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CMOS Capacitance Estimation

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 1

MOS Transistor Capacitance


• Any two conductors separated by an insulator
have capacitance
• Gate to channel capacitor is very important
– Creates channel charge necessary for operation
• Source and drain have capacitance to body
– Across reverse-biased diodes
– Called diffusion capacitance because
it is associated with source/drain diffusion

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 2


MOS Transistor Capacitance
Gate Gate

Source Drain Source Drain

CGS CGD CGS CGD

CGB CGB

CSB CDB CSB CDB

VDD

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 3

Gate Capacitance
ε OX WL
CGB = = COX WL
tOX
• Define Cpermicron = CoxL
– Typically about 2 fF/µm
• Therefore, CGB = Cpermicron X W
• Realistically, there are additional capacitances.
However, the above
relationship is a
polysilicon
good approximation gate
W
of the gate
t ox
capacitance. L SiO 2
gate oxide
n+ n+ (good insulator, εox = 3.9ε0)
p-type body

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 4


Diffusion Capacitance
• CSB, CDB
• Undesirable, called parasitic capacitance
• Capacitance depends on area and perimeter
– Comparable to CG for
contacted diffusion
– ½ CG for uncontacted
– Varies with process

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 5

MOSFET Resistance
• The resistance of a MOSFET transistor must be
determined from the Shockley I-V relationships.
– However, Ids(Vds, Vgs).

– Therefore, R – the resistance to current moving


from the drain to the source is:
−1
⎛ ∂I ⎞
R = ⎜⎜ ds ⎟⎟
⎝ ∂Vds ⎠
• However,
– Shockley models for MOSFET transistor are not
accurate enough for modern transistors
– Too complicated for hand analysis
VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 6
Effective Resistance
• Simplification: treat transistor as resistor
– Replace with effective resistance R
• Ids = Vds/R
– R averaged across switching range of digital gate
• Simulate the transistor driving a known capacitance and
measure the time constant.
• Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time
– But good enough to predict RC delay

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 7

RC Delay Model
• Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors
– Ideal switch + capacitances and ON resistance
– Unit nMOS has resistance R, capacitance C
– Unit pMOS has resistance 2R, capacitance C
• The PMOS resistance should actually be (k’n/k’p)R
• Capacitance proportional to width
• Resistance inversely proportional to width
d
s
kC
kC
R/k
d 2R/k
s
g k g kC
g k g
s kC kC
kC d
s
d

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 8


RC Values
• Capacitance
– C = Cg = Cs = Cd = 2 fF/µm of gate width
– Values similar across many processes
• Resistance
– R ≈ 6 KΩ*µm in 0.6um process
– Improves with shorter channel lengths
• Unit transistors
– May refer to minimum contacted device (4/2 λ)
– Or maybe 1 µm wide device
– Doesn’t matter as long as you are consistent

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 9

Input Capacitance of the CMOS Inverter


• The input capacitance of the CMOS inverter can
be written as:
– Cin = CGN + CGP = (WN + WP) Cpermicron

– Cpermicron = COX X L:
• COX – the oxide capacitance which depends on the type
of oxide used and is inversely dependent on the
thickness of the oxide layer.
– COX is typically in the range of ~700aF/µm2
» a stands for atto – 10-18.
• L – the length of the channel.

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 10


Example
• Calculate the input capacitance for a CMOS
inverter with the following characteristics:
– COX = 690 aF/µm2
– WN / LN = 4µm / 2µm
– WP / LP = 8µm / 2µm

Using the expressions from above:


Cin = (WN + WP) Cpermicron
Cpermicron = L COX

Cpermicron = 2µm X 690 aF/µm2 = 1.38 fF/µm


Cin = (4µm + 8µm) X 1.38 fF/µm
Cin = 16.56 fF

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 11

Inverter Delay Estimate


• Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2 Y 2
A
1 1

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Inverter Delay Estimate
• Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2C

2C
2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1
C
R C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 13

Inverter Delay Estimate


• Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 14


Inverter Delay Estimate
• Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

d = 6RC
VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 15

Delay Components
• Delay has two parts
– Parasitic delay – due to capacitances of the
driving gate itself.
• 3 RC in the inverter example above.
• Independent of load.
– Effort delay – due to capacitances of the load
gates.
• The other 3 RC in the inverter example above.
• Depends on the number and type of driven gates.

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 16


Example: 3-input NAND
• Sketch a 3-input NAND with transistor widths
chosen to achieve effective rise and fall
resistances equal to a unit inverter (R).

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 17

Example: 3-input NAND


• Sketch a 3-input NAND with transistor widths
chosen to achieve effective rise and fall
resistances equal to a unit inverter (R).

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 18


Ex.: Capacitances of a 3-input NAND
• Determine the parasitic capacitances of a 3-input
NAND with transistor widths chosen to achieve
effective rise and fall resistances equal to a unit
inverter (R).

2 2 2

3
3
3

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 19

3-input NAND Caps


• Annotate the 3-input NAND gate with gate and
diffusion capacitance.

2 2 2

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 20


3-input NAND Caps
• Annotate the 3-input NAND gate with gate and
diffusion capacitance.

2C 2C 2C
2C 2C 2C
2 2 2
2C 2C 2C

3C
3
3C
3C
3
3C
3C
3
3C
3C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 21

Combining Capacitances
• Capacitors on source diffusions of transistors
connected to VDD or GND will be shorted out.
• The DC voltage on the second terminal of a
capacitor is irrelevant to delay calculation.
– Therefore, all capacitors will be estimated as
terminating to GND.

• Combine parallel and series capacitances in the


normal manner.

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 22


3-input NAND Caps
• Annotate the 3-input NAND gate with gate and
diffusion capacitance.

2 2 2

3 9C
5C
3 3C
5C
3 3C
5C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 23

Elmore Delay
• ON transistors look like resistors
• Pullup or pulldown network modeled as RC
ladder
• Elmore delay of RC ladder
t pd ≈ ∑
nodes i
Ri −to − sourceCi

= R1C1 + ( R1 + R2 ) C2 + ... + ( R1 + R2 + ... + RN ) C N


R1 R2 R3 RN

C1 C2 C3 CN

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 24


Example: 2-input NAND
• Estimate worst-case rising and falling delay of 2-
input NAND driving h identical gates.

2 2 Y
h copies
A 2
B 2x

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 25

Example: 2-input NAND


• Estimate rising and falling propagation delays of
a 2-input NAND driving h identical gates.

2 2 Y
A 2 6C 4hC h copies

B 2x 2C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 26


Example: 2-input NAND
• Estimate rising and falling propagation delays of
a 2-input NAND driving h identical gates.

2 2 Y
A 2 6C 4hC h copies

B 2x 2C

R
Y t pdr = ( 6 + 4h ) RC
(6+4h)C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 27

Example: 2-input NAND


• Estimate rising and falling propagation delays of
a 2-input NAND driving h identical gates.

2 2 Y
A 2 6C 4hC h copies

B 2x 2C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 28


Example: 2-input NAND
• Estimate rising and falling propagation delays of
a 2-input NAND driving h identical gates.

2 2 Y
A 2 6C 4hC h copies

B 2x 2C

x R/2 t pdf = ( 2C ) ( R2 ) + ⎡⎣( 6 + 4h ) C ⎤⎦ ( R2 + R2 )


Y

= ( 7 + 4h ) RC
R/2 2C (6+4h)C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 29

Diffusion Capacitance
• we assumed contacted diffusion on every s / d.
• Good layout minimizes diffusion area
• Ex: NAND3 layout shares one diffusion contact
– Reduces output capacitance by 2C
– Merged uncontacted diffusion might help too

2C 2C
Shared
Contacted
Diffusion Isolated
Contacted 2 2 2
Merged Diffusion
Uncontacted 3 7C
Diffusion 3 3C

3C 3C 3C 3 3C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 30


Layout Comparison
• Which layout is better?

VDD VDD
A B A B

Y Y

GND GND

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 31

Determining the Total Delay for a Circuit


• In order to determine the total delay for a circuit,
one has to determine the delay of each stage
and then calculate the total delay for all stages
combined.
– Two delays: rising and falling.
• Example, using Elmore Delay Model, determine
the total delay of the following circuit:
IN
OUT

12 C

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 32


Determine Transistor Sizes
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
OUT
N: 1

12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 33

Assume Logic Transition


PUN PUN
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
1 OUT
PDN 0 N: 1
PDN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 34


Determine Individual Stage Delays
PUN PUN
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
1 OUT
PDN 0 N: 1
PDN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R 3C 4(4C)

d = 19RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 35

Determine Individual Stage Delays


PUN PUN
IN P: 2
N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4 OUT
1
PDN 0 N: 1
PDN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R 6C 3C

d = 9RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 36


Determine Individual Stage Delays
PUN PUN
IN P: 2
N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4 OUT
1
PDN 0 N: 1
PDN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R 3C 5C + 5C + 3C = 13C

d = 16RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 37

Determine Individual Stage Delays


PUN PUN
IN P: 2
N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4 OUT
1
PDN 0 N: 1
PDN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R/2

R/2 4C 6C 12C

d = (R/2)4C + (R/2 + R/2) (6C + 12C) = 20RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 38


Total Rising Output Delay
PUN PUN
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
1 OUT
PDN 0 N: 1
PDN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

Tpdr = 19RC + 9RC + 16RC + 20RC = 64RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 39

Other Logic Transition


PDN PDN
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
1 OUT
PUN 0 N: 1
PUN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 40


Determine Individual Stage Delays
PDN PDN
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
1 OUT
PUN 0 N: 1
PUN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R 3C 4(4C)

d = 19RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 41

Determine Individual Stage Delays


PDN PDN
IN P: 2
N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4 OUT
1
PUN 0 N: 1
PUN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R/2

R/2 2C 6C 3C

d = (R/2)2C + (R/2 + R/2) (6C + 3C) = 10RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 42


Determine Individual Stage Delays
PDN PDN
IN P: 2
N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4 OUT
1
PUN 0 N: 1
PUN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R 3C 5C + 5C + 3C = 13C

d = 16RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 43

Determine Individual Stage Delays


PDN PDN
IN P: 2
N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4 OUT
1
PUN 0 N: 1
PUN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

R 6C 12C

d = 18RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 44


Total Falling Output Delay
PDN PDN
P: 2
IN N: 1 P: 2 P: 2
N: 2 N: 1 P: 4
1 OUT
PUN 0 N: 1
PUN
12 C
P: 2
N: 3

P: 2
N: 1

Tpdf = 19RC + 10RC + 16RC + 18RC = 63RC

VLSI Design Dr. Bassel Soudan – University of Sharjah 45