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AN OVERVIEW OF NUTRITION AND NUTRITIONAL PROBLEM IN INDONESIA

BAMBANG SUPRPATO DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

Human Nutrition encompasses the study and application of many disciplines

Nutrition Food Science Anthropology: Biochemistry Food beliefs Molecular Biology Ethnic influences Microbiology Geographic influences Genetics Physiology Histology Psychology Pathology Religion Pharmacology Sociology Medicine Human Nutrition FOOD PRODUCTION COMMUNICATION AND ECONOMICS Education Language Governmental Agencies Private agencies Mass media Income Geopolitical Agriculture Food technology Fisheries Transportation Marketing

FOOD HABITS AND BEHAVIOR

SCIENCE OF NUTRITION

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

Contributing Fields:
Medicine Agriculture Home Economics Behavioral Sciences Economics Dietary Studies Adults Children Infants Adolescence Families Chemistry Biology Physiology Genetics Bacteriology

Knowledge of Nutrition of Man

Deficiency-Disease Studies Anemia Scurvy Rickets Pellagra Beriberi Xerophthalmia Kwashiorkor

Chemical Analysis Food Bone Blood Tissue Body Fluids

Food and Crop Production-Distribution Soil Foodstuffs Plants Animals Feeding Experiments Marketing Man Microorganism Guinea Pigs Rats Dogs Farm Animals

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

WHAT IS NUTRITION ?

NUTRITION IS THE COMBINATION OF PROCESSES BY WHICH THE LIVING ORGANISM RECEIVES AND UTILIZES THE MATERIALS (FOOD) NECESSARY FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS FUNCTION AND FOR THE GROWTH AND RENEWAL OF ITS COMPONENTS ( Turner, 1970)

NUTRITION IS THE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF FOOD AND ITS CONSTITUENTS ON THE LIVING ORGANISM (Sir Harold Himsworth, 1968) NUTRITION IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOOD TO THE WELL-BEING OF THE HUMAN BODY (Krause&Mahan,1984)

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

WHY WE EAT ?
WHAT PROMPTS YOU TO EAT, YOUR REPLY MAY BE THAT IT IS HUNGER ANOTHER CUE IS APPETITE, THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DESIRE FOR FOOD WHICH MAY ARISE IN RESPONSE TO THE SIGHT, SMELL, OR THOUGHT OF FOOD EVEN WHEN YOU DONT NEED TO EAT

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

WHY YOU CHOOSE A PARTICULAR FOOD ?


TEMPTATION (THEY ARE DELICIOUS) PERSONAL PREFERENCE (YOU LIKE THEM) HABIT OR TRADITION (THEY ARE FAMILIAR, YOU ALWAYS EAT THEM) SOCIAL PRESSURE (THEY ARE OFFERED, AND YOU CANT REFUSE) AVAILABILITY (THERE ARE NO OTHERS TO CHOOSE FROM) CONVENIENCE (YOU ARE TOO RUSHED TO PREPARE ANYTHING ELSE) ECONOMY (YOU CAN AFFORD THEM) NUTRITIONAL VALUE (YOUT THINK THEY ARE GOOD

FOR YOU)

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

NUTRITION INCLUDES:

THE METABOLISM OF FOODS THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOD AT DIFFERENT AGES AND DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS MEET PHYSIOLOGICAL CAHNGES AND ACTIVITY NEEDS THE CHANGES IN NUTRIENT AND FOOD REQUIREMENTS THAT ACCOMPANY AND PREVENT DISEASE STATES THE ECONOMIC, PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SELECTION AND EATING FOODS

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

WHAT ARE FOODS ?

FOODS COMPRISE ALL THE SOLIDS AND LIQUID MATERIAL TAKEN INTO THE DIGESTIVE TRAC THAT ARE UTILIZED TO MAINTAIN AND BUILD BODY TISSUES, REGULATE BODY PROCESSES AND SUPPLY HEAT, THEREBY SUSTAINING LIFE

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS ?


FOODS ARE COMPOSED OF VARIOUS COMPOUNDS, BOTH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC, SO THAT ANY FOOD IS A CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR MIXTURE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS THESE COMPOUNDS AND ELEMENTS WHICH FOOD ARE COMPOSED ARE PROTEINS, LIPIDS, CARBOHYDRATES, MINERALS, VITAMINS AND WATER THE CONSTITUENTS IN FOODS ARE KNOWN AS NUTRIENT

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WHAT ARE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS ? (1)

AN ESSENTIAL NUTIRENT IS ONE THAT MUST BE PROVIDED TO THE BODY BY FOOD THE NUTRIENT THAT MUST BE SUPPLIED IN FOOD ARE ESSENTIAL FOR GROWTH AND NORMAL FUNTIONING OF THE BODY ARE LISTED BELOW:

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WHAT ARE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS ? (2)


PROTEIN AS SOURCE OF ESENTIAL AMINO ACIDS CARBOHYDRATE AS A SOURCE OF GLUCOSE FAT AS A SOURCE OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS MINERALS FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

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WHAT IS NUTRITIONAL STATUS ?

THE CONDITION OF THE BODY RESULTING FROM THE UTILIZATION OF THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS AVAILABLE TO THE BODY IS TERMED THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS (Boerma, 1975)

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GOOD NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS ESSENTIAL FOR:


NORMAL ORGAN DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION NORMAL REPRODUCTION, GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE OPTIMUM ACTIVITY AND WORKING EFFICIENCY RESISTANCE TO INFECTION THE ABILITY TO REPAIR BODILY DAMAGE OF INJURY
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NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS IN INDONESIA


PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM) IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA (IDA) IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (IDD) VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (VADD)

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PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (1)

IN 1999, 7.4 MILLION OF CHILDREN UNDERFIVE YEARS OF AGE (37.5%) WERE MALNOURISHED 1.7 MILLION WERE SEVERELY MALNOURISHED (6.3%) 170.000 SHOWED CLINICAL SIGNS OF MARASMUS AND KWASHIORKOR

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PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (2)

THE NUMBER OF UNDERWEIGHT CHILDREN IS HIGHER IN RURAL THAN IN URBAN AREA AND MORE PREVALENT AMONG MALE THAN FEMALE CHILDREN THE PREVALENCE OF STUNTING IS 40 - 50% AMONG CHILDREN UNDERFIVE YEARS OF AGE

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PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (3)

THE PREVALENCE OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABY (LBW) WAS 8-16% THE PREVALENCE OF PEM AMONG WOMEN AT REPRODUCTIVE AGE WAS 36.65%, AND 22 % AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

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IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA (IDA)

CHILDREN < 5 Y : 40.5 % SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN : 47.2 % 10 - 14 YEAR : 51.5 % 15 - 44 YEAR : 48.9 % 45 - 54 YEAR : 46.5 % 55 - 64 YEAR : 51.5 % > 65 YEAR : 52.9 % PREGNANT WOMEN : 50.9 % LACTATING MOTHERS : 45.1 %
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IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (IDD)

87 MILLION PEOPLE ARE LIVING IN ENDEMIC AREA 20 MILLION ARE SUFFERING FROM GOITRE 290,000 ARE CRETINS 9,000 NEW CRETINS WERE BORN TOTAL GOITRE RATE WAS 9.8 %

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VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (VADD)

XEROPTHALMIA AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN : 0.4% ACTIVE CORNEAL LESION : 0.05% SERUM VITAMIN A <10 ug/dL : 2.2%

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RECENT TRENDS
DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES DIETARY CHANGES OBESITY DEGENERATIVE DISEASE GLOBALIZATION

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