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Practicing Architect, Mumbai-400066, sslele456@rediffmail.com

Ar.Sarita .A.Deshpande.
Professor, D.Y.Patil College of Architecture,Mumbai, sarita288@yahoo.com ABSTRACT: Government is working towards achieving Affordable Housing on various levels. The reputed Research Laboratories like CBRI, SERC, Laurie Backer, Anna University, Development Alternatives, Cost Ford, Auroville Centre etc are working on several cost Effective technologies which are taken up and government Institutions like HUDCO, BMTPC.These institutions have taken up the technologies further by providing the Financial and Marketing support to the building centers, documenting the technologies,propogation of the technologies through conferences, training programmes,publishing manuals and creating self help groups. To Promote the Cost effective Building Constructions throughout the Country the Concept of Building Centres has emerged This paper is an overview of Governments role in propagating the different types of Cost Effective technologies on several Government and local levels through various organisations. KEY WORDS: Affordable Housing, cost effective technologies, environment friendly building construction, local materials, innovative technologies. SIGNIFICANCE OF LOW COST HOUSING WITH RESPECT TO POPULATION AND ECONOMY: It is a well known fact that about half of total investments in our country goes to construction sector. Construction costs in India are increasing around 50 percent over average inflation levels. This cost increase is due to increase in costs of essential building materials such as steel, cement, bricks, timber and other inputs as well as cost of labour. As a result the construction cost of a structure ranges from 3000-4000 per sq.m. approximately for a standard type of house Higher cost levels are registered for using better finishes and amenities. Economically weaker, low income groups and lower middle income groups cannot afford these rates. It becomes necessary to adopt the use of alternative building materials and construction technologies to save the scarce resources. This may be done by up gradation of local technologies using local resources or by application of modern materials and techniques. Exposed brick arches Rat trap bond Filler Slab Roofing Stablised Earth Blocks

(Source:www.bmtpc.org) It is found out that many practitioners and laymen are unaware of usage of appropriate techniques in construction. Some State Governments and agencies are propagating these technologies but they are not precise in specifications as well as lack of schedule of Rates makes the construction based on these technologies impossible. Many people are

privately using them but they will have more impact when Governments starts using them extensively. The appropriate technologies and their usage remains confined to lab and a few people because the delivery system is unable to establish a proper linkage from lab to land. AVAILIBILITY OF COST EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: Due to availability of varied low cost materials and technologies in India, the main organizations which are working towards their development and extension are (1)Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) (2)Structural Engineering Research Center (SERC) (3)Center of Application of Science and Technology of Rural Area (CASTRA) (4)Regional Research Laboratories (RRL) (5)National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and many others. (NEERI)

been developed by research laboratories like CBRI, SERC, Laurie Backer, Anna University, CASSTRA, and Auroville Earth Center. HUDCO and BMTPC have played an important role in documentation of these technologies and constructing many housing schemes through building centers. Many State Governments have also incorporated few of these technologies in their work manuals and rates for them were incorporated in their Schedule of Rates. Building Centers were established over in various states of countries for promotion of safe, cost effective and environment friendly building construction. Self help and use of local materials and technology were some of the main factors considered in extension of technology. Many building centers also started selling finished materials which were cheaper than the standard materials, creating an impact. Due to limitations of availability of particular materials in particular areas only certain kind of technologies could be applied over these regions. A very popular technology of using mud, sun dried bricks is used in several regions as mud is a readily available material. Stabilisation of soil is done by stabilisers like cement, lime, asphalt and molasses. In Rajasthan ample red stone is available so people construct stone masonry. Stone masonry using dress stone and rubble is used in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu, Kashmir and several other places. For decreasing the wall thickness, introduction of concrete block masonry is a welcome step as it reduces wall thickness and overall cost of masonry reduces. Due to the availability of kiln-burnt bricks, it is possible to use single brick load bearing walls up to five stories (mainly used in Haryana, UP, Bihar, Bengal). The mode of construction of rat trap bond is popular in Kerala due to unavailability of affordable building stones or cement concrete blocks. Some

(Source: www.cbri.org.in,www.bmtpe.org www.nirmithi.kar.nic.in) The technologies are found out to be appropriate at the local levels where the people having low income can afford them and use them with self help. A vast majority of population is using the technologies in many regions of the country. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN EXTENSION OF CEEF TECHNOLOGIES: The need of promoting the cost effective building construction throughout country to grass root levels led to the concept of establishment of building centers. The types of construction which were not specified in Government books of specifications or if their rates are not available in schedule of rates, such materials and technologies were to be promoted by building centers. Various alternate technologies have

another noteworthy constructions of walls can be enlisted as stone block masonry demonstrated by HUDCO low cost housing projects in Andhra Pradesh. Conventional walling system in North East areas called "Ekra" walls, factory made concrete panels, fly ash blocks and hollow concrete blocks are some of the materials and technologies used across the country. There are several other alternative building technologies developed by Building Centers and Government research labs which include For Roofing micro concrete tiles, precast channel units, planks and joists, Ferro cement roofing elements, funicular shells, filler slabs and panels, prefabricated brick panels, RCC channels etc. For Doors and Windows -use of secondary species of timber can be done for manufacturing door frames and panels. Other better alternatives for door frames are precast concrete frames which need a lesser maintenance and replacement. Auroville Building Center has manufactured Ferro cement panel for door shutter which is very good replacement for costly wood. The precast elements are cheaper and easier to install on the sites. Several building centers are in process of manufacturing these precast elements used in several ways in building construction. Precast Elements -Septic tanks, water tanks, poles, posts, shelves, biogas units, jails, lintels, unit rings and several other units are being manufactured by building centers. In spite of considerable efforts made by Government and the relevant institutions, the technologies do not reach to man and have a limited exposure. The institutional mechanism set up in 1986 in form of a Building center as Quilon (Kollam), Kerala has played a very significant role in ensuring technology transfers and training of artisans. LOW COST, ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIES: ROLE OF BMTPC,

CBRI, NIRMITEE KENDRAS, AUROVILLE EARTH CENTER AND HTG. 1] BMTPC (BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION COUNCIL): Their Motto remains from lab to land. They aim to bridge the gap between research and development and large scale application of new building materials and technologies. In July 1990, the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India has established the Building Materials and Promotion Council. The significant work is done by the Council by developing a large number of alternate materials and construction systems which are based on agricultural wastes. Council has also a link with various institutions involved in R and D, finance, industrial promotion and housing to establish their credentials and facilitate establishment of manufacture units. BMTPC'S WORKING STRATEGY: (1)Promotion of local materials, cost effective, energy efficient and innovative technologies. (2)Promotion of agro based products and systems, promotion of building materials and components. (3)Using cost effective, environment friendly materials, their quality improvement and cost reduction through standardisation and adoption of modern information.

L panel

rcc planks and joists C channel roofing

(Source: www.bmtpc.org) (4) Provision of service and transfer facility to Professionals and concerned people. 2] CBRI (THE CENTRAL BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE, ROURKEE):

The institute generates cultivates and promotes building science and technology in the service of the country. It was established in 1947 and since its establishment has been assisting the building industry in finding timely, appropriate and economical solutions to the problems of materials, rural and urban housing energy conservation, efficiency, fire hazard, structural and foundation problems and also disaster mitigation. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF QUALITY CONSTRUCTION: Building needs to be of high standard and quality for longer life. CBRI has developed a TEAM to develop and implement a methodology for Quality Improvement in Civil construction work. At National level it forms the link with HDFCO, BMTPC, Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Rural areas, Housing Boards, Government Societies, Engineering and Academic Institutions, Construction and building material industries.

'lab to land' was successful with the transfer of technology from R & D institutions in training and employment generation, and in development of new educational programmes. The effect of first Kendra has led Government to set up several Kendras in whole country and also integrate it in the National Housing Policy. The Kendras also helped providing shelter to several people who were rendered homeless to some natural calamities. Nirmitee Kendras set up production centresto make available fair priced cost effective building materials at local level. FUNCTIONING OF KENDRAS: (1)Transfer from 'lab' to 'land' of several cost effective technologies effective in urban and rural areas. (2)Manufacturing of cost effective building materials and components which are based on local natural or agro-wastes and facilitating the sales outlets for the various user group. (3)Training and up gradation of skills masons, carpenters, professionals, entrepreneurs and other building related work force in various cost effective building materials production techniques and construction systems. (4)Creating a pool of trained work force and meet

Bored Compaction Pile Foundation (Source: www.cbri.org.in)


various needs of housing, building, construction and other developmental activities taken by individual households or public housing / development agency. (5)Providing guidance, information and counseling on housing and building. Extensive awareness, campaigns and demonstration were launched which resulted in public acceptance of these technologies. Nirmitee Kendras organized various skills up gradation programs for various skills in masonry, carpentry, plumbing, landscaping and other skill related to housing. The another significant aspect of Nirmitee Kendras was setting up a 'Production Centers' to make

Composites and Door Shutters MISSION: To improve the Quality of Civil Construction Work under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan by means of Training, Regular Inspections & Other Quality Control Practices 3] BUILDING CENTERS (NIRMITEE KENDRAS): Building Centers played a significant role in extension of CFFE technologies. The first building center established at Quilon District at Kerala was a trend seller in CEEF technology, saving 30% of the cost. The movement

available fair priced cost effective building materials at local level. This ended in training of hundreds of youth and women thus generating employment contributing to alleviate poverty. The building materials these centers produced included:

The emphasis is mainly on earth based technologies. They conduct several training courses including soil identification, production of compressed stabilized earth blocks, masonry with stabilised earth technologies, building with arches and vaults. They also impart an extensive training in construction of vaults and domes. The special types of vaults include Egyptian centenary, Semi circular, Equilateral pointed bucket pointed and Segmental vault similarly they have developed Half segmental grained, Gayatri Equilateral and Gaudi domes. They have also done a significant work in introduction of disaster and earthquake resistant structures. 'Aum' House is one of the significant developments in earthquake resistant structures and also helped to rebuild after Gujarat earthquakes. 5] HABITAT TECHNOLOGY GROUP: It is the largest NGO working in Green Architecture and Appropriate technologies. It works in several states of India giving employment to over six

For walls Soil stabilized blocks, rubber filler blocks, conc. blocks. For Roofs Tiles, funicular shells, precast plate floors and panels etc. Other Items Ferro cement rafters, ridges, joists, concrete door and window frames, water tanks, sanitary wares etc.

Housing Guidance centers were set up to provide services by way of consultancy, design, estimation and execution as required by client.

. Nirmithi House P.T.P.Nagar Earthquake Resistant (Source: www.nirmithi.kar.nic.in) Houses. 4] AUROVILLE EARTH CENTER: It was previously named the Auroville Building Center which was founded by HUDCO, Government of India in 1989. The introduction of various technologies using earth as a main base and development of former building center in such a way led to evolution of Auroville Earth Center. Auroville earth center researches, develops, promotes and transfers earth based technologies, which are cost and energy effective. Technology extension is done through training courses, seminars, workshops, manuals and documents.A significant technology developed by the institute is Compressed Stabilised Earth Blocks (CSEB) Institute offers consultancy as well as offers various services within as well as outside country.

thousand workers, more than 200 Engineers and Architects on its rolls and 26 regional offices. Habitat has built a thousand of buildings all over country such as public buildings, school buildings, commercial complexes, tourist resorts, and hospitals. It has helped in decentralisation process in state by undertaking several development projects. A very significant project called Janakeeya Paripada Padhati has been undertaken by HTG to facilitate total technical support for building fifty thousand houses. It was instrumental in rehabilitation of hundreds of families in Bhopal Gas Tragedy also; they have worked for housing of cyclone hit areas in Orissa. They have also rendered their services for several homeless people. Training is one of their focus areas. HTG conducts training programme do upgrade the skills of professionals, artisans and skilled workers in habitat

sector. They also train women and lower income groups. Habitat school of Housing is a division of Habitat Technology Group which conducts training programs for the professionals, (Source: www.habitattechnologygroup.org) CONCLUSION: India has always faced an acute housing problem due to growing population and UN affordable building costs. With the availability of alternate technologies and materials which are much cheaper, there is a need of transferring them to needy to build low cost houses. Government has dealt this issue on various levels by creating BMTPC, establishing CBRI, Nirmitee Kendras, SERC, CASTRA Regional Research Laboratories, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and many related organisations. The technologies selected helped to some extent in employment generation, upliftment of women, decentralisation of production, conservation, recycling and reuse of resources as well as development of human resources. Although the Housing Problem in India is grave and cannot be resolved easily, these steps have surely helped in increasing the housing stock and creating employment and alleviating poverty to an extent. Reference: 1] www.bmtpc.org 2] www.cbri.org.in 3] www.auroville.org 4] Government Initiatives and Program for Affordable Housing National Work shop on Pro-poor Housing Finance. 5] www.unesco.org 6] www.habitattechnologygroup.org 7] Paper by Mr. V. Suresh, Director Corporate Planning HUDCO at symposium on Construction for housing and Infrastructure Delivery. 8] www.nirmithi.kar.nic.in