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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation.

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Supercritical Coal Fired Power Plants Supercritical Coal Fired Power Plants
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.
Babcock Borsig Power GmbH
Siemens AG KWU
Techno - Economic Seminar
for
National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.
Central Electricity Authority
New Delhi, India
October 21, 1999
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Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG KWU
Supercritical Coal Fired Power Plants Supercritical Coal Fired Power Plants
Techno - Economic Seminar
(Delhi, 21 October 1999)
Author No. Topic
Inauguration
BHEL 1.1 An overview of technical collaboration with BBP/Siemens
BBP 1.2 Babcock Borsig Power - An introduction
Technical Session I
Siemens 2.0 Once Through Technology:
- Principle of once-through technology
- Operation of BENSON boilers
BBP 3.0 Comparison of subcritical and supercritical units in view of:
- efficiency (coal savings, reduction of emission etc.)
- availability
- feedwater treatment
- investment costs
- Trends and tendency of the international market towards once through technology
Technical Session II
BHEL 3.1 Technical aspects of the collaboration and BHELs preparedness for once-through Boilers
BHEL 3.2 Design and manufacturing of steam turbines for supercritical Parameters (see folder BHEL)
BBP 4.0 Once-through boiler design & operation experiences, reference plants
BBP 5.0 Firing system
Technical Session III
BBP 6.0 Supercritical boiler concept of BBP
BBP 7.0 Operation & maintenance of once-through boilers based on experiences gained in South Africa
Table of Contents Table of Contents
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1.1 1.1 An An Overview Overview of technical collaboration with of technical collaboration with
BBP / BBP / Siemens Siemens
BHEL
BHEL
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1.2 Babcock Borsig Power - An introduction 1.2 Babcock Borsig Power - An introduction
The merger units four of the most renowned companies in the energy and environmental technologies to
a new world leading group Babcock Borsig Power.
The new group has an order backlog of approx. seven billion DM, a sales of nearly four billion DM and
worldwide approx. 11,000 employees.
More than a century`s worth of exerience an know-how in the engineering of boilers and environmental
systems has been brought together to provide customers with a wide range of products and services.
Our business partners, who have learned to know an value the quality and service offered by individual
companies within the group, can assure that the new Babcock Borsig Power will more than satisfy their
current expectation. We will however, guarantee continuity but can also now offer our customers the
increased benefits which will result from bringing together of the competence and know-how provided by
each individual company.
Worldwide the new company will consist of a wide spectrum of subsidiaries and affiliated companies which
will provide networked sales, engineering, project management, manufacturing and servicing skills. We will
be wherever our customers need us.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG KWU
Inuaguration Inuaguration
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Inauguration Inauguration
Babcock Borsig Babcock Borsig Power - An Power - An Introduction Introduction
In Babcock Borsig Power (BBP) four of the most renowned companies in the energy and
environmental technologies are united.
Group order backlog of seven billion DM (15,400 CrRs) , sales of 4 billion DM (8,800 CrRs) ,
approx. 11,000 employees
More than 100 years of experience and know-how in boiler & environmental technology
Wide range of products and services with outstanding quality by bringing together
competence and know-how provided by each individual company
Wide spectrum of subsidiaries and affiliated companies which will provide networked
sales, engineering, project management, manufacturing and service
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Group Group Structure Structure
Babcock Borsig AG
Other related companies: Borsig, Oberflchentechnik, Balcke-Drr Thermal Engineering,
Balcke-Drr Prozetechnik, Industrierohrleitungsbau, Precismeca
Power transmission
engineering
A. Friedrich Flender
Flender-
Graffenstaden
Flender-Himmelwerk
Flender ESAT
Flender Gu
Loher
Mechanical
engineering
Moenus
Babcock Textilmaschinen
Sucker-Mller- Hacoba
Krantz Textiltechnik
Babcock-BSH
Schumag
Vits
Turbo-Lufttechnik
Neumag
Power plant
engineering
Babcock Borsig Power
Babcock Steinmller
Oberhausen
Babcock Steinmller
Gummersbach
Babcock Borsig Service
AE Energietechnik
DB Power Systems
DB Tangshan Boiler
Company
DB Riley
Thomassen International
IDEA
Power systems
Babcock Proze-
automation
Nordex
Tuma Turbomach
Babcock-Omnical
Building
technologies
Krantz-TKT
Lufthansa Gebude-
management Holding
Babcock Dienstleistungen
Krantz-TKT
Cleanroom Technology
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BABCOCK BORSIG POWER GMBH
Steam generators
Utility steam generators
Industrial boilers
Waste heat boilers (HRSG)
Special boilers
Fluidized bed technologies
Firing systems
Coal mills and pulverizing equipment
Ash handling systems
Fluidized bed coal drying plants
Dampers for air and flue gas systems
Rehabilitation / repowering
Steam turbines
Turnkey plants
Combined cycle power plants
Industrial power plants
Cogeneration plants
Process steam generating plants
Biomass fired power plants
Total plant service
Piping
Manufacturing
Erection and commissioning
Operation and maintenance
Spare parts
Personnel, tools and equipment
Opencast mining equipment service
Demolition, cleaning and disposal
Companies included: Babcock Kraftwerkstechnik, L. & C. Steinmller, Dt. Babcock Anlagen, NEM and AE Energietechnik
Waste technology and residue
treatment
Municipal waste
Hazardous waste
Sewage sludge
Industrial waste
Flue gas cleaning
Power plants
Waste-to-energy plants
Industry
Process plant technology
Waste heat systems
Coal gasification
Water treatment plants
Drinking water
Process water
Industrial waste water
Waste tip seepage
Municipal sewage plants
Biological waste treatment
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Company Structure of the Group Company Structure of the Group
BABCOCK BORSIG POWER BABCOCK BORSIG POWER GMBH GMBH
Babcock
Steinmller
Oberhausen
Babcock
Steinmller
Oberhausen
Babcock Borsig Service
Meeraner
Dampfkesselbau
DB Riley Energy
DB Tangshan
Boiler Company
L. & C. Steinmller
(Africa)
DB Power Systems
Babcock
Steinmller
Gummersbach
Babcock
Steinmller
Gummersbach
DBEMA Energa y
Medio Ambiente
DB Riley Environment
Steinmller Rompf
Wassertechnik
AE
Energietechnik
AE
Energietechnik
AE Industrieservice
Duro Dakovic
CT Environnement
Mitteldeutsche
Feuerungs-Union
CT Umwelttechnik
NEM
NEM
Vogt NEM
NEM Power Systems
Other related companies: IDEA, Thomassen International
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Power Generation Equipment and Plants Power Generation Equipment and Plants
Main Business Activities:
u Utility steam generators
u Fluidized bed steam generators
u Rehabilitations
u Combined cycle power plants
u Conventional power plants
u Power plants with FBC
u Industrial boilers and plants
u Fluidized bed coal drying plants
u Firing systems
u Ash handling systems
u Waste heat boilers (HRSG)
u Steam turbines
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Personnel Structure of the Group Personnel Structure of the Group
BABCOCK BORSIG POWER BABCOCK BORSIG POWER GMBH GMBH
Babcock
Steinmller
Oberhausen
GmbH, Germany
Board of Directors :
Ludger Kramer
(Chairman)
Klaus Dieter Rennert
Dr. Michael Fbi
Other related companies: IDEA, Thomassen International
Board of Directors: Prof. Dr.- Ing. Klaus G. Lederer (Chairman)
Siegfried Kostrzewa (Dep. Chairman),
Hans Kathage, Heino Martin
Babcock
Steinmller
Gummersbach
GmbH, Germany
Board of Directors :
Heino Martin
(Chairman)
Arnfred Kulenkampff
AE
Energietechnik
GmbH, Austria
Board of Directors :
Claus Brinkmann
(Chairman)
Dr. Heinz Frhauf
Wolfgang Schwarzgruber
NEM b.v.,
Netherland
Board of Directors :
Ulrich Premel
Gert Spruijtenburg
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1999 Foundation of BABCOCK BORSIG POWER GMBH
1994 lignite fired Benson Boiler for 2 x 930 MW Units - Lippendorf P.P.
1993 The Power Plant Award for most advanced Heat and Power Plant
1992 first supercritical lignite fired Benson Boiler for 2 x 496 MW Units - Schkopau P.P.
1990 bituminous coal fired supercritical Benson Boiler for 1 x 550 MW Unit - Staudinger P.P.
1987 bituminous coal fired supercritical Benson Boiler with for 910 MW Units - Heyden P.P
1979 lignite fired Benson Boiler for 600 MW Unit - Yuan Bao Shan P.P. China
1972 lignite fired Benson Boiler for 2 x 630 MW Unit G + H - Weisweiler P.P.
1969 bituminous coal fired Benson Boiler for 6 x 500 MW Power Plant - Kriel/ South Africa
1965 first German gas tight welded membran wall - Benson Boiler
1963 first 1000 t/h Benson Boiler - 300 MW Unit in Germany
1938 first Benson Boiler in Germany
1928 first slag tap - fired boiler world wide
1898 foundation of Deutsche Babcock & Wilcox Dampfkesselwerke AG
1874 foundation of L. & C. Steinmller Rhren-Dampfkessel-Fabrik
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Worldwide Presence Worldwide Presence

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Outcome of the Merger Outcome of the Merger
C Presence across the whole of Europe
C Expansion of our international presence
C Using synergetic effects to raise competitiveness
C Strengthening of our turn-key plant competence
C Strengthening our position in environmental engineering and in
BOX models (build and own models)
C Improvement of our global market position in steam generators
C Market leader for waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in western Europe
C Top supplier of flue gas desulphurization plants
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2.0 Once-Through Technology
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG KWU
Technical Session I Technical Session I
Introduction
When Mark Benson registered the patent for "production of steam at any pressure" in 1922, he had no way
of knowing that one day one of the most frequently constructed once-through boilers in the world would be based on his idea.
Today's BENSON boiler, as the result of numerous innovations and many years' experience,
has become a high-reliability power plant component.
As licensor for BENSON boilers (once-through steam generators), Siemens has a wealth of experience in this field.
The Siemens know-how is supplemented by a continuous exchange of experience with licensees and owner/operators
around the world. To date more than 1000 units incorporating this type of steam generator have been built.
Principles of once-through technology
Evaporator Systems
Evaporator systems can essentially be divided into in systems with constant and systems with variable evaporation endpoints:
Systems with constant evaporation endpoint.
A typical example of this system is the drum-type steam generator. Natural circulation is produced by heating
of the risers. The water/steam mixture leaving the risers is separated into water and steam in the drum.
The steam flows into the superheater, and the water is returned to the evaporator inlet through downcomers.
If the system is operated only with natural circulation, the application range is limited to a maximum drum pressure of appr.
190 bar. If a circulating pump is used (so called forced circulation), this range can be extended somewhat.
Fixing the endpoint of evaporation in the drum also sets the size of the heating surfaces in the evaporator and superheater.
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Systems with variable evaporation endpoint.
Evaporation takes place in a single pass. This principle is used in the BENSON boiler, the world's most frequently
constructed steam generator type. Flow through the evaporator is induced by the feed pump. The system can therefore
be operated at any desired pressure, i. e. at either subcritical or supercritical pressure. The evaporation endpoint
can shiftwithin one or more heating surfaces. The evaporator and superheater areas thus automatically adjust
to operational requirements.
A reliable coaching of the water walls in once-through boilers is reached by sufficiently high flow velocities
of the water/steam mixture. This can be achieved by reducing the number of parallel tubes either using a
multi-pass design or a spiral wound tubing of the furnace, however.
Problems with mixing and demixing of the total flow are disadvantageous in the multi-pass design.
Feedwater Control System
Common to both the drum-type steam generator and the BENSON boiler is that the feedwater control system
setpoint is generated for the location in the pressure section where evaporation is complete. In the drum-type
steam generator, this point is the drum itself. The drum level is used as the setpoint. Control quality can also be
improved by allowing for parameters such as unit output.
The endpoint of evaporation in the once-through steam generator is variable and can move within one or more heating
surfaces as a function of operational requirements. The setpoint is therefore also variable. The setpoint is the steam
temperature downstream of the evaporator at a point where the steam already has a certain degree of superheat.
This setpoint is specified as a function of load such that the main steam temperature remains constant.
Main steam temperature is thus independent of load, fouling of heating surfaces or excess air. Unit output,
steam pressure and other parameters can also be allowed for here to improve control quality.
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Operators can track adequate feedwater supply similarly for both steam generator.
While the drum level setpoint is constant, the setpoint for steam temperature downstream
of the evaporator can move in a "window" in front of the temperature scale (see figure).
Startup System
Steam power plants have a steam generator startup system and a unit startup system. The steam generator
startup system for a BENSON boiler and a drum-type steam generator are similar. A separating vessel is located
downstream of the evaporator (separator or drum), via which water is removed from the steam generator on startup.
The separated steam cools the superheater. In BENSON boilers for base-load plants, the water separated out in the
separator is led to a flash tank. Units with frequent startup and shutdown usually have a circulating pump.
The steam is then led through the HP bypass station, the reheater and the LP bypass station to the condenser.
This unit startup system is essentially the same for BENSON boilers and drum-type steam generators. The only
difference may be the flow rate through the bypass station, if a 100 % HP bypass station with safety function is used.
The startup sequence is described by three steps. The evaporator is first filled with water (step 1). Then the burners
are ignited, and the steam produced flows through the turbine bypass into the condenser (step 2). As soon as the steam
at the superheater outlet has a sufficient degree of superheat, the turbines are run up and the generator is synchronized
The mass flow through the bypass stations decreases correspondingly (step 3). The startup sequence is essentially the
same for cold, warm and hot starts.
Reliable forced cooling of the water walls and the thin wall thicknesses of the separators at the end of the evaporator
make the startup time of the BENSON boiler considerably shorter than that for the drum-type boiler up to the admission
of steam to the turbine. Cold startup (shut down > 48 hours) governed by the turbine.
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Reheater Temperature Control
An operating advantage of the BENSON steam generator is that the main steam temperature can be held constant,
independent of load, fouling of heating surfaces, changing coal characteristics and excess air, simply by adjusting the ratio
of coal flow rate to feedwater flow rate. The spray attemperators are only used for fine control, particularly in the case of
dynamic processes. On the other hand, additional measures are required to maintain constant reheater temperature,
analogous to those for HP and reheater temperatures on a drum-type steam generator.
In Europe the implementation of spray attemporation is widely used, outside Europe damper control and flue gas
recirculation are dominating.
Tendency of Design Parameters
For a long time - from 1970 to 1990 - the power Plant development regarding the steam parameters stagnated world-wide
e. g. in Germany with about 190 bar, 530 C and in USA with 167 bar, 538 C. The power plant net efficiency with these
steam conditions was in the range between 37 % and 39 %, bases on lower heating value. In some countries, especially
in Europe and USA, a few supercritical power plants were developed in addition to the conventional design.
The development to higher steam temperatures started in the beginning of the 90's, when new material (P91) not as
expensive as austenitic steel was available. This development was pushed in Japan and in Europe, particularly
in Germany and Denmark.
Today steam temperatures of 580 C/600 C are the design parameters for future German power plants.
In Japan these high steam parameters are also state of the art and the development to higher pressure and temperatures will go on.
A comparison of sub- and supercritical power plants in Germany shows, that there is no difference in the availability
of both types of plants. There is no specific or additional risk for power plants with supercritical pressure. Other experiences
by transition to supercritical pressure in the 60's in USA are rather caused by simultaneously increasing the size of power plants
from 300 MW to 1000 MW and more and other conceptional changes like firing design from under- to overpressure and last not
least by the Boiler design itself. UP/Multi Pass.
1924 Siemens buys the BENSON Patent from Mark Benson
1926 to 1929 Siemens manufactures three BENSON boilers
from 30 t/h to 125 t/h
1933 Siemens awards BENSON licences to several
boiler manufacturers
1933 Siemens proposes variable-pressure operation
1949 The worlds first once-through boiler with high steam
conditions (175 bar/610C, BENSON boiler at Leverkusen)
1963 The worlds first spiral-tubed water walls in membrane
design (BENSON boiler at Rhodiaceta)
1987 The worlds largest hard-coal-fired boiler with spiral-tubed
water walls (900 MW BENSON boiler at Heyden4)
1993 Siemens proposes vertical tubed water walls in low
mass flux design for BENSON boilers
1997 More than 980 BENSON boilers with > 700.000 t/h in total
BENSON Licence
Milestones in the Field of BENSON Boilers Milestones in the Field of BENSON Boilers
KWU 99 152d
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System of risers and downcomers
(m = 1636kg/m
2
s)
285
44mm
Tubes
38 x 5.6mm
Evaporator Design
Spiral tubing
(m = 2108kg/m
2
s)
4 x 44 = 176mm
Tubes 33.7 x 5mm
17
285
Changeover from Vertical Tubing to Spiral-Wound Tubing, Changeover from Vertical Tubing to Spiral-Wound Tubing,
Illustrated for a 1000 t/h Steam Generator Illustrated for a 1000 t/h Steam Generator
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
BENSON Licence
BENSON License Contracts Cover R&D and Technical Assistance BENSON License Contracts Cover R&D and Technical Assistance
KWU 99 152d
Technical Assistances
R&D
Boiler concepts
Heat transfer
Pressure drop
Water chemistry
Erosion corrosion
Stress analysis
Fluid dynamics
Two phase separation/
distribution
Computer codes
Results transferred to licensees
in yearly BENSON meeting
Activities in case of orders in
common teams or under Siemens
guidelines
Thermodynamic design
Thermohydraulic design
Evaporator design
Start-up system
Control concepts
Operational concepts
Mechanical design
(evaporator)
Feedwater treatment
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Load
Water level i n t he drum
Load
Temperature behi nd evaporat or
BENSON Boiler
Drum Boiler
Drum Boiler Drum Boiler vs vs. BENSON Boiler - Feedwater Control . BENSON Boiler - Feedwater Control
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Drum level
High l evel
Low l evel
Actual
value
Set point
mm
+
250
+50
-
50
-
150
-
250
Drum Boiler
0
+
150
Actual
valu e
Set poi nt
Temperature at evaporator outlet
C
440
430
410
400
390
380

BENSON Boiler
420
Low
temper at ure
High
temper at ure
Drum Boiler Drum Boiler vs vs. BENSON Boiler . BENSON Boiler
Indicators for Feedwater Supply Indicators for Feedwater Supply
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
250
200
150
100
50
0
Slidi ng pressure
or constant
pressure
0 20 40 60 80 % 100
Load
bar
Sli ding pr essure
Pressure
Constant pr essure
Sl iding pressure
G
~
Operation Mode of Power Plant Operation Mode of Power Plant
KWU 99 152d
Page 24 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Comparison of Different Operating Modes of Steam Turbines Comparison of Different Operating Modes of Steam Turbines
40
%
HR
0
Constant pressure with control stage
Constant pressure with throttling control
Main steam pressure = 250 bar
Heat rate HR =
With turbine driven FWP
Main steam pressure = 250 bar
Heat rate HR =
With turbine driven FWP
P Heat Input
P Terminal output
50 60 70 80 90 100
1
2
3
4
Terminal output P
%
Modified sliding pressure
Sliding pressure
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plant
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Load [%]
20 50
100
Turbine
(downstream first stage)
Separator
(BENSON)
Drum
Turbine
Maximum Load Change Rates
Boiler
(Drum)
(Drum)
(BENSON)
(BENSON)
Plant
10
%
min
3
7
3
7
Load [%]
o
C
o
C
20 50 100
300 300
400 400
500 500
Turbine
(downstream first stage)
Separator
(BENSON)
Drum
Turbine
Maximum Load Change Rates
Boiler
(Drum)
(Drum)
(BENSON)
(BENSON)
Plant
1-3
%
min
7
7
1-3 }
Variable Pressure Constant Pressure
Comparison of Different Operating Modes Comparison of Different Operating Modes
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plant
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
100
80
60
40
20
0
Ti me [ min]
Load [ %]
0 10 20 30 40
Turbi ne 10%/min
BENSON boi ler
appr. 5%/ mi n
Drum boiler
appr. 2%/ mi n
Load Ramps in Sliding Pressure Operation Mode Load Ramps in Sliding Pressure Operation Mode
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
KWU 99 152d
Comparison of different Control Structure Comparison of different Control Structure
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Drum Boiler versus BENSON Boiler
BENSON Boiler Drum Boiler
I P/
LP
HP
Ci rculation
pump
Flash t ank /
Feedwater tank
Atmospheric
flash ta nk
E v a p o r a t o r
Su p er h ea t er
E c o n o mi z e r
Re h e at er
S e p a r a t o r
Start-Up Systems for BENSON Boiler Start-Up Systems for BENSON Boiler
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plants
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Start-Up Times [min] of Power Plants Start-Up Times [min] of Power Plants
Plants with BENSON Boiler
250 bar / 540C / 560C
Plants with Drum Boiler
167 bar / 538C / 538C
first steam
to Turbine
full load
From ignition to:
first steam
to Turbine
full load
From ignition to:
20 - 30
40 - 60
150 - 210
150 - 210
60 - 80
80 - 100
300 - 350
450 - 600
20 - 30
30 - 40
60 - 80
60 - 80
30 - 40
50 - 60
150 - 200
400 - 600
After shut
down hours
<1
8
48
>48
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plant
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Temperature [ C]
o
50 75 100 125 150
Time [min]
175 200 210 0 -15 25
100
400
200
500
300
600
0
Ignition
1000
n [min ]
Tur bine
-1
2000
3000
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e


[
b
a
r
]
25
100
50
125
75
150
175
200
250
225
0
L
o
a
d
F
l
o
w

[
%
]
10
40
20
50
30
60
70
80
100
90
0
RH-Temperature
MS-Temperature
MS-Pressure
Fuel Flow
Load
Oil Flow
Speed
MS- Flow
Start-up Performance after 48hrs shut down Start-up Performance after 48hrs shut down
700 MW Bituminous Coal - Reference Power Plant With BENSON Boiler
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
RH2
RH1
Spray attemperator
RH1
Flue gas reci rculation
Damper control
RH2
Methods of Temperature Control-Overview Methods of Temperature Control-Overview
Modern Coal Fired Boiler
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Methods of RH Temperature Control - Net Efficiencies Methods of RH Temperature Control - Net Efficiencies
Load 100% 70% 40%
Basis
(without control measures) 43.72% -0.16% -0.11%
Spray attemperator -0.13% 43.35% 41.10%
Damper control -0.02% -0.06% 41.10%
Flue gas recirculation -0.01% -0.22% -0.31%
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plants
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Molecular Structure of Water Molecular Structure of Water
as Function of Pressure and Temperature as Function of Pressure and Temperature
KWU 99 152d
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EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000
3100
3200
3300
3400
3500
3600
3700
3800
3900
4000
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400
p [bar]
h

[
k
J
/
k
g
]
T [C]
700
750
370
380
390
100% MCR
Economizer
Evaporator
RH1
Superheater 1
Superheater 2
Superheater 3
50% MCR
30% MCR
RH2
100%
MCR
50%
MCR
30%
MCR
Supercritical BENSON Boiler in the h/p-Diagram Supercritical BENSON Boiler in the h/p-Diagram
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plant
KWU 99 152d
Page 35 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Power Plant Capa city Year of Live s te am
MW commiss . press ure
ba r
Wilhe lms have n 820 1976 196
Weiher III 707 1976 187
Me hrum 3 712 1979 196
Ge rs te inwe rk K 765 1979 202
Voe rde A 707 1982 187
Voe rde B 707 1985 187
Ibbe nbre n 770 1985 200
He yden IV 911 1987 210
Ba denwe rk 7 536 1985 220
He rne IV 500 1989 260
St audinger 5 550 1983 260
Ros tock 550 1995 260
Lippendorf A 930 1999 268
Lippendorf B 930 1999 268
Boxberg Q 915 2000 268
Evaporator inlet pres sure
(bar)
220 240 260 280 300
Coal-Fired Supercritical 500/900 MW Coal-Fired Supercritical 500/900 MW
BENSON Boiler in Germany BENSON Boiler in Germany
KWU 99 152d
Page 36 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Temperature
Commissioni ng year
1994 1996 1998 2000
600
580
560
540
Pressure range:
USA: 251 bar
Japan: 242 bar
Germany: 250 to 285 bar

C
HP (Germany)
HP and IP (USA)
HP (Japan)
IP (Japan)
IP (Germany)
Development of Turbine Inlet Temperatures Development of Turbine Inlet Temperatures
Modern Coal-Fired Power Plants
KWU 99 152d
Page 37 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Trend of boiler steam condition in Japan Trend of boiler steam condition in Japan
1988 90 92 94 96 98 2000 02 04
Year in commission
41
42
43
44
P
l
a
n
t

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)
Coal fired power plants
246atg/538/566C
246atg/566/566C
246atg/566/593C
246atg/593/593C
250atg/600/600C
Higher Efficiency in
Thermal Power Plants
High Strength Steels for Higher
Steam Temperature and Pressure
300atg/625C
KWU 99 152d
Page 38 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 39 of 222
Tendency of Tendency of Design Parameters Design Parameters for for
Once Trough Once Trough Boilers in Boilers in Pit Head Pit Head Power Power Plants Plants
Project Capacity Design Parameter Fuel Award Date
Germany Weisweiler PP 2 x 600 MW 530/530C - 172 bar lignite 1971
Schkopau PP 2 x 480 MW 545/560C - 263 bar lignite 1992
Schwarze Pumpe PP 2 x 850 MW 545/562C - 266 bar lignite 1992
Boxberg PP 1 x 900 MW 545/580C - 266 bar lignite 1992
Lippendorf PP 2 x 930 MW 554/583C - 267 bar lignite 1994
Niederauem PP 1 x 950 MW 580/600C - 260 bar lignite 1997
Design Study Neurath F PP 1 x 950 MW 600/620C - 260 bar lignite (2004)
South Africa Tutuka PP 6 x 600 MW 540/540C - 171 bar bitumin. coal 1982
Duvha PP 6 x 600 NW 540/540C - 174 bar bitumin. coal 1977
Majuba PP 3 x 660 MW 538/538C - 174 bar bitumin. coal. 1984
3 x 700 MW 538/538C - 174 bar bitumin. coal. 1984
Australia Calide PP 2 x 420 MW 540/560C - 250 bar bitumin. coal 1998
Millmeran PP 2 x 350 MW 568/596C - 250 bar bitumin. coal 1999
Kogan Creek PP 1 x 700 MW 545/563C - 264 bar bitumin. coal 1999
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 40 of 222
Technical Session I Technical Session I
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG
3.0 Comparison of Subcritical and supercritical Units in View of
Efficiency, Availability,Feedwater Treatment and Investment Costs
The most important effect of supercritical and ultra supercritical plant design is the increase of plant
efficiency. It is obvious that units running with higher efficiency, i.e. burning less quantity of coal to produce
same amount of electric energy, are giving a significant benefit regarding saving of natural coal reserves and
saving of the environment by reducing dust-, CO
2
, SO
x
and NO
x
-emission. Considering only the increase of
efficiency by increasing the steam parameters from 175 bar, 538/538C to 241 bar, 538/566 C will give a coal
saving of 210,00 tons per year for a typical Indian super thermal power station of 4x500 MW electric output.
Annual saving of CO
2
can be estimated to approx. 262,000 tons per year, SO
2
, saving can be calculated to
1,600 tons and total ash saving to about 90,900 tons for this power station.
Availability data for subcritical and supercritical power plants based on recent US EPRI and German VGB
publications or from Japan give clear evidence that over the last decades plant availability data for supercritical
units are in the same range as the relevant data for subcritical units. In addition enclosed availability figures
from several once-through boilers supplied by BBP to different utilities illustrate the reliability of the units.
Regarding water chemistry a comparison of the relevant international standards illustrates that no additional
installation for supercritical power plants compared to the requested standards for high pressure subcritical
plants are required. A combination of a condensate polishing plant with oxygenated treatment can be
recommended as a well proven procedure. Further, once-through boilers do not have a boiler blow down. This
has a positive effect on the water balance of the plant with less condensate needed to be fed into the
water-steam cycle and less waste water to be disposed.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 41 of 222
In the recent past several studies have been worked out by various companies and institutions comparing
investment costs and electricity generation costs of subcritical and supercritical coal fired thermal power
stations. For example Shell & SEPRIL (a consulant,jointly owned by Electric Power Research Institute and
Sargent & Lundy) have assessed the cost effectiveness and environmental performance of a State of the Art
Power Plant (SOAPP), PF-coal fired, 3500 psig (240 bar, 41% plant efficiency), supercritical, 2x600 MWel, in an
Asian location in a detailed study for the International Energy. The plant investment costs on turn key base have
been found out to be 1% higher in comparison to a comparable subcritical unit (38 % plant efficiency).
Regarding electricity generations costs the effect of the fuel price is very significant but even in case of low fuel
cost (15 US $/to) and lower capital cost the supercritical unit causes lower electricity costs.
Our own investigations based on a 525 MWel world coal fired unit for Israel and 2x660 MWel high ash coal
fired boilers for China confirm the results of the Shell report. The total plant investment costs for the supercritical
unit based on design data (255 bar, 540/560C) and turn key scope will increase 1.85% in comparison to the
subcritical unit. Further, specific investment costs can be lowered by increasing unit size.
The costs for the boiler itself will increase in the order of 4.5 to 5% by using supercritical steam parameters.
Noted that these studies are mainly based on world coal fired units. Considering high ash Indian coal
investment cost of the units (subcritical or supercritical) in general will increase in comparison to low ash coal
firing units due to the special layout requirements of the boiler, electrostatic precipitator and ash handling
system. However it can be predicted that the price relation of subcritical to supercritical units both firing high ash
Indian coal will not be influenced, i.e. will remain in the range of about 2% higher investment cost for the
supercritical unit.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 42 of 222
Technical Technical Session II Session II
Comparison of Sub Comparison of Sub-/ -/Supercritical Units Supercritical Units in in View of View of Efficiency, Efficiency, Availability Availability, ,
Feedwater Feedwater Treatment, Investment Treatment, Investment Costs Costs
Increasing steam parameters from subcritical to supercritical like 241bar, 538/566C
will result in preservation of resources and will consider the greenhouse effect.
For a 4x500MWe power station in India a coal saving of 210,000 tons/a, CO
2
-saving
of 262,000 tons/a and a SO
2
-saving of 1,600 tons/a will be reached.
Availability of supercritical units are comparable to subcritical units.
International standards for water chemistry do not ask for additional installations for
supercritical units compared to high pressure subcritical units.
Turn key plant investment costs on international basis for 240bar, 540/560C
supercritical units are in the range of 1 to 2% higher in comparison to high pressure
subcritical units. Cost increase for the boiler will be about 4.5 to 5%.
It can be assumed that this price relation will remain the same for power plant
designed for Indian coal.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 43 of 222
Development thermal net efficiency of bituminous coal Development thermal net efficiency of bituminous coal
and lignite power plant in Germany and lignite power plant in Germany
1980 1990 2000 2010
35
40
45
50
Year

th % *
Rostock 550 MW
Staudinger 550 MW
bituminous coal
lignite
Lippendorf
2 x 930 MW
Schkopau 2 x 400 MW
subcritical supercritical
high temperature
steam processes
Hemweg 8
680 MW
Westfalen D
350 MW
Bexbach 1
750 MW
availability of new materials
* th = including desulpherisation
and denitrification
(based on: LHV
Bexbach 2
750 MW
Niederauem
980 MW
BoA*-plus
1000 MW
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 44 of 222
Potential for Efficiency Improvement for Lignite Fired Potential for Efficiency Improvement for Lignite Fired
Steam Generators Steam Generators
Source: Energietechnische Tagesfragen 1997-Heft 9
Prof. Dr. Ing. W. Hlubek - Vorstand RWE
up to now: BoA* with integrated drying process
intergrated
drying
hot flue gas
with 1000 C
row coal
dry coal
+ flue gas
+ vapour
flue gas
plus vapour
separate
drying (WTA)
electric
energy
Steam vapour
flue gas
Heat Pump
energetic disadvantage:
- predrying on very high
temperatur level
- no use of vapor energy
energetic improvement:
- predrying on low energy
level
- use of vaporenergy
appr. 5% efficiently improvement

= 43 %

= 48 %

BoA* plus predrying
drying
unit
row coal
condensat
dry coal
Boiler
Boiler
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 45 of 222
Measures to increase Efficiency Measures to increase Efficiency
Bexbach Bexbach I PP versus I PP versus Bexbach Bexbach II PP II PP
Source: VGB-Kraftwerkstechnik 75 (1995) Heft 1
INCREASE SH AND RH STEAM
TEMPERATURE TO 575/595 C /
= 1,3 %
INCREASE SH-STEAM
PRESSURE TO 250 BAR / = 0,65 %
ADDITIONAL UTILISATION OF FLUE GAS HEAT /
= 0,6 %
COMMISSION OF REHEATING / = 0,15 %
INCREASE OF FEEDWATER TEMPERATURE / = 0,7 %
REDUCTION OF EXHAUST
STEAM PRESSURE / = 1,1 %
REDUCTION OF EXCESS AIR / = 0,4 %
OPTIMISATION OF COMPONENTS
(IN PARTICULAR THE T/G) / = 2,4 %
39,00 % = BASIS VALUE FOR BEXBACH I POWER STATION
39,00
41,40
41,80
42,90
43,60
43,75
44,35
45,00
46,30
N
E
T

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

%
46,30 % = BASIS VALUE FOR BEXBACH II POWER STATION
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 46 of 222
Reference Letter Reference Letter Heyden Heyden
Thus in our power plant KW Heyden
(900 MWel., commissioning year 1987,
concept without overfire air)
an ratio of 1.12 - 1.16 was achieved.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 47 of 222
Measures to increase Efficiency Measures to increase Efficiency
Ruthenberg Ruthenberg PP versus PP versus Rostock Rostock PP PP
INCREASED TURBINE EFFICIENCY
/ = 0,4 %
41,6
42,0
43,2
43,6
41,1
INCREASED SH PRESSURE TO 262 BAR
AND INCREASED FEEDWATER TEMPERATURE
TO 272 C / = 1,2 %
INCREASED REHEATER OUTLET TEMPERATURE TO 560 C
/ = 0,4 %
INCREASED BOILER EFFICIENCY
/ = 0,5 %
41,1 % = BASIS VALUE FOR RUTHENBERG POWER STATION
43,6 % = BASIS VALUE FOR ROSTOCK POWER STATION
N
E
T

E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

%
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 48 of 222
Comparison of Plant part load efficiency Comparison of Plant part load efficiency
30
40
46
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Load %
41,1 %
36,7 %
39,3 %
40,5 %
43,2 %
42,4 %
40,1 %
P
l
a
n
t

n
e
t

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Supercritical unit
acc. Alternative 2
255 bar 538C / 538C
Subcritical unit
acc. Alternative 1
166 bar 538C / 538C
43,6 %
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 49 of 222
Relative Plant - h improvement of supercritical steam Relative Plant - h improvement of supercritical steam
process compare to process compare to subcritical subcritical unit unit
4
5
6
7
8
9
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Load %
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e


-

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

%
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 50 of 222
Increase of Cycle Increase of Cycle Efficiency Efficiency due due to to Steam Steam Parameters Parameters
300
241
175 538 / 538
538 / 566
566 / 566
580 / 600
600 / 620
6,77
5,79
3,74
5,74
4,81
2,76
4,26
3,44
1,47
3,37
2,64
0,75
2,42
1,78
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
HP / RH outlet temperature [deg. C]
Pressure [bar]
Increase of efficiency [%]
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 51 of 222
Saving of Coal Reserves and Mitigation of Environmental Impact by Saving of Coal Reserves and Mitigation of Environmental Impact by
Using Supercritical Technology Using Supercritical Technology
Essential Measures to Increase Plant Efficiency
1. Cycle Efficiency
- Increased steam parameters: 175bar, 538/538C 241 bar, 538/566 C
- Double reheat: not considered
- Reduced pressure in condenser: not considered
2. Boiler Efficiency
- Reducing flue gas temperature: not considered
3. Turbine efficiency
- Advanced turbine design: not considered
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 52 of 222
Effect of Increased Cycle Effect of Increased Cycle Efficiency Efficiency on Coal Consumption on Coal Consumption
0,00
10,00
20,00
30,00
40,00
50,00
(Lakh tons/a)
(Cr. Rs/a)
Savings of Coal Reserves / Coal Costs per Year
Coal Saving (Lakh tons/a) 2,15 11,28
Coal Cost-Saving (Cr. Rs/a) 9,67 50,74
Sipat (4x500 MWe) All India (21x500 MWe)
Base of calculation
Efficiency subcritical
cycle: 38.5%
Increase of efficiency:
+ 2.64%rel., (+1%abs.)
LHV 12,937 kJ/kg
Fuel Consumption of
Subcritical Unit: 339 t/h
Operation: 6000 h/a
Fuel Price: 450 Rs/to
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 53 of 222
Effect of Increased Cycle Effect of Increased Cycle Efficiency Efficiency on on Emission Emission
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
(1000 to/a)
Saving of Emission per Year
CO2 Saving (1000 to/a) 262,3 1376,8
SO2 Saving (1000 to/a) 1,6 8,3
Total Ash Saving (1000 to/a) 90,9 477,2
Sipat (4x500 MWe) All India (21x500 MWe)
Efficiency subcritical cycle: 38.5%
Increase of efficiency:
+ 2.64% rel., (1%abs.)
LHV 12,937 kJ/kg
Ash Content 42.3%
Sulphur Content 0.37%
Fuel Consumption of
Subcritical Unit: 339 t/h
Operation: 6000 h/a
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 54 of 222
Reduction of Ash due Reduction of Ash due to to Increased Cycle Increased Cycle Efficiency Efficiency
Sipat ash saving after 5 years of operation
equivalent to a cone of approx. 454,500 m
3
a
p
p
r
o
x
.

7
6

m
approx. 57 m
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 55 of 222
Saving of Coal due Saving of Coal due to to Increased Cycle Increased Cycle Efficiency Efficiency
a
p
p
r
o
x
.

7
6

m
approx. 57 m
Sipat coal saving after 2 years of operation
equivalent to a cone of approx. 537,500 m
3
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 56 of 222
Generation Generation Availability Availability (VGB) (VGB) Subcritical Subcritical, , Supercritical Supercritical
Power Power Plants Plants
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1
9
8
5
1
9
8
6
1
9
8
7
1
9
8
8
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
1
1
9
9
2
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
4
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
6
1
9
9
7
8
8
-
9
7
Subcritical Supercritical
%
Year
0
20
40
60
80
100
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 88-
97
Time Availability
Time Utilization
Energy Availability
Energy Utilization
%
Year
Subcritical Subcritical
Year 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 88-97
Availability 84,6 83,7 82,4 82,6 81,5 83,2 85,4 82,8 80,2 82,5 81,9 86,1 87,4 83,3
Supercritical Supercritical
0
20
40
60
80
100
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 88-
97
Time Availability
Time Utilization
Energy Availability
Energy Utilization
%
Year
Year 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 88-97
Availability 83,1 87,2 81,4 78,3 73,2 83 82,9 86,2 90,9 80,5 83,1 79,2 89,2 82,9
Energy Energy Unavailability Unavailability not not Postponable Postponable (EU) (EU)
of German Power Plants of German Power Plants
0
1989 1991 1993 1995 1997
2
4
6
8
10
Year
Subcritical
Supercritical
EU(%) = FOE/MPG*100%
FOE = Forced outage energy
MPG = Maximum possible energy
EU(%) = FOE/MPG*100%
FOE = Forced outage energy
MPG = Maximum possible energy
%
EU
Supercritical versus Subcritical
KWU 99 152d
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 57 of 222
Energy Availability of German Power Plants Energy Availability of German Power Plants
KWU 99 152d
1989 1991 1993 1995 1997
100
Year
%
EA
90
80
70
60
50
EA(%) = AV/AN*100%
AV = Available Energy
AN = Nominal Energy
EA(%) = AV/AN*100%
AV = Available Energy
AN = Nominal Energy
Subcritical
Supercritical
Supercritical versus Subcritical
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 58 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 59 of 222
Reference Letter Reference Letter Staudinger Staudinger
Please find attached the Certificate of Experience Record completed
by PreussenElektra Kraftwerk Staudinger. We would like to confirm that
the steam generators supplied by Deutsche Babcock have fulfilled all
requirements of PreussenElektra Kraftwerk Staudinger as owner and
operator to our full satisfaction during all years of operation.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 60 of 222
Experience Record Experience Record Staudinger Staudinger
Commercial Operation date: 1992/06/15 1996/07/16 49
Capacity Factor:: 91%
Availability factor: 99%
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 61 of 222
Reference Letter Reference Letter Rostock Rostock
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 62 of 222
Experience Record Experience Record Rostock Rostock
Continous Operation Period: 94/8/1 until now 57
Capacity Factor: 98,00%
Availability factor: 99,2%
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 63 of 222

*) downstreamCondenser
< 200 "... The DOC contentof completely
demineralized make-up water should
not exceed 0.2 mg/l..."
ppb Organic substances
(as DOC/TOC)
- < 100 ppb Oil /grease / fat
- 10 ppb N2H4
20 10 *) 10 *) < 20 < 20 ppb Silica (SiO
2
)
2 5 2 2 < 3 < 3 ppb Copper (Cu)
10 20 10 10 < 10 < 20 < 20 ppb Iron (Fe)
3 *) 3 *) 5 *) < 10 < 10 ppb Sodium + Potassium
(Na + K)
20 - 200 7 7 5 5 250 < 100 30 to 150 < 100 < 100 ppb Oxygen(O
2
)
6.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.6 8.5 - 9.6 9.0 - 9.6 9.0 - 9.6 7 .... 10 > 9.2 8 to 9 9 to 10 9 to 10 - pHvalue at25 C
50 ppb Total Solid
0.2 0.25 0.5 0.2 0.2 < 0.2 < 0,2 S/cm Acid conductivity
at 25 C
not specified
-
not specified S/cm Conductivity at 25 C
clear,
free fromsuspended solids
clear and colourless - Appearance
> 20 15 - 20 with Reheat > 6 total range total range MPa Operating pressure
Oxigenated
Treatment
All Volatile
Treatment
Coordinated
Phosphate
Treatment
All Volatile
Treatment
All Volatile
Treatment
Phosphate
Treatment
All Volatile
Treatment
./.
Combined
Operation
Alkaline
Operation
Combined
Operation
All Volatile
Treatment
Alkaline
Operation
Operation
Once-through Drum Type Once-through Drum Type Once-through Drum Type Once-through Drum Type Boiler
Type

JIS B8223
1989
EPRI CS-4629
1986
EN 12952 Part 12
Draft 1998
VGB-R 450 L
1988
Japan U.S.A. Europa Germany
Supercritical Power Plants/ Evaluation of Design Parameters Supercritical Power Plants/ Evaluation of Design Parameters
Requirements for Feedwater Quality
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 64 of 222
Supercritical Power Plants/ Evaluation of Design Parameters Supercritical Power Plants/ Evaluation of Design Parameters
< 5 ppb Chloride (Cl)
5 < 20 5 < 20 < 10 < 20 < 10 < 10 ppb Silica (SiO2)
1 < 3 1 < 3 < 1 < 3 < 1 < 2 ppb Copper (Cu)
5 < 20 5 < 20 < 5 < 20 < 5 < 20 ppb Iron (Fe)
2 < 10 2 < 10 < 5 < 10 < 10 < 5 < 3 ppb Sodium + Potassium
(Na + K)
0,1 < 0.2 0,1 < 0,2 < 0,1 < 0,2 < 0,1 < 0,3 < 0,2 S/cm Acid conductivity
at 25 C
Normal
operating
value
Standard
value
Normal
operating
value
Standard
value
Unit Parameter
VGB-R 450 L
1988
Siemens / KWU
1998
MAN ABB Allis
Chalmers
Westinghouse General
Electric
Requirements on Steam for Condensing Turbines
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 65 of 222
Supercritical Power Plants/ Evaluation of Design Parameters Supercritical Power Plants/ Evaluation of Design Parameters
High Pressure Drum Boiler: Steam Quality (Silica) and Blow Down Rate
Drum Boiler
Drum pressure: 18 MPa
Silica distribution ratio (C Steam / C Water): 0.08
* Condensate Polishing Plant required
Balance 0 50 625 50 *
Balance 0 30 375 30 *
!! 13.0 * 20 250 50 *
!! 4.3 * 20 250 30 *
2 * 20 250 24.6 *
1 20 250 22.3
Balance 0 20 250 20
!! 8.7 * 10 125 20
Balance 0 10 125 10
%
Feedwater
SiO2
(ppb)
SiO2
(ppb)
SiO2
(ppb)
Blow
down rate
Steam Boiler
water
Feedwater

Once-through Boiler: Feedwater Quality = Steam Quality
Blow Down Rate = 0
Condensate Polishing Plant required
Boiler water
SiO2 = 250 ppb
Feedwater
SiO2 = 20 ppb
Steam
SiO2 = 20 ppb
Blow down
0 %
Balance at 180 MPa:
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 66 of 222
1. Study of Shell Coal International & SEPRIL Services
2. BBP evaluation based on 525 MWel power plant project in Israel
3. BBP evaluation based on 660 MWel boiler project in China
Evaluation Subcritical Evaluation Subcritical/ /Supercritical Supercritical Power Power Plants Plants
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 67 of 222
Comparison of Comparison of Plant Investment Plant Investment
Study
Increasing the Efficiency of Coal-fired Power Generation
from Shell Coal International & SEPRIL Services
for publication by the International Energy Agency
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 68 of 222
Comparison of Comparison of Plant Investment: Plant Investment: Subcritical Subcritical/ /Supercritical Supercritical
Case-Study
2x600 MWel, pulverized bituminous coal fired power plant in an Asian location
Case (1) 2400 psig (165 bar) subcritical plant,
38 % nominal design efficiency based on LHV
Case (2) 3500 psig (240 bar) supercritical
41% nominal design efficiency based on LHV
Source: Study of Shell Coal International & SEPRIL Service
Calculation Basis
- turn key plant equipment incl. low Nox-burners, structures, switchyard, coal unloading facilities,
sea water cooling
- 60 month construction schedule
- 30 years plant operation period
- 85% availability, 80% capacity factor
- 13% fixed charge rate
- 9.8% interest during construction
- 13$/kW-year O&M (fixed), 2% O&M escalation
- 5$/to waste disposal costs
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 69 of 222
Comparison of Comparison of Plant Investment: Plant Investment: Subcritical Subcritical/ /Supercritical Supercritical
Components Subcritical Plant
Capital Costs ($/kW)
Supercritical Plant
Capital Costs
($/kW, % compared to subcritical)
Boiler (incl. steel structures
and components)
142.94 153.09 (107.1)
Boiler plant piping 27.81 31.03 (111.6)
Feedwater system 28.06 28.62 (102.0)
Turbine-Generator 79.2 82.37 (104.0)
Turbine plant piping 16.25 15.44 (95.0)
Subtotal 294.26 310.38 (105.5)
Remainder of Plant 509.17 500.69 (98.3)
Total Plant Cost 803.43 (100%) 811.07 (101.0)
Source: Study of Shell Coal International & SEPRIL Service
Capital Costs
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 70 of 222
Comparison of Comparison of Plant Investment: Plant Investment: Subcritical Subcritical/ /Supercritical Supercritical
Generating Cost of Electricity (cents/kWh)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Subcritical Supercritical Subcritical Supercritical
Fuel Costs
Variable O&M
Fixed O&M
Capital Charges
Diff. = 0.08 cents/kWh
Diff. = 0.23 cents/kWh
Fuel Cost: 15$/to Fuel Cost: 40$/to
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 71 of 222
Subcritical/Supercritical Bituminous Coal Fired Units
525 MWel,net
(Rutenberg, Israel)
Comparison of Plant Investment Comparison of Plant Investment
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 72 of 222
Single Unit Capacity Single Unit Cost Total Plant Cost
(2000 MW)
Specific Plant Cost
(2000 MW)
500 MW subcritical 100.00 % 359.5 % 100.00 %
500 MW supercritical 101.85 % 366.1 % 101.85 %
660 MW supercritical 125.58 % 342.8 % 95.35 %
660 MW subcritical 123.26 % 336.5 % 93.60 %
Power Plant India: A.) 4 x 500 MW (4 x 100% capacity)
B.) 3 x 660 MW (3 x 132% capacity)
Power Plant Israel: A.) 4 x 525 MW (4 x 100% capacity)
B.) 3 x 693 MW (3 x 132% capacity)
Comparison of Plant Investment based on Experiences in the International Market Comparison of Plant Investment based on Experiences in the International Market
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 73 of 222
Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical
Alt. 1
(subcritical)
Alt. 2
(supercritical)
Alt. 3
(supercritical)
Alt. 4
(supercritical)
Live steam pressure at turbine (bar) 166 255 255 255
Live steam temp. at turbine (C) 538 540 540 540
Hot reheat temp. at turbine (C) 538 560 560 560
Feed water temp. (C) 250 272 272 272
Condenser pressure (mbar) 50 50 50 50
Power (MWel,net) 525 525 669 693
LHV, world coal (kJ/kg) 25.748 25.748 25.748 25.748
Alternatives investigated
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 74 of 222
Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical
1. Boiler & Auxiliary Plant
Boiler, fuel storage / supply & ash handling, ESP, wet FGD, air heaters / sootblowers / firing
equipment, combustion air & flue gas system,insulation, painting, cleaning, engineering
2. Turbine Set
Turbine, generator & excitation, condenser & auxiliaries, feedheaters, deaerator, engineering
3. BOP
Pumps, pipes, valves, water treatment / dosing unit, cooling main equipment, cranes & hoists,
elevators, engineering, others (e.g. tanks, compressors etc.)
4. Electrical Equipment
Generator rel. Equipment, transformers, motors, med/low voltage switchgears, cable, bus ducts,
cable trays & accessories, communication, lighting, grounding, engineering
Scope of supply breakdown
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 75 of 222
Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical
5. Main and Field I&C
Main I & C, Field I & C, control valves, engineering
6. Civil / HVAC / Fire Fighting
Concrete & architectural works, steel structures, HVAC, fire fighting, engineering
7. Plant Engineering
8. Special Project Cost
M-Turbine set, PM power plant, PM supporting, project travelling
9. Erection/Commissioning
Site management & facilities, erection & commissioning: turbine generator, BOP- equipment, boiler,
training / operation
Scope of supply breakdown
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 76 of 222
Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical
Scope/Component Alternative 1 Alternative 2
525 MWel,net = 100% 525 MW = 100%
165 bar, 538/538C 255 bar, 540/560C
% (total) % (relative) % (total) % (relative)
1. Boiler & Auxiliary Plant 29,5 100 30,3 104,6
2. Turbine Set 8,6 100 8,7 102.86
3. BOP 16,1 ) 16 )
4. Electrical Equipment 7,3 ) 7,2 )
5. Main and Field I&C 5,3 ) 5,2 )
6. Civil/HVAC/Fire Fighting 14,2 ) 100 14 ) 100,4
7. Plant Engineering 4,4 ) 4,3 )
8. Special Project Costs 3,3 ) 3,2 )
9. Erection & Commissioning 11,3 ) 11,1 )
Sum (1 Unit) 100 100 100 101,85
Detailed Cost Breakdown in %
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 77 of 222
Scope/Component Alternative 1 Alternative 3
525 MWel,net = 100% 669 MW = 127,43%
165 bar, 538/538C 255 bar, 540/560C
% (total) % (relative) % (total) % (relative)
1. Boiler & Auxiliary Plant 29,5 100 31,3 128,5
2. Turbine Set 8,6 100 8,6 120
3. BOP 16,1 ) 16,2 )
4. Electrical Equipment 7,3 ) 7,1 )
5. Main and Field I&C 5,3 ) 4,8 )
6. Civil/HVAC/Fire Fighting 14,2 ) 100 13,9 ) 118,2
7. Plant Engineering 4,4 ) 4,1 )
8. Special Project Costs 3,3 ) 2,9 )
9. Erection & Commissioning 11,3 ) 11,1 )
Sum (1 Unit) 100 100 100 121,38
Detailed Cost Breakdown in %
Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 78 of 222
Detailed Cost Breakdown in %
Scope/Component Alternative 1 Alternative 4
525 MWel,net = 100% 693 MW = 132%
165 bar, 538/538C 255 bar, 540/560C
% (total) % (relative) % (total) % (relative)
1. Boiler & Auxiliary Plant 29,5 100 31,5 133,9
2. Turbine Set 8,6 100 8,6 124,3
3. BOP 16,1 ) 16,1 )
4. Electrical Equipment 7,3 ) 7,1 )
5. Main and Field I&C 5,3 ) 4,8 )
6. Civil/HVAC/Fire Fighting 14,2 ) 100 13,9 ) 121,8
7. Plant Engineering 4,4 ) 4 )
8. Special Project Costs 3,3 ) 3 )
9. Erection & Commissioning 11,3 ) 11 )
Sum (1 Unit) 100 100 100 125,58
Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical Comparison of Plant Investment: Subcritical/Supercritical
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 79 of 222
Plant Cost versus Unit Capacity
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135
Unit Capacity (%)
P
l
a
n
t

C
o
s
t

(
%
)
525 MWe
supercritical
669 MWe
supercritical
693 MWe
supercritical
Calculation based on
constant price factor
($ / MWe)
Basis
Rutenberg, Israel, Supercritical
Bituminous Coal Fired Power Plant
Effect of Unit Size on Investment Costs Effect of Unit Size on Investment Costs
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 80 of 222
Comparison of Subcritical Comparison of Subcritical/ /Supercritical Supercritical Boilers Boilers
Subcritical Boiler
2x660 MW Shalingzi Phase II Power Plant
2x2,150 t/hr ; 175 bar ; 541/540 C
Supercritical Boiler
2x660 MW Douhe Phase II Power Plant
2x1,981 t/hr ; 260 bar ; 545/562 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 81 of 222
S H A L I N G Z I Power Plant Phase II S H A L I N G Z I Power Plant Phase II
(China)
Unit Capacity 2 x 660 MW
Natural Circulation Boiler
with
damper-controlled parallel pass for reheat temperature control
Coal Firing System for NOx = 300/200 ppm
Furnace Exit Temperature < 1,050 C
Subcritical Steam Condition 175 bar ; 541/540 C
Modified Sliding Pressure Operation
Base Load Operation 7,500 operating hours per year
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 82 of 222
2 x 660 MW
2150 t/hr; 175 bar; 541/540 C
SHALINGZI PHASE II POWER PLANT SHALINGZI PHASE II POWER PLANT
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 83 of 222
D O U H E Power Plant Phase II D O U H E Power Plant Phase II
(China)
Unit Capacity 2 x 660 MW
Benson Type Boiler
with
flue gas recirculation for reheat temperature control
Coal Firing System with low NOx combustion
Furnace Exit Temperature
design coal < 1300C
check coal < 1050C
Supercritical Steam Condition 260 bar ; 545/562 C
Modified Sliding Pressure Operation
Base Load Operation 7,600 operating hours per year
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 84 of 222
DOUHE PHASE II POWER PLANT DOUHE PHASE II POWER PLANT
2 X 660 MW
1981 t/hr; 260 bar; 545/562 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 85 of 222
0
10.000
20.000
30.000
40.000
50.000
60.000
1 2
T
o
t
a
l

W
e
i
g
h
t

(
T
o
n
s
)
Boiler
Electric + I&C
Cleaning/Hoist/etc.
Pipework
Insulation
Ash Removal
E S P
Draft System
Firing System
Sootblower
Air Preheater
Steel Structure
Spare Parts
Bunker Feeding
Shalingzi 2x660 MW
subcritical
Douhe II 2x660 MW
supercritical
Diff. = 3,425 to (30%)
Total Diff. = 4,878 to (10%)
Weight Comparison Shalingzi Weight Comparison Shalingzi/ /Douhe Douhe II II
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 86 of 222
1 x 660 MW
Shalingzi
subcritical
DIN design
(weight in to)
1 x 660 MW
Douhe II
supercritical
DIN design
(weight in to)
Membran Walls 1,127 991
Heating
Surfaces
1,630 1,420
Headers 332 455
Pipework 612 509
Boiler Drum /
Separator
267 65
Sum
Pressure Parts
3,967 (100%) 3,440 (87%)
Material Mixture Pressure Part in Weight %
Douhe II (supercritical)
15 Mo3
13CrMo44
15NiCuMoNb5 (WB36)
X10CrMoVNb91 (P91)
X20CrMoV121
Others
Headers
37%
11%
23%
18%
11%
Weight Comparison
(Typical design according to German standard DIN, equivalent material available in India)
Heating
Surfaces
53%
13%
34%
Membran
Walls
53%
46%
1%
Comparison of the Boiler Pressure Part Comparison of the Boiler Pressure Part
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 87 of 222
FOB - Boiler FOB - Boiler Price Comparison Price Comparison
F
O
B

-

P
r
i
c
e

(
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
y

u
n
i
t
)
Boiler
PM & Engineering
Electric + I&C
Cleaning/Hoist/etc.
Pipework
Insulation
Ash Removal
E S P
Draft System
Firing System
Sootblower
Air Preheater
Steel Structure
Spare Parts
Bunker Feeding
Shalingzi, subcritical, 2x660 MW
(local pressure part manufacturing)
100 %
104,75 %
Douhe, supercritical, 2x660 MW
(pressure parts partly imported)

EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 88 of 222
Technical Session II Technical Session II
3.1 Technical aspects of the collaboration and BHELs
preparedness for once-through Boilers
BHEL
BHEL
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 89 of 222
ONCE - THROUGH BOILER
SALIENT FEATURES
OF
TECHNICAL COLLABORATION
AGREEMENT (TCA)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 90 of 222
BACKGROUND & HISTORY BACKGROUND & HISTORY
TO MEET FUTURE MARKET TREND, BHEL WAS
LOOKING FOR A COMPREHENSIVE TCA TO
COVER ALL AREAS - FROM CONCEPT TO
COMMISSIONING INCLUDING R&D UPDATES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 91 of 222
BHEL HAS ENTERED INTO A LONG TERM
LICENSING AGREEMENT WITH
BABCOCK BORSIG POWER GmbH
(A - DEUTSCHE BABCOCK - STEINMULLER COMBINE)
GERMANY
FOR TECHNICAL COLLABORATION
FOR ONCE THROUGH BOILERS
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 92 of 222
SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA
DURATION OF AGREEMENT DURATION OF AGREEMENT
1O YEARS FROM EFFECTIVE DATE (27.07.99)
OR
7 YEARS FROM DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 93 of 222
ONCE-THROUGH BOILERS - EXPERIENCE OF BBP GmbH ONCE-THROUGH BOILERS - EXPERIENCE OF BBP GmbH
SUB-CRITICAL SUPER-CRITICAL
< 300 MW 111 11
> 300 MW
< 500 MW 67 27
> 500 MW 47 19
SUB-TOTAL 225 57
GRAND TOTAL 282
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 94 of 222
ONCE-THROUGH BOILERS - EXPERIENCE ONCE-THROUGH BOILERS - EXPERIENCE
OF BBP GmbH OF BBP GmbH
COAL COAL + OTHER
ALONE OTHER FUELS SUB-TOTAL
FUELS
SUB-CRITICAL
< 300 MW 48 10 54
>300 <500 MW 36 3 17
> 500 MW 38 2 7
---- ---------------------------------
TOTAL 122 15 88 225
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUPER-CRITICAL

< 300 MW 5 1 5
>300 <500 MW 17 3 7
> 500 MW 13 1 5
------------------------------------------
TOTAL 35 5 17 57
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GRAND TOTAL 282
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 95 of 222
HIGHEST CAPACITY STEAM GENERATOR HIGHEST CAPACITY STEAM GENERATOR
(TG RATING IN MW) (TG RATING IN MW)
SUB-CRITICAL SUPER-CRITICAL FUEL
COAL 745 750
COAL + OIL 900 707
LIGNITE 600 980
OTHERS 745 700
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 96 of 222
COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH
SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE AROUND 540 DEG. C SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE AROUND 540 DEG. C
PARTIAL LISTING - SELECTED FROM BBP REFERENCE LIST
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 97 of 222
COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH
SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE AROUND 540 DEG. C SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE AROUND 540 DEG. C
PLANT NAME CAPACITY SHO PRESS. SHO TEMP. RH TEMP.
(MW) (bar) (DEG. C) (DEG. C)
LEININGERWERK V 460.4 282 540 540
PS HERNE -IV 500 255 535 541
FWK BUER 150 245 540 540
MANNHEIM, 15 217 257 530 540
PARTIAL LISTING - SELECTED FROM BBP REFERENCE LIST
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 98 of 222
COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH
SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE ABOVE 540 DEG. C SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE ABOVE 540 DEG. C
PARTIAL LISTING - SELECTED FROM BBP REFERENCE LIST
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 99 of 222
COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH COAL FIRED SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS WITH
SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE ABOVE 540 DEG. C SHO AND / OR RHO TEMPERATURE ABOVE 540 DEG. C
PLANT NAME CAPACITY SHO PRESS SHO TEMP. RH TEMP
(MW) (bar) (DEG. C) (DEG. C)
STAUDINGER V 500 267 545 562
SCHKOPAU 492 260 545 560
BOXBERG IV 900 266 545 563
ROSTOCK 500 267 545 562
ALTBACH 332 260 545 568
PARTIAL LISTING - SELECTED FROM BBP REFERENCE LIST
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 100 of 222
SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA
COMPREHENSIVE TCA ENVELOPING
1. SYSTEM ENGINEERING
2. DETAILED ENGINEERING
3. MANUFACTURE
4. QUALITY
5. ERECTION
6. COMMISSIONING
7. TROUBLE-SHOOTING
8. FEED BACK ANALYSIS
9. R&D UPDATES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 101 of 222
SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA - TECHNICAL SCOPE SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA - TECHNICAL SCOPE
TYPE OF BOILER
TOWER & TWO-PASS TYPE
SINGLE REHEAT & DOUBLE REHEAT
SUB-CRITICAL & SUPER CRITICAL BOILERS
FUELS
SUB-BITUMINOUS & BITUMINOUS COAL
OIL
GAS
LIGNITE
EITHER INDIVIDUALLY OR IN COMBINATION
FIRING SYSTEM ALSO COVERS LOW NOx AND
LOW EXCESS AIR TECHNOLOGY
UNIT RATINGS
ALL UNIT RATINGS
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 102 of 222
SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA-TECHNICAL SCOPE SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA-TECHNICAL SCOPE
( (Contd Contd...) ...)
COMPLETE PRESSURE PARTS FROM ECO. INLET TO SHO
HEADER M. S STOP VALVE
COMPLETE COAL FIRING SYSTEM FROM BUNKER OUTLET TO
BURNERS (EXCLUDING FEEDERS AND MILLS)
COMPLETE FUEL OIL SYSTEM FROM DAY TANK TO BURNERS
COMPLETE FUEL GAS SYSTEM TO BURNERS
COMPLETE FLUE GAS SYSTEM UPTO CHIMNEY (EXCLUDING
FANS, AIRHEATERS & ESP)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 103 of 222
SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA-TECHNICAL SCOPE SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA-TECHNICAL SCOPE
( (Contd Contd...) ...)
COMPLETE AIR SYSTEM (EXCLUDING FANS AND AIRHEATERS)
BOILER SUPPORTING STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK, BUCKSTAYS,
PLATFORMS
LINING AND INSULATION
CONTROLS & INSTRUMENTATION
ENGG., MANUFACTURING, QUALITY, ERECTION, COMMISSIONING
FIELD DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
TYPICAL PURCHASE SPECIFICATION FOR AUXILIARIES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 104 of 222
SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA - TECHNICAL SCOPE SALIENT FEATURES OF TCA - TECHNICAL SCOPE
( (Contd Contd..) ..)
TRAINING AT COLLABORATORS OFFICES / WORKS / SITE -
ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING INCLUDED
ASSISTANCE FROM COLLABORATOR FOR PROPOSAL AND
CONTRACT ENGINEERING
DETAILS OF NEW DESIGN DEVELOPED WILL BE GIVEN TO
BHEL
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 105 of 222
SCOPE OF TECH.INFORMATION SCOPE OF TECH.INFORMATION
DESIGN MANUALS
COMPUTER PROGRAMS
TYPICAL CONTRACT DRAWINGS
QUALITY MANUALS
ERECTION METHODS
COMMISIONING PROCEDURES
TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 106 of 222
TECHNICAL SUPPORT TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ASSISTANCEFOR PROPOSAL AND CONTRACT PERFOMANCE. ENGINEERING
SPECIAL ENGG FOR SELECTED AREA / ITEMS INDENTIFIED.
ASSISTANCE FOR ERECTION, COMMISIONING, OPERATION, REPAIR & SERVICING AND
RETROFITTING & UPGRADING.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 107 of 222
BACK-UP GUARANTEE BACK-UP GUARANTEE
COLLABORATOR WILL GIVE BACK- UP GUARANTEE FOR MEETING
TENDER REQUIREMENT.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 108 of 222
BHELS CAPABILITIES FOR BHELS CAPABILITIES FOR
ONCE THROUGH BOILER MANUFACTURING ONCE THROUGH BOILER MANUFACTURING
MORE THAN 30 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN BOILER MANUFACTURING OF VARYING CAPACITIES/
DIFFERENT CODES/ MATERIALS ETC.
MANUFACTURED OT BOILER COMPONENTS FOR TALCHER OT BOILERS
BUILT UP ADEQUATE MANUFACTURING CAPACITY AND HAS MODERNISED ITS FACILITIES
CONTINUOUSLY.
PLANNING TO TAKE UP A MAJOR INVESTMENT PROGRAMME FOR IMPLEMENTATION DURING NEXT
TWO YEARS FOR COMPLETE MODERNISATION OF ITS MANUFACTURING AND MATERIAL HANDLING
FACILITIES.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 109 of 222
MANUFACTURING OF COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO MANUFACTURING OF COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO
ONCE THRO TECHNOLOGY ONCE THRO TECHNOLOGY
SPIRAL WATER WALL PANELS
FACILITY AVAILABLE TO MAKE STRAIGHT PANELS.
PLANNING FOR ACQUIRING SUITABLE MACHINERY FOR
SPIRAL WALL PANEL
BURNER PANELS
TECHNOLOGY EXISTS TO MAKE BURNER PANEL WITH
BURNERS MOUNTED ON WALLS.
VERTICAL SEPERATOR
A SEPERATOR WITH TANGENTIAL ENTRY. LESS
COMPLICATED THAN THE CONVENTIONAL LARGE DRUM.
CAPABILITY EXISTS TO MANUFACTURE SUCH VESSELS.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 110 of 222
MANUFACTURING OF COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO MANUFACTURING OF COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO
ONCE THRO TECHNOLOGY (CONTD.) ONCE THRO TECHNOLOGY (CONTD.)
START-UP HEAT EXCHANGER OR START-UP RECIRCULATING PUMP
SYSTEM

- START-UP HEAT EXCHANGER CAN BE MANUFACTURED
AT BHEL(T) WITH THE EXISTING FACILITIES.
- CIRCULATING PUMP SYSTEM IS ALREADY AN
ESTABLISHED SYSTEM WITH THE PUMP BEING BOUGHT
OUT AS A VENDOR ITEM.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 111 of 222
VALVES ( 255 ata / 540

C / 568

C CYCLE )
MAIN STEAM STOP VALVES WC 9 TO C 12
MAIN STEAM VENT & DRAIN VALVES F 22 TO F 91
HP BYPASS VALVES F 22 TO F 91
MAIN STEAM SAEFTY VALVES
MAIN STEAM ELECTROMATIC RELIEF VALVES
HOT REHEAT LINE VENT AND DRAIN VALVES
HOT REHEAT LINE SAFETY VALVES
HOT REHEAT LINE ELECTROMATIC RELIEF VALVES
RH ISOLATION DEVICE
MANUFACTURING OF COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO MANUFACTURING OF COMPONENTS SPECIFIC TO
ONCE THRO TECHNOLOGY (CONTD.) ONCE THRO TECHNOLOGY (CONTD.)
ONLY
MATERIAL
SWITCH
NEEDED
ALREADY IN
PRODUCTION
RANGE
TO BE
DEVELOPED /
PROCURED
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 112 of 222
WITH THE ONCE THROUGH
BOILER TCA
BHEL IS FULLY GEARED UP
TO MEET
EMERGING
MARKET REQUIREMENTS
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 113 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 114 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 115 of 222
3. 3.2 2 Design and manufacturing of steam turbines for Design and manufacturing of steam turbines for
supercritical Parameters supercritical Parameters
BHEL
BHEL
STEAM TURBINE
FOR
SUPER CRITICAL PARAMETERS
BHEL, HARDWAR, INDIA
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 116 of 222
WORLD WI DE TRENDS WI TH ADVANCED STEAM PARAMETERS WORLD WI DE TRENDS WI TH ADVANCED STEAM PARAMETERS
DESIGNER/
SUPPLIER
POWER STATION/
UNIT
RATING
(MW)
PARAMETERS STATUS SOURCE OF
INFORMATION
TOSHI BA,
J APAN
HEK I NAN UNI T3 7 0 0
3 1 0 BAR / 5 3 7

C/593

C
COMM. POWER, MAY1 9 9 2
K AWAAGOE UNI TS
1 & 2
7 0 0 3 2 5 BAR /
5 7 1

C/5 6 9

C/5 6 9

C
COMM. I N
1 9 8 9 & 9 0
VGB K RAFTWERK
TECHNI K , 7 /9 4
J APAN
MATSUURA UNI T 2 1 0 0 0 2 5 6 BAR/
5 9 3

C/5 9 3

C /593

C
COMM I N 1 9 9 7 --DO--
-- 1 0 0 0 2 5 6 BAR/
5 9 3

C/5 9 3

C
COMM. HI TACHI REVI EW
VOL . 4 2 , 1 9 9 3
HI TACHI
J APAN
-- 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 BAR/
5 9 3

C/5 9 3

C/5 9 3

C
UNDER DEVEL . -DO-
ABB HERNWEG UNI T 8 6 5 0 2 5 0 BAR /
5 3 5

C/5 6 3

C
COMM. ABB REVI EW J AN
1 9 9 1
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 117 of 222
WORLD WI DE TRENDS WI TH WORLD WI DE TRENDS WI TH ADVANCED STEAM PARAMETERS ADVANCED STEAM PARAMETERS
DESIGNER /
SUPPLIER
POWER STATION /
UNIT
RATING
(MW)
PARAMETERS STATUS SOURCE OF
INFORMATION
MAN ENERGE /
GEC AL STHOM
ELSAM CONVOY
UNI TS 1& 2
386 2 9 0 BAR /
582

C / 580

C / 580

C
COMM.
I N1 9 9 7 , 9 8
VGB K RAFTWERK
TECHNI K , 7/94
ESBJ ERQVAERK E
UNI T 3
400 2 5 0 BAR /
562

C / 560

C
COMM. I N
1992
--DO--
LUEBECK UNI T 1 400 2 7 5 BAR /
580

C /600

C
COMM. I N
1995
--DO--
EUROPE
HESSLER POWER
PLANT
732 2 7 5 BAR /
5 8 0

C / 600

C
-- VGB K RAFTWERK
TECHNI K , 1 /9 4
EPRI -- 700 3 2 5 BAR /
593

C /593

C /593

C
DESI GN
COMPL .
POWER MAY 1 9 9 2
SI EMENS &
BHEL
TROMBAY UNI T 6 500 1 7 0 BAR /
538

C / 565

C
COMM. I N
1990
--
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 118 of 222
WORLD WI DE TRENDS WI TH WORLD WI DE TRENDS WI TH ADVANCED STEAM PARAMETERS ADVANCED STEAM PARAMETERS
DESIGNER /
SUPPLIER
POWER STATION / UNIT RATING
(MW)
PARAMETERS STATUS SOURCES OF
INFORMATION
30 TURBI NES 7 TO 125 UPTO 293 BAR & TEMP.
RANGE 550 - 640

C
(USI NG AUSTENI TI C
STEEL)
COMM. SI EMENS PAPER
PRESENTED AT EPRI
CONFERENCE NOV. 89
ALTBACH 395 2 6 3 BAR /
540

C / 565

C
COMM. I N
1997
SI EMENS GREY BOOK
SCHWARZEPUMPE 874 2 6 4 BAR /
542

C / 560

C
COMM. I N
1997
SI EMENS GREY BOOK
BOXBERG 910 2 6 0 BAR /
540

C / 580

C
COMM. I N
1999
SI EMENS GREY BOOK
BEXBACH 750 2 5 0 BAR /
575

C / 600

C
COMM. I N
1999
SI EMENS GREY BOOK
SI EMENS
GERMANY
FRI MMERSDORF 1000 2 5 0 BAR /
580

C / 600

C
COMM. I N
1999
SI EMENS GREY BOOK
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 119 of 222
DESCRIPTION VARIANT-I VARIANT-II
STEAM PARAMETERS
MAIN STEAM PRESSURE (ATA) 250 250
MAIN STEAM TEMP. (
o
C) 537 565
REHEAT TEMP. (
o
C) 565 565
BACK PRESSURE (ATA) 0.1 0.1
CYCLE CONFIGURATION
HP HEATERS: (NO.) 2 / 3 2 / 3
DEARATOR: (NO.) 1 1
LP HEATERS (NO.) 3 3
BOILER FEED PUMP 3x50 % 3x50 %
(2 Turbine Driven) (2 Turbine Driven)
(1 stand by motor driven) (1 stand by motor driven)
CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP 2x100 % / 3x50% 2x100 % / 3x50 %
500 MW STEAM TURBINE WITH SUPER CRITICAL PARAMETERS
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 120 of 222
VARIANT -I VARIANT-II
HP-MODULE H30-100 H30-100
IP-MODULE M30-63 M30-63
(DOUBLE FLOW) (DOUBLE FLOW)
LP-MODULE N30-2x10 N30-2x10
(DOUBLE FLOW) (DOUBLE FLOW)
M.S.VALVES 2xFV250 2xFV250
REHEAT VALVE 2xAV560 2xAV560
TURBINE MODULES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 121 of 222
HPT IPT LPT
CROSS SECTI ONAL VI EW OF 3 CYLI NDER CONVENTI ONAL STEAM TURBI NE
HMN SERI ES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 122 of 222
CROSS SECTIONAL ARRANGEMENT OF TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 123 of 222
OUTER CASING BARREL TYPE CASING
INNER CASING SPLIT IN TWO HALVES
ROTOR MONO BLOCK-DRUM TYPE
BLADING:
I
ST
STAGE IMPULSE BLADING
REMAINING STAGES REACTION BLADING
ROTOR COOLING HEAT SHIELD FOR VARIANT II
WITH VORTEX COOLING
COUPLING RIGID
VALVES CASING MOUNTED VALVES
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF HP TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 124 of 222
SPECIAL FEATURES :
NEW MATERIALS
HEAT SHIELD AT ROTOR INLET
IMPULSE BLADING FOR FIRST STAGE
INCREASED WALL THICKNESS
HP TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 125 of 222
OUTER CASING HORIZONTALLY SPLIT
INNER CASING HORIZONTALLY SPLIT
ROTOR MONO BLOCK-DRUM TYPE
BLADING:
I
ST
STAGE IMPULSE BLADING
REMAINING STAGES REACTION BLADING
ROTOR COOLING HEAT SHIELD FOR BOTH VARIANTS
COUPLING RIGID
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF IP TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 126 of 222
SPECIAL FEATURES :
NEW MATERIALS
HEAT SHIELD AT ROTOR INLET
IMPULSE BLADING FOR FIRST STAGE
IP TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 127 of 222
HEAT SHIELD WITH VORTEX BORES
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 128 of 222
ROTOR MONO BLOCK
OUTER CASING FABRICATED
INNER CASING CASTING
BLADING:
ALL STAGES REACTION BLADING
LAST STAGE ADVANCE LP LAST STAGE BLADE
GUIDE BLADE - HOLLOW & BANANA TYPE
COUPLING RIGID
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF LP TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 129 of 222
LP TURBINE
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 130 of 222
THROTTLE CONTROL GOVERNING
HIGH PRESSURE GOVERNING WITH EHA
(ELECTRO HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR) - FOR VARIANT II
GOVERNING
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 131 of 222
VARIANT I VARIANT II
HP OUTER CASING GS-17CrMoV511 GS-X12CrMoWVNbN 1011
HP INNER CASING GS-17CrMoV511 GS-X12CrMoWVNbN 1011
HP VALVES GS-17CrMoV511 GS-X12CrMoWVNbN 1011
HP ROTOR 28CrMoNiV59 X12CrMoWVNbN 1011
IP OUTER CASING GGG-40.3 GGG-40.3
IP INNER CASING G-X12CrMoVNbN 1011 G-X12CrMoVNbN 1011
IP VALVES G-X12CrMoWVNbN 1011 G-X12CrMoWVNbN 1011
IP ROTOR X12CrMoWVNbN 1011 X12CrMoWVNbN 1011
LP OUTER CASING ST 37-2 ST-37-2
LP INNER CASING GGG-40.3 GGG-40.3
LP ROTOR 26NiCrMoV 145 26NiCrMoV 145
MATERIALS FOR MAJOR COMPONENTS
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 132 of 222
BHEL HAS ALREADY SUPPLIED ONE SET OF 500 MW TO
TROMBAY -VI PROJECT WITH STEAM PARAMETERS AS
170 ATA/537/565
o
C . IN VIEW OF THIS BHEL WILL BE ABLE
TO SUPPLY STEAM TURBINE WITH STEAM PARAMETERS
OF 250 ATA /537/565
o
C WITH SUITABLE MODIFICATIONS
IN HP TURBINE AND ASSISTANCE FROM M/S SIEMENS-KWU
IN GOVERNING AREA. LP TURBINE WILL BE WITH
ADVANCE BLADING.
FOR STEAM PARAMETERS 250 ATA/565/565
o
C BHEL HAS
TIED UP WITH M/S SIEMENS FOR JOINT DEVELOPMENT
IN CASE OF A LIVE PROJECT.
STATUS OF TECHNOLOGY
FOR SUPER CRITICAL PARAMETERS
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 133 of 222
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 134 of 222
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG
Technical Session Technical Session II II
4.0 Once-Through Boiler Design & Operation Experiences, Reference Plants
Due to the merger of all power plants technology activities of Babcock Borsig AG in the company Babcock
Borsig Power (BBP) all experiences about power plant boiler technology are now focused in BBP.
References of steam generators of all kind of design concepts like 2-pass boilers with pendent platen
superheaters or 2-pass design with completely drainable heating surfaces as well as tower-type boilers up to a
hight of more than 160m with subcritical, supercritical or ultra supercritical steam parameters are available. For
the complete range of fossil fuels optimized firing concepts are available with own mills and burner systems. As a
result of the broad experiences gained with engeneering, manufacturing, erection and commissioning of plants
in Germany and abroad a highly sofisticated contract management system has been developted which satisfies
most demanding customers requirements.
The extensive know-how transfer within the frame of the Technical Collaboration Agreement between BHEL
and BBP will enable our Indian partner BHEL by means of extensive training and collaboration activities to
design, manufacture, erect and commission power plants in India with supercritical steam parameters of
comparable technology and quality standards.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 135 of 222
Technical Technical Session II Session II
Once Once- -Through Through Boiler Design & Operation Boiler Design & Operation Experiences Experiences, ,
Reference Plants Reference Plants
Babcock Borsig Power units all experiences of Babcock Borsig AG regarding
power plant and steam generator technology
Broad experience in all kind of steam generator design conceps
- 2-pass boilers with pendent platen superheaters
- 2-pass design with completely drainable heating surfaces
- tower-type design up to a hight of more than 160m
Optimized firing concepts for all kind of fossil fuels with own mills & burner systems
Strong and experienced contract management system
Extensive know-how transfer to BHEL within the Technical Collaboration Agreement
will enable BHEL to design, manufacture, erect and commission state of the art
supercritical power plants
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 136 of 222
Examples of Boiler Concepts Examples of Boiler Concepts
Two-Pass Boiler
without platen superheater
Two-Pass Boiler
with platen superheater
Tower Boiler
PS Heyden 4 - 920 MW
el
PS Kogan Creek - 700 MW
el
PS Staudinger 5 - 550 MW
el
66,0 m
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 137 of 222
Firing systems Firing systems
Front Opposed Corner Down Shot
T - Wall
Slag Tap Tangential All Wall
Bituminous Coal Lignite Coal
available for all types of fossil fuels.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 138 of 222
Firing System/
Power Plant
Unit
Capacity
MW
Boiler Type
Flow System
Fuel Comm.
Year
Front firing
- Doha West 300 Drum Oil/Gas 1982
- Jorge Lacerda 3 125 Drum Bitum. coal 1979
- Farge 320 BENSON Bitum. coal 1969
- Jorge Lacerda 4 350 BENSON Bitum. coal 1986
- CSN 1-3 150 Drum Blast Furnace Gas 2000
Opposed firing
- Avedrevrket 260 BENSON Bitum. coal 1989
- Studstrupvaerket 350 BENSON Bitum. coal 1983
- Voerde 707 BENSON Bitum. coal 1982
- Wilhelmshaven 770 BENSON Bitum. coal 1976
- Heyden 900 BENSON Bitum. coal 1987
- Dezhou 660 Drum Semi-Anthr. 2003
- Majuba 711 Benson Bitum. Coal 1999
T- Wall
- Altbach 320 BENSON Bitum. coal 1995
Tangential firing
- Megalopolis *) 300 Drum Lignite 1975
- Neurath 300 BENSON Lignite 1973
- Schkopau 450 BENSON Lignite 1996
- Weisweiler G + H 630 BENSON Lignite 1976
- Boxberg 800 BENSON Lignite 1996
- Lippendorf 930 BENSON Lignite 1999
- Niederauem 980 Benson Lignite 2002
Corner firing
- Walsum 400 BENSON Bitum. coal 1991
- Fyensvaerket 7 410 BENSON Bitum. coal 1991
Four-wall firing
- Buschhaus 350 BENSON Lignite
saliferous
1984
Slag tap furnace
- Elverlingsen 330 BENSON Bitum. coal 1982
- Yang Liu Qing 350 BENSON Bitum. coal 1996
- Ibbenbren 770 BENSON Bitum. coal 1985
Dry vertical firing
- Narcea / La Robla 350 BENSON Anthracite 1981/82
*) Net heating value: 900 ... 1400 kcal/kg
**) Cooperation with other boiler manufacturer
Steam Generators in Operation (Examples) Steam Generators in Operation (Examples)
Experiences with Different Firing- and Flow Systems Experiences with Different Firing- and Flow Systems
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 139 of 222
BBP's BBP's - Utility Boiler Contracts of the recent Years - Utility Boiler Contracts of the recent Years
Project Client Qty. Description Award Date Comments
Yang Liu Qing CNTIC Corp. 2 1025 t/hr boiler, bituminous coal-fired Feb 94 Once- Through, Slag Tap Type
Lippendorf VEAG 2 2360 t/hr boiler, lignite-fired Aug 94 Once- Through, Tower Type
Lnen STEAG 1 533 t/hr boiler, bituminous coal-fired Dec. 94 Once- Through, Tower Type
Bexbach Saarbergwerke 1 2048 t/hr boiler, bituminous coal-fired Dec. 94 Once- Through, Tower Type
Niederauem RWE-Energie AG 1 2514 t/hr boiler, lignite-fired May 95 Once-Through, Tower Type
Boxberg VEAG 1 2423 t/hr boiler, lignite-fired May 95 Once-Through, Tower Type
Yang Shu Pu
Shanghai Municipal
Electric Power Bureau
2 526 t/hr boiler, bituminous coal-fired July 95 Natural Circulation, Two Pass
PCK-Schwedt
PCK-Raffinerie
Schwedt
1 620 t/hr boiler, HSC-Residues Sep 95 Once-Through, Tower Type
Shi Dong Kou SMEPC-Shanghai 1
1050 t/hr boiler,
bituminous / subbituminous coal
Dec. 96 Once- Through, Two Pass
Companhia
Siderugica National
Siemens for CSN 3
337 t/hr boilers, natural gas,
blast furnace gas, steel plant gas,
tar, heavy fuel oil
Sep 97 Natural Circulation
Dezhou HUANENG 2 2009 t/hr boiler, anthracite-fired July 98 Natural Circulation
Elbistan B TEAS 4 1068 t/hr boiler, lignite-fired Aug 98 Once- Through, Tower Type
Westfalen VEW 1 928 t/hr boiler, bituminous coal March 99 Once- Through, Tower Type
HKW Hamborn RWE-Energie AG 1
642 t/hr boiler, blast furnace gas,
coke oven gas, natural gas
Aug. 99 (LOI) Once- Through, Tower Type
TPP- Iskenderun Bay Siemens for Steag 2 1884 t/hr boiler, bituminous coal Jan. 2000 (LOI) Once- Through, Tower Type
Kogan Creek
Siemens for Austa/
Southern Energy
1 2218 t/hr boiler, biuminous coal Dec. 99 (LOI) Once- Through, Tower Type
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 140 of 222
BBPs BBPs STEAM GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS STEAM GENERATOR INSTALLATIONS
1970 onwards 1970 onwards
Fuel Installed MW
Bituminous Coal 122 000
Lignite 43 000
Oil / Gas 108 000
WTE 4 000
HRSG 33 000
Total 310 000
Fuel Installed MW
Bituminous Coal 122 000
Lignite 43 000
Oil / Gas 108 000
WTE 4 000
HRSG 33 000
Total 310 000
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 141 of 222
Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing
Voerde Voerde (707 MW) (707 MW)
High pressure part
Steam rating 2160 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 206 bar
SH-Outlet temperature 530 C
Reheater
Steam rating (inlet) 1940 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 49bar
RH-Outlet temperature 530 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 142 of 222
Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing
Heyden Heyden (900 MW) (900 MW)
Reheater
Steam rating 2200 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 53 bar
RH-Outlet temperature 535 C
High pressure part
Steam rating 2405 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 215 bar
SH-Outlet temperature 535 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 143 of 222
PS PS Kogan Kogan Creek, Australia Creek, Australia
Boiler with supercritical steam parameters
1 x 700 MWel / 1 x 2218 t/hr
Once-through steam generator, Benson

Bituminous Coal 19,1 MJ/kg


Steam parameters:
545 C / 563 C / 264 bar
Net efficiency of 39.5 %
(dry cooling system)
Commissioning: 2002
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 144 of 222
Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing
Studstrup Studstrup (350 MW) (350 MW)
Reheater
Steam rating 978 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 60 bar
RH-Outlet temperature 540 C
High pressure part
Steam rating 1080 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 270 bar
SH-Outlet temperature 540 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 145 of 222
Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing Benson Boiler with Opposed Firing
Rostock Rostock (550 MW) (550 MW)
Reheater
Steam rating 1335 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 70 bar
RH-Outlet temperature 562 C
High pressure part
Steam rating 1500 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 285 bar
SH-Outlet temperature 545 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 146 of 222
Benson Boiler with Tangential Firing Benson Boiler with Tangential Firing
KW Schkopau KW Schkopau ( 450 MW ) ( 450 MW )
High pressure part
Steam rating 1360 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 262 bar
SH-Outlet temperature 545 C
Reheater
Steam rating (inlet) 1206 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 54 bar
RH-Outlet temperature 560 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 147 of 222
Lippendorf Power Plant Lippendorf Power Plant
2 x 930 MW 2 x 930 MW
Reheater
Steam rating 2213 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 69 bar
RH-Outlet
temperature 583 C
High Pressure Part
Steam rating 2420 t/h
Allowable working
pressure (gauge) 285 bar
SH-Outlet
temperature 554 C
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 148 of 222
PS Westfalen D, PS Westfalen D, Germany Germany
Boiler with ultra-supercritical steam
parameters
1 x 350 MWel / 1 x 926 t/hr
Once-through steam generator, Benson

Bituminous Coal 27.5 MJ/kg


Ultra-supercritical steam parameters:
600 C / 620 C / 290 bar
Net efficiency of 47%
Commissioning: 2003
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 149 of 222
Material Selection for Superheater and Reheater Tubing Material Selection for Superheater and Reheater Tubing
X20CrMoV12-1
< 565 C
X3CrNiMoN17-13
Material Live Steam Temperature

ASME Code 2115
Compound Tubes
Coextruded Tubes
HR3C ( 25 Cr 20 Ni Nb N )
600 C - 620 C
AC 66 ( 27 Cr 30 Ni Nb Ce )
Esshete 1250
DIN 17 175
DIN 17 459
VdTV 497 6.90
565 C - 580 C
620 C - 720 C
Corrosion Protection 50 % Cr - 50 % Ni Coating?
Alloy 617 ( NiCr23 Co12 Mo ) 700C,100.000 h, 95 N/mm
2
( < 545 C for SH )
TP 347H FG
ASME Code 2159
BS 3059 Part 2
Incoclad 671 / Incoloy 800 HT Producer INCO
VdTV 485 6.90
MITI Code Ka-SUS304J1HTB
580 C - 600 C
650C,100.000 h, 104 N/mm
650C,100.000 h, 92 N/mm
2
2
650C,100.000 h, 123 N/mm
2
650C,100.000 h, 85,5 N/mm
2
VdTV 520 12.97
MITI Code Ka-SUS310J2TB
Super 304H FG
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 150 of 222
Creep Rupture Mean Values Creep Rupture Mean Values
100.000 h 100.000 h
600 620 640 660 680 700
Temperature in C
50
100
150
200
N/mm
2
Esshete 1250
X 3 CrNiMoN 17 13
1.4910
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 151 of 222
Chemical Composition of High Alloyed Superheater Tubing Chemical Composition of High Alloyed Superheater Tubing
Material Material
C Si Mn P S Fe Cu Mo Ni Cr Ti Nb
Alloy 617
20,0-
23,0
res.
0,20-
0,60
8,0-
10,0
16,0-
18,0
2,00-
2,80
max.
1,00
-------
-------
0,60-
1,00
Others
X3CrNiMoN
17 13
X7NiCrCeNb
32 27
26,0-
28,0
31,0-
33,0
5,50-
7,00
0,75-
1,25
0,80-
1,20
Esshete 1250
14,0-
16,0
9,0-
11,0
max.
0.75
max.
2,00
max.
0,030
max.
0,030
res.
0,20-
0,60
------
------
Nf 709
0,04-
0,10
24,0-
26,0
17,0-
23,0
N 0,15 - 0,35
1,00-
2,00
19,0-
22,0
------
------
HR3C
------
------
0,04-
0,10
max.
0.75
max.
1,50
max.
0,030
max.
0,010
res.
23,0-
27,0
------
------
0,10-
0,40
0,02-
0,20
N 0,10 - 0,20
B 0,002 - 0,008
0,06-
0,15
0,20-
1,00
max.
0,040
max.
0,030
res.
------
------
------
------
V 0,15 - 0,40
B 0,003 - 0,009
1.4877(AC66)
0,04-
0,08
max.
0.30
max.
0,015
max.
0,010
res.
------
------
------
------
Ce 0,05 - 0,10
Al max. 0,025
1.4910
max.
0,04
max.
0,75
max.
2,00
max.
0,035
max.
0,015
res.
12,0-
14,0
------
------
------
------
------
------
B 0,0015 - 0,0050
NiCr23Co12
Mo, 2.4663
0,05-
0,10
------
------
------
------
------
------
------
------
max.
2,00
------
------
------
------
Co 10,00 - 13,00
Al 0,60 -1,50
N 0,10 - 0,18
TP 347H FG
17,0-
20,0
0,04-
0,10
max.
0.75
max.
2,00
max.
0,040
max.
0,030
res.
9,0-
13,0
------
------
8 x C
Super 304H
17,0-
19,0
0,07-
0,13
max.
0.30
max.
1,00
max.
0,040
max.
0,010
res.
7,5-
10,5
2,50-
3,50
0,30-
0,60
N 0,05 - 0,12
Incoloy 800 HT
19,0-
23,0
0,06-
0,10
max.
0,015
max.
0,010
res. 30,0-
35,0
------
------
------
------
------
------
------
------
------
------
Al 0,25 - 0,60 max.
0.70
max.
1,50
max.
0,50
------
------
0,25-
0,60 Al + Ti 0,85 - 1,20
Incoclad 671 0,05 51,5 48,0
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 152 of 222
Chemical Composition of Header and Piping Materials Chemical Composition of Header and Piping Materials
E 911
0,09-
0,13
0,10-
0,50
0,30-
0,60
max.
0,020
max.
0,010
max.
0,040
8,50-
9,50
0,10-
0,40
-------
-------
0,90-
1,10
0,001-
0,006
0,18-
0,25
0,06-
0,10
0,90-
1,10
-------
-------
0,050-
0,090
P 92
0,07-
0,13
max.
0,50
0,30-
0,60
max.
0,020
max.
0,010
max.
0,040
8,50-
9,50
max.
0,40
-------
-------
1,50-
2,00
0,030-
0,070
0,001
0,006
0,15-
0,25
0,04-
0,09
0,30-
0,60
-------
-------
P 122
max.
0,15
max.
0,70
max.
0,70
max.
0,030
max.
0,020
-------
-------
10,00-
12,60
max.
0,70
-------
-------
1,50-
2,50
0,020-
0,100
max.
0,005
0,15-
0,30
0,02-
0,10
0,20-
0,60
max.
1,70
0,08-
0,12
0,20-
0,50
0,30-
0,60
max.
0,020
max.
0,010
max.
0,040
8,00-
9,50
max.
0,40
-------
-------
-------
-------
0,030-
0,070
-------
-------
0,18-
0,25
0,06-
0,10
0,85-
1,05
-------
-------
P 91
C Si Mn P S Al V Mo Ni Cr N B W Ti Nb Cu
0,17-
0,23
max.
0,50
max.
1,00
max.
0,030
max.
0,030
max.
0,040
10,00-
12,50
0,30-
0,80
-------
-------
-------
-------
-------
-------
0,25-
0,35
0,80-
1,20
-------
-------
X20CrMoV
12-1
-------
-------
-------
-------
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 153 of 222
Creep Rupture Mean Values Creep Rupture Mean Values
100.000 h 100.000 h
480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700
Temperature in C
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
X20CrMoV12-1
P 92
E 911
X3CrNiMoN17-13
N/mm
2
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 154 of 222
Tungsten Containing New Martensitic Steels in Power Tungsten Containing New Martensitic Steels in Power
Stations Stations
PS Vestkraft
NF 616
PS Nordjyl l ands -
vaerket
HCM 12A
GK Kiel
Bl ock 3
NF 616
ID 160 x 45
PS Schkopau
Bl ock B
E 911

PS Staudinger
Bl ock 1
PS Skaerbaek
E 911
E 911
Bl ock 3
P 92
ID 230 x 60
ID 240 x 39
( 56 )
406,4 x 77
PS Nippon Steel
Kobe Japan
NF 616
ID 480 x 28
ID 201 x 22
ID 550 x 24
PS Westfal en
E 911
P 92
ID 159 x 27 650 C Steam, 180 bar
May 1998
PS Tachibanawan
Bl ock 1 + 2
1050 MW
P 92
P 122
800 x 120
500 x 80
Header
Piping
600 C Steam, 250 bar
June 2000
Jul y 2001
Power Station Material
Dimension
Component
Temperature Instal l ation
Live Steam Piping
1950 mm long
4000 mm l ong
Live Steam Piping
HP-Header
Induction Bend
Reheater Piping
Induction Bend
Live Steam Piping
Induction Bend
Live Steam Piping
Reheater
Header
Connecting Pipes
582 C Steam, 290 bar
582 C Steam, 290 bar
560 C Steam, 250 bar
569 C Steam, 179 bar
560 C Steam, 70 bar
540 C Steam, 213bar
545 C Steam, 53 bar
1996
1996
1996
1996
May 1997
1995
1992
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 155 of 222
Modern Modern Steam Steam Generators Generators
Niederauem Power Station Unit K
950 MWe
Fuel Lignite
Maximum cont. rating 698 kg/s
Main steam pressure 260 bar
Main steam temperature 580 deg.C
Reheater steam temperature 600 deg.C
Burner arrangement Tangential
No. and burner capacity 8 x 271 MW
Mill type Beater wheel mill
No. and mill capacity 8 x 143 t/h
Boiler dimensions (WxDxH) 23 x 23 x 149 m
Boiler house (WxDxH) 90 x 88 x 168 m
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 156 of 222
PS PS Dezhou Dezhou, , Shandong Province Shandong Province, China , China
2 x 660 MW
el
/ 2 x 2209 t/hr
Natural circulation steam generator
Semi-Anthracite (ash content 33.05 %
volatile matters daf 11.35 %)
Steam parameters:
- 541 C / 174 bar
- 541 C / 40.3 bar
Commissioning: 2003
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 157 of 222
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG
Technical Session II
5.0 Firing System
Babcock Borsig Power (BBP) has decades of experience in the design of firing systems for the whole
range of coal qualities.
To enable the use of a wide range of bituminous coals and low-grade hard coals, an advanced firing system
has to fulfill quite a number of criteria:
- Design of the burner zone and the furnance with due regard to the combustion behaviour and slagging
tendency of the coal
- Flexible mill system with variable grinding force and grinding fitness to adjust mill operation to the coal quality
- Pulverized coal burners with stable ignition over wide working range and varying coals as well as low No
x
emission
- Design of the main components with due regard to the ash content and wearing bahaviour of the mineral
components of the coal
BBP has in-house competence for both combustion chamber design and all firing components
Important features of the BBP firing concept for large hard coal fired steam generators are:
- Opposed firing system
- MPS mill
- DS burner.
For this system a great number of references plants with differing units capacities and steam generator
types are available. The coal qualities used cover the whole range of anthracites available in special locations
through very wide ranges of imported coals used at coastal stations world wide located up to high-ash coals
with high abrasivness which are comparable to the fuels fired in pit head stations in India.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 158 of 222
Firing Systems
for Low Grade Hard Coals
and Wide Coal Ranges
in India
Firing Systems Firing Systems
for Low Grade Hard Coals for Low Grade Hard Coals
and Wide Coal Ranges and Wide Coal Ranges
in India in India
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 159 of 222

Outline Outline
Outline
Coal Characterization
Major Design Requirements
Firing System
Main Features and Design Criteria
Main Components
NOx Emission
Part Load Operation
Changed Heat Absorption of the Furnace
References for
high-ash coals
wide coal ranges
Conclusions
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 160 of 222


Pit Head Stations
Type of coal
Low grade, unwashed
Indian hard coal
Main features
High ash (> 40 %)
Moisture partly higher (up to 16 %)
Ash abrasiv,
Wear factor high (YGP up to 80)
Volatile matter (daf) high
Sulphur low
Slagging tendency low
Coal Coal Characterization Characterization


Coastal Stations
Type of coal
Washed Indian hard coal
Imported bit. coal (wide range)
Main features
Ash content and
abrasiveness lower to normal
Coals from various countries
and mines,
with varying grinding,
combustion and slagging/fouling
behaviour
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 161 of 222
Range of Coal Qualities Range of Coal Qualities
0 10 20 30
0
20
40
60
80
Net calorific value, 10 kJ/kg
V
o
l
a
t
i
l
e

m
a
t
t
e
r

(
d
a
f
)
,


%
Indian
low grade
hard coal
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 162 of 222
Coal Data India Coal Data India
10
30
40
80
0
40
0
20
0
40
GCV
MJ/kg
Ash, ar
%
Moisture ar
%
Vol.M ar
%
Grind.
H
Indian Indian Imported
unwashed coal washed coal coal
(Talcher Design coal) (Tuticorin) (Tuticorin Perf. Coal)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 163 of 222
Wear Factor Wear Factor Indian Coals Indian Coals
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 2 4 6 8 10
Characteristic Ash Factor
W
e
a
r

F
a
c
t
o
r
[(% SiO
2
- 2x % Al
2
O
3
) x Ash dry/100]
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 164 of 222
Range of Imported Coal - 720 MW Unit, Coastal Station Range of Imported Coal - 720 MW Unit, Coastal Station
Calorific
value raw
MJ/kg
Ash raw
%
Moisture
%
Volatiles raw
%
Grindability
H
Ash melting
behaviour
C
oxid. atm.
30
25
20
Design Poland South- Australia USA India Canada Spits- China
and Africa bergen
guarantee value
20
10
0
20
10
0
40
30
20
10
80
60
40
1600
1400
1200
1000
ST HT
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 165 of 222

Major Firing System Design Requirements
for wide coal ranges and low grade hard coals
Major Firing System Design Requirements Major Firing System Design Requirements
for wide coal ranges and low grade hard coals for wide coal ranges and low grade hard coals
Design of burner zone and furnace with due regard to combustion
behaviour and slagging tendency of the coals
Flexible mill system, i.e. variable grinding force and grinding fineness,
in order to adjust mill operation to coal quality
Pulverized coal burner with
stable ignition over a wide operational range and varying coals
low NOx emission
Operation with low excess air
Design of the main components with due regard to the ash content and
the abrasiveness of the mineral matters of the coal
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 166 of 222

Firing System, Furnace Design
Firing System, Firing System, Furnace Furnace Design Design
Direct firing system
Opposed burner arrangement preferred for large bituminous boilers
(swirl type burners)
Advantages
stable ignition at each burner
more flexibility in number of mills and burners
more homogenious flue gas temperature profile at furnace exit
P.C. and air supply and control per burner row
Furnace design tools (available for product development at BBP)
One dimensional combustion simulation by FANAL
(Temp. profile, burnout, NOx prediction)
Three dimensional furnace simulation by CFD (FLUENT)
(Temp. profile, flow pattern)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 167 of 222
Tower Type Tower Type
Benson Benson Boiler Boiler
with with
Opposed Firing Opposed Firing
System System
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 168 of 222
Firing systems for large bituminous coal fired boilers Firing systems for large bituminous coal fired boilers
Opposed firing system is preferred regarding to
more flexibility in number of mills
more flexibility in number of burners
Opposed
Corner

EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt


Page 169 of 222
Furnace Design
Furnace Furnace Design Design
Burner and
Air nozzles Arrangement
Main Combustion Zone
Burnout Zone
NOx Reduction
Burn-Out Rate
NOx Generation
- Temperatures
- Velocities
- Concentrations
3D Calculation
of the Furnace
Heat Transfer Calculation
Boiler Geometry
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 170 of 222
Furnace Model FANAL for Furnace Dimensioning
Furnace Furnace Model FANAL Model FANAL for Furnace Dimensioning for Furnace Dimensioning
Basis Basis
Physical modelling Physical modelling of of kinetics and heat exchange kinetics and heat exchange
Semi Semi--empirical calculation empirical calculation of of mixing mixing
Input Input Data Data
Geometry Geometry
Stoechiometry Stoechiometry
Wall Wall Conditions Conditions
Coal Coal Data Data
Grinding Fineness Grinding Fineness
Burnertype Burnertype
Over Over--Fire Fire Air Air
Heat Heat Input Input
Calculated Data Calculated Data
Homogeneous and heterogeneous Reactions Homogeneous and heterogeneous Reactions
Turbulent Turbulent Mixing and Mixing and Diffusion Diffusion
Burnout Burnout
Emissions Emissions
Temperature Temperature
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 171 of 222
CFD CFD Furnace Furnace Simulation Simulation
Temperature
Distribution
Velocity Vectors Geometry
z4
z3
z2
z1
y2
y1
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 172 of 222
In- In-House House
Competence Competence
of of
All All Firing Components Firing Components
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 173 of 222

Main Components - MPS Mill
Main Components - MPS Mill Main Components - MPS Mill
Development of the MPS Mill
Considerable development within the last decade
Only few licensees are participating in this development
Main features of modern MPS Mill
Hydropneumatic grinding force adjustment
Static classifier or rotating classifier
Rotating nozzle ring
Flexible grinding force for load conditions and differing grinding
behaviour of the coal
Variable grinding fineness for wide range of coals
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 174 of 222
The The Development Development of of the the MPS MPS Mill Mill
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 175 of 222
BBP BBP Licence Overview Licence Overview
MPS MPS Mills Mills
Babcock
& Wilcox
USA
Basic
Licenser
Gebr.
Pfeiffer
AG
Babcock
Hitachi K.K.
Japan
Ansaldo
Breda
Italien
BPEG
P.R.China
SHMP
P.R. China
CMEC
P.R. China
Kawasaki
Heavy Ind.
Japan
DB Riley
USA
P.H.I.
England
Licens
intorg
Russian
Finished
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 176 of 222
MPS MPS Mill Mill
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 177 of 222
MPS MPS Mill Mill
SLS Louvre-type, Rotary Air Classifier SLK Vane Air Classifier
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 178 of 222

Main Features of BBP-MPS Mills for Indian P.S.
Main Features of BBP-MPS Mills for Indian P.S. Main Features of BBP-MPS Mills for Indian P.S.
Hydropneumatic grinding force
Optimal adjustment of grinding force to load conditions and coal quality
Turn down ratio 1:4
Mill start-up operation unloaded (cheaper drive motor)
High flexibility during operation
Mill design and material of wearing parts
Adequate wear life of grinding elements
Indian high ash coal: appr. 7 000 h
based on evaluation of experience in India and SA
Imported coals: pending on coal quality, up to 25 000 h
Wearing part replacement from side possible
Inside hard surfacing possible
Maintenance simple
Low operation cost
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 179 of 222
1
1 Vane classifier
2
2 Classifier riser
4
4 Neck bearing
5
5 Mill drum
6
6 Drive spur gear
7
7 Front / end wall
8
8 Spiral screw conveyor
Raw coal
Pulverized Fuel /
Gas Mixture
3 Coarse particle return
3
Bypass
Hot air
RKD RKD Mill Mill
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 180 of 222

Main Components - Burner
DS Burner
Main Components - Burner Main Components - Burner
DS Burner DS Burner
High flame stability
Low burner loads
Good burnout
Low NOx-Emission
Operation independent of coal
Intensive pyrolysis in fuel rich zone
Early ignition
Defined and delayed air supply and mixing
Features:
Process:
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 181 of 222

DS Burner
DS Burner DS Burner
About 800 burners delivered
Wide range of coals
Expected lifetime of wear parts
for high ash coals:
Burner: appr. 24 000 hrs (hardened steel, Ni-Hard)
P.c. pipe: appr. 24 000 hrs (hardened steel)
32 000 hrs (ceramic lining)
References:
Wear protection
design:
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 182 of 222
DS-Burner DS-Burner
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 183 of 222
Tertiary air
IR-Flame
Monitor
Secondary air

Core air
Oil lance
UV-Flame-
Monitor
DS-Burner DS-Burner
Swirler
Pulverized coal
Flame-
stabilizer
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 184 of 222
Design of DS Burners
Design of DS Design of DS Burners Burners
30 MW Test Facility
Operating Results
CFD FLUENT
Calculation of the Flame
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 185 of 222
DS-Burner DS-Burner
Temperature Mass Temperature Mass Fraction Fraction of O of O
22
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 186 of 222
Staudinger P.S., Unit 5 - DS Burner Flame Staudinger P.S., Unit 5 - DS Burner Flame
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 187 of 222
Reference Reference list list DS-Burner - 1999 September DS-Burner - 1999 September
8 9 9
129
175
263
383
643
787
795
819
843
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

o
f

D
e
l
i
v
e
r
e
d

B
u
r
n
e
r
s
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 188 of 222
Coals burned successfully with Coals burned successfully with p.c.-burners p.c.-burners
Range
Min. Max.
LCV MJ/kg 17.68 29.98
W (ar) % 1.6 18.5
A (ar) % 4.7 38.3
VM (daf) % 5.9 54.5
S (daf) % 0.4 1.34
O (daf) % 5.6 15.8
N g/MJ 0.39 0.85
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 189 of 222
NOx
NOx
Emission
Emission
Low Low NOx NOx DS Burner DS Burner
Expected Expected value for Indian coal value for Indian coal
< 650 mg/m < 650 mg/m
In In Compliance Compliance with with
World Bank Environmental World Bank Environmental Guidelines Guidelines 1997 1997
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 190 of 222
NOx-Emission NOx-Emission
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 10 20 30 40 50
Volatiles (daf) %
N
O
x
-
E
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

m
g
/
m


Shen AO
Rostock
MKV
Farge
Avedore
Staudinger
Voerde
Flensburg
HKW
Lnen
Nanticoke
World Bank Environmental Guidelines 1997
Expected values
for Indian coal
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 191 of 222
Part Load Operation Part
Part
Load
Load
Operation
Operation
Min. boiler load w/o supporting fuel
Low grade coal: 40 - 30 %
Imported bit. coal: - 20 %
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 192 of 222
Changed heat release in the furnace
by varying coal qualities
Changed heat release Changed heat release in the in the furnace furnace
by varying coal qualities by varying coal qualities
Varying combustion and fouling behaviour of different coals
within a wide range of coals cause varying heat release and
heat absorption in the furnace
Benson boiler principle compensates these effects by shifting
of the final evaporation point without diminishing efficiency
(Refer to former explanation!)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 193 of 222
Heat Heat Absorption of the Heating Absorption of the Heating Surface Sections Surface Sections
Staudinger Power Station, Unit 5 Staudinger Power Station, Unit 5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Pressure p, bar
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y

h
,

k
J
/
k
g
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Design
point
Shifting of
final evaporation point
60 % 100 %
Load
E
v
a
p
o
r
a
t
o
r
SH Outlet
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 194 of 222
References for Firing System
References for Firing System References for Firing System
References for wide range of imported bituminous coals
(examples)
720 MW Two pass type boiler, Coastal Station
550 MW Tower type boiler
References for high ash hard coals in Germany, South
America, China and South Africa
From South Africa experience with coals with abrasiveness
factors similar to Indian coals
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 195 of 222
Steam Generator
Wilhelmshaven P.S.
720-MW Unit
Steam Generator Steam Generator
Wilhelmshaven P.S. Wilhelmshaven P.S.
720-MW Unit 720-MW Unit
92,1 m
77,7 m
0 m
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 196 of 222
Range of Imported Coal - 720 MW Unit, Coastal Station Range of Imported Coal - 720 MW Unit, Coastal Station
Calorific
value raw
MJ/kg
Ash raw
%
Moisture
%
Volatiles raw
%
Grindability
H
Ash melting
behaviour
C
oxid. atm.
30
25
20
Design Poland South- Australia USA India Canada Spits- China
and Africa bergen
guarantee value
20
10
0
20
10
0
40
30
20
10
80
60
40
1600
1400
1200
1000
ST HT
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 197 of 222
Staudinger P.S., Unit 5
550-MW
Staudinger P.S., Unit 5 Staudinger P.S., Unit 5
550-MW 550-MW
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 198 of 222
Staudinger P.S., Unit 5 - Coal Data Staudinger P.S., Unit 5 - Coal Data
20
25
30
NCV ar MJ/kg
0
5
10
15
20
Moisture ar %
0
10
20
30
Ash ar %
1.000
1.200
1.400
1.600
Ash Def.Temp. C
40
60
80
Grind. H
0
10
20
30
40
Vol.M. ar %
Contractual range Imported coal used
of imported coal
Contractual range Imported coal used
of imported coal
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 199 of 222
Steam Generator for
High-ash Hard Coal
330-MW Unit
Pucheng P.S., China
Steam Generator for Steam Generator for
High-ash Hard Coal High-ash Hard Coal
330-MW Unit 330-MW Unit
Pucheng Pucheng P.S., China P.S., China
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 200 of 222
High-ash Coals Used in High-ash Coals Used in Benson Benson Boilers Boilers
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
10
20
30
40
Volatile matter, daf, %
A
s
h

c
o
n
t
e
n
t
,

%
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 201 of 222
Tutuka PS, 6 x 600 MWe
(Republic of South Africa)
Design Characteristics
Tower Type
Once-Through (BENSON)
Design Data
Max. Allow. Work. Pressure 195 bar
Max. Continuos Rating 1825 t/h
Outlet Temperature 540/540C
Firing System
High Ash Bituminous Coal
Dry Bottom , Opposed Firing
No. and Burner Capacity 24x94 MW
No. And Mill Capacity 6x69 t/h
Start of Commercial Service
Unit 1 - 6 1985-90
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 202 of 222
Bituminous - High Ash - Coal Fired Steam Generators Bituminous - High Ash - Coal Fired Steam Generators
20
25
30
35
40
0 200 400 600 800
Unit Capacity [MWel]
A
s
h

C
o
n
t
e
n
t

o
f

C
o
a
l

[
%
(
a
r
)
]
5 Units
6 Units
6 Units
6 Units
3 Units
3Units
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 203 of 222
Comparison of South African Coals to Comparison of South African Coals to Talcher Talcher Coal Coal
Coal Abrasivness and Coal Abrasivness and Grindability Grindability
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Duvha Hendrina Kriel Majuba Tutuka Talcher
Ash-Content %
SiO2-Content in Ash %
YGP-Index
(2kg Coal used)
Hardgrove
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 204 of 222
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0 10 20 30 40 50
Ash Content, %
A
b
r
a
s
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

(
m
g

F
e
/
k
g

c
o
a
l
)
Abrasiveness Abrasiveness of Coals of Coals
Analyses
1984 to 1998
1997 specification
from NTPC
Indian coal
Talcher
South African
coals
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 205 of 222
Conclusions
Conclusions Conclusions
Well-proved firing systems are available for the whole range of coal qualities
Advanced pulverizing and firing equipment allow the use of low grade coal and wide
fuel ranges with favorable ignition and burnout behaviour and reduced pollutant
emission
BBP has extensive experience with coal qualities similar to Indian low grade coals
Marks of BBP firing system for Indian high ash coal
Optimum operation of mills over load range and varying coal qualities
(MPS mill with hydropneumatic grinding force system)
Stable ignition of the flames over a wide operational range (DS burner)
Adequate life time of wear parts (mills 7 000 h, burners and p.c. pipes 24 000 h)
Operation with low excess air (air ratio 1.15)
Low NOx emission (in compliance with WB Standards)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 206 of 222
Conclusions (contd)
Conclusions Conclusions ( (cont contd) d)
Varying heat release and heat absorption in the furnace firing differing
coals are compensated in a Benson boiler due to its variable final
evaporation point
Benson boiler with advanced firing system forms the optimum
technical solution for the use of a wide coal range and low grade coals
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 207 of 222
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG
6.0 Supercritical boiler concept of BBP
Babcock Borsig Power (BBP) has gained broad experiences with subcritical and supercritical steam
generators in tower-type and 2-pass design. Both types of design, tower-type/2-pass, have their own
advantages and the decision for the most adequate design depends on an optimization process considering the
- fuel type (fouling, slagging, abrasivness of ash etc.)
- client requests regarding number of mills, max. burner capacity, general arragement, limitation of building
hight etc.
- manufacturing and erection limitation
- costs and prices
For Indian pit-head power stations firing non beneficiated (unwashed), highly abrasiv coal with extremly high
ash content and based on the broad experience of BBP with firing high ash bituminous coal especially gained in
South Africa (see chapter 6) BBP would prefer tower-type design. In respect of mitigating erosion problems by
avoiding flue gas stratification before entering convective heating surfaces tower-type design shows an
advantage in comparision to 2-pass design due lower tube failure rate. Power stations using beneficiated
(washed) Indian coal with lower ash content or costal power stations firing imported coal 2-pass design may be
chosen.
Technical Session III Technical Session III
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 208 of 222
Technical Session III
Supercritical Boiler Concept of BBP in India
BBP has gained broad experiences with sub-/supercritical steam generators in
tower-type and 2-pass design
Optimized design in principle depends on certain criteria like
- fuel type (fouling, slagging, abrasiveness of ash etc.)
- client request regarding no. of mills, max. burner capacity, general arrangement etc.
- manufacturing and erection limitations
- local costs for labor and raw materials
For Indian pit-head power stations firing non benificiated (unwashed) local high ash coal
BBP would prefer tower type design to mitigate fly ash erosion
For power stations firing benificiated (washed) Indian coal or costal power stations firing
imported coal 2-pass design may be chosen
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 209 of 222
Flow Scheme of Membrane Walls Flow Scheme of Membrane Walls
for Tower Boilers for Tower Boilers
Advantages of Tower Type Design
No temperature difference between
wall systems
Even profile of flue gas temperature
and dust concentration
Lower velocity of dust particles
Less erosion on pressure parts
Direct load transition to boiler roof;
through furnace walls and from
bundle system through support
tubes.
Free expansion of all systems
Transition from Spiral Tubing to
Vertical Tubing
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 210 of 222
Flow Scheme of Membrane Walls for Two-Pass Boilers Flow Scheme of Membrane Walls for Two-Pass Boilers
3.)
1.)
2.)
4.) 5.)
Detail:
Ties for Spiral Tubing
Temperature difference
between the wall systems
(Example Studstrup Power Plant)
Boiler Load
Location 100% 35%
1.) 2 K 1 K
2.) 7 K 1 K
3.) 13 K 1 K
4.) 2 K 3 K
5.) 7 K 17 K
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 211 of 222
700 MW Supercritical Unit 700 MW Supercritical Unit
General Arrangement Plant
41,9 m
0,0 m
15,7 m
49,3 m
66,0 m
C C
B
B
A A
Section A- A Section B - B
Section C - C
9500 11000 20000 23000 8500
72000
27500 11500 11500
98000
11000
50500
5
7
0
0
0
21816
31600
170000
55400
17056
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 212 of 222
605 MW Supercritical Unit 605 MW Supercritical Unit
General Arrangement Plant
+15,0 m
0,0 m
+39,7 m
+83,1 m
+87,6 m
+50,0 m
28500
11000 6000
17100
21200
10800
8500
8500
8500
8500
22700
15480
23053
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 213 of 222
Technical Session III Technical Session III
Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. - Babcock Borsig Power GmbH - Siemens AG
7.0 Operation & maintenance of once-through boilers based on experiences gained in South Africa
Babcock Borsig Power (BBP) has supplied 46 bit. coal steam generators with an overall steaming capacity
of about 57,000t/h in the last decades to the Republic of South Africa, thus broad experiences has been gained
with firing high ash South Africa coal.
Up-to-date statistics based on data from the last five years (1994 - 1998) from South African utility ESCOM
show a trend to slightly lower average values of the forced outage rate of power stations with once-through,
tower-type steam generators in comparison to those with drum-type, 2-pass steam generators.
A comparision of the tube failure rate of South Africa 600 MW units (data from 1998) with values available from
India show lower failure rate in the South African units. In addition a tendency to lower failure rate in
tower-type units can be detected from the South African data which is among other reasons
caused in a low tube failure rate caused by fly ash erosion in these tower-type steam generators.
Actual data based on South African 600 MW units give evidence that the maintenance costs of the power
stations with once-through, tower-type steam generators are within the same range or even lower than power
stations with steam generators of drum-type, 2-pass design.
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 214 of 222
Technical Session III
O. & M. of Once-Through Boilers, Experiences from Republic of South Africa
BBP has decades of experiences gained in 46 units with total 57,000 t/h steaming
capacity with firing South African high ash hard coal
Statistic data from the last 5 years (1994-98) from ESCOM power stations show a trend
to slightly lower forced outage rate of units with once-through, tower-type steam
generators in comparison to those with drum-type, 2-pass design
Lower tube failure rate of tower-type steam generators is among other reasons caused
in a low number of tube failures by fly ash erosion due to tower-type design
Maintenance costs of S.A. power stations with BBP once-through, tower-type steam
generators are comparable or even lower than power stations with drum-type, 2-pass
steam generators
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 215 of 222
Operation & Maintenance of Once - Through Boilers
Statistics from ESCOM, Republic of South Africa
- Availability Figures / Tube Failure Rate
- Maintenance Costs
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 216 of 222
Power
Plant
No.
of
Boilers
Steaming
Capacity
(t/h)
Fuel Type Boiler Type Steam
SH
(C/bar)
Conditions
RH
(C/bar)
Majuba 1-6 6 2,077 Hard Coal Once-Through 538/173 538/36
Sasol III 8 540 Hard Coal Nat. Circulation 435/56 -
Sasol II
(extension)
2 540 Hard Coal Nat. Circulation 435/56 -
Sasol II 6 540 Hard Coal Nat. Circulation 435/42 -
Tutuka 6 1,825 Hard Coal Once-Through 540/171 540/38
Duvha 6 1,825 Hard-Coal Once-Through 540/174 540/39
Kriel 6 1,584 Hard-Coal Once-Through 516/174 516/34
Hendrina 5 771 Hard Coal Nat. Circulation 543/134.4 -
Grootvlei 1 830 Hard Coal Nat. Circulation 543/111.3 -
Sum: 46 57,191
Steam Generators delivered by BBP to Republic of South Africa
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 217 of 222
Tutuka PS, 6 x 600 MWe
(Republic of South Africa)
Design Characteristics
Tower Type
Once-Through (BENSON)
Design Data
Max. Allow. Work. Pressure 195 bar
Max. Continuos Rating 1825 t/h
Outlet Temperature 540/540C
Firing System
High Ash Bituminous Coal
Dry Bottom , Opposed Firing
No. and Burner Capacity 24x94 MW
No. And Mill Capacity 6x69 t/h
Start of Commercial Service
Unit 1 - 6 1985-90
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 218 of 222
Lethabo PS, 6x618 MWe
(Republic of South Africa)
Boiler Manufacturer Brit. Babcock
Design Characteristics
2-pass
Natural Circulation
Design Data
Final Steam Pressure 173 bar
Max. Continuos Rating 1834 t/h
Outlet Temperature 540/540C
Firing System
High Ash Bituminous Coal
Dry Bottom
No. Of Burners 36
No. And Mill Capacity 6x80 t/h
Mill Type Horizontal Tube
(typical drawing)
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 219 of 222
Forced Outage Rate of ESCOM Power Stations, Rep. of South Africa
Source: ESCOM, Rep. of South Africa
Power Station Unplanned Capability Loss Factor
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Average
(1994-1998)
(%)
Tower-Type, Once-
Through
2-pass, Drum-Type
Steam Generator Design
Power Stations Evaluated
Tower-Type, Once-Through:
Majuba, Tutuka, Duvha,
Kriel, Matimba
2-Pass, Drum-Type:
Kendal, Matla, Lethabo, Arnot
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 220 of 222
Comparison of Tube Failure Rate
Source: ESCOM , Rep. of South Africa, 1998; BHEL Technical Paper at Conference on Boiler Tube Failure, 24th - 26th June 1998, NTPC, Noida, India
SG Tube Failure Rate per Year per Unit
0
1
2
3
4
India India South Africa South Africa
200 - 250 MW Units 500 MW Units
ESCOM, 200 to 700 MW Units
Tower-Type 2-Pass
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 221 of 222
Boiler Tube Failure Caused By Fly Ash Erosion (Rep. of South Africa)
Source: ESCOM Power Plant Engineering Division, Rep. of South Afrika
Power Station Duvha Tutuka
No. of Units / Capacity (MWel) 6 x 600 6 x 600
Commissioning Period 1980-84 1985-90
Evaporator System once-through once-through
Boiler Design tower-type tower-type
Operation Mode base load base load
Fuel bit. coal bit. coal
Fuel Ash Content (%) 27 27
Year Total number of boiler tube failures in 6 units caused by fly ash erosion
1995 1 0
1996 1 2
1997 1 3
EV 2 / Oktober, 99; NTPC Presentation. ppt
Page 222 of 222
Comparison of Maintenance Costs
(6x600 MW - Units, Rep. of South Africa, 1998)
Source: ESCOM, Rep. of South Afrika
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
(%)
Tutuka Duvha Lethabo Matla
Power Station
Relation of total Maintenance Costs for Power Stations
Basis + 0.08% - 1.1% + 7.7%
Steam Generator Design
Once-Through, Tower-Type Drum-Type, 2-pass