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1. Process of Communication.
2. Communication in organizations, nature, scope and functions.
3. Management of written, and oral communication.
4. Barriers to effective communication.
5. Report writing.
6. Communication technology and it’s impact on office procedures and automation.

Chester Barnard - the first executive function is to develop and maintain a system of


1. Communication by C.S.Rayudu. Himalaya Publishing House. Reprint 2000


Meaning of Communication.
Nature of Communication.
Communication as a Social process.
Communication as a human process.
Communication as a Universal process.
Process of Communication.
Elements of Communication.
Communication process models and theories.
Theories of communication.
Principles or Characteristics of Communication.
Benefits of Communication.
Communication as a transactional process.
Essentials of good communication.
Ten Commandments of good Communication.
The Seven Cs of good Communication.
Objectives of good communication.
Functions of Communication.
Communication as information.
Classification of Communication.
Perception in Communication.
Scope of communication

Wide and comprehensive

Two way process involving transmission and reception.

It is a continuous process of exchange of facts, ideas, feelings, attitudes, opinions figures and
interaction with others.


1. Vertical 4. Upward
2. Horizontal 5. Downward
3. Diagonal 6. Internal Helps in the discharge of managerial
(a) Formal eg planning, direction, coordination
and motivation
(b) Informal
7. External – Transmission of messages outside the organization

1. Written Instructions, letters, memos, orders, journals, bulletin boards, reports
Verbal Face-to-face conversations, lectures, conferences, meetings,
Counseling, telephone, P.A. system, grapevine
Nature of Communication

Every organization has its sub-systems; there is interaction between sub-systems ;

communication transmits information to sub-systems and to the total system. MIS operates
effectively through communication. It involves information gathering, storage, processing and

The purpose of communication is to make others understand and act upon it accordingly
in the same sense; communication is effective when the message is shared and under stood by
each other.

Process of communication

An exchange of ideas, facts and opinions by which the receiver of the message shares
meaning and understanding with another. Process is a course of action. Communication
enables transfer of information from one person to another, one department to another from
outside the organisation to within. It is an organizational process since a group of people and
group activities are involved ; communication is a process that uses a set of media to transmit
ideas, facts and feelings from one person to another.

A good communicator must understand the receiving and understanding capabilities of

the recipient not only of the transmitting message but also their effect.

Elements of a Communication process

Message David K Berlo

Sender Sequence of Communication







Communication Process – Models and Theories.

1. Aristotle’s Model – Early simple elementary; three main ingredients of communication

event- speaker, speech, and audience.
2. Mathematical theory – Shannon and weaver (1949) electronic communication model –
mathematical model- identified with technological aspects- measures units of information
transmitted over a technical channel.

3. Information theory (1950) Shannon :

Communication a mechanistic system consisting of 5 basic elements.

1. Information (source)
2. Transmitter (converts message into transmittable signals).
3. Channel
4. receiver.
5. destination.

Other 4 components of the systems are

1. Message
2. Transmitted signal
3. received signal
4. Noise source

4. David K Berlo’s Model

Basic process theory - develops other communicaton models - identifies elements of
communication nine components
Source, encoder, message, channel, receiver, decoder, meaning, feedback and noise.

5. Harold Lasswell Model

Four basic questions: Who ? What ? Whom? Which?

Behavioral aspects of sender in the communication well established; essential elements of

communication ignored.

Why, What, How, Who, When,.

Who Says what In which To whom With

Sender message channel receiver what
Medium effect

6. Wilbur Schramm Model

Concerned with Mass communication; focus is on signal :-

Source Encoder Signal Decoder Destination

7. Robert Vogel & William Brooks model
Message Channel

Source Noise Receiver

Channel Message

Interpersonal/Interactional Model
circular or cyclical model; feed back element introduced - makes linear models cyclical

Elements of interpersonal model

1. Message or idea or stimulus
2. Sender/transmitter
3. Encoding
4. Channel
5. Medium
6. Receiver
7. Decoder
8. Action or behavioral change
9. Feedback

1. Level and Galle Communication Process

Sender Receiver
Stimulus Stimulus
Interpretation Interpretation
/Perception Understanding /Perception
Persuasion /Motivation Persuasion /Motivation
Action /Response Action /Response

Composite Model relationship

1. Dominance
2. Affection or attraction
3. Inclusion or involvement (Schultz)
4. Time
5. Situation Baird
Theories of communication

1. Bull’s eye theory :-

Action view theory – right words to convey the right message.

2. Ping pong theory

Interaction or interpersonal interaction takes place between sender and receiver - complex
theory linear cause and effect.

3. Spiral theory (Myers & Myers)

Transactional view; independence, mutual and reciprocal causality ; dynamic theory

Essentials of good communication :-

Wilbur Schramm - Basic essential for effective transmission of communication

1. It must be so designed and delivered so as to gain the attention of the receiver.

2. It must use signals that are understood in the same way by the source and receiver.

3. It must arouse a need in the receiver and suggest some way to satisfy those needs
appropriate to the receiver’s group situation when moved to make a desired response.

Factors / principles of communication

1. Clarity of ideas, facts, opinions Koontz O’ Donnell.- A communication possesses

clarity when it is expressed in a language and transmitted in a way that can be
comprehended by the receiver.

2. Information – transmitting a message in as symbolic form

3. Completeness – to understand the central theme or idea of the message

4. Emphasis on attention – propose of communication is to draw the attention of the

receiver by creating interest in the message

5. Consistency – message should not be contradictory. There should be an agreement with

the objectives and polices so the organisation.
6. Integration – achieving common goals of thee enterprise and communication as a tool of
management; should strengthen the enterprise

7. Use of informal organization – like grapevine – spontaneous- personal, group interests,

highly effective and speedy - Koontz & O’Donnel. The most effective communication
results when managers utilize the informal organisation to supplement the formal
communication channel’s

8. Two way communication – reaction and response of receiver are imperative to achieve
the purpose of communication.

9. To know the receiver – message to be simple, clear and short ; Killian – “ communicate
with an awareness of the total physical and human setting in which thee information will
be reviewed”

10 Time-to be appropriate when sending - a delayed message has no importance.

11. Simplicity- Simplicity in communication produces the best and quickest understanding
and response

12. Communication Network – Formal communication has a set network which determines
thee fixed route for information movement

13. Use of media – oral and written ; need, objective and receiver are the factors that should
be kept in mind when selecting a medium.

14. Feedback – The most important or key principle to effective communication is to obtain
feed back from the receiver ; knowing acceptance or rejection of a message transmitted
is probably the most important method of improving communication

Ten Commandments of good Communication

1. Clarify ideas before communicating

2. Examine the true purpose of communication

3. Take the entire environment ; - physical and human into consideration

4 When valuable, obtain advice from others in planning communiques

5. Beware of overtones as well as basic content of the message

6. When possible, convey useful information

7. Follow up communication

8. Communicate with the future as well as the present in mind

9,. Support words with deeds

10 Be a good listener

The seven C’s of communication

1. Credibility

2. Context

3. Content

4. Clarity

5. Continuity and consistency

6. Channels

7. Capability


1. Human relations- promoting mutual understanding

2. Empathy

3. Persuasion

4. Dialogue - promoting

5. Information – Taking and giving

6. Influencing the behavior of the recipient

7. Discouraging misinformation

8. Suggestions and complaints - encourage

9. Free exchange of information

10. Fostering better relations

11. Fostering attitude – motivation, corporation and job satisfaction

Purpose of communication

1. Instructive

2. Integrative (unifying)

3. Informative

4. Evaluative

5. Directive

6. Influencing

7. Incidental, neutral eg social contact

8. Teaching (educating workers)

9. Image projecting of organization

10. Orientation – acquaint with co employees, superiors policies, objectives ,rules and

11. Interview

12. Other functions like effective decision making

Factors Responsible For Growing Importance Of Communication

1. Large size organization

2. Technological improvement

3. Growth of trade union activities

4. Emphasis on human relations

5. Public relations

6. Morale building

7. Effective leadership
8. Job satisfaction

9. Managerial efficiency

10. Co-ordination