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Formulas and Names of Inorganic Compounds

Naming and Writing Ionic Formulas

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Naming Ionic Compounds with Two Elements


To name a compound that contains two elements,

identify the cation

and anion. name the cation first, followed by the name of the anion with an ide ending.

Charges of Representative Elements

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Names of Some Common Ions

Learning Check
Complete the names of the following ions: Ba2+ _________ N3 _________ Al3+ __________ O2 __________ K+ _________ F _________

P3 _________

S2 __________

Cl _________

Solution
Ba2+ barium N3 nitride P3 phosphide Al3+ aluminum O2 oxide S2 sulfide K+ potassium F fluoride Cl chloride

Examples of Ionic Compounds with Two Elements


Formula
NaCl K2S MgO CaI2 Al2O3

Ions cation anion Na+ ClK+ S2Mg2+ O2Ca2+ IAl3+ O2-

Name
sodium chloride potassium sulfide magnesium oxide calcium iodide aluminum oxide

Learning Check
Write the names of the following compounds: 1) CaO 2) KBr 3) Al2O3 4) MgCl2 ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

Solution
Write the names of the following compounds: 1) CaO 2) KBr 3) Al2O3 4) MgCl2 calcium oxide potassium bromide aluminum oxide magnesium chloride

Learning Check
Write the formulas and names for compounds of the following ions: Br S2 N3 Na+

Al3+

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Solution
Br NaBr sodium bromide S2 Na2S sodium sulfide N3 Na3N sodium nitride

Na+

Al3+

AlBr3 aluminum bromide

Al2S3 aluminum sulfide

AlN aluminum nitride

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Transition Metals Form Positive Ions


Most transition metals and Group 4 (14) metals form 2 or more positive ions. However, Zn2+, Ag+, and Cd2+ form only one ion.

Metals That Form More Than One Cation


The name of metals

with two or more


positive ions (cations) use a Roman numeral to identify ionic charge.

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Naming Ionic Compounds with Variable Charge Metals

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Naming Variable Charge Metals


Transition metals with two different ions use a Roman numeral after the name of the metal to indicate ionic charge.

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Naming FeCl2
To name FeCl2: 1. Determine the charge of the cation using the charge of the anion (Cl-). Fe ion + 2 Cl- = Fe ion + 2- = 0 Fe ion = 2+ 2. Name the cation by the element name and add a Roman numeral in parentheses to show its charge. Fe2+ = iron(II) 3. Write the anion with an ide ending. FeCl2 = iron(II) chloride

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Naming Cr2O3
To name Cr2O3: 1. Determine the charge of cation from the anion (O2-). 2 Cr ions + 3 O2- = 0 2 Cr ions + 3 (2-) = 0 2 Cr ions - 6 = 0 2 Cr ions = 6+ Cr ion = 3+ = Cr3+ 2. Name the cation by the element name and add a Roman numeral in parentheses to show its charge. Cr3+ = chromium(III) 3. Write the anion with an ide ending. chromium(III) oxide = Cr2O3
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Learning Check
Select the correct name for each. A. Fe2S3 1) iron sulfide 2) iron(II) sulfide 3) iron(III) sulfide B. CuO 1) copper oxide 2) copper(I) oxide 3) copper(II) oxide

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Solution

Select the correct name for each. A. Fe2S3 3) iron (III) sulfide Fe3+ S2-

B. CuO 3) copper (II) oxide

Cu2+ O2-

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Guide to Writing Formulas from the Name

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Writing Formulas
Write a formula for potassium sulfide. 1. Identify the cation and anion. potassium = K+ sulfide = S2 2. Balance the charges. K+ S2 K+ 2(1+) + 2(1-) = 0

3. 2 K+ and 1 S2 =

K2S

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Writing Formulas
Write a formula for iron(III) chloride. 1. Identify the cation and anion. iron (III) = Fe3+ (III = charge of 3+) chloride = Cl 2. Balance the charges. Fe3+ Cl Cl = (3+) + 3(1-) = 0 Cl 3. 1 Fe3+ and 3 Cl = FeCl3

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Learning Check
What is the correct formula for each of the following? A. Copper(I) nitride 1) CuN 2) CuN3 3) Cu3N B. Lead(IV) oxide 1) PbO2

2) PbO

3) Pb2O4

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Solution
The correct formula is A. Copper(I) nitride 3) Cu3N B. Lead(IV) oxide 1) PbO2

Need 3 Cu+ and N3-

Need Pb4+ and 2 O2-

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Formulas and Names of Inorganic Compounds


Polyatomic Ions

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Polyatomic Ions
A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms. has an overall ionic charge. Some examples of polyatomic ions are NH4+ ammonium OH hydroxide NO3 nitrate NO2 nitrite CO32 carbonate PO43 phosphate HCO3 hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)

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Some Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Some Names of Polyatomic Ions


The names of common polyatomic anions end in ate. NO3 nitrate PO43 phosphate with one oxygen less end in ite. NO2 nitrite PO33 phosphite with hydrogen attached use the prefix hydrogen (or bi). HCO3 hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) HSO3 hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)

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Names and Formulas of Common Polyatomic Ions

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Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions


The positive ion is named first, followed by the name of the polyatomic ion. NaNO3 sodium nitrate K2SO4 potassium sulfate Fe(HCO3)3 iron(III) bicarbonate or iron(III) hydrogen carbonate (NH4)3PO3 ammonium phosphite

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Guide to Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

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Some Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

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Learning Check
Match each formula with the correct name. A. MgS MgSO3 MgSO4 B. Ca(ClO3)2 CaCl2 Ca(ClO2)2 1) magnesium sulfite 2) magnesium sulfate 3) magnesium sulfide 1) calcium chlorate 2) calcium chlorite 3) calcium chloride

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Solution
Match each formula with the correct name. A. MgS MgSO3 MgSO4 B. Ca(ClO3)2 CaCl2 Ca(ClO2)2 3) magnesium sulfide 1) magnesium sulfite 2) magnesium sulfate 1) calcium chlorate 3) calcium chloride 2) calcium chlorite

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Learning Check
Name each of the following compounds: A. B. C. D. E. Mg(NO3)2 Cu(ClO3)2 PbO2 Fe2(SO4)3 Ba3(PO3)2

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Solution
Name each of the following compounds: A. B. C. D. E. Mg(NO3)2 Cu(ClO3)2 PbO2 Fe2(SO4)3 Ba3(PO3)2 magnesium nitrate copper(II) chlorate lead(IV) oxide iron(III) sulfate barium phosphite

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Writing Formulas with Polyatomic Ions


The formula of an ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion must have a charge balance that equals zero (0). Na+ and NO3 -> NaNO3

with two or more polyatomic ions has the polyatomic ions in parentheses. Mg2+ and 2NO3 -> Mg(NO3)2 subscript 2 for charge balance

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Learning Check
Select the correct formula for each. A. aluminum nitrate 1) AlNO3 2) Al(NO)3 B. copper(II) nitrate 1) CuNO3 2) Cu(NO3)2 C. iron(III) hydroxide 1) FeOH 2) Fe3OH D. tin(IV) hydroxide 1) Sn(OH)4 2) Sn(OH)2

3) Al(NO3)3

3) Cu2(NO3)
3) Fe(OH)3 3) Sn4(OH)

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Solution
Select the correct formula for each. A. aluminum nitrate B. copper(II) nitrate C. iron(III) hydroxide D. tin(IV) hydroxide 3) Al(NO3)3 2) Cu(NO3)2 3) Fe(OH)3 1) Sn(OH)4

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Learning Check
Write the correct formula for each. A. B. C. D. E. potassium bromate calcium carbonate sodium phosphate iron(III) oxide iron(II) nitrite

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Solution
Write the correct formula for each. A. B. C. D. E. potassium bromate calcium carbonate sodium phosphate iron(III) oxide iron(II) nitrite KBrO3 CaCO3 Na3PO4 Fe2O3 Fe(NO2)2

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Flowchart for Naming Ionic Compounds

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Learning Check
Name the following compounds: A. Ca3(PO4)2 B. FeBr3 C. Al2S3

D. Zn(NO2)2
E. NaHCO3

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Solution
Name the following compounds: A. Ca3(PO4)2Ca2+ PO43 calcium phosphate B. FeBr3 C. Al2S3 Fe3+ Br Al3+ S2 iron(III) bromide aluminum sulfide

D. Zn(NO2)2
E. NaHCO3

Zn2+ NO2

zinc nitrite

Na+ HCO3 sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate

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Learning Check
Write the formulas for the following: A. calcium nitrate B. iron(II) hydroxide C. aluminum carbonate

D. copper(II) bromide
E. lithium phosphate

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Solution
Write the formulas for the following: A. calcium nitrate Ca2+, NO3 B. iron(II) hydroxide C. aluminum carbonate Fe2+, OH Al3+, CO32

Ca(NO3)2
Fe(OH)2 Al2(CO3)3

D. copper(II) bromide
E. lithium phosphate

Cu2+, Br
Li+, PO43

CuBr2
Li3PO4

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Naming Covalent Compounds


In the names of covalent compounds, prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms (subscript) of each element. (mono is usually omitted)

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Guide to Naming Covalent Compounds

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Naming Covalent Compounds


What is the name of SO3? 1. The first nonmetal is S sulfur. 2. The second nonmetal is O, named oxide. 3. The subscript 3 of O is shown as the prefix tri. SO3 -> sulfur trioxide

The subscript 1 (for S) or mono is understood.

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Naming Covalent Compounds


Name P4S3. 1. The first nonmetal, P, is phosphorus. 2. The second nonmetal, S, is sulfide. 3. The subscript 4 of P is shown as tetra. The subscript 3 of O is shown as tri. P4S3 -> tetraphosphorus trisulfide

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Formulas and Names of Some Covalent Compounds

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Learning Check
Select the correct name for each compound.

A.

SiCl4

1) silicon chloride 2) tetrasilicon chloride 3) silicon tetrachloride


1) phosphorus oxide 2) phosphorus pentoxide 3) diphosphorus pentoxide 1) dichlorine heptoxide 2) dichlorine oxide 3) chlorine heptoxide

B.

P2O5

C.

Cl2O7

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Solution
Select the correct name for each compound. A. B. C. SiCl4 P2O5 Cl2O7 3) silicon tetrachloride 3) diphosphorus pentoxide 1) dichlorine heptoxide

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Learning Check
Write the name of each covalent compound. CO CO2 PCl3 CCl4 N2O _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

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Solution
Write the name of each covalent compound. CO CO2 PCl3 CCl4 N2O carbon monoxide carbon dioxide phosphorus trichloride carbon tetrachloride dinitrogen oxide

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Guide to Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds

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Example: Writing Formulas for Covalent Compounds


Write the formula for carbon disulfide.
STEP 1: Elements are C and S

STEP 2:

No prefix for carbon means 1 C


Prefix di = 2 Formula: CS2

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Learning Check
Write the correct formula for each of the following: A. phosphorus pentachloride

B. dinitrogen trioxide
C. sulfur hexafluoride

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Solution
Write the correct formula for each of the following: A. phosphorus pentachloride 1P penta = 5 Cl PCl5

B. dinitrogen trioxide di = 2 N tri = 3 O C. sulfur hexafluoride 1S hexa = 6 F SF6


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N2O3

Learning Check
Identify each compound as ionic or covalent, and give its correct name. A. B. C. D. E. SO3 BaCl2 (NH4)3PO3 Cu2CO3 N 2O 4

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Study Tip: Ionic or Covalent


A compound is ionic if the first element in the formula or the name is a metal or the polyatomic ion NH4+ . K2O K is a metal; compound is ionic; potassium oxide covalent if the first element in the formula or the name is a nonmetal.

N2O N is a nonmetal; compound is covalent;


dinitrogen oxide
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Solution
Identify each compound as ionic or covalent and give its correct name. A. B. C. D. E. SO3 BaCl2 (NH4)3PO3 Cu2CO3 N 2O 4 covalent sulfur trioxide ionic barium chloride ionic ammonium phosphite ionic copper(I) carbonate covalent dinitrogen tetroxide

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Learning Check
Identify each compound as ionic or covalent and give its correct name. A. Ca3(PO4)2 B. FeBr3 C. SCl2 D. Cl2O E. N2

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Solution
Identify each compound as ionic or covalent and give its correct name. A. Ca3(PO4) ionic B. FeBr3 C. SCl2 D. Cl2O E. N2 ionic covalent covalent covalent Ca2+ PO43 Fe3+ Br 1S 2 Cl 2 Cl 1 O element calcium phosphate iron(III) bromide sulfur dichloride dichlorine oxide nitrogen

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Learning Check
Determine if each is ionic (I) or covalent (C ), and write the formula. A. calcium nitrate B. boron trifluoride C. aluminum carbonate D. dinitrogen tetroxide

E. copper(I) phosphate

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Solution
Determine if each is ionic (I) or covalent (C ), and write the formula. A. calcium nitrate B. boron trifluoride (I) (C) Ca2+, NO3 1 B, 3 F Ca(NO3)2 BF3 Al2(CO3) 3 N2O4 Cu3PO4

C. aluminum carbonate (I) Al3+, CO32 D. dinitrogen tetroxide (C) 2 N, 4 O E. copper(I) phosphate (I) Cu+, PO43

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Acids
An acid can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. HCl Pure substance, hydrogen chloride Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid

An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.


HNO3 nitric acid carbonic acid

H2CO3 H2SO4

sulfuric acid
HNO3

Acids

Acids

Bases
A base can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.

NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2

sodium hydroxide potassium hydroxide

barium hydroxide

Hydrates
Hydrates are compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them. BaCl22H2O barium chloride dihydrate lithium chloride monohydrate magnesium sulfate heptahydrate strontium nitrate tetrahydrate

LiClH2O
MgSO47H2O Sr(NO3)2 4H2O

CuSO45H2O

CuSO4

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