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Chapter 3

Nursing Theories
and Conceptual
Frameworks

Kozier & Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing, 8e


Berman, Snyder, Kozier, Erb
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 1
“A supposition or system of ideas
that is proposed to explain a given
phenomenon” best defines
2. A concept.
3. A conceptual framework.
4. A theory.
5. A paradigm.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Rationales 1
• Concepts are mental images which are
included within a theory.
• A conceptual framework is a group of
related ideas, statements, or concepts.
• Correct. A supposition or system of
ideas proposed to explain a given
phenomenon is a theory.
• A paradigm is a pattern of shared
understandings and assumptions about
reality and the world.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Question 2
“A group of related ideas or
statements” is a definition for
2. Philosophy.
3. A conceptual framework.
4. A theory.
5. A paradigm.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Rationales 2
• A philosophy is a belief system.
• Correct. A group of related ideas or
statements is a conceptual
framework.
• A theory is a supposition or system
of ideas proposed to explain a given
phenomenon.
• A paradigm is a pattern of shared
understandings and assumptions
about reality and the world.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 3
“A set of shared understandings
and assumptions about reality and
the world” is a definition for
2. A concept.
3. A conceptual framework.
4. A practice discipline.
5. A paradigm.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Rationales 3
• Concepts are mental images.
• A conceptual framework is a group
of related ideas, statements, or
concepts.
• A practice discipline is a field of
study in which the central focus is
performance of a professional role.
• Correct. A set of shared
understandings and assumptions
about reality and the world is a
paradigm. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 4
Which of the following is a reason
nursing is considered a practice
discipline?
2. Nursing focuses on performing the
professional role.
3. It takes time and experience to become
a competent nurse.
4. Research and theory development is a
central focus.
5. Nurses function as members of a team
who form a practice group.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Rationales 4
• Correct. Practice disciplines are fields of
study in which the central focus is
performance of a professional role.
• Time and experience are necessary for
developing proficiency in any profession
or career.
• Research and theory development do not
have performance as their primary focus.
• The primary focus of nursing is providing
quality service to humans. Team or group
practice can be part of a career in
humanities, computer science, or rocket
science.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 5
Which of the following constitute
the metaparadigm for nursing?
2. Nursing process, nursing diagnosis,
nursing theory, nursing research.
3. Person, environment, health,
nursing.
4. Assessment, diagnosis, planning,
evaluation.
5. Individual, family, group,
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
community.
Rationales 5
• Incorrect.
• Correct. Person/client, environment,
health, and nursing are relevant when
providing care for any client in any
setting. These elements can be used to
understand diseases, conduct and apply
research, develop nursing theories, as
well as implement the nursing process.
• Incorrect.
• Incorrect.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Differentiation of Terms
• Concept
• Conceptual framework
• Paradigm
• Metaparadigm
• Theory

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Concepts
• Abstract ideas or mental images of
phenomena or reality
• Often called the “building blocks” of
theories
• Examples: mass, energy, ego, id

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Conceptual Framework
• Group of related ideas, statements,
or concepts
• Often used interchangeably with the
terms “conceptual model” and
“grand theories”
• Examples: Freud’s structure of the
mind (id, ego, and superego)

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Paradigm
• A pattern of shared understanding
and assumptions about reality and
the world
• Include notions of reality that are
largely unconscious or taken for
granted
• Derived from cultural beliefs
• Examples: time, space

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Metaparadigm
• Concepts that can be superimposed
on other concepts
• Four major metaparadigms in nursing
– Person
– Environment
– Health
– Nursing

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Theory
• Supposition or system of ideas
proposed to explain a given
phenomenon
• Attempt to explain relationships
between concepts
• Offer ways to conceptualize central
interests of a discipline
• Example: Freud’s theory of the
unconscious
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Purposes of Nursing Theory
• Link among nursing theory,
education, research, and clinical
practice
• Contributes to knowledge
development
• May direct education, research, and
practice

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Metaparadigms of Nursing
• Collectively include the following
concepts:
– Person or client
– Environment
– Health
– Nursing
• Superimposed on almost any work in
nursing

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


The Living Tree of Nursing
Theories

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Theory in the Sciences and
Practice Disciplines
• Natural Sciences
– Theories provide a foundation and
direction for research
– Often produce tangible results
– Examples: knowledge that can be used
to control nature, disease, and foreign
threats

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Theory in the Sciences and
Practice Disciplines
• Practice Disciplines
– Theories work like lenses to interpret the
world of interest
– Usefulness comes from helping to
interpret phenomenon from unique
perspectives
– Building new understandings,
relationships, possibilities

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Use of Theory to Understand
Clinical Practice
• Debates about the role of theory in
practice provide evidence that
nursing is maturing

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Thinking Point

As a tool, theory can either


liberate or enslave

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Question 1
“A supposition or system of ideas
that is proposed to explain a given
phenomenon” best defines
2. A concept.
3. A conceptual framework.
4. A theory.
5. A paradigm.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Rationales 1
• Concepts are mental images which are
included within a theory.
• A conceptual framework is a group of
related ideas, statements, or concepts.
• Correct. A supposition or system of
ideas proposed to explain a given
phenomenon is a theory.
• A paradigm is a pattern of shared
understandings and assumptions about
reality and the world.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Question 2
“A group of related ideas or
statements” is a definition for
2. Philosophy.
3. A conceptual framework.
4. A theory.
5. A paradigm.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Rationales 2
• A philosophy is a belief system.
• Correct. A group of related ideas or
statements is a conceptual
framework.
• A theory is a supposition or system
of ideas proposed to explain a given
phenomenon.
• A paradigm is a pattern of shared
understandings and assumptions
about reality and the world.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 3
“A set of shared understandings
and assumptions about reality and
the world” is a definition for
2. A concept.
3. A conceptual framework.
4. A practice discipline.
5. A paradigm.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Rationales 3
• Concepts are mental images.
• A conceptual framework is a group
of related ideas, statements, or
concepts.
• A practice discipline is a field of
study in which the central focus is
performance of a professional role.
• Correct. A set of shared
understandings and assumptions
about reality and the world is a
paradigm. Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 4
Which of the following is a reason
nursing is considered a practice
discipline?
2. Nursing focuses on performing the
professional role.
3. It takes time and experience to become
a competent nurse.
4. Research and theory development is a
central focus.
5. Nurses function as members of a team
who form a practice group.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Rationales 4
• Correct. Practice disciplines are fields of
study in which the central focus is
performance of a professional role.
• Time and experience are necessary for
developing proficiency in any profession
or career.
• Research and theory development do not
have performance as their primary focus.
• The primary focus of nursing is providing
quality service to humans. Team or group
practice can be part of a career in
humanities, computer science, or rocket
science.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Question 5
Which of the following constitute
the metaparadigm for nursing?
2. Nursing process, nursing diagnosis,
nursing theory, nursing research.
3. Person, environment, health,
nursing.
4. Assessment, diagnosis, planning,
evaluation.
5. Individual, family, group,
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
community.
Rationales 5
• Incorrect.
• Correct. Person/client, environment,
health, and nursing are relevant when
providing care for any client in any
setting. These elements can be used to
understand diseases, conduct and apply
research, develop nursing theories, as
well as implement the nursing process.
• Incorrect.
• Incorrect.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Resources
• Audio Glossary
• Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research
This site exposes the nurse to various nursing
theorists.
• Nursing Theory Link Page
This site was developed by a college of nursing
and provides links to various nursing theorists
Web sites.
• Unitary Health Care: Martha Rogers's Science of Unita

A Web site dedicated to Martha Rogers and her


theory of unitary human beings.
Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Resources
• What is a mid-range theory?
This Web page provides excerpts from literature on nursing
theory.
• The collected works of Florence Nightingale
This site offers data on Florence Nightingale and her works.
• Boston College: Welcome to the nursing theorist web site.
This site provides information on Sister Callista Roy's
Theory of Adaptation.
• Welcome to the Caring Science Home Page
This site, created by the University of Colorado School of
Nursing, details the Jean Watson Caring Theory.
• The Neuman Systems Model
This is the home page for the Neuman Systems Model.

Copyright 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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