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- Sampling Techniques Worksheet
- Types of Random Sampling Techniques
- Research Methodology Full Notes
- Sampling
- Chap 16 Sampling Zikmund
- Research Design
- 1. Nature of Sampling
- hypothesis
- Research Methodology
- Types sampling methods
- Sampling Techniques
- Research design
- Data Collection Methods
- Sampling in Research
- Sampling Method, Size and Calculation
- Research Methodology
- Non Probability Sampling
- Various Sampling Techniques
- Survey Sampling - Leslie Kish
- Sampling and Sampling Distribution

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Chapter 7

Sampling

SAMPLING

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

• Census in simple terms means to measure each element in the group or

population of interest.

• A part of a population, or a subset from a set of units, which is provided by some

process or other, usually by deliberate selection with the object of investigating

the properties of the parent population or set.

• Surveys of industrial consumers or of distributors of consumer products are

frequently in the form of a census.

• However there are certain reasons, which make census impractical or even

impossible. The reasons are as follows:

1. Cost: Cost is an obvious constraint on the determination of whether a census

should be taken. If information is desired on grocery purchase and use

behaviour (frequencies and amounts of purchase of each product category,

average amount kept at home and the like) and the population of interest is all

households in a country, the cost will preclude a census being taken. Thus a

sample is the only logical way of obtaining new data from a population of this

size.

2. Time: The kind of cost we have just considered is an outlay cost. The time

involved in obtaining information from either a census or a sample involves

the possibility of also incurring an opportunity cost. That is, the decision until

information is obtained may result in a smaller gain or a larger loss than would

have been the case from making the same decision earlier. The opportunity to

make more (or save more, as the case may be) is, therefore, foregone.

3. Accuracy: A study using a census, by definition, contains no sampling error. A

study using a sample may involve sampling error in addition to other types of

error. Other things being equal, a census will provide more accurate data than

a sample.

However it has been argued that a more accurate estimate of the population

of a country could be made from a sample than from a census. Taking a

census of a population on a “mail out – mail back” basis requires that the

names and addresses of almost all households be obtained, census

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

The questionnaires are sent to a population of which only about half have

completed high school. The potential for errors in a returned questionnaire is

therefore high.

4. Destructive nature of the measurement: Measurements are sometimes

destructive in nature. When they are, it is apparent that taking a census would

usually defeat the purpose of a measurement. If one were producing

firecrackers, electrical fuses, or gas seed, performing a functional use test on

all products for quality control purposes would not be considered from an

economic standpoint. A sample is then the only practical choice. On the other

hand, if the light bulbs, bicycles, or electrical appliances are to be tested, a

100% sample (census) may be entirely reasonable.

Advantages of Sampling

1. Sampling is cheaper than a census survey. It is obviously more economical, for

instance, to cover a sample of households than all households in a territory

although the cost per unit of study may be higher in a sample survey than in a

census.

2. Since magnitude of operations involved in a sample survey is small, both the

execution of the fieldwork and the analysis of the results can be carried out

speedily.

3. Sampling results in greater economy of effort as relatively small staffs is

required to carry out the survey and to tabulate and process the survey data.

4. A sample survey enables the researcher to collect more detailed information

than would otherwise be possible in a census survey. Also, information of a

more specialised type can be collected, which would not be possible in a

census survey on account of availability of a small number of specialists.

5. Since the scale of operations involved in a sample survey is small, the quality of

interviewing, supervision and other related activities can be better than the

quality in a census survey.

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

Limitations of Sampling

1. When the information is needed on every unit in the population such as

individuals, dwelling units or business establishments, a sample survey cannot

be of much help for it fails to provide information on individual count.

2. Sampling gives rise to certain errors. If these errors are too large, the results of

the sample survey will be of extremely limited use.

3. While in a census survey it may be easy to check the omissions of certain units

in view of complete coverage, this is not so in the case of sample survey.

Step Description

1. Define the population The population is defined in terms of a) element, b)

units, c) extent and d) time.

2. Specify sampling frame The means of representing the elements of the

population – for example telephone book, map, or

city directory – are described.

3. Specify sampling unit The unit for sampling – for example, city block,

company, or household – is selected. The sampling

unit may contain one or several population

elements.

4. Specify sampling method The method by which sampling units are to be

selected is described.

5. Determine sample size The number of elements of the population to be

sampled is chosen.

6. Specify sampling plan The operational procedures for selection of the

sampling units are selected.

7. Select the sample The office and fieldwork necessary for the selection

of the sample are carried out.

Step 1: Define the population

It is the aggregate of all elements defined prior to selection of sample. A population

must be defined in terms of

• elements,

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

• sampling units,

• extent and

• time.

Eliminating any one of these specifications leaves an incomplete definition of the

population that is to be sampled.

If a probability sample is to be taken, a sampling frame is required. A sampling frame

is a means of representing the elements of the population. A sampling frame may be

a telephone book, city directory, an employee roster, a listing of all students

attending a university, or a list of possible phone numbers.

Maps also serve frequently as sampling frames. A sample of areas within a city may

be taken and another sample of household then be taken within each area. City

blocks are sometimes sampled and all households on each sample block are

included. A sampling of street intersections may be taken and interviewers given

instructions as to how to take “Random walks”. From the intersection and select the

households to be interviewed.

A perfect sampling frame is one in which every element of the population is

represented once but only once. One does not need a sampling frame to take a non-

probability sample.

The sampling unit is the basic unit containing the elements of the population to be

sampled. It may be the element itself or a unit in which the element is contained. For

example, if one wanted a sample of males over 13 years of age, it might be possible

to sample them directly. In this case, the sampling unit would be identical with the

element. However, it might be easier to select households as the sampling unit and

interview all males over 13 years of age in each household. Here the sampling unit

and the population element are not the same.

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It indicates how the sample units are selected. One of the most important decisions

in this regard is to determine which of the two –probability and non-probability

sample –is to be chosen. Probability samples are also known as random samples

and non-probability samples as non-random samples.

There are various types of sample designs, which can be covered under two broad

groups – random or probability samples and non-random, or non-probability

samples.

Traditional sampling theory generally ignores the concept of the cost versus the

value of the information to be provided by various sized samples. The problem of

determination of sample size is dealt later on in depth.

The sampling plan involves the specification of how each of the decisions made thus

far is to be implemented. It may have been decided that the household will be the

element and the block the sampling unit. How is a household defined operationally?

How is the interviewer to be instructed to distinguish between families and

households in instances where two families and some distant relatives of one of

them are sharing the same apartment? How is the interviewer to be instructed to

take a systematic sample of households on the block? What should the interviewer

do when a housing unit selected is vacant? What is the callback procedure for

households at which no one is at home? What age respondent speaking for the

household is acceptable?

The final step in the sampling process is the actual selection of the sample elements.

This requires a substantial amount of office and fieldwork particularly if personal

interview are involved.

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A good sample design requires the judicious balancing of four broad criteria –goal

orientation, measurability, practicality and economy.

1. Goal orientation: This suggests that a sample design “should be oriented to the

research objectives, tailored to the survey design, and fitted to the survey

conditions”. If this is done, it should influence the choice of the population, the

measurement as also the procedure of choosing a sample.

2. Measurability: A sample design should enable the computation of valid

estimates of its sampling variability. Normally, this variability is expressed in the

form of standard errors in surveys. However, this is possible only in the case of

probability sampling. In non-probability samples, such a quota sample, it is not

possible to know the degree of precision of the survey results.

3. Practicality: This implies that the sample design can be followed properly in the

survey, as envisaged earlier. It is necessary that complete, correct, practical,

and clear instructions should be given to the interviewer so that no mistakes are

made in the selection of sampling units and the final selection in the field is not

different from the original sample design. Practicality also refers to simplicity of

the design, i.e. it should be capable of being understood and followed in actual

operation of the field work.

4. Economy: Finally, economy implies that the objectives of the survey should be

achieved with minimum cost and effort. Survey objectives are generally spelt

out in terms of precision, i.e. the inverse of the variance of survey estimates. For

a given degree of precision, the sample design should give the minimum cost.

Alternatively, for a given per unit cost, the sample design should achieve

maximum precision (minimum variance).

It may be pointed out that these four criteria come into conflict with each other in

most of the cases, and the researcher should carefully balance the conflicting

criteria so that he is able to select a really good sample design.

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Sampling Techniques

Sampling techniques may be broadly classified as non-probability and probability

sampling techniques.

1. It relies on the personal judgment of the researcher rather than t he chance to

select sample elements.

2. The researcher can arbitrarily or consciously decide which element to include in

the sample.

3. Non-probability may yield good estimates of the population characteristic.

However they do not allow for objective evaluation of the precision of the

sample results.

4. Since there is no way of determining the probability of selecting any particular

element for inclusion in the sample, the estimates obtained are not statistically

projectable to the population.

1. Sampling units are selected by chance.

2. It is possible to pre-specify every potential sample of a given size that could be

drawn from the population, as well as the probability of selecting each sample.

3. Every potential sample need not have the same probability of selection, but it is

possible to specify the probability of selecting any particular sample of a given

size.

4. This requires not only a precise definition of the target population, but also a

general specification of the sampling frame. Because sample elements are

selected by chance.

5. It is possible to determine the precision of the sample estimated of the

characteristics of interest. Confidence intervals, which contain the true

population value with a given level of certainty, can be calculated. This permits

the researcher to make inferences of projections about the target population

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

from which the sample was drawn. Probability sampling techniques are

classified based on :

− Element versus cluster sampling

− Equal unit probability versus unequal probabilities

− Unstratified versus stratified selection

− Random versus systematic selection

− Single-stage versus multistage techniques

Sampling techniques

sampling techniques techniques

Sampling Sampling Sampling

Random Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling

Sampling

Non-probability techniques:

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Convenience Sampling

Definition

A non-probability sampling technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient

elements. The selection of sampling units is left primarily to the interviewer.

Explanation

1. It is a form of Non-Probability sampling.

2. It is mainly used for Dipstick studies. This type of sampling is normally used to

get basic information to take elementary decisions.

3. Convenience samples are often used in exploratory situations when there is a

need to get only an approximation of the actual value quickly and inexpensively.

4. Commonly used Convenience samples are associates and “the man on the

street”. Such samples are often used in the pre-test phase of the study, such as

pre-testing of a questionnaire.

Examples:

• Use of students, church groups, and members of social organizations,

• Mall-intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents,

• Department stores using charge account lists

• Tear out questionnaire included in a magazines, and

• People on the street interviews

Advantages

• Convenience sampling is the least expensive and least time consuming of all

sampling techniques.

• The sampling units are accessible, easy to measure and co-operative.

• This technique is used in exploratory research for generating ideas, insight or

hypothesis.

Disadvantages

• Convenience samples contain unknown amounts of both variables and

systematic selection errors.

• These errors can be very large when compared to the variable error in a simple

random sampling of the same size.

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are not recommended for descriptive or casual research.

Judgmental sampling

Definition

A form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are purposively

selected based on the judgment of the researcher.

Explanation

A judgment sample is one in which there is an attempt to draw a representative

sample of the population using judgmental selection procedures. Judgment samples

are common in industrial market research.

Example

A sample of addresses taken by the municipal agency to which questionnaires on

bicycle riding habits were sent. A judgment sample was taken after researchers

looked at traffic maps of the city, considered the tax assessment on houses and

apartment buildings (per unit), and kept location of schools and parks in mind.

Advantages

• Judgmental sampling is low cost, convenient and quick.

• Judgmental sampling is subjective and its value depends entirely on the

researchers judgment, expertise and creativity.

• It is useful if broad population inferences are not required.

Disadvantage

• It does not allow direct generalization to a specific population, usually because

the population is not defined explicitly.

Quota Sampling

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

Definition

A non probability sampling techniques that is a two stage restricted judgmental

sampling. The first stage consists of developing control categories or quotas of

population elements. In the second stag, sample elements are selected based on

convenience or judgment.

Explanation

• It is a form of Non-Probability sampling.

• In Quota Sampling, the samples are selected in such a way that the interest

parameters represented in the sample are in the same proportion as they are in

the universe/ population.

• Quota Sampling is widely used in consumer panels.

• The following aspects must be kept in mind while choosing the control variables:

− The variables must be available and should be recent.

− They should be easy for the interviewer to classify.

− They should be closely related to the variable being measured in the study.

− The number of variable must be kept to a reasonable number so as to avoid

confusion while analyzing the data

The cost of sample per unit is directly proportional to the number of control variables.

In order to have a check mechanism about the quality of samples taken so as to

reduce the selection errors, Quota Samples are “validated” after they are taken.

The process of validation involves a comparison of the sample and the population

with respect to characteristics not used as control variables. For e.g. in a quota

sample taken from a consumer panel for which income, education, and age group

are used as control variables. If the comparison of this panel and the population

might be made with respect to such characteristics as average number of children,

occupation of the chief wage earner and home ownership. Then if the panel differed

significantly from the population with respect to any of these characteristics, it would

be an indication of the potential bias in the selection procedures. It should be noted

that the similarity does not necessarily mean the absence of bias.

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Example

If one wants to select a Quota sample of persons for a test of flavored tea and wants

to control (control variables are the parameters based on which he would like to

classify the universe) it by ethnic background, income bracket, age group and

geographical area. Then the sample taken would have the same proportion of

people in each ethnic background, income bracket, age group and geographical area

as the population.

Disadvantages

• Scope for high variances

• Scope for sizable selection errors.

• Selection errors arise from the way interviewers select the persons/ variables to

fill the quota. Incorrect information of the proportions of the population in each of

the control variables, biases in the relationship of the control variables to the

variables being measured, and from other sources.

Probability Techniques:

Probability sampling techniques vary in terms of sampling efficiency. Sampling

efficiency is a concept that reflects a trade-offs between sampling cost and precision.

Precision refers to the level of uncertainty about the characteristic being measured.

The greater the precision, the greater the cost and most studies require trade-off.

Definition

A probability sampling technique in which each element in the population has a

known and equal probability of selection is known as simple random sampling

(SRS). Every element is selected independently of every other element and the

sample is drawn by a random procedure from a sampling frame.

Explanation

In random sampling, each element in the population has a known and equal

probability of selection. Furthermore, each possible sample of a given size (n) has a

known and equal probability of being the sample actually selected. This implies that

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

every other element is selected independently of every other element. The sample is

drawn by a random procedure from a sampling frame. This method is equivalent to a

lottery system in which names are placed in a container, the container is shaken, and

the names of the winners are then drawn out in an unbiased manner.

To draw a simple random sample, the researcher first compiles a sampling frame in

which each element is assigned a unique identification number. Then random

numbers are generated to determine which element to include in the sample. The

random numbers may be generated with a computer routine or a table.

Advantages

• It is easy to understand

• The sample result may be projected to the target population.

Disadvantages

• It is often difficult to construct a sampling frame that will permit a simple random

sample to be drawn.

• SRS can result in samples that are very large or spread over large geographic

areas, thus increasing the time and cost of data collection.

• SRS often results in lower precision with larger standard errors than other

probability sampling techniques.

• SRS may or may not result in a representative sample. Although samples drawn

will represent the population well on average, a given simple random sample

may grossly misrepresent the target population. This more likely if the size of

the sample is small.

Systematic sampling

Definition

A probability sampling technique in which the sample is chosen by selecting a

random starting point and then picking every ith element in succession from the

sampling frame.

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Explanation

In systematic sampling, the sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point

and then picking every ith element in succession from the sampling frame. The

sampling interval, i, is determined by dividing the population size N by the sample

size n and rounding to the nearest integer.

Example

Suppose there are 100,000 elements in the population and a sample of 1000

desired. In this case the sampling interval, i, is 100. A random number between 1 to

100 is selected. If say number 23 is selected, the sample will then consists of

elements 23, 123, 223, 323, 423, 523, and so on.

Systematic sampling is similar to SRS in that each population element has a known

and equal probability of selection. However, it is different from SRS in that only the

permissible samples of size n that can be drawn have a known and equal probability

of selection. The remaining samples of size n have a zero probability of being

selected.

For systematic sampling, the researcher assumes that the population elements are

ordered in some respect. In some cases the ordering (alphabetic listing in a

telephone book) is unrelated to the characteristic of interest. In other instances, the

ordering is directly related to the characteristic under investigation. (Credit card

customers may be listed in order of outstanding balances. If the population elements

are arranged in a manner unrelated to the characteristic of interest, systematic

sampling will yield result quite similar to SRS.

On the other hand, when the ordering of the element is related to the characteristic

of interest, systematic sampling increases the representatives of the sample.

Advantages

• Systematic sampling is less costly and easier that SRS, because random

selection is done only once.

• The random numbers do not have to be matched with individual element as in

SRS. Since some lists contains millions of elements, considerable time can be

saved. This in turn again reduces the cost.

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population, systematic sampling can be used to obtain a more representative

and reliable sample than SRS.

• Systematic sampling can even be used without knowledge of the composition

(elements) of the sampling frame.

Definition

A probability sampling technique that uses a two-step process to partition the

population into subpopulations, or strata is known as stratified random sampling.

Elements are selected from each stratum by a random procedure.

Explanation

Stratified Random Sampling emerges from the word Stratum. A Stratum in a

population is a segment of that population having one or more characteristics. E.g.

people in the age strata of 35-40, people in the income strata to Rs. 20000 p.m. etc

Stratified Sampling involves treating each stratum as a separate subpopulation for

sampling purposes, and from each stratum sampling units would be drawn randomly.

The reasons for conducting Stratified Random Sampling are:

• To reduce sampling error by ensuring representation from the population.

• The required sample size for the same level of sampling error will usually be

smaller.

As compared to other methods of sampling, in Stratified Random Sampling

representativeness to a certain degree is forced.

The greater degree to which there is similarity within stratum, smaller is the sample

size required to provide information about that stratum.

Thus the more homogeneous each stratum is with respect to the variable of interest

the smaller is the sample required.

Example

If the head of the household age strata (18-34, 35-49, 50+) are of interest in a study

on household spending habits on household furnishings, then each of these groups

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would be taken separately for sampling purposes. That is, the total population could

be divided into age groups and a separate sample is drawn from each group.

Cluster Sampling

Definition

The target population is divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive

subpopulation called clusters. Then a random sample of clusters is selected based

on probability sampling techniques such as simple random sampling. For each

selected clusters, either all the elements are included in the sample or a sample of

elements is drawn probabilistically.

Explanation

• If all the elements in each selected cluster are included in the sample, the

procedure is called one stage cluster sampling.

• If a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically from each selected cluster, the

procedure is called two-stage cluster sampling.

• The key distinction between cluster sampling and stratified sampling is that in

cluster sampling only a sample of subpopulations (clusters) is chosen, whereas

in stratified sampling all the subpopulations are selected.

• The objective of the cluster sampling is to increase the sampling efficiency by

decreasing costs.

Example

If the study requires studying the households in the city then in cluster sampling the

whole city is divided into Blocks and to take each household on each block selected.

Thus to get a representative whole of the universe.

Advantages

• Low population heterogeneity / high population homogeneity

• Low expected cost of errors.

• The main advantage of cluster sampling is the low cost per sampling unit as

compared to other sampling methods.

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Disadvantage

• High potential of sampling error as compared to other methods.

• For eg: The lower cost per unit and higher sampling error potential of a cluster

sample is illustrated by considering a sample of 100 households to be selected

for personal interviews from a particular city. In this method the city would be

divided in blocks and 10 households from 10 selected blocks would be selected

and interviewed. Thus the cost of personal interview per unit will be low because

of the close proximity of the units in the cluster. This sample may not be the

exact representation of the entire city. Thus there is a possibility of sampling

error.

Explanation

The number of stages involved in the sampling method is partially a function of the

number of sampling frame available. If a perfect frame were always available

complete with all the associated information one might want for purposes of

clustering and / or stratifying, there would be far fewer multiple samples taken than

there are now. In practice, it is not uncommon to have a first stage area sample of,

say, census tracts, followed by a second stage sample of blocks, and completed with

a systematic sample of households within each block. These stages would not be

necessary if a complete listing of households were available.

Example

AC Nielsen’s Multistage Sampling Procedure to select its PeopleMeter Panel

The first stage involves the selection of counties using a stratified random sample

based on population. Next within the selected counties there is a random selection of

blocks or enumeration districts. These blocks then go through a process called

prelisting. A trained field representative visits the selected blocks and creates a list of

all the individual hosing units. This list is then returned to the home office where it is

checked for internal consistency and external agreement with other data. Finally,

individual household units are randomly selected from each block.

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Techniques Strengths Weaknesses

time consuming, most representative; not

convenient recommended for

descriptive or casual

research.

time consuming generalization subjective

for certain characteristics assurance of

representativeness.

characteristics

Probability Sampling

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

expensive lower precison;

no assurance of

representativeness

tiveness. Easier to representativeness

implement than SRS

sampling frame not

necessary

subpopulations; precision stratification variables; not

feasible to stratify on

many variable; expensive

effective compute and interpret

results

The choice between non probability and probability samples should be based on

considerations such as the nature of the research, relative magnitude of non

sampling versus sampling errors, variability in the population, as well as statistical

and operational considerations. For example,

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Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

sampling and non-sampling are larger larger.

errors

In exploratory research the findings are treated as preliminary and the use of

probability sampling may not be warranted. On the other hand, in conclusive

research in which the researcher wishes to use the results to estimate overall market

shares or the size of the total market, probability sampling is favored. Probability

samples allow statistical projection of the results to a target population.

required. In these situations, the elimination of selection bias and the ability to

calculate sampling error make probability sampling desirable. However probability

sampling will not always result in more accurate results. If nonsampling errors are

likely to be an important factor, then non-probability sampling may be preferable, as

the use of judgment may allow greater control over the sampling process.

variables of interest. A more heterogeneous population would favor probability

sampling, because it would be important to secure a representative sample.

Probability sampling is preferable from a statistical viewpoint, as it is the basis of

most common statistical techniques.

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researcher. It generally costs more and takes longer than does nonprobability

sampling. In many marketing research projects, it is difficult to justify the additional

time and expense. Therefore, in practice, the objectives of the study dictate which

sampling method will be used.

There are six methods of determining sample size in market research. They are

1. Unaided Judgement: When no specific method is used to determine sample

size, it is called Unaided Judgement. Such approach when used to arrive at

sample size gives no explicit considerations to either the likely precision of the

sample results or the cost of obtaining them (characteristics in which client

should have interest). It is an approach to be avoided.

2. All –You –Can –Afford: In this method, a budget for the project is set by some

(generally unspecified) process and, after the estimated fixed costs of designing

the project, preparing a questionnaire (if required), analysing the data, and

preparing the report are deducted, the remainder of the budget is allocated to

sampling. Dividing this remaining amount by the estimated cost per sampling

unit gives the sample size.

This method concentrates on the cost of the information and is not concerned

about its value. Although cost always has to be considered in any systematic

approach to sample size determination, one also needs to give consideration to

how much the information to be provided by the sample will be worth. This

approach produces sample sizes that are larger than required as well as sizes

that are smaller than optimal.

3. Required Size Per Cell: This method of determining sample size can be used on

simple random, stratified random, purposive and quota samples. For example,

in a study of attitudes with respect to fast food establishments in a local

marketing area it was decided that information was desired for two occupational

groups and for each of the four age groups. This resulted in 2 x 4 = 8 sample

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cells. A sample size of 30 was needed per cell for the types of statistical

analyses that were to be conducted. The overall sample size was therefore 8 x

30 = 240.

4. Use of Traditional Statistical Model: The formula for traditional statistical model

depends upon the type of sample to be taken and it always incorporates three

common variables

• an estimate of the variance in the population from which the sample is to be

drawn,

• the error from sampling that the researcher will allow, and

• the desired level of confidence that the actual sampling error will be within the

allowable limits.

The statistical models for simple random sampling include estimation of means

and estimation of proportion.

5. Use of Bayesian Statistical Model: The Bayesian model involves finding the

difference between the expected value of the information to be provided by the

sample size. This difference is known as expected net gain from sampling

(ENGS). The sample size with the largest positive ENGS is chosen.

The Bayesian model is not as widely used as the traditional statistical models

for determining sample size, even though it incorporates the cost of sampling

and the traditional models do not. The reasons for the relative infrequent use of

Bayesian model are related to greater complexity and perceived difficulty of

making the estimates required for Bayesian model as compared to the

traditional models.

Sampling theory rests on the concept of a sampling distribution. Sampling

distribution includes

• Sampling distribution of the mean

• Sampling distribution of the proportion

Page 23

Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

A sampling distribution of the mean is the relative frequency distribution of the

means of all possible samples of size n taken from a population of size N. The

definition specifies that all possible samples of size n from population of size N

should be taken, and the mean of each sample should be calculated and plotted in

relative frequency table.

A sampling distribution of the mean for simple random samples that are large

(30 or more) has

• a normal distribution

• a mean equal to the population (M)

• a standard deviation, called the standard error of the mean( ), that is equal to

the population standard deviation( ) divided by the square root of the sample

size

FORMULA:

Standard deviation is called standard error of the mean to indicate to indicate that it

applies to a distribution of sample means and not to a single sample or a population.

A basic characteristic of a sampling distribution is that the area under it

(between any two points) can be calculated so long as each point is defined by the

number of standard errors it is away from the mean. The number of standard error, a

point is away from the mean is referred as the Z value for that point.

proportion (p) of all possible samples of size n taken from population of size N. A

sampling distribution of a proportion for a simple random sample has a

• normal distribution

Page 24

Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

• a standard error ( ) equal to

FORMULA:

The estimated standard error of the proportion (given a large sample size that is a

small proportion of the population) is

FORMULA:

Determination of Sample Size in Problem Involving Means

Three kinds of specifications have to be made before the sample size necessary to

estimate the population mean can be determined. These are

1. Specification of error (e) that can be allowed –how close must the estimate be

(how accurate do we need to be)?

2. Specification of confidence coefficient –what level of confidence is required that

the actual sampling error does not exceed that specified (how sure do we want

to be that we have achieved our desired accuracy)?

3. Estimate of the population standard deviation( ) –what is the standard deviation

of the population (how “spread out” or diverse is the population)?

Number of standard errors implied by confidence coefficient = allowable error

standard error

or in symbols,

Page 25

Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

FORMULA:

The only unknown variable is sample size (n). A simpler formula for the size of

simple random samples can be derived from the above equation.

FORMULA:

The specifications that must be made to determine the sample size for an estimation

problem involving a proportion are very similar to those for a mean. They are

1. Specification of error (e) that can be allowed –how close must the estimate be?

2. Specification of confidence coefficient –what level of confidence is required that

the actual sampling error does not exceed that specified?

3. Estimate of the population proportion (P) using prior information –what is the

approximate or estimated population proportion?

Specifications, along with the sample size, collectively determine the sampling

distribution for the problem. Because sample size is the only remaining unknown, it

can be calculated. The above mentioned three specifications are related as follows:

Number of standard errors implied by confidence coefficient = allowable error

standard error

or in symbols,

FORMULA:

FORMULA:

Page 26

Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

mentioned that while a hypothesis is useful, it is not always necessary. Many a time,

the researcher is interested in collecting and analysing data, indicating the main

characteristics without a hypothesis excepting the one, which he may suggest

incidentally during the course of his study. However, in a problem-oriented research,

it is necessary to formulate a hypothesis. In such research, hypothesis are generally

concerned with the causes of a certain phenomenon or a relationship between two

or more variables under investigation.

In order to determine the sample the size in a hypothesis testing problem involving

proportion, the following specifications must be made:

1. the hypotheses to be tested: A null and an alternate hypothesis are involved in

each hypothesis test. A null hypothesis, designated by Ho, is one that, if

accepted, will result in no option being formed and/or action being taken that is

different from those currently held or being used. The null hypothesis in the

problem just described is

Ho: order rate = 3.5%

The alternate hypothesis, designated by H1, is one that will lead to opinions

being formed and/or actions being taken that are different from those currently

held or being used. The alternate hypothesis here is

H1: order rate = 5.0%

Although null hypothesis is always explicitly stated, this is sometimes not true of

the alternate hypothesis. In those instances when it is not stated it is understood

that it consists of all values of the proportion not reserved by the null hypothesis.

Page 27

Chapter 7 –Sampling V.E.S College of Arts, Science & Commerce

In this situation if the alternate hypothesis were not explicitly stated, it would be

understood that it would be

H1: order rate (is not equal to) 3.5%

2. the level of sampling error permitted in the test of each hypothesis: Two types of

error can be made in hypothesis testing problems. An error is made when null

hypothesis is true but the conclusion is reached that the alternate hypothesis

should be accepted. This is known as Type I error. The Type II error is made

when the alternate hypothesis is accepted

3. the test statistic to be used.

means, the following specifications must be made:

2. the level of sampling error permitted in the test of each hypothesis,

3. the standard deviation of population, and

4. the test statistic to be used.

Page 28

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