1000 91 4.01 1150.9 44.1 0.029
CSA C49.1M87 1120 91 4.25 1289.1 46.7 0.026
CSA C49.1M87 1250 91 4.49 1438.7 49.4 0.023
CSA C49.1M87 1400 91 4.75 1611.3 52.2 0.021
CSA C49.1M87 1500 91 4.91 1726.4 54.1 0.019
(c) CSA
(a) ASTM
DIN 48206 70/12 26 1.85 7 1.44 69.9 11.4 81.3 11.7 0.479
DIN 48206 95/15 26 2.15 7 1.67 94.4 15.3 109.7 13.6 0.355
DIN 48206 125/30 30 2.33 7 2.33 127.9 29.8 157.8 16.3 0.262
DIN 48206 150/25 26 2.7 7 2.1 148.9 24.2 173.1 17.1 0.225
DIN 48206 170/40 30 2.7 7 2.7 171.8 40.1 211.8 18.9 0.195
DIN 48206 185/30 26 3 7 2.33 183.8 29.8 213.6 19 0.182
DIN 48206 210/50 30 3 7 3 212.1 49.5 261.5 21 0.158
DIN 48206 230/30 24 3.5 7 2.33 230.9 29.8 260.8 21 0.145
DIN 48206 265/35 24 3.74 7 2.49 263.7 34.1 297.7 22.4 0.127
DIN 48206 305/40 54 2.68 7 2.68 304.6 39.5 344.1 24.1 0.110
DIN 48206 380/50 54 3 7 3 381.7 49.5 431.2 27 0.088
DIN 48206 450/40 48 3.45 7 2.68 448.7 39.5 488.2 28.7 0.075
DIN 48206 560/50 48 3.86 7 3 561.7 49.5 611.2 32.2 0.060
DIN 48206 680/85 54 4 19 2.4 678.6 86.0 764.5 36 0.049
(b) DIN
(c) NF
13.3 2.1586 2.159 0.395 0.409 0.420 0.434 0.445 8.7 0.503 7.6 0.513 7.4 0.520 7.3 0.541 7.0 0.528 7.2 0.556 6.8
15.3 1.8771 1.877 0.391 0.405 0.415 0.429 0.441 8.8 0.499 7.7 0.508 7.5 0.515 7.4 0.537 7.1 0.523 7.3 0.552 6.9
21.2 1.3557 1.356 0.381 0.395 0.405 0.419 0.430 9.0 0.488 7.8 0.498 7.7 0.505 7.6 0.527 7.2 0.513 7.4 0.542 7.0
23.9 1.2013 1.201 0.376 0.390 0.401 0.415 0.426 9.1 0.484 7.9 0.494 7.8 0.501 7.6 0.522 7.3 0.509 7.5 0.537 7.1
26.2 1.0930 1.093 0.374 0.388 0.398 0.412 0.424 9.2 0.482 8.0 0.491 7.8 0.498 7.7 0.520 7.3 0.506 7.5 0.535 7.1
28.3 1.0246 1.025 0.352 0.366 0.377 0.391 0.402 9.4 0.460 8.2 0.470 8.0 0.477 7.8 0.498 7.5 0.485 7.7 0.513 7.3
33.6 0.8535 0.854 0.366 0.380 0.390 0.404 0.416 9.4 0.474 8.1 0.484 7.9 0.491 7.8 0.512 7.5 0.499 7.7 0.527 7.2
37.7 0.7647 0.765 0.327 0.341 0.351 0.365 0.376 9.7 0.435 8.4 0.444 8.2 0.451 8.1 0.473 7.7 0.459 7.9 0.488 7.4
42.4 0.6768 0.677 0.359 0.373 0.383 0.397 0.409 9.6 0.467 8.3 0.476 8.1 0.483 7.9 0.505 7.6 0.491 7.8 0.520 7.3
Equivalent Circuits and Parameters of Power System Plant
44.0 0.6516 0.652 0.320 0.334 0.344 0.358 0.369 9.9 0.427 8.5 0.437 8.3 0.444 8.2 0.465 7.8 0.452 8.0 0.481 7.5
47.7 0.6042 0.604 0.319 0.333 0.344 0.358 0.369 9.9 0.427 8.5 0.437 8.3 0.444 8.2 0.465 7.8 0.452 8.1 0.480 7.6
51.2 0.5634 0.564 0.317 0.331 0.341 0.355 0.367 10.0 0.425 8.6 0.434 8.4 0.441 8.2 0.463 7.9 0.449 8.1 0.478 7.6
58.9 0.4894 0.490 0.313 0.327 0.337 0.351 0.362 10.1 0.421 8.7 0.430 8.5 0.437 8.3 0.459 7.9 0.445 8.2 0.474 7.7
63.1 0.4545 0.455 0.346 0.360 0.371 0.385 0.396 9.9 0.454 8.5 0.464 8.3 0.471 8.2 0.492 7.8 0.479 8.0 0.507 7.5
67.4 0.4255 0.426 0.344 0.358 0.369 0.383 0.394 10.0 0.452 8.5 0.462 8.3 0.469 8.2 0.490 7.8 0.477 8.1 0.505 7.6
73.4 0.3930 0.393 0.306 0.320 0.330 0.344 0.356 10.3 0.414 8.8 0.423 8.6 0.430 8.5 0.452 8.1 0.438 8.3 0.467 7.8
79.2 0.3622 0.362 0.339 0.353 0.363 0.377 0.389 10.1 0.447 8.7 0.457 8.4 0.464 8.3 0.485 7.9 0.472 8.2 0.500 7.6
85.0 0.3374 0.338 0.337 0.351 0.361 0.375 0.387 10.2 0.445 8.7 0.454 8.5 0.461 8.4 0.483 7.9 0.469 8.2 0.498 7.7
94.4 0.3054 0.306 0.302 0.316 0.327 0.341 0.352 10.3 0.410 8.8 0.420 8.6 0.427 8.4 0.448 8.0 0.435 8.3 0.463 7.8
105.0 0.2733 0.274 0.330 0.344 0.355 0.369 0.380 10.4 0.438 8.8 0.448 8.6 0.455 8.5 0.476 8.1 0.463 8.3 0.491 7.8
121.6 0.2371 0.237 0.294 0.308 0.318 0.332 0.344 10.6 0.402 9.0 0.412 8.8 0.419 8.6 0.440 8.2 0.427 8.4 0.455 7.9
127.9 0.2254 0.226 0.290 0.304 0.314 0.328 0.340 10.7 0.398 9.0 0.407 8.8 0.414 8.7 0.436 8.2 0.422 8.5 0.451 8.0
131.2 0.2197 0.220 0.289 0.303 0.313 0.327 0.339 10.7 0.397 9.1 0.407 8.8 0.414 8.7 0.435 8.3 0.421 8.5 0.450 8.0
135.2 0.2133 0.214 0.297 0.311 0.322 0.336 0.347 10.5 0.405 9.0 0.415 8.8 0.422 8.6 0.443 8.2 0.430 8.4 0.458 7.9
148.9 0.1937 0.194 0.288 0.302 0.312 0.326 0.338 10.8 0.396 9.1 0.406 8.9 0.413 8.7 0.434 8.3 0.420 8.6 0.449 8.0
158.7 0.1814 0.182 0.292 0.306 0.316 0.330 0.342 10.7 0.400 9.1 0.410 8.9 0.417 8.7 0.438 8.3 0.425 8.5 0.453 8.0
170.5 0.1691 0.170 0.290 0.304 0.314 0.328 0.340 10.8 0.398 9.1 0.407 8.9 0.414 8.8 0.436 8.3 0.422 8.6 0.451 8.0
184.2 0.1565 0.157 0.287 0.302 0.312 0.326 0.337 10.9 0.395 9.2 0.405 9.0 0.412 8.8 0.433 8.4 0.420 8.6 0.449 8.1
201.4 0.1438 0.144 0.280 0.294 0.304 0.318 0.330 11.0 0.388 9.3 0.398 9.1 0.405 8.9 0.426 8.5 0.412 8.8 0.441 8.2
210.6 0.1366 0.137 0.283 0.297 0.308 0.322 0.333 11.0 0.391 9.3 0.401 9.1 0.408 8.9 0.429 8.4 0.416 8.7 0.444 8.1
221.7 0.1307 0.131 0.274 0.288 0.298 0.312 0.323 11.3 0.381 9.5 0.391 9.3 0.398 9.1 0.419 8.6 0.406 8.9 0.435 8.3
230.9 0.1249 0.126 0.276 0.290 0.300 0.314 0.326 11.2 0.384 9.4 0.393 9.2 0.400 9.0 0.422 8.6 0.408 8.9 0.437 8.3
241.7 0.1193 0.120 0.279 0.293 0.303 0.317 0.329 11.2 0.387 9.4 0.396 9.2 0.403 9.0 0.425 8.5 0.411 8.8 0.440 8.2
263.7 0.1093 0.110 0.272 0.286 0.296 0.310 0.321 11.3 0.380 9.5 0.389 9.3 0.396 9.1 0.418 8.6 0.404 8.9 0.433 8.3
282.0 0.1022 0.103 0.274 0.288 0.298 0.312 0.324 11.3 0.382 9.5 0.392 9.3 0.399 9.1 0.420 8.6 0.406 8.9 0.435 8.3
306.6 0.0945 0.095 0.267 0.281 0.291 0.305 0.317 11.5 0.375 9.7 0.384 9.4 0.391 9.2 0.413 8.7 0.399 9.1 0.428 8.4
• 5• 322.3 0.0895 0.090 0.270 0.284 0.294 0.308 0.320 11.5 0.378 9.6 0.387 9.4 0.394 9.2 0.416 8.7 0.402 9.0 0.431 8.4
339.3 0.085 0.086 0.265 0.279 0.289 0.303 0.315 11.6 0.373 9.7 0.383 9.5 0.390 9.3 0.411 8.8 0.398 9.1 0.426 8.5
362.6 0.0799 0.081 0.262 0.276 0.286 0.300 0.311 11.7 0.369 9.8 0.379 9.6 0.386 9.4 0.408 8.9 0.394 9.2 0.423 8.5
386.0 0.0747 0.076 0.261 0.275 0.285 0.299 0.311 11.8 0.369 9.8 0.379 9.6 0.386 9.4 0.407 8.9 0.393 9.2 0.422 8.6
402.8 0.0719 0.073 0.261 0.275 0.285 0.299 0.310 11.8 0.368 9.9 0.378 9.6 0.385 9.4 0.407 8.9 0.393 9.2 0.422 8.6
428.9 0.0671 0.068 0.267 0.281 0.291 0.305 0.316 11.5 0.374 9.7 0.384 9.4 0.391 9.2 0.413 8.7 0.399 9.0 0.428 8.4
448.7 0.0642 0.066 0.257 0.271 0.281 0.295 0.306 11.9 0.364 10.0 0.374 9.7 0.381 9.5 0.402 9.0 0.389 9.3 0.418 8.7
456.1 0.0635 0.065 0.257 0.271 0.281 0.295 0.307 12.0 0.365 10.0 0.374 9.7 0.381 9.5 0.403 9.0 0.389 9.3 0.418 8.7
483.4 0.0599 0.061 0.255 0.269 0.279 0.293 0.305 12.0 0.363 10.0 0.372 9.8 0.379 9.6 0.401 9.0 0.387 9.4 0.416 8.7
494.4 0.0583 0.060 0.254 0.268 0.279 0.293 0.304 12.1 0.362 10.0 0.372 9.8 0.379 9.6 0.400 9.0 0.387 9.4 0.415 8.7
510.5 0.0565 0.058 0.252 0.266 0.277 0.291 0.302 12.1 0.360 10.1 0.370 9.8 0.377 9.6 0.398 9.1 0.385 9.4 0.413 8.7
523.7 0.0553 0.057 0.252 0.266 0.277 0.291 0.302 12.1 0.360 10.1 0.370 9.8 0.377 9.6 0.398 9.1 0.385 9.4 0.413 8.7
13.3 2.1586 2.159 0.474 0.491 0.503 0.520 0.534 8.7 0.604 7.6 0.615 7.4 0.624 7.3 0.649 7.0 0.633 7.2 0.668 6.8
15.3 1.8771 1.877 0.469 0.486 0.498 0.515 0.529 8.8 0.598 7.7 0.610 7.5 0.619 7.4 0.644 7.1 0.628 7.3 0.662 6.9
21.2 1.3557 1.356 0.457 0.474 0.486 0.503 0.516 9.0 0.586 7.8 0.598 7.7 0.606 7.6 0.632 7.2 0.616 7.4 0.650 7.0
23.9 1.2013 1.201 0.452 0.469 0.481 0.498 0.511 9.1 0.581 7.9 0.593 7.8 0.601 7.6 0.627 7.3 0.611 7.5 0.645 7.1
26.2 1.0930 1.093 0.449 0.466 0.478 0.495 0.508 9.2 0.578 8.0 0.590 7.8 0.598 7.7 0.624 7.3 0.608 7.5 0.642 7.1
28.3 1.0246 1.025 0.423 0.440 0.452 0.469 0.483 9.4 0.552 8.2 0.564 8.0 0.572 7.8 0.598 7.5 0.582 7.7 0.616 7.3
33.6 0.8535 0.854 0.439 0.456 0.468 0.485 0.499 9.4 0.569 8.1 0.580 7.9 0.589 7.8 0.614 7.5 0.598 7.7 0.633 7.2
37.7 0.7647 0.765 0.392 0.409 0.421 0.438 0.452 9.7 0.521 8.4 0.533 8.2 0.541 8.1 0.567 7.7 0.551 7.9 0.585 7.4
42.4 0.6768 0.677 0.431 0.447 0.460 0.477 0.490 9.6 0.560 8.3 0.572 8.1 0.580 7.9 0.606 7.6 0.589 7.8 0.624 7.3
Susceptance ωC (mS/km) 0.042 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.059 0.063 0.068 0.075 0.081 0.089 0.094 0.103
Series Resistance R (Ω/km)            0.0387 0.031 0.0254 0.0215
66kV* Series Reactance X (Ω/km)            0.117 0.113 0.109 0.102
Susceptance ωC (mS/km) 0.079 0.082 0.088 0.11
Series Resistance R (Ω/km)            0.0387 0.031 0.0254 0.0215
145kV* Series Reactance X (Ω/km)            0.13 0.125 0.12 0.115
Susceptance ωC (mS/km) 0.053 0.06 0.063 0.072
Series Resistance R (Ω/km) 0.0487 0.0387 0.0310 0.0254 0.0215 0.0161 0.0126
245kV* Series Reactance X (Ω/km) 0.145 0.137 0.134 0.128 0.123 0.119 0.113
Susceptance ωC (mS/km) 0.044 0.047 0.05 0.057 0.057 0.063 0.072
Series Resistance R (Ω/km) 0.0310 0.0254 0.0215 0.0161 0.0126
420kV* Series Reactance X (Ω/km) 0.172 0.162 0.156 0.151 0.144
Susceptance ωC (mS/km) 0.04 0.047 0.05 0.057 0.063
For aluminium conductors of the same crosssection, the resistance increases by 6065 percent, the series reactance and shunt capacitance is virtually unaltered.*  single core cables in trefoil.
Different values apply if laid in spaced flat formation.
Series Resistance  a.c. resistance @ 90°C. Series reactance  equivalent star reactance.
Data for 245kV and 420kV cables may vary significantly from that given, dependent on manufacturer and construction.
• 6 • C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e
Transformers
Introduction 6.1
Electromagnetic voltage
transformers 6.2
Capacitor voltage
transformers 6.3
Novel instrument
transformers 6.5
Chap67897 21/06/02 9:20 Page 79
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Whenever the values of voltage or current in a power
circuit are too high to permit convenient direct
connection of measuring instruments or relays, coupling
is made through transformers. Such 'measuring'
transformers are required to produce a scaled down
replica of the input quantity to the accuracy expected
for the particular measurement; this is made possible by
the high efficiency of the transformer. The performance
of measuring transformers during and following large
instantaneous changes in the input quantity is
important, in that this quantity may depart from the
sinusoidal waveform. The deviation may consist of a
step change in magnitude, or a transient component
that persists for an appreciable period, or both. The
resulting effect on instrument performance is usually
negligible, although for precision metering a persistent
change in the accuracy of the transformer may be
significant.
However, many protection systems are required to
operate during the period of transient disturbance in the
output of the measuring transformers that follows a
system fault. The errors in transformer output may
abnormally delay the operation of the protection, or
cause unnecessary operations. The functioning of such
transformers must, therefore, be examined analytically.
It can be shown that the transformer can be represented
by the equivalent circuit of Figure 6.1, where all
quantities are referred to the secondary side.
1/1 Rp Lp Rs Ls
Ze Burden
When the transformer is not 1/1 ratio, this condition can voltage drops are made small, and the normal flux
be represented by energising the equivalent circuit with an density in the core is designed to be well below the
ideal transformer of the given ratio but having no losses. saturation density, in order that the exciting current may
be low and the exciting impedance substantially
constant with a variation of applied voltage over the
6.1.1 Measuring Transformers desired operating range including some degree of
Voltage and current transformers for low primary voltage overvoltage. These limitations in design result in a VT for
or current ratings are not readily distinguishable; for a given burden being much larger than a typical power
higher ratings, dissimilarities of construction are usual. transformer of similar rating. The exciting current, in
Nevertheless the differences between these devices lie consequence, will not be as small, relative to the rated
principally in the way they are connected into the power burden, as it would be for a typical power transformer.
circuit. Voltage transformers are much like small power
transformers, differing only in details of design that
6.2.1 Errors
control ratio accuracy over the specified range of output.
Current transformers have their primary windings The ratio and phase errors of the transformer can be
connected in series with the power circuit, and so also in calculated using the vector diagram of Figure 6.2.
series with the system impedance. The response of the
The ratio error is defined as:
transformer is radically different in these two modes of
operation. ( K nV s )
× 100%
Vp
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
0.25  1.0 x rated burden at 0.8pf as possible. A short circuit on the secondary circuit
Accuracy 0.05  Vf x rated primary voltage wiring will produce a current of many times the rated
class voltage ratio error phase displacement
(%) (%) output and cause excessive heating. Even where primary
3P +/ 3.0 +/ 120 fuses can be fitted, these will usually not clear a
6P +/ 6.0 +/ 240 secondary side short circuit because of the low value of
Table 6.2: Additional limits for protection voltage transformers.
primary current and the minimum practicable fuse rating.
6.2.5 Construction
6.2.2 Voltage Factors
The construction of a voltage transformer takes into
The quantity Vf in Table 6.2 is an upper limit of operating account the following factors:
voltage, expressed in per unit of rated voltage. This is
important for correct relay operation and operation a. output – seldom more than 200300VA. Cooling is
under unbalanced fault conditions on unearthed or rarely a problem
impedance earthed systems, resulting in a rise in the b. insulation – designed for the system impulse
voltage on the healthy phases. voltage level. Insulation volume is often larger
Voltage factors, with the permissible duration of the than the winding volume
maximum voltage, are given in Table 6.3. c. mechanical design – not usually necessary to
withstand shortcircuit currents. Must be small to
Voltage factor Time Primary winding connection/system fit the space available within switchgear
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
Vf rating earthing conditions
Threephase units are common up to 36kV but for higher
Between lines in any network.
1.2 continuous Between transformer star point and voltages singlephase units are usual. Voltage
earth in any network transformers for medium voltage circuits will have dry
1.2 continuous Between line and earth in an type insulation, but for high and extra high voltage
1.5 30 s effectively earthed network
systems, oil immersed units are general. Resin
1.2 continuous Between line and earth in
a noneffectively earthed neutral system encapsulated designs are in use on systems up to 33kV.
1.9 30 s Figure 6.3 shows a typical voltage transformer.
with automatic earth fault tripping
1.2 continuous Between line and earth in an isolated
neutral system without automatic earth fault
1.9 8 hours tripping, or in a resonant earthed system
without automatic earth fault tripping
Table 6.3: Voltage transformers: Permissible duration
of maximum voltage
voltage equal to three times the zero sequence voltage of If a voltage is suddenly applied, an inrush transient will
the system will be developed. occur, as with power transformers. The effect will,
however, be less severe than for power transformers
because of the lower flux density for which the VT is
A B C
designed. If the VT is rated to have a fairly high voltage
factor, little inrush effect will occur. An error will appear
in the first few cycles of the output current in proportion
to the inrush transient that occurs.
When the supply to a voltage transformer is interrupted,
the core flux will not readily collapse; the secondary
winding will tend to maintain the magnetising force to
Residual sustain this flux, and will circulate a current through the
voltage burden which will decay more or less exponentially,
possible with a superimposed audiofrequency
oscillation due to the capacitance of the winding.
Figure 6.4: Residual voltage connection
Bearing in mind that the exciting quantity, expressed in
ampereturns, may exceed the burden, the transient
current may be significant.
In order to measure this component, it is necessary for a
zero sequence flux to be set up in the VT, and for this to
be possible there must be a return path for the resultant
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
n
6.2.7 Transient Performance S
a
Transient errors cause few difficulties in the use of N
conventional voltage transformers although some do
occur. Errors are generally limited to short time periods
following the sudden application or removal of voltage Figure 6.5: Schematic diagram of typical cascade
from the VT primary. voltage transformer
The conventional type of VT has a single primary winding, the normal value using a relatively inexpensive
the insulation of which presents a great problem for electromagnetic transformer. The successive stages of
voltages above about 132kV. The cascade VT avoids this reasoning are indicated in Figure 6.6.
these difficulties by breaking down the primary voltage
in several distinct and separate stages.
The complete VT is made up of several individual C1 C1
transformers, the primary windings of which are
connected in series, as shown in Figure 6.5. Each L
magnetic core has primary windings (P) on two opposite C2 Zb C2 Zb
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
Figure 6.6: Development of capacitor
winding, which is a fraction of the total according to the voltage transformer
number of stages. The individual transformers are
mounted on a structure built of insulating material, There are numerous variations of this basic circuit. The
which provides the interstage insulation, accumulating inductance L may be a separate unit or it may be
to a value able to withstand the full system voltage incorporated in the form of leakage reactance in the
across the complete height of the stack. The entire transformer T. Capacitors C1 and C2 cannot conveniently
assembly is contained in a hollow cylindrical porcelain be made to close tolerances, so tappings are provided for
housing with external weathersheds; the housing is ratio adjustment, either on the transformer T, or on a
filled with oil and sealed, an expansion bellows being separate autotransformer in the secondary circuit.
included to maintain hermetic sealing and to permit Adjustment of the tuning inductance L is also needed;
expansion with temperature change. this can be done with tappings, a separate tapped
inductor in the secondary circuit, by adjustment of gaps
in the iron cores, or by shunting with variable
6.3 CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS capacitance. A simplified equivalent circuit is shown in
The size of electromagnetic voltage transformers for the Figure 6.7.
higher voltages is largely proportional to the rated
voltage; the cost tends to increase at a disproportionate C L Rp Rs
rate. The capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is often
more economic. • 6•
This device is basically a capacitance potential divider. Zb
Vi Ze
As with resistancetype potential dividers, the output
voltage is seriously affected by load at the tapping point.
The capacitance divider differs in that its equivalent
source impedance is capacitive and can therefore be L  tuning inductance
compensated by a reactor connected in series with the Rp  primary winding resistance (plus losses)
Ze  exciting impedance of transformer T
tapping point. With an ideal reactor, such an Rs  secondary circuit resistance
arrangement would have no regulation and could supply Zb  burden impedance
C  C1 + C2 (in Figure 6.6)
any value of output.
Figure 6.7: Simplified equivalent circuit
A reactor possesses some resistance, which limits the of capacitor voltage transformer
output that can be obtained. For a secondary output
voltage of 110V, the capacitors would have to be very
large to provide a useful output while keeping errors It will be seen that the basic difference between Figure
within the usual limits. The solution is to use a high 6.7 and Figure 6.1 is the presence of C and L. At normal
secondary voltage and further transform the output to frequency when C and L are in resonance and therefore
cancel, the circuit behaves in a similar manner to a and the capacitance of the potential divider together
conventional VT. At other frequencies, however, a form a resonant circuit that will usually oscillate at a
reactive component exists which modifies the errors. subnormal frequency. If this circuit is subjected to a
Standards generally require a CVT used for protection to voltage impulse, the resulting oscillation may pass
conform to accuracy requirements of Table 6.2 within a through a range of frequencies. If the basic frequency of
frequency range of 97103% of nominal. The this circuit is slightly less than onethird of the system
corresponding frequency range of measurement CVT’s is frequency, it is possible for energy to be absorbed from
much less, 99%101%, as reductions in accuracy for the system and cause the oscillation to build up. The
frequency deviations outside this range are less increasing flux density in the transformer core reduces
important than for protection applications. the inductance, bringing the resonant frequency nearer
to the onethird value of the system frequency.
The result is a progressive buildup until the oscillation
6.3.1 Voltage Protection of Auxiliary Capacitor
stabilizes as a third subharmonic of the system, which
If the burden impedance of a CVT were to be short can be maintained indefinitely. Depending on the values
circuited, the rise in the reactor voltage would be limited of components, oscillations at fundamental frequency or
only by the reactor losses and possible saturation, that is, at other subharmonics or multiples of the supply
to Q x E2 where E2 is the noload tapping point voltage frequency are possible but the third subharmonic is the
and Q is the amplification factor of the resonant circuit. one most likely to be encountered.
This value would be excessive and is therefore limited by
The principal manifestation of such an oscillation is a rise
a spark gap connected across the auxiliary capacitor. The
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
voltage on the auxiliary capacitor is higher at full rated in output voltage, the r.m.s. value being perhaps 25%
output than at no load, and the capacitor is rated for 50% above the normal value; the output waveform
continuous service at this raised value. The spark gap will would generally be of the form shown in Figure 6.8.
be set to flash over at about twice the full load voltage.
The effect of the spark gap is to limit the shortcircuit
current which the VT will deliver and fuse protection of
the secondary circuit has to be carefully designed with this
point in mind. Facilities are usually provided to earth the
Amplitude
Z=21.2Ω
IsRs
E=6350V 300/5A Burden
10VA
IsXs Es
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
(a) Physical arrangement Iq
Ir
Z=21.2Ω 0.2Ω Ip
Vs
'Ideal'
CT
E=6350V r=300/5 j50Ω 150Ω 0.4Ω θ
Is
a. the secondary current will not be affected by This is the difference in magnitude between Ip and Is and is
change of the burden impedance over a equal to Ir, the component of Ie which is in phase with Is.
considerable range 6.4.1.2 Phase Error
b. the secondary circuit must not be interrupted while This is represented by Iq, the component of Ie in
the primary winding is energised. The induced quadrature with Is and results in the phase error .
secondary e.m.f. under these circumstances will be The values of the current error and phase error depend on
high enough to present a danger to life and insulation the phase displacement between Is and Ie, but neither
c. the ratio and phase angle errors can be calculated current nor phase error can exceed the vectorial error Ie.
easily if the magnetising characteristics and the It will be seen that with a moderately inductive burden,
burden impedance are known resulting in Is and Ie approximately in phase, there will
be little phase error and the exciting component will Class Current error at Phase displacement Composite error at
result almost entirely in ratio error. rated primary at rated current rated accuracy limit
current (%) (minutes) primary current (%)
A reduction of the secondary winding by one or two 5P +/1 +/60 5
turns is often used to compensate for this. For example, 10P +/3 10
in the CT corresponding to Figure 6.9, the worst error due Standard accuracy limit factors are 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30
to the use of an inductive burden of rated value would Table 6.5: Protection CT error limits for classes 5P and 10P
be about 1.2%. If the nominal turns ratio is 2:120,
removal of one secondary turn would raise the output by
0.83% leaving the overall current error as 0.37%. Even though the burden of a protection CT is only a few
For lower value burden or a different burden power VA at rated current, the output required from the CT may
factor, the error would change in the positive direction to be considerable if the accuracy limit factor is high. For
a maximum of +0.7% at zero burden; the leakage example, with an accuracy limit factor of 30 and a
reactance of the secondary winding is assumed to be burden of 10VA, the CT may have to supply 9000VA to
negligible. No corresponding correction can be made for the secondary circuit.
phase error, but it should be noted that the phase error Alternatively, the same CT may be subjected to a high
is small for moderately reactive burdens. burden. For overcurrent and earth fault protection, with
elements of similar VA consumption at setting, the earth
fault element of an electromechanical relay set at 10%
6.4.2 Composite Error would have 100 times the impedance of the overcurrent
elements set at 100%. Although saturation of the relay
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
Exciting voltage (IIe) in place of three phase CT's whose secondary windings
are residually connected. In this way the CT magnetising
Figure 6.11: Definition of kneepoint
of excitation curve
current at relay operation is reduced by approximately
threetoone, an important consideration in sensitive
earth fault relays where a low effective setting is
Design requirements for current transformers for general required. The number of secondary turns does not need
protection purposes are frequently laid out in terms of to be related to the cable rated current because no
kneepoint e.m.f., exciting current at the kneepoint (or secondary current would flow under normal balanced
some other specified point) and secondary winding conditions. This allows the number of secondary turns to
resistance. Such current transformers are designated be chosen such as to optimise the effective primary pick
Class PX. up current.
Corebalance transformers are normally mounted over a
cable at a point close up to the cable gland of switchgear
6.4.5 CT Winding Arrangements
or other apparatus. Physically split cores ('slipover'
A number of CT winding arrangements are used. These types) are normally available for applications in which
are described in the following sections. the cables are already made up, as on existing
6.4.5.1 Wound primary type switchgear.
This type of CT has conventional windings formed of 6.4.5.4 Summation current transformers • 6•
copper wire wound round a core. It is used for auxiliary The summation arrangement is a winding arrangement
current transformers and for many low or moderate ratio used in a measuring relay or on an auxiliary current
current transformers used in switchgear of up to 11kV transformer to give a singlephase output signal having
rating. a specific relationship to the threephase current input.
6.4.5.2 Bushing or bar primary type 6.4.5.5 Airgapped current transformers
Many current transformers have a ringshaped core, These are auxiliary current transformers in which a small
sometimes built up from annular stampings, but often air gap is included in the core to produce a secondary
consisting of a single length of strip tightly wound to voltage output proportional in magnitude to current in
form a closeturned spiral. The distributed secondary the primary winding. Sometimes termed 'transactors'
winding forms a toroid which should occupy the whole and 'quadrature current transformers', this form of
perimeter of the core, a small gap being left between current transformer has been used as an auxiliary
start and finish leads for insulation. component of unit protection schemes in which the
Such current transformers normally have a single outputs into multiple secondary circuits must remain
concentrically placed primary conductor, sometimes linear for and proportioned to the widest practical range
permanently built into the CT and provided with the of input currents.
6.4.6 Line Current CT’s 10mm. As its name implies the magnetic behaviour
tends to linearisation by the inclusion of this gap in the
CT’s for measuring line currents fall into one of three types.
magnetic circuit. However, the purpose of introducing
6.4.6.1 Overdimensioned CT’s more reluctance into the magnetic circuit is to reduce
Overdimensioned CT’s are capable of transforming fully the value of magnetising reactance. This in turn reduces
offset fault currents without distortion. In consequence, the secondary timeconstant of the CT, thereby reducing
they are very large, as can be deduced from Section the overdimensioning factor necessary for faithful
6.4.10. They are prone to errors due to remanent flux transformation. Figure 6.12 shows a typical modern CT
arising, for instance, from the interruption of heavy fault for use on MV systems.
currents.
6.4.6.2 Antiremanence CT’s 6.4.7 Secondary Winding Impedance
This is a variation of the overdimensioned current As a protection CT may be required to deliver high values
transformer and has small gap(s) in the core magnetic of secondary current, the secondary winding resistance
circuit, thus reducing the possible remanent flux from must be made as low as practicable. Secondary leakage
approximately 90% of saturation value to approximately reactance also occurs, particularly in wound primary
10%. These gap(s) are quite small, for example 0.12mm current transformers, although its precise measurement
total, and so the excitation characteristic is not is difficult. The nonlinear nature of the CT magnetic
significantly changed by their presence. However, the circuit makes it difficult to assess the definite ohmic
resulting decrease in possible remanent core flux value representing secondary leakage reactance.
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
instruments is largely independent of the rated value of when the primary current is suddenly changed. The
current. This is because the winding of the device has to effects are most important, and were first observed in
develop a given number of ampereturns at rated connection with balanced forms of protection, which
current, so that the actual number of turns is inversely were liable to operate unnecessarily when shortcircuit
proportional to the current, and the impedance of the currents were suddenly established.
winding varies inversely with the square of the current
6.4.10.1 Primary current transient
rating. However, electromechanical or static earthfault
relays may have a burden that varies with the current The power system, neglecting load circuits, is mostly
tapping used. inductive, so that when a short circuit occurs, the fault
current that flows is given by:
Interconnection leads do not share this property,
however, being commonly of standard crosssection Ep
ip =
regardless of rating. Where the leads are long, their R 2 + ω 2 L2
resistance may be appreciable, and the resultant burden
will vary with the square of the current rating. For
example a CT lead run of the order of 200 metres, a [ sin ( ωt + β − α ) + sin ( α − β ) e − ( R L) t
] …Equation 6.1
typical distance for outdoor EHV switchgear, could have where:
a loop resistance of approximately 3 ohms.
Ep = peak system e.m.f.
The CT lead VA burden if a 5A CT is used would be 75VA,
R = system resistance
to which must be added the relay burden (up to of
perhaps 10VA for an electromechanical relay, but less L = system inductance
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
than 1VA for a numerical relay), making a total of 85VA.
β = initial phase angle governed by instant
Such a burden would require the CT to be very large and
of fault occurrence
expensive, particularly if a high accuracy limit factor
were also applicable. α = system power factor angle
With a 1A CT secondary rating, the lead burden is = tan1 ωL/R
reduced to 3VA, so that with the same relay burden the The first term of Equation 6.1 represents the steady state
total becomes a maximum of 13VA. This can be provided alternating current, while the second is a transient
by a CT of normal dimensions, resulting in a saving in
quantity responsible for displacing the waveform
size, weight and cost. Hence modern CT’s tend to have
asymmetrically.
secondary windings of 1A rating. However, where the
primary rating is high, say above 2000A, a CT of higher Ep
secondary rating may be used, to limit the number of R + ω 2 L 2 is the steady state peak current I .
2
8
KR b I s
= T = 0.06s
ω ...Equation 6.4
4
The transient flux is given by:
α
KR b I s L
= KR b I s ∫ e − (
R L) t
B dt = 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
0
R ...Equation 6.5 Time (seconds)
Hence, the ratio of the transient flux to the steady state T  time constant of primary circuit
value is:
Figure 6.13: Response of a CT of
wL X
= = infinite shunt impedance to transient asymmetric
B
R R primary current
A
resistance values.
Since a CT requires a finite exciting current to maintain
The CT core has to carry both fluxes, so that: a flux, it will not remain magnetised (neglecting
hysteresis), and for this reason a complete representation
Ê Xˆ
= + = Á1 + ˜ of the effects can only be obtained by including the
C A B A
Ë R¯
...Equation 6.6 finite inductance of the CT in the calculation. The
The term (1+X/R) has been called the 'transient factor' response of a current transformer to a transient
(TF), the core flux being increased by this factor during asymmetric current is shown in Figure 6.14.
the transient asymmetric current period. From this it can
be seen that the ratio of reactance to resistance of the
1.0
power system is an important feature in the study of the
behaviour of protection relays. 0.9
 1
T1
0.8 e
Alternatively, L/R is the primary system time constant T,
so that the transient factor can be written: 0.7 1
e T
ωL 0.6
=1 + = 1 + ωT Ie
R 0.5
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
would be expected from linear theory.
T1 = CT secondary circuit time constant Le/Rb When the exponential component drives the CT into
I1 = prospective peak secondary current saturation, the magnetising inductance decreases,
causing a large increase in the alternating component ie.
6.4.10.2 Practical conditions
The total exciting current during the transient period is
Practical conditions differ from theory for the following of the form shown in Figure 6.15 and the corresponding
reasons: resultant distortion in the secondary current output, due
a. no account has been taken of secondary leakage or to saturation, is shown in Figure 6.16.
burden inductance. This is usually small compared
with Le so that it has little effect on the maximum
transient flux
b. iron loss has not been considered. This has the
Exciting current
secondary
then be made for the extent of each chord
The above theory is sufficient, however, to give a good
insight into the problem and to allow most practical Time
0
issues to be decided.
Secondary current
d. the effect of hysteresis, apart from loss as Residual flux = 0
discussed under (b) above, is not included. Resistive burden
Power system T.C. = 0.05s
Hysteresis makes the inductance different for flux
build up and decay, so that the secondary time Figure 6.16: Distortion in secondary current
constant is variable. Moreover, the ability of the due to saturation
The presence of residual flux varies the starting point of CT will cost more. This fact should be weighed against
the transient flux excursion on the excitation the convenience achieved; very often it will be found
characteristic. Remanence of like polarity to the that the tests in question can be replaced by alternative
transient will reduce the value of symmetric current of procedures.
given time constant which the CT can transform without
severe saturation; conversely, reverse remanence will
greatly increase the ability of a CT to transform transient 6.5 NOVEL INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
current. The preceding types of instrument transformers have all
If the CT were the linear nonsaturable device considered been based on electromagnetic principles using a
in the analysis, the sine current would be transformed magnetic core. There are now available several new
without loss of accuracy. In practice the variation in methods of transforming the measured quantity using
excitation inductance caused by transferring the centre optical and mass state methods.
of the flux swing to other points on the excitation curve
causes an error that may be very large. The effect on
measurement is of little consequence, but for protection 6.5.1 Optical Instrument Transducers
equipment that is required to function during fault The key features of a freestanding optical instrument
conditions, the effect is more serious. The output current transducer can be illustrated with the functional
is reduced during transient saturation, which may diagram of Figure 6.17.
prevent the relays from operating if the conditions are
near to the relay setting. This must not be confused with
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
fit optical sensing devices as an integral part of the field, it plays the role of the ‘odd’ polariser. Changes in
insulator. Additionally, the nonlinear effects and the magnetic or electric field in which the optical sensor
electromagnetic interference problems in the secondary is immersed are monitored as a varying intensity of the
wiring of conventional VT’s and CT’s are minimised. probing light beam at the light detector. The light output
intensity fluctuates around the zerofield level equal to
Optical transducers can be separated in two families:
50% of the reference light input. This modulation of the
firstly the hybrid transducers, making use of
light intensity due to the presence of varying fields is
conventional electrical circuit techniques to which are
converted back to timevarying currents or voltages.
coupled various optical converter systems, and secondly
the ‘alloptical’ transducers that are based on A transducer uses a magnetooptic effect sensor for
fundamental, optical sensing principles. optical current measuring applications. This reflects the
fact that the sensor is not basically sensitive to a current
6.5.1.1 Optical sensor concepts
but to the magnetic field generated by this current.
Certain optical sensing media (glass, crystals, plastics) Although ‘allfibre’ approaches are feasible, most
show a sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields and commercially available optical current transducers rely
that some properties of a probing light beam can be on a bulkglass sensor. Most optical voltage transducers,
altered when passing through them. One simple optical on the other hand, rely on an electrooptic effect sensor.
transducer description is given here in Figure. 6.18. This reflects the fact that the sensor used is sensitive to
Consider the case of a beam of light passing through a the imposed electric field.
pair of polarising filters. If the input and output 6.5.1.2 Hybrid transducers
polarising filters have their axes rotated 45° from each
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
The hybrid family of nonconventional instrument
other, only half the light will come through. The
transducers can be divided in two types: those with
reference light input intensity is maintained constant
active sensors and those with passive sensors. The idea
over time. Now if these two polarising filters remain
behind a transducer with an active sensor is to change
fixed and a third polarising filter is placed in between
the existing output of the conventional instrument
them, a random rotation of this middle polariser either
transformer into an optically isolated output by adding
clockwise or counterclockwise will be monitored as a
an optical conversion system (Figure 6.18). This
varying or modulated light output intensity at the light
conversion system may require a power supply of its
detector.
own: this is the active sensor type. The use of an optical
When a block of optical sensing material (glass or isolating system serves to decouple the instrument
crystal) is immersed in a varying magnetic or electric transformer output secondary voltages and currents
'Odd' polariser
input output
polariser polariser
optical optical
fibre fibre sensing
light • 6•
detector
in out
light source
45° 90°
optical
zero field level
1.0 sensing 1.0
medium
+
0.5 0.5
0 0
t t
reference modulated
light input light input
intensity intensity
Figure. 6.18: Schematic representation of the concepts behind the optical sensing of varying electric and magnetic fields
from earthed or galvanic links. Thus the only link that analysing circuitry. In sharp contrast with a
remains between the controlroom and the switchyard is conventional freestanding instrument transformer, the
a fibre optic cable. optical instrument transformer needs an electronic
interface module in order to function. Therefore its
Another type of hybrid nonconventional instrument
sensing principle (the optical material) is passive but its
transformer is achieved by retrofitting a passive optical
operational integrity relies on the interface that is
sensing medium into a conventional ‘hardwire
powered in the control room (Figure 6.21).
secondary’ instrument transformer. This can be termed
as a passive hybrid type since no power supply of any
'Floating'
kind is needed at the secondary level. electrode
electrode
element is either located free in the magnetic field (Figure
6.19(a)) or it can be immersed in a fieldshaping magnetic
‘gap’ (Figure 6.19(b)). In the case of a voltagesensing
device (Figure 6.20) the same alternatives exist, this time Light
for elements that are sensitive to electric fields. The AC line path
voltage Electrooptic
possibility exists of combining both sensors within a sensor
single housing, thus providing both a CT and VT within a
single compact housing that gives rise to space savings
within a substation.
Reference
(b) 'Field shaping' type electrode Optical fibres
I AC line current
In all cases there is an optical fibre that channels the AC/DC source
probing reference light from a source into the medium Figure 6.21: Novel instrument transducer concept
and another fibre that channels the light back to requiring an electronic interface in the control room
Insulator
column
AC line current
Fibre junction box I
Light in
Sensor #1 Fibre
optic
Sensor #2 cables Optical fibres
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
Light out
Fibre
sensing element
Similar to conventional instrument transformers there are Although ‘alloptical’ instrument transformers were first
‘live tank’ and ‘dead tank’ optical transducers. Typically, introduced 1015 years ago, there are still only a few in
current transducers take the shape of a closed loop of light service nowadays. Figure 6.24 shows a field installation
transparent material, fitted around a straight conductor of a combined optical CT/VT.
carrying the line current (Figure 6.22). In this case a bulk
glass sensor unit is depicted (Figure 6.22(a)), along with an
‘alloptical’ sensor example, as shown in Figure 6.22(b).
Light detectors are basically very sensitive devices and the
sensing material can thus be selected in such a way as to
scaleup readily for larger currents. ‘Alloptical’ voltage
transducers however do not lend themselves easily for
extremely high line voltages. Two concepts using a 'full
voltage' sensor are shown in Figure 6.23.
• 6•
Conductor
Figure 6.23: Optical voltage transducer concepts, Figure 6.24: Field installation of a combined
using a ‘fullvoltage’ sensor optical CT/VT
6.5.2 Other Sensing Systems of insulation material. In most cases the Rogowski coil
will be connected to an amplifier, in order to deliver
There are a number of other sensing systems that can be
sufficient power to the connected measuring or
used, as described below.
protection equipment and to match the input impedance
6.5.2.1 Zeroflux (Hall Effect) current transformer of this equipment. The Rogowski coil requires
In this case the sensing element is a semiconducting integration of the magnetic field and therefore has a
wafer that is placed in the gap of a magnetic time and phase delay whilst the integration is completed.
concentrating ring. This type of transformer is also This can be corrected for within a digital protection relay.
sensitive to d.c. currents. The transformer requires a The schematic representation of the Rogowski coil sensor
power supply that is fed from the line or from a separate is shown in Figure 6.27.
power supply. The sensing current is typically 0.1% of the
current to be measured. In its simplest shape, the Hall
Electrical to optical
effect voltage is directly proportional to the magnetising converter/transmitter
current to be measured. For more accurate and more I
Burden
sensitive applications, the sensing current is fed through
a secondary, multipleturn winding, placed around the
magnetic ring in order to balance out the gap magnetic Optical
field. This zeroflux or nullflux version allows very fibres
accurate current measurements in both d.c. and high
frequency applications. A schematic representation of
Current transformer
C u r r e n t a n d Vo l t a g e T r a n s f o r m e r s
Air core
toroidal coil
i
Electrical to optical
converter
V
i
Optical
fibres
Sensing current
Sensing element
• 7 • Relay Technolog y
Introduction 7.1
References 7.8
Chap798111 21/06/02 9:07 Page 99
• 7 • Relay Technolog y
7.1 INTRODUCTION
The last thirty years have seen enormous changes in relay
technology. The electromechanical relay in all of its
different forms has been replaced successively by static,
digital and numerical relays, each change bringing with
it reductions and size and improvements in functionality.
At the same time, reliability levels have been maintained
or even improved and availability significantly increased
due to techniques not available with older relay types.
This represents a tremendous achievement for all those
involved in relay design and manufacture.
This chapter charts the course of relay technology
through the years. As the purpose of the book is to
describe modern protection relay practice, it is natural
therefore to concentrate on digital and numerical relay
technology. The vast number of electromechanical and
static relays are still giving dependable service, but
descriptions on the technology used must necessarily be
somewhat brief. For those interested in the technology
of electromechanical and static technology, more
detailed descriptions can be found in reference [7.1].
7 . 2 E L E C T R O M E C H A N I C A L R E L AY S
These relays were the earliest forms of relay used for the
protection of power systems, and they date back nearly
100 years. They work on the principle of a mechanical
force causing operation of a relay contact in response to
a stimulus. The mechanical force is generated through
current flow in one or more windings on a magnetic core
or cores, hence the term electromechanical relay. The
principle advantage of such relays is that they provide
galvanic isolation between the inputs and outputs in a
simple, cheap and reliable form – therefore for simple
on/off switching functions where the output contacts
have to carry substantial currents, they are still used.
Electromechanical relays can be classified into several
different types as follows:
a. attracted armature
b. moving coil
c. induction
d. thermal
e. motor operated
f. mechanical
However, only attracted armature types have significant
can be simply achieved by adding a permanent magnet to A number of design problems had to be solved with static
the basic electromagnet. Both selfreset and bistable relays. In particular, the relays generally require a
forms can be achieved. Figure 7.2 shows the basic reliable source of d.c. power and measures to prevent
construction. One possible example of use is to provide damage to vulnerable electronic circuits had to be
very fast operating times for a single contact, speeds of less devised. Substation environments are particularly hostile
than 1ms being possible. Figure 7.3 illustrates a typical to electronic circuits due to electrical interference of
example of an attracted armature relay. various forms that are commonly found (e.g. switching
operations and the effect of faults). While it is possible
7 . 3 S TAT I C R E L AY S to arrange for the d.c. supply to be generated from the
measured quantities of the relay, this has the
disadvantage of increasing the burden on the CT’s or VT’s,
and there will be a minimum primary current or voltage
below which the relay will not operate. This directly
affects the possible sensitivity of the relay. So provision
of an independent, highly reliable and secure source of
relay power supply was an important consideration. To
prevent maloperation or destruction of electronic devices
during faults or switching operations, sensitive circuitry
is housed in a shielded case to exclude common mode
and radiated interference. The devices may also be
sensitive to static charge, requiring special precautions
during handling, as damage from this cause may not be
immediately apparent, but become apparent later in the
form of premature failure of the relay. Therefore, radically
different relay manufacturing facilities are required
compared to electromechanical relays. Calibration and
Figure 7.4: Circuit board of static relay repair is no longer a task performed in the field without
specialised equipment. Figure 7.4 shows the circuit board
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
for a simple static relay and Figure 7.5 shows examples of
The term ‘static’ implies that the relay has no moving simple and complex static relays.
parts. This is not strictly the case for a static relay, as the
output contacts are still generally attracted armature
relays. In a protection relay, the term ‘static’ refers to the
absence of moving parts to create the relay
characteristic.
Introduction of static relays began in the early 1960’s.
Their design is based on the use of analogue electronic
devices instead of coils and magnets to create the relay
characteristic. Early versions used discrete devices such
as transistors and diodes in conjunction with resistors,
• 7•
capacitors, inductors, etc., but advances in electronics
enabled the use of linear and digital integrated circuits
in later versions for signal processing and
implementation of logic functions. While basic circuits
may be common to a number of relays, the packaging
was still essentially restricted to a single protection
function per case, while complex functions required
several cases of hardware suitably interconnected. User
programming was restricted to the basic functions of
adjustment of relay characteristic curves. They therefore
can be viewed in simple terms as an analogue electronic
replacement for electromechanical relays, with some
additional flexibility in settings and some saving in space
requirements. In some cases, relay burden is reduced,
making for reduced CT/VT output requirements. Figure 7.5: Selection of static relays
7 . 4 D I G I TA L R E L AY S 7 . 5 N U M E R I C A L R E L AY S
Digital protection relays introduced a step change in The distinction between digital and numerical relay rests
technology. Microprocessors and microcontrollers on points of fine technical detail, and is rarely found in
replaced analogue circuits used in static relays to areas other than Protection. They can be viewed as
implement relay functions. Early examples began to be natural developments of digital relays as a result of
introduced into service around 1980, and, with advances in technology. Typically, they use a specialised
improvements in processing capacity, can still be regarded digital signal processor (DSP) as the computational
as current technology for many relay applications. hardware, together with the associated software tools.
However, such technology will be completely superseded The input analogue signals are converted into a digital
within the next five years by numerical relays. representation and processed according to the appropriate
Compared to static relays, digital relays introduce A/D mathematical algorithm. Processing is carried out using a
conversion of all measured analogue quantities and use specialised microprocessor that is optimised for signal
a microprocessor to implement the protection algorithm. processing applications, known as a digital signal
The microprocessor may use some kind of counting processor or DSP for short. Digital processing of signals in
technique, or use the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to real time requires a very high power microprocessor.
implement the algorithm. However, the typical In addition, the continuing reduction in the cost of
microprocessors used have limited processing capacity microprocessors and related digital devices (memory, I/O,
and memory compared to that provided in numerical etc.) naturally leads to an approach where a single item
relays. The functionality tends therefore to be limited of hardware is used to provide a range of functions
and restricted largely to the protection function itself. (‘onebox solution’ approach). By using multiple
Additional functionality compared to that provided by an microprocessors to provide the necessary computational
electromechanical or static relay is usually available, performance, a large number of functions previously
typically taking the form of a wider range of settings, implemented in separate items of hardware can now be
and greater accuracy. A communications link to a included within a single item. Table 7.1 provides a list of
remote computer may also be provided. typical functions available, while Table 7.2 summarises
The limited power of the microprocessors used in digital the advantages of a modern numerical relay over the
relays restricts the number of samples of the waveform static equivalent of only 1015 years ago. Figure 7.7
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
that can be measured per cycle. This, in turn, limits the shows typical numerical relays, and a circuit board is
speed of operation of the relay in certain applications. shown in Figure 7.8. Figure 7.9 provides an illustration of
Therefore, a digital relay for a particular protection the savings in space possible on a HV feeder showing the
function may have a longer operation time than the space requirement for relays with electromechanical and
static relay equivalent. However, the extra time is not numerical relay technology to provide the same
significant in terms of overall tripping time and possible functionality.
effects of power system stability. Examples of digital
relays are shown in Figure 7.6.
Distance Protection several schemes including user definable)
Overcurrent Protection (directional/nondirectional)
Several Setting Groups for protection values
SwitchontoFault Protection
• 7• Power Swing Blocking
Voltage Transformer Supervision
Negative Sequence Current Protection
Undervoltage Protection
Overvoltage Protection
CB Fail Protection
Fault Location
CT Supervision
VT Supervision
Check Synchronisation
Autoreclose
CB Condition Monitoring
CB State Monitoring
UserDefinable Logic
Broken Conductor Detection
Measurement of Power System Quantities (Current, Voltage, etc.)
Fault/Event/Disturbance recorder
Figure 7.6: Selection of digital relays Table 7.1: Numerical distance relay features
• 102 •
Network Protection & Automation Guide
Chap798111 21/06/02 9:08 Page 103
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
Figure 7.7: Typical numerical relays
• 7•
Battery Flash
backedup E2 PROM SRAM EPROM
SRAM
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
Power Watchdog Field Rear RS485 Current & voltage inputs (6 to 8)
supply contacts voltage communication port
+Vref
Vref
Vin Vout
Vref
Vref
All subsequent signal processing is carried out digitally in b. HMI interface software – the high level software
software, final digital outputs use relays to provide for communicating with a user, via the front panel
isolation or are sent via an external communications bus controls or through a data link to another
to other devices. computer running suitable software, storage of
setting data, etc.
7.5.2 Relay Software
c. application software – this is the software that
The software provided is commonly organised into a
defines the protection function of the relay
series of tasks, operating in real time. An essential
component is the Real Time Operating System (RTOS), d. auxiliary functions – software to implement other
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
whose function is to ensure that the other tasks are features offered in the relay – often structured as
executed as and when required, on a priority basis. a series of modules to reflect the options offered to
a user by the manufacturer
Other task software provided will naturally vary
according to the function of the specific relay, but can be 7.5.3 Application Software
generalised as follows:
The relevant software algorithm is then applied. Firstly,
a. system services software – this is akin to the BIOS the values of the quantities of interest have to be
of an ordinary PC, and controls the lowlevel I/O determined from the available information contained in
for the relay (i.e. drivers for the relay hardware, the data samples. This is conveniently done by the
bootup sequence, etc.) application of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), and
• 7•
Actual signal
Apparent signal
Sample points
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
made in terms of the following:
parameters will generally be available for display on the
a. value above setting – start timers, etc. front panel of the relay and also via an external
• 7•
0
f0 2f0 3f0 4f0 5f0 6f0 7f0 8f0 9f0
Frequency
communications port, but some by their nature may only positionswitch outputs can be connected to the relay
be available at one output interface. digital inputs and hence provide the indication of state
via the communications bus to a remote control centre.
7.6.1 Measured Values Display
Circuit breakers also require periodic maintenance of
This is perhaps the most obvious and simple function to
their operating mechanisms and contacts to ensure they
implement, as it involves the least additional processor
will operate when required and that the fault capacity is
time. The values that the relay must measure to perform
not affected adversely. The requirement for maintenance
its protection function have already been acquired and
is a function of the number of trip operations, the
processed. It is therefore a simple task to display them
cumulative current broken and the type of breaker. A
on the front panel, and/or transmit as required to a
numerical relay can record all of these parameters and
remote computer/HMI station. Less obvious is that a
hence be configured to send an alarm when maintenance
number of extra quantities may be able to be derived
is due. If maintenance is not carried out within defined
from the measured quantities, depending on the input
criteria (such as a predefined time or number of trips)
signals available. These might include:
after maintenance is required, the CB can be arranged to
a. sequence quantities (positive, negative, zero) trip and lockout, or inhibit certain functions such as
b. power, reactive power and power factor autoreclose.
c. energy (kWh, kvarh) Finally, as well as tripping the CB as required under fault
conditions, it can also be arranged for a digital output to
d. max. demand in a period (kW, kvar; average and be used for CB closure, so that separate CB close control
peak values) circuits can be eliminated.
e. harmonic quantities
f. frequency 7.6.4 Disturbance Recorder
g. temperatures/RTD status The relay memory requires a certain minimum number of
h. motor start information (start time, total no. of cycles of measured data to be stored for correct signal
starts/reaccelerations, total running time processing and detection of events. The memory can
easily be expanded to allow storage of a greater time
i. distance to fault
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
R e l a y Te c h n o l o g y
applied to the relay. Unfortunately, power systems
change their topology due to operational reasons on a
regular basis. (e.g. supply from normal/emergency 7.7.1 Software Version Control
generation). The different configurations may require
different relay settings to maintain the desired level of Numerical relays perform their functions by means of
network protection (since, for the above example, the software. The process used for software generation is no
fault levels will be significantly different on parts of the different in principle to that for any other device using
network that remain energised under both conditions). realtime software, and includes the difficulties of
developing code that is errorfree. Manufacturers must
This problem can be overcome by the provision within the therefore pay particular attention to the methodology
relay of a number of setting groups, only one of which is used for software generation and testing to ensure that
in use at any one time. Changeover between groups can as far as possible, the code contains no errors. However,
be achieved from a remote command from the operator,
• 7•
it is virtually impossible to perform internal tests that
or possibly through the programmable logic system. This cover all possible combinations of external effects, etc.,
may obviate the need for duplicate relays to be fitted and therefore it must be accepted that errors may exist.
with some form of switching arrangement of the inputs In this respect, software used in relays is no different to
and outputs depending on network configuration. The any other software, where users accept that field use
operator will also have the ability to remotely program may uncover errors that may require changes to the
the relay with a group of settings if required. software. Obviously, type testing can be expected to
prove that the protection functions implemented by the
relay are carried out properly, but it has been known for
7.6.8 Conclusions failures of rarely used auxiliary functions to occur under
The provision of extra facilities in numerical relays may some conditions.
avoid the need for other measurement/control devices to Where problems are discovered in software subsequent
be fitted in a substation. A trend can therefore be to the release of a numerical relay for sale, a new version
discerned in which protection relays are provided with of the software may be considered necessary. This
functionality that in the past has been provided using process then requires some form of software version
separate equipment. The protection relay no longer control to be implemented to keep track of:
problems of storage.
The problems have been addressed by the provision of
software to automate the preparation and download of
relay setting data from a portable computer connected
to a communications port of the relay. As part of the
process, the setting data can be read back from the relay
and compared with the desired settings to ensure that
the download has been errorfree. A copy of the setting
data (including user defined logic schemes where used)
can also be stored on the computer, for later printout
• 7• and/or upload to the users database facilities.
More advanced software is available to perform the
above functions from an Engineering Computer in a
substation automation scheme – see Chapter 24 for
details of such schemes).
• 8 • Protection: Signalling
and Intertripping
Introduction 8.1
Intertripping 8.4
• 8 • P rotection: Signalling
and Intertripping
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Unit protection schemes, formed by a number of relays
located remotely from each other, and some distance
protection schemes, require some form of communication
between each location in order to achieve a unit protection
function. This form of communication is known as
protection signalling. Additionally communications
facilities are also required when remote operation of a
circuit breaker is required as a result of a local event. This
form of communications is known as intertripping.
The communication messages involved may be quite
simple, involving instructions for the receiving device to
take some defined action (trip, block, etc.), or it may be
the passing of measured data in some form from one
device to another (as in a unit protection scheme).
Various types of communication links are available for
protection signalling, for example:
i. private pilot wires installed by the power
authority
ii. pilot wires or channels rented from a
communications company
iii. carrier channels at high frequencies over the
power lines
iv. radio channels at very high or ultra high
frequencies
v. optical fibres
Whether or not a particular link is used depends on
factors such as the availability of an appropriate
communication network, the distance between
protection relaying points, the terrain over which the
power network is constructed, as well as cost.
Protection signalling is used to implement Unit
Protection schemes, provide teleprotection commands,
or implement intertripping between circuit breakers.
8 . 2 U N I T P R OT E C T I O N S C H E M E S
Phase comparison and current differential schemes use
signalling to convey information concerning the relaying
quantity  phase angle of current and phase and
Trip Trip
I V V I
Intertrip Intertrip
Permissive Permissive
trip trip
Telemetry Telemetry
P rotection: Signalling and Intertripping
Telecontrol Telecontrol
Telephone Telephone
Data Data
Communication Communication
systems systems
Figure 8.1: Application of protection signalling and its relationship to other systems using communication
(shown as a unidirectional system for simplicity)
magnitude of current respectively  between local and piece of apparatus in sympathy with the tripping of other
remote relaying points. Comparison of local and remote circuit breakers. The main use of such schemes is to
signals provides the basis for both fault detection and ensure that protection at both ends of a faulted circuit
discrimination of the schemes. will operate to isolate the equipment concerned. Possible
circumstances when it may be used are:
Details of Unit Protection schemes are given in Chapter 10.
Communications methods are covered later in this Chapter. a. a feeder with a weak infeed at one end, insufficient
to operate the protection for all faults
• 8• 8 . 3 T E L E P R OT E C T I O N C O M M A N D S b. feeder protection applied to transformer –feeder
Some Distance Protection schemes described in Chapter circuits. Faults on the transformer windings may
12 use signalling to convey a command between local operate the transformer protection but not the
and remote relaying points. Receipt of the information feeder protection. Similarly, some earth faults may
is used to aid or speed up clearance of faults within a not be detected due to transformer connections
protected zone or to prevent tripping from faults outside c. faults between the CB and feeder protection CT’s,
a protected zone. when these are located on the feeder side of the CB.
Teleprotection systems are often referred to by their Buszone protection does not result in fault
mode of operation, or the role of the teleprotection clearance – the fault is still fed from the remote end
command in the system. of the feeder, while feeder unit protection may not
operate as the fault is outside the protected zone
d. some distance protection schemes use
8.4 INTERTRIPPING intertripping to improve fault clearance times for
Intertripping is the controlled tripping of a circuit some kinds of fault – see Chapters 12/13
breaker so as to complete the isolation of a circuit or Intertripping schemes use signalling to convey a trip