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Chap 7 Resistance and Powering of Ship

Objectives

Prediction of Ship’s Power

  • - Ship’s driving system and concept of power

  • - Resistance of ship and its components · frictional resistance · wave-making resistance · others

  • - Froude expansion

  • - Effective horse power calculation Propeller Theory

    • - Propeller components and definitions

    • - Propeller theory

    • - Cavitation

2

Ship Drive Train and Power

Ship Drive Train System

EHP Engine Reduction Screw Strut Gear Bearing Seals THP BHP SHP DHP
EHP
Engine
Reduction
Screw
Strut
Gear
Bearing
Seals
THP
BHP
SHP
DHP

Ship Drive Train and Power

Horse Power in Drive Train

Brake Horse Power (BHP)

  • - Power output at the shaft coming out of the engine before the reduction gears

Shaft Horse Power (SHP)

  • - Power output after the reduction gears

  • - SHP=BHP - losses in reduction gear

Ship Drive Train and Power

Delivered Horse Power (DHP)

  • - Power delivered to the propeller

  • - DHP=SHP – losses in shafting, shaft bearings and seals

Thrust Horse Power (THP)

  • - Power created by the screw/propeller

  • - THP=DHP – Propeller losses

BHP SHP DHP THP EHP Shaft E/G R/G Prop. Hull Bearing
BHP
SHP
DHP
THP
EHP
Shaft
E/G
R/G
Prop.
Hull
Bearing

Relative Magnitudes

BHP>SHP>DHP>THP>EHP

5

Effective Horse Power (EHP)

EHP : The power required to move the ship hull at a given

speed in the absence of propeller action

(EHP is not related with Power Train System)

EHP can be determined from the towing tank experiments at

the various speeds of the model ship.

EHP of the model ship is converted into EHP of the full scale

ship by Froude’s Law.

Measured EHP V Towing Tank Towing carriage 6
Measured EHP
V
Towing Tank
Towing carriage
6

Effective Horse Power (EHP)

POW ER C U R VE YARD PATRO L C RAFT 1000 800 600 400 200
POW ER C U R VE
YARD PATRO L C RAFT
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Effective H orsepow er, EHP (H

Ship Speed, Vs (Knots)

Typical EHP Curve of YP

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Effective Horse Power (EHP)

Efficiencies

Hull Efficiency

H

EHP

=

THP

  • - Hull efficiency changes due to hull-propeller interactions.

 1 - Well-designed ship : H - Poorly-designed ship : 1 H Well-designed Poorly-designed
 1
-
Well-designed ship :
H
-
Poorly-designed ship :
1
H
Well-designed
Poorly-designed
  • - Flow is not smooth.

  • - THP is reduced.

  • - High THP is needed to get designed speed.

8

Effective Horse Power (EHP)

Efficiencies (cont’d)

Propeller Efficiency

propeller

THP

=

DHP

EHP Screw THP
EHP
Screw
THP

SHP

Propulsive Coefficients (PC)

DHP

p

EHP

=

SHP

p

0.6 for well designed propeller

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Total Hull Resistance

Total Hull Resistance (R T )

The force that the ship experiences opposite to the motion of the ship as it moves. EHP Calculation

EHP(H

ft R (lb) ◊ V T S s ) = R = total hull resistance P
ft
R (lb)
V
T
S
s
) =
R
= total hull resistance
P
T
ft lb
550
V
speed of ship
S =
s H
P
ft
lb
ft
J
R
V
(
lb
)
=
=
= Watts
:
Power
T
S
s
s
s
1 W
atts
=
1/550
H
P
10

Total Hull Resistance (cont)

Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance

- Non-dimensional value of total resistance

  • C T

=

R

T

  • 0.5

V

s

  • 2

S

lb

s

  • 2 ft

  • 4 ft

ft

lb

s

  • 2

2

non - dimension

  • C T

R

= Coefficient of total hull resistance in calm water = Total hull resistance = Fluid density

T

  • V S

= Speed of ship

S = wetted surface area on the submerged hull

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Total Hull Resistance (cont)

Coefficient of Total Hull Resistance (cont’d)

-Total Resistance of full scale ship can be determined using

C

T

, , S and V

S

R

T

(

lb

)

=

0.5

SV

S

2

C

T

  • C T

: determined by the model test

: available from water property table S : obtained from Curves of form

  • V S

: Full scale ship speed

Total R e s is ta nc e , R

Total Hull Resistance (cont)

Relation of Total Resistance Coefficient and Speed

T O T A L R E S IS T A N C E C U R V E

YA R D P A T R O L C R AFT

200 00

  • 150 00

  • 100 00

50 00

0

Total R e s is ta nc e , R Total Hull Resistance (cont) • Relation

0

2

4

6

8

10

1 2

1 4

16

S h ip Spe ed , V s (k n o ts )

R

T

C

T

V

S

2

EHP

R V

T

S

C

T

V

S

2

V

S

µ V

S

n

n = from 2 at low speed

to 5 at high speed

µ V

S

n

n = from 3 at low speed

to 6 at high speed

13

Components of Total Resistance

Total Resistance

R = R + R + R

T

V

W

A

R : Viscous Resistance

V

R

W

: Wave Making Resistance

R : Air Resistance

A

Viscous Resistance - Resistance due to the viscous stresses that the fluid exerts on the hull. ( due to friction of the water against the surface of the ship) - Viscosity, ship’s velocity, wetted surface area of ship generally affect the viscous resistance.

14

Components of Total Resistance

Wave-Making Resistance

  • - Resistance caused by waves generated by the motion of the ship

  • - Wave-making resistance is affected by beam to length ratio, displacement, shape of hull, Froude number (ship length & speed)

Air Resistance

  • - Resistance caused by the flow of air over the ship with no

wind present

  • - Air resistance is affected by projected area, shape of the ship

above the water line, wind velocity and direction

  • - Typically 4 ~ 8 % of the total resistance

Components of Total Hull Resistance

Total Resistance and Relative Magnitude of Components

Air Resistance Hollow Hump Wave-making Viscous Resistance (lb)
Air Resistance
Hollow
Hump
Wave-making
Viscous
Resistance (lb)

Speed (kts)

  • - Low speed : Viscous R

  • - Higher speed : Wave-making R

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  • - Hump (Hollow) : location is function of ship length and speed.

Why is a Golf Ball Dimpled?

Let’s look at a Baseball (because that’s what I have numbers for)

At the velocities of 50 to 130 mph dominant in baseball the air passes over a smooth ball in a highly resistant flow.

Turbulent flow does not occur until nearly 200 mph for a smooth ball

A rough ball (say one with raised stitches like a baseball) induces turbulent flow

– At the velocities of 50 to 130 mph dominant in baseball the air passes over

A baseball batted 400 feet would only travel 300 feet if it was smooth.

– A non-dimpled golf ball would really hamper Tiger Woods’ long game

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Coefficient of Viscous Resistance

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance

Viscous Flow around a ship

Real ship : Turbulent flow exists near the bow. Model ship : Studs or sand strips are attached at the bow to create the turbulent flow.

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Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)

Coefficients of Viscous Resistance

  • - Non-dimensional quantity of viscous resistance

  • - It consists of tangential and normal components.

C = C + C = C + KC V tangential normal F F flow ship
C
=
C
+
C
= C
+ KC
V
tangential normal
F
F
flow
ship
stern
bow
• Tangential Component :
C
F
tangential
norm al
  • - Tangential stress is parallel to ship’s hull and causes

a net force opposing the motion ; Skin Friction

  • - It is assumed

    • C F

data of flat plate.

can be obtained from the experimental

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)

Tangential Component of C

V

=

C

F

  • C F

=

0.075

(log

10

R

n

2)

2

R

n

=

LV

S

Semi-empirical

equation

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) Tangential Component of C V = C F C F =

R

L

V

n

= Reynolds Number

= L

pp

(ft)

S

= Ship Speed(ft/s)

= Kinematic Viscosity (ft /s)

=

-5

2

2

  • 1.2260 forf resh wate

10

ft /s

2

  • 1.2791 for saltw ate

10

ft /s

-5

20

=

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)

Tangential Component (cont’d)

  • - Relation between viscous flow and Reynolds number

· Laminar flow : In laminar flow, the fluid flows in layers in an orderly fashion. The layers do not mix transversely but slide over one another. · Turbulent flow : In turbulent flow, the flow is chaotic and mixed transversely.

Flow over flat plate

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont) • Tangential Component (cont’d) - Relation between viscous flow and Reynolds

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

R

n

< about5 10

  • 5 R

n

> about 5 10

5

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Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)

Normal Component

  • - Normal component causes a pressure distribution along the

underwater hull form of ship

  • - A high pressure is formed in the forward direction opposing the motion and a lower pressure is formed aft.

  • - Normal component generates the eddy behind the hull.

  • - It is affected by hull shape.

Fuller shape ship has larger normal component than slender

ship.

large eddy small eddy
large eddy
small eddy

Full ship Slender ship

Coefficient of Viscous Resistance (cont)

Normal Component (cont’d)

- It is calculated by the product of Skin Friction with Form Factor.

Normal Component of C

v

=

K C

F

  • C F

= Skin Friction Coeff.

K

= Form Factor

K

=

19

(ft

3

)

B

(

ft

)

B
B

)

L

(

ft

(

ft T

)

(

ft

(

ft

)

) L

2

23

Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient

C

V

=

C

C

= C

+

tangential normal

F

+ K C

F

C

F

=

0.075

(log

10

R

n

2)

2

K

=

19

(ft

3

)

B

(

ft

)

B
B

)

L

(

ft

(

ft T

)

(

ft

(

ft

)

) L

2

R

n

=

LV

S

K= Form Factor

R

n

L

V S

= Reynolds Number

= L

pp

(ft)

= Ship Speed(ft/s)

= Kinematic Viscosity (ft /s)

=

-5

2

2

  • 1.2260 forfresh wate

10

ft /s

2

  • 1.2791 for saltwate

10

ft /s

-5

=

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Summary of Viscous Resistance Coefficient

Reducing the Viscous Resistance Coeff.

- Method :

Increase L while keeping the submerged volume constant

1) Form Factor K

Normal component KC F

Slender hull is favorable. ( Slender hull form will create a smaller pressure difference between bow and stern.)

2) Reynolds No. Rn

CF

KC F

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Wave-Making Resistance

Typical Wave Pattern

BBooww diver

divergen

gentt wa

waveve

Stern divergent wave

Wave-Making Resistance Typical Wave Pattern B Bo ow w diver diver gen gent t wa wa
Wave-Making Resistance Typical Wave Pattern B Bo ow w diver diver gen gent t wa wa
Transverse wave
Transverse wave
L
L
Wave-Making Resistance Typical Wave Pattern B Bo ow w diver diver gen gent t wa wa

Wave Length

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Wave-Making Resistance

Wave-Making Resistance

Transverse wave System

It travels at approximately the same speed as the ship.

At slow speed, several crests exist along the ship length

because the wave lengths are smaller than the ship length.

As the ship speeds up, the length of the transverse wave

increases.

When the transverse wave length approaches the ship length,

the wave making resistance increases very rapidly.

This is the main reason for the dramatic increase in

Total Resistance as speed increases.

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Transverse wave System

Vs < Hull Speed Wave Length
Vs < Hull Speed
Wave
Length

Vs

Hull Speed

Wave Length
Wave Length

Slow

Speed

High

Speed

Hull Speed : speed at which the transverse wave length equals

the ship length.

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(Wavemaking resistance drastically increases above hull speed)

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Divergent Wave System

It consists of Bow and Stern Waves.

Interaction of the bow and stern waves create the Hollow or

Hump on the resistance curve.

Hump : When the bow and stern waves are in phase,

the crests are added up so that larger divergent wave systems

are generated.

Hollow : When the bow and stern waves are out of phase,

the crests matches the trough so that smaller divergent wave

systems are generated.

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Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Calculation of Wave-Making Resistance Coeff.

Wave-making resistance is affected by

  • - beam to length ratio

  • - displacement

  • - hull shape

  • - Froude number

The calculation of the coefficient is far difficult and inaccurate

from any theoretical or empirical equation.

(Because mathematical modeling of the flow around ship

is very complex since there exists fluid-air boundary,

wave-body interaction)

Therefore model test in the towing tank and Froude expansion

are needed to calculate the Cw of the real ship.

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Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Reducing Wave Making Resistance

1) Increasing ship length to reduce the transverse wave

  • - Hull speed will increase.

  • - Therefore increment of wave-making resistance of longer

ship will be small until the ship reaches to the hull speed.

  • - EX :

FFG7

: ship length 408 ft

hull speed 27 KTS

CVN65 : ship length 1040 ft

hull speed 43 KTS

Which ship requires more

horse power at 35 KTS?

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Reducing Wave Making Resistance (cont’d)

2) Attaching Bulbous Bow to reduce the bow divergent wave

  • - Bulbous bow generates the second bow waves .

  • - Then the waves interact with the bow wave resulting in

ideally no waves, practically smaller bow divergent waves.

  • - EX :

DDG 51 : 7 % reduction in fuel consumption at cruise speed

3% reduction at max speed.

design &retrofit cost : less than $30 million

life cycle fuel cost saving for all the ship : $250 mil.

Tankers & Containers : adopting the Bulbous bow

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Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Wave-Making Resistance (cont)

Bulbous Bow

34
34

Coefficient of Total Resistance

Coefficient of Total Resistance

Coefficient of total hull resistance

C

T

=

C

V

+

C

W

+

C

A

=

C

F

(

1

+

K)

+

C

W

+

C

A

C :

A

Correlation Allowance

Correlation Allowance

It accounts for hull resistance due to surface roughness,

paint roughness, corrosion, and fouling of the hull surface.

It is only used when a full-scale ship prediction of EHP is made

from model test results.

For model,

  • C A

= 0

Since model surface is smooth.

For ship, empirical formulas can be used.

35

Other Type of Resistances

Other Type of Resistances

Appendage Resistance

  • - Frictional resistance caused by the underwater appendages

such as rudder, propeller shaft, bilge keels and struts

  • - 2 24% of the total resistance in naval ship.

Steering Resistance

  • - Resistance caused by the rudder motion.

  • - Small in warships but troublesome in sail boats

Added Resistance

  • - Resistance due to sea waves which will cause the ship

motions (pitching, rolling, heaving, yawing).

Other Resistances

Other Resistances

Increased Resistance in Shallow Water

  • - Resistance caused by shallow water effect

  • - Flow velocities under the hull increases in shallow water.

: Increment of frictional resistance due to the velocities

: Pressure drop, suction, increment of wetted surface area

Increases frictional resistance

  • - The waves created in shallow water take more energy from

the ship than they do in deep water for the same speed.

Increases wave making resistance

Basic Theory Behind Ship Modeling

Modeling a ship

  • - It is not possible to measure the resistance of the full-scale ship

    • - The ship needs to be scaled down to test in the tank but

the scaled ship (model) must behave in exactly same way

as the real ship.

- How do we scale the prototype ship ?

  • - Geometric and Dynamic similarity must be achieved.

? prototype ship model ship prototype Dimension Model Speed 38
?
prototype ship
model ship
prototype
Dimension
Model
Speed
38

Force

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling

Geometric Similarity

- Geometric similarity exists between model and

prototype if the ratios of all characteristic dimensions

in model and prototype are equal.

- The ratio of the ship length to the model length is typically

used to define the scale factor.

Scale Factor = λ

=

L

S

(ft)

:

Length

L

M

(ft)

2

)

S

(ft

  • 2 : Area

=

S

2

 

S

M

(ft

)

3

)

(ft

  • 3 : Volume

=

S

 

M

(ft

3

)

S

:

full scale shi

p

M

:

Model

39

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling

Dynamic Similarity

- Dynamic Similarity exists between model and prototype

if the ratios of all forces in model and prototype are the

same.

- Total Resistance : Frictional Resistance+ Wave Making+Others

C

V

=

R

nS

=

L V

S

S

v

S

V

M

=

f

(

R

n

),

R

nM

,

=

L

M

V

M

v

M

,

V

S

v

M

L

S

v

S

L

M

,

C W F nS V S gL S V M
C
W
F
nS
V
S
gL
S
V
M

=

f

(

F

n

)

=

F

nM

=

=

V

M

gL M L M V S L S
gL
M
L
M
V
S
L
S

40

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling

Dynamic Similarity (cont’d)

- Both Geometric and Dynamic similarity cannot be achieved

at same time in the model test because making both Rn and

Fn the same for the model and ship is not physically possible.

Example

Ship Length=100ft, Ship Speed=10kts, Model Length=10ft

Model speed to satisfy both geometric and dynamic similitude?

V

M

L M = V S L S 10 ft = 10( kts ) 100 ft =
L
M
= V
S
L
S
10 ft
= 10(
kts
)
100 ft
= 1(
kts
)

V

M

=

V

S

v

M

L

S

  • v S

L

M

=

10(

kts

)

100 ft

10 ft

= 100(

kts

)

(assume

v

M

=

v

S

)

41

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling

Dynamic Similarity (cont’d)

- Choice ?

· Make Fn the same for the model.

· Have Rn different

Incomplete dynamic similarity

  • - However partial dynamic similarity can be achieved by

towing the model at the “corresponding speed

  • - Due to the partial dynamic similarity, the following

relations in forces are established.

C

WM

= C

WS

C

VM

π C

VS

42

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling

Corresponding Speeds

F = F , nS nM V (ft/s) S L (ft) S
F
= F
,
nS
nM
V (ft/s)
S
L (ft)
S

=

V V S M = gL gL S M V (ft/s) M L (ft) M
V
V
S
M
=
gL
gL
S
M
V (ft/s)
M
L
(ft)
M

- Example :

Ship length = 200 ft,

Model length : 10 ft

Ship speed = 20 kts, Model speed towed ?

V

M

=

V

S

L M L S
L
M
L
S

= V

S

1 L / L S M
1
L
/
L
S
M

=

V

S

1
1

=

  • 20 kts

    • 1 = 4.47

20
20

kts

1kt.=1.688 ft/s

43

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling

Modeling Summary

  • C T

= C

V

+C

W

+C

A

= C

F

(1+ K) +C

W

+C

A

1)

2)

3)

  • C TM

= C

FM

(1+ K

M

) +C

WM

+C

AM

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Modeling Summary C T = C V + C W

Measured in tank

Froude

Expansion

Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Modeling Summary C T = C V + C W
Basic Theory behind Ship Modeling • Modeling Summary C T = C V + C W
  • C WM

= C

TM

C

FM

(1

+ K

)

C

AM

  • C TS

=

C

FS

(1

+

K

S

)

+

C

WS

+

C

AS

EHP hp

(

) =

R

TS

V

S

550

(

R

TS

=

C

TS

C

WS

=

C

WM

(

F

nS

=

F

nM

,

*0.5

S

S V

S

s

  • 2 )

V

S

/ gL S
/
gL
S

=

V

M

/

gL ) M
gL
)
M

C

FM

,

C

FS

K

S

=

K

M

(calculated) (due to scale factor

. Calculated or given)

C

AM

= 0

(

Model is smooth)

C

AS

π 0

(given, or calculated)

44