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New Roman;} {\f8 Times New Roman;} {\f9 Arial Unicode MS;} {\f10 Arial;} {\f11 Arial Unicode MS;} {\f12 Arial;} {\f13 Arial;} {\f14 Times New Roman Italic;} {\f15 Arial Unicode MS;} {\f1000000 Times New Roman;} }{\colortbl; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; \red0\green0\blue0; }\viewkind1\viewscale100\margl0\margr0\margt0\margb0\deftab80\dntblnsbdb\expshrt n\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart Pg1}{\bkmkend Pg1}\par\pard \ql \li1624\sb0\sl-500\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li1624\sb0\sl-500\slmult0 \par\pard\ ql\li1624\ri1251\sb187\sl-500\slmult0\tx2114 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 \ul0\n osupersub\cf1\f2\fs46 The impact of service provider emotional \line \tab \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex106 intelligence on customer satisfaction \par\pard\ql \li434 6\sb65\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf2\f3\fs22 Sally Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte \par\pard\ql \li4270\sb26\sl-230\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw-9\charscalex93 \ul0\nosupersub\cf3\f4\fs20 University of New England , Armidale, Australia \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li102 0\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Ab stract \par\pard\qj \li1020\ri709\sb3\sl-220\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex9 2 Purpose - This study seeks to examine whether higher emotional intelligence di splayed by service providers leads to greater customer satisfaction. \up0 \expnd tw-7\charscalex93 Design/methodology/approach - A community sample of 150 partic ipants viewed video clips depicting a service provider displaying three differen t \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex93 levels of emotional intelligence in high or low s ervice difficulty transactions. \par\pard\qj \li1020\ri709\sb0\sl-220\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw-7\charscalex93 Findings - Higher emotional intelligence displayed by the service provider led to greater reported satisfaction with the service tran saction. Further, \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex94 there was an interaction between emotional intelligence of the service provider and transaction difficulty. In th e low transaction difficulty condition \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex96 there was pr ogressively more satisfaction at each higher level of emotional intelligence of the service provider. In the high transaction difficulty \up0 \expndtw-7\charsca lex92 condition, there was low satisfaction in the low service provider emotiona l intelligence condition, but no significant difference in satisfaction between \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex92 the high and medium levels of service provider emot ional intelligence. \par\pard\ql \li1020\ri708\sb0\sl-220\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-

7\charscalex94 Research limitations/implications - A limitation of the research is that the study\u8217?s experimental design sacrificed some external generaliz ability in \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex95 order to maintain internal validity and obtain more definite information regarding the causal effects of service provide r emotional intelligence on \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex92 customer satisfaction. Future research might examine the replicability of the present results in a fiel d study of actual service encounters. \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex96 Origina lity/value - The findings of the present study lend support to theoretically-ba sed claims of the importance of service provider emotional \up0 \expndtw-8\chars calex96 intelligence in determining customer satisfaction. \par\pard\qj \li1020\ ri3328\sb28\sl-380\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex93 Keywords Individual psyc hology, Servicing, Service delivery, Buyer-seller relationships, Customer satisf action \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex93 Paper type Research paper\par\pard\sect\sect d\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6289\colsr60\colno2\colw5691\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\ sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb11 \sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex119 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 An exe cutive summary for managers and executive\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb9\sl-207\sl mult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex122 readers can be found at the end of this artic le.\par\pard\qj \li1020\sb0\sl-215\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1020\ri299\sb2\sl-215 \slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 Emotional intelligence is the ability to u se emotions adaptively \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 (Salovey and Mayer, 19 90; Mayer and Salovey, 1997; Mayer \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosup ersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , 2000; Salovey\ul0\nosupers ub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , 2002). Theoretical perspecti ves on\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-215\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 what abilities comprise emotional intelligence differ somewhat \line \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex105 (e.g. Mayer\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub \cf5\f6\fs18 , 2000), but the most widely accepted model \line \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex111 with empirical support is a four-branch model proposed by\par\pard\q l \li1020\sb6\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 Salovey\ul0\nosupersu b\cf4\f5\fs18 et al. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (2002). This model posits that emotional\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl215\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 intelligence consists of the abilities to: perceive one\u8217?s own and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 others\u8217 ? emotions and to accurately express one\u8217?s own \line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex107 emotions; facilitate thought and problem solving through\pa r\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-215\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 use of emotion; understand the causes of emotion and \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 7 relationships between emotional experiences; and manage \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex107 one\u8217?s own and others\u8217? emotions.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri30 1\sb0\sl-214\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 The success of practica l workplace applications involving \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 emotiona l intelligence and the results of empirical research \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex107 investigating the relationship between emotional intelligence\par\pard\q j \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-215\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 and crucial wo rk-related factors suggest that emotional \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex119 intel ligence of employees is an important aspect of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 04 organizations \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 (Ashkanasy\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\f s18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 2002; C aruso and Wolfe,\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb5\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex107 2001; Goleman, 1995, 1998; Cherniss, 2000; Muchinsky,\par\pard\qj \ li1020\sb0\sl-199\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1020\ri785\sb79\sl-199\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex107 \ul0\nosupersub\cf6\f7\fs16 The Emerald Research Register for this journal is available at \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex118 www.emeraldinsight .com/researchregister\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri383\sb58\sl-198\slmult0 \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex109 The current issue and full text archive of this journal is avai lable at \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 www.emeraldinsight.com/0887-6045.htm\par\p ard\ql \li1847\sb0\sl-138\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1847\sb0\sl-138\slmult0 \par\p ard\ql \li1847\sb0\sl-138\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1847\sb108\sl-138\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs12 Journal of Services Marketi

ng\par\pard\ql \li1847\sb11\sl-138\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 19/7 (20 05) 438 - 444\par\pard\ql \li1847\sb12\sl-138\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 10 \ul0\nosupersub\cf8\f9\fs12 q\ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs12 Emerald Group Publi shing Limited [ISSN 0887-6045]\par\pard\ql \li1847\sb12\sl-138\slmult0 \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex108 [DOI 10.1108/08876040510625945]\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-2 07\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb163\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex1 00 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 438\par\pard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult 0 \par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb11\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 2000; Weisinger, \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 1998). Thus far, the emphasis in\par\pard\qj \li20\ri812\sb2\sl-211\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 organizational app lications of emotional intelligence has \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 been in areas such as employees\u8217? job satisfaction (Abraham, \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex109 2000; Carmeli, \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 2003; Lounsbury\ul0\nosupe rsub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x106 2003), effective\par\pard\ql \li20\ri812\sb1\sl-211\slmult0\tx200 \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex104 leadership (Bass, 2002; Caruso\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , 2002; Higgs and Aitken, \line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex106 2003), and productivity (Boyatzis\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , 2000). \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 C ustomer satisfaction is an additional important \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex104 organizational variable. Walker (1995) pointed out that all \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 elements of a service encounter, includi ng the physical \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 surroundings, waiting tim e, and importantly, the behavior \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 and pe rformance of service providers, can influence \line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex105 customers\u8217? level of satisfaction. Barlow and Maul \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex109 (2000)\par\pard\qj \li20\ri811\sb1\sl-211\slmult0 \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex105 theorized that high emotional intelligence in service provi ders \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 contributes to customer satisfaction. They posited that \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 customer satisfaction relates to a customer\u8217?s emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 experience during the service encounter, and that service \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex111 providers with high emotional intelligence should be better \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 able to create a positive emotional experienc e for customers. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 Evidence from studies inv estigating the effect of social-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 emotional qualities of service providers that might be \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex108 associated with higher emotional intelligence provides some \line \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex106 indirect support for Barlow and Maul\u8217?s propos ition. Two \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 correlational studies \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex104 (Price\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf 5\f6\fs18 , \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 1994; Winsted, \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex108 2000)\par\pard\qj \li20\ri813\sb0\sl-212\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 106 found that service provider qualities such as civility, concern, \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex108 attentivess, and congeniality were associated with customer \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 satisfaction. An experimental study (Lemmink and Mat tsson, \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 2002) found that more employee warmth led to greater \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 customer satisfaction.\par\pard\qj \li20\ri812\sb0\sl-211\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 The causal relationship between service providers\u8217? \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 10 emotional intelligence and the satisfaction of the customers \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex105 with whom they deal has not previously been empirically \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 investigated. Thus, the aim of the present stud y was to \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 experimentally examine the influence of service provider \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 emotional intelligence on cu stomer satisfaction. {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop12613\shpright5839\shpbottom12633\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz270\shplid0

{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1125\shptop13745\shpright1620\shpbottom14355\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz301\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 495}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 610}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;35;(50,310);(85,410);(150,490);(235,545);(335,565);(3 35,610);(215,590);(115,525);(40,435);(0,315);(5,205);(55,110);(130,35);(235,0);( 325,5);(405,40);(465,105);(495,190);(490,265);(460,330);(340,405);(240,385);(170 ,310);(215,290);(260,345);(330,355);(430,290);(445,180);(375,75);(320,50);(245,4 5);(155,75);(90,140);(55,220);(50,310)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;72;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457 7;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 209126 4}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1110\shptop14406\shpright1170\shpbottom14512\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz316\shplid2 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 60}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;13;(0,106);(0,0);(59,0);(57,15);(18,15);(18,44);(50,4 4);(50,58);(18,58);(18,91);(60,91);(60,106);(0,106)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;28;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1190\shptop14430\shpright1290\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz338\shplid3 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 100}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;21;(80,80);(80,25);(75,15);(60,25);(60,80);(40,80);(4 0,25);(35,15);(20,25);(20,80);(0,80);(0,25);(0,5);(15,0);(15,10);(35,0);(55,10); (80,0);(100,25);(100,80);(80,80)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;44;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1305\shptop14430\shpright1370\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz357\shplid4 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{

\sn geoRight}{\sv 65}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;15;(65,45);(55,10);(35,0);(10,10);(0,40);(35,80);(65, 70);(60,60);(40,70);(20,45);(65,45);(50,35);(20,35);(35,15);(50,35)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;32;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457 7;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1385\shptop14430\shpright1430\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz370\shplid5 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 45}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;12;(40,20);(35,15);(20,30);(20,80);(5,80);(5,25);(0,5 );(15,0);(20,15);(40,0);(45,0);(40,20)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;26;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1435\shptop14430\shpright1500\shpbottom14515\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz394\shplid6 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 65}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 85}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;21;(65,75);(60,55);(60,35);(60,15);(35,0);(0,10);(10, 25);(35,15);(45,30);(40,30);(0,60);(25,80);(45,75);(55,85);(65,75);(45,45);(45,6 0);(30,70);(20,60);(40,45);(45,45)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;44;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1515\shptop14400\shpright1545\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz406\shplid7 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 30}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 110}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;11;(20,110);(5,90);(5,25);(0,0);(20,0);(20,20);(20,85 );(20,100);(25,100);(30,110);(20,110)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;24;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1555\shptop14400\shpright1625\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz426\shplid8 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 70}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 110}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;18;(70,110);(65,85);(65,0);(50,0);(50,25);(50,40);(35 ,30);(0,70);(30,110);(50,105);(55,110);(70,110);(50,90);(35,100);(20,70);(35,45) ;(50,50);(50,90)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;38;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45

824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1035\shptop13665\shpright1700\shpbottom14615\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz437\shplid9 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 665}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 950}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;13;(665,875);(645,925);(590,950);(75,950);(25,925);(0 ,875);(0,75);(25,20);(75,0);(590,0);(645,20);(665,75);(665,875)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;28;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1035\shptop13665\shpright1700\shpbottom14615\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz447\shplid10 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 665}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 950}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;13;(665,875);(645,925);(590,950);(75,950);(25,925);(0 ,875);(0,75);(25,20);(75,0);(590,0);(645,20);(665,75);(665,875)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;28;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1125\shptop13745\shpright1620\shpbottom14355\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz461\shplid11 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 495}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 610}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;35;(50,310);(85,410);(150,490);(235,545);(335,565);(3 35,610);(215,590);(115,525);(40,435);(0,315);(5,205);(55,110);(130,35);(235,0);( 325,5);(405,40);(465,105);(495,190);(490,265);(460,330);(340,405);(240,385);(170 ,310);(215,290);(260,345);(330,355);(430,290);(445,180);(375,75);(320,50);(245,4 5);(155,75);(90,140);(55,220);(50,310)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;72;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457 7;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1110\shptop14406\shpright1170\shpbottom14512\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz475\shplid12 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 60}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 106}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;13;(0,106);(0,0);(59,0);(57,15);(18,15);(18,44);(50,4 4);(50,58);(18,58);(18,91);(60,91);(60,106);(0,106)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;28;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}}

{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1190\shptop14430\shpright1290\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz497\shplid13 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 100}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;21;(80,80);(80,25);(75,15);(60,25);(60,80);(40,80);(4 0,25);(35,15);(20,25);(20,80);(0,80);(0,25);(0,5);(15,0);(15,10);(35,0);(55,10); (80,0);(100,25);(100,80);(80,80)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;44;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1305\shptop14430\shpright1370\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz516\shplid14 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 65}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;15;(65,45);(55,10);(35,0);(10,10);(0,40);(35,80);(65, 70);(60,60);(40,70);(20,45);(65,45);(50,35);(20,35);(35,15);(50,35)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;32;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457 7;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1385\shptop14430\shpright1430\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz529\shplid15 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 45}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 80}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;12;(40,20);(35,15);(20,30);(20,80);(5,80);(5,25);(0,5 );(15,0);(20,15);(40,0);(45,0);(40,20)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;26;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1435\shptop14430\shpright1500\shpbottom14515\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz553\shplid16 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 65}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 85}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;21;(65,75);(60,55);(60,35);(60,15);(35,0);(0,10);(10, 25);(35,15);(45,30);(40,30);(0,60);(25,80);(45,75);(55,85);(65,75);(45,45);(45,6 0);(30,70);(20,60);(40,45);(45,45)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;44;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}

}} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1515\shptop14400\shpright1545\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz565\shplid17 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 30}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 110}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;11;(20,110);(5,90);(5,25);(0,0);(20,0);(20,20);(20,85 );(20,100);(25,100);(30,110);(20,110)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;24;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1555\shptop14400\shpright1625\shpbottom14510\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz585\shplid18 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 70}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 110}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;18;(70,110);(65,85);(65,0);(50,0);(50,25);(50,40);(35 ,30);(0,70);(30,110);(50,105);(55,110);(70,110);(50,90);(35,100);(20,70);(35,45) ;(50,50);(50,90)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;38;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45 824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768}} {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 167772 15}}{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P g2}{\bkmkend Pg2}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6289\colsr60\coln o2\colw5691\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-1 72\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1598\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 2 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 The impact of service provider emotional intelli gence\par\pard\ql \li2235\sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Sall y Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\par d\ql \li1020\sb32\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\nosupersub\cf 4\f5\fs18 H1\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . The primary hypothesis of the prese nt study was that\par\pard\ql \li1557\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex110 higher emotional intelligence shown by a service\par\pard\ql \li1557 \sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 provider leads to greater custo mer satisfaction.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb91\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc alex100 Salovey\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 6 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (2002) proposed that emotional intelligence\pa r\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 consists of the abilities to perceive one\u8217?s own and others\u8217? \line \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 emotions and to accurately express one\u8217?s own emotions, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 facilitate thought and pro blem solving through use of\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex120 emotion, understand the causes of emotion and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 relationships between emotional experi ences, and manage \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 one\u8217?s own and ot hers\u8217? emotions. A service provider who\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri302\sb1\ sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 manifests these abilities is likely to create a service encounter \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 that leads to high cu stomer satisfaction.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex107 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 H2\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . The leve l of emotional intelligence shown by a service\par\pard\ql \li1557\sb3\sl-207\sl mult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 provider may have the most effect on c ustomer\par\pard\ql \li1557\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 sati sfaction in difficult transactions.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb90\sl-209\slmult

0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 All service encounters occur in a specific contex t, and there \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 are many categories and dime nsions of context. One \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 important dimensio n of service encounters is how difficult\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb1\sl210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 versus routine they are. Because most s ervice encounters fall \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 somewhere on the dimen sion of difficulty and difficulty of a \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 transa ction is thus a component of all service encounters, the\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri3 01\sb1\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 present study set out to exam ine whether there would be an \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 interaction be tween emotional intelligence of a service \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 5 provider and difficulty of the service transaction. Because\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri299\sb1\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 the emotional r eactions of both the service provider and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 06 customer may be more intense in difficult transactions, it may \line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex109 be that in difficult transactions the emotional intelligenc e of\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 s ervice providers is more important than in simple \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex106 transactions.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex108 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 H3\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . Hi gh emotional intelligence of a service provider may\par\pard\ql \li1557\sb3\sl-2 07\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 have the most effect on customers who are likewise\par\pard\ql \li1557\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex106 high in emotional intelligence.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb92\sl-207\slmult0 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Hill and Stull \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 (1981) suggested that individuals generally\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\s lmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 prefer relationship partners who show s ocial characteristics \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 similar to their own, and Schutte\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (200 1) posited that \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 individuals may prefer others whom they perceive as being\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex106 similar in emotional intelligence to themselves. Further, those \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 higher in emotional intelligence m ay be better able to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 recognize and va lue this quality in others. These\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb1\sl-209 \slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 considerations led to the prediction of an interaction \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 between manifested service p rovider emotional intelligence \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 and emotional inte lligence of the customer.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-241\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l i1020\sb15\sl-241\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\f s21 Method\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb120\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex124 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 Participants\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\s lmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 A community sample of 150 individuals fro m Queensland, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 Australia, participated in t he study. Participants were \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 recruited from settings such as rotary club meetings, various\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb1\sl -209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 business organizations, a technical training institute, and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 through snowball networking efforts in different regions of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x107 Queensland. Participants\u8217? ages ranged from 18 to 80 years\par\par d\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-207\slmult0\tx5311 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 with an av erage age of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 39.48 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 ( SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 14.32); \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex107 86\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 of the\par\pard\qj \li102 0\ri301\sb1\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 participants were male a nd 63 were female, with one data set \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 missing gender and age information.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb197\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex121 Design and materials\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Design of the experiment al portion of the study\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . Service-provider \line \up0

\expndtw0\charscalex116 emotional intelligence and transaction difficulty were \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 experimentally manipulated through a vid eo presentation of\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex108 a simulated encounter with a service provider. A three (high, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 medium and low emotional intelligence display ed by the\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb151\sl -207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 439\par\p ard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult 0 \par\pard\ql \li1412\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\no supersub\cf11\f12\fs15 Journal of Services Marketing\par\pard\ql \li1117\sb90\sl -172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Volume 19 Number 7 2005 438 - 444\par \pard\qj \li6349\sb0\sl-214\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri813\sb19\sl-214\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 service provider) by t wo (high and low difficulty of service \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 trans action) design resulted in six different conditions. A \line \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex105 between-subjects design, in which participants were randomly \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 assigned to one of the six conditions, was used for this portion \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 of the research.\par\pard\q l \li20\ri812\sb0\sl-213\slmult0\fi170\tx200 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 \ul0\n osupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Video\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . Audio-visual presenta tions simulating service \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 encounters were chosen as the vehicle for conveying \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 emot ional intelligence of a service provider and transaction \line \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex110 difficulty. Lemmink and Mattsson (2002) and Bateson and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 Hui (1992) argued that audio-visual presentations are m ore \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 effective than purely verbal presenta tions for conveying \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 service encounters. Service interactions are dynamic \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 proce sses and a video presentation allows for more realism \line \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex105 than would be provided by verbal or written expressions of an \line \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 encounter (Bateson and Hui, 1992; Lemmink and Mattsso n, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 2002). Video clips of course do not have a s much mundane \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 realism as an actual inter active service encounter, but in \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 actual service encounters the dynamic interaction between \line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex113 customers and service providers is likely to introduce \line \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 additional factors that may influence satisfact ion. Thus, in \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 the interest of assuring that all participants in a condition \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 wer e exposed to exactly the same encounter, the decision was \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex108 made to use video clips of service encounters. \line\tab \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex109 Six separate video clips were constructed; each video clip \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 exemplified a different combination of lev el of service \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 provider emotional intellig ence and transaction difficulty. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 Emotional intelligence of the service provider was \line \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex104 manipulated to show three levels: high, medium, and low. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 The levels were operationalized using manifest ation of the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 emotional intelligence abili ties described by Salovey\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al. \line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex106 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (2002). In the high emotion al intelligence conditions, the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 service pr ovider showed behavior that reflected the ability to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex105 perceive the expected emotions of the customer, to express his \line \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 own emotions through appropriate facial expression and vocal \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 tone, to understand and reason wi th emotion through \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 comprehension of the consequences of his own emotions \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 and the expected emotions of the customer, and to manage \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 110 and regulate his own emotions and the customer\u8217?s expected \line \up0 \

expndtw0\charscalex110 emotions. In the medium emotional intelligence conditions , \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 the service provider showed the same qualit ies of perception, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 expression, and understa nding of emotions, but did not \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 display e ffective regulation or management of emotions. In \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex105 the low emotional intelligence conditions, the service provider \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 showed no perception, expression, understanding or \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 management of emotions.\par\pard\qj \li 20\ri811\sb0\sl-213\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 Transaction diffi culty was manipulated to show either low \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 diff iculty, through the portrayal of the purchase of an item of \line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex112 clothing from a department store, or high difficulty, which \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 involved the returning of faulty goods to the stor e of purchase. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Low difficulty transactions are shorter in duration and are \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 simple, uncomplicated interactions. The straightforward \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex119 purchase of an item was chosen to depict such an \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex104 interaction. Difficult transactions involve those in w hich a \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 customer\u8217?s goal has not been me t, there is a level of discontent \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 felt by the customer or the needs/wants of the customer are \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 110 complicated. Actual service transactions of this kind almost \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex113 always tend to be longer in duration due to the extra steps \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 needed in order to complete the transac tion. Thus, even \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 though it resulted in a confounding of length of the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 transacti on and level of difficulty of the transaction, the \line \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex109 decision was made to include extra steps in the videos \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 portraying the difficult transaction. {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop969\shpright5839\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpbx page\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz335\shplid0 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop969\shpright11168\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpb xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz337\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P g3}{\bkmkend Pg3}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6289\colsr60\coln o2\colw5691\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-1 72\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1598\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 2 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 The impact of service provider emotional intelli gence\par\pard\ql \li2235\sb91\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Sall y Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte\par\pard\qj \li1020\sb0\sl-210\slmult0 \par\par d\qj \li1020\ri300\sb25\sl-210\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\n

osupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 In constructing the video clips, efforts were made to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 minimize the potential for procedural confounds. The \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 dialogue used and the appro ximate length of the video clips\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb1\sl-210\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 for the three low difficulty conditions were kept as similar as \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 possible, as were the dialogue and approximate length in the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 three high diffi culty conditions. The length of the high\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 difficulty transaction videos was on av erage 15 seconds longer \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 than the length of th e low difficulty transaction videos. The \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 same male actor played the role of the service provider in all\par\pard\qj \li1020\r i301\sb0\sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 scenarios. The actor spo ke to the camera as though the \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 camera were th e customer, pausing briefly when a customer \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 might n aturally reply.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex113 As a qualitative check of the emotional intelligence \lin e \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 manipulations, two expert judges familiar wi th emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 intelligence theory rated the s ix video scenarios. The raters\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb0\sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 were blind as to which level of emotional intelligence was to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 be exemplified by each condition and w orked independently \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 of each other. They were asked to indicate whether the service\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-210\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 provider showed high, medium, or low emotional i ntelligence \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 in each of the scenarios. Both ra ters accurately identified the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 levels of em otional intelligence displayed by the service\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-20 7\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 provider in all six conditions.\par\pard\ qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nos upersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Emotional intelligence scale\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . Th is scale, developed by Schutte \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersu b\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (1998), is based on Salovey and Mayer\u8217?s (1990) original \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 conceptualizat ion of emotional intelligence. It consists of 33\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\s l-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 self-report items that assess the ext ent to which respondents \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 characteristically i dentify, understand, harness, and regulate \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 em otions in themselves and in others. Items include ones such\par\pard\qj \li1020\ ri300\sb2\sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 as \u8220?When I experienc e a positive emotion I know how to make \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 it la st,\u8221? and \u8220?I know why my emotions change.\u8221? Respondents \line \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 rate themselves on each item from 1 (strongly disagre e) to 5\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 (str ongly agree). Schutte\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al. \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex111 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (1998) reported internal\par\pard\qj \li 1020\ri301\sb3\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 consistency of 0.87 a nd 0.90 for two different samples and a \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 two-week t est-retest reliability of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex121 0.78. The internal\pa r\pard\ql \li1020\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 consistency o f the scale for the present sample of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 150\pa r\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb1\sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 particip ants was 0.87. Evidence of the scale\u8217?s validity includes \line \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex108 correlations with measures of attention to feelings, clarity o f \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 feelings, mood repair, optimism, impulse co ntrol, and lack of\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi0 \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex108 depressed affect (Schutte\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul 0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , 1998). Schutte\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0 \nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 (1998) \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 reported tha t in a community sample of 328 individuals, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal

ex111 women had a mean score of 130.94 (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nos upersub\cf5\f6\fs18 15.09) and men\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 had a mean score of 124.78 (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\f s18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 16.52).\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-210\sl mult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Customer satisfaction rating scale\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 . This widely-used \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 disconfirmation measure, initially develop ed by Churchill \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 and Surprenant (1982), w as selected to assess transaction-\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb0\sl-210\slmu lt0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 specific customer satisfaction with the transac tion portrayed \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 in the video. The measure is based on the expectancy-\line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 disconfirmati on paradigm, which posits that customers\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-2 10\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 compare service performance in an e ncounter with their \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 prior expectations about h ow a service provider should or \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 would perform (Bitner, \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 1990; Churchill and Surprenant,\par\p ard\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 1982; Walker, \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 1995). Danaher and Haddrell \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex114 (1996)\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri300\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex114 compared measures of customer satisfaction and their \line \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex105 results indicated that the disconfirmation measure was the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 most effective method for measur ing satisfaction. Danaher\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex113 and Haddrell \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 (1996) reported tha t the disconfirmation\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb1\sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex111 measure has good convergent validity and discriminant \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 validity. Further, they found that when t he number of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 response points is increased t o five, there is evidence of high\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 predictive validity for the disconfirmation measure. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Therefore, the disconfirmation measure used in this study \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 was an extensi on of the three-point measure constructed by\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb4\sl-207\slmu lt0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Churchill and Surprenant (1982), consisting of five points\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\s b151\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 44 0\par\pard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172 \slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1412\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 Journal of Services Marketing\par\pard\ql \li1117\ sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Volume 19 Number 7 2005 438 444\par\pard\qj \li6349\sb0\sl-213\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li20\ri812\sb21\sl-213\ slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 with the option s: \u8220?It was much better than I expected\u8221?, \u8220?It \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex112 was better than I expected\u8221?, \u8220?It was just as I e xpected\u8221?, \u8220?It \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 was worse than I ex pected\u8221?, and \u8220?It was much worse than I \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex105 expected\u8221? (Myers, 1999). The responses were coded such \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 that a \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 \u8220?1\u8221 ? indicated the greatest satisfaction while a \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 \u8220?5\u8221?\par\pard\ql \li20\sb5\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 07 indicated the least satisfaction.\par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par \pard\ql \li20\sb70\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex122 Procedure\par\pa rd\qj \li20\ri811\sb0\sl-213\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 An independent groups design was used in order to remove \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 an y possible sequencing confounds due to carry-over effects \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex103 or excessive exposure to the video clips. Participants were \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 randomly assigned to one of the six c onditions. Testing \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 sessions were either in a n individual or small-group format. In \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 the ca

se of the group sessions, all participants were randomly \line \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex105 assigned to the same condition. Participants were briefed with \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 a verbal introduction to the video scenario. They were asked \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 to imagine that they were the customer in the interaction. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 Participant s in the low transaction difficulty conditions \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex114 received the following verbal introduction, \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x113 \u8220?You, the\par\pard\qj \li20\ri812\sb0\sl-213\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex115 customer, have just found an item that you have not been \line \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 able to find in any other store and have taken it up t o the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 counter for purchase.\u8221? Partici pants in the high transaction \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 difficulty conditions received the following verbal \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex110 introduction, \u8220?You the customer, have had to come back to \line \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 the store to return goods that you have discov ered to be \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 faulty.\u8221? The participant s then viewed the video clip. After \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 vie wing the video, participants completed the customer \line \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex105 satisfaction rating measure and the Emotional Intelligence \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 Scale.\par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-241\slmult0 \ par\pard\ql \li20\sb91\sl-241\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosuper sub\cf9\f10\fs21 Results\par\pard\qj \li20\ri813\sb106\sl-213\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex113 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 The average customer satisfact ion score across all six \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 scenarios was 3. 32 (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.95), indicati ng moderate overall \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 satisfaction on the \up 0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 1 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 (greatest satisfactio n) to \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 6 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 (least\par\p ard\qj \li20\ri812\sb1\sl-212\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 satisfaction) scale. The customer satisfaction outcome \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 vari able was normally distributed. Table I shows \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex107 participants\u8217? mean satisfaction scores for each of the six \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 transactions depicted in the video scenarios.\par\pa rd\ql \li190\sb3\sl-207\slmult0\tx3162 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 Men had a mean score of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 3.23\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 110 (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.98) on the \par\pard\qj \li20\ri813\sb2\sl-213\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 custome r satisfaction variable and women a mean score of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 08 3.43 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosup ersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.91). A factorial ANOVA found no significant\par\pard\qj \li 20\ri813\sb2\sl-211\slmult0\tx200 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 interaction betwe en gender and the independent variables in \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 in fluencing customer satisfaction ratings, thus the remaining \line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex108 analyses report information for men and women combined. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 A two (transaction difficulty) by three (lev el of service-\par\pard\qj \li20\ri813\sb1\sl-213\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex106 provider emotional intelligence) independent groups factorial \line \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 ANOVA investigated the effects of service-provider emo tional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 intelligence, transaction difficulty, and self-assessed customer\par\pard\qj \li6349\sb0\sl-219\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \ li20\ri1130\sb82\sl-219\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex92 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4 \f5\fs18 Table I Average customer satisfaction for high, medium and low \up0 \e xpndtw-8\charscalex92 service provider emotional intelligence displayed in low a nd high \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex92 difficulty transactions\par\pard\ql \li1693 \sb100\sl-195\slmult0\tx2954\tx3932 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersu b\cf12\f13\fs17 High service\tab \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 Medium\tab \up0 \ expndtw-6\charscalex100 Low service\par\pard\ql \li2063\sb25\sl-195\slmult0\tx29 04\tx4286 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex86 EI\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex96 servi ce EI\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex86 EI\par\pard\ql \li20\sb25\sl-195\slmult0\ tx2054 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 Transaction difficulty M\tab \up0 \expndtw

0\charscalex106 SD n M SD n M SD n\par\pard\ql \li20\sb135\sl -195\slmult0\tx1643\tx2054\tx2464\tx2752\tx3162\tx3573\tx3861\tx4271\tx4682 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 Low\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 2.80\tab \up0 \ex pndtw-7\charscalex90 0.71\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 25\tab \up0 \expndtw7\charscalex90 3.52\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.71\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\ch arscalex90 25\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 4.24\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscal ex90 0.52\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 25\par\pard\ql \li20\sb24\sl-195\slmu lt0\tx1643\tx2054\tx2464\tx2752\tx3162\tx3573\tx3861\tx4271\tx4682 \up0 \expndtw -6\charscalex100 High\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 2.56\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\ charscalex90 0.65\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 25\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charsc alex90 2.72\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.68\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex 90 25\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 4.08\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.8 1\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 25\par\pard\ql \li20\sb131\sl-195\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw-7\charscalex92 Note: Lower scores indicate greater satisfaction {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop12959\shpright11168\shpbottom12979\shpfhdr0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz329\shplid0 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,0);(4819,0);(4819,20);(0,20)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop13716\shpright11168\shpbottom13736\shpfhdr0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz331\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop14623\shpright11168\shpbottom14643\shpfhdr0\ shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz393\shplid2 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop969\shpright5839\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpbx page\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz397\shplid3 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s

p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop969\shpright11168\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpb xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz399\shplid4 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P g4}{\bkmkend Pg4}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5893\colsr60\coln o2\colw6087\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-1 72\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1598\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 2 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 The impact of service provider emotional intelli gence\par\pard\ql \li2235\sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Sall y Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte\par\pard\qj \li1020\sb0\sl-217\slmult0 \par\par d\qj \li1020\ri0\sb13\sl-217\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 \ul0\nosupersu b\cf5\f6\fs18 emotional intelligence on customer satisfaction. Table II \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 provides a summary of the results.\par\pard\qj \li102 0\ri0\sb0\sl-217\slmult0\fi170\tx4904 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Service-provi der emotional intelligence had a significant \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x109 main effect on customer satisfaction. The effect size of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 service-provider emotional intelligence, .44, was large . Levels \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 of service-provider emotional intell igence were compared with \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 each other to de termine where the significant differences \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 occurred. Tukey\u8217?s HDS post hoc tests showed that the three \line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex111 levels of service provider emotional intelligence all \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 significantly differed from each o ther. Participants who \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 viewed the lowest level of service-provider emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 intel ligence reported lower satisfaction \tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 ( M\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 4.16,\par\pard\qj \l i1020\ri0\sb0\sl-217\slmult0\tx4904 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 SD\ul0\nosupers ub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.68) than those who viewed t he medium level of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 service-provider emo tional intelligence \tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 (M\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\ f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 3.12,\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-217\s lmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosuper sub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.80),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs 18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001, and participants who viewed the \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 highest level of service-provider emotional intel ligence \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 reported higher satisfaction \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex108 (M\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 2. 68, SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.80) than\pa r\pard\ql \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-216\slmult0\tx1190\tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 109 those who viewed the medium level,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosuper sub\cf10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.005. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex107 As can be seen in Table II, transaction difficulty also had a \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 significant main effect on customer satisfactio n. Participants \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 who viewed the low diffic ulty transactions reported overall \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 lower mean satisfaction (3.55, SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\ f6\fs18 0.88) than those who \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 viewed the h igh difficulty transactions (3.12, SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupers ub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.99). \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 There was a sig

nificant interaction between service \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 provi der emotional intelligence and transaction difficulty. \line \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex109 Further analyses explored at which level of service provider \lin e \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 emotional intelligence transaction difficulty had the most \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 impact on satisfaction rating s. A one-way ANOVA examining \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 service provider emotional intelligence in just low transaction \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 06 difficulty conditions showed a significant main effect, \line \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 F(2, 72)\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub \cf5\f6\fs18 30.30,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001. Tukey\u8217?s HDS post hoc tests \line \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 showed that in the low transaction difficulty condit ions, the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 mean satisfaction scores (see Tabl e I) for the three levels of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 service provide r emotional intelligence significantly differed \line \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex105 from each other. The mean satisfaction scores for the medium \line \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex105 versus high conditions and medium versus low condi tions \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 were significantly different at\ul0\nos upersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs1 8 0.001, and the means for \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 low versus high conditions were significant at\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\cf10 \f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001. \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex107 Another one-way ANOVA examining service provider \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex110 emotional intelligence in just high transaction diffic ulty \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 conditions showed a significant main eff ect, F(2, 72)\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 33.90, \ line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\c f10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001. Tukey\u8217?s HDS post hoc tests showed that in the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 high transaction dif ficulty conditions, there was a significant \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 d ifference in satisfaction between the low service provider \line \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex106 emotional intelligence condition and both the m edium \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 (\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosu persub\cf10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001) and high (\ul0\nosup ersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001) service provider emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 intelligen ce conditions; however there was no significant\par\pard\qj \li1020\sb0\sl -218\slmult0 \par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb76\sl-218\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charsc alex93 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Table II Effect of service provider emotiona l intelligence, transaction \line \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex91 difficulty, and c ustomer emotional intelligence on customer satisfaction\par\pard\ql \li4988\sb10 0\sl-195\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs17 Eta squared\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb26\sl-195\slmult0\tx4309\tx5303 \up0 \expndtw-7\c harscalex94 Source\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 F Sig.\tab \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex100 (\ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f14\fs17 h\ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs17 )\ par\pard\ql \li1020\sb135\sl-195\slmult0\tx5226 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 Se rvice-provider emotional intelligence (EI) 52.21 0.000\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\chars calex90 0.44\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb25\sl-195\slmult0\tx4246\tx5226 \up0 \expndtw -6\charscalex100 Transaction difficulty (TD)\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex96 9. 720.002\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.07\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb25\sl-195\sl mult0\tx4246\tx5226 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex94 Customer EI (CEI)\tab \up0 \exp ndtw-7\charscalex96 0.270.765\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.004\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb26\sl-195\slmult0\tx4246\tx5226 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 TD\ul0\ nosupersub\cf14\f15\fs17 3\ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs17 EI\tab \up0 \expndtw -7\charscalex96 3.920.022\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.06\par\pard\ql \li1 020\sb24\sl-195\slmult0\tx4246\tx5226 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 TD\ul0\nosup ersub\cf14\f15\fs17 3\ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs17 CEI\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\c harscalex96 0.170.842\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.003\par\pard\ql \li1020 \sb25\sl-195\slmult0\tx1244\tx4246\tx5226 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex86 EI\tab \u p0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf14\f15\fs17 3\ul0\nosupersub\cf12\

f13\fs17 CEI\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex96 1.590.182\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\ch arscalex90 0.05\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb26\sl-195\slmult0\tx4246\tx5226 \up0 \expn dtw-3\charscalex100 TD\ul0\nosupersub\cf14\f15\fs17 3\ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\ fs17 EI\ul0\nosupersub\cf14\f15\fs17 3\ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs17 CEI\ta b \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex96 0.130.973\tab \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex90 0.004\ par\pard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\s lmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1808\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \u l0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 Journal of Services Marketing\par\pard\ql \li1513\sb 90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Volume 19 Number 7 2005 438 - 44 4\par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li416\sb32\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 difference between t he medium and high service provider\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 emotional intelligence conditions.\par\pard\ql \li58 6\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Further, at the high level of service provider emotional\par\pard\ql \li416\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex109 intelligence, there was no significant difference between the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 low and h igh transaction difficulty conditions. Similarly, at the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\ sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 low level of service provider emotio nal intelligence, there was\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex105 no significant difference between the low and high transaction\pa r\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 difficulty cond itions. However, at the medium level of service\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\sl mult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 provider emotional intelligence, those in the high transaction\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x105 difficulty condition indicated greater satisfaction than those in\par\pard\ ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 the low transaction di fficulty condition,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 p\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 0.0001.\par\pard\ql \li586\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Participants mean score on the Emotional Intelligence Scale\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 was 12 2.04, (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 13.61); wo men had a mean score of\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex108 126.16 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 (SD\ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\ fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 12.42) and men a mean score of 119.15\p ar\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 (SD\ul0\nosupe rsub\cf10\f11\fs18 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 13.77). A bivariate correlation showed no significant\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex112 association between participants\u8217? level of emotional\pa r\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 intelligence as sessed as a continuous variable and customer\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 satisfaction scores.\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-2 07\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 A triadic split divided participants int o three levels (high,\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex106 medium or low) of emotional intelligence based on their\par\pa rd\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 scores. A factori al ANOVA investigated the interaction\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 between participants\u8217? emotional intelli gence, service\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 106 provider emotional intelligence, and transaction difficulty.\par\pard\q l \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 There was no significan t main effect of participant emotional\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 intelligence on customer satisfaction, nor a sig nificant\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 inte raction between participant emotional intelligence and\par\pard\ql \li416\s b4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 any other variable.\par\pard\ql \ li6349\sb0\sl-241\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li416\sb31\sl-241\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs21 Discussion\par\pard\ql \li416\sb111 \sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 The res ults of the present study supported the hypothesis that\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\s

l-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 higher emotional intelligence of service providers leads to\par\pard\ql \li416\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex110 greater customer satisfaction. At 0.44, the effect size of the \par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 impact of service provider emotional intelligence was\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\sl mult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 considerable. This finding is in accorda nce with the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 8 theoretical prediction made by Barlow and Maul \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 109 (2000)\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 th at the ability of a service provider to accurately and\par\pard\ql \li4 16\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 effectively perceive, expre ss, understand and regulate\par\pard\ql \li416\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex104 emotions in him or herself and others is a determinan t of\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 custome r satisfaction. It also complements the findings of\par\pard\ql \li416\sb 4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 previous studies (Lemmink and Matt sson, 2002; Price\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 et al.\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 ,\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 1995; Wins ted, \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 2000) indicating that service provider\par \pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 qualities relat ed to aspects of emotional intelligence are\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\ slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 associated with customer satisfaction.\par\ pard\ql \li586\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 The present stu dy found that emotional intelligence of\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 service providers significantly interacted with level of difficulty\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex111 of the transaction. However, this interaction did not clearly\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 support the prediction t hat emotional intelligence of service\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 providers would have most impact under conditions of hi gh\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 service di fficulty. In the low transaction difficulty condition\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 there was progressively more satisfacti on at each higher level\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex108 of emotional intelligence of the service provider. In the high\par\pa rd\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 transaction difficu lty condition, there was low satisfaction in\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 the low service provider emotional intelligence condition, but\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 7 no significant difference in satisfaction between the high and\par\pard\ql \li 416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 medium levels of service provider emotional intelligence.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex112 Further, at a medium level of emotional intelligence of t he\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 service p rovider there was more satisfaction for a difficult\par\pard\ql \li416\sb 2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 transaction than in a straightforw ard transaction.\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 113 It is difficult to be sure of the meaning of these findings\par\pard\ql \li4 16\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 regarding the interaction bet ween service provider emotional\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex112 intelligence and transaction difficulty. A speculat ive\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 interpret ation is that in high transaction difficulty situations,\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0 \sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb151\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscal ex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 441 {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop12401\shpright5839\shpbottom12421\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz440\shplid0 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}}

{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,0);(4819,0);(4819,20);(0,20)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop12940\shpright5839\shpbottom12960\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz442\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop14623\shpright5839\shpbottom14643\shpfhdr0\s hpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz543\shplid2 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop969\shpright5839\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpbx page\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz547\shplid3 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop969\shpright11168\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpb xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz549\shplid4 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P g5}{\bkmkend Pg5}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5893\colsr60\coln o2\colw6087\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-1 72\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1598\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 2 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 The impact of service provider emotional intelli gence\par\pard\ql \li2235\sb91\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Sall

y Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte\par\pard\qj \li1020\sb0\sl-210\slmult0 \par\par d\qj \li1020\ri0\sb25\sl-210\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersu b\cf5\f6\fs18 customers may be appreciative of both moderate and high \l ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 levels of service provider emotional intelligen ce. At the high \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 and low levels of service provider emotional intelligence, \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 emotiona l intelligence of the service provider may overshadow \line \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex112 other aspects of the interaction, while at a medium level of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 service-provider emotional intelligence, other factors such as \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 transaction difficulty can emerge to impact customer \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 satisfaction and the difficult transactions allow participants \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 to perceive the displayed emotional intelligence of the service \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex105 provider.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi170 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 There was also an overall main effect for di fficulty of \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 transaction, such that there was great er customer satisfaction \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 in difficult transactions. Perhaps difficult transactions create a \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 greater fe eling of connectedness between the service provider \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 and customer, and thus lead to more satisfaction.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\s l-210\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 There was no significant intera ction between participants\u8217? \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 emotional intelligence and service provider emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 11 intelligence. It may be that in brief retail encounters, such \line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex109 as the ones depicted in the scenarios, a match be tween \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 characteristics of the customer and ser vice providers is not \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 very important.\par\par d\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 Some cau tion should be employed in interpreting the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x113 results of this study. The study\u8217?s experimental design \line \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 sacrificed some external generalizability in order t o maintain \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 internal validity and obtain m ore definite information \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 regarding the ca usal effects of service provider emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 08 intelligence on customer satisfaction. Participants viewed \line \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex116 video clips and were not truly engaged in a servi ce \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 transaction. This procedure gave up some o f the realism of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 actual service transactions in order to maintain experimental \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 control ov er the manipulated variables. Similarly, only one \line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex108 actor was used for all scenarios and the actor portrayed \li ne \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 actions associated with high or low emotio nal intelligence \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 rather than being a service provider with actual high or low \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 emotional intelligence. Again, this led to fewer extraneous \line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex105 variables being introduced in the different conditions and thus \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 more internal validity, but may have limited the external \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 generalizability of the resul ts.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 9 Another limitation of the study is that the high versus low \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex114 difficulty of transaction scenarios varied both type of \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex110 transaction and length of time of the transaction. Even \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 though these two aspects of transactions ten d to co-vary in \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 actual service interactions, it makes it difficult to judge \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 whether the type o f encounter or the length of the encounter \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 influenc ed participants.\par\pard\ql \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-210\slmult0\fi170\tx1190 \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex105 Future research in the area of emotional intelligen ce of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 service providers and customer satisfa ction might examine the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 replicability of th

e present results in a field study of real \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex104 service encounters. If an experimental field study shows a \line \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 similar patterns of results for the impact of servic e providers\u8217? \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 emotional intelligence on customer satisfaction, the next step \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 might b e to investigate what impact systematic emotional \line \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex110 intelligence training of employees has on the satisfaction of \line \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 customers served by the employees. Future resear ch might \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 also tease out the specific impact of each specific aspect of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 emotional intellig ence, for example the impact of ability to \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 re cognize a customer\u8217?s emotions as separate from the ability \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex109 to regulate the customer\u8217?s emotions. Finally, future r esearch \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 might examine the effect of level of emotional intelligence of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 service providers o n different customer population groups. \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 O verall, the results of this study examining the role of \line \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex115 service-provider emotional intelligence in determining \ line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 customer satisfaction provided some eviden ce that, as\par\pard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li634 9\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1808\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 Journal of Services Marketing\par\pard \ql \li1513\sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Volume 19 Number 7 2005 438 - 444\par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li416\sb32\ sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 proposed by Caruso and Wolfe (2001), Goleman (1995;\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207 \slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 1998), Cherniss (2000), Muchinsky (200 0), and Weisinger\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex104 (1998), emotional intelligence of employees may be a factor in\par\pard\q l \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 organizational success. The findings of the present study lend\par\pard\ql \li416\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 support to theoretically-based claims of the im portance of\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 service provider emotional intelligence in determining\par\pard\ql \li416\s b3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 customer satisfaction.\par\pard\q l \li6349\sb0\sl-241\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li416\sb36\sl-241\slmult0 \up0 \expnd tw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs21 References\par\pard\ql \li416\sb 111\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 Abra ham, R. (2000), \u8220?The role of job control as a moderator\par\pard\ql \li586 \sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 of emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence-\par\pard\ql \li586\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\ charscalex100 outcome relationships\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journa l of Psychology\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 8 134,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 pp. 16 9-84.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 Ashkana sy, N.M., Hartel, C.E.J. and Daus, C.S. (2002),\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl -207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 \u8220?Diversity and emotion: the new frontiers in organizational\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex104 behavior research\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of Management\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 2 8,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 pp. 307-38 .\par\pard\ql \li416\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 Barlow, J . and Maul, D. (2000),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Emotional Value: Creat ing\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 Strong Bonds with Your Customers\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Berrett-Koehler, \par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 San Francisc o, CA.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 Bass, B.M. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 (2002), \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 \u8220?C ognitive, social, and emotional\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex104 intelligence of transformational leaders\u8221?, in R

iggio, R.E.\par\pard\ql \li586\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 and Murphy, S. (Eds),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Multiple Intelligences and Le adership\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 ,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 105-18.\par\pard\ql \ li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Bateson, J.E. and Hui, M.K . (1992), \u8220?The ecological validity\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 of photographic slides and videotapes in simul ating the\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 s ervice setting\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of Consumer Rese arch\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 19,\par\par d\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 pp. 271-82.\par\pard \ql \li416\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 Bitner, M.J. \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex115 (1990), \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 \u8220?Evaluating service encounter:\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex115 The effects of physical surroundings and employee\par\pard\ql \li5 86\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 responses\u8221?,\ul0\nosuper sub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of Marketing\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. 54, pp. 69-82.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 Boyatz is, R.E., Goleman, D. and Rhee, K.S. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 (2000),\ par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \u8220?Cluste ring competence in emotional intelligence\u8221?, in Bar-\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3 \sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 On, R. and Parker, J.D.A. (Eds),\u l0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 The Handbook of Emotional\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-2 07\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 Intelligence\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp. 343-62.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmu lt0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Carmeli, A. (2003), \u8220?The relationship between emotional\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex110 intelligence and work, attitudes, behavior and outcomes\u8221?,\par\pard \ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\ f5\fs18 Journal of Managerial Psychology\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. 18, p p. 788-813.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 C aruso, D.R. and Wolfe, C.J. (2001), \u8220?Emotional intelligence\par\pard\ql \l i586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 in the workplace\u8221?, in Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P. and\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 Mayer, J.D. (Eds),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Emot ional Intelligence in Everyday Life\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 ,\par\pard\ql \li 586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Psychology Press, Philadelph ia, PA, pp. 150-68.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex110 Caruso, D.R., Mayer, J.D. and Salovey, P. \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex115 (2002),\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x112 \u8220?Emotional intelligence and emotional leadership\u8221?,\par\ pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 in Riggio, R. E. and Murphy, S. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 (Eds),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f 5\fs18 Multiple\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charsca lex100 Intelligences and Leadership\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Lawrence Er lbaum, Mahwah,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 10 NJ, pp. 55-74.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x110 Cherniss, C. (2000), \u8220?Social and emotional competence in\par\pard\q l \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 the workplace\u8221?, i n Bar-On, R. and Parker, J.D.A. (Eds),\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 The Handbook of Emotio nal Intelligence\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Jossey-Bass,\par\pard\ql \li586\ sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 San Francisco, CA, pp. 433-58.\p ar\pard\ql \li416\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Churchill, G.A . and Surprenant, C. (1982), \u8220?An investigation\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-2 07\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 into the determinants of customer satisf action\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 Marketing Research\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\ f6\fs18 , Vol. 19, pp. 491-504.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex105 Danaher, P.J. and Haddrell, V. (1996), \u8220?A compar

ison of\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 ques tion scales used for measuring customer satisfaction\u8221?,\par\pard\ql \li586\ sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Int ernational Journal of Service Industry Management\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , V ol. 7,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 pp. 426.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 Goleman, D. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 (1995),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Emotiona l Intelligence\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Bantam,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\s l-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 New York, NY.\par\pard\ql \li416\sb2\ sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 Goleman, D. \up0 \expndtw-3\charsca lex100 (1998),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Working with Emotional Intelligen ce\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 ,\par\pard\ql \li586\sb4\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex105 Bantam, New York, NY.\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb151\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 \ul0\nosup ersub\cf4\f5\fs18 442 {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop969\shpright5839\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpbx page\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz399\shplid0 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop969\shpright11168\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpb xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz401\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P g6}{\bkmkend Pg6}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw5893\colsr60\coln o2\colw6087\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-1 72\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1598\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 2 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 The impact of service provider emotional intelli gence\par\pard\ql \li2235\sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Sall y Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb220\sl-230\slmult0\tx 1190\tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 Higgs, M. and Aitken, P. (2003), \u8220?An exploration of the \line\tab \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex107 relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership \l ine \tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 potential\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs 18 Journal of Managerial Psychology\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 18,\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb19\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex109 pp. 814-23.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0\tx1190\ tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 Hill, C.T. and Stull, D.E. (1981), \u8220?Se x differences in effects \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 of social and value similarity in same-sex friendship\u8221?, \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\ charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 41,\ par\pard\ql \li1190\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 pp. 488-502. \par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0\tx1190\tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charsca lex108 Lemmink, J. and Mattsson, J. (2002), \u8220?Employee behaviour, \line\tab

\up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 feelings of warmth and customer perception i n service \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 encounters\u8221?,\ul0\nosup ersub\cf4\f5\fs18 International Journal of Retail & Distribution\par\pard \ql \li1190\sb1\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 Management\ul0\nosup ersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. 30, pp. 18-33.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmul t0\tx1190\tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 Lounsbury, J.W., Loveland, J .M., Sundstrom, E.D., \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 Gibson, L.W., Drost, A.W. and Hamrick, F.L. (2003), \line \tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 109 \u8220?An investigation of personality traits in relation to career\par\pard \ql \li1190\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 satisfaction\u8221?, \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of Career Assessment\ul0\nosupersub\cf5 \f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 11,\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb23\sl-20 7\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 pp. 287-307.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb3\sl-2 07\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Mayer, J.D. and Salovey, P. \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex109 (1997), \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \u8220?What is emoti onal\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb23\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 intell igence?\u8221?, in Salovey, P. and Sluyter, D. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex11 1 (Eds),\par\pard\ql \li1020\ri0\sb11\sl-222\slmult0\fi170\tx1190\tx1190 \up0 \e xpndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Emotional Development a nd Emotional Intelligence: \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 Educatio nal Implications\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Basic, New York, NY, pp. 3-31. \li ne \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P. and Caruso, D. (2000), \u8220?Models of \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 emotional intelligence\u 8221?, in Sternberg, R.J. (Ed.),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Handbook\par\pard\q j \li1190\ri0\sb2\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 of Intelligence\ul 0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, \up0 \expnd tw0\charscalex109 pp. 396-420.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb1\sl-203\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex112 Muchinsky, P.M. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 (2000),\ul0\nos upersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Psychology Applied to Work:\par\pard\qj \li1190\ri0\sb5 \sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 107 Wadsworth/Thomson, Belmont, CA.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb1\sl-204\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 Myers, J.H. \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 (1999),\ul0\n osupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Measuring Customer Satisfaction: Hot\par\pard\qj \li1 190\ri0\sb6\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Buttons and Other Measu rement Issues\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , American Marketing \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex106 Association, Chicago, IL.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb1\sl-203\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex118 Price, L.L., Arnould, E.J. and Deibler, S.L. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex113 (1995),\par\pard\qj \li1190\ri0\sb6\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 \u8220?Consumers\u8217? emotional responses to serv ice encounters: \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 the influence of the service provider\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 International Journal \line \up0 \ expndtw-1\charscalex100 of Service Industry Management\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs1 8 , Vol. 6 No. 3, pp. 34-63.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0\tx1190 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. (1990), \u8220?Emotional intelligence\u8221?, \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf 4\f5\fs18 Imagination, Cognition, and Personality\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 9 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 No. \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex109 3,\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb1\sl-205\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex109 pp. 185-211.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0\tx1190\tx11 90 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D. and Caruso, D. (2002), \u8220?The positive \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 psychology of emotion al intelligence\u8221?, in Snyder, C.R. and \line \tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charscale x100 Lopez, S.J. (Eds),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Handbook of Positive Psycho logy\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Oxford\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb3\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 University Press, New York, NY, pp. 159-71.\par\par d\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0\tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., \line\tab \up0 \expndtw 0\charscalex111 Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J. and Dornheim, L. \up0 \expndtw0 \charscalex109 (1998),\par\pard\qj \li1190\ri0\sb0\sl-230\slmult0\fi0 \up0 \expn

dtw0\charscalex104 \u8220?Development and validation of a measure of emot ional \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 intelligence\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\f s18 Personality and Individual Differences\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. 25 , \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 pp. 167-77.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-230\sl mult0\tx1190\tx1190\tx1985 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 Schutte, N.S., Malouff , J.M., Bobik, C., Coston, T., \line\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 Grees on, C., Jedlicka, C., Rhodes, E. and Wendorf, G. \line \tab \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex115 (2001), \tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 \u8220?Emotional in telligence and interpersonal\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\sl-208\slmult0\fi17 0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 relations\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Jo urnal of Social Psychology\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. 141, pp. 523-36. \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 Walker, J.L. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 (1995), \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 \u8220?Service encounter satisfaction:\par\pard\ ql \li1190\sb6\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 conceptualized\u8221? ,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Journal of Services Marketing\ul0\nosupersub\c f5\f6\fs18 , Vol. \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 9,\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb23\sl-2 07\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 pp. 5-14.\par\pard\ql \li1020\sb1\sl-207 \slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 Weisinger, H. \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex 100 (1998),\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 Emotional Intelligence at Work\u l0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 ,\par\pard\ql \li1190\sb24\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex104 Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri0\sb0\ sl-230\slmult0\tx1190\tx1190 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Winsted, K.F. (2000), \u8220?Service behaviors that lead to satisfied \line\tab \up0 \expndtw-2\charsc alex100 customers\u8221?,\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 European Journal of Market ing\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 , Vol. 34, No. 3/4, \line \tab \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex108 pp. 399-417.\par\pard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1808\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 Journal of Services Marketin g\par\pard\ql \li1513\sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Volume 1 9 Number 7 2005 438 - 444\par\pard\qj \li416\ri1673\sb224\sl-249\slmult0 \up0 \e xpndtw0\charscalex104 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs21 Executive summary and implica tions for \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 managers and executives\par\pard\ql \li41 6\sb118\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex93 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 This summary has been provided to allow managers and executives\par\pard\ql \li4 16\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 a rapid appreciation of the content of this article. Those with a\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 particular interest in the topic covered may then re ad the article\ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 in\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slm ult0 \up0 \expndtw-8\charscalex94 toto\ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 to take advan tage of the more comprehensive description of the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207 \slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 research undertaken and its results to ge t the full benefits of the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw8\charscalex96 material present.\par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\par d\ql \li416\sb198\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex118 \ul0\nosupersub\cf 5\f6\fs18 What emotional intelligence is\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 Emotional intelligence consists of the ability to: perceive one\u8217?s\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars calex104 own and others\u8217? emotions and accurately to express one\u8217?s ow n\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 emotions; facilitate thought and problem solving through the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-20 7\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 use of emotion; understand the cause s of emotion and\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex107 relationships between emotional experiences; and manage\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 one\u8217?s own and others\u8217? emotions. Kernbach and Schutte\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\ slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 examined the influence of service prov ider emotional\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 109 intelligence on customer satisfaction by playing, to \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex107 150\par\pard\ql \li416\sb11\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 104 people, video clips depicting a service provider displaying\par\pard\

ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 three different level s of emotional intelligence in high or low\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult 0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 service difficulty transactions.\par\pard\ql \li4 16\sb196\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 How service providers\u8217 ? emotional intelligence affects\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex120 customers\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expn dtw0\charscalex105 The results reveal that customers are more satisfied when the y\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 deal with service providers with high emotional intelligence.\par\pard\ql \li586\sb2\sl-20 7\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 The researchers also found that the emoti onal intelligence\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscal ex102 of service providers significantly interacts with the level of\par \pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 difficulty of t he service transaction. However, this interaction\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207 \slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 did not clearly support the predictio n that, because the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\cha rscalex105 emotional reactions of both the service provider and customer\par\par d\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 may be more intense in difficult transactions, the emotional\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 intelligence of the service provider is more important in\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex 112 difficult transactions than in simple ones. With simple\par\pard\ql \ li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 transactions, there was progressively more satisfaction at\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \ up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 each higher level of emotional intelligence of the service\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1 12 provider. With difficult transactions, there was low\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 satisfaction when the se rvice provider showed low emotional\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 intelligence, but no significant difference in sat isfaction\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 be tween the high and medium levels of service provider\par\pard\ql \li416\ sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 emotional intelligence. Moreove r, when the service provider\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndt w0\charscalex109 showed a medium level of emotional intelligence, there was\par\ pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 more satisfacti on for a difficult transaction than in a\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\s lmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 straightforward one. One reason might b e that, when the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsc alex113 transaction is difficult, customers may appreciate both\par\pard\q l \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 moderate and high l evels of emotional intelligence on the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmul t0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 part of the service provider. When the service p rovider shows\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 8 either high or low levels of emotional intelligence, his or her\par\pard\ql \l i416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 emotional intelligence may overshadow other aspects of the\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \ex pndtw0\charscalex106 interaction, while when the service provider shows a medium \par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex116 level of emotional intelligence, other factors such as\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-20 7\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 transaction difficulty can emerge to affect customer\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\ch arscalex105 satisfaction and the difficult transactions enable customers\p ar\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 to perceive t he displayed emotional intelligence of the service\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-20 7\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 provider. There was also an overall main effect for difficulty of\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex108 transaction, such that there was greater customer satisfaction\par\ pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 in difficult tra nsactions. It may be that difficult transactions\par\pard\ql \li416\sb13\sl-207\

slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 make the customer and service provider feel more connected,\par\pard\ql \li416\sb12\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscale x108 and so lead to greater satisfaction.\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb152\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 \ul0\nosu persub\cf4\f5\fs18 443 {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop969\shpright5839\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpbx page\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz390\shplid0 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop969\shpright11168\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpb xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz392\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24\paperw12180\paperh15760\pard\sb0\sl-240{\bkmkstart P g7}{\bkmkend Pg7}\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols2\colno1\colw6289\colsr60\coln o2\colw5691\colsr160\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1020\sb0\sl-1 72\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1598\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 2 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 The impact of service provider emotional intelli gence\par\pard\ql \li2235\sb91\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Sall y Kernbach and Nicola S. Schutte\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb219\sl-230\slmult0\ fi170 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6\fs18 Previous researc h has shown that people generally prefer \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 rel ationship partners who show social characteristics similar \line \up0 \expndtw0\ charscalex112 to their own. Kernbach and Schutte tested the idea that the\par\pa rd\qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex102 high emotio nal intelligence of a service provider may have \line \up0 \expndtw0\char scalex106 most effect on customers who are similarly high in emotional \line \up 0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 intelligence. However, the authors found no sign ificant\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri301\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex10 9 interaction between participants\u8217? emotional intelligence and \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 that of the service provider. One possible reason is that a \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 match between the characteristi cs of the customer and those\par\pard\qj \li1020\ri302\sb0\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \ expndtw0\charscalex113 of the service provider is not very important in brief re tail \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 encounters.\par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm

ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb0\sl-207\slm ult0 \par\pard\ql \li5953\sb115\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-7\charscalex100 \ul 0\nosupersub\cf4\f5\fs18 444\par\pard\column \ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par \pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-172\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1412\sb158\sl-172\slmult0 \u p0 \expndtw0\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs15 Journal of Services Mar keting\par\pard\ql \li1117\sb90\sl-172\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex100 Vol ume 19 Number 7 2005 438 - 444\par\pard\ql \li6349\sb0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ ql \li20\sb32\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex119 \ul0\nosupersub\cf5\f6 \fs18 Looking to the future\par\pard\qj \li20\ri812\sb2\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \exp ndtw0\charscalex108 Kernbach and Schutte suggest that future research cou ld \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 examine what impact systematic emotional in telligence \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 training of employees has on the s atisfaction of the \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 customers they serve. Resea rchers could also examine the \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 specific impact o f each aspect of emotional intelligence, and \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 the e ffect of the level of emotional intelligence of service \up0 \expndtw0\c harscalex108 providers on different customer population groups.\par\pard\qj \li2 0\ri813\sb210\sl-209\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf4\f 5\fs18 (A prcis of the article \u8220?The impact of service provider emotional \u p0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 intelligence on customer satisfaction\u8221?. Su pplied by Marketing \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex100 Consultants for Emerald.) {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft1020\shptop969\shpright5839\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpbx page\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz64\shplid0 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }} {\shp {\*\shpinst\shpleft6349\shptop969\shpright11168\shpbottom989\shpfhdr0\shpb xpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shpz66\shplid1 {\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}{\sp{ \sn geoRight}{\sv 4819}}{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 20}} {\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;4;(0,20);(4819,20);(4819,0);(0,0)}} {\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;10;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;24577;32768} } {\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}{\s p{\sn fLine}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 1}}{\s p{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}} }}\par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24}