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INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

ITALIAN LYRIC DICTION WORKBOOK


A graded method of phonetic transcription which employs frequently occurring words from Italian art song literature
Second Edition

Cheri Montgomery

S.T.M. Publishers Nashville, TN

iii

PREFACE
This publication provides a means for the application of textbook rules. Phonetic transcriptions are based on Evelina Colornis Singers Italian. The exercises within were created from lyrics of over 800 Italian art songs. Source words were placed in list format and arranged by frequency of occurrence. The most common words are short in length and appear in enunciation exercises. Other frequently occurring words are introduced in graded order and categorized according to Italian speech sounds as defined by the International Phonetic Alphabet. A study of articulatory phonetics is provided and includes consonant and vowel charts for student application and definition of terms. Each unit highlights a specified group of symbols and provides enunciation instructions with exercises, rules for transcription, in-class application and individually assigned word lists. Units progress in cumulative order culminating with exercises which allow students to enunciate lyrics from Italian art song literature. A standard repertoire of over 35 lyrics is included with transcription aids and translation. Special attention and detail is devoted to the pronunciation of sounds applicable to the Romance languages. Units contain separate exercises for enunciation of consonants and vowels. Rules for transcription are outlined and followed by worksheets which highlight each spelling. The quality of vowels which require use of a dictionary is indicated within the Italian text. Accurate transcription and proficiency of memorized rules is assessed through in-class enunciation. Practice quizzes and a summary of rules are provided for easy reference and review. The answer key is also available for alternate lesson plans which may include student grading and board work. The Italian Lyric Diction Workbook presents transcription with a concise outline of rules and enunciation of vowels and consonants within defined categories. It serves consecutively within our series of workbooks created for lyric diction courses. Cheri Montgomery

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unit
1

Topic
Classification of symbols

Section
Pronunciation guide Consonant charts Application of rules Vowel charts/Application Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Practice quiz Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Practice quiz Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Enunciation exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual Exercises Rules for transcription Application of rules Individual exercises Practice quiz Rules for transcription

Page
1 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 18 20 21 22 28 29 33 34 35 41 42 43 44 50 51 52 53 54 60 61 62 63 69 71 72 84 86

Dental consonants, closed front [i] semiconsonant [j] and transcription of r Plosive consonants, closed front [e], open front [D] and transcription of s

Review 4

Units 1 - 3 Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C], and silent h

Closed back [u], semiconsonant [w], and transcription of z

Review 6

Units 4 - 5 Dark back [A], velar nasal [E], prepalatal nasal [Q] and prepalatal lateral [3]

Pronunciation and transcription of c, g, and sc

Syllabic vowel within the phrase

Review 9

Units 6 - 8 Italian Art Song Literature

Unit
Literature

Composer
Giovanni Bononcini Giulio Caccini Antonio Caldara

Art Song
Non posso disperar Per la gloria dadorarvi Amarilli, mia bella Alma del core Come raggio di sol Sebben, crudele Vittoria, mio core! Vergin, tutto amor Danza, danza, fanciulla Se i miei sospiri Caro mio ben O del mio dolce ardor Che fiero costume Pur dicesti, o bocca bella Quella fiamma Lasciatemi morire Nel cor pi non mi sento Se tu mami Affetti, non turbate Aure amiche, ah! Non spirate Dun Genio che maccende Io lo so che il be sembiante Mi lagner tacendo Or che il cielo a me ti rende Placido zeffiretto Pur nel sonno almen talora Se amor labbandona Sol che un istante io miri Tintendo, s, mio cor Vorrei di te fidarmi Gi il sole dal Gange Le violette O cessate di piagarmi Se Florindo fedele Sento nel core Tu lo sai Nina Star vicino

Page
87 87 88 88 88 89 89 91 91 92 92 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 97 97 98 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 104 105 105 105 106 107 110 112 114

Ciacomo Carissimi Francesco Durante Franois Joseph Ftis Tommaso Giordani Christoph Willibald von Gluck Giovanni Legrenzi Antonio Lotti Benedetto Marcello Claudio Monteverdi Giovanni Paisiello Alessandro Parisotti Vincenzo Righini

Alessandro Scarlatti

Giuseppe Torelli Composer unknown Review Units 1 - 9

Review of Rules Verb, Noun and Adjective Endings Italian Vowel Chart

vi

ANSWER KEY
Unit
1 2 3 Review 4 5 Review 6 7 8 Review 9

Topic

Page

Classification of symbols 116 Dental consonants, closed front [i], semiconsonant [j] and transcription of r 117 Plosive consonants, closed front [e], open front [D] and transcription of s 121 Units 1 - 3 Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C], and silent h Closed back [u], semiconsonant [w] and transcription of z Units 4 - 5 Dark back [A], velar nasal [E], prepalatal nasal [Q], prepalatal lateral [3] Pronunciation and transcription of c, g, and sc Syllabic vowel within the phrase Units 6 - 8 Italian art song literature Giovanni Bononcini Giulio Caccini Antonio Caldara Ciacomo Carissimi Francesco Durante Franois Joseph Ftis Tommaso Giordani Christoph Willibald von Gluck Giovanni Legrenzi Antonio Lotti Benedetto Marcello Claudio Monteverdi Giovanni Paisiello Alessandro Parisotti Vincenzo Righini Alessandro Scarlatti Giuseppe Torelli Composer unknown 124 125 128 132 132 136 140 153 154 154 155 155 156 158 159 159 160 161 161 162 162 162 163 164 170 172 172 174 178

Review Bibliography

Units 1 - 9

vii

INSTRUCTORS MANUAL

ITALIAN LYRIC DICTION WORKBOOK

viii

INTRODUCTORY NOTES Discussion of Terms


IPA stands for the International Phonetic Alphabet. It was instituted by the International Phonetic Association around 1888. Each symbol stands for one phonetic sound and is enclosed in brackets. Pronunciation: conversion of letters into the proper choice of speech sounds as represented by IPA Enunciation and Articulation: the act of speaking or singing phonetic sounds Expression: the act of conveying mood, color and sentiment of lyric texts Monosyllabic: a word with one syllable polysyllabic words contain two or more syllables Monophthong: a vowel sound which maintains one articulatory position throughout the course of a syllable diphthongs contain two vowel sounds, triphthongs three Aspirate: a consonant which is sounded with an audible release of breath (English p, t, k) Prevocalic: refers to a consonant which precedes a vowel sound Intervocalic: refers to a consonant which stands between vowel sounds Postvocalic: refers to a consonant which follows a vowel sound Initial: the first letter or sound of a word Medial: a letter or sound in the middle of a word Final: the last letter or sound of a word

Introduction to Italian Lyric Diction


Pronunciation of Italian for speech is different from the Italian needed for lyric diction. Dictionary transcriptions reflect the spoken language and will not always agree with recommendations provided in a study of lyric diction. Characteristics of the Italian language 1) Italian uses several letters in addition to the English alphabet: grave , , , , , acute , , circumflex 2) Additional sounds not familiar to English include prepalatal consonants [Q] and [3] 3) There is no glottal stop in Italian 4) There is no neutral vowel sound present in Italian (no schwa [B]) 5) Vowel sounds are deliberate, strong, precise and frontal in placement 6) Monophthongs maintain their formation throughout vocalization no on or off-glides 7) Dental consonants: tongue tip contacts the back of the upper front teeth for consonants d, n, t, l and r 8) Plosive consonants: a nonaspirate quality is required for consonants [b], [p], [d], [t], [g], [k] 9) Double consonants are lengthened Warnings 1) Characteristics of the Italian language are inherently different from English. Do not attempt to sing Italian while using English speech sounds. 2) Do not diphthongize monophthongs 3) Do not assign a medial placement to vowel sounds 4) Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial vowel words 5) Do not aspirate plosive consonants ([b], [p], [d], [t], [g], [k]) 6) Do not substitute an English consonantal point of contact for the Italian dentals (d, n, t, l, r) 7) Employ a fully vocalized tone for articulation of voiced consonants (avoid partial aspiration) 8) Do not reduce the length of double consonants Formation of the phonetic symbols: 1) Form the symbols from the top down and include brackets at the beginning and end of the transcription. Details are important. For example: [r] with a stem is rolled r while [|] without a stem is flipped r. 2) The symbols must be formed with accuracy: [F] and [z] represent two different sounds.

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
FRONT VOWELS
IPA ENGLISH ITALIAN

[i] [e] []
BACK VOWELS

eat, greet chaos, dcor met, friend

vita, ivi, sospiri


['vitA]['ivi][sCs'pi|i]

seno, entra, che


['senC]['entrA][ke]

ciel, erba, sole


[tGDl]['DrbA]['solD]

[o] [O] [u] [A]

obey, protect talk, ought food, blue father, hot

dolce, ombra, non


['doltGD]['ombrA][non]

core, ognor, giorno


['kC|D][C'Qor]['dFornC]

pure, umile, virt


['pu|D]['umilD][vir'tu]

caro, amor, via


['kA|C][A'mor]['vi:A]

SEMICONSONANTS

(Qualities which differ from English examples: semiconsonants serve as a quick glide toward the following vowel in Italian)

[j] [w]

yet, year winter, web

fiore, miei, piet


['fjo|D]['mjD:i][pjD'tA]

pu, tuoi, quando


[pwC]['twC:i]['kwAndC]

DENTAL CONSONANTS (The following consonants are classified as dental


in Italian but alveolar in English)
IPA ENGLISH ITALIAN

[d] [n] [t] [l] [|] / [r] [Q] [3]


VELAR CONSONANTS thread, throne

di, onde, addio


[di]['ondD][Ad'di:C]

nome, vieni, donna


['nomD]['vjDni]['dCnnA]

tace, tanto, notte


['tAtGD]['tAntC]['nCttD]

luna, alma, stelle


['lunA]['AlmA]['stellD]

mare, sempre, terra


['mA|D]['sDmprD]['tDrrA]

PREPALATAL CONSONANTS ogni, signor, regno


['oQi][si'Qor]['reQC]

gli, voglia, figlio


[3i]['vC3A]['fi3C]

[N]

finger, link

lungo, dunque
['luEgC]['duEkwD]
(Qualities which differ from

VOICED PLOSIVE CONSONANTS


English examples: articulation in Italian is unaspirated)

[b] [d] [g]

beauty, abide duty, adore give, agree

bene, nubi, labbra


['bDnD]['nubi]['lAbbrA]

dolore, ride, freddo


[dC'lo|D]['ridD]['freddC]

grave, vago, fugga


['grAvD]['vAgC]['fuggA]

VOICELESS PLOSIVE CONSONANTS


from English example: articulation in Italian is unaspirated)
IPA ENGLISH

(Qualities which differ


ITALIAN

[p] [t] [k]


GLOTTAL

pity, aprove trace, letter candle, back


(No glottal consonants in Italian)

poco, sopra, troppo


['pCkC]['soprA]['trCppC]

tua, vento, diletto


['tu:A]['vDntC][di'lDttC]

canto, ancor, occhi


['kAntC][AE'kor]['Ckki]

[/] [h] [:] Long vowel ['] Stressed


syllable

ever, aim, I
['/DvB] [/DNm] [/AN]

happy, hope

DIACRITIAL MARKS mio, bei, aura


['mi:C]['bD:i]['A:u|A]

return, again
[N'tMn] [/H'gDn]

senza, perch
['sDntsA][pDr'ke]

Consonants which closely parallel English pronunciation are not included in this list Vowels of stressed syllables in polysyllabic words are underlined. (A dictionary or musics rhythm is necessary for stress indications) A dictionary is needed in order to determine the quality of stressed e and o. The text indicates transcription of e and o within each applicable word.

Enuciation Exercises

UNIT 2: Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]


Flipped [|]
Description: Italian and French sources classify flipped r as dental while English and German sources classify flipped r as alveolar. It is identical to American pronunciation of r in words throne and three. Articulation: With vocalized tone, tap the tongue tip once between the alveolar ridge and upper front teeth. Exercise: British pronunciation of the words very merry would contain flipped r. Replace r with d and repeat the phrase in rapid succession. A rapidly articulated d produces the tongue movement for [|].

Trilled or rolled [r]


Description: Also described as a vibrant. The trilled or rolled r maintains an articulatory motion trilling in and through the breath stream against the top of the upper teeth.1 Articulation: Round lips and relax jaw and tongue. Articulate a rapidly flipped r and extend through vocalized tone. The tongue tip trills between the alveolar ridge and upper front teeth. Allow the breath to activate tongue tips vibration. Warning: Fully voice rolled r and do not tense articulators. Avoid aspiration of t in tr combinations. Exercise: Round the lips and expel a sudden impulse of vocalized tone toward the tongue tip.

Dental d, n, t and l
Description: The remaining Italian dental consonants d, n, t and l are contained within the word dental. Articulation: Place the tongue tip lightly against the inside of the upper front teeth. A fully vocalized tone is required for consonants d, n and l. Exert a slight resistance between the articulators for voiced d. Warning: Avoid any aspirated escape of air during the articulation of voiced d and voiceless t. Do not allow the tongue to thicken or movement to become sluggish. The articulation of dental consonants should be quick in order to release and give impulse to the vowel that follows.2

Enunciate the following frequently occurring words which contain [r] and [|]:
1. rose ['rCzD] 2. ride ['ridD] 3. resta ['rDstA] 4. rami ['rAmi] 5. rende ['rDndD] 6. riva ['rivA] 7. ria ['ri:A] 8. ra [rA] 9. ri [ri] 10. reo ['rD:C] 11. rime ['rimD] 12. remo ['rDmC]
1 2

(roses) (laughs) (remains) (branches) (renders) (shore) (river) (king) (rivers) (guilty) (rhymes) (I row)

amor [A'mor] pur [pur] or [or] fior [fjor] dolor [dC'lor] mar [mAr] far [fAr] cuor [kwCr] viver ['vivDr] cantar [kAn'tAr] star [stAr] venir [vD'nir]

(love) (too) (hour) (flower) (pain) (sea) (to make) (heart) (to live) (to sing) (to stay) (to come)

sar [sA'|A] era ['D|A] sera ['se|A] moro ['mo|C] ora ['o|A] dura ['du|A] cara ['kA|A] dire ['di|D] loro ['lo|C] vero ['ve|C] spera ['spe|A] fare ['fA|D]

(will be) (was) (evening) (dark) (now) (hard) (dear) (to say) (they) (true) (hopes) (to make)

Evelina Colorni, Singers Italian (G. Schirmer, Inc., New York 1970), p. 68. Colorni, p. 55.

Enunciation Exercises

Dental Consonants (continued)


Guidelines for enunciation: Contrast the following
English d
Voiced alveolar stop

Italian d
Voiced dental plosive

English t
Voiceless alveolar stop

Italian t
Voiceless dental plosive

delight dice dental desire devout God idea world sword

delizia [d"litsjA] dado ["dAdO] dentale [dn"tAl] desio [d"ziO] devoto [d"vOtO] Dio [diO] idea [i"dA] mondo ["mondO] spadino [spA"dinO]

talent at times tea tempo tonal fatal movement count gentle

talento [tA"lntO] talvolta [tAl"vOltA] te [te] tempo ["tmpO] tonale [tO"nAl] fatale [fA"tAl] moto ["mOtO] conte ["kont] gentile [dZn"til]

English l
Voiced alveolar lateral

Italian l
Voiced dental lateral

English n
Voiced alveolar nasal

Italian n
Voiced dental nasal

loyalty laud light April sail flute placid soldier faithful

lealt [lAl"tA] lode ["lOd] lume ["lum] aprile [A"pril] vela ["velA] flauto ["flAutO] placido ["plAtGidO] soldato [sOl"dAtO] fedel [f"del]

noble snow no nose knot name little hand bread one

nobile ["nObil] neve ["nev] no ["nO] naso ["nAzO] nodo ["nOdO] nome ["nom] manina [mA"ninA] pane ["pAn] uno ["unO]

Enunciation Exercises

Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]


Guidelines for enunciation:

Italian vowels
Italian vowels are frontal in placement with a more pronounced lip or tongue formation than their English counterparts. Front and back designations refer to arch of the tongue. Open and closed designations refer to space between the articulators. To the English ear, Italian vowels sound strong, precise and deliberate.

Closed front [i]


Articulation: Tongue tip is placed against the lower row of front teeth while tongue arch is far forward. The teeth maintain a close proximity with lips spread, more so than for English [i]. Allow cheek muscles to initiate the lip formation. With soft palate high direct vocalized tone toward the upper front teeth. Warning: Do not diphthongize. Avoid on or off-glides by maintaining jaw, lip and tongue position throughout vocalization. Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial [i]. Avoid the medial placement of English [i]. Do not weaken the vowel quality of [i] in unstressed syllables.

Semiconsonant [j]
Description: A semiconsonant sound possesses the non-restrictive qualities of a vowel with the quick initiating properties of a consonant. Italian semiconsonants rapidly introduce the following vowel sound. They are short and articulated more energetically than their English counterparts. Note: semiconsonant [j] is classified as palatal in English and German but prepalatal in Italian and French. The tongue arch is far forward for semiconsonant [j] in the Romance languages. Articulation: Assume the tongue, jaw and lip position for [i]. Add vocalized tone while vigorously moving toward the following vowel sound. Semiconsonant [j] is a rapidly articulated [i]. Warning: Do not divide semiconsonant + vowel combinations into two beats. A quick [j] glide initiates the following vowel sound and both work together to form one syllable.

Enunciate the following words which contain [i] and [j]:


1. di [di] 2. mi [mi] 3. si [si] 4. ti [ti] 5. chi [ki] 6. vi [vi] 7. fin [fin] 8. vidi ['vidi] 9. vivi ['vivi] 10. fili ['fili] 11. dici ['ditGi] 12. l [li] (of) (me) (yes) (you) (who) (you) (end) (I saw) (you live) (threads) (say) (there) vieni ['vjDni] siete ['sjDtD] chiede ['kjDdD] lieve ['ljDvD] piena ['pjDnA] piede ['pjDdD] tiene ['tjDnD] lieti ['ljDti] chiese ['kjDzD] diede ['djDdD] fiere ['fjD|D] miele ['mjDlD] (you come) (you are) (asks) (light) (flood) (foot) (holds) (happy) (churches) (gave) (fairs) (honey) il [il] in [in] i [i] indire [in'di|D] infinit [infini'tA] insieme [in'sjDmD] imiti [i'miti] intimi ['intimi] invidi [in'vidi] inchini [iE'kini] infini [in'fini] inviti [in'viti] (the) (in) (the) (announce) (infinity) (together) (imitates) (intimate) (envies) (bow) (finally) (invites)

10

RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION


CLOSED FRONT

[i] [i:]

single i: il [il] di [di] anima ['AnimA] (always): deso [dD'zi:C]


* accent marks indicate stressed syllable

LONG CLOSED FRONT

i + vowel in short words with final vowels: sia ['si:A] pria ['pri:A] final stressed i + vowel in polysyllabic words: melodia [mDlC'di:A]

SEMICONSONANT: VOICED PREPALATAL GLIDE

[j]
i + vowel
chiama ['kjAmA] (exception: violette [viC'lettD])

[jD]
spelling: ie
vieni ['vjDni]

VOICED DENTAL TRILL

[r]
spelling: r
sempre ['sDmprD]

[|]
intervocalic r
caro ['kA|C]

Stressed syllables of polysyllabic words not covered by the rules above are indicated within the Italian text by an underlined vowel a is transcribed [A] as in father; c + back vowel or consonant is [k] and g + back vowel or consonant is [g]. * Italian accent marks: grave , , , , , acute , and circumflex
(the circumflex mark is a rare spelling and does not affect stress)

Application of Rules

11

Class work #2:


Provide IPA:

Dental consonants, closed front [i] and semiconsonant [j]

1. avanti

(before)

10. siedi

(you sit)

2. brio (o is [C])

(liveliness)

11. prima

(first)

3. cavalier

(cavalier)

12. sara

(know)

4. dir

(to say)

13. vie (e is [D])

(roads)

5. gaia

(cheerful)

14. piet

(pity)

6. ilarit

(hilarity)

15. cari

(dear ones)

7. Maria

(Maria)

16. vita

(life)

8. mia

(mine)

17. spiriti

(spirits)

9. divin

(divine)

18. pianto (o is [C]) (crying)

Enunciation Exercises

29

UNIT 4: Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h Double Consonants
Italian double consonants occupy at least four times the space of a single consonant or consonant cluster.3 The time needed for lengthening is taken from the preceding vowel. The following example provides a picture of the length of consonants and vowels within the phrase. Lines indicate vowel space while x indicates consonant space. The phrase Affetti, non turbate sung on quarter notes would be articulated:

q
[A

______x x x x______x x x x__________ x__________ x__________ x__________ x__________

'f-----fD

t-----ti

no

ntu

r'bA

tD]

Syllabification of double consonants


The first consonant is sung on the pitch of the preceding vowel while the second consonant is sung on the pitch of the following vowel. Sing these examples with correct tonal placement of double consonants:

'0==;=V===W=='=V===V==;=. '0==f====b==.
im - mor - ta - le
[im - mCr - 'tA - lD]

'0==;=f==='=i====h==.
az
[Ad

cen - no
['tGDn - nC]

- zur - re
- 'dzur - rD]

Most double consonants require a complete stoppage of sound. Exceptions: ff, ss, ll, mm, nn and rr

Enunciate the following frequently occurring words which contain double consonants:

bb
1. labbra ['lAbbrA] 2. ebbe ['DbbD] 3. debbo ['dDbbC] 4. babbo ['bAbbC] 5. abbia ['AbbjA] 6. nebbia ['nebbjA] 7. dubbio ['dubbjC] 8. ebbene [Db'bDnD] 9. abbraccio [Ab'brAttGC] 10. conobbe [kC'nobbD] 11. sarebbe [sA'|DbbD] 12. abbandonato [AbbAndC'nAtC]
3

pp
1. troppo ['trCppC] (had) 2. eppur [Dp'pur] (I must) 3. drappo ['drAppC] (dad) 4. scoppio ['skCppjC] (have) 5. strappo ['strAppC] (fog) 6. gruppo ['gruppC] (doubt) 7. appare [Ap'pA|D] (well then) 8. appena [Ap'penA] (embrace) 9. appresso [Ap'prDssC] (knew) 10. appieno [Ap'pjDnC] (would be) 11. galoppo [gA'lCppC] (abandoned) 12. supplizio [sup'plitsjC] (lip) (too much) (and yet) (cloth) (burst) (tear) (group) (appears) (hardly) (next) (fully) (gallop) (torture)

dd
1. addio [Ad'di:C] 2. iddio [id'di:C] 3. freddo ['freddC] 4. ridda ['riddA] 5. Nedda ['nDddA] 6. cadde ['kAddD] 7. laddove [lAd'dovD] 8. addosso [Ad'dCssC] 9. suddito ['sudditC] 10. addurre [Ad'durrD] 11. raddoppio [rAd'doppjC] 12. soddisfare [sCddis'fA|D] (goodbye) (god) (cold) (dance) (Nedda) (fell) (where) (on) (subject) (to bring) (double) (to satisfy)

Colorni, p. 51.

32

Enunciation Exercises

UNIT 4: Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h
Guidelines for enunciation:

Closed back [o]


Description: Closed back [o] occurs as a monophthong in unstressed syllables of English words: obey, provide, melody. It is more commonly enunciated in English speech as the first vowel of diphthong [ou]: grow, no and shadow. Diphthongization of Italian [o] is to be strictly avoided. Italian [o] has a more distinct lip rounding and maintains a higher placement than its English counterpart. Enunciation: Closed [o] is formed in the position of closed [u] but with a slightly lowered jaw and minute adjustment of the arch of the tongue. The teeth maintain a close proximity and lips rounded with the sensation of no mouth corners. Allow cheek muscles to initiate the lip formation. With soft palate lifted, place tongue tip against lower row of front teeth and direct vocalized tone toward the upper front teeth. Warning: Do not delay lip rounding. Maintain articulatory position throughout vocalization. Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial [o].

Open back [C]


Enunciation: Open [C] maintains a distinctly oval feel and is more frontal in placement than its American English counterpart. Allow cheek muscles to initiate the lip formation. With soft palate lifted, place tongue tip against lower front teeth and direct vocalized tone toward the upper front teeth. Warning: Do not replace [C] with dark [A]. A deliberate and rapid formation is necessary in order to avoid the on-glide of a delayed lip rounding. Avoid diphthongization of final [C]. Do not articulate a glottal stop before initial [C]. Do not weaken the vowel quality of [C] in unstressed syllables. Exercise: Sing alternating between [A] and [C]. Differentiate the two by means of lip movement. For singers with difficulty forming [C], sing [A] while gently pressing the lip corners together manually.

Enunciate the following frequently occurring words which contain [o] and [C]:
1. o [o] 2. con [kon] 3. or [or] 4. sole ['solD] 5. lo [lo] 6. sono ['sonC] 7. fiore ['fjorD] 8. col [kol] 9. so [so] 10. torni ['torni] 11. dove ['dovD] 12. loro ['lo|C] (or) (with) (hour) (sun) (the) (are) (flower) (with) (I know) (return) (where) (them) core ['kC|D] voi ['vC:i] notte ['nCttD] ho [C] poi ['pC:i] morte ['mCrtD] occhi ['Ckki] no [nC] donna ['dCnnA] poco ['pCkC] vostro ['vCstrC] noi ['nC:i] (heart) (you) (night) (I have) (then) (death) (eyes) (no) (woman) (little) (yours) (we) non [non] ogni ['oQi] come ['komD] amore [A'mo|D] onde ['ondD] oh [o] dolce ['doltGD] ora ['o|A] ove ['ovD] oro ['o|C] oltre ['oltrD] oso ['ozC] (not) (every) (like) (love) (waves) (oh) (sweet) (now) (where) (gold) (beyond) (I dare)

33

RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION


CLOSED BACK VOWEL

[o]

o, or of stressed syllable may be [o] or [C]: dove ['dovD]


(*Dictionary needed to determine the closed or open quality of o within stressed syllables)

OPEN BACK VOWEL

[C]

o, or of stressed syllable may be [o] or [C]: cCre ['kC|D]


(*Dictionary needed to determine the closed or open quality of o within stressed syllables)

o of unstressed syllable(s): solo ['solC] tormento [tCr'mentC]

LONG BACK VOWEL

[C:] [o:]

o + vowel in short words with final vowels: suoi ['swC:i] coi ['ko:i] o + vowel within the same syllable: poich [pC:i'ke]

h
h is silent: hai ['A:i]
(affects pronunciation of consonants, see p. 61)

DOUBLE CONSONANTS
All consonants which are doubled in spelling are also doubled in transcription: fiamma ['fjAmmA]
* A dictionary is needed in order to determine the quality stressed of e and o. All worksheets provide an underlined vowel for stressed syllables. The quality of stressed e and o is indicted within monosyllabic words and underlined Italian text.

34

Application of Rules

Class work #4:


Provide IPA:

Double consonants, closed back [o], open back [C] and h

1. trCppo

(too much)

10. nCvo

(new)

2. intorno

(around)

11. pCi

(then)

3. benedetto

(blessed)

12. valle

(valley)

4. soffio

(breath)

13. pCvero

(poor)

5. pietoso

(compassionate) 14. stesso

(same)

6. addio

(goodbye)

15. dorme

(sleeps)

7. thC

(I have you)

16. sole

(sun)

8. vorrDi

(I would want)

17. vanno

(they go)

9. immortale

(immortal)

18. tocca

(touches)

69

UNIT 8: Syllabic vowel within the phrase

Review of Long Vowels and Semiconsonants


1) When two or more vowels occur together within the same syllable, one must receive longer duration [:] 2) Spelling i and u may be transcribed as long [:] or as semiconsonant [j] or [w] 3) Vowels a, e and o are long [A:], [e:], [D:], [o:], [C:] when followed by a vowel within the same syllable. Exception: vowels with an accent mark always receive the greater length in vowel groups within the syllable

Spelling i
Long [i:]
Short words with final vowels sia vie rii mio Final stressed i of polysyllabic words ['si:A] ['vi:D] ['ri:i] ['mi:C]

Semiconsonant [j]
i + vowel in all other positions grazia ['grAtsjA] lieto fior liuto pi ['ljDtC] [fjor] ['ljutC] [pju]

addio [Ad'di:C] i + vowel with accent mark

Spelling u
Long [u:]
Short words with final vowels tua due cui suo Final stressed u of polysyllabic words colui ['tu:A] ['du:D] ['ku:i] ['su:C] [kC'lu:i] u + vowel with accent mark

Semiconsonant [w]
u + vowel in all other positions quando ['kwAndC] segue guida buon qu ['segwD] ['gwidA] [bwCn] [kwi]

Long [A:]: a + vowel within the same syllable fai ['fA:i] omai [C'mA:i] aurora [A:u'|C|A] Long [e:] or [D:]: e + vowel within the same syllable rea ['rD:A] sei ['sD:i] miei ['mjD:i] avrei [Av'rD:i] Long [o:] or [C:]: o + vowel within the same syllable voi ['vC:i] noi ['nC:i] poi ['pC:i] tuoi ['twC:i]

70

RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION


SYLLABIC VOWEL: When two or more vowels share the same note within a phrase, one vowel receives greater length [:].
I. Monosyllabic words which are stressed within the phrase are syllabic or long [:]:
STRESSED PARTS OF SPEECH [e] e (and) [D] (is) [A] ha (has) ['A:i] hai (you have) [C] ho (I have) [o] o (or)

Example: l'ha infine [lA:in'finD] pianti e i sospir ['pjAntje:i sCs'pir]

II. Stressed syllables of polysyllabic words are syllabic:


dolce aura ['doltGD'A:u|A] fugga ogni ['fuggA'o:Qi]

III. The first of two unstressed vowels is syllabic:


altra et ['AltrA:D'tA] dove andaro ['dovD:An'dA|C]

Exception: unstressed i and u become a semiconsonant when followed by an unstressed vowel:


apDrti a dolce canto [A'pDrtjA 'doltGD 'kAntC] dormi amor ['dormjA'mor]

OTHER VOWEL SEQUENCES


I. Two stressed vowels would be given separate notes:
and alla finDstra [An'dC 'AllA fi'nDstrA]

II. Monosyllabic words do not receive stress: (unless listed above)


visto i aveva ['vistC:jA'vevA] gli accDnti [3jAt'tGDnti]

III. Vowels which share the same symbol are not reiterated:
mio cuCre Dsce ['mi:C 'kwC|DGD]

IV. An unstressed open vowel followed by its closed counterpart is not reiterated. Maintain the closed vowel for transcription:
lontano o vicino [lCn'tAno vi'tGinC]
* Check music to determine syllabic vowels. Assume vowel groups in following examples share one note.

Application of Rules

71

Class work #8:


Provide IPA:

Syllabic vowel within the phrase

1. finDstra apDrta 2. occhiDtti amati 3. prDda il sen 4. tu sola o bDlla 5. primo incontro 6. finch avr 7. in tanto affanno 8. d vita al canto 9. laria ancor 10. tradita io sono 11. non pu andare ( is [C]) 12. porti amore 13. la vittCria con me 14. bDlla infanta

(window is open) (dear little eyes) (it plunders the heart) (you alone oh beauty) (first meeting) (finally will have) (in much anxiety) (gives life to the song) (the air is still) (I am betrayed) (he cannot go) (carry love) (victory is with me) (beautiful baby)

115

ANSWER KEY

140

Instructors Manual

Class work #8: Syllabic vowel within the phrase 1. finDstra apDrta D D [fi'nDstrAD:A'pDrtA] 2. occhiD amati iDtti iD [Ck'kjDttjA'mAti] 3. prDda il sen D ['prDdA:il sen] 4. tu sola o bDlla D [tu 'solAo: 'bDllA] 5. primo incontro ['primC:iE'kontrC] 6. finch avr [fiE'ke:Av'rA] 7. in tanto affanno [in 'tAntC:Af'fAnnC] 8. d vita al canto [dA 'vitAl 'kAntC] 9. laria ancor ['lA|jAD:AE'kor] 10. tradita io sono [trA'ditA'i:C 'sonC] 11. non pu andare ( is [C]) [non pwC:An'dA|D] 12. porti amore ['portjA'mo|D] 13. la vittCria con me C [lA vit'tC|jAD: kon me] 14. bDlla infanta D ['bDllA:in'fAntA] (beautiful baby) (victory is with me) (carry love) (he cannot go) (I am betrayed) (the air is still) (gives life to the song) (in much anxiety) (finally will have) (first meeting) (you alone oh beauty) (it plunders the heart) (dear little eyes) (window is open)

Instructors Manual

155

Amarilli, mia bella by Giulio Caccini Amarilli, mia bDlla, D [AmA'|illi 'mi:A 'bDllA] non credi, o del mio cCr dolce desio, C [non 'kredjo del 'mi:C kCr 'doltGD dD'zi:C] dDsser tu lamor mio? D ['dDssDr tu lA'mor 'mi:C] Credilo pur: e se timor tassale, ['kredilC pu| e se ti'mor tAs'sAlD] prDndi questo mio strale, D ['prDndi 'kwestC 'mi:C strAlD] aprimi il pDtto e vedrai scritto il cCre: D C ['Aprimil 'pDttC e vD'drA:i 'skrittC:il 'kC|D] Amarilli il mio amore. [AmA'|illi D:il 'mi:CA'mo|D] Alma del core by Antonio Caldara Alma del cCre, C ['AlmA del 'kC|D] spirto dellalma, ['spirtC dell'AlmA] sDmpre costante tadorer! (r is ['|C]) D ['sDmprD kCs'tAntD tAdC|D'|C] Sar contDnto D [sA'|C kCn'tDntC] nel mio tormento [nel 'mi:C tCr'mentC] se quel bDl labbro baciar potr. D [se kwel bDl 'lAbbrC bA'tGAr pC'trC] Come raggio di sol by Antonio Caldara Come raggio di sol mite e sereno, ['komD 'rAddFC di sol 'mite sD'|enC] sovre placidi flutti si ripCsa, C ['sovrD 'plAtGidi 'flutti si |i'pCzA]

Amaryllis, my beautiful one Amaryllis, my beautiful one, Do you not believe, Oh my hearts gentle desire, That you are my love? Believe it simply: and if fear assails you, Take this my arrow, Open my chest and see written on my heart: Amaryllis, is my love.

Soul of my heart Soul of my heart, Spirit of my soul, Ever consistently I will adore you! I will be contented In my torment If those beautiful lips I could kiss.

Like a ray of sunlight Like a ray of sunlight mild and clear, Over placid waves is resting,

177

BIBLIOGRAPHY

178

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Colorni, Evelina. Singers Italian G. Schirmer, Inc., New York 1970. Love, Catherine E. Websters New World Italian Dictionary Macmillan, New York 1992. Penhorwood, Edwin. Twelve Ariettas by Vincenzo Righini Southern Music Company, Texas 2002.