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cover next page > Cover title: A Guide to Piano Music By Women Composers. Volume I,

title:

A Guide to Piano Music By Women Composers. Volume I,

author:

Composers Born Before 1900 Music Reference Collection 0736-7740 ; No. 84 Dees, Pamela Youngdahl.

publisher:

Greenwood Publishing Group

isbn10 | asin:

0313319898

print isbn13:

9780313319891

ebook isbn13:

9780313017032

language:

English

subject

Piano music--Bibliography, Music by women composers-- Bio-bibliography.

publication date:

2002

lcc:

ML102.P5D44eb vol. 1

ddc:

016.78620263

subject:

Piano music--Bibliography, Music by women composers-- Bio-bibliography.

cover

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Page i A Guide to Piano Music by Women Composers

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Page ii Recent Titles in the Music Reference Collection Aton Rubinstein: An Annotated Catalog of Piano Works and Biography

Larry Sitsky

An Index to African-American Spirituals for the Solo Voice

Kathleen A.Abromeit, compiler

Sinatra: An Annotated Bibliography, 1939–1998

Leonard Mustazza

Opera Singers in Recital, Concert, and Feature Film

Sharon G.Almquist, compiler

Appraisals of Original Wind Music: A Survey and Guide

David Lindscy Clark

Popular Singers of the Twentieth Century: A Bibliography of Biographical Materials

Robert H.Cowden

The Printed Elvis: The Complete Guide to Books about the King

Steven Opdyke

One Handed: A Guide to Piano Music for One Hand

Donald L.Patterson, compiler

Brainard’s Biographies of American Musicians

E.Douglas Bomberger, editor

The Mozart-Da Ponte Operas: An Annotated Bibliography

Mary Du Mont

A Dictionary-Catalog of Modern British Composers

Alan Paulton

Songs of the Vietnam Conflict

James Perone

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Page iii A Guide to Piano Music by Women Composers Volume I Composers Born Before 1900 Pamela Youngdahl Dees Music Reference Collection, Number 84 Donald L.Hixon, Series Adviser

Collection, Number 84 Donald L.Hixon, Series Adviser GREENWOOD PRESS Westport, Connecticut • London <

GREENWOOD PRESS Westport, Connecticut • London

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Page iv Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Dees, Pamela Youngdahl, 1948- A guide to piano music by women composers/Pamela Youngdahl Dees, p. cm.—(Music Reference Collection, ISSN: 0736–7740: no. 84) Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v. 1. Composers born before 1900. ISBN: 0-313-31989-8 (alk. paper) 1. Piano music—Bibliography. 2. Music by women composers—Bio-bibliography I. Title. ML102.P5D44 2002 016.7862′0263—dc21 2001058623 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 2002 by Pamela Youngdahl Dees All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001058623 ISBN: 0-313-31989-8 ISSN: 0736-7740 First published in 2002 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.greenwood.com Printed in the United States of America

www.greenwood.com Printed in the United States of America The paper used in this book complies with

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

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Page v

To the talented and courageous women who composed this music, and to the editors and publishers, women and men, who had the wisdom, energy, and integrity to preserve this heritage for us all.

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Page vii Contents Preface

ix

Using the Guide Sample Entry

xi

Grade Levels

xii

Abbreviations

xiv

Bio-Bibliographical Sources

xv

Music Publishers and Agents

xix

Women Composers: Biographies and Available Music for Solo Piano

xxi

Notes

195

Selected Bibliography

207

Composer Indexes I. Composers and Dates

217

II. Country of Origin

219

III. Musical Eras/Styles

221

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Page ix

Preface

A Guide to Piano Music by Women Composers, Volume I, is an annotated catalogue of the solo piano

music in print composed by 144 women born before 1900, from Ella Adaiëwsky to Grete von Zieritz. It is also a bio-bibliographical reference work containing short biographies of each composer compiled from many secondary musicological sources. Designed as a practical reference volume for pianists and piano teachers, the biographies incorporate the pertinent facts about the personal lives, training, career, and compositions of each woman, and include a list of sources consulted. The music is described in terms of

grade level, genre, mood, style characteristics, and technical requirements, and ranges in difficulty from late elementary to virtuoso concert repertoire.

A survey of keyboard reference materials disclosed a need for an index of available piano music written

by women composers, in order to encourage inclusion of their works in the standard teaching and performance repertoire. Far too many students, teachers, professional artists, and audiences are still unaware of the contributions made by women in music, and of the beauty and merit of their specific compositions. The music incorporated here is as worthy of performance as any in the standard

repertoire, and it is sincerely hoped that this volume will make it easier for teachers and pianists to find and perform music written by women. The study contains only music readily available at time of writing from music publishers and distributors.

It consists of single works, music in collections and anthologies, and music in reference series. No

transcriptions or arrangements of music for other instruments are included, with the exception of Gail Smith’s arrangement of a plainchant by Hildegard von Bingen. Only music

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Page x written for solo piano has been included in this book, with two exceptions: Howe (duo piano) and Stirling (organ), found in the keyboard volumes of the monumental series-in-progress, Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, edited by Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer. In addition, three composers appear here (Branscombe, Harrison, and Likoshin) whose music was listed in other catalogues but not found by this author; further search is indicated. To find the music for this book, a variety of sources were consulted: publishers’ catalogs (both hard copy and online), music dictionaries and bio-bibliographical volumes, dissertations and biographies of composers, and published listings of music in print. Composers and titles were then submitted to music distributors for overseas searches; the music was ordered, received, played, and analyzed. Sadly, a great deal of music was found to be permanently out of print, excluding at least as many composers as are found here. Much worthy music is languishing on dusty shelves in libraries and publishers’ warehouses, waiting to be rediscovered; the stellar work of far too many women has been forgotten or ignored. If readers know of music in print inadvertently omitted from the current work, the author would be most grateful for the information, which will be included in a supplemental chapter at the end of the projected Volume II (music by twentieth-century composers). Acknowledgements for support with this project are due here. The author is deeply grateful to the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida, for the Graduate Research Fellowship award that enabled the initial research and writing on which this volume is based. Special thanks are due to Dr. Paul Posnak, for his support of my work as a teaching assistant and his untiring attempts to help me hear and play better; to Dr. Frank Cooper, for his enthusiastic and inspiring lectures on Romantic music and piano repertoire; and to Dr. Kenon Renfrow, for his suggestion of the topic and his kind and thoughtful mentoring in the Keyboard Performance and Pedagogy program. Thanks must also be given to Saint Louis University for providing the time, facilities, and assistance needed to complete this project, with special thanks going to Dr. Cynthia Stollhans, Chair of the Fine and Performing Arts Department, for her enthusiasm and support of this project. Finally, thanks are due to my family: to my grandmother and mother, two strong-minded women who believed in hard work, truth and beauty; and to my daughter Jennifer and husband William, for their unflagging belief in my abilities. Pamela Youngdahl Dees Saint Louis University

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Page xi Using the Guide SAMPLE ENTRY:

LAST NAME, First Middle/Maiden Names (variant spellings and names found in citations; pseudonyms) Birthplace, date—Place of death, date Composer’s name is listed as it appears on the music cited. A question mark indicates uncertainty of date or place; when several sources disagree, alternative dates are listed with a slash between, e.g.,

1785/1786.

Biography: pertinent information about family, training, career, awards, compositional genres, major works, style characteristics. Available piano music in print by each composer is sorted into SINGLE WORKS, COLLECTIONS (selected works by one composer), and ANTHOLOGIES (several composers). Works are listed alphabetically or, if known, by opus number. Work Title Op. # [translation, date composed or originally published], editor (Publisher, date). Level:

technical grade level. (Key, meter, tempo, page length). Bold case indicates selling title; italics indicate single works in collections/anthologies. Annotated bibliography format, with hanging indent, sentence fragments, and abbreviations. Genre, mood and effect, stylistic characteristics, technical needs described. Upper case Roman numerals indicate sonata movements; Arabic numerals indicate opus numbers and separate pieces in a suite or group. LISTED but not found in print: Works cited in other catalogues of piano music but not found by this author. SOURCES: Acronyms of biographical and musical reference works consulted.

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Page xii GRADE LEVELS:

Benchmark Repertoire Works in this catalog are sorted into five levels of technical difficulty, illustrated by well-known “benchmark” pieces in the excellent repertoire guides by Jane Magrath and Maurice Hinson.1

Late Elementary Magrath Levels 1, 2: Mikrokosmos Vol. 1, Turk Pieces for Beginners

Hinson “Easy”: Leopold Mozart Notebook for Wolfgang

Early Intermediate Magrath Levels 3, 4, 5: Kabalevsky Pieces for Young People, A.M.B. Notebook

Hinson “Easy”: Schumann Album for the Young

Mid-Intermediate

Magrath Levels 6, 7: Clementi Sonatinas Op. 36, Bach Little Preludes

Hinson “Int.”: Beethoven Ecoissaises, Bartok Rumanian Folk Dances Late Intermediate

Magrath Levels 8, 9: Bach Two-Part Inventions, Field Nocturnes, Mendelssohn

Songs Without Words, easier Chopin Mazurkas Hinson “M-D”: Bach French and English Suites, Mozart Sonatas Early Advanced

Magrath Level 10: Bach Three-Part Inventions, Chopin Nocturnes, Beethoven Sonatas Op. 49, 79

Hinson “M-D”: Bach Partitas, Debussy La Soiree dans Granade, Brahms Rhapsody Op. 79/2. Advanced

Virtuoso concert repertoire Hinson: “D”: Barber Sonata, Beethoven Sonata Op. 57, Chopin Etudes Early, Mid- and Late Intermediate Levels The following summaries were used for further clarification of technical requirements at the three intermediate levels. These guidelines were developed by Mary K.Scanlan in her exemplary dissertation on the assessment of intermediate repertoire.2

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Early Intermediate Level

Close hand shifts, ample time to move. Frequent repetition, range of octave or less, dynamics p to f. No parallel intervals by one hand, figures change direction infrequently. Hand extensions no greater than an octave, hand contractions and finger substitutions rare. Consistent texture, key, articulation, pedaling, and tempo throughout. Chordal textures distributed between hands; one hand rarely plays both melody and harmony. Slow harmonic rhythm, mostly diatonic triads and seventh chords. Simple, symmetric structures, short pieces. Limited pedal, infrequent simple ornaments.

Mid-Intermediate Level

Quicker, more frequent hand shifts but rarely greater than an octave. Melody, figuration may span 2–3 octaves, more frequent, faster changes in direction, skips of an octave, more non-harmonic tones. Parallel intervals in one hand, octave hand extensions, hand contractions, and finger substitutions. Contrasting textures and articulations, accompaniment and melody in same hand. Modulation, greater range of tempos, faster harmonic rhythm, larger harmonic vocabulary. Cross-rhythms and syncopations, wider range of dynamics. Longer structures, more damper pedal, occasional una corda, more frequent ornamentation.

Late Intermediate Level

Rapid, frequent hand shifts 1–2 octaves, four-octave range of melody and figuration, frequent changes of direction and figuration. Melodies of skips and steps, with longer passages of parallel intervals, extensive elaboration. Hand extensions greater than an octave, frequent hand contractions and finger substitutions. Frequent use of contrasting textures, longer works; harmony and melody parts in one hand. Independent inner voices, frequent diverse articulation in one hand. Fast harmonic rhythm, frequent secondary, borrowed, altered and embellishing chords, modulation to distant keys. Changing rhythm patterns, more cross-rhythms and syncopations; mixed or changing meters and hemiolas. Wide

tempo ranges, many fluctuations. Different pedaling styles required; dynamics range ppp to fff, frequent sudden contrasts, accents. Longer extended forms, frequently asymmetric. Frequent, longer, more difficult ornamentation.

1. Jane Magrath, The Pianist’s Guide to Standard Teaching and Performance Literature (Van Nuys, Calif:

Alfred Publishing, 1995), preface. Maurice Hinson, Guide to the Pianist’s Repertoire, 2nd ed. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), preface.

2. Mary Kathryn Scanlan, “The Development of Guidelines to Assess the Relative Difficulty of Intermediate-Level Piano Repertoire” (Ed.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1988).

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ABBREVIATIONS:

av.

available

b.

born

bap.

baptized

c.

century

ca.

approximately

comp.

compiled

d.

died

ed.

edited by

facs.

facsimile edition

fl.

flourished

gen

general

intro.

introduction by

LH

left hand

nr.

near

m.

married

mvmts

movements

n.d.

no known date

nee

birth name

no.

number

nr.

near

Op.

Opus

Opp.

Opuses, opera

pp.

pages

pseud.

pseudonym

RH

right hand

repr.

reprinted edition

q.v.

see another entry in this catalog

repr.

reprint

trans.

translated by

var.

variant names and spellings

vol.

volume

WoO

without opus number

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Page xv Bio-Bibliographical Sources

In the last line of each composer’s entry, under the heading SOURCES, the abbreviations in italics refer to the following bio-bibliographical and musical reference works. Unique information from a particular source is indicated in the endnotes, but information common to several sources is not specifically attributed. For complete documentation of these references and others found in the notes, please see the selected bibliography.

AKM3

Clark, J.Bunker, ed. American Keyboard Music Through 1865.

AKM4

Glickman, Sylvia, ed. American Keyboard Music 1866 Through 1910.

Ammer

Ammer, Christine. Unsung: A History of Women in American Music.

AndersonAnderson, E.Ruth, comp. Contemporary American Composers.

Avins

Avins, Styra. Johannes Brahms: Life and Letters. A-Z Olivier, Antje, and Karin Weingartz, eds.

Baker

Komponistinnen von A-Z. Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians.

Bastien

Bastien, James W. How to Teach Piano Successfully. B&NB Block, Adrienne and Carol Neuls-

Boenke

Bates, eds. Women in American Music. Boenke, Heide M, comp. Flute Music by Women Composers.

Bowers, Jane, and Judith Tick, eds. Women Making Music.

Borroff

Borroff, Edith. Music Melting Round: A History of Music in the United States.

B&T

Brown

Brown, J.D., and S.S.Stratton. British Musical Biography.

ClagAm

Claghorn, Charles Eugene. Biographical Dictionary of American Music.

ClagH

Women Composers and Hymnists.

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ClagS

Claghorn, Gene. Women Composers and Songwriters.

Friskin, James, and Irwin Freundlich. Music for the Piano.

Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers.

Clark

Clark, J.Bunker. The Dawning of American Keyboard Music.

Cohen

Cohen, Aaron. International Encyclopedia of Women Composers.

Dubal

Dubal, David. The Art of the Piano.

Eitner

Eitner, Robert, ed. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Quellen Lexikon.

ElsonA

Elson, Arthur. Woman’s Work in Music.

Faurot

Faurot, Albert. Concert Piano Repertoire

Fetis

Fetis, François. Biographie universelle des musiciens.

Friskin

FRK

Olivier, Antje, and Karin Weingartz, eds. Frauen als Komponistinnen.

Fuller

G&F

Gustafson, Bruce and David Fuller. French Harpsichord Music, 1699–1780.

G&G

Gillespie, John and Anna Gillespie. 19th Century American Piano Music.

Gillespie

Gillespie, John. Five Centuries of Keyboard Music.

Gordon

Gordon, Stewart. A History of Keyboard Literature.

Goss

Goss, Madeleine. Modern Music-Makers.

Green

Green, Mildred Denby. Black Women Composers: A Genesis.

Grove

Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980.

GroveAm

Hitchcock, H.Wiley and Stanley Sadie, eds. New Grove Dictionary of American Music.

grovemusic online version of The New Grove Dictionary, above.

Gustafson

Gustafson, Bruce. French Harpsichord Music of the 17th Century.

Hale

Hale, Philip, ed. Famous Composers and Their Works.

HAMW

Briscoe, James. Historical Anthology of Music by Women.

Hasse

Hasse, John Edward, ed. Ragtime: Its History, Composers, and Music.

Heinrich

Heinrich, Adel, comp. Organ and Harpsichord Music by Women Composers.

H&H

Hixon, Don & Don Hennessee. Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Biobibliography.

Hinson

Hinson, Maurice. Guide to the Pianist’s Repertoire. 3rd ed.

Hutcheson

Hutcheson, Ernest, rev. Rudolph Ganz. The Literature of the Piano.

Hyde

Hyde, Derek. New Found Voices: Women in Nineteenth century English Music.

IDBC

Floyd Jr., Samuel A. International Dictionary of Black Composers.

Jackson

Jackson, Barbara Garvey. “Say Can You Deny Me.”

Jasen

Jasen, David, and Jay Tichenor. Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History.

Jeric

Jezic, Diane Peacock. Women Composers: The Lost Tradition Found.

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Johnson

Johnson, Rose-Marie, comp. Violin Music by Women Composers.

Kallman

Kallman, Potvin, and Winters, eds. Encyclopedia of Music in Canada.

Kehler

Kehler, George, comp./annot. The Piano in Concert.

Kirby

Kirby, F.E. Music for Piano: A Short History.

KOM

Mayer, Clara, ed. KOM: Komponistinnen im Musikverlag: Katalog.

Krobn

Krohn, Ernst C. Missouri Music.

Laurence

Laurence, Anya. Women of Notes: 1,000 Women Composers Born Before 1900.

Lepage

LePage, Jane Weiner. Women Composers, Conductors, and Musicians.

Mac

Wier, Albert E., comp./ed. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Music and Musicians.

MacAusIan MacAuslan, Janna, and Kristan Aspen. Guitar Music by Women Composers

Magrath

Magrath, Jane. Guide to Standard Teaching and Performance Literature.

Meggett

Meggett, Joan, comp. Keyboard Music by Women Composers.

MGG

Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart.

MLA

Music Library Assn, comp. Essential Scores and Recordings.

N-B

Neuls-Bates, Carol, ed. Women in Music: An Anthology of Source Readings.

Newgrove The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2000.

Panzeri

Panzeri, Louis. Louisiana Composers.

Pendle

Pendle, Karin, ed. Women & Music: A History.

SCB

Rieger, Oster, and Schmidt, eds. Sopran Contra Bass: Die Komponistin im Musikverlag.

Schonberg Schonberg, Harold C. The Great Pianists from Mozart to the Present.

Southern

Southern, Eileen. Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American Musicians.

Sowinski

Sowinski, Albert. Les Musiciens Polonais et Slaves.

Sperber

Sperber, Roswitha, ed. Women Composers in Germany.

S&S

Sadie, Julie Ann. and Rhian Samuel, eds. Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers.

Stern

Stern, Susan. Woman Composers: A Handbook.

Thompson, Thompson, Donald and Annie F. Music and Dance in Puerto Rico.

Tick

Walker-Hill Walker-Hill, Helen. Music by Black Women Composers.

wcmta#

Tick, Judith. American Women Composers before 1870.

Glickman and Schleifer, eds. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages.

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Page xix Music Publishers and Agents Alfred Publishing Company, Inc. P.O.Box 10003 Van Nuys, CA 91410–0003 Tel: 818–891–5999 Fax: 818–892–9239 E-mail: customerservice@alfredpub.com

Alliance Publications (Slovak composers)

9171 Spring Road

Fish Creek, Wl 54212–9619 Tel: 920–868–4491 Fax: 608–748–4491 E-mail: apimusic@dcwis.com Website: www.apimusic.org

A-R Editions, Inc. (Recent Researches in Music)

801 Deming Way

Madison, WI 53717 Tel: 608–836–9000 Fax: 608–831–8200 Website: www.areditions.com

Arsis Press

1719 Bay Street S.E.

Washington, DC 20003

Website: www.arsispress.com ClarNan Editions

235 Baxter Lane

Fayetteville, AR 72701 Tel: 501–442–7414 Fax: 501–443–3856 E-mail: clarnan@ipa.net

Da Capo Press, Inc.

233 Spring Street

New York, NY 10013 Tel: 800–321–0050

Website: www.plenum.com Dover Publications

31 East 2nd Street

Mineola, NY 11501 Tel: 516–294–7000 Website: www.doverpublications.com

ECS Publishing

138 Ipswich Street

Boston, MA 02215–3534

Tel: 617–236–1935 Fax: 617–236–0261 E-mail: office@ecspub.com Website: www.ecspub.com Editions Ars Femina P.O. Box 7692 Louisville, KY 40257–0692 Tel: 502–897–5719 Fax: 502–222–7609 Elkin Music International, Inc.

16 Northeast 4th Street

Fort Lauderdale. FL 33301 Tel: 954–781–8082 Fax: 954–781–8083 Website: www.elkinmusic.com

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Page xx EMS Music Service 13 Elkay Drive Chester, NY 10918

Tel: 845–469–5790 Fax: 845–469–5817 Tel: 800–345–6296 Fax: 800–260–1482 Website: www.jwpepper.com

E-mail: 76573.1062@compuserve.com European American Music Distributors P.O. Box 850 Valley Forge, PA 19482

Tel: 610–648–0506 Fax: 610–889–0242 Tel: 603–228–4259 Fax: 603–228–4618 E-mail: info@recitalpublications.com

Furore Verlag Naumburger Strasse 40 D-34127 Kassel Tel: 49/(0)561/89/352 Fax: 49/(0)561/83 472

E-mail: FuroreVerlag.Kassel@tonline.de Website: www.tfront.com

Website: www.fuorore-verlag.de

Pepper & Son, Inc. P.O. Box 850 Valley Forge, PA 19482

Recital Publications 738 Robinson Road Pembroke, N.H. 03275

Theodore Front Musical Literature, Inc. 16122 Cohasset Street Van Nuys, CA 91406 Tel: 818–994–1902 Fax: 818–994–0419 E-mailmusic@tfront.com

Theodore Presser Company 1 Presser Place Bryn Mawr, PA 19010–3490 Tel: 610–525–3636 Fax: 610–527–7841 E-mail: retail@presser.com Website: www.presser.com T.I.S. 1424 E. Third Street Bloomington, IN 47401

Website: www.tisbook.com

Vivace Press PO Box 842 Stevens Point, WI 54481

Website: www.vivacepress.com

Hildegard Publishing Company Box 332 Bryn Mawr, PA 19010

Tel: 610–649–8649 Fax: 610–649–8677 Tel: 800–421–8132 Fax: 812–355–3004 E-mail: vocmusic@tisbook.com

E-mail: sglickman@hildegard.com Website: www.hildegard.com Masters Music Publications P.O. Box 810157 Boca Raton, FL 33481–0157

Tel: 561–241–6169 Fax: 561–241–6347 Tel: 715–343–5844 Fax: 715–343–5842 E-mail: yordy@vivacepress.com

E-mail: mastersmus@aol.com Website: masters-music.com

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Page xxi Women Composers:

Biographies and Available Music for Solo Piano

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Page 1

A

ADALËWSKY, Ella Georgievna (var. Adajewska, Adaevskaja, Schultz-Adajewski; née Elizabeth von Schultz)1 b. St. Petersburg, Russia, Feb 10/22, 1846—d. Bonn, Germany, Jul 26/29, 1926 Ella Adaiëwsky, Russian ethnomusicologist and pianist, studied with Henselt for nine years, and in Germany met Franz Liszt, who “gave her kind attention and played duets with her.”2 From 1864–1869, she studied at the newly founded Petersburg Conservatory under Rubenstein and Dreyschock (piano) and Zaremba and Famintsin (composition), receiving the diploma “Freien Künstlerin.” The young woman made successful concert tours in Europe and Russia, and around 1870 began composing. Her first works were liturgical songs for the Russian Orthodox Church; four operas followed, including the politically banned Zarja svobody (Dawn of Freedom). From 1882–1911, Adaiëwsky lived in Italy, collecting and writing about folk music. Considered a pioneer of modern musicology, she published articles in many journals examining the connection between the ancient rhythms of Greek church music and Slavic (Rhaetian) folk songs. Adaiëwsky then moved to Germany, where she joined “the liberal-minded artistic circle around the poet Carmen Sylva (Elisabeth, Queen of Romania).”3 Her compositions display strong Romantic and folkloric characteristics, and include four operas, songs and choral music, a Sonata Grecque for clarinet using quarter-tones, and some piano pieces, including twenty-four preludes. SINGLE WORKS:

Air Rococo für Klavier (Tischer & Jagenberg, 1914). Level: Late Intermediate. (E major, in 4, 6 pp). A folk-like eight-bar theme with extension, two ornamental variations called “doubles” in this Baroque- sounding work, and a unifying ritornello. Variation 2, presto brilliante, begins each measure with a sixteenth rest, creating a breathless, hurried effect.

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SOURCES: A-Z, Cohen, FRK, H&H, Laurence, Mac, Meggett, MGG, S&S, Stern

ADAIR, Yvonne

b. Guernsey, British Isles, 1897—d. ?

This twentieth-century British pianist and teacher, a member of the Royal Academy of Music, taught piano and rhythmic and aural training to music teachers in London. She wrote Andante and Vivace for voices and percussion, and miscellaneous teaching works for piano. SINGLE WORKS:

Little Dog Tales (Boosey & Hawkes, n.d.). Level: Mid-Elementary. (C/F/G majors, 2/4–3/4–4/4, tranquillo to presto, ½ pp. each). Twelve brief musical portraits of a mother dog and four puppies, accompanied by pictures and a story line in English, French, and Spanish. Hands share the stepwise melodies in five-finger positions in the center of keyboard, with occasional two-note chords and contrasts in articulation and dynamics. LISTED but not found: Sketches from Hans Andersen (Oxford University Press, 1931), in Frauen als Komponistinnen, ed. Olivier and Weingartz.4

SOURCES: Cohen, FRK, H&H, KOM, SCB

AGNESI-PINOTTINI, Maria Teresa d’ (pseud. Francesco Mainini)

b. Milan, Italy, Oct 17, 1720—d. Milan, Jan 19, 1795

Composer, harpsichordist, singer, and librettist Teresa Agnesi is the only known woman composer of Italian opera seria. Born the second daughter in a family of twenty-one children, Teresa accompanied at the harpsichord as her elder sister, Maria Gaetana, gave discourses in Latin. The identity of Teresa’s teachers is unknown, but she began composing in the 1740s, when she enjoyed the patronage of the Empress Maria Theresa and the Electress of Saxony. Agnesi’s operas were successfully produced in Milan, Naples, Vienna, and Dresden, and her portrait hangs in the Theatrical Museum of La Scala. In 1752, Agnesi married Pier Antonio Pinottini. They had no children, but remained married until his death in 1793. During their last years, they endured great poverty, having to sell their personal possessions and depend on repeated assistance from her family. In 1795, Teresa Agnesi died of a high fever. Her most important works are operas and theatrical pieces, but she also composed cantatas, chamber music, two piano concertos, harp sonatas; and short keyboard pieces in the galant style, tuneful, inventive, and idiomatic.

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Page 3 SINGLE WORKS:

Sonata in G: Allegro, ed. Britton (Hildegard, GKH reprint. Also av. Ars Femina, EAF 36–13). Level:

Mid-Intermediate. (3/8,4 pp). A cheerful one-movement work in rounded binary. The charming melody has carefully articulated phrases, sometimes of unequal length. Reminiscent of Scarlatti, the passepied or scherzo has an arpeggiated opening motif like Bach’s second Minuet in G. The two-voice Italianate texture is typical of the period, and the written-out ornaments are not difficult. Two Pieces for Solo Piano or Harpsichord, ed. Barbara Harbach (Vivace Press, 1996). Both pieces work well on either keyboard, but the second seems designed to show off harpsichord registers.

Sonata in G Major—see above.

Allegro on Presto. Level: Late Intermediate. (A major, 6/8, 6 pp). Many hand-crossings, rapid changes in LH registers, and nearly continuous alternation of arpeggios and scale passages make this considerably showier (and trickier) than the Sonata. ANTHOLOGIES:

Thesaurus Musicus, Vol. 17: Sonate Italiane per Clavicembalo del secolo XVIII, ed. F.Brodszky (Budapest: Zenemükiadó Vállalat, 1962). Allemande Militaire & Menuetto Grazioso. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (G major, in 4–3/4, vivace-grazioso, 4 pp). A pair of binary dances, to be performed ABA (da capo first movement). The Allemande has continuous broken-chord triplets in the LH, under a rousing melody with many ornaments. The songlike Minuet is extremely simple, with sparse quarter-note accompaniment and some hand-crossing. Editorial markings include occasional echo effects on repeated phrases. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 3, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G. K.Hall,

1998). Sonata in G. SOURCES: A-Z, Baker, ClagS, Cohen, Ebel, ElsonA, Fetis, FRK, Gustafson, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Jackson, Laurence, Meggett, MGG, NewGrove, S&S, Stern, scores

ALDRIDGE, Amanda Ira (pseud. Montague Ring) London, Mar 16, 1866—London, Mar 5, 1956 Daughter of the famous African-American actor Ira Aldridge and Amanda Pauline von Brandt, a Swedish opera singer, Amanda Aldridge attended a convent school in Belgium, and at the age. of fifteen appeared as a singer at the Crystal Palace in London. Two years later, she won a scholarship to the newly founded Royal Academy of Music, where she studied voice with George Henschel and Jenny Lind. Aldridge enjoyed a successful concert career as a contralto, but after her

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Page 4 voice was ruined by severe laryngitis, she became a teacher, numbering among her students Marian Anderson and Paul Robeson. As a teacher and composer, she played an important role in the musical life of the black community in London.5 Her compositions, all published under the pseudonym Montague Ring, include piano pieces, over twenty-five art songs, and works for orchestra and band. Her music has strong rhythmic appeal: one of her best-known works, Three African Dances for piano, used West African themes and was later arranged for a variety of instrumental groups.6 ANTHOLOGIES:

Black Women Composers: A Century of Piano Music (1893–1990), ed. Helen Walker-Hill (Hildegard, 1992). Prayer Before Battle, No. 1 of Four Moorish Pictures [1927]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (D minor, 4/4-2/4- 3/4, 3 pp). A picturesque work in modified rondo form (ABB ACB ACA); homophonic textures, with contrasts in key, meter, and tempo. The main theme, a grim march, opens with an octave leap followed by a descending natural-minor scale, all over a tonic pedal. The second theme is an undulating chant, suggesting a supplicant’s plea, supported by dark, dissonant chords strummed upward. A dotted-note motif in major keys surges upward by steps, then drops down, to be repeated an octave higher.

SOURCES: Cohen, Fuller, H&H, Horne, KOM, S&S, Southern, Walker-Hill, score

AUENBRUGGER, Marianna von (var. Maria D’Auenbrugg) b. Austria ?—d. Vienna, 1781/1782 or 1786 Very little is known about the Viennese composer Marianna von Auenbrugger. She was the daughter of Leopold von Auenbrugger (1722–1809), a well-known Austrian physician who wrote the libretto to Salieri’s opera, Der Rauchfangkehrer. Marianna studied composition with Salieri, and both she and her sister Katharina were fine keyboard players known and respected by Haydn and the Mozart family. Haydn, in a letter to his publisher Artaria, wrote that “their way of playing and genuine insight into music equal those of the greatest masters. Both deserve to be known throughout Europe through the public newspapers.”7 Haydn dedicated six of his piano sonatas to the two sisters, Hoboken XVI: 35–39 and 20. Von Auenbrugger’s only known work is the sonata below, published posthumously with an ode by Salieri.8

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Page 5 SINGLE WORKS:

Sonata per II Clavicembalo o Forte Piano [ca. 1787], ed. S.Glickman (Hildegard, 1990). Level: Mid- Intermediate. (E-flat major, 15 pp). This edition is the only modern publication of the complete sonata. A charming, well-crafted work in galant/Classical style. I: Moderate (common time, 6 pp). Sonata-allegro form; strongly rhythmic, with triadic themes emphasizing tonic and dominant on every strong beat. II:

Largo (3/4, A-flat major, 3 pp). Serene, graceful arioso. III: Rondo Allegro (E-flat major, 3/8, 6 pp). Boisterous and clever, with sudden contrasts in dynamics, articulation, and texture. ANTHOLOGIES:

At the Piano with Women Composers, ed. Hinson (Alfred, 1990) and Women Composers for the Harpsichord, ed. Harbach (Elkan-Vogel, 1986). Rondo from Sonata in E-flat: see above Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 3, ed. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall, 1998):

Largo from Sonata in E-flat; see above.

SOURCES: Cohen, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Jackson, Kirby, KOM, Meggett, S&S, Stern, scores

AUERNHAMMER, Josepha Barbara von (var. Aurenhammer/Aurnhammer, Josephine; also Mme Boesenhoenig/Bessenig) b. Vienna, Sep 25, 1756—d. Vienna, Jan 30, 1820) Josepha von Auernhammer, a Viennese concert pianist, was the eleventh child of Johann and Elisabeth von Auernhammer. She studied piano with Richter and Kozeluch, and when she was twenty-two, with Mozart, with whom she fell in love. Mozart did not return her affection, but he respected her abilities, playing concerts with her, and composing the K. 365 concerto for two pianos and the K.448 two-piano sonata for performance with her. As one of Mozart’s favorite pupils, she proofread many of his sonatas and songs for his publisher. In 1786, Auernhammer married Johann Bessenig, a civil servant, but she continued to perform and teach under her maiden name. They had four children, including their daughter Marianna Auenheim, who herself became a well-known pianist and voice teacher. Auernhammer excelled at extemporaneous variations of a given theme, and most of her more than sixty works are well-crafted keyboard variations. SINGLE WORKS:

Sechs Variationen über ein ungariscbes Thema, ed. Rosario Marciano (Furore, 1988). Level: Early Advanced. (F major, 2/4-common time, 8 pp). A witty, imaginative and sensitive work, making full use of the existing five octaves of the keyboard. Chromatic colors help express a wide range of

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Page 6 moods, and frequent hand crossings display the pianist’s virtuosity. No tempo indications appear except for the “Marcia” variation six, and only the first section of the theme appears in the final statement. Six Variations on “Her Fogelfänger bin ich ja” [1792] ed. Eve Meyer (Hildegard, GKH repr.). Level:

Early Advanced. (G major, 2/4, allegretto, 10 pp). Six delightful variations on Papageno’s character aria from Mozart’s Magic Flute. The simple nature of the tune is preserved with a minimum of bravura figuration. Techniques include two-against-three rhythms in the var. 2, dialogue between the hands in vars. 3 and 4, and modulation to a minor key, adagio, in var. 5. The work closes with a nimble allegro in jig time. ANTHOLOGIES:

Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 3, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall,

1998). Six Variations on “Der Fogelfänger bin ich ja,” ed. Meyer: see Single Works, above. SOURCES: Cohen, Ebel, Grove, H&H, Hinson, Heinrich, Jackson, Johnson, Kirby, KOM, Laurence, Marciano, Meggett, MGG, S&S, SCB, Sperber, Stern, scores

AUFDERHEIDE, May Frances b. Indianapolis, Indiana, May 21, 1888—d. Pasadena, California, Sep 1, 1972 May Aufderheide, the leading woman composer of ragtime piano, was a favorite pianist in the Indianapolis area who studied classical piano with an aunt, but loved the popular music of the day. In 1908, she composed her first rag, Dusty, now considered the first major rag of the Indianapolis-Ohio Valley area.9 It was so successful commercially that her father started a publishing business to promote her music and that of her friends, including Julia Niebergall (q.v.). Aufderheide married architect Thomas Kauftnan in 1908, and in the next four years she published nineteen more compositions, including two sets of waltzes and six more rags: The Thriller! (another big hit), Richmond Rag, Buzzer Rag, Blue

Ribbon Rag, Novelty Rag, and A Totally Different Rag.10 By 1915, however, she apparently stopped

composing completely. Although ragtime music was in general a black, male-dominated field, women composers of ragtime music were usually white, middle-class, and classically-trained, and most of them stopped composing after marriage. In 1947, the family moved to southern California, where Aufderheide lived until her death at the age of eighty-four.11

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Page 7 ANTHOLOGIES:

American Women Composers: Piano Music from 1865–1915, ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1990) and American Keyboard Music 1866 through 1910, Vol. 4 of series Three Centuries of American Music, gen. eds. Schleifer and Dennison (G.K.Hall, 1990). Dusty, A Rag [1908]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (C major, 2/4, moderate, 3 pp). Unusually for a rag, this nationwide hit remains in C major throughout, and its unorthodox structure, AA BB CC, deviates from the typical rag format (AA BB A CC DD). The piece is great fun to play, with a wonderful oom-pah bass throughout. Offbeat soprano notes harmonize with the suave chromatic alto melody in the Trio (C), subtly emphasizing the syncopation. Ragtime & Early Blues Piano, comp./ed. Amy Appleby and Peter Pickow (Amsco Publications, 1995). The Thriller! Level: Late Intermediate. (A-flat major, 2/4, not fast, 3 pp). Published by Aufderheide’s father, it became a nationwide hit in sheet music, on piano rolls, and in instrumental arrangements.

Written in three repeated sections, with sweet triadic melodies, occasional brief chromatic passages, and

In B, a sustained alto pedal tone lends smoothness to the thirds above; in C, hands

alternate on syncopated descending octaves. Ragtimes für Klavier, ed. Kaluza (Furore, 1994) and Ragtime Rarities: Complete Original Music for 63 Piano Rags, ed. Tichenor (Dover, 1975). Dusty and The Thriller! See above. A Tribute to Scott Joplin and the Giants of Ragtime, comp. Richard Zimmerman (Shattinger- International Music, 1975). The Thriller! See above. Women Composers of Ragtime: A Collection of Six Selected Rags by Women Composers, comp. Carolynn A.Lindeman (Theodore Presser, 1985. Repr. of the original sheet music). The Richmond Rag [1909]. Level: Mid-Intermediate (C/F/B-flat majors, 2/4, tempo di marcia, 3 pp). The first rag published by her father’s new company, written shortly after the Aufderheides moved to Richmond, Indiana. An unusual form: AAB (in F major) CC (in B-flat major) B. The B section has distinctively syncopated, percussive rhythms. A Totally Different Rag [1910]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (E-flat/A-flat majors, 2/4, slowly, 3 pp). The difference in this rag lies in its slow tempo, and in the B section, with its chromatic alto melody sandwiched between dissonant harmonies in treble and bass. Or, as described by Jasen and Tichenor, “suspended 4ths, another feature of Ohio Valley rags after 1908.”12

SOURCES: B&NB, ClagS, Cohen, GroveAm, H&H, Hasse, Hinson, KOM, scores

blue 3rds and 7ths

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B

BACKER-GRØNDAHL, Agathe Ursula (née Backer) b. Holmestrand, Norway, Dec 1, 1847—d. Christiana, Jun 4, 1907 Norwegian concert pianist, composer, and teacher Agathe Backer-Grøndahl studied piano with Kullak, Hans von Bülow, and Liszt, and composition with Lindeman in Norway and Wuerst in Berlin. She received high praise for her performances of Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, and Grieg, and was the favorite female pianist of George Bernard Shaw.13 A winner of Sweden’s Royal Gold Medal and the “Pro Literis et Artibus” medal from the King of Norway and Sweden, Backer-Grøndahl managed the difficult feat of combining a domestic life with a musical career by devoting blocks of years to different activities:

first raising her family, then concertizing, then composing, then concertizing again, playing many of her own works.14 A highly successful composer and concert artist, Backer-Grøndahl also exerted great influence as a teacher. She and her husband, a conductor and composer, had three sons, including Fritjof, who had a long career as a concert pianist. Though she suffered from ill health and deafness later in life, she continued to give frequent concerts and to teach several hours daily. Backer-Grøndahl’s published works, which were extremely popular throughout Scandinavia, include 260 songs, a number of Norwegian folksong arrangements, and 138 piano works in twenty-nine opus numbers.15 The piano pieces include short descriptively titled miniatures in simple song form, larger fantasy-like works, and a number of fine concert etudes. Her music, like that of her contemporary, Cécile Chaminade, features directness of expression, wonderfully idiomatic pianism, melodic charm, an assured late-Romantic harmonic style, and strong evocations of dance rhythms. Although she revered Grieg, her music is not particularly nationalistic, and she rarely used recognizable Norwegian folk-tunes in her piano works. Her works are sensitive, imaginative without being sentimental, and extremely well crafted. SINGLE WORKS:

Trois Etudes de Concert Opus 32. (Recital Publications, 1998, reprint of Wilhelm Hansen pub.). Level: Advanced. Etude in D Major Opus 32/1. (In 4, allegro, 4 pp). Horn calls in rapid double notes, RH; virtuoso octaves in both hands. A spirited, joyful work. Etude in F Minor Opus 32/2. (In 4, tranquillo, 5 pp). An undulating triplet figure forms the background for the elegiac, nocturne-like melody.

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Page 9

Etude in D-flat Major Opus 32/3 (Also found in Agathe Bäcker-Grondahl: Piano Music, Da Capo, below).

Level: Advanced. (D-flat major, in 4, allegro leggiero, 6 pp). A rapid study in staccato alternating hands; the primarily LH melody shifts registers frequently. Fantasistykker Opus 36 (Recital Publications). See Agathe Bäcker-Grondahl: Piano Music, below. I Blaafjellet: Eventyr Suite i 6 Claverstykker Opus 44 No. 2 [1894]. [On the Blue Mountain:

Folklore Suite of 6 Piano Pieces], ed. Margaret Meyers (Hildegard; GKH repr.). Level: Advanced, 23 pp. A six-movement major work, demonstrating the composer at the height of her expressive and dramatic powers. The Blue Mountain was a legendary home of trolls.

I. Overture: In the Hall of the Trolls. (D-flat major, 6/8, allegretto, 9 pp). Tone painting establishes a Norwegian atmosphere in this lengthy movement.

II. The Giant Troll (G minor, 6/8, allegretto molto energico, 2 pp). An ungainly, gruff march, discordant and chromatic.

III. The forest nymph. (D major, 3/4, largo, 3 pp). Serene and lovely main theme, with a playful middle section.

IV. The Bewitched Captive’s Lay. (A minor, in 4, molto largo, 3 pp). Aeolian harmonies echo Norwegian folk tunes.

V. Dance of the trolls. (A minor, 3/4, moderate a la burla, 4 pp). Chromaticism, a busy melody, and open fifths describe a dance of the grotesque.

VI. Night. (B-flat minor, in 4, grave, 2 pp). Stealthy footsteps and eerie descending octaves explore the full range of the keyboard.

COLLECTIONS:

Agathe Bäcker-Grondahl: Piano Music, intro. Charles Slater. (Da Capo Press reprint, 1982). Forty-

seven works in chronological order, ranging from intermediate-level salon pieces to challenging concert

etudes.

Etudes de concert, Op. 11, Nos 2 and 6. Level: Advanced.

Op.

11/2. (D-flat major, 3/4, andantino, 5 pp). A series of parallel sixths.

Op.

11/6. (A major, 6/8, allegretto grazioso). Continually shifting arpeggios support a melody played in

octaves.

Trois morceaux, Op. 15. Late Intermediate to Early Advanced.

Op. 15/1. Serenade. Level: Late Intermediate. (F major, in 4, andantino, 3 pp). Serene, symmetrical

phrases arch over a gently strummed bass in this unhurried portrait of summer twilight in the north. Melodious trills and flourishes decorate the contrasting center section.

Op. 15/2. Au bal [At the Ball]. Level: Early Advanced. (D-flat major, 2/4, allegretto, 7 pp). A beguiling

work, with quick, delicate outer sections framing a lyric intermezzo, sotto voce.

Op. 15/3. Humoresque. Level: Early Advanced. (G minor, 2/4, allegro con spirito, 4 pp). Spirited and

witty dance, reminiscent of Grieg.

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Page 10 Fire skizzer (Four sketches), Op. 19/1-4. Level: Early Advanced. Harmonically inventive, extremely well- written examples of the Romantic piano miniature. Each is a three-page allegretto in common time and ABA form. Op. 19/1. (C major, leggiero). The vigorous, surging melody occurs first in octaves, then over dense chords. Op. 19/2. (A-flat major, leggiero). A daring harmonic progression begins the work, permeated with Spanish dance rhythms and embellishments. Op. 19/3. (A minor, semplice). A wistful little harlequin of a piece. Op. 19/4. (A-flat major, grazioso). Late Romantic chromaticism. Suite pour Piano Op. 20. (The suite originally included a prelude, nocturne, gavotte, menuett, and scherzo). Prelude Op. 20/1. Level: Early Advanced. (G minor, in 4, allegro non troppo e molto risoluto, 4 pp). Dramatic, with continuous exploration of a sixteenth note figure in related keys, as in some Bach preludes. Gavotte Op. 20/3. Level: Early Advanced. (A major, in 4, allegretto, 4 pp). A late-19th century example of the lively and gracious Baroque dance.

Etude de concert, Op. 32/3. See Single Works: Trois Études de Concert.

Huldreslått (WoO). Level: Late Intermediate. (A minor, in 4, molto allegro, 4 pp). Like a fiery gypsy dance or tarantella, swirling triplets race up and down the keyboard, accompanied by an alternating bass. A contrasting marcato section in A major features leaping accented chords; one can almost hear the rattle and crash of tambourines. Fantasistykker (Fantasiestücke). Twenty-one Fantasy Pieces from three sets: all of Opus 36, six often in Opus 39, and all of Opus 45. The Fantasy pieces constitute an exceptionally fine addition to late Romantic repertoire, and the sets have many characteristics in common. They are short, descriptive scenes of nature, stylized dances, or depictions from Norwegian folklore, using the full range of the instrument, with effective textures and strong dance rhythms. Difficult pieces alternate with easier ones, and they are stylistically similar to the smaller works of Schumann, Mendelssohn, Chopin, and Grieg. Harmonies include secondary dominants, a few borrowed chords, the occasional augmented-sixth, and some “barbershop” sliding sevenths.16 Fantasistykker Op. 36, Heft 1: Nos 1–5 (composed 1895). Both of the Opus 36 sets are also available as Fantasistykker Opus 36, two vols (Huntsville, TX: Recital Publications). Op. 36/1. Klage [Lamentation]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (E minor, in 4, andantino, 2 pp). A repeated- note motive, rather like three little moans and a sigh, runs through this sad little piece. Interesting scale patterns in the accompaniment save it from being maudlin. Op. 36/2. Friskt mod! [Take courage!]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (D major, in 4, allegretto grazioso, 1 pp). Heartening and repetitive. A bass pedal supports the upper voices, with the tenor in counterpoint to the soprano.

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Page 11 Op. 36/3. Vals. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (F major, 3/4, grazioso, 3 pp). A vigorous and exuberant dance with a playful middle section. Op. 36/4. Vuggevise [Berceuse]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (G major, in 4, allegretto). An attractive arching melody, stressing the second scale degree, is harmonized by sparse chords above a gently rocking bass. Op. 36/5. Ballade. Level: Late Intermediate. (E-flat minor, in 4, andante, 5 pp). A tragic march opens the piece, echoed by bass octaves like a Greek chorus. A contrasting fanfare in E-flat major sounds:

perhaps the hero is coming to the rescue. Texture is Brahmsian, with LH octaves and thick heavy RH chords. Descending double octaves herald the return of A. Great dramatic fun. Fantasistykker Op. 36, Heft 2: Nos 6–9 [1895]. Op. 36/6. Ungdomssang [Youth’s song]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (B-flat major, 9/8, andantino, 1 pp). Close four-part harmony is played in the lower middle register of the piano, like a male choir singing a chorale of praise. Op. 36/7. Ländler. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (A-flat major, 3/4, allegretto grazioso, 2 pp). The characteristic Ländler pickup (&3&) begins the merry yodeling melody, which bobs and bows over a waltz bass. Op. 36/8. Aftenwind [Evening breezes]. Level: Late Intermediate. (G-flat major, in 4, allegretto, 2 pp). Alternating sixteenth notes depict the lightly rustling breezes; frequent LH crossovers. Op. 36/9. Sang ved Rokken [Spinning-wheel song]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (A minor, 3/4, poco allegro, 2 pp). An effective setting of the Faust story: Gretchen’s frantic spinning refrain, created by rising and falling triplets, alternates with a forlorn second theme. Op. 36/10. Alfeleg [Elfin dance]. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (A minor, in 4, allegro, 5 pp). A nimble dance in airy staccatos and whirring sixteenth notes; center section is a courtly promenade in the parallel major.

Fantasistykker Op. 39 [1896].

Op. 39/1. Souvenir. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (D minor/major, 3/4, andantino, 3 pp). A waltz in ABAB form, alternating happy and sad moods, LH and RH melodies, and tenor and soprano registers. Op. 39/2. Sommernat [Summer night]. Level: Late Intermediate. (D major, 3/4, tranquillo, 3 pp). Portrait of a balmy, leisurely evening. Op. 39/3. Svalernes flug [Swallows flight]. Level: Late Intermediate. (A major, in 4, allegretto leggiero, 2 pp). Ceaseless sixteenth notes, divided between the hands, swoop in weightless broken chords and two- note figures in the upper half of the keyboard. Reminiscent of Nedda’s aria in I Pagliacci. Op. 39/4 Rosernes sang [Song of the roses]. Level: Late Intermediate. (A-flat major, common time, andante, 2 pp). A sweet song wafts out of a delicate cloud of rising and falling arpeggios.

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Page 12 Op. 39/5. I baaden [In the boat]. Level: Late Intermediate. (E-flat major, 6/8, allegretto, 3 pp). A barcarolle, with an ostinato bass creating the rocking of the boat and the sound of the waves, as the melody is played in dolce thirds and sixths. Op. 39/9. Visnet [Withered]. Level: Late Intermediate. (A minor, in 4, allegretto, 1 pp). Leggierissimo staccato triads in the mid-to-upper registers fade swiftly away to ppp. Fantasistykker, Op. 45/1–5 [1897]. A wonderful group for ballet use. Op. 45/1. Ungdomssang [Song of Youth]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (F major, 9/8, tranquillo, 1 pp). A chorale in the lower-middle registers of the keyboard, requiring good legato technique; more satisfying than the earlier piece by the same name (Opus 36, no. 6). Included in several anthologies. Op. 45/2. Zephyr. Level: Advanced. (D major, 2/4, allegretto, 5 pp). A virtuoso caprice depicting the fickle wind, with toccata-like use of repeated note figures, accidentals, and alternating hands. Op. 45/3. Sommervise [Summer song]. Level: Late Intermediate. (G major, 6/8, andantino semplice, 2 pp). LH melody against fluttering double-note figures in RH, requireing careful voicing and pedaling. Op. 45/4. Gyngende [Rocking]. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (A major, in 4, allegretto non troppo, 4 pp). Wide repeated arpeggios furnish the movement under the graceful melodic stretches. Op. 45/5. Vals Caprice. Level: Early Advanced. (F major, 3/4, molto con anima, 6 pp). A playful and brilliant grand waltz, played one beat to the bar; center section in F minor is slightly slower, with descending chromatic passages. Etude de concert Op. 47/2. Level: Advanced. (A minor, in 4, con fuoco, 5 pp). Virtuosic LH octaves shape an heroic march, balanced by wide, rapidly rolled RH chords; Brahmsian ideas and textures. Barcarole Op. 55/10. Level: Early Intermediate. (G minor, 6/8, andante espressivo, 2 pp). Gently mysterious, with late-Romantic altered chords in a sparse texture. Characteristic melody is traded between hands. Mandolinata Op. 59/3. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (D-flat major, 2/4, allegretto leggierissimo, 5 pp). Upward-strummed arpeggios suggest the easy grace of a southern serenade. Center section features “plucked” chromatic scales. Prelude and Grand menuet Op. 61/1-2. Level: Advanced. One of the composer’s last works, these two pieces form one large-scale dramatic composition, 12 pp. Prelude (C-sharp minor, in 4, tranquillo). The huge climax fades into pp octaves, segueing chromatically into the Grand menuet (E major, 3/4, con grandezza). The climactic chords “may be the last grand gestures of the Romantic age” (score preface).

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Page 13 ANTHOLOGIES:

At the Piano with Women Composers, ed. Hinson (Alfred, 1990). Fantasistykker Op. 45/1, 3: see Collections. Nineteenth-Century European Piano Music: Unfamiliar Masterworks, sel. Gillespie (Dover, 1977). Fantasistykker Op. 45/1–5: see Collections. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 6, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall, 1999). I Blaafjellet. Eventyr Suite i 6 Claverstykker Opus 44/2, ed. Margaret Meyers: see Single Works.

SOURCES: A-Z, Baker, Cohen, Dubal, Ebel, ElsonA, FRK, Gillespie, Grove, H&H, Hinson, Hyde, Johnson, Kehler, Kirby, KOM, Laurence, Meggett, Pendle, Schonberg, scores

BADARCZEWSKA-BARANOWSKA, Thekla b. Warsaw, 1834—d. Warsaw, Sep 29, 1861 Composer of the worldwide best seller of her time, this young Polish pianist was apparently an amateur with no formal training. In 1856, she published The Maiden’s Prayer in Warsaw. After its appearance in 1859 as a supplement to the Paris Revue et Gazette Musicale, the piece became a runaway success all over the world, going into 140 editions and reprints in Europe, the United States, and Australia, as well as transcriptions for orchestra, voice, piano duo, and almost every instrument. A “unique piece of salon pianism, dripping maudlin arpeggios,”17 it was strongly criticized by professional musicians, including Louis Gottschalk, who composed a wickedly clever parody for a recital encore. Still, imitation is the sincerest flattery, and the work was unquestionably the smash hit of the mid-nineteenth century. Before her untimely death at age twenty-seven, Badarzewska composed thirty-three more salon piano pieces, as well as a number of songs, but none approached the popularity of The Maiden’s Prayer, which still appears in anthologies.18 SINGLE WORKS:

Gebet einer Jungfrau [1856; var. The Maiden’s Prayer, La prière d’une vierge, The Virgin’s Prayer].

(Schott Musik International, 1913). Level: Late Intermediate. (E-flat major, common time, andante, 3 pp). Sweet, fluffy, and insubstantial; pianistic cotton candy. An effective introduction to advanced figurations such as extended arpeggios, octaves, and long trills. The theme, comprised of one arching, eight-bar parallel period, is presented by RH in six slightly varied versions, over an ostinato bass of block chords and octaves. Variations include arpeggios in octaves, extended arpeggios of 16th and 32nd notes with trills at cadences, hands crossed, with melody in the tenor, and triplet repeated-note staccato octaves, ending in a crescendo.

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Page 14 ANTHOLOGIES:

Masterpieces of Piano Music, ed. Albert E.Wier (Carl Fischer, 1918). The Maiden’s Prayer.

SOURCES: Baker, Cohen, Ebel, ElsonA, FRK, Grove, H&H, Hinson, KOM, Laurence, Meggett, MGG, S&S, SCB, Sperber

BARTHELEMON, Cecilia Maria (var. Mrs. E.P.Henslowe) b. England, 1769/70-d. after 1840 Cecilia Barthélemon, the grandniece of Thomas Arne, was the daughter of a pair of leading London musicians, Maria (Polly) Barthélemon (née Mary Young), a celebrated singer, and François Hippolyte Barthélemon, a violinist, composer, and conductor. Cecilia toured with her parents from babyhood, and

reportedly sang for Marie-Antoinette. She learned to sing and play harpsichord, piano, organ, and harp from her parents and J.S.Schröter. The young girl made her formal vocal debut at the Haymarket Theater in 1779, singing an Italian duet with her mother between sections of the Messiah.19 As an adult, Barthélemon was active as a singer, harpist, keyboardist and composer. She dedicated her Opus

3 keyboard sonata to Joseph Haydn, a family friend, and was a subscriber to his Creation. Her published

compositions, which date from 1786 to 1795, include several sonatas for keyboard with accompanying violin,20 two keyboard trios, a keyboard work concluding with a song by soprano and chorus, and three solo keyboard sonatas. In 1796, Cecilia married Captain E.P.Henslowe; the couple had one child, Fanny Henslowe. SINGLE WORKS:

Three Sonatas for Piano, ed. Barbara Harbach (Vivace Press, 1995). Level: Late Intermediate. For pianoforte or harpsichord. Late Classical sonatas sophisticated in harmony, melody, and form; in each, the first movement is a well-developed sonata-allegro with contrasting themes, and the last is a rondo with development in the second episode. The works contain dramatic pauses, sudden contrasts in dynamics, register and texture, and modulating development sections with fragmented motives, diminished chords and deceptive cadences.

Sonata in C Major Op. I/I. Late Intermediate. 1: Allegro (common time, 7 pp). II: Rondo allegretto (6/8,

8 pp).

Sonata in E Major Op. I/3. Late Intermediate. I: Allegro con spirito (common time, 9 pp). II: Larghetto (A major, 3/4, 3 pp). Lyrical, with some imitative passages. III: Allegro ma non troppo (6/8, 10 pp). Sonata in G major, Opus III. Level: Late Intermediate. Witty and Haydnesque, with interesting harmonic and rhythmic figures, including dance elements. I: Allegro vivace. (G major, 2/4, 8 pp). Sonata-rondo with development in 2nd episode. II: Adagio. (E-flat major, 6/8, 2 pp). A

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Page 15 slow pastorale. Opening triadic motive is balanced by graceful thirty-second note arpeggios and scales. The movement ends with both hands below middle C. III: Rondo alla Hornpipe. (G major, 2/4, vivace, 4 pp). A lively folk dance in sixteenth note triplets, requiring a light touch and nimble fingers. The Capture of the Cape of Good Hope for the Piano Forest or Harpsichord, Concluding with a Song & Chorus, ed. Deborah Hayes (Hildegard; GKH reprint). Level: Mid/Late Intermediate. (C/E/G/E-flat/A majors, eight sections, 16 pp). A straightforward, attractive example of the popular genre of program music called the “battle sonata, commemorating the 1795 British victory over the Dutch in southern Africa. The progress of the battle and the ensuing surrender are depicted by verbal descriptions and a variety of pianistic devices, including obvious contrasts in theme, tempo, meter, and dynamics, scales in octaves, trommel bass patterns, runs and flourishes, and some mild chromaticism. Intended for informal salon performances, it is suggested that the pianist sing the final Song, and everyone present join in for the final Chorus. ANTHOLOGIES:

Four Keyboard Sonatas by Early English Women Composers, ed. Sally Fortino (Hildegard, 1996). Sonatas by Billington, Cianchettini, Park, and Barthélemon, Opus 3: see Three Sonatas, above. Women Composers: Music through the Ages, Vol 3, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall,

1998). The Capture of the Cape of Good Hope, ed. Hayes, above. SOURCES: Boenke, Cohen, Eitner, Fuller, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Jackson, KOM, Mac, Meggett, MGG, Eitner, S&S, Stern, scores

BAUER, Katerina (var. Katherine/Catherina de) b. Würzburg, Germany, 1785—d.? Very little is known about this German harpsichordist and composer. A child prodigy, she studied harpsichord and composition with Abbé Johann Sterkel, and composed three sets of twelve variations for the clavier. SINGLE WORKS:

Douze Variations pour le Pianoforte [1797/8]. (Ars Femina, 1993). Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (F major, 3/4, Andante, 14 pp). In this engaging example of late Classic writing for the keyboard, the simplest of melodies undergoes standard changes in accompaniments, ending with a cadenza and a final restatement of the theme.

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Page 16

SOURCES: Cohen, Eitner, Grove, H&H, Heinrich, Jackson, Laurence, Mac, Stern

BAUER, Marion Eugenic b. Walla Walla, WA, Aug 15, 1887—d. South Hadley, MA, Aug 9, 1955 Marion Bauer, composer, critic, writer, and educator, was the youngest of seven children, and took her first music lessons with her sister Emilie Frances, who later became a music critic in New York. She was educated in the West, then went to New York and studied with Henry Holden Muss, Eugene Heffley, and Walter Rothwell. In 1906, she studied piano in Paris with Raoul Pugno, a violinist; through him she met Nadia Boulanger, who taught her harmony. As payment, Bauer gave Boulanger lessons in English, and was probably the first American pupil of the woman who was to teach most of the next generation of American composers.21 Bauer spent many summers at the MacDowell Colony, where she met other important women composers: Beach, Daniels, Howe, Gideon, and Crawford. During her outstanding career as an educator, she taught music history and composition at New York University (1926–51) and at Juilliard (1940–44). With Ethel Peyser, she co-authored the textbooks How Music Grew and Music Through the Ages, and she was sole author of Twentieth Century Music. A fervid and vocal champion of American music and contemporary composers, she was one of the founders of the Association of American Women Composers, a co-founder of the American Music Guild, the only woman among the founders of the League of Composers, and an active member of many other artistic and philanthropic organizations.22 Bauer composed chamber, orchestral, and choral music, songs, and many piano works. Her music, originally considered radical, now seems moderately impressionistic, with coloristic harmonies, programmatic titles, through-composed forms, and some exoticisms from non-Western cultures. Although her writing remained melodic and grounded in tertian harmony, she used extended harmonies and diatonic dissonance to blur functional tonality. According to Dubal, her piano works (which generally appeared in sets of three to six short pieces) include nineteen titles, ranging from the

1909 Elegy to Summertime Suite (1953), with the Dance Sonata (1935) and Four Piano Pieces Op. 21 of

special merit.23 Unfortunately, the teaching group below and the Op. 36 Piano Concerto (American Youth, Schinner, 1943) appear to be her only keyboard works currently in print. Many of her works are available in libraries, and a description of From The New Hampshire Woods is included here as an example of Bauer’s outstanding keyboard writing.24 SINGLE WORKS:

For Nimble Fingers (Mercury Music/Presser, 1948). Level: Late Elementary/Early Intermediate. Three delightful little pieces full of rhythmic energy.

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Page 17 Tumbling Tommy. (C major, 2/4, fast, 2 pp). Like a simplified version of Pinto’s “Run, Run,” hands alternate a single-note melody with a two-note chord in a continuous eighth-note rhythm. A New Solfegietto (after C. P. E. Bach). (G minor, 2/4, rapidly, 2 pp). Aptly named, this work is nearly as much fun as the original, and of similar figuration, providing a gratifyingly intricate sound at little technical expense. Parade. (C major, common time, with energy, 2 pp). Four-part seventh-chords in close position march through the piece in staccato dotted rhythms, like a quartet of trumpeters. From the New Hampshire Woods: A Suite of Three Pieces for the Pianoforte Op. 12 (G.Schirmer, 1922). Level: Late Intermediate. A set of impressionistic miniatures depicting New England flora, with a poetic inscription preceding each landscape. Later arranged for orchestra, these reflect the influence of the MacDowell school. Characteristics of Bauer’s style include use of the full range of the keyboard, continuous rhythmic motion, a wide dynamic palette, asymmetrical phrases, and the use of pedal tones, seventh chords, and gliding parallel chords within a strong tonal center. White Birches Op. 12/1. Level: Late Intermediate. (D-flat major, 6/8, grazioso e rubato, 5 pp). A “song without words,” with the melody created from downward-rippling arpeggios over a slow-moving bass. Dissonant suspensions, sliding seventh and ninth chords, descending chromatic scales, and tone clusters caught by the pedal contribute to the portrait of rustling leaves and palely glowing bark, dappled with moonlight and mysterious shade. Indian Pipes Op. 12/2. Level: Late Intermediate. (G major/minor, 3/4, andante con moto, 3 pp). Indian pipes are small plants that poke up through the moist carpet of the forest’s floor after a rain. A rhythmic motive slides chromatically down a fourth; there are flirtations with whole-tone scales and parallel diminished triads. Pine-Trees Op. 12/3. Level: Late Intermediate. (F major, 5/4–4/4–6/4, andante con moto, 5 pp). The wind sweeps through the boughs of great pine trees on a hillside above a river. The shifting meters are used to expressive advantage, creating short asymmetrical phrases with natural fluidity. ANTHOLOGIES:

The World of Modern Piano Music, comp. Denes Agay (MCA Music, 1964). Pond Lilies, from Summertime Suite [1953]. Level: Early Intermediate. (C major, 6/8, moderate, 2 pp). A teaching piece set in the swaying, languorous rhythms of a Sicilienne. Hands remain a second apart throughout the piece, moving stepwise in the center of the keyboard and forming mild dissonances within a tonal framework.

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Page 18 LISTED but not found in print: Turbulence Op. 17/2 (EBM); A Fancy (Axelrod); Four Piano Pieces Op. 21 (Arrow Music); Dance Sonata Op. 24 (ACA); Patterns Op. 41 (ACA). Cited in Hinson’s Guide, 3rd ed., and Friskin & Freundlich’s Music for the Piano.25

SOURCES: Ammer, Anderson, Baker, B&NB, Boenke, , ClagAm, ClagS, Cohen, Dubal, Elson, Faurot, Friskin, Fuller, Gordon, Goss, Grove, Grove Am, Heinrich, Hinson, Hutcheson, Johnson, Kirby, Laurence, Mac, Meggett, Pendle, S&S, Stern

BAYON, Marie-Emmanuelle (var. Bajon, Baillon, Bayon-Louis, Mme Louis) b. Marcei, Orne, France, 1746—d. Aubevoye, Eure, Mar 19, 1825 Marie Bayon was a French harpsichordist, pianist, and singer who wrote chamber music, opera, and pieces for the clavecin and voice. It is assumed she grew up near Paris and received advanced training in voice and harpsichord, perhaps through the patronage of Mme la Marquise de Langeron, to whom she dedicated her Opus 1 sonatas. Diderot, the philosopher and encyclopedist, greatly admired Bayon’s playing, and arranged for her to teach his daughter. He wrote, “She played like an angel. Her soul was entirely at the ends of her fingers.”26 In 1770, she married an architect, Victor Louis, designer of the Theater in Bordeaux; the couple had one child, a daughter. Bayon’s later works were signed “Mme Louis” or “Bayon-Louis;” in a number of reference works, she appears under both names as two apparently different people. In 1776, her two-act comic opera, Fleur d’Epine, was produced at the Theatre-Italien. As a hostess of esteemed literary and artistic salons in Bordeaux and Paris, Bayon-Louis is credited with bringing the fortepiano into vogue in France. In addition to her compositions, she appears to have written two manuals on keyboard technique and the principles of accompaniment. Her husband lived until 1800, as “citizen Louis;” Mme Louis outlived him by twenty-five years. ANTHOLOGIES:

Francesca LeBrun and Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon: Keyboard Sonatas [ca. 1769], intro. Deborah Hayes (Da Capo Press, 1990 reprint).

Six Senates pour le Clavecin ou le Piano Forte, dont trois avec accompagnement de Violon oblige Opus

1. Level: Late Intermediate or Early Advanced. Appealing, well-constructed representatives of the late eighteenth century international style. Each two-movement sonata is 4–5 pages long; both movements are in repeated binary form and the same key, but of contrasting tempo and character. This facsimile edition is not easy to read: there are 6–8 systems per page, note heads are round and small, and many accidentals and ornaments appear between staves. Also, there are occasional changes from bass to alto clef in LH part, difficult for the modern player. No articulations and

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Page 19 few dynamics are indicated. The works were known in Germany and Britain; Queen Charlotte’s personal copy is housed in the British Library. Sonata I in F major. 1. Allegro con brio, in 4. A vigorous study, with continuous 16th note accompaniment. 2. Tempo di minuetto, in 3. Elegant and graceful in a sparse Italianate texture. Sonate II in G major. 1. Andante affetuoso, 2/4. Expressive melody over Alberti bass. 2. Allegro, in 2. Exuberant triplets, sixteenth note arpeggios and scales; includes a one-page minuetto. Sonata III in Eb major. 1. Allegro, in 2. Melodious and gracious. 2. Presto, 12/8. A rollicking jig. Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon and Caroline Wuiet: Operatic Transcriptions for Keyboard, ed. Calvert Johnson (Vivace Press, forthcoming). Ouverture de Fleur d’Epine. Level of difficulty: Medium. Arranged for harpsichord or fortepiano with ad. lib. accompaniment of violin and cello. Transcription by M.Benoit. (Publication notes by Calvert Johnson).

SOURCES: B&T, Cohen, Ebel, Eitner, ElsonA, Fetis, G&F, H&H, Heinrich, Jackson, Laurence, Meggett, S&S, Stern, score

BEACH, Amy Marcy (née Cheney; Mrs. H.H.A.Beach) b. Henniker, New Hampshire, Sep 5, 1867—d. New York, Dec 27, 1944 Amy Beach, the foremost American woman composer of her time, was the first to achieve success as a composer of large-scale works. She was a child prodigy who improvised alto parts to her mother’s soprano before the age of two, taught herself to read at age three, and at four played four-part hymns by ear. By age seven, she was playing Handel, Beethoven, and Chopin in public recitals. Beach studied piano with her mother, Ernst Perabo, and Carl Baermann, and became a pianist with a virtuoso technique and a phenomenal memory. In 1885, she made the first of several appearances with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, but after her marriage to Dr. Henry Harris Aubrey Beach, a man twenty- four years her senior, she limited her public performances and concentrated on composition. As a composer, Beach was largely self-taught: she followed a course of study designed for her by William Gericke using master composers as models; she studied harmony and counterpoint with Junius Hill for one year; and she taught herself orchestration and fugue by translating the treatises of Berlioz and Gevaert. After the death of her husband in 1911, Beach toured Europe for three years, playing many of her own works as well as those of recognized composers. Although she never had piano pupils of her own, her works were admired and played in the numerous Beach societies that sprang up all over the country, and she contributed many articles to magazines devoted to music teachers and their pupils. A leader in the MTNA and the MENC, in 1925 she was a co-founder

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Page 20 and first president of the Society of American Women Composers, and she generously helped to further the careers of many musicians. Beach’s more than three hundred compositions include art songs in several languages, orchestral, chamber and choral works, and a great deal of piano music, ranging from early Intermediate to concert level. Although she is sometimes considered a member of the New England school, her style is eclectic, displaying late Romantic, nationalistic, and Impressionist aspects. Beach had a fine ear for harmonic color, and expressively used modulation, mixed modes, and the increasingly complex chromaticism of the late Romantic era. Her keyboard music is characterized by a fondness for formal symmetry and balance, lyrical melodies, modulation by thirds, arpeggios, trills, passages in parallel thirds and octaves, and use of the full range of the keyboard.27 Her most popular works, in addition to her songs, include her Gaelic Symphony Op. 23, the Mass in E-flat Op. 5, the violin and piano Sonata in A Minor Op. 34, the Piano Quintet, the choral works The Chambered Nautilus and

The Canticle of the Sun, and the Hermit Thrush pieces for piano.

SINGLE WORKS:

Valse-Caprice Op. 4 (Masters Music, 1995). Level: Advanced. (E major, 3/8, a capriccio, 10 pp). A whimsical fancy with symmetrical phrases, in ternary form with an intro and coda. Main theme features a grace-note figure over a pedal point and triple meter; more adventurous harmonies appear in the contrasting middle section. Ballade Op. 6 (Masters Music, n.d.). Level: Early Advanced. (D-flat major, 3/4, andantino, 10 pp). A concert fantasy/rondo based on Beach’s setting of the Robert Burns poem, “O my luve is like a red, red rose.”28 A lovely early work displaying late Romantic lyricism in a constant texture of arpeggios in triplets. The main theme, repeated in various keys and registers, is contrasted with an allegro in C-sharp minor and an A major lento. Sketches Op. 15/1-4 (Masters Music, 1995; also av. Hildegard, 1998). Level: Early Advanced/Advanced. Four small tone poems; translations to the prefatory French quotations are in

brackets.29

Op. 15/1. In Autumn. [“Yellowing foliage scattered on the grass”]. Level: Early Advanced. (F-sharp minor, 2/4, allegro ma non tanto, 4 pp). A melancholy theme and variations, progressively more complex and brilliant. Op. 15/2. Phantoms. [“All fragile flowers, as soon their deaths as their births”] Level: Early Advanced. (A major, 3/8, allegretto scherzando, 3 pp). Ternary, with B a graceful contrast to the playful, will-o-the- wisp A sections. Op. 15/3. Dreaming. [“You speak to me from the depths of a dream”]. Level: Early Advance. (G-flat major, common time, andante con molto espressione, 5 pp). In this Lied for the piano, the tonality, the sustained melody, and its quiet accompaniment are like Schubert’s Impromptu,

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Page 21 Op. 90/3. Included in many collections, it is described by Dubal as “a perfect reverie that asks the pianist for a beautiful, singing tone.”30 Op. 15/4. Fire-Flies. [“To be born in spring, to die with the roses”]. Level: Advanced. (A minor, 6/8, allegro vivace, 7 pp). A brilliantly shimmering perpetual motion etude, with flickering RH thirds. Ternary, with B section in both relative and parallel majors. Included in several collections, it was played in recital by piano virtuosi Busoni, Rosenthal, and Hofmann.31 Young People’s Carnival Opus 25/1–6, ed. Hinson (Alfred, 1994. Also av. as Children’s Carnival Op. 25/1–6, ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1990). Orig. publ. Boston: A.P.Schmidt, 1894). Level: Early Intermediate. Six portraits of the stock characters in European pantomime, each two to three pages long; most are in simple ternary form.32 Op. 25/1. Promenade. (C major, common time, alla marcia). A fanfare opens the parade of players. Thin texture of solo melody and a sketchy broken-chord bass, with hands in the center of the keyboard; dynamic contrasts provide interest. Op. 25/2. Columbine. (F minor, 6/8, andante). Gentle, dreamy, and light-hearted, with the soothing, pastoral melody shifting from hand to hand. Op. 25/3. Pantalon. (C major, 2/4, allegro). A saucy, rambunctious work with lots of staccato bounce, foreshadowing Kabalevsky’s Clowns. Originally entitled “The Barn Dance,” it has rustic energy. Op. 25/4. Pierrot and Pierrette. (G major, 3/4, tempo di valse). An amiable little waltz between two lovers in white-face. Op. 25/5. Secrets. (D major, 4/4, andantino). A first exercise in finger-pedaling. Tenuto melody notes alternate between the hands, which also share the arpeggiated accompaniment; treat the parts as a duet. Op. 25/6. Harlequin. (F major, 2/4, vivace). A dance for a mischievous comedian in spangled motley, with lively grace notes, a twirling, tumbling melody, and staccato bass. Three Pieces for Solo Piano Op. 28/1–3 (Masters Music, 1995. Original title: Trois morceaux caractéristiques). Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. Good transitional pieces; romantic harmonies, traditional forms. Barcarolle Op. 28/1. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (G minor, 6/8, andantino, 6 pp). In the characteristic rocking rhythm, a nostalgic melody rises up to the dominant, then falls back, avoiding the leading tone at the cadence. An airy, filigreed passage in G major follows, with rippling sixteenth notes arpeggios for the right hand. The stormy center portion, in E-flat, is broader and with simpler harmonies than the outer ones, in which augmented sixths, diminished chords, suspensions, and chromatically altered tones appear. Menuet Italien Op. 28/2. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (A-flat major, 3/4, allegretto con delicatezza, 6 pp). An elaboration of the Minuet written at age ten (see Smith’s Life and Music in Collections, below), with an added Trio, fuller chords, and some development.

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Page 22 Danse des Fleurs Op. 28/3. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (D-flat major, 3/4, tempo di valse, 6 pp). Ternary form, with Chopinesque movement and figurations. Children’s Album #1 Op. 36/1–5 [1897], ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1990). Also av. as Young People’s Album, ed. Hinson (Alfred, 1994). Level: Early Intermediate. Five dances based on old forms;

useful elementary to intermediate transition pieces. Thin textures, notated entirely in the treble clef; most are 2–3 pp. long, in binary form. The Glickman edition, like her Children’s Carnival, includes a space on the cover for the child’s picture, performance suggestions, manuscript paper for original compositions, and an invitation to send in compositions for a critique. Minuet Op. 36/1. Level: Early Intermediate. (F major, 3/4). Small, graceful steps and polite gestures imitate the eighteenth-century dance, with occasional double notes and running passages. Classical in sound, rather like simplified Mozart. Gavotte Op. 36/2. Level: Early Intermediate. (D minor, common time, con moto). Tuneful and symmetric; Grieg-like. Staccato notes alternated between the hands form quick elfin steps; a more lyric melody in the middle section is set over a drone bass. Waltz Op. 36/3. Level: Early Intermediate. (C major, 3/4). Romantic RH melody sings out over the simplest of waltz-bass accompaniments; good preparation for the easier Chopin waltzes. March Op. 36/4. Level: Early Intermediate. (D major, common time). A snappy, cheerful march with dotted rhythms, two-note slurs, short phrases, and lots of dynamic contrasts. Reminiscent of circus music or a turn of the century school fight song. Polka Op. 36/5. Level: Early Intermediate. (G major, 2/4, scherzando). Nimble and playful, the alternating eighth- and sixteenth note figures require clear execution of legato and staccato. Variations on Balkan Themes Op. 60 (Masters Music, 1995). Level: Advanced. (C-sharp minor, 4/4, adagio malincolico, 25 pp). Imaginative, virtuoso variations on sad Balkan folk tunes, this is Beach’s longest work for solo piano. Prelude and Fugue Op. 81 (Masters Music, 1995). Level: Advanced. Beach’s first contrapuntal piece,

it is an imposing and grand work in A minor. Prelude, (maestoso quasi improwisatione, common time

and 3/4, 9 pp). In free fantasy form, with ninth chords, tritones, and pedal tones. Fugue, (common

time, 10 pp). Four voices; the theme, which emphasizes a melodic tritone, is first heard in the Prelude. Two Pieces Op. 102/1-2 [1924] (Masters Music, n.d.). Farewell, Summer Op. 102/1. Level: Mid-Late Intermediate. (G minor, common time, alla gavotta, 4 pp).

A tone poem to the wild aster (also called “Frost Flower” and “Farewell Summer”). Ternary: the A

section is a charming gavotte, with 18th c. symmetry and early 20th c. harmony; B, in G major, has a sweet, lyric duet in alto and tenor voices.

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Page 23 Dancing Leaves Op. 102/2. Level: Late Intermediate. (G major, 2/4, molto vivace, 4 pp). Leaves spiral and swirl effortlessly in the brisk autumn breeze. Tempo, dynamics and articulations, chromatic scale patterns, and parallel RH thirds make this a challenging study. A Cradle Song of the Lonely Mother Op. 108 [1924] (Masters Music, n.d.). Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (E minor, 9/8 and 3/4, lento espressivo, 6 pp). A berceuse with the typical LH rocking rhythm. Ternary, with the theme frequently in inner voices; key changes, modal scales, long trills, and Beach’s characteristic chromatic thirds in a transition passage. Five Improvisations Op. 148 [1938] (Composers Press, 1982). Beach’s last pieces for piano, these fascinating and unusual miniatures are well worth serious attention, combining many of Beach’s familiar gestures with fresh harmonic ideas for a distinctive early-twentieth century ambiance. Op. 148/1. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (A minor, 3/4, lento, molto tranquillo). A waltz in ternary form, with characteristic three-part texture of soprano melody, bass line, and inner-voice chords. The mood is casually French, reminiscent of Poulenc and Satie. The second section contains the quarter/dotted quarter/eighth note motif found in each of these “improvisations.” Op. 148/2. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (A major, 3/4, allegretto grazioso e capriccioso). Graceful and playful, with the echoes of fìn-du-siècle Vienna, like a waltz from Strauss’ Der Rosenkavalier. The work is firmly tonal, but there is a continual play of colors from non-functional sliding harmonies and added-note chords. Op. 148/3. Level: Late Intermediate. (G major, 2/4, allegro con delicatezza). A tentative, tip-toeing melody is played against staccato fourths and fifths in cakewalk rhythms, alternated between hands. Rapid changes of register make this work harder than it appears. Op. 148/4. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (G-flat major, 4/4, molto lento e tranquillo). Like a Satie Gymnopédie, the calm right hand melody moves down the scale in a sequential motif, as the left hand rises in a countermelody. Later, a dominant pedal appears on a third staff. Some lovely Impressionistic dissonances are employed. Op. 148/5. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (E-flat minor, 3/4, largo maestoso). A joyful valse brilliante, opening with simultaneous wide leaps in contrary motion, followed by octave scales in the right hand and a waltz bass. An appropriate transitional piece to advanced repertoire. COLLECTIONS:

Amy Beach Piano Music, sel. Adrienne Fried Block (Dover, 2001). Ballad Op. 6, Sketches Op. 15/1, 3,

4 (In Autumn, Dreaming, and Fire-Flies), Barcarolle Op. 28/1, Scottish Legend Op. 54/1, From Blackbird Hills Op. 83, A Hermit Thrush at Morn Op. 92/2, and From Grandmother’s

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Page 24 Garden Op. 97, Nos 1 and 5 (Morning Glories and Honeysuckle). See Single Works and other collections, except for Op. 83, below. From Blackbird Hills (An Omaha Tribal Dance), Op. 83 [1922]. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (G major, 2/4, vivace/adagio molto, 7 pp). An example of Beach’s fascination with indigenous music, she used an authentic tune from a Native American children’s game, along with vigorous rhythms, a drone bass as drum, and foot-stamping accents. Of the contrasting Adagio molto section. Beach wrote that “ghosts of long-dead Indians were looking sadly over the shoulders of the happy children at play” (score preface). Amy Marcy Cheney Beach: Music for Piano (I), ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1994). Level: Late Intermediate to Advanced. Fifteen works from six opus numbers. Op. 6, Op. 15/4, and Op. 28/1: see Individual Works, above. The complete sets Opp. 54/1-2, 65/1-5, and 97/1-5 are described here. Scottish Legend Op. 54/1. Level: Late Intermediate. (D minor, common time, lento con molto espressione, 2 pp). Folk-like tune in rounded binary form, with characteristic Scottish sounds: the “Scotch snap” cadence, altered dominants, pincès and grace notes. Gavotte Fantastique Op. 54/2. Level: Early Advanced. (D minor, cut time, vivace, 6 pp). A light and lively dance with octave passages, long trills, and some very rapid scales. Les Reves de Columbine Op. 65/1-5 (Suite Française; Columbine’s Dreams). Level: Late- Intermediate/Early-Advanced. La Fée de la Fontaine [The Fairy of the Fountain] Op. 65/1. Level: Late-Intermediate/Early-Advanced. (A major, 4/4, andante con calma, 4 pp). Shifting, murmuring harmonies support a static melody, interspersed with occasional glittering splashes of 32nd and 16th notes. Set in various registers, the melody increases in intensity as the intervals widen. Le Prince Gracieux [The Graceful Prince] Op. 65/2. Level: Late-Intermediate/Early-Advanced. (A major, in 4, allegro grazioso alla gavotta, 6 pp). The whimsical four-bar dance theme skips gracefully down the dominant chord, cadences, and then steps quickly back up the octave to the tonic. Baroque articulations, chromatic harmonies, staccato scale passages, and some RH octaves. Valse Amoureuse [Lover’s Waltz] Op. 65/3. Level: Late-Intermediate/Early-Advanced. (F-sharp minor, 3/4, allegro con leggierezza, 6 pp). A playful, carefree waltz using a broad range of the keyboard; Chopinesque. LH maintains a steady waltz bass, as RH executes a figure, then takes off on a breathless, interrupted scale which leaps up to appogiature octaves, answered by downward arpeggios. Sous Les Étoiles [Under the Stars] Op. 65/4. Level: Late-Intermediate. (G-flat major, common time, adagio di molto, con gran espressione, 3 pp). The easiest of the group, a calm, simple melody is set in hymn texture, with inner voices providing forward motion on subdivisions. Melody

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Page 25 shifts to tenor voice, broadening out under the wide night sky. Sliding harmonies with many accidentals are prominent. Danse d’Arlequin Op. 65/5. Level: Late-Intermediate/Early-Advanced. (A major, 3/4-2/4, allegro con leggierezza/vivacemente, 9 pp). A delicate pianissimo waltz frames a jaunty, cocky Tin-Pan Alley march with a sassy tenor countermelody. From Grandmother’s Garden Op. 97/1–5. Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. An early 20th c. bouquet of old-fashioned flowers in Impressionist harmonies. Etude-like, each piece explores the technical challenges of a different figuration. Op. 97/1. Morning Glories. (E minor, 2/4, vivace, 4 pp). Hands entwine in rapidly climbing arpeggios on seventh chords, forming the melody from the lowest LH notes; RH creates a countermelody a 9th or 10th higher with the last note of each figure. Op. 97/2. Heartsease. (D-flat major, common time, lento cantabile, 2 pp). LH melody appears first in the alto and then the tenor, surrounded by syncopated block chords. Key signature and harmonies shift continually. Op. 97/3. Mignonette. (G major, 3/4, tempo di menuetto, 4 pp). A delicate minuet with staccato, pp chords. Op. 97/4. Rosemary and Rue. (E minor/major, 2/4, andante con sentimento, 6 pp). The simplest of this

set; a tender pas de deux. In the right hand the soprano and alto alternately hold tied notes and sigh in a descending chromatic figure, accompanied by a “plucked” broken-chord bass. (In the language of flowers, Rosemary is for remembrance, Rue is for regret). Op. 97/5. Honeysuckle. (A minor, 3/4, allegro di molto, con delicatezza, 5 pp). Reminiscent of a Chopin valse brilliante. Rapid, with cross rhythms, difficult accidentals in twisting melodic lines, and abrupt modulations. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach: Music for Piano II, ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1997). Level: Late Intermediate to Advanced. Twelve works in five opus numbers. Op. 4, Op. 15/1-3, Op. 60, and Op. 148/1-5: see Single Works. The Hermit Thrush pieces (Op. 92/1-2) were written in 1921 while Beach was resident at the MacDowell Colony, and are two contrasting settings using the actual song of the hermit thrush.

A Hermit Thrush at Eve Op. 92/1. Level: Advanced. (E-flat minor, common time, molto lento, 5 pp).

Gentle, meditative, and melancholy, with a rocking-triplet figure in RH against wide LH arpeggios. Impetuous flourishes of liquid, murmuring birdsong interrupt the melody.

A Hermit Thrush at Morn Op. 92/2. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (D minor, 3/4, quasi valse

lento, 8 pp). In ABAB form, using alternating textures. The plaintive melody first occurs as a RH solo three octaves above the modal chords of the waltz bass; rapid flute-like arpeggios end every phrase. The melody moves to the tenor voice,

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Page 26 with an agitated RH fluttering of 16th notes and soprano countermelody. The work closes with an abbreviated return to the first setting. The Life and Music of Amy Beach, the First Woman Composer of America, comp./ed. by Gail Smith (Creative Keyboard Publications/Mel Bay, 1992). An excellent collection, with fifteen pages of well- researched biographical information and archival photographs of Beach throughout her life, seventeen solo works, and Summer Dreams, Op. 47/1-6, a set of late-elementary/early intermediate level duets. For Op. 15/4, Op. 25/4-6, Op. 28/2; Op. 36/1–3, and Op. 54/1–2, see Single Works and Collections. Below are four very early pieces not available in other editions, and three pieces from two sets not available in their entirety. Mamma’s Waltz (WoO). Level: Early Intermediate. (F major, 3/4, 4 pp). Composed at age four, notated for her by her mother. An extended rondo with three separate but related themes in three keys of startling complexity and structural skill for a toddler. Homophonic texture, triadic melody, waltz bass, with contrasting shifts in register and numerous secondary dominants. Menuetto (WoO). Level: Early Intermediate. (A-flat major, 3/4, 2 pp). Written at age ten, this Classical- sounding little piece imitates the genteel steps and graceful bows of the antique dance, set in perfectly balanced four-measure phrases. Clever modulations in third section. Petit Waltz (WoO). Level: Early Intermediate. (D-flat major, 3/4, 2 pp). Written at age eleven. Rounded binary form with clever chromatic writing in the development. Standard waltz texture throughout, with some graceful changes in register for contrast. Romania (WoO). Level: Mid-Intermediate. (D major, 4/4, lento, 2 pp). A through-composed work written at age ten. Register changes, modulations, and brief RH octave passages provide interest in the texture of RH melody/LH triads. Schumannesque codetta, shifting chords between a static melody and bass, resolves to a simple four-part chord.

The Returning Hunter, Op. 64/2, from Four Eskimo Pieces (also called Four Characteristic Pieces). Level:

Early/Mid-Intermediate. (G major, 2/4, allegro vivace, 3 pp). Through-composed. A simple tune built on a descending tonic triad, followed by repeated melodic seconds; may be based on a native melody. Modulations through several minor keys in the development; fragments of the theme occur at the end of each section. See Smith’s Great Women Composers for Op. 64/3 and 4; No. 1 does not seem to be in print.

Sliding on the Ice, Op. 119/1, in the set From Six to Twelve: A Suite for Piano [1927}. Level: Late

Elementary. (D major, common time, allegro vivace). Ternary form, with several simple figures: first, the running start, formed of a shared-hand ascending scale; then the RH plays block staccato chords over LH whole notes. The center section (G major) uses a cakewalk rhythm as transition, and a staccato LH melody against offbeat RH chords.

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Page 27 Canoeing, Op. 119, No. 3, in From Six to Twelve: A Suite for Piano [1927]. Level: Late Intermediate. (C major, 6/8, tranquillo e sempre legato). Through-composed. Flowing 8th note arpeggios and melody notes alternate between hands, simulating the dip of the paddle on each side of the canoe. Secondary dominants, a temporary key change, and register shifts provide color and a few rocky places in the flowing stream. Piano Music, intro. Glickman, No. 10 in the Women Composers Series, (Da Capo Press, 1982). This wonderful collection of virtuoso works was unfortunately out of print by 1997. However, it is still available in many libraries, and contains the following works, many of which are available as single works or in other collections: Op. 4, Op. 6, Op. 15/1-4, Op. 28/1-3, Op. 60, Op. 81, Op. 87, Op. 107, Op. 108, Op. 116, and Op. 128/1-3. Excellent descriptions in Introduction. ANTHOLOGIES: See Single Works and Collections for most descriptions. Album of American Piano Music from the Civil War through World War I, ed. Dubal (International, 1995). Dreaming, Op. 15/3. The American Book for the Piano, ed. William Deguire (Galaxy, 1975). Waltz Op. 36/3. American Keyboard Music 1866 through 1910, ed. S.Glickman, Vol. 4 of Three Centuries of American Music, gen. eds. Martha Furman Schleifer and Sam Dennison (G.K.Hall, 1990). Les Reves de

Columbine, Op. 65/1-3.

American Women Composers: Piano Music from 1865 to 1915, ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1990).

Dreaming Op. 15/3 and Sous les Étoiles Op. 65/4:

At the Piano with Women Composers, ed. Hinson (Alfred, 1990). Promenade and Waltz Op. 25/1,

3; Scottish Legend Op. 54/1.

The Bicentennial Collection of American Keyboard Music, ed. Edward Gold (MacAfee, 1975).

Scottish Legend Op. 54/1.

Great Women Composers, ed. Gail Smith (Pacific, MO: Creative Keyboard Publications/Mel Bay, 1996). Twenty-seven keyboard compositions by twelve women, including four by Beach: Op. 64/3-4, Op. 92/2, and Op. 106. Exiles, Op. 64/3, from Four Eskimo Pieces. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (F major, 3/4, lento con amore, 2 pp). The sweetly plaintive melody is reminiscent of Dvorak’s “Going Home.” Occasional shifts in register, some chromatic harmonies for contrast and development. With Dog-teams, Op. 64/4, from Four Eskimo Pieces. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (D major, common time- 2/4, maestoso/presto ma non troppo, 4 pp). Thin texture, continuous staccato 8th notes, repeated tones and half-step slurs give this piece a breathless, racing character. Tempo and accidentals make it more difficult than it looks. The Old Chapel By Moonlight, Op. 106. Late Intermediate. (A-flat major, 4/4, grave, 3 pp). The ghostly atmosphere of an ancient, dilapidated church

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Page 28 is created by ppp and legatissimo markings, sliding chromatic chords with suspensions, chorale phrases, and bell tones of octaves and fifths. On the final page, a sostenuto tonic pedal on a third stave tolls under the bell effects and the hymn. Historical Anthology of Music by Women, ed. Briscoe (Indiana University Press, 1987). A Hermit

Thrush at Morn, Op. 92/2.

Masters of American Piano Music, ed. Hinson (Alfred 4603). In Autumn Op. 15/1. Nineteenth-Century American Piano Music, sel. Gillespie (Dover, 1978). Fireflies and Dreaming Op. 15/3-4. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 6, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall,

1999). A Hermit Thrush at Morn and A Hermit Thrush at Eve, Op. 92/1-2.

LISTED but not found in print: Nocturne Op. 107 (J.Church), cited in Hinson’s Guide, 3rd edition.

SOURCES: Ammer, Baker, Boenke, Borroff, Block, B&NB, B&T, ClagAm, ClagH, Cohen, Dubal, Ebel, Elson, Friskin, FRK, Fuller, G&G, Gilbert, Gillespie, Gordon, Grove, GroveAm, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Hutcheson, Jezic, Johnson, Kirby, KOM, Laurence, Mac, Magrath, Meggett, MGG, MLA, N-B, Pendle, S&S, Stern, scores

BEEKHUIS, Hanna b. Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, Sep 24, 1889-d. Bloemendaal, the Netherlands, Feb 26, 1980 Dutch composer and pianist Hanna Beekhuis studied piano first with her mother, then with Dirk Schafer in Amersterdam and Bernhard Stavenhagen at the Geneva Conservatory. From 1908 to 1911, she studied at the Cologne Conservatory under Uzielli, Strasser, and Bolsche. Her teachers in composition included Peter van Anrooy, Barblan, and the conductor Frits Schuurman. Her travels in Corsica, Catalonia, and Morocco influenced her compositional style. Beekhuis composed chamber and orchestral pieces, many works for voices and instruments, and a few pieces for piano. During the war, she lived in Zurich, where many of her compositions were performed. SINGLE WORKS:

Corsica, Zee en Rotsen (Amersterdam: Donemus, 1949). Level: Late Intermediate. (No key signature, 3/2 and 2/2, tranquillo, 4 pp). A seascape tone-painting of the many moods and colors of the sunset at Corsica. Widely spaced major chords evoke serenity and golden light; over them, a queasy little motif fashioned from an augmented triad flickers with dissonance, while a slowly-spiraling figure suggests shifting, murky blue-green depths. Though there is no feeling of meter,

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Page 29 there is a definite sensation of motion, sometimes swelling and rocking, sometimes surging and splashing. Throughout, the harmony is non-functional; shifting chords serve as the background for brief chromatic outbursts by solo voices. The entire range of the piano is used. Frequent accidentals, tricky rhythms, and clef changes make the work harder to read than it is to play, but musically, it will repay

study by the student interested in twentieth-century sounds. Although this is an oversized, spiral-bound manuscript edition, it is not difficult to read. Oude Sage (Donemus, 1949). Level: Early Advanced. (D, 2/2–3/2, 4 pp). Facsimile manuscript. A 20th

c. setting of an old tune, opening with a trumpet fanfare. Strongly tonal, with modal borrowing of

chords, shifting meters and registers, many dynamic contrasts, and some dissonance. Center molto agitato section is written in 2/4 and 3/4. Idiomatic and dramatic, with a well-set melody supported by good part writing and occasional lush rolled chords; would work well orchestrated for concert band.

SOURCES: A-Z, Boenke, Cohen, Heinrich, KOM

BEIJERMAN, Jeanne

—see BEYERMAN-WALRAVEN, Jeanne BENAUT, Mademoiselle (var. Benault)

b. France, 1778-d.?

Mademoiselle Benaut, whose first name is unknown, was a child prodigy who lived with her teacher, M. Benaut, in revolutionary Paris. An abbé, M.Benaut was composed works for the organ, harpsichord, and piano, and was the maitre de clavecin at the royal abbey of Montmartre.33 On the title pages of two of her four volumes of keyboard airs and variations, Mlle Benaut is described as a pensioner at the Royal des Dames de Bon Soucours priory. Possibly, like many upper and middle class young women of the time, she was sent to a convent at a tender age, to remain until her first Communion. Convents were abolished in 1790, and no further biographical information is available about this young girl, who may have fled the country or perhaps perished in the political struggles. In 1788, when Mlle Benaut was nine years old, her first two keyboard collections were published. Each fifteen-page set includes three popular airs of the time, each with three to six variations. Her extant works also include two organ works, a Magnificat and Piece d’orgue, books 1–9, dedicated to Mme de Schodt. All of her compositions are located in the Bibliotèque Nationale, Paris.34

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Page 30 ANTHOLOGIES:

Eighteenth Century French and English Music for the Harpsichord by Benaut, Edelmann, Hardin, Savage, Turner, ed. Martha Asti (Hildegard, 1998).

Air de Nina avec Six Variations (from Recueil d’Airs avec Variations Op. 2, ca 1787). Level: Late

Intermediate. (F major, 3/4, larghetto, 8 pp). Dedicated to Mme la Presidente de Fleurieu, and sold by the nine-year-old composer in her home (score preface). The theme is from the opera Nina, probably composed by Nicolas Dalrayac in 1786.35 A 36-bar theme in charmingly uneven phrases undergoes textural variations in each hand: neighboring-tone eighth notes, broken-chord triplets, an offset, syncopated melody, and a 16th note Alberti bass. Tempo, theme length, and key remain constant throughout. Although included in an anthology for harpsichord, the piece is delightful on the piano. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 3, series eds. Sylvia Glickman and Martha Furman Schleifer (New York: O.K.Hall, 1998).

Air de L’Amitié a I’épreuve avec cinq variations., pref. essay by Collette S. Ripley. Level: Mid

Intermediate. (F major, in 2, allegro moderate, 10 pp). Theme and six variations on an operatic duet from Grétry’s 1786 opera of the same name, “Friendship put to the test” (score preface). The folk-like melody, a foreshadowing of Papageno’s arias in the Magic Flute, uses the diatonic harmony and thin two-voice texture typical of the era. Changes rung on the accompaniment patterns include broken chords, melodic embellishments (especially passing tones), Alberti basses, progressively faster subdivisions, and a thicker texture for the final variation. A simple, attractive introduction to late 18th c. keyboard figurations; either harpsichord or piano is appropriate. It is likely that the child had access to an early pianoforte, and dynamic markings indicated in another collection may indicate use of a piano.

SOURCES: Cohen, Eitner, G&F, H&H, Heinrich, Jackson, Ripley, scores

BENDA, Juliane —see REICHARDT, Berhardine Juliane BERGERSEN, Marie Christine b. Chicago, IL, May 15, 1894—d. Binghamton, NY, November 29, 1989 American composer and pianist Marie Bergersen was born to Louis Bernhardt Bergersen, a lawyer born in Norway, and Mary Letitia Cox from Missouri, of British and Cherokee heritage. Marie was systematically exposed to music even before she was born: when her mother learned of her pregnancy, she paid Louise Robyn, a young neighbor who later became a famous teacher, to play daily in their home. At the age of three, Marie was apprenticed to Miss Robyn, thereafter receiving a music lesson every day of the year except on Christmas

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Page 31 and her birthday. She studied composition with Adolf Weidig at the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago, and by her late teens already had a reputation as a fine pianist, musician, and composer. In 1913, after the Board of Examiners heard her Theme and Variations for Piano, Bergersen became the only student ever admitted to the Viennese Imperial Conservatory by acclamation. At the onset of World War I, she fled Vienna, returning to the United States and marrying Raymon Borroff, the son of a well- known singer. From 1917-1923 Bergersen gave a special series of concerts in Chicago and New York demonstrating a unique electromagnetic instrument called the choralcelo. From 1931 on, she was prominent in show business circles as Marie Baldwin, managing and performing with the Major Bowes Amateur Hour. From the early 1940s until her retirement in 1951, she was a composer and organist for NBC in Chicago. Bergersen was equally adept at all styles of music, and Rachmaninoff believed her to be

the best sight-reader in the United States. She is credited with writing over a thousand arrangements in many styles, as well as a good deal of vocal and keyboard music, most of which is unfortunately lost. She was the mother of Edith Borroff, a respected musicologist and composer, and died in Binghamton, New York at the age of 95.36 SINGLE WORKS:

Three Silhouettes [1911] (Hildegard, GKH reprint). Level: Early Advanced. A suite of three works; may be performed separately. Original and very pianistic, with remarkable harmonies for their time.

I. Molto moderato (C minor, 3/4, 4 pp). Four sections, ABCA, each about sixteen measures long. Bold strokes of texture and harmonic color, whole-tone scales. Romantic espressivo in first section contrasts strongly with the faint, rapidly fluttering fifths in second section.

II. Allegretto ma piacere (C# minor, 3/4, 5 pp). ABA form. In the main theme, a brief espressivo motive (not unlike the young Tristan) is offset by scherzando chirps. The piu mosso center section features a LH melody accented by rapid RH chords on offbeats.

III. Vivace (E minor, 2/4, 4 pp). ABA plus codetta. Sprightly rhythms and fresh harmonies in a playful

dance. B section has fluttering RH quadruplets against LH triplets in an ascending whole-tone scale. ANTHOLOGIES:

Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 6; series eds. Glickman and Martha Schleifer (G.K.Hall, 1999). Three Silhouettes, above.

SOURCES: Cohen, Borroff, H&H

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Page 32 BERGH, Gertrude van den bap. Cologne, Jan 21, 1793—d. The Hague, Sep 10, 1840 Gertrude van den Bergh, a child prodigy, was one of the few nineteenth century Dutch women to receive recognition during and after her lifetime. As a child, she had a harpsichord sonata published, and she and her younger sister gave concerts to an enthusiastic public. Van den Bergh, who studied piano with Ries and composition with Burgmüller, was especially renowned for her Beethoven interpretations. She was one of the earliest Dutch musicians to show a renewed interest in J.S.Bach, one of the first women choral conductors in the Netherlands, and the first Dutch woman to publish a theory manual, her Principes de musique (c. 1830). Although she ended her performing career early, many famous performers visited her, including Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, and Mendelssohn. Van den Bergh supported herself by giving piano and voice lessons at the rate of two guilders per lesson. In 1830, she was one of only thirteen European musicians received in the prestigious Association for the Advancement of Music, and she remained the only woman to achieve this signal honor until Clara Schumann’s election to the group in 1854. On September 10, 1840, after dreadful suffering, she died of breast cancer. She composed songs, chamber music, and works for piano, but only seven of her compositions are extant, and the Lied for piano is her only keyboard work in modern edition.37 ANTHOLOGIES:

Women Composers: Music through the Ages, Vol. 3, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall & Co., 1998). Lied für Piano-forte [ca.1832], ed. Helen Metzelaar. Level: Mid/Late Intermediate. (E major, 12/8, andante, 6 pp). The first “Lied ohne Worte” written in the Netherlands (score preface), this is a lovely example of the genre: a graceful, singing melody perfectly partnered by gently rippling bass arpeggios, with shared chords in the middle for the alto and tenor. In ABA form, the texture and wistful mood remain constant throughout. Some bold harmonic effects remind of Schubert and Fanny Hensel. An excellent addition to the early nineteenth century repertoire.

SOURCES: grovemusic, S&S

BEYER, Johanna Magdalena b. Leipzig, Jul 11, 1888—d. New York, Jan 9, 1944 After studying piano and music theory in Germany, Beyer came to America in 1924 and studied at the David Mannes School in NewYork, receiving a teacher’s certificate in 1928. She studied with Dane Rudyar, Ruth Crawford, Charles Seeger, and Henry Cowell, and acted as secretary for Cowell during his 1937-41 prison term in San Quentin. Beyer’s over fifty works include chamber music for

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Page 33 string, percussion, and wind ensembles as well as piano music. However, her music was largely ignored, even by the experimental music community, and received few performances. The piano music below, which dates from the early 1930s and shows the influence of Crawford and Cowell, was published fifty years after her death.38 SINGLE WORKS:

Bees, ed. Larry Polansky (Frog Peak Music, 1994). Level: Late Intermediate. (6/8, as fast as possible, 2 pp). Chromatic scales and dissonant double trills in the center of the keyboard, with crescendos and diminuendos, make these bees hum, buzz, and fly around, eventually disappearing into thin air. Most of the piece is piano or softer in this light-hearted tone-painting for the adventurous student. Dissonant Counterpoint [1931–34], ed. David Fuqua (Lebanon, NH: Frog Peak Music, 1996). Level:

Mid-Intermediate to Advanced. Eight brief atonal pieces, mainly in two-voice counterpoint. Demanding rhythms, articulations, and accidentals; unremitting dissonance, as in 12-tone pieces; occasional tone clusters; frequent hand crossings and changes of clef and register. Nos IV and VIII (intermediate):

plausible introductions to 20th c. dissonance, moving in whole and half notes, as in old organ preludes. The other six are much faster, with many meter and tempo changes, and present serious challenges to pianist and listener. Metronome markings by the composer’s; facsimiles of the original manuscript are included. (Note: In this edition, accidentals affect only the notes they immediately precede). No. 1. Level: Early Advanced. (Eighth note=132, 1 pp). Many articulation contrasts. Metric values, though unmarked, vary from 1/4-2/4-3/8. No. 11. Level: Advanced. (Various meters, eighth note=96, 2 pp). Many dynamic contrasts and tempo changes. No. III. Level: Advanced. (In 4, quarter note=88, 3 pp). Wide, thick chords in opening section. No. IV. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (Half note=56, 1 pp). Progressively wider and narrower intervals, with arched dynamics to match, starting at pp, increasing to forte, and dying back to ppp. The tonal range is small, and in the center of the keyboard: at the widest point, upper and lower voices are only two and a half octaves apart; most of the time, less than an octave separates them. No. V. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (2/4, quarter note=96, 2 pp). Much hand crossing, sharing of registers, and register changes. Irregular subdivisions of the beat avoid metrical feeling. No. VI. Level: Early Advanced. (2/4, quarter note=60, 2 pp). Four-part “chorale” writing, with theme briefly developed in standard contrapuntal fashion. No. VII. Level: Advanced. (3/4, quarter note=120, 3 pp). Animated, wide range, many contrasts in articulation and dynamics.

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Page 34 No. VIII. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (3/2, espressivo, half note=56, 2 pp). A retrograde canon, played piano throughout.

SOURCES: Baker, Boenke, Cohen, grovemusic, H&H

BEYERMAN-WALRAVEN, Jeanne (var. Beijerman; née Walraven) b. Semarang, Indonesia, Jun 14, 1878—d. Arnhem, Holland, Sep 20, 1969 Dutch pianist and composer Jeanne Walraven first studied piano with her mother. At the Hague, she privately studied harmony and composition with F. E.A.Koeberg. She moved to Amersterdam in 1911, after marrying Dr. Th. Beyerman. Her early compositions were in the late-Romantic tradition of Mahler, Franck and Bruckner, but later works showed the influences of Schoenberg and modern French expressionist music.39 Beyerman-Walraven composed works for orchestra, voice, chamber, and piano. SINGLE WORKS:

Andante Espressivo con Molto Emozione (Broekmans & Van Poppel, 1950). Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (Changing meters and keys, 6 pp). Atonal, non-structural harmony, with many accidentals, continual meter and tempo changes, tricky rhythms, and a plethora of expressive markings. Full of passionate dissonances and dramatic gestures, it is an intriguing challenge, and not a work for the faint-hearted, but. Koraal (for organ or piano) (Broekmans & van Poppel, 1911). Level: Mid-Intermediate. (D major, 4/4, lento, 2 pp). Sixteen measures in length, simple song form. A brief chorale moving with magisterial serenity in two-bar phrases and balanced periods. Advanced chromaticism; themes moving down by thirds. Throughout, RH plays thick block chords over an octave stepwise bass.

SOURCES: Cohen, H&H, Heinrich, KOM, S&S

BIGOT DE MOROGUES, Marie (née Kiéné) b. Colmar, Alsace, France, Mar 3, 1786—d. Paris, Sep 16, 1820 Daughter of a professional violinist and a pianist, in 1804 virtuoso harpsichordist and pianist Marie Kiéné married Paul Bigot, a French Huguenot from Berlin. They moved to Vienna, where her husband was librarian to Count Andreas Rasumovsky, and it was there that she met Haydn, Salieri, Cherubini, and Beethoven, and gave piano lessons to the eight-year old Franz Schubert. Beethoven encouraged and taught her, and considered her one of his best

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Page 35 interpreters. Haydn, after hearing her play one of his compositions, said “Oh! my dear child, it is not I who wrote that piece but you who composed it!”40 In 1809, the Bigots moved to Paris, where Mme Bigot introduced the works of Beethoven to the city, and they made friends with composers Auber, Cramer, Clementi, Dussek, and Cherubini. After her husband’s capture during the Russian campaign of 1812, she spent the rest of her short life teaching to support her two children; the young Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn were students of hers, for a short time. Bigot’s piano works, published in Vienna and Paris, include a Sonata Opus 1, an Andante with eight variations and caprice, Opus 2, and the Suite d’études. They are sensitive, competent examples of early Romantic writing in Classic forms. COLLECTIONS:

Historical Women Composers for the Piano: Marie Kiéné Bigot de Morogues, ed. Calvert Johnson (Vivace Press, 1992). Sonate in B-flat Major, Opus 1 [1806]. Level: Early Advanced, 3 mvmts, 23 pp. Classical form and textures, Romantic melodies and harmonies, innovative transitions and developments. I: Adagio/Allegro espressivo (B-flat major, in 4, 10 pp). The Adagio ends on a V chord, forming a one-page introduction to the sonata-form Allegro in nearly continuous sixteenth notes. II: Andantino (G minor, 3/4, 3 pp). An arioso in expanded ternary form. Unusually, it ends on an F7 chord, leading straight to movement III:

Rondo (B-flat major, 6/8, allegro, 10 pp). Earlier material is developed. Suite d'études (1818). Level: Late Intermediate to Early Advanced. Six technical etudes, possibly her best composition. Attractive and worthwhile early examples of the genre, like those by Cramer, Chopin, and Clementi, with appealing melodies and less harmonically complex accompaniments than Chopin. Despite the title, there is no unifying scheme of forms or keys, though several seem based on old dance types. Generally ternary in form, with the repeated closing section slightly varied or extended.41 Etude in C minor. Level: Late Intermediate. (3/8, allegro, 3 pp). Rounded binary with repeats. Like a passepied (a fast minuet demanding nimble feet); octaves, closely spaced broken chords and syncopations; many dynamic contrasts. Etude in A minor. Level: Late Intermediate. (2/4, allegretto, 4 pp). Ternary form with middle section in A major. Supple RH needed in continuous sixteenth note texture with rapid ornaments; LH plays legato chord progressions and parallel thirds; balance and control of quiet dynamics required. Etude in C major. Level: Early Advanced. (12/8, presto, 5 pp). An exhilarating, tricky study; can be thought of as a virtuoso gigue. Extended passages of legato neighboring-tone triplets require lightness, supple wrists, and a cool head.

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Page 36 Etude in G major. Level: Late Intermediate. (6/8, allegretto, 3 pp). Similar to a pastorale in movement and mood. Careful articulations, lyricism, and sensitive balance between melody and accompaniment are required. Etude in D major. Level: Advanced. (3/4, presto, 8 pp). Serious technical requirements for playing this etude: The RH scalewise melody expands and contracts over a repeated tone, requiring loose wrist in rotary motion; LH plays a countermelody with pedal points. The study also uses rapid extended scales in parallel tenths, arpeggios, and legato right-hand octaves. Great fun! Etude in A minor. Level: Late Intermediate. (3/8, allegro, 4 pp). Independent LH/RH articulations, RH agility in rotation, smooth chords in LH; codetta contains large intervals in rapid contrary motion.

SOURCES: Baker, Brown, Cohen, Dubal, Ebel, ElsonA, Fetis, Gordon, Grove, H&H, Hinson, Jackson, Laurence, Mac, Meggett, MGG, N-B, Pendle, S&S, Stern, score

BILLINGTON, Elizabeth (née Weichsel(I); later m. Fellisent) b. London, Dec 27, 1765/1768—d. nr. Venice, Aug 25, 1818 Elizabeth Billington, a famous English soprano with a highly colorful and successful career, was renowned for the naturalness and control of her wide-ranged voice, her uncannily accurate intonation, and her tasteful, brilliant ornamentation. Her father, Carl Weichsell, was a German oboist and clarinetist, and her mother was a singer and pupil of J.C.Bach, with whom Billington herself studied. Elizabeth took keyboard lessons from J.S.Schroeter, and as a child appeared in public accompanying her brother, a violinist. Haydn called her “ein grosses Genie” (a great genius); her two sets of keyboard sonatas published before the age of twelve are her only extant compositions.42 In 1783, she married James Billington, a double bass player and her singing teacher, and immediately made her debut in Dublin as Gluck’s Euridice. Later voice lessons were with Mortellari in London and Sacchini in Paris.43 In 1794, two years after the publication of a set of scurrilous Memoirs by James Ridgway, Billington left for Italy with her husband and her brother. Thereafter, she enjoyed an extremely successful career as an opera singer in London and Italy, performing in operas by Bianchi, Paisiello, Paer, and Himmel written especially for her. After the death of her husband, she married a man named Felissent, who reportedly abused her. They separated, then reunited, and in 1818 Billington died at her estate in Italy, “possibly as a result of injuries inflicted on her by Felissent.”44

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Page 37 SINGLE WORKS:

Three Sonatas for Harpsichord or Piano Op. 1 [1775], ed. Barbara Harbach (Vivace Press, 1995). Level: Mid-Intermediate. Sonatas in D, E-flat, and A major, 7–11 pp. in length. Each has two movements, with duple-meter allegros in binary form, and second movements in triple meters (one minuet and trio, two rondos). Written, amazingly, by the eight-year-old Elizabeth, the sonatas show a clear understanding of the textures and forms of their time, with some complexity of rhythm and virtuoso technique. The works abound in energetic triadic melodies, simple but with some ornamentation and occasional irregular phrase lengths. Figuration frequently shifts from broken-chord eighth note triplets to continuous sixteenth notes. The Vivace edition is extremely clear and easy to read, with informative prefaces and helpful ornament charts. Six Sonatas for Harpsichord or Piano Op. 2 [ca. 1778], ed. Harbach (Vivace Press, 1995). Also av. as Six Progressive Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano Forte (Broude Bros Performers’ Facsimile Series). Level: Late Intermediate. Sonatas in G, A, B-flat, E-flat, F, and G major, 8–12 pp. long. Six elegant two-voice compositions in galant style. Each is in two movements, except for Sonata I, which has a brief Pastorale as an added middle movement. First movements (except for II) are in cut time, rounded binary form; sonatas III, IV, and VI contain multiple themes. Second movements are complex rondos in Sonatas I, II and III; the last three sonatas use the variation form of increased rhythmic values (“doubles”). The melodies vary from graceful and galant to folklike and energetic, and use arpeggio patterns, scalar passages, two-measure phrase repetitions, sequences, and a good deal of ornamentation. Alberti basses and broken-chord figures are prominent in the left hand; the harmony consists of primary chords with a few secondary dominants. Dynamics are consistent with the terraced” effects of the time, but articulations and the occasional crescendo seem to indicate the expected use of the pianoforte.

Sonata VI (from Six Progressive Lessons for the Harpsichord or Piano Forte Op. 2), ed. Ursula Rempel

(Hildegard, GKH reprint). See Six Sonatas, ANTHOLOGIES:

Four Keyboard Sonatas by Early English Women Composers, ed. Fortino (Hildegard, 1995). Op. 1/2, Sonata II; see Single Works, above. Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 3; series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall, 1998). Sonata VI ed. Ursula Rempel

SOURCES: Baker, Brown, Cohen, Grove, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Hyde, Jackson, KOM, Meggett, S&S, Stern, scores

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Page 38 BLACKWELL, Mary Edward (née Blackwell, Marion) b. Milwaukee, 1887—d. Sinsinawa, WI, Jan 7, 1987 Marion Blackwell, daughter of Thomas and Julia Britt Blackwell, began piano studies at the age of six with her sister. After graduating from St. John’s Academy in Milwaukee, she entered religious life at Sinsinawa, Wisconsin as a Dominican sister, taking the name Mary Edward. She first taught music in schools in Peoria and Bloomington, Illinois, and at Rosary College in River Forest. Sister Mary Edward continued her own musical studies with Professor Videk at the American Conservatory in Chicago, becoming the first woman (and first religious sister) to received degrees in music and music theory. Between 1921 and 1931, a number of her compositions were published by Clayton Summy and Boston Music. Blackwell then won the American Scholarship, and embarked to Rome for a three-year study of orchestration and symphonic composition with Ottorini Respighi, who later described her work as “very, very sensitive.” After Respighi’s death in 1936, Nadia Boulanger invited Sister Mary Edward to join her studio in Paris, at the École Normale de Musique. There, she met Igor Stravinsky, and developed life- long friendships with both great musicians. In later years, as a faculty member of Rosary College and Edgewood College (Madison), Sister Edward hosted Stravinsky and Boulanger for presentations and workshops. Alliance Publications is now publishing music by Mary Edward Blackwell through the efforts of Anita Smisel, O.P., one of her grateful piano students and the source of this biography. SINGLE WORKS:

Menuet, ed. Anita Smisek (Alliance Publications, Inc., 1996). Level: Mid-Intermediate. (G major, 3/4, moderato, 3 pp). A slightly quirky 20th c. version of the archaic dance, with charactistic rhythms but some harmonic playfulness. The lyric Trio (andante) is in C major. Forthcoming works by Blackwell from Alliance Publications: Rain Song, for soprano, flute, and piano; Hearts, for soprano and piano.

SOURCES: Alliance Publications web page, score

BLAHETKA, Marie Léopoldine b. Guntramsdorf nr. Vienna, Nov 15, 1811—d. Boulogne, Jan 12, 188745 A child prodigy, Blahetka studied piano with her mother, a virtuoso pianist who was herself the daughter of Viennese composer and music publisher Andreas Träg.46 At Beethoven’s suggestion, the five-year old took lessons from Joseph Czerny, and in 1820, at the age of eight, she made a sensational debut in Vienna, playing Beethoven’s Piano Concerto in B-flat major. She later studied piano with Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, and Cibbini-Kozeluch. A contemporary of Clara

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Page 39 Schumann and a pianist of the same rank, Blahetka belonged to Schubert’s circle of friends, and was a member of the Viennese Biedermeier musical world. Her playing was praised by Chopin and Schumann, and she successfully toured as a concert pianist in Germany, the Netherlands, Bohemia, England, and France. She also played the physharmonica, an experimental instrument similar to a reed organ, mounted under the piano keyboard and played simultaneously, with an expression stop controlled by the player’s feet. Blahetka studied composition with Hieronymus Payer and Simon Sechter, writing more than seventy works (nearly all published in her lifetime) for solo piano, piano with orchestra, chamber music, voice (including a Rastlose Liebe and an Ave Maria), and one opera. In 1840, Blahetka moved to Boulogne, where she performed, composed, and taught piano for the remainder of her life. Her virtuoso piano music, reminiscent of both Beethoven and Mendelssohn, explores the singing tone and brilliant upper range of the instrument, and includes polonaises, valses, nocturnes, and many sets of variations. SINGLE WORKS:

Mélodie (Editions Ars Femina, n.d.). Level: Early Advanced. (B major, 12/8, andante cantabile con molto expressione, 3 pp). Lyric and delicate song without words, reminiscent of the Parisian opera ballet. Trills, octaves, and crossed hands add interest. COLLECTIONS:

Marie Leopoldine Blahetka: Music for Piano, ed. Ledeen (Hildegard, 1992). Originality, appeal, and considerable challenges to the pianist are displayed in these virtuoso examples of piano music from mid- 19th c. Paris and Vienna. Variations sur un Theme Original Op. 6. Level: Advanced. (A major, 2/4, allegretto, 9 pp). The lively theme, like an écoissaise, is in two eight-bar sections, repeated, and retains that form throughout the five amusing (and challenging) variations. Var. 3, a Siciliano in A minor, provides a dignified contrast to the brilliance of running figures, rapid ornaments, virtuoso leaps, and arpeggios in the surrounding variations. Polonaise Op. 19. Level: Advanced. (D major, common time, andante, 16 pp). Lengthy introduction, two main alternating ideas, and a coda. The nocturne-like B section has an embellished lyric melody over an arpeggiated bass.

Variations pour le Piano-Forte sur la Cavatine favorite: “Cara deh attendimi” dans l’opera Zelmira de

Rossini. Level: Advanced. (C major, common time, 15 pp). The two-page Adagio introduction in C minor ends with a cadenza into Rossini’s sparkling theme, in rounded binary with repeats. Six variations; the fourth is a series of repeated notes, and the fifth, an adagio, finishes with a cadenza into the sixth, a polonaise (score preface). Souvenirs d’Angleterre Op. 38. Level: Advanced. (B-flat, various tempi, 3/4 and common time, 19 pp). The 4½ pp. introduction and 3 pp. coda

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Page 40 flank the main theme, “God Save the Queen” (“My Country Tis of Thee”) and its several variations. A lovely nocturne-like adagio after the third variation provides a respite from the scintillating pyrotechnics in the rest of the work. Other tunes, including “Rule, Britannia,” make an appearance in the grandioso finale. Designed for performance by solo piano, piano with string quartet, or with orchestral accompaniment, the work uses the entire tonal and dynamic range of the piano. ANTHOLOGIES:

Native and Foreign Virtuosos: Selected Works of Zimmerman, Alkan, Franck, and Contemporaries, Vol.10 of series Piano Music of the Parisian Virtuosos 1810–1860, ed. Jeffrey Kallberg (Garland Publishing, 1993). Facsimile edition.

Rondeaux Élégans sur des Melodies Favorites Allemandes pour le Piano (divises en trois Suites) Op. 37.

Lengthy works requiring stamina and technique commensurate with a Chopin valse brilliante. In each, a lengthy, florid introduction in common time sets the stage, and the curtain rises on splendid pianistic chiffon and lace in the tradition of Chopin and the French opera ballet. Rondeau Elegant No. 1. Level: Late Intermediate. (G major, 3/4, allegretto, 11 pp). The least difficult of the three, with repeated notes in octaves, eighth note scales, and triads picked out in staccato. Rondeau Elegant No. 2. (B-flat, 6/8, allegro, 9 pp). Level: Advanced. A strummed bass supports a caballetta-like melody; later, the hands trade roles. Transitions contain brilliant arpeggios and scales. Rondeau Elegant No. 3. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (E-flat major, 3/4, tempo d’une valse, 11 pp). A leggiero waltz begins with three grace-noted chirps, followed by an arpeggio sweeping up to an appogiatura; then three more chirps, a little shuffling in place, and the step is ready to begin again. In a contrasting section, hands alternate on G minor/major arpeggios.

SOURCES: Baker, Boenke, B&T, ClagS, Cohen, Dubal, Ebel, ElsonA, Fetis, Gordon, grovemusic, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Kehler, KOM, Laurence, Mac, Meggett, MGG, Pendle, S&S, Stern, scores

BOLEN, Grace M. Late 19th c. American No biographical information was available for this ragtime composer. ANTHOLOGIES:

Ragtime Rarities: Complete Original Music for 63 Piano Rags, Tichenor (Dover, 1975) and Ragtimes für Klavier, ed. Kaluza (Furore, 1994).

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Page 41 The Smoky Topaz (March and Two Step) [1901]. Level: Late Intermediate. (A-flat/D-flat, 2/4, tempo di cakewalk, 3 pp). An eight-bar intro (hands in unison at the octave) with a Latin feel opens this light- hearted piece, set in one of the standard rag forms: AABBCC-Interlude-C, with repeats. The sixteen-bar interlude, based on the rhythm of the introduction, is in the relative minor of the Trio (C) section.

SOURCES: Hinson, KOM, score

BON (DIVENEZIA), Anna b. ?Russia, 1739/40—d. after 1767 Anna Bon was one of the few women in the eighteenth century to have her music published during her lifetime, and to be included in important contemporary reference works. She was born into a family of theatrical and musical professionals: her mother, Rosa Ruvinetti, was a comic opera singer, and her father, Girolamo Bon, was an artist, stage designer, director, and lyricist.47 Anna herself played the harpischord, composed, and sang. The family, which seems to have originated in Venice, was hired by many noble patrons, including the Russian court at St. Petersburg, Elector Friedrich August II in Dresden, and Frederick the Great at Potsdam, the same houses which employed Hasse, C.P.E.Bach, Graun, and Quantz. By 1755, the Bons were in Bayreuth at the court of Margrave Friedrich of Brandenburg Culmbach and his wife Wilhelmine, sister of Frederick the Great. In 1762, the entire family moved to the court of Prince Nikolaus von Esterhazy, where Anna’s stay coincided with Haydn’s early years; they must have known knew each other. No records exist of her life after her move to Hildburgshausen and her 1767 marriage to Mongeri, an Italian tenor. Three collections of chamber works comprise her known output, all published during the Bayreuth stay and before Anna was twenty. These are the six flute sonatas, Opus I; the six sonatas for harpsichord Opus II; and Sei divertimenti a

due flauti e basso, Opus III.

COLLECTIONS:

Six Sonatas for Harpsichord or Piano [1757], ed. Barbara Harbach (Vivace Press, 1995). 52pp. Level: Late Intermediate. Challenging, inventive and welcome additions to the rococo repertoire. Six sonatas, three movements each, 6–10 pp. in length. Simple forms, two-voice textures, simple but graceful ornamentation. Triadic/scalar melodies are motivic rather than thematic, with non-melodic basses, one overruling emotion per movement, and very little imitation. Fast movements highlight technical skill, while harmonies in slow movements add to the sweetness and pathos. Sonata I in G Minor. I: Allegro, common time. Graceful, forward-moving, like a movement from a dance suite. Descending scale segments alternate with ascending arpeggios, ending with a trill to an appogiatura. II:

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Page 42 Andantino, common time. Stately and unhurried, opening with a motive in conversation between the hands. III: Allegretto, 3/8. A lively scherzo, with running sixteenths on scales and broken chords accompanied by the merest suggestion of harmony. Sonata II in B-flat Major. I: Allegro non molto, 3/4. A triadic theme set to dotted rhythms, varied with sixteenth note scales; early sonata-allegro form. II: Andante, G minor, 2/4. Closes with three adagio measures of arpeggiated chords. III: Allegro, 2/4. Energetic arpeggios alternate with scales. Sonata III in F major. I: Allegretto, 2/4. Dances along in jig-fashion on dotted figures and sextuplets. II:

Adagio, common time. Augmented sixth chords add expressive color. III: Minuet and trio. Trio is in the parallel minor. Sonata IV in C Major. I: Allegro, 2/4. Rapid galant style. Two and three-voice textures, tremolos, full chords before cadences. II: Largo, 3/4. Melody is doubled in thirds, with occasional four-voice chords. III: Allegro assai. Dashing and attractive melody, altered in the recapitulation. Sonata V in B Minor. I: Allegro moderate, common time. French overture style, with dotted rhythms, dramatic rests, full-voiced chords, and sweeping flourishes on thirty-second notes. II: Adagio non molto, B major, 3/4. The work moves steadily on the quarter-note beat, in a two-voice texture with four-part chords at the beginning of sections and the final cadence. A few dotted rhythms refer to first movement theme. III: Allegro, 2/4. Continuous 16th note figuration over a wide range of the keyboard. Sonata VI in C Major. I: Allegro, common time. Energetic. II: Andante, B-flat, common time. As in first movement, uses LH repeated notes. III: Minuetto con Variazione, 3/4. A sixteen-measure theme is, followed by six melodic variations over an ostinato bass pattern. OTHER AVAILABLE EDITIONS:

Clavier Sonatas Op. 2/5-6 (Editions Ars Femina Nos 40-05 and 40-04) Six Sonatas for Keyboard, Op. II, ed. Hettrick (Hildegard, 1997) 6 Cembalosonaten (1757), ed. Kloft, (facs. ed., Edition Donna, 1991) Sei Senate Per II Cenbalo (sic) /Opera Seconda (Performers’ Facsimiles #PF 152, 1998). Women Composers: Music Through the Ages, Vol. 3, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall, 1998): Sonata II in B-flat major, ed. Fortino.

SOURCES: Boenke, Cohen, Eitner, grovemusic, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Jackson, KOM, scores

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Page 43 BOND, Carrie Minetta Jacobs (var. Jacobs-Bond; née Jacobs) b. Janesville, WI, Aug 11, 1862—d. Hollywood, CA, Dec 28, 1946 American composer and publisher Carrie Bond was a precocious child who played Liszt’s Second Hungarian Rhapsody by ear at the age of nine. Her formal musical training was limited to local teachers, but she showed considerable early talent in illustrating her poems in picture and song, and in promoting her works with influential people. Bond married twice: the first marriage, to a man named E.J.Smith, ended in divorce; then, after six years of marriage to Dr. Frank Bond, she was left a widow. In 1901, the resourceful and energetic Bond formed a publishing company in Chicago, printing over 175 of her own songs. A blend of parlor and art song traditions written mostly to her own texts, her works were characterized by sweet melodies, lilting rhythms, and simple accompaniments. Two of them achieved astronomical success: I Love You Truly sold a million copies, and is still occasionally heard at weddings; A Perfect Day sold an unbelievable eight million copies of sheet music in over sixty editions, over five million recordings, and was a favorite during World War I.48 In 1920, Bond settled in California, where she wrote newspaper articles, helped found the California Federation of Music Clubs, and became friends with a number of movie stars. She published a book of memoirs, The Roads of Melody, and a collection of poems entitled The End of the Road, and continued to publish songs into her eighties. Although most of Bond’s two hundred compositions were songs, a few piano works are in existence. ANTHOLOGIES:

American Women Composers, ed. Glickman (Hildegard, 1990). Also available in American Keyboard Music 1866 Through 1910, ed. Glickman, Vol. 4 of Three Centuries of American Music, gen. eds. Schleifer and Dennison (G.K.Hall, 1990). Rêverie [1902]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (F major, common time, andante canatabile, 3 pp). Dedicated to the popular American pianist, Amy Fay. An appealing melody sings above rolled triads; the left hand gently places a tonic or dominant pedal tone at the beginning of each measure. In the agitato B section, the harmonic rhythm increases to two chords per measure, and the scalar motive is fragmented. The first section returns, with a coda entirely of the rolled triads. Several long trills and three chromatic runs provide a bit of challenge.

SOURCES: Ammer, Baker, B&NB, Borroff, B&T, ClagAm, ClagH, ClagS, Cohen, Fuller, H&H, KOM, Laurence, Mac, Pendle, Stern, score

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Page 44 BONIS, Melanie Hélene (pseud. Mel-Bonis; Mme Albert Domange) b. Paris, Jan 21, 1858—d. Sarcelles, Seine-et-Oise, Mar 18, 1937 As a child, Bonis improvised at the keyboard and made remarkable progress as a pianist. A classmate of Debussy, d’lndy, and Pierné at the Paris Conservatoire, Bonis studied harmony with Ernest Guiraud and organ with César Franck, winning first prize in harmony in 1880. She married in 1883, and spent the next ten years raising her family, then began composing regularly around 1894. Bonis produced over three hundred works, including twenty-two chamber pieces, eleven orchestral works, choral pieces, organ music, songs, and 150 works for solo piano. Her work, generally overlooked, should be included in discussions of the French post-Romantics, all of whom praised her music warmly: Franck, Pierné, d’lndy, Debussy, and Saint-Saëns. Bonis had a gift for melody and movement, and used the entire range of the keyboard in her wonderfully idiomatic and well-written pieces. Her piano works are frequently in well-constructed binary forms, with several themes and a development section in a related key. Bonis’ adventurous harmonic palette includes seventh chords, added-note and suspended chords, sliding harmonies over pedal tones, as well as occasional pentatonic and whole-tone scale fragments. Real dissonances are rare, however, and the general effect is that of an Impressionist painting: a wash of shifting colors and movement, suggestions of story, shape, and substance. SINGLE WORKS:

Mélisande (Editions Henry Lemoine, 1993). Level: Early Advanced. (D-flat major, 2/4, andantino, 3 pp). Beautiful watercolor miniature; a brief but lovely Impressionistic work. Shifting 32nd note arpeggios between the hands surround the unhurried eighth note melody. The recurring motif of a rising third is paired with undulating seconds; 7th, 9th, and 11 th chords, altered mediants and occasional whole tone fragments add color. A “watery” piece not unlike Reflets dans l’eau or Jardins sous la pluie, it closes with eleven chorale-like measures of 9th chords. COLLECTIONS:

17 Pieces Pour Piano (Editions Henry Lemoine, 1987). Nineteen works, ranging from mid- intermediate to advanced level. L’escarpolette (Valse) [Little dancing slipper]. Level: Late Intermediate. (G major, 3/4, mouvement modéré de valse, 5 pp). A breathlessly gay Viennese waltz; swirling two-note slurs lead to an arpeggio, and are balanced by short steps back down. The texture is delicate, with only two or three voices; very often a single note serves as pickup. A more lyric second theme goes through many keys in the development; ascending 8th-note scales accompany a third theme in C major. Barcarolle. Level: Advanced. (E-flat major, 6/8, andantino, 8 pp). ABA form; lovely Impressionist work evoking movement and moods on the water.

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Page 45 Bourée. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (B minor, cut time, allegro, 4 pp). Binary dance with repeats. A modal folk melody accompanied by broken-chord musette-like bass. Gai Printemps [Gay spring, Impromptu]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (F-sharp minor, 3/4, allegro molto, 4 pp). A graceful waltz reminiscent of Chopin, in rounded binary form with two prevalent rhythmic motives. In the first section, delicate and wistful, the sighing motive is in minor mode. The mode changes to the relative major, and the upside-down theme is now joyous and elegant. Texture changes to continuous eighth notes with open-fifth arpeggios, repeated notes, and trills. Menuet. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (A minor, 3/4, allegretto con moto, 5 pp). Binary dance with repeats. Refined hops and mincing staccato steps on eighth note scales, punctuated by full-voiced chords leaping around at cadences. The suave, ornamented trio is in A major. La cathédrale blessée. Level: Advanced. (G-sharp minor, 6/4, grave, majestueux, 6 pp). Ascending scales, harmonized and played over tonic and dominant pedals, evoke sounds of an organ, not unlike Debussy’s “Engulfed Cathedral.” Middle section is in F-sharp minor. Romance sans Paroles [Song without words]. Level: Late Intermediate. (G-flat major, in 4, andantino, 4 pp). In the standard texture for the genre, the lyric theme, a descending pentatonic scale (6-5-3-2-1), appears out of the prevailing arpeggios. LH plays a bass octave at the start of each measure, then crosses over to join in the melody. Sevilliana. Level: Advanced. (E major, 6/8, con moto, 6 pp). A Spanish character piece in ABA form, using typical dance rhythms. B section is in D-flat major. Prelude. Level: Early Advanced. (A-flat major, 12/8, allegro con molto, 4 pp). Lovely romantic melody, in pointillistic fashion: a descending scale in dotted quarters shifts register on each beat. Entire keyboard is used; prevailing texture is a 16th note cloud of seventh-chord arpeggios. Seven bars in the middle are in E major. Le Moustique [The mosquito]. Level: Late Intermediate. (B minor, common time, allegro con moto, 6 pp). Like Rimsky-Korsakov’s “Bumblebee,” this buzzing insect is rarely still, first hopping down the keyboard in bursts of 16th notes, then zooming through trills and turns in the middle of the keyboard. A contrasting piu vivo in staccato eighth notes and dissonant chords provides a rest; perhaps the creature flits out of reach—or stops for a bite. Keys change frequently in a long developmental section, then the theme returns in the parallel major. Mélisande. See Single Works. Marionettes. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (F Major, in 4, allegro molto, 4 pp). A playful piece, with chords marching in a jerky staccato, like Schumann’s “Soldier’s March.” The puppets seem to dance in the contrasting center section. Pavane. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (B minor, common time, poco andante, 3 pp). Dignified binary dance has a measured tread in a

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Page 46 curiously light texture. In close position, an ornamented melody is accompanied by deliberately plucked broken chords. A contrasting section in F-sharp minor moves a bit faster. Ballade. Level: Advanced. (F-sharp minor, 6/8, moderato, 8 pp). LH doubles the main theme; middle section is in D-flat. Changes in tempo, texture, and key illustrate the different sections of this musical tale. Près du ruisseau. Level: Early Advanced. (C-sharp minor, 6/8, presto, 6 pp). Lacy, fragile miniature, in “song without words” texture. Une Flûte Soupire [A sighing flute]. Level: Late Intermediate. (B-flat major, 3/4, moderato, 2 pp. An exquisite early Impressionistic work. The melody descends in fluttering triplets, flirting with whole-tone scales, while the left hand plays calm, wide chords. Salomé. Level: Advanced. (B-flat minor/G-flat major, 2/4–3/4, assez vif, 6 pp). A tonal portrait with modal borrowing and many changes in texture, mood, and rhythms. Valse lente [Slow waltz]. Level: Late Intermediate. (B major, 3/4, trés modéré, 2 pp). Manuscript writing, with larger notes than rest of collection. LH provides both bass and melody in this poignant dance, first striking a bass octave, then crossing over for the chromatic tune. RH plays triads ornamented with grace notes. Au crepuscule [At twilight]. Level: Advanced. (E-flat major, common time, quasi andante, 4 pp). Fluttering 16th-notes in the background texture are much smaller than normal-size melody tones. A subdued song-without-words, with many LH crossings into the treble. Miocheries: 14 scenes enfantines [Mioche=urchin, kiddie, or tot]. (Max Eschig, 1928). Level: Late Elementary to Mid-Intermediate. Fourteen brief character pieces for children, in easy keys and a variety of tempos, moods, and meters; 1–2 pp. each. 1920s illustrations accompany each piece: Première

solitude, Air connu, Ronde, Le Moulin, “Fifille” sage, La leçon de solfège, A pas de loups, Patineurs (à roulettes), Croquemitaine, Plutôt une vielle danse française, Joyeux scouts, Piquenique, La toute petite s’endort, and Les noces de Polichinelle.

Scénes Enfantines (Max Eschig, 1912). Level: Early to Mid-Intermediate. Eight short works describing

scenes in a child’s day: Aubade, Joyeux réveil, Cache-cache, Valse lente, Marche militaire, Frère Jacques, Bébé s’endort, and Carillon.

Six Pièces Pour Le Piano (Éditions Henry Lemoine, 1993). Level: Mid/Late Intermediate. Six charming character pieces, with styles ranging from mid-Romantic to early impressionistic. No. 1: Cache-Cache [Hide-and-Seek]. Level: Mid-Intermediate. (G minor, cut time, assez vite, 2 pp). Short bursts of running 16th notes are interrupted by rests and tip-toeing quarter-notes, as the seeker stops to look around and listen for his playmates. Several interpolated phrases (e.g., “No, you can’t catch me!”) and plenty of dynamic contrasts make this piece almost as much fun as the game.

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Nos 2–6: Gai printemps, Le moustique, Romance sans paroles, Marionnettes, and L’escarpolette—see Collections: 17 Pièces Pour Piano. SOURCES: Baker, Boenke, Cohen, Gordon, grovemusic, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, KOM, Laurence, Mac, Meggett, S&S, SCB, Stern, score

BORDEWIJK-ROEPMAN, Johanna (née Suzanna Hendrina Roepman) b. Rotterdam, Aug 4, 1892—d. The Hague, Oct 6/8, 1971 Johanna Bordewijk-Roepman began her compositional career after the age of twenty-five by writing little songs to the pictures in her children’s storybooks. In 1936–37, she took lessons in orchestration with Eduard Flipse, conductor of the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, but she was primarily self- taught. Among her compositions are a one-act opera, Rotonde, and an oratorio, Plato’s Dood, to texts by her husband, Frans Bordewijk, a well-known Dutch novelist. A visit to north Africa inspired her first orchestral suite, The Garden of Allah, and her Piano Sonata won a government prize in 1946. Thereafter, Bordewijk-Roepman received numerous commissions for orchestral, choral and carillon works from the Dutch government and various municipalities. Her music is variously described as eclectic but based on Classic formal principles, with solid construction and logical development; late Romantic in style and characterized by careful instrumentation; and extremely influenced by Impressionism.49 Her piano works include the Sonata, a Concerto, and some incidental pieces. SINGLE WORKS:

Debout, éveille-toi [Standing up, you awaken] (Donemus, 1953). Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (6/8-4/4, berceuse/tranquillo-animato, 7 pp). Facsimile manuscript. In two sections, beginning as a gentle cradle song, then getting gradually louder and faster. Tonal, with many late- Romantic harmonies; neo-classic in style. Impromptu voor Piano (Donemus, 1961). Level: Advanced. (2/4-3/4-6/84/4, maestoso moderato- allegretto-andante-molto lento, 12pp). Tonal, but with shifting tonal centers and many accidentals. Strong jazz feel gives the illusion of improvisation; fragmented themes are more rhythmic and harmonic than melodic, with colors and rhythms reminiscent of both Gershwin and Debussy. Strongly metric, with occasional shifts of meter and beat division. Ninths, elevenths, and added-note chords are used; frequently, there are sequential chromatic triads, and arpeggio octave triplets against block-chord duplets. The work contains ninety-one tempo changes in twelve pages. LISTED but not found in print: Drie dansen (Alsbach) and Sonata (Alsbach, 1943), in Hinson’s Guide, 1st ed.

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SOURCES: Cohen, grovemusic, H&H, Hinsonl, KOM, Meggett, NewGrove, S&S, Stern

BOSMANS, Henriette Hilda b. Amsterdam, Dec 5/6, 1895—d. Amsterdam, Jul 2, 1952 Considered the most talented Dutch woman composer of her time, this concert pianist was the daughter of Henri Bosnians, principal cellist for the Concertgebouw Orchestra, and Sarah Bosnians-Benedicts, a concert pianist who taught at the Amsterdam Conservatory.50 After studying piano with her mother, Bosnians graduated from the Conservatory at seventeen, and went on to an extremely successful career as a soloist and accompanist, including playing for Peter Pears in his Dutch recitals. She studied orchestration and composition with Cornelis Dopper and Willem Pijper, producing many pieces for cello, orchestra, voice, and piano. Bosnians also composed a number of songs on French texts which she performed with Noemie Perugia, a French singer. Her early works were late Romantic in style, but later compositions employed impressionistic and neo-Classic modernisms such as bitonality, mixed meters, parallelism, and quartal harmony. SINGLE WORKS:

Zes Preludes Voor Piano (Donemus, 1952). Spiral bound oversized manuscript, clearly written. Six

mysterious mood pieces sharing a number of characteristics: all are short, in minor keys, with a soprano melody set above block triads, moving inner voices, and triplet figures. The harmony is chromatic but functionally tonal, with modal borrowing and some sliding harmonies for uneasy dissonances. A wide range of the keyboard is used, with a decided fondness for the lowest bass register.

I. Level: Late Intermediate. (F minor, common time, moderate assai, 1 1/2 pp). Mostly pp, with a despondent melody descending an octave and a half.

II. Level: Late Intermediate. (E minor, common time, lento assai, 2 pp). Ghostly octaves in a triplet rhythm evoke Halloween memories of the child’s song, “the worms go in, the worms go out.” Rolled chords and a lengthy fortissimo passage provide drama.

III. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (D minor, common time, agitato, 3 1/2 pp). Rapid, tricky scale passages on eighth note triplets might be the wind blowing in the cracks.

IV. Level: Late Intermediate. (E minor, 5/4, allegretto, 2½ pages.) Like an elfin dance by Grieg.

V. Level: Late Intermediate. (C minor, common time, cantando e dolente, 2 pp). In this lovely arioso, each soprano phrase is punctuated by a bass drone on open fifths.

VI. Level: Advanced. (F-sharp minor, 3/4, presto ma non troppo, 6 pp). The longest and most difficult in the set. A perpetuo moto toccata of

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Page 49 rapidly changing scales in triplets, with occasional octaves, frequent accidentals, and many dynamic changes. The ending is a hair-raising tour-de-force with octaves in both hands. LISTED but not found in print: Vielle Chanson 1948 (Broekmans and Van Poppel, 1950), from Hommage a Willem Pijper, cited in Hinson’s Guide, 3rd ed.

SOURCES: A-Z, Baker, Boenke, Cohen, Gordon, Grove, H&H, Hinson, Johnson, KOM, Laurence, Mac, S&S, Stern

BOULANGER, Lili (née Juliette Marie Olga) b. Paris, Aug 21, 1893—d. Mezy, Yvelines, nr. Paris, Mar 15, 1918 Lili Boulanger, younger sister of the most influential composition teacher of the twentieth century, had regrettably brief life, with impressive accomplishments due to talent, will, and a supportive musical

family. Lili’s mother, a Russian princess, was a singer who came to Paris to study with Ernest Boulanger,

a professor and composer at the Conservatoire. Although Boulanger was forty years her senior, they

married and had three children.51 Left a semi-invalid after severe bronchial pneumonia at the age of

two, Lili was restricted by illness in all her later efforts. In spite of sporadic lessons due to her illness, Lili learned to play piano, violin, cello, and harp, and the precocious child attended classes at the Conservatory with her sister Nadia. Already knowing she wished to be a composer, Boulanger studied privately with Georges Caussade, then at the Paris Conservatoire with Paul Vidal. In 1913, at the age of nineteen, she became the first woman to receive the Premier Grand Prix de Rome, with her cantata Faust et Hélène. Illness and the outbreak of World War I interrupted her stay in Rome. Even though gravely ill, Boulanger continued to work up to the time of her death of tuberculosis at age twenty- four.52 Her more than fifty works include an unfinished opera, sacred and secular choral music, some orchestral and chamber music, songs, etudes, variations, and miscellaneous pieces for piano. Her music

is late Romantic and early Impressionist in style, lyric, imaginative, and strong. Her sister Nadia said of

her, “the beauty of her countenance, at once childlike and wise, is reflected in her work.”53 SINGLE WORKS:

Thème et Variations [1911–1914], ed. Selma Epstein (Chromattica USA Press, n.d.). Also av. as Morceau de piano: Thème et Variations (Schott, 1997). Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (C minor, 3/4, 10 pp). Elegant and beautiful; Boulanger’s largest work for piano (score preface). An eight-measure theme with eight variations and a Finale. Prepared and completed by the pianist Emile Naoumoff.

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Trois Morceaux pour Piano [1914] (G.Schirmer/Hal Leonard, 1979).

I. D’un vieux Jardin [In an old garden]. Level: Late Intermediate. (C-sharp minor, 3/4, espressif, 3 pp). An Impressionistic tone-painting of the dried grasses, brambly borders, old stonework, and overgrown paths in an old garden. Boulanger paints in muted tones, achieving movement and light by avoiding functional harmony: the descending motif wanders from key to key, rarely achieving cadential closure, and tritones, enharmonic spellings, 9th and 11th chords, added-note chords, an absence of leading tones, flatted-seven chords, and occasional whole-tone fragments all add color.

II. D’un Jardin Clair [In a clearing]. Level: Late Intermediate. (B major, 3/4, assez vite, 4 pp). Attractive fragments based on four tones (G-sharp, B, C-sharp, F-sharp) form the melody, with borrowed and added-sixth sliding chords for color. In the second half, hands double the melody at

the octave; a third staff is needed on the final page for pianissimo bell tones in the highest register.

III. Cortège [Procession] [1914]. Level: Late Intermediate/Early Advanced. (B major, 2/4, pas vite, 6 pp). Originally composed for violin or flute and piano. As gay and carefree as Poulenc chanson, this work bubbles along in four-bar phrases and parallel periods, with a light but continuous accompaniment of ascending 16th note arpeggios. There are many subtle contrasts in articulation, tempo and dynamics, but the marking on the third page could serve for the entire piece: “très léger, mais joyeusement.”

ANTHOLOGIES:

The Century of Invention, Part II, ed. Hinson (European American Music, 1996), Frauen Koraponieren, 22 Klavierstücke, ed. Rieger and Walter (Schott, 1992), and Great Women Composers, ed. Smith (Mel Bay, 1996). D’un vieux Jardin (Trois Morceaux, no. 2). Women Composers: Music through the Ages, Vol. 6, series eds. Glickman and Schleifer (G.K.Hall, 1999). Trois Morceaux. See above.

SOURCES: Ammer, A-Z, Baker, Boenke, ClagS, Cohen, FRK, Gillespie, Gordon, Grove, HAMW, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Hutcheson, Jezic, Johnson, Kirby, KOM, Laurence, Mac, Magrath, Meggett, MGG, N-B, Pendle, SCB, S&S, Stern, scores

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Page 51 BRANSCOMBE, Gena (var. Gina; Mrs. John F.Tenney/Tenny) b. Picton, Ontario, Nov 4, 1881—d. New York, Jul 26, 1977 Canadian/American composer and conductor Gena Branscombe began composing before she was five years old. At age fifteen, she won a scholarship to the Chicago Musical College, where for seven years she studied piano with Rudolph Ganz and composition with Felix Borowski, twice winning the gold medal for composition. After teaching at the College and at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington, Branscombe studied composition with Humperdinck in Berlin for one year. On returning home, she married John F.Tenney, a lawyer, and they had four daughters, one of whom died very young. Branscombe studied conducting in New York with Warren Erb, Frank Damrosch, Albert Stoessel, and Chalmers Clifton, and was soon in widespread demand as a conductor of choirs and women’s orchestras. In 1934, she founded the Branscombe Chorale, a women’s choir, which she led for twenty years in standard works as well as compositions by herself and other women. Best known for her choral music, she published over 150 songs, as well as pieces for orchestra, chamber groups, and around thirty short works for piano, continuing to compose for commissions into her 90s. She was active in the American Society of Women Composers and the New York State Federation of Women’s Clubs, and received awards prizes from many organizations, including the League of American Pen Women, the Golden Rule Foundation, and an honorary M.A. from Whitman College. Goss, in Modern Music-Makers, quotes Branscombe: “Having a home, a husband and children to love and serve brings enrichment of life to a woman. But being a part of the world’s work in humbly serving and loving the illumined force which is music brings fulfillment.”54

LISTED but not found in print: Cavalcade and Valse-Caprice [1902], in The Canadian Musical Heritage:

Piano Music, Vol. 2, ed. Elaine Keillor (Ottawa, 1983), cited in Hinson’s Guide, 3rd ed.

SOURCES: Ammer, Anderson, Baker, B&NB, Boenke, B&T, ClagAm, ClagH, ClagS, Cohen, ElsonA, Fuller, Goss, Grove, Grove Am, H&H, Heinrich, Hinson, Laurence, Mac, Meggett, NewGrove, Pendle, S&S, Skowronski, Stern

BRIGHT, Dora Estella (Mrs. Wyndham Knatchbull) b. Sheffield, England, Aug 16, 1863—d. Somerset, England, Nov 16, 1951 Dora Bright, an English composer and pianist, was a member of “The Party,” a group of young composers at the London Royal Academy of Music in the late 19th century. She entered the Academy at the age of seventeen and studied piano with Walter MacFarren and composition with Ebenezer Prout. In 1884, Bright won the Potter Exhibition; later, her Fantasia in G Minor for piano and

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