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Chapter 9 Developing Careers

Chapter 9 Developing Careers

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 1. Career development differs from training in that: a) career development has a short-term focus. Training has a long-term focus. b) career development is initiated by employees and training is initiated by the organization. c) career development has a wider focus and broader scope than training. d) career development is more beneficial to the organization and training is more beneficial to the individual employee. e) training is more popular in organizations than is career development. Answer: c 2. M--Recall Page: 273

Career development: a) usually involves a one-time event or opportunity to enhance long-term skills. b) is a formal, organized, ongoing effort to develop peoples skills. c) has been in existence since the turn of the century. d) is usually a highly selective process which guarantees success through that selectivity. e) focuses on individual over organizational needs. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 273


When it comes to career development, workers: a) generally know precisely what they want to do with their careers. b) usually take sufficient action to ensure that they will be considered for new career opportunities. c) seldom experience a mismatch between their goals and career opportunities. d) often have goals their organizations do not know about. e) usually don't have sufficient experience to warrant promotion to the positions they desire. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 274


When businesses do not provide career development to employees, it increases the possibilities that: a) turnover will decrease. b) all employees will begin self-development. c) employees will be encouraged by promotion possibilities. d) employees will specialize in their specific jobs. e) the business will not keep pace with the changing business environment.


Part IV Employee Development

Answer: e 5.


Page: 275

The purpose of career development has changed over time: a) from a focus on the organization to a focus on both the organization and the individual. b) from a focus on the individual to a focus on the organization. c) from a focus on the organization to a focus on the individual. d) to become synonymous with management development. e) to become less important than it was in the 1970s and 1980s. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 275


Companies now view career development as a way to meet a variety of goals, including: a) reinforcing affirmative action. b) reducing job burnout. c) improving quality of work life. d) furthering organizational and individual goals. e) all of the above Answer: e C--Integration Page: 275


Initially, companies viewed career development as a program to meet organizational need. Now, it is also looked upon as a way to meet employees needs. This shift in perspective is due to: a) the pressures of downsizing. b) the pressures of technological change. c) employee demands for more career advancement opportunities. d) the need for some businesses to meet affirmative action goals. e) all of the above Answer: e M--Recall Page: 275


In recent years, the career development field has changed very rapidly as: a) job hopping has become less prevalent. b) employees anticipate life-long employment with one organization. c) downsizing among companies becomes more popular d) technological change requires that employees keep pace with new ways to perform their jobs. e) c and d Answer: e M--Integration Page: 275


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Lillian, the VP of HR, insists that a career development program should be implemented at Dresses, Inc. She notes that employee turnover is increasing and many employees complain that they feel stuck in dead-end jobs. Patty, the president of HR, claims that due to the recent economic downturn, it is impossible to implement such a program. From this scenario, it seems that: a) Patty does not place enough importance upon the vital need of career development. b) Lillian does not recognize the cost vs. benefit factors in implementing a career development program. c) Patty is more economically savvy than Lillian. d) Lillian overestimates the value of career development. e) Patty believes that career development is a waste of time. Answer: a C--Application Page: 275


Tomas is trying to think through his companys most critical needs and challenges in the future, and his own career needs. Tomas is in the process of: a) linking his needs and organizational needs. b) assessing his options. c) laying the groundwork for a mentoring program. d) establishing a management development program. e) thinking through the development stage of his career. Answer: a M--Application Page: 275


In most companies the current answer to the question, Who's responsible for an employees career development, is: a) the employees manager. b) the company. c) the employee. d) the HRM department. e) no one and thats why little career development is being done. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 276


A number of events and forces in the business environment have shaped the move in career development from corporate to individual responsibility, including: a) growing employee ownership of companies. b) the empowerment movement. c) the decreasing competitiveness of Japan in U.S. markets. d) more and more companies using a Japanese management model. e) the upturn in the economy and the expansion of hiring. Answer: b M--Integration Page: 276


Part IV Employee Development


Career development in traditional bureaucratic organizations differs from that in more modern organizations in that: a) bureaucratic organizations left career development solely to the employees, while modern organizations implement career development for employees. b) bureaucratic organizations supported employee empowerment, while most modern organizations shy away from employee empowerment. c) bureaucratic organizations saw career development as something that was done for employees, while modern organizations view it as something in which the employee must play a role. d) bureaucratic organizations saw career development as something that would improve the individual employee, while modern organizations see career development as something that will improve the company as a whole. e) all of the above Answer: c M--Recall Page: 276


Chae, Operations Manager of Brant International, is trying to encourage employee empowerment in the business. She supports letting employees take total responsibility for their career development. As the head of HR, you: a) realize that giving total responsibility to employees may leave them without the guidance and understanding they need to develop their careers. b) agree that while this is done in most companies, it is too expensive for Brant to implement at this time. c) plan to make this transition as soon as the economy picks up again. d) follow her suggestion, knowing that employee empowerment of this sort will increase worker morale and productivity. e) believe that the company should play the most active role in employees career development. Answer: a M--Application Page: 276


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Warning signs of too much emphasis on career development in an organization include: a) more effort toward job performance to the neglect of family. b) employees taking complete responsibility for their career development. c) employees spending an inordinate amount of time with supervisors seeking help managing their careers. d) slowing advancement due to over-planning and lateral moves in employees career. e) an emphasis on networking over job performance. Answer: e M-Recall Page: 276


Marcus is trying to encourage his employees to think and plan for their future careers. Hes concerned, however, that he might create or feed unrealistic expectations. Marcus is struggling with the question of: a) How much career emphasis is enough? b) Whos responsible for career development? c) How does one meet the needs of a diverse workforce? d) Whose goals should be met, those of the organization or the individual? e) How does one manage dual-career couples? Answer: a M--Application Page: 276


The downside to career development programs is: a) employee dissatisfaction. b) poor performance. c) increased turnover. d) all of the above e) none of the above Answer: d E--Recall Page: 276


The glass ceiling is: a) an organizationally implemented program that helps women and minorities attain upper-level job positions. b) the boundary in an organization which prohibits any minority group member from rising to upper-level job positions. c) the filtering of minority group members or women into nonrevenue producing areas of a business. d) the informal barrier that minority group members may face when trying to advance their careers beyond a specific level. e) the exclusion of minority group members from networking and participation in policy-making committees. Answer: d C--Integration Page: 276


Part IV Employee Development


The first major government study on the glass ceiling was conducted in: a) 1985. b) 1988. c) 1991. d) 1994. e) 1996. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 276


Career development in a diverse workforce shows that: a) minorities and women are often excluded or overlooked when it comes to formal career development efforts. b) women and minorities tend to be excluded from informal career development efforts. c) the primary issue is childcare. d) since the 1991 government study on the glass ceiling, women have attained almost appropriate representation in senior officer ranks. e) barriers to women and minorities, while still present, are easily identified and dealt with. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 276


Glass walls is(are): a) organizationally implemented programs that help women and minorities attain upper-level job positions. b) boundaries in an organization that prohibit any minority group member from rising to upper-level job positions. c) the filtering of minority group members into non-revenue producing areas of a business. d) the informal barrier that minority group members may face when trying to advance their careers beyond a specific level. e) the exclusion of minority group members from networking and participation in policy-making committees. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 277


In Fortune 500 companies, ____ % of the highest-ranking executive positions are held by women. a) 2 b) 5 c) 10 d) 15 e) 20 Answer: b E--Recall Page: 277


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Dual-career couples may pose difficulties for a business in that: a) the couples personal lives may conflict with their career lives. b) child care responsibilities may call for flexibility in the couples schedules. c) companies may need to implement couple counseling in career management. d) an employee may refuse job relocation if the partner refuses to go. e) all of the above Answer: e M--Recall Page: 277-278


Ken and Vicki are a dual-career couple who have recently received an overseas assignment. Your text suggests that their HR department should: a) encourage Ken to become an expatriate, and Vicki to stay in the United States. b) provide counseling and mentoring for both members of the couple. c) encourage Ken and Vicki to set separate career goals. d) encourage Vicki to leave the company and work primarily at adjusting to their home in the new culture. e) none of the above Answer: b E--Recall Page: 278


Work-life programs are: a) marital counseling programs provided to dual-career couples. b) outsourced counseling and referral services that offer different types of assistance to employees. c) included in the typical family-friendly benefits that became so popular in the 1990s. d) programs that encourage dual-career couples to combine work life and home life. e) not beneficial to most employees. Answer: b E--Recall Page: 278


Han is going through the process of identifying his skills, values, and interests. He is in the ____ phase of career development. a) education b) discovery c) direction d) development e) assessment Answer: e E--Recall Page: 279


Part IV Employee Development


The two outer poles in the spectrum of assessment activities are: a) self assessment and interactional assessment. b) interactional assessment and organizational assessment. c) self assessment and organizational assessment. d) organizational assessment and formal assessment. e) self development and self assessment. Answer: c C--Integration Page: 279


Career development assessment is used to help: a) organizations perform job analysis. b) employees to choose a career that is a good fit for them. c) employees to determine the weaknesses they need to overcome in order to reach career goals. d) organizations to determine whether career assessment benefits the business. e) b and c Answer: e M--Recall Page: 279


Which of the following is a self-assessment tool? a) Career workbooks b) Psychological testing c) Succession planning d) Promotability forecasts e) Performance appraisals Answer: a E--Recall Page: 279


____ are major self-assessment tools that have been around for some time. a) Psychological tests b) Interest inventories c) Performance appraisals d) Career planning workshops e) Assessment centers Answer: d E--Recall Page: 279 Lorraine is attending a company program that seeks to help employees understand career options within the company and provide them with feedback about their career strategies. This program is probably: a) an organizational assessment. b) a career-planning workshop. c) considered employee training. d) a skill assessment exercise. e) all of the above Answer: b M--Application Page: 279



Chapter 9 Developing Careers


A major self-assessment tool that permits employees to identify their strengths and weaknesses through answering written questions and completing written exercises is: a) a psychological test. b) a performance appraisal. c) a career workbook. d) a skills assessment. e) an organizational assessment. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 279


Homer is unsure about what he really wants to do as a career. He is a very skilled worker, and many possibilities are open to him, but hes not sure which type of work he would like the best. You suggest to him that he: a) read a career workbook. b) perform an assessment exercise. c) take an interest inventory. d) clarify his values. e) none of the above Answer: b M--Application Page: 279


Which of the following is an organizational assessment tool? a) Career planning workshops b) Career workbooks c) Assessment centers d) Self-criticism e) a and c Answer: c E--Recall Page: 279


B.J. is using a self-assessment tool that prioritizes his key values. He is using a(n): a) psychological profile. b) interest inventory. c) skills proficiency test. d) values clarification instrument. e) self assessment. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 280


Part IV Employee Development


Samantha is working through an instrument that will help her identify her occupational interests. She is using a(n): a) psychological profile. b) interest inventory. c) skills proficiency test. d) values clarification instrument. e) self assessment. Answer: b C--Application Page: 280


Corrine is doing an exercise in her career workbook. One question reads, Would you prefer a job that provides security or a sense of adventure? Another reads, Do you prefer to be a leader or a follower? This exercise is probably: a) a values clarification exercise. b) an interest inventory. c) a skills assessment exercise. d) a psychological test. e) used in promotability forecasts. Answer: a C--Application Page: 280


According to your text, some of the tools used in career development are also used in: a) employee separation. b) affirmative action. c) employee selection. d) socialization. e) orientation. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 281


You want to use an organizational assessment tool to evaluate an employees ability to handle certain situations peculiar to the job and to test for key skills. Your best choice of an assessment tool would be: a) a psychological profile. b) to review past performance appraisals. c) to review the employees own self assessment. d) to use an assessment center. e) to put the employee through a career planning workshop. Answer: d M--Application Page: 281


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


A pitfall of using performance appraisals as a tool for organizational assessment is that: a) it is only a judgment of past performance but not necessarily a good predictor of future performance. b) performance appraisals may make employees nervous and initiate voluntary separations. c) employees may become more concerned about their reputations than their performance. d) it may foster unrealistic expectations for advancement. e) most minorities will perform less well on appraisals than employees who are not members of protected classes. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 282


Your boss wants you to take a personality test, an attitude test, and an interest inventory as part of your promotion review process. Your boss is putting you through: a) an assessment center. b) situational exercises. c) succession planning. d) psychological testing. e) a test-based performance appraisal. Answer: d C--Integration Page: 282


The use of performance appraisals in career development gives employees and the organization important insights into employees: a) underlying skills. b) interests and attitudes. c) strengths and weaknesses. d) advancement potential. e) ability to perform key management tasks. Answer: c M--Recall Page: 282


A promotability forecast: a) identifies employees who have the potential for upper or executive management. b) projects the advancement potential of employees. c) is a strength/weakness profile of each employee. d) determines the likely need for managers over a specified period of time. e) reviews key employees underlying skills and interests. Answer: b C--Integration Page: 282


Part IV Employee Development


Succession planning: a) involves the use of psychological testing. b) creates tension and competition among managers in large companies. c) uses assessment centers to identify key employees. d) is critical for small companies. e) is often the result of career development workshops. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 282


Most succession planning is: a) unsuccessful because the executives who are searching for successors often let the influence of liking override rational judgment. b) performed according to a formal system. c) done informally. d) identical to promotability forecasting. e) simply a front used to make employees believe there are more opportunities for advancement than truly exist. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 282


Some small business owners may be threatened by succession planning because: a) it is very expensive. b) it is an area very prone to outright discrimination. c) business owners may be hesitant to accept the fact that they may not always be in control of the company. d) employees who are not involved with the succession planning may be demoralized and quit. e) all of the above Answer: c M--Recall Page: 283


Which of the following variables have been found to relate to business executives pay levels? a) The prestige of the university from which they graduated b) Educational level c) The executives college major d) The quality of the university from which they graduated e) All of the above Answer: e E--Recall Page: 283


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Which of the following characteristics was found to correlate negatively with job satisfaction? a) Educational level b) Ambition c) Work ethic d) Skill e) a and b Answer: b E--Recall Page: 283


Kay is working with Charity to help Charity identify the type of career she wants and what steps to take to realize her goals. Kay and Charity are: a) in the direction phase of career planning. b) in the development phase of career planning. c) conducting a self assessment of Charity. d) working through an organizational assessment. e) none of the above Answer: a E--Application Page: 283


The determination of the type of career you want and what steps you need to take to make that career a reality, simply describe the ____ phase of career development. a) assessment b) direction c) educational d) development e) planning Answer: b E--Recall Page: 283


The direction phase is represented by employees: a) personality traits. b) mental soundness. c) competencies. d) interpersonal communicative styles. e) all of the above Answer: c E--Recall Page: 283


Part IV Employee Development


For career development to be successful, it must: a) focus solely on the needs of the employees. b) focus solely on the needs of the organization. c) be distinct from other HR efforts. d) be integrated with other HR efforts. e) rely on self analysis. Answer: d M--Integration Page: 283


Individual career counseling is one of a variety of tools available to help employees with their career planning and development. Individual career counseling: a) can be conducted by the employees manager. b) should only be conducted by the HRM department because of EEO requirements. c) should precede any type of self assessment or ability testing. d) is part of the assessment center experience. e) is the least useful career management tool because of the generally poor professional preparation of career counselors. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 284


____ is(are) an easy way to provide employees information about job opportunities. a) Skill inventories b) One-on-one employee career counseling c) A job-posting system d) An HRIS system e) Career paths Answer: c E--Recall Page: 285


Jermaine is a retail associate at a music warehouse. He has recently received a booklet from management that outlines the qualifications and experience he needs to have in order to advance within the company. It shows different alternatives and jobs that he could fill in the future depending on the areas in which he wishes to train and specialize. Jermaine is probably reading a(n): a) interest inventory. b) career path chart. c) skills inventory. d) job posting book. e) career workbook. Answer: b M--Application Page: 285


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Company-maintained records that record employees abilities, skills, knowledge, and education are: a) psychological tests. b) career paths. c) job-posting systems. d) organization assessment systems. e) skills inventories. Answer: e E--Recall Page: 285


For career paths to be helpful, they need to contain information about: a) pay and benefits at each level. b) information on the likelihood of being transferred if promoted. c) employee interests, education, and abilities. d) qualifications and time between steps. e) criteria for selecting applicants. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 285


A(n) ______ is a collection of career development materials. a) career path b) career workbook c) self assessment d) organizational assessment e) career resource center Answer: e E--Recall Page: 286


Eileen is thinking through a series of assignments, training programs, and development opportunities that she will need in order to be prepared to be a general manager in her company. Eileen is in the: a) educational phase of career development. b) development phase of her career development. c) discovery phase of her career development. d) assessment phase of her career development. e) directional phase of her career development. Answer: b M--Application Page: 288


Part IV Employee Development


Mentoring is one program commonly used in the ____ phase of career development. a) directing b) development c) allocating d) assessing e) self-assessment Answer: b M--Recall Page: 288


Mentoring programs: a) are popular but unproved. b) have fewer problems than any other type of career development program. c) are especially popular with minorities. d) make a real difference in careers. e) often have more mentors than protgs available. Answer: d C--Integration Page: 288


Mentoring is primarily a(n): a) theory that has not been widely accepted among HRM. b) developmentally-oriented relationship between a senior employee and junior employees, or peers. c) system whereby senior employees can groom lower-level employees to take their place. d) assessment program to identify employee performance problems and offer solutions to employees. e) self-development program. Answer: b M--Recall Page: 288


A career development technique that helps small business owners, as well as women and minorities, is: a) mentoring. b) job rotation. c) coaching. d) self assessment. e) group mentoring. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 288


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


A career development process that uses ongoing, sometimes spontaneous, meetings between managers and employees to discuss career goals and development is: a) mentoring. b) group mentoring. c) coaching. d) job rotation. e) career pathing. Answer: c E--Recall Page: 289


Terin has been asked to coach a newer worker, Roger, at Corinth Industries. She has developed a coaching system whereby she will assess his performance and point out his strengths and weaknesses. Which of the following is true, based upon the preceding scenario? a) Roger is an apprentice. b) Terin does not seem to be focused on coaching Roger, so much as judging his work. c) Terin is trying to help Roger break through the glass ceiling. d) Roger will be mentoring Terin. e) None of the above Answer: b M--Application Page: 289


Coaching differs from mentoring in that: a) coaching is often more formal than mentoring. b) coaching occurs between peers, while mentoring occurs between a manager and employees. c) mentoring does not occur between men and women. d) coaching involves ongoing meetings between managers and employees, while mentoring is more of a personal relationship. e) coaching is voluntary and mentoring is involuntary. Answer: d C--Integration Page: 289


Career development through job rotation is similar to the training technique of: a) specific skills training. b) coaching. c) knowledge training. d) group mentoring. e) cross-functional team training. Answer: e C--Integration Page: 289


Part IV Employee Development


A benefit of job rotation is that: a) employees can become more highly specialized in their job area. b) it creates a more broadly trained workforce. c) the potential increase in production often occurs during the employees training. d) short run costs are very low. e) all of the above Answer: b M--Recall Page: 289


One tool available to corporations to encourage employees to seek educational and development opportunities outside of the organization by defraying the costs is: a) a tuition assistance program. b) a career development workshop. c) job rotations. d) cross-functional team training. e) off-the-job-training. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 289


Tuition assistance programs: a) often have a fixed limit for reimbursement of tuition. b) typically cover 100% of job-related educational expenses. c) generally cover any graduate level education. d) usually target undergraduate courses/programs. e) cover the costs of off-the-job training programs, but not educational courses. Answer: a E--Recall Page: 289


Organizations that offer tuition assistance programs may: a) pay all of the employees tuition and expenses. b) pay only part of the employees tuition and expenses. c) pay for the employees tuition contingent upon their performance. d) all of the above e) none of the above Answer: d E--Recall Page: 289


A number of self-development suggestions are offered by your text, such as: a) getting the right values and priorities. b) being customer oriented. c) being a team player. d) developing interpersonal skills. e) taking responsibility for your own direction and growth. Answer: e M--Recall Page: 292


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Your text suggests that if an organization does not offer career development programs, the employees should initiate their own career development by: a) creating their own personal mission statements. b) taking responsibility for their own directions. c) placing a priority on enhancement over advancement. d) setting reasonable goals. e) talking to those in positions they aspire to for input. Answer: a M--Recall Page: 292


Mohammad is very concerned about keeping his job in the upcoming layoff that is to take place at the end of the year. Which of the following is a step he could take to protect himself from an involuntary separation? a) If his job is in a vulnerable department, he could seek a transfer to another department. b) He can assess his contributions to the company and try to correct any skill deficiencies. c) Mohammad could cultivate a good relationship with his boss and his boss superiors. d) He should seek to network with other workers to build his reputation. e) All of the above Answer: e M--Application Page: 292


A personal mission statement in a career development plan: a) determines the tactical decisions, or the individual assignments employees will take in developing their career. b) is an unchanging guide for where employees want to go with their careers. c) helps employees act like each task makes a difference. d) should focus on problems the employee can solve for the company. e) is a statement, changeable over time, which is more valuable for the process it puts the employee through than for its ultimate content. Answer: e M--Recall Page: 292


Part IV Employee Development


In career development, the concept of seeking enhancement over advancement: a) means you should be very protective of the time you have to invest in your own developmental opportunities. b) is a recognition that a quick upward path to a desired position is unlikely and that you need to take a long-term view of your career. c) means you should be clear about the business and the role you would like to be in. d) is setting a strategic direction for your own career development. e) means cultivating relationships with superiors who can help you get opportunities and promotions. Answer: d M--Integration Page: 292


Of the advancement suggestions offered by the authors, one of the most critical is: a) setting reasonable goals. b) placing a priority on enhancement. c) cultivating relationships with superiors who can help you advance. d) developing interpersonal skills. e) developing a selfish attitude regarding investment in yourself. Answer: d E--Recall Page: 292


Todays business environment is growing increasingly concerned about values and ethics. The authors suggest that values are a key to advancement when: a) you are clear about how your values differ from the companys values; you are your own person. b) they lead to independence and individual contribution over teamwork. c) they are collaborative and team focused. d) you align your values and priorities with the values and priorities of your organization. e) your company is concerned about ethics and priorities. Answer: d M--Recall Page: 292


Chapter 9 Developing Careers

CASE QUESTIONS Case 9.1 The CEO wants to invest in career development. As he looks at organizational needs two to three years out and the probable critical skills needed to meet these challenges, hes worried. Rudy, the operations manager, argues that it is a nice idea, but the company already has a significant training investment; any development effort would simply duplicate that. He produces a recent productivity and quality study that shows significant improvement among employees to support his assertion that development is not needed. Charles, another manager, states that most managers are already talking to their employees about what they want to do with their lives as part of their management process. He feels that the managers are taking care of their employees well enough and nothing else needs to be done. The HR director suggests that assigning employees to various jobs would give them a wider base of skills at a minimal expense. He also feels that an active career development program would help the company with EEO-related matters, about which he is very concerned. The workforce is about 30% female and 45% minority, but upper management is 100% Asian-American male. 79. Refer to Case 9.1. The CEO is thinking in terms of: a) individual needs. b) organizational needs. c) management development. d) training. e) career development. Answer: b 80. Easy Page: 275

Refer to Case 9.1. Rudys comments show that: a) he does not understand the difference between training and development. b) the company really doesnt need a development program. c) career development is already taking place. d) a career development program must be tied to other programs like the performance appraisal system. e) he understands the value of career development. Answer: a Moderate Page: 273


Refer to Case 9.1. Charles comments suggest that the companys career development efforts are: a) based on job rotation. b) based on a mentoring program. c) coaching based. d) fully integrated into their current training programs. e) primarily the responsibility of the employees. Answer: c Moderate Page: 289


Part IV Employee Development


Refer to Case 9.1. The HR directors comments show that the company is most likely facing the career development challenge of: a) personal responsibility. b) meeting a diverse workforces needs. c) unrealistic expectations. d) excessive expense. e) under-use of the program by employees. Answer: b Moderate Page: 276


Refer to Case 9.1. The HR director would start a career development program with: a) tuition assistance. b) group mentoring. c) coaching. d) job rotation. e) mentoring. Answer: d Moderate Page: 289

Case 9.2 As a manager, you are thinking through career development. An employee wants to know what she should do to be eligible for promotion to management. She originally came to you because she heard about one of those one-day, $99 career planning workshops offered in the conference facilities of a nearby hotel. Shes already taken a psychological profile test through the HRM department and wonders what other testing might help her determine if she would like doing a managers job. On another occasion, you are working with several other managers trying to decide who, among the hourly workers, should be considered for promotion to first-line supervisor when there is an opening. As a group, you and the other managers review the psychological tests of your potentially promotable people, as well as their individual self assessments. There is some discussion of using an assessment center as well. Finally after several hours, you narrow your choices to a manageable list. 84. Refer to Case 9.2. What should the employee do first in her career planning? a) Attend the career planning workshop b) Schedule an appointment with HRM to go through the assessment center c) Do a self assessment, using a career workbook that she can get from HRM d) Focus on doing her current job better and come back to you in about a year e) Complete a values clarification exercise Answer: c Challenging Page: 279


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Refer to Case 9.2. To determine if she would like a managers job she should: a) complete a self assessment first and use the workshop as a follow-up. b) complete an interest inventory. c) take a values clarification test. d) participate in the assessment center. e) seek a mentor. Answer: b Challenging Page: 280


Refer to Case 9.2. The managers are trying to put together a(n): a) succession plan. b) promotability forecast. c) skills assessment. d) organizational assessment. e) career plan. Answer: b Moderate Page: 282


Refer to Case 9.2. As a management group, your review of sources of information about potentially promotable people is missing a key, but often overlooked, source the: a) recommendation of the HRM department. b) psychological profile of each employee. c) assessment center data. d) employees performance appraisals. e) interest inventory each employee fills out. Answer: d Moderate Page: 282


Refer to Case 9.2. If the managers were talking about executive-level jobs, the document they would create is called a(n): a) succession plan. b) promotability forecast. c) self assessment. d) organizational assessment. e) career plan. Answer: a Easy Page: 282


Part IV Employee Development

Case 9.3 As the director of HRM, Martin is meeting with the career development project team. His president has decided that the company needs to invest the time and effort into improving the direction and development phases of the current career development program. He has created the task force and circulates periodic memos to employees about their work. Development funds are limited. Martins management team is experienced and very competent as people managers. Feedback from employees shows that they dont know when promotional opportunities are available. Reviewing the organizations structure, your team finds a very flat organization without career paths, per se. The company has a wide variety of jobs, but few levels of higher responsibility. The president and most of the executive management team are self-made professionals. They want the best workforce, but believe in individual responsibility. 89. Refer to Case 9.3. Given the competencies of Martins management team, what way could the company almost immediately improve the direction phase of career development? a) Set up an assessment center b) Have employees conduct personal self-development studies c) Have managers begin individual counseling sessions with employees d) Revise the performance appraisal system so that it can be used for development purposes e) Establish a career resource center Answer: c 90. Challenging Page: 284

Refer to Case 9.3. What would be the best directional tool for addressing the employees complaint? a) Create career paths b) Set up a career resource center c) Give employees skill inventories d) Establish a job-posting system e) Fund an assessment center Answer: a Challenging Page: 285


Chapter 9 Developing Careers


Refer to Case 9.3. Given the organizational realities, which developmental tool would provide the best return for the least cost? a) An assessment center b) Job rotation c) Tuition assistance d) Establishing a career path e) Setting up a career resource center Answer: b Challenging Page: 289


Refer to Case 9.3. Given the actions taken by the company and its current situation, which of the following best describes the future of career development efforts there? a) Management will take responsibility for employee career development. b) There will be a decreasing emphasis on career development. c) Career development will become more and more the responsibility of the individual employee. d) They will probably invest in an assessment center and career resource center in the next few months. e) There will be an increasing emphasis on assessment. Answer: c Easy Page: 291

Case 9.4 The Blue Sky Corporations HR department is evaluating their human resources. They find that upper-level and middle management consists primarily of members of nonprotected classes. Most of the companys minorities are found in areas that are nonmanagement, non-revenue generating areas of the organization. Wayne, Blue Skys VP, claims that most of the minorities and women in the company simply dont have the education and experience that they need to move into the upper echelons of the business. He suggests that all interested employees be provided with some sort of education or training to help prepare them for advancement opportunities. Torrina responds that it may be more effective to encourage Blue Skys protected-class members to become involved in a professional organization to be able to network and find support. Louise would prefer to see a program where upper-level employees work with younger subordinate employees to mentor them and prepare them to take on the upper-level positions that they will someday leave. He claims that this ought to be done without regard to the race or gender of the employees.


Part IV Employee Development


Refer to Case 9.4. The fact that minorities and women seem to be limited to nonrevenue generation areas of Blue Sky Corp. is evidence of ______. a) glass ceilings b) glass walls c) conscious discrimination d) diversity training e) affirmative action Answer: b Moderate Page: 277


Refer to Case 9.4. Waynes plan to provide further education and training to employees who want it is met with the criticism that, while the training might be beneficial to the company, most employees do not want to pay for the training from their own pocket. Which of the following would be Waynes best response? a) Employees should be encouraged in self development. b) Blue Sky should lay off all recent hires. c) A tuition assistance program should be provided. d) A self-assessment plan should be implemented. e) All of the above Answer: c Moderate Page: 289


Refer to Case 9.4. Torrina seems to be supporting which of the following as a development phase? a) Group mentoring b) Job rotation c) Cross-functional training d) Coaching e) Apprenticeships Answer: a Easy Page: 288

96. Refer to Case 9.4. Louise is supporting: a) a group mentoring program. b) individual career counseling. c) job rotation. d) promotability forecasting. e) succession planning. Answer: e Moderate Page: 282


Chapter 9 Developing Careers

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS 97. Career development differs from training by its purpose, its content, and its time frame. Answer: True 98. Easy Page: 273

Initial career development efforts focused on the individual. As the field advanced, it integrated career development into organizational needs. Answer: False Moderate Page: 275

99. The key challenge to implementing successful career development is addressing the question of how much emphasis is appropriate. Answer: False Moderate Page: 275

100. More and more workers are accepting that job hopping is important in their development. Answer: True Easy Page: 276

101. Many companies view career development as a good way to prevent job burnout. Answer: True Easy Page: 276

102. In the past, career development in bureaucratic organizations was initiated and driven by the employees themselves, while now, employees take up less of a role in their individual career development. Answer: False Moderate Page: 276

103. If career development is over-emphasized, the organization may suffer when employees become more concerned about their image than their actual performance. Answer: True Easy Page: 276

104. Too much of an emphasis on career development can be detrimental to an organization by creating unrealistic expectations, leading to dissatisfaction and poor performance. Answer: True Moderate Page: 276


Part IV Employee Development

105. Barriers to the advancement of women and minorities tend to be clearly visible and consequently may be effectively eliminated through career development strategies. Answer: False Challenging Page: 276

106. Organizations need to be aware not only of the glass ceiling, but also of glass walls that keep diverse peoples from interacting and aggravate tensions between minority group members. Answer: False Challenging Page: 277

107. The glass-ceiling phenomenon may be partially responsible for the growth of small businesses in the United States. Answer: True Easy Page: 277

108. When both members of a couple have careers and occupational responsibilities, their personal lives are less likely to affect their performance. Answer: False Challenging Page: 277

109. The two-income family is becoming increasingly common. Answer: True Moderate Page: 277

110. A manager is meeting with her subordinate and discussing career development. Together they are clarifying the employees goals and his strengths and weaknesses as related to his job. This manager and employee are in the assessment stage of career development. Answer: True Moderate Page: 279

111. An interest inventory is a self-assessment tool employees can use to prioritize their personal values. Answer: False Easy Page: 280

112. A companys assessment center can be a valuable tool for an employees career development self assessment. Answer: False Challenging Page: 281


Chapter 9 Developing Careers

113. As a manager, Tim wants to conduct an organizational-level assessment to determine the career development opportunities for key subordinates. The best tool for this assessment would be a career planning workshop. Answer: False Moderate Page: 281

114. Succession planning and promotability forecasts are career development tools, or activities best used for an organizational-level career development assessment. Answer: True Moderate Page: 282

115. In the preparation of succession plans and promotability forecasts, managers need to consider personality characteristics, technical knowledge, and motivation. Answer: True Easy Page: 282

116. Most managers consider career development counseling with their employees as an important priority. Answer: False Moderate Page: 285

117. Career development-related information services include: a job posting system, skills inventories, career paths, and a career resource center. Answer: True Easy Page: 285

118. A career path is a chart that shows the possible routes of career advancement and a realistic timetable for each step. Answer: True Easy Page: 285

119. Michelle is an upper-level manager in an advertising agency. She intends to retire in two years and has recently been mentoring another woman, Amy, whom she wants to take her place upon her retirement. This is an example of nepotism. Answer: False Challenging Page: 288

120. Effective mentoring must be formal, structured, and only at the upper levels of management. Answer: False Moderate Page: 288

121. Effective mentoring can improve promotional rates, income, and job satisfaction. Answer: True Easy Page: 288


Part IV Employee Development

122. The most important aspect of group mentoring is the educational content. Answer: False Moderate Page: 288

123. Coaching and mentoring are different terms for the same type of career development activity. Answer: False Moderate Page: 289

124. Job rotation is a form of career development. Answer: True Moderate Page: 289

125. Job rotation is closely connected to cross-functional training. Answer: True Challenging Page: 289

126. Some organizations offer tuition assistance programs to support their employees education and development. Answer: True Easy Page: 289

127. When an employer does not routinely offer career development programs, there is very little individual employees can do to take control of their own development. Answer: False Moderate Page: 292

128. To increase your possibilities for career advancement, performance should be your ultimate goal, to the exclusion of interpersonal skills. Answer: False Moderate Page: 292

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 129. _______ is an ongoing and formalized effort that focuses on developing enriched and more capable workers. Answer: Career development Moderate Page: 273

130. A couple whose members both have occupational responsibilities and career issues at stake is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: dual-career couple Easy Page: 277


Chapter 9 Developing Careers

131. A career development activity in which managers make decisions regarding the advancement potential of subordinates is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: promotability forecast Moderate Page: 282

132. _______ is a career development activity that focuses on preparing people to fill executive positions. Answer: Succession planning Moderate Page: 282

133. A system in which an organization announces job openings to all employees on a bulletin board, in a company newsletter, or through a phone recording or computer system is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: job-posting system Moderate Page: 285

134. _______ is a company-maintained record of employees abilities, skills, knowledge, and education. Answer: Skills inventory Moderate Page: 285

135. A(n) _______ is a chart showing the possible directions and career opportunities available in an organization. Answer: career path Moderate Page: 285

136. A collection of career development materials such as workbooks, tapes, and texts is referred to as a(n) _______. Answer: career resource center Moderate Page: 286

137. A developmentally oriented relationship between senior and junior colleagues or peers that involves advising, role modeling, sharing contacts, and giving general support is called _______. Answer: mentoring Moderate Page: 288


Part IV Employee Development

ESSAY QUESTIONS 138. The implementation of career development faces a number of challenges. Discuss. Answer: Summary of suggested answer Three challenges Who will be responsible? Responsibility calls for a balance between employer and employee, as each has a vested interest in the employees career. How much to emphasize? Emphasis requires enough to show it is important so managers will make the effort, but not so much that unrealistic expectations are created. How will a diverse workforces needs be met? Diversity has to address not only the barriers to women and minorities, but issues of two-career couples and the aging workforce. Moderate Page: 275-279

139. Self assessment is basic to career development. Explain the major tools available to an employee for conducting his/her self assessment. Answer: Summary of suggested answer - See exhibit 9.3 for list of tools. Self assessment--skills assessment shows strengths and weaknesses in skills. Interest inventory--how much an individuals likes/dislikes match what the job involves. Values clarification--helps the employee see how his/her values fit the values necessary to be satisfied. Career workbook--full of exercises that do all of the above. Career workshop--helps goal setting and action planning. Moderate Page: 279-280

140. Explain what the direction phase of career development involves and some tools that help the process. Answer: Summary of suggested answer This is where the employee determines the type of career he/she wants and realizes the steps that must be taken to realize their goals. The following tools are beneficial: individual career counseling use of information servicesjob postings, skills inventories, career paths, or a career resource center. 60

Chapter 9 Developing Careers

Moderate Page: 283-287 141. Career development involves self development. Discuss what you can do for your own career development. Answer: Summary of suggested answer Create a personal mission statement. Take personal responsibility for your career. Make enhancement, rather than advancement, your goal. Talk to incumbents in those positions to which you aspire. Set reasonable goals. Invest in yourself. Moderate Page: 289-291

142. What are some steps that employees can take to improve their chances for career advancement? Answer: Summary of suggested answer--a more developed list appears under the heading Advancement Suggestions. Develop interpersonal skills in addition to performance skills. Set the right values and priorities. Provide solutions, not problems. Be a team player Be customer oriented Act as if what youre doing makes a difference. Moderate Page: 292-293