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"Creating an appealing image has become more important in contemporary society t han is the reality or truth behind that

image." This is truer of politicians the world over than of other public figures; or at least so the politicians believe. If they have charisma, they often manage to sa il through their career whatever be the skeletons in their cupboards. Then there are public relations exercises calculated to give them a phony build-up. Howeve r, such a build-up often blows up in their faces when the cadavers rattle out of their closets. But if a politician combines charisma with character, he takes a ll criticism in his stride in the certainty that none of the mud flung at him wi ll stick. Anyway, 'charisma' has become a clich, used mostly by those unfamiliar with its o rigin. It was a term used by Christian theologians and a few social scientists w ho had read Max Weber. Not long ago it was used by one of the characters in "Pog o", a comic strip. This is what Weber would have called truly the "routinization of charisma". But, then, most politicians the world over are not educated enoug h to know all this. "Charisma", says the OED, is the "ability to inspire followers with devotion and enthusiasm, an attractive aura, great charm, a divinely conferred power or tale nt." In other words, it is a natural endowment, not a cultivated virtue. However , mercifully for mankind, many politicians, particularly those in power, are acu tely conscious of their lack of it. But are they all despised for the deficiency ? No, voters everywhere have become mature enough to be able to look behind the attractive mask where it exists. They now form their judgment on the basis of th e performance and track record of the dignitary rather than by what his or her P R men may have said of them. There can be no other explanation for many Presidents and Prime Ministers having ticked without possessing charisma. Jawaharlal Nehru and John F.Kennedy, to cit e only two examples, had this quality in such abundance as to make their respect ive countrymen overlook their peccadilloes exposed by the media. Others like Geo rge Bush Sr. and Chandrashekhar had the compensatory satisfaction that their res pective countrymen prized their services and that people's esteem was the bigges t reward. "The greatest pleasure in life," wrote Walter Bagehot, "is doing what people say one cannot do." Assumption of office by Bush and Chandrashekhar revealed a trai t: they could be dared to attempt dangerous things. There could be nothing more dangerous for Bush than ordering the attack on Iraq when it threatened the sover eignty of neighboring Arab countries, and for Chandrashekhar than allowing the r efueling of American aircraft in India at the height of the conflict in spite of public opinion in India being overwhelmingly against such a gesture. Besides their charisma, Nehru and Kennedy had an advantage: their times were sec ure and self-satisfied, notwithstanding the Bay of Pigs development in the USA a nd Chinese aggression against India. The strength of that period was its steadin ess of nerve. If his vast reading and participation in India's freedom struggle widened Nehru's sense of joy of life, they also taught its littleness and transi ence. Nehru thus became a rebel who was also profoundly conscious of the dominan ce of the Unalterable Law. Prometheus was a fine fellow in his way, but Zeus was the king of gods and men! The two did not believe in parading their achievements whose name was legion. It was well enough to be successful if success could be achieved unostentatiously and carried lightly as if it fell to them in the ordinary process of nature. The re was no appearance of seeking it. Both had seen much of distinguished people, so much so that they always seemed to have a foot in the greater world. Not that they ever gave this impression by anything they said or did, but they always ha

d the air of those who had seen enough of the outer world to be able to judge it with detachment. Indeed, they had always had the detachment from the atmosphere that is called distinction. Their manner was self-possessed and urbane, but the re was always in it something of a pleasant aloofness. They may not always have been right. But they were seldom wrong. If stubborn ref usal to rush in where angels might fear to tread could be held against statesmen , with or without charisma, it was not in either case because both Indians and A mericans constantly remembered the words of Confucius that " the cautious seldom err," and, consequently, worshipped the ground the two leaders walked on. ________________________ Topic[2] " Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them."

Sample Tradition and modernization are not mutually exclusive. Together they help manki nd. All that is needed for mankind to benefit from both is to modernize traditio n, adapt it to the strictures of modernity. Unfortunately, however, some section s of society in almost every country are trying, instead, to fossilize the prese nt, another word for modernity. All traditional values are not evil. Only a few of them are. Similarly, modernity is not an unmixed blessing. Much in it is bad too. Therefore, an amalgam of the virtues of both would help mankind remain on t rack. For instance, a nation is not a juxtaposition of individuals but a society based on a communion of minds, a union of hearts. A deep religious sense, which infor ms every tradition, would not allow its claimant to speak a rash or a profane wo rd of anything that the soul of man holds sacred. This attitude of respect for a ll creeds, such elementary good manners in matters of the spirit, is bred into t he marrow of one's bones by human tradition, by the world's experience of centur ies. Could it be that there is confusion in the mind of man today about tradition and truth? Mankind seems to have failed to preserve the spirit of truth that alone can guide it to all truths. God does not say: " I am tradition." He says: "I am Truth." Truth is greater than its greatest teachers. We need to realize that the history of the human race as a whole is strewn with customs, rituals and instit utions which were invaluable at first and deadly afterwards. Gross abuses that s till survive require to be cut off. Tradition, Indian tradition in particular, i nsists on the upward striving not only in the sphere of morals but also in that of the intellect. It should not be regarded either as pessimistic or as fatalist ic. The Indian law of 'karma' affirms the implicit presence of the past in the p resent, or of tradition in modernity. However, when we unconsciously or mechanic ally follow the impulses of the past, we are not exercising our freedom. But we are free when our personal subject becomes a ruling center. In the past few decades or so, the world has been transformed rapidly and almost completely, at least in its superficial aspects. Science has helped at least a chunk of humanity, though not the whole of it, to build its life. But another di scipline is necessary to strengthen and refine the living spirit. Our natures ha ve become mechanized, void within. We have been reduced to mere atoms in a commu nity, members of a mob. Behaviorist psychology teaches us that man has no inward ness and so he can be understood completely from the standpoint of the observer. Some past attempts at the replanning of society were attended with this danger. Though people have successfully compelled governments to minister to their needs , though application of modern science to production and distribution enables us

to expect material well being for all, large numbers of people the world over a re suffering from poverty and starvation. The chaotic condition is due to lack o f fellowship and co-operation. The Russian experiment was at least an honest att empt to secure for all an equal share in things that constitute the physical bas is of life. Communist countries did not accept glaring contrasts of poverty and wealth as inevitable. Even Fascism labored to build a true communitarian life an d effect a more equitable distribution of power, wealth and opportunity. Only, t he unfortunate results of all these attempts were mutual conflict and suppressio n of individual liberty. There was standardization of souls, loss of self-confid ence and a tendency to seek salvation in herds. But what is the state of affairs today? Not only has the individual been robbed of his freedom to order his life as he will but he has also been deprived of the liberty to think and express his thoughts and opinions as he wishes. Society ha s become a prison. That there is a real feeling for humanity in these desperate attempts to check economic exploitation of the masses, one can readily concede. But if that goal is to be achieved by the other exploitation of the baser passio ns of human nature, its selfishness and hatred, its insolence and fanaticism, th e ideal order will be an inhuman one. Let us by all means establish a just econo mic order, but let us also realize that the economic man is not the whole man. Therefore, it is the job of those who mold public opinion to make people underst and that civilization is an act of the spirit, not of the body or the mind. Achi evement of knowledge and power is not enough. Acts of morality and spirit are es sential. The average man must become an active and purposeful moral force. He mu st stop believing in an automatic law of progress immanent in human history, and turn an active agent remolding society nearer to the human ideal. Growth of civ ilization is marked by an increase of genuineness, sincerity and selflessness. T he only effective way of altering society is the hard and slow one of changing i ndividuals. Through patient effort, we can win power over circumstances and mold them. But only a people striving after ethical and spiritual ideals, ordained b y human tradition, can use the great modern triumphs of scientific knowledge for the true ends of civilization. Topic[3] "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare"

Sample By this reckoning, even Hobson's choice is a choice! And the world over the comm on man, more often than not, faces Hobson's choice. He can either take what he i s offered, on those very rare occasions when he is offered something, or leave i t. For instance, a highly educated young man is offered a job and a pay both of which would seem to mime his academic achievements. What is the choice before hi m? He can either accept the offer or reject it. By no species of courtesy can th at be described as a choice. Not long ago there was a report in newspapers that some highly qualified Indian medical practitioners, who had gone to a Western country after signing a job con tract, were eking out their lives by dusting tables in restaurants! Could they h ave settled for such menial work out of choice? On the contrary, if they had had one, they would perhaps have returned to their country to set up practice. By t he same token, a sizable section of people in the advanced countries live on dol es because they have no jobs. Are they exercising their choice? However, in the domains of politics and administration, not to speak of big busi ness, there is always a multiplicity of choices. Politicians can switch from one

party to another with a straight face. The party that has grazing, so to speak, and can offer a public office readily embraces such defectors. Ideological alle giances and political convictions are all fictions created to fool the electorat e. There are multiple parties in most democracies, and each one of them is eager to swell its ranks. Politicians, therefore, see no merit in sticking to a party on whose tickets they may have got elected but which is in no position to yield any material benefits. Coalition governments would otherwise not be possible. B esides, no field offers as many opportunities for making as much money as politi cs does. And those who are in politics are not motivated by considerations of pu blic service. They want to make as much money as they can while they can, and th en vanish from the scene. This may not be true of all democracies, but it is cer tainly true of most democracies. Similarly, bureaucrats seldom, if ever, are without a choice. They may quit gove rnment service any time they like because they invariably have waiting for them cushy jobs in the private sector in return for the services rendered to individu al companies while in the employ of the government. Even those who retire from g overnment service take up much better jobs in the private sector the next day, a gain as a quid pro quo for the services rendered. And many of those government o fficials who are sacked for disobeying their political masters could not care le ss because they will by then have built a neat nest egg. Therefore, it is the common people who are almost always without a choice, excep t perhaps that between life and death. Some of them exercise that choice, but th at is no choice at all. It is pure sophistry to say that choices have diminished with steep increase in the population of the world. That does not answer the qu estion why the available choices cannot be equitably distributed among all peopl e. To put it bluntly, some sections of modern society have monopolized all choices to the detriment of the individual. Society now decides who shall have what. Wha t it does not realize until it is faced with an explosive situation is that it h ad an obligation to ensure that every individual member had a choice in all matt ers, and that it had failed to fulfill that obligation. When such of its members as have no choice, except political choice which does not mean much in the abse nce of economic choice, feel forced to resort to violence, the self-same society accuses them of trying to destabilize it. In sum, absence of choice is what the masses the world over have learnt to live with, and exercise of choice has become the prerogative of the rich and the infl uential, politicians, bureaucrats and Big Business.

Topic[4] " Contemporary art (painting, music, literature, etc.,) is absent from the lives of most people, since it is primarily created only for the enjoyment of other a rtists. Art should instead be created purely for popular understanding and appre ciation."

Sample Since art does not exist in a world of absolutes and its acceptance is dependent on the character of the acceptor, and since establishment of a taste is thus no t independent of sociological forces that are not always of a purely intellectua l nature, the one and only criterion for the value of that art which has ultimat ely triumphed lies in the permanence of its appeal based on its intelligibility. The reason is not that the public, which is the ultimate judge, comes usually,

in matters over which it ponders for long, to the right conclusion, but that art which has maintained its reputation through many centuries must have passed fro m one taste-upholding type to another. By its ability thus to give something to groups of such varied intellectual structure as usually succeed one another thro ugh the centuries in the leadership in the life of taste, it has shown that it p ossesses values that range beyond a definite period and are of universal human a ppeal. On the other hand, the recognition that all art rests fundamentally on the shoul ders of a particular taste-upholding type should strengthen the critical attitud e of the individual and his confidence in himself. If a new taste appearing anyw here is the expression not by any means of the spirit of the age but only of the spirit of a particular group that may fail to represent the spirit of the age, then nothing is more reasonable than to look closely at this group. At no time, perhaps, has this warning been more necessary than it is today when even the edu cated public has so largely convinced itself of its immaturity in matters of art and so widely accepted the idea of the freedom of the art, that is to say, of i ts own divinely ordained dependence upon the narrow world of art critics and art cliques. For instance, even the school of painting that pasted bits of shoe-leather and t ram-tickets on its oil paintings, or the dramatic school that showed a peculiar preference for the problems of the basest eroticism, has naturally its taste-uph olding type, and it would not be difficult to define it precisely. But if people feel that they must associate themselves with it though they play their full pa rt in the struggle for culture, that is to say for the ennobling of human instin cts, this can only be explained by the fact that the natural resistance that onc e existed has been broken and that people no longer have the courage of their ae sthetic convictions. Only a thorough self-examination and, where required, clear -sighted organization of the laity can help to restore it. As in the distant past, so also in the recent one, the perceptions of the artist about himself have changed. The sense of bearing the dignity of humanity in his hands made the artist capable of the greatest achievements. But, simultaneously , intelligent people began to ask themselves what effect this exaggerated artist s' assessment of their function, separation of their intellectual sphere from th at of the ordinary man, would be bound to have in the end on art itself, how it would ultimately lead of necessity to a false relation between human and artisti c values in the life of art, and in a different form would produce estrangement from the natural and the popular. The theory of 'art for art's sake' divorced art from all influence over life exc ept the purely aesthetic, and so confined it within a sacred grove whose priests were the artists. Artist-priests performed their offices, entirely removed from the common herd by the extravagances in which they indulged at times. The ordin ary man could not follow them. Surprisingly, however, this segregation from the public did not in all cases mean cessation of dependence on the public. Artists still needed the patronage of the public they openly despised because if the external circumstances of an artist's existence are against him, his whole production is only too likely to collapse. Artistic creation is not necessarily something that erupts, forcing its way out with elemental violence. Meredith onc e wrote to a friend that he had hung up his poetry on a nail. "Being a servant o f the public, I must wait till my master commands before I take seriously to sin ging," he said. This, though perhaps colored by bitterness, contains a kernel of truth. But external circumstances deny to artistic gifts in many cases the very beginnings of productive achievement. Gray was not far from the truth in his "E legy" when he philosophized about the "mute inglorious Miltons" resting in the c ountry churchyard. But mute poets do not lie only in the village churchyards. In the absence of the conditions for artistic achievement and appreciation, in the

absence of public interest, sympathy and understanding, there is no achievement . Issue "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all."

Essay The greatest teacher is experience. It is only through first hand experience tha t any new knowledge can get fixed in the mind. It is rightly said that experienc e is the best teacher. Anything learnt virtually is only half learnt. Neverthele ss, having an experience of the thing puts you at a better position when it come s to learning the concept. It is the natures way of teaching things to animals as well as humans. A bird would never be able to learn how to fly unless it flaps its wings. Similarly, when a baby comes to this world, he is absolutely new to the world. As he grows up, he begins to observe and incorporate things that he sees in his life. Once he picks up a thing by observing it, he begins to imitate it and thus learn from it. Unl ess he touches something hot, he would never know what it is to get burnt. Unles s he gets cut from a sharp object, or trips from a higher place, he would never understand the meaning of these things and thus will never learn that he should stay away from such things.

Accepting a theory without experiencing it is to remain passive in life. Without experience, one can never know the nature and the extent of any theory. As the famous saying goes only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches, it can be understood that it is only when one indulges that one comes to know about the difficulties of a task. Whether the task is easy or difficult is a question that can be answe red only when it is undertaken. For example, while preparing for an exam, if a s tudent goes by just what is told to him by his tutor, there is no surety of his having learnt his lessons properly. On the other hand, if the student has practi ced and solved the lesson on his own, he will have a first-hand experience of th e problems. He would solve on his own and find out his capabilities, his weaknes ses, and thus get a chance of improving himself. This is learning in the real se nse.

However, it is also true that everything cannot be experienced. To learn about t he moon and its nature, it is not essential to go on the moon. The only way a co mmon man can learn about such far reached things or imaginary theories is when s omeone tells them something about them. That means you may not have an experienc e of going on the moon, but it can be understood and perceived by the human mind . Thus, experience cannot be called the sole teacher. Learning happens in an env ironment where the student is ready to learn what is available to him. Thus, the most important factor in learning is the interest of a student in the subject. The first step towards learning is made only with the help of a guide. Thus the importance of learning by getting inspired cannot be ignored. It would be an ext reme statement to say that without experiencing there is no learning. Learning i s a continuous process. It goes on in the subconscious mind, without ones knowledge of it. Since the mind is always working and absorbing things, it has the capaci ty of picking up ideas and developing them as well. Thus, before you actually ex perience something the mind has already worked over the issue and prepared a bas e for it.

Thus,, learning cannot be restricted to a particular manner. Learning requires a participation of the mind and body. Thus, not only is it important to experienc e the theories, but it is also important that the learner has a mindset for lear ning and grasping the things he sees. Issue "Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to t ake account of various circumstances, times, and places."

Essay Laws are a system of rules that are formulated to bring order in a society. Thus , laws help in bringing a system, country or society under one rule which everyo ne must obey and accept. Laws are therefore enforced upon people without making any distinction between them so that there is discipline and peace in a society. Since the whole society that comes under one rule is subject to the same laws of the society, it is the responsibility of the governing authority to make sure t hat the laws pertain to the general public and are not against them. For this pu rpose while formulating laws the government must look into the needs of the soci ety. Moreover, since the needs of a society as a whole are not fixed and are sub ject to time, place and circumstances, laws should also not be fixed. It would b e wrong to say that laws once formulated will never change. Such governance wher e laws are not flexible and are rigid takes the form of dictatorship. Therefore, for the purpose of forming a healthy democratic society, it is important that t he requirements of people should be taken into consideration, and correspondingl y changes introduced in laws. The needs of people change with changing times. What was required in the past is different from the requirements of the present. Moreover, with the passage of t ime the success of laws can be judged. Thus, according to the present needs, a c hange should be made in laws. For example, in the past, there were restrictions put the merchants to practice free trade keeping in mind the upliftment of small scale industry and public sector. However, with the passage of time, it was obs erved that such a restriction has only alienated the country and thus has put hu rdles in the way of progress. The private sector forms a large part of the socie ty and their needs must also be taken into consideration. With the removal of su ch rigid laws and the practice of free trade coming into existence, the economy has become stronger than ever. Thus, laws formed according to the needs of the c hanging times not only bring in development but also peace and harmony in a soci ety.

Similarly, there can be changes in circumstances that require a change in laws. For example, in case of violence or attack, it becomes essential to put restrict ion over the common man keeping in mind the interests of the society. Thus, a cu rfew or a state of emergency can be declared to bring the circumstances back to normalcy. However, such laws are not required when the circumstances do not allo w and there is peace everywhere. A change in place can also see a change in laws . According to laws and rights, a citizen of a country may be free to move, sett le or buy property in any part of the country, but there can be restrictions put on such liberty according to the place as well. Some places need to be protecte d by the government for various purposes, like security, upliftment of poor and minority etc. Thus, the laws must also be subject to change in place. However, the change in laws should not be made at the click of a finger. In such a system the importance of laws is diminished. There has to be a predefined and

proper procedure of amendment of laws which takes into consideration every aspe ct of the society that would get affected with the change. Thus, laws must be fl exible but not weak so that they can be bent and twisted to every desired way. O nly strong laws that take into consideration the interests of the society as a w hole are the ones which form a healthy and peaceful society. Issue "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the p ossible consequences of what they might do."

Essay There are many ways of looking at a thing. Similarly, there are many consequence s of a particular thing. You can reach the desired goal according to the path yo u choose. It is thus a matter of choosing the correct path at the correct time. If the right time is over, then there is no way to turn back and mend your ways. That is why you must be very cautious of your actions and think before you leap . The benefits of thinking and proceeding with any job are many. Not only does it involve calculations and planning, but it also turns out to be the wisest thing possible. When you spare some time to ponder over the issue and the plan of acti on, it involves looking deep into the issue keeping in mind all its aspects. Thu s, the possibility of any hurdles and shortfalls is previously thought over. In case there are some hurdles that are met later during the course of action, one can deal with it in a better way. This is because thinking of all the possibilit ies prepares you for all situations. Jumping to conclusions is just an act of impulse. When you are subject to impuls e, you have a strong and sudden wish to do something without thinking about its results. It is likely that what you do in such a case leads to the result that i s expected. However, there are great chances that it leads to the opposite or ev en a disastrous end. To avoid any such chances, the best thing to do is to think of all the possible consequences and then act according to requirement.

I had heard of an incident when a group of school boys had gone out in the count ry side for a small picnic. The idea was to have fun and enjoy the day playing a round in the open. That is why on seeing a beautiful stream some of them decided to jump in for a swim. Without thinking about any safety measures, they jumped into the stream. To their surprise the stream was flooded and the current was to o much for them to fight against. Sooner than they realized they were being wash ed away by the powerful stream. It was only with the thoughtful and timely actio n of the other boys that a rescue team could be called and the boys could be res cued. It can be seen that the boys did not think that their activities of derivi ng fun would take such a dangerous turn. The lesson from such an incident is for everyone to learn. Had the boys thought over the possibility of such a thing, t hey would not have probably thought of going for a swim. Alternatively, probably to satisfy their wish of swimming, they could have chosen a better time when th e stream would not be so flooded, or a better place like a pool. It is the general tendency of a person to listen to the heart. Thus, their actio ns are guided by the heart and not by brain. However, this is not applicable to one and all. It cannot be generalized to each and every person. There are many p eople who think before doing any work. The action of working on an impulse is la rgely due to the habits of an individual. If a person is trained by his parents, teacher or guide to give a thought before acting upon something, he can be cond

itioned to think logically before doing any work. It is not in our hands to change what is already done. However, we can surely ch ange the way things shape up by carefully thinking over the matter. Actions are not reversible. Thus, the deed once done can never be corrected. The only thing that is left later with the person is regret, that the consequence could have be en avoided with proper thought and planning. Thus, instead of regretting and fre tting, one must make the best of the opportunity and think logically about the c onsequences and accordingly act upon the matter. Issue "It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people's behavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people 's hearts and minds."

Essay Discipline is the ability to control your behaviour or the way you live and work . It is essentially inner or personal discipline, which is a method of training and conditioning your mind, heart and body for controlling your behaviour. One h as to be disciplined not only in personal matters but also in a society. Man is a social animal and that is why he has to obey the rules and orders of a society . Thus, laws are very essential to control peoples behaviour and put limits on them so that everyone can live together in harmony. Anyone disobeying these rules is liable to punishment so that the perverse act is not repeated. However, if the punishment is enough for the offender to make him obey the laws or not cannot be said for sure. Laws can restrict human behaviour. Laws are meant to control and train. The purp ose of laws is to maintain general peace. Thus, laws are formulated keeping in m ind the best interests of the society. This puts a lot of responsibility on the individual to obey these laws. Whether laws are followed or not is a very person al choice. Although the procedure of punishing the offenders is made in order to correct them and stop them from committing the offence again, it is not a guara ntee that this system would correct the offender forever. Once the punishment is over, the offender will again commit the offence. The question here is about re sponsibility. Only a person who understands his responsibility would refrain fro m committing crimes. On the other hand, someone who is not responsible and does not have the morals and principles that make him a social person would commit th e crime repeatedly. This will happen unless the nature of the offender changes.

It would be incorrect on the part of the authorities to think that laws are enou gh to bring in peace. Laws are only a demarcation of a persons behaviour. Neverthel ess, there is no way to demark a persons mind. Before the crime is actually committ ed, it is already committed in the mind of the offender. Thinking of doing an un lawful thing is as good as doing it. We can stop the actions once or twice. It i s possible that the offender is punished by law sometimes. However, this does no t eradicate crime form the society. This is because it exists in the minds of th e offenders. Thus, to bring an end crime and offence, the mind has to be reforme d and conditioned. Punishment cannot bring reform, neither can laws of the society. For the society to be free of crime, the criminals need to be given moral training rather than physical punishment. With moral training, the person is taught to lead a clean a nd healthy moral life. He would realize the importance of principles and how to lead his life according to these principles. Not only does this bring back order

into his life, but he would also understand how one must live with others in a society. Thus, the person would start respecting social rules and regulations wh ich would make him a responsible citizen. Thus, it is clear that laws are only good enough to put a limit or restriction. However, this does not check the offence from being committed because the mind a nd heart of a person cannot be bound by laws and regulations. For a society free of crime, we must have a society of people with good morals, minds and hearts. Issue "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning."

Essay The success of a person means that the person has achieved something that he has been trying to get. When the efforts are met with good results and it results i n satisfaction of work, it is termed as success. One can be working towards beco ming rich or famous or getting a high social position. Thus, a successful person is one who gets all that he is aiming for. It is not only a matter of chance or luck that one turns out to be successful, but one also has to work towards atta ining success. Nothing can be achieved without putting in efforts. Hard work and toil are the p rerequisites of success. The first step towards achieving anything in life is ha rd work. Thus, one has to put in all efforts and dedication towards one goal. Th is requires you to carefully plan the course of action. With proper planning, it is easier to follow the path to success. It is only through planning that one f oresees the situation. Thus, one can act according to the situation without wast ing time by proceeding with thoughtfully planned actions. However, everything cannot be foreseen. You can plan your actions to some extent , beyond which it is only a matter of destiny. This means that most of the times you cannot predict the future. Thus, you are met with surprising twists and tur ns in your course of actions. These are the hurdles that one does not plan for. Thus, the only option that a person is left with is either taking risks and chan ces or not proceeding further at all. If a person loses heart, he might drop the idea of proceeding any further. In that case it puts an end to all his efforts and planning. On the other hand, when one takes risks and chances, there are two possibilities. Either the risk is going to be fatal and would meet the same end as that of dropping to proceed further, or the risk would pay off by producing excellent results. Thus, if one comes to think of it, it is the risks and chance s that contribute to successfully completing the task. How much ever one plans f or the task, there is nothing he can do in case of a crisis other than taking ri sks.

There can be another case where following the normal plan of actions gives norma l results. However, to gain more than normal, there could a little amount of ris k involved. Taking a risk one either could land up in complete loss, or could at tain the position that you can never get to if you follow the normal plan of act ions. Thus, it can be said that the topmost position is reserved for those who a re ready to take the risk instead of following a usual path. Success can be a relative term as well. A person might consider himself successf ul if he has a satisfied life and desires. It is possible that he does not aim a t the top, but just wants to be happy with his existing state of living. For oth

ers success means reaching at the top. Thus, one has to outsmart others and prov e his worth in the crowd of people. Only then can the person stand out in a numb er of people. It is the extra edge that one has over the others that makes him h igher than the rest. Thus, to be successful one must have the ability to face ev ery situation boldly. There are many hurdles that one can face in the pursuit of success. These hurdles not only require wise and thoughtful decisions but also quick action and spontaneity. Issue "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new ways.""

Essay Your work should be original. How many times have we all faced this assertion being hurled at us by our employees or our teachers? The answer to this question woul d be Almost every time I have to submit a piece of work. by most of us. This very fac highlights the important role that originality plays in our day to day life. To day, when the world is looking forward to a promising future abound with novel i deas and innovations, one cant really support the contention that originality is re stricted to thinking something that was never thought of before; rather original ity embodies a concept that arises out of an effective amalgamation of all thing s that have been thought of before and old ideas into a presentation that is new , unique and refreshing.

Originality is the key to success in todays highly competitive world. Whether it is your creation related to your field of expertise or a piece of art, the only as pect of your hard work that can lead you to success is your originality. However , on closer introspection, you will realize that all your work has always been i nspired by something. Man was always awed by birds soaring in the sky and that w as what prompted Daedalus, in Greek Mythology, to make wax wings for his son Ica rus for helping him in escaping from Crete. One cannot refute the fact that the Wright brothers also would have been inspired by mythological tales and the flig ht of birds to design their first controlled powered flight. By no means can the idea behind the concept of flying be termed as original, as it was just a metho d of arranging old existing ideas in a new framework that enabled the world to s ee it as an innovation. From the first powered flight to the latest spacecraft, all machines, designs, processes and theories have been compounded on the basis of existing data and ideas. Although, one has to give due credit to the inventor to have seen the old existing thoughts from a new perspective and to have been able to mould those ideas and concepts into a form that has led to creations tha t are termed as original in normal parlance. To sum up, it needs to be reiterated that originality is indispensable for progr ess in the fields of technology, science and arts. However, paying undue stress on the fact that originality should stem from a thought that has never crossed a ny human mind ever before, is not justified. Originality can be developed only i f one is given the freedom to look around for inspirational ideas and thoughts t hat may come from anywhere in the environment. After all, havent we all heard that writers and artists go for a relaxing break whenever they have to start a new wo rk, get inspired by something and then produce their creation which is termed as original by the world. Issue "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may b

e worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and uniq ue perception of an individual.""

Essay Since time immemorial, man has associated team work with all of his successes. W ords like brain storming sessions, team spirit, team work etc. have alway in most ventures. The statement that innovation has always been provided an impetu s by an individual and not a team seems lopsided. The statement, the impetus for inno ation is provided by an individual and is sometimes provided by the enterprise a nd unique perception of a team of individuals seems more convincing. Therefore, tru e innovation is a result of the endeavor and insight of numerous brains put toge ther among which there may be one such individual who conceived and stimulated t he idea that triggered the said innovation. History of mankind is packed with examples of innovative ideas that have been br ought into existence with the efforts of numerous men in the form of a team. The famous Manhattan Project is well known for its research work that led to the bi rth of the first Atom Bomb. Robert Oppenheimer is the name that comes up as the individual who oversaw the entire project but the end result was the outcome of sustained efforts of a dedicated and committed team of scientists. The entire te am backed by the US government was responsible for providing the necessary stimu lus to the project.

At the same time one cannot ignore the fact that major innovations related to th e field of science and technology have by and large been realized by individuals who have acted as catalysts. The individuals did provide the necessary impetus which was then worked upon by the team assisting them but somewhere along the wa y, one of the team members may have contributed equally for providing the necess ary incentive and motivation to his other team members in order to bring the inn ovation into its final form. Therefore, the credit for formalizing the innovatio n cannot go to an individual always and every time. One has to be open to the idea that an innovation may be realized by the experti se and unique perception of more than one individual. However, one cannot comple tely disregard the fact that in most of the cases innovative ideas originate as a result of the perception of an individual who provides the necessary impetus. Therefore, to sum up, one could say that the enterprise and unique perception of one or more individuals provides the necessary impetus to any innovation. Issue "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different ey es."

Essay Acquiring knowledge has often been termed as enlightening oneself. One does see the world with different eyes once the study of an academic discipline has been completed. A child perceives the world with an entirely different perspective as compared to that of his parents as his knowledge has not yet been molded by the finer details that only the study of an academic discipline can provide. For someone who is not aware of the agents responsible for the spread of disease s, the necessity of maintaining a hygienic lifestyle may not be all that importa

nt. On the other hand, an individual who has carried out studies in the field of health sciences would be conscious of the surroundings around him. In addition to perceiving the world from an entirely different viewpoint, he would also make an effort to change the viewpoint of those around him. The world would be the s ame, just as it was when he was not aware of the repercussions of an unhygienic lifestyle. However, acquiring knowledge as a result of studying health sciences has made the difference in how he now sees the world around him.

It would be incorrect to assume that seeing the world from a different perspecti ve is an inborn trait. All children generally perceive their surroundings in the same manner. During the course of their development they are subjected to studi es in various forms. The rainbow is the same as that which one saw as a kid and then as an adult. However, as educated adults we are able to identify the rainbo w as a scientific phenomenon whereas a child who has not yet studied the concept s of prisms, refraction and reflection of light will think of it as a magical wo nder. Unfortunately, a child who has not been consistent in his studies will pro bably still see it as a miracle even after attaining adulthood. This difference in perceiving the same world from different viewpoints is the outcome of the stu dy of various academic disciplines. The environment around us is the same for all humans. We all see it from differe nt perspectives due to our inherent traits that are a result of the studies that we have carried out. This is the reason why you find that the judges for popula r talent shows and contests are people who have excelled in these fields themsel ves, as then only will they be able to do justice to the procedure of selecting the best. A renowned painter will probably never feature in the list of judges f or selecting the best science project as he may not be able to see the project f rom any perspective other than the artistic presentation involved. ssue "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but mor e complex and more mysterious."

Essay Ignorance is bliss. Most of us would have come across this saying at sometime or the ther. Have we ever wondered the reason why this saying has succeeded in carving out a niche for itself in our world? The reason is that one cannot contest the i ssue that in the process of acquiring more knowledge, things do become more comp lex and mysterious. However, it is not necessary that things do not become more comprehensible in the bargain. One does begin to comprehend things easily over t he time spent in acquiring knowledge. Nevertheless, the scales tilt in the favor of the latter whenever comprehension and mystery surrounding an object or pheno mena are taken into account as a result of the ongoing process for acquiring kno wledge. History of mankind is testimony to the fact that most of the earlier civilizatio ns worshipped the sun and the moon as they were the only celestial beings as per the astronomical knowledge prevalent in those times. Centuries have gone past, but mankind is still intrigued by the complexities and mysteries of the universe . Man has gained immense knowledge in the subject of astronomy, but our universe and the celestial bodies continue to intrigue and baffle humans. There is no li mit to the knowledge that has been acquired on this subject over the last few ce nturies. However, each new discovery opens new doors to further speculations and theories. Along the way, certain other aspects have indeed become more comprehe nsible than they were before, but this understanding of the universe is nothing

as compared to the dark mysteries which have not yet been unraveled by man. Thes e mysteries and complexities have arisen from the knowledge that man has acquire d after years of research and study.

After one has acquired knowledge it is imperative that the knowledge be applied for clearing the complexities surrounding a thing. However, in the process of so lving the intricacies involved, it is possible that the solution to the complexi ties may involve another thing or a phenomenon which stands unexplained. This wo uld stimulate man to look for solutions to the new mysteries that have thus been unraveled and the process continues probably at the cost of making something co mprehensible. Therefore, it would not be incorrect to say that things, by and large, become mo re complex and mysterious as one acquires knowledge. However, one cannot refute the fact that there are certain things and phenomena that do become comprehensib le as a result of acquiring knowledge, but at times this comprehensibility may b e insignificant compared to the complexities that have arisen as a result of the knowledge acquired.

Issue "If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no l onger answer the needs of the present."

Essay It has been constantly emphasized that the present generation has disregard for the great works of the past and the irony is that it has been said for all gener ations. The world is progressing into an era which is scientifically, technicall y and artistically much more advanced than what it was in the past. This exponen tial progress is an indication that the people of tomorrow will not be able to r egard the works of the present as great works in just the same way as the presen t generation of people disregards the great works of the past. The primary reaso n for this attitude is that the works of one generation no longer answer the nee ds of the succeeding generation. Today, most people feel handicapped if they step out of their homes without thei r mobile communication handsets. The handsets are available in various models in cluding those with inbuilt camera, internet access, audio player, video player, radio receiver etc. How can one expect such people to hold with regard the great works of the past like the invention of the telephone, radio receiver, camera a nd the computer? If a person has access to these facilities in one hand-held dev ice, it is obvious that he will fail to understand the importance of an individu al device that can do only one of these actions at a time. This outlook stems fr om the basic human nature that looks for easy access to all available facilities .

The inventions mentioned as examples in the previous paragraph refer to some of the greatest works of the past. These works were instrumental in bringing about a monumental leap in the history of mankind, thus changing the living standards of society by a huge extent. However, these great works of the past are met with total disregard by the people of today because these works fail to answer the n eeds of the present. If one has the easy option of reaching a distant destinatio n by an airplane, then there is no reason, apart from financial implications, fo

r him to opt for a journey by road which would take him a number of days to reac h his destination. Why would one then hold the works of the past related to the automobile industry with any form of regard? The same holds true for all forms of art that were labeled as great in their tim e. People of that era had time for appreciating and discussing works of artists. Although in todays fast-paced world, works of art are still able to garner admirat ion and respect from a section of society, however a majority of people have nei ther the time nor the inclination for appreciating works of art either of the pa st or of the present. Everybody today is looking at what the future holds for hi m. They are all working against time for creating an environment that is conduci ve for further growth. Therefore, it would be correct to assume that the great w orks of the past no longer earn any form of regard from the people as these work s do not assist them in any way for achieving the goals that they have set for t hemselves. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 20 "Education should be equally devoted to enriching the personal lives of students and to training students to be productive workers."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 20 Education is the development of all aspects of a person's personality. These cou ld be moral, cultural, social, academic, professional, ethical, intellectual etc . I completely agree with the author's statement that education should be equall y devoted to enriching personal lives and training students for becoming product ive workers. The purpose of education is to make a student capable of living a self-sufficien t life in a society. While it is very important for a person to support himself and earn his living, it is also important that he brings quality in his life wit h high morals, positive thinking and good knowledge of his surroundings. If any of these is lacking, the student becomes unadjusted in the society and is not ab le to live a healthy and satisfactory life. Such a situation can be seen as the failure of education. If the education system is devoted too much towards enriching the lives of stude nts and ignores to train them well to be productive workers, it is found that st udents do not acquire any specific skills. Enriching the lives of the students m eans giving them little knowledge of all subjects. However, it is not productive and the student becomes a jack of all trades and master of none. Learning speci fic skills is vital to a person's life because it helps him to support himself a s-well-as those dependent upon him. As a student passes out of school and comple tes his education, he is ready to face the world independently. He cannot be ind ependent unless he earns his own living. For this he is required to have some pr ofessional qualification or skill that can help him to get jobs and work efficie ntly. If the education that he has attained lacked any sort of professional trai ning, he will find that there are no takers of his services. For example, to get the job of an engineer, a student must have the required qualification as-wellas training for the job. He must have good knowledge of the related subjects lik e mathematics, physics and engine science. If he is taught other subjects like m oral science, languages, art or other subjects not concerned with the field of a n engineer, he will surely not get the job. It is only if he is trained for the job that he can perform his duties well as-well-as win the confidence of his emp loyers.

On the other hand, if the syllabus concentrates more on the growth of productive aspect of a student's personality and ignores imparting value education, it wil l again lead to the development of an unbalanced personality. It does train him well to perform his duties but he becomes incapable of handling non-professional issues. There are many issues and dealings which are not related to work. A per son is required to understand and respect relations and form logical decisions b ased on his own reasoning and thinking. For this it is very important for him to understand what is right and what is wrong. This knowledge comes only if the st udent is educated and taught to differentiate between different situations and d ecide what is best for him. Thus, it gives us a wider perspective and exposure t o the world. Hence, a balance of extracurricular activities and professional training is requ ired to develop an all around personality. If it is incapable of enriching your lives or making you productive, it is the failure of the system as a whole.

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 19 "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skil ls needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappro priate-and, perhaps, even cruel-when one considers all the potential uses of suc h money."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 19 Public resources are the resources that the administration uses for the betterme nt and development of the society. The betterment of a society is seen when peop le in it are living a satisfying and happy life, there is no hunger and poverty amongst people and everyone has a decent job and is self-sufficient. The develop ment of the society is also seen in its progress, development of industries and technical know-how, improvement in the art and culture and being internationally active and strong. While it is very important to bring up the poor and underpri vileged, it is also important to bring up the society as a whole. Hence, the use of public resources should not be restricted to one area but must support all a round development and welfare. The administration of the society is responsible of utilizing the public resourc es of the society. However, where do these public resources come from? These are generated by the citizens of the society itself in the form of taxes. People ar e made to pay taxes in return of which they are given public services. Therefore , one thing is for sure, that these resources are used for the people only. Howe ver, there are a number of potential uses that these resources can be put to. Th ey can be put to use for building up schools, hospitals, roads etc., can be used to encourage tourism, modes of entertainment and beautification of the places. The money can also be used to buy latest warfare, technology, machines and impro ve the scientific know-how. The difficult task, however, is to allocate the requ ired amount for them. How much money and where it should be used is the big deci sion. Welfare work like creating jobs, providing food and education for all etc are ex tremely important to bring up a society. People are the building blocks of a soc iety. It is only when the people are living a happy life that a society can prog ress. Therefore, for any administration, the key issue should be the betterment of its people. The humanitarian side of a government is seen only in its treatme nt of the less fortunate by providing the basic needs of life. In a poor country like India where there are a number of people who cannot afford their daily bre

ad, it becomes the government's responsibility to extend support. This should be done to help them come out of their poverty and become self sufficient. For the se people art has no meaning. A concert to encourage painters or musicians etc. is of no use to them if they have nothing to eat. If they continue to rot and su ffer in the society, there will be no use of spending huge amounts of money on s uch things and it will be the failure of the government. However, it is also tru e that everything goes hand in hand. While there should be work done for the wel fare of the poor, it is equally important to support art and develop the nationa l talent. While a common man is a representative of the society's domestic succe ss, art and culture is a representation of its success in preserving its rich he ritage and gaining international recognition for the same. The solution of this problem lies in planning. Wise and judicious planning is re quired to allocate money for different uses. Public resources should be used suc h that they are divided for all the required purposes. Sufficient money should b e allocated for welfare work along with giving due consideration to other fields like art, and this cannot be termed as 'cruel'. The success of the administrati on is in bringing harmony in the society where so many classes of people coexist . GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 18 "If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no l onger answer the needs of the present."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 18 If we study the past we will realize that there have been great discoveries and works in the past which in today's times seem to be minuscule. While it must hav e been a breakthrough in the past and the basis of many technologies being devel oped today, there are other important things that overshadow its importance. How ever, this does not mean that the great works of the past can be disregarded as ones having no place in today's world. These works may not be as practical today as they have been earlier, but they still are basic to many other technologies. We would not have been able to see the world as it is today but for these works of the past. The relevance of the works done in past is great even today since it teaches us and helps us in further development. Great inventions take place only by the efforts of some great minds. It is not i n the capacity of all to think and invent new things. Once a new invention comes to light, it seems to solve a lot of problems. Along with solving problems, it helps in further study and higher inventions. It, therefore, becomes a stepping stone for further development. When the wheel was introduced in the world, it became the most important and use ful invention. People began using the wheel to carry loads. It also helped in ma king things like pots, toys etc. It soon began to be used for commutation as wel l. Today there have been a lot of modifications and developments that would have been impossible without the wheel. Had it not been invented in the past, we wou ld not have been as advanced as we are today and would have waited for some grea t work to invent such a miraculous thing. While today we hardly wonder about thi s great invention, life is unimaginable without it. There are also some such inventions of the past which have lost their relevance today. It is true that with the passage of time and development of newer and bet ter things these inventions are no longer practical. For example, in the age of e-mails, telephones and satellite connections, there are very few who use the te

legraph for communication. Today people have even forgotten about this mode of c ommunication. While a computer can be seen at every workplace as well as househo ld, people have never even seen a telegraph. However, when the telegraph was inv ented by Samuel Morse, it created a revolution in the world by bringing it close r. There were no other means of communication that could match up to the telegra ph. Today, the relevance of telegraph may has reduced but its importance and inv ention cannot be ignored or disregarded. Although it is not used as often as oth er means of communication, the invention of a telegraph has provided a breakthro ugh in the field of communication for other developments. It is only with the de velopment of such a thing that people came to know of communication through elec tric cables. It is this thought that was developed further to make telephone cab les and eventually satellite connections to bring the world closer. Hence, instead of disregarding a work of the past as unimportant and impractical , it should be taken as a learning experience. Today's scientists, engineers, as tronauts and doctors must take the past as their guide. History has always been a great teacher and we not only learn from the mistakes done by people in the pa st but also are guided and helped by their glorious works. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 17 "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 17 In the world of competition, one needs to succeed in order to survive and get no ticed. Success depends a lot on the personal satisfaction level of the person. W hile some people are satisfied with their success in being able to complete thei r task well, for others it is important to rise above the others and prove their worth. However, success largely comes from a person's ability of adjusting in a new environment, and to a certain extent change it as well. In the academic field, a student's success is in the way he adjusts to the deman ds of the institution that he is studying in. It is only with this adjustment th at he is able to study and learn new skills. As a child grows up there is a cons tant change in the pattern of academics that he has to follow. Moreover, his rol es and responsibilities also keep changing and he can succeed only if he realize s them and acts accordingly. If he keeps believing that he will be spoon-fed all the study material as was done in his lower grades, he will not be able to succ eed. Hence, he has to adjust himself according to his environment. One may not b e able to change the environment just yet, but that does not mean that he is not successful. Similarly, in the professional field as well one can find success only by adjust ing and changing according to the environment. For example, for a typist who has learnt typing on the typewriter, there is a lot of change due to the introducti on of computers. There will be very few takers for his skills on a typewriter. H owever, if he adjusts to the new technology and learns the computer well, he can extend his services to a wider range of people. Hence, he will be more successf ul if he is able to handle the latest technology in his field. In this way, any professional must keep himself aware and up-to-date with the latest changes and introductions in his field. This way their skill will be valued, which can be te rmed as their success in the field. That is how in the professional field, succe ss involves the ability to change according to the environment. Then comes the question, does success also involve changing the environment arou

nd you? If yes, then how? As discussed earlier, success is largely the ability t o adapt to the new changes. However, at a certain level, one needs to rise above the rest. This is done only if he changes the norms and follows a new path. Thi s changing of path involves changing of the environment, which can be counted as his success. In the academic field, where a person reaches the stage of researc h and development, he can be successful by introducing new concepts and changing what is normally accepted. Similarly, a scientist is successful if he invents a new phenomenon and forms new theories. The laws of gravitation, the science of sun and universe etc are such discoveries that have changed the way people think and believe. All big inventions and innovations have been possible due to chang ing of the norms. This is how they have proven successful and changed the way pe ople live and think, or in other words, have changed the environment. It can thus be said that although mostly success is the ability of adapting to t he environment, at a certain level, it is the ability to change the environment as well. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 16 "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most people find di fficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 16 Any new development requires initiative and efforts from people. Innovation and new ideas can be put to practice only when people accept it. Although everyone f avors innovation and development, the same cannot be said about it when it comes to practicing it. To accept the innovation, people have to accept its implicati ons as well. While all developments are made for the betterment of society, some of these are done at the cost of compromising somewhere else which may not be a ccepted by all. When we accept an innovation, we don't just accept the new idea behind the innov ation and the comfort that it will bring, we also have to accept the related cha nges that might occur due to it. These may be certain responsibilities that we h ave to carry or certain ways in which our lives maybe changed. For example, it i s known to all that water is essential to all beings and we must save every drop of it. It is highlighted everywhere in newspapers, radios etc that we should tr y and save water. People are told how to save water and recycle it. We show our full support for such a cause only till we don't have to compromise on comfort f rom our side. In the wake of saving water and preventing misuse of water, the go vernment puts restrictions on the supply of water to households. Moreover, peopl e are made to follow laws where they are not allowed to wash cars and water lawn s. Such policies are not accepted by people in general. We become selfish when i t comes to our personal comfort and we do not want to compromise on anything. Th is is how a novel idea of saving water and preventing its misuse is not approved of by people at large and it shows the general attitude that new ideas and chan ges are not accepted easily when they are implemented. There is another reason due to which new innovation and ideas are not easily acc epted. There maybe willingness to incorporate it but due to lack of means and su pplies it might get impossible and thus cause dissatisfaction and difficulty in acceptance. For example, with the advancement of technology, new innovations are introduced in the world. This may be extremely beneficial for development and u pliftment of society. There might be the best of technologies that are used for building roads, bridges and industries in the world. There are nuclear power pla nts and modern warfare which every country wants to possess. However, a poor cou ntry cannot implement these technologies despite their benefits because of the d

ifficulties that surround it. The government not only needs to buy these technol ogies from other nations but also needs funds to start the development work. It gets difficult to arrange funds on a large scale and hence implementation of the se novel ideas gets difficult. Here also, technology is appreciated and accepted , but its implementation gets difficult because it requires finances and technic al know-how. As seen in the above cases, new ideas and inventions may be attractive and promi sing, but looking at the practical aspect of incorporating these ideas, it can g et difficult and not easily accepted. Although all innovative ideas may not be t hat demanding so as to be difficult to accept, most of them are met with the sam e response. In order to gain from something, we have to forego another which cau ses discomfort. It is human nature to feel this way, but at the same time, no on e can deny the importance of development and progress brought by these very inno vations and ideas. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 15 "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve. An ything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 15 In today's world one has to struggle and find a place for himself. This becomes more and more difficult due to the ever increasing competition. You have to cons tantly prove yourself in order to achieve success. On the other hand, if you kee p assuring yourself that you are the best without proving your worth, there woul d be no one to believe your stand. In more clear terms, one has to be practical to get noticed and achieve one's goal. In the primitive times, there was lack of knowledge. People would easily believe what was told to them. No one knew where the sun came from in the morning and w here it went at night. They said that the sun is moving, and earth is a flat pla ne. There were many myths regarding such things and no one looked into the scien tific aspect due to lack of knowledge. People made their own beliefs from the bi ts and pieces of information that they had. However, with the changing of times and spread of knowledge, the shallowness in these beliefs was exposed. Today the re are no takers of the myths and beliefs that people held in the olden times. R eality has taken over the imaginative mind. We believe in a theory only if it pr oves to be true and practical. Practicality in today's world is extended to all spheres. We accept something on ly if we find the need of it and understand the logic behind it. An example in t he change in thinking due to this can be seen in the fundamental rights that Ind ians are granted. Earlier, a person was granted the right to vote after he reach ed the age of 21. With the change in time, it was observed that teenagers are ma turing at an early stage and an 18 year old was responsible and sensible enough to vote. It was being practical to amend the laws and make the minimum voting ag e as 18. Such decisions are guided by their practical use. At the same time it w ould be impractical to allow a 15 year old to make decisions regarding electing his representatives since it is not practical to rely upon his decisions. The difference between being practical and impractical lies in actually fulfilli ng your dreams and building castles in the air. A person may just dream about ma king it big some day and wish for an overnight change to happen. While few have been lucky to experience such a miracle, it is not the case in general. One has to plan and work towards reaching his goal. Practicality is in relying upon your

hard work rather than waiting for a miracle to happen. However, there is a link between dreaming to make it big and working towards ful filling these dreams. While a person can fulfill his dreams only by working in r eality, one sets these high aims and goals only by dreaming. If a person does no t dream and imagine the unthinkable and remains satisfied with what he has, he c an never achieve anything outstanding in his life. To be an achiever, one has to plan for it which can only come by being a dreamer initially. Looking at it thi s way, we can say that there is direct relation between success and dreaming for the success, and one cannot negate the importance of the impractical side of it completely GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 14 "Scandals-whether in politics, academia, or other area-can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 14 Scandals have been a part of almost every field. They involve shocking, immoral or illegal behavior of people which is not approved of in the society. Because o f their immoral nature they raise different extreme feelings and reactions among st people. A scandal is therefore a problem generated in the society which becom es a concern and issue for a larger section of the society. It is correct that we learn by making mistakes. It is only with experience of de aling with difficult situations that a person becomes wiser and practical. The p roblem forces you to try all the possible solutions and you come up with a perma nent and lasting solution. Therefore, there is increased number of chances of no t repeating it again. This type of learning that comes by actually committing mi stakes lasts longer and you will never forget it. However, if you prepare for a problem that you might face in future, you are not going to pay as much attentio n to it as you pay to the existing problem. When the problem takes shape of a scandal, there are more people involved and af fected by it. The feelings and sentiments of people are affected and finding a s olution becomes all the more difficult. It disrupts the peace, law and order of a place. It becomes very important to take control and find a solution of such a situation. Hence it becomes the thing of utmost importance for any leader to br ing back the situation of peace and normalcy. This task is also done by reformers and speakers. However, the difference lies i n the fact that reformers preach and spread morally and legally correct practice s while in a scandal the leader practically struggles to find a solution. It is human nature to give more importance to the existing problems rather than prepar e for a problem that you might face in future. Then comes the question, "Is the solution found for an existing problem better than that for a problem that one m ight face is future?" It may not be easy to answer this because the practicality of a solution is seen only by practicing it. However, the work done by reformer s cannot be ignored. It is but for them that a society holds its morals and valu es. We can then understand that scandals and existing problems are useful for us in a way since they help in focusing our attention more towards the problem and its solution. However, who takes up the responsibility of the situation? Considerin g that it involves a large number of people, a solution cannot be found out unle ss all or the majority of people are willing to find a solution and comply by th

e rules. A leader alone cannot find a permanent solution. Therefore, it depends upon the attitude of the society as a whole to look at the scandal as a common p roblem and not remain divided over it. This is where a reformer steps in. He uni tes people by preaching morally correct and good values. It is only by his teach ings that a change can be brought in the thinking of people and a lasting soluti on be found by the authorities. Conclusively, it can be said that the scandals definitely focus our attention to wards the problems but a solution to the problem is found only when the attitude of people concerned is reformed. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 13 "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 13 Data are facts or pieces of information that help in fining out things or making decisions. We analyze the data, study its nature in different situations and ci rcumstances and form hypothesis and theories based on the observation. This hypo thesis becomes the basis of many inventions and discoveries. However, if the the ory is not derived from the observations of a given data, it might be misleading and result in wrong postulates. For any work, there is a lot of initial preparation and planning that goes in. T his preparation sets the foundation of the success of the work to be carried out . If the foundation is strong, it will help in executing the work in a successfu l way. On the other hand, if we execute the task without proper planning and pre paration, we are bound to get stuck somewhere. If you are lucky you might get an other chance, but life is not all that considerate. An opportunity knocks the do or but once. Hence, it is up to us to make the best of it when it comes. When you have no data and you trust only your imagination and foresight, you are bound to meet with surprises. Data gives you authentic and trustable informatio n. On the other hand, you cannot trust your ability to foresee things since thei r relevance can be seen only in future. Data is like the wheels of a vehicle whi ch are important for it to run. Without wheels, it is a useless piece of junk. Let us take an example. While planning for a week long trip, you will plan befor ehand and collect all the required materials. You need to pack up things like cl othes, medicines, and sometimes even food for it. You need to think about the mo st suitable and convenient way of traveling. Apart from this you need to study t he place where you are traveling for its special requirements. That means that i f the place is too cold, you will need to prepare yourself for it. Without plann ing, you can find yourself in a difficult position and ruin the trip. Moreover, planning is required to be complete and not just restricted to one area. We can see how planning goes into a small thing like a week long trip. Hence, it can be understood that preparation and planning is vital to all the important tasks th at need to be executed. This is the same as having information and data before y ou begin a task. Similarly, to take important decisions, you need to have authentic and genuine i nformation. Let us see the wider aspect of decision making. When a government ha s to make policies and laws for its citizen, it needs to have a proper understan ding of the conditions they are living in, how many people are living in the cou ntry and how many will get affected with the change in laws. If the statistics o f a county's people shows a majority of people living under the poverty line it

will be beneficial to make policies suitable for them. Opening small scale indus tries, imparting free education, giving job opportunities etc. are beneficial fo r such a country. However, such policies and laws are not successful for a devel oped country where the people are rich and well off. Hence, forming small-scale industries will be of no use there. It is only known with proper data at the tim e of planning as to what the needs of the society are. It can therefore be said that data, information, planning and preparation are pr erequisite of any new work at hand. Without these there is a lot left to chance which can prove to be a blunder. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 12 "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but mor e complex and more mysterious."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 12 Knowledge is the state of being enlightened. It is acquiring information and ski lls which help you to understand things around you in a better way. It also help s in bringing perfection in a person's work and life. Knowledge is gained consci ously as well as unconsciously. While one makes an effort to acquire knowledge t hrough getting educated and becoming learned it is also through experience that one becomes knowledgeable. It is however questionable as to why gaining knowledg e is important. As discussed earlier, it makes you understand your surroundings better and bring perfection in your life. Things become more comprehensible and you gain confidence. However, as a person gains more and more knowledge, it can lead to details, complexities and mysteries, but it is only with more efforts th at new study comes to light. When a child comes into this world, he is completely ignorant and therefore is d ependent on his parents. As he grows up, he observes things around him. Slowly h e gets the knowledge about what is good and what is bad for him. It is only when he gains the knowledge of his surroundings that he is capable of being on his o wn. He comes to know that by putting his hand in a fire, he might get burnt, and by playing with sharp objects he can hurt himself. In case this does not happen , he would remain dependent upon others all his life. Therefore, knowledge makes you independent and practical in life. It is with exercising one's brain and gaining knowledge that we are living in th is age. Without the knowledge of agriculture, we would not be able to produce fo od for ourselves, without the knowledge of iron we would not be able to set up i ndustries. Similarly, the knowledge of human body and medicines helps us to keep fit and live a healthy life. Such things are basic to our life and life is inco mprehensible without them. Apart from the basic knowledge of things, one needs to acquire specific knowledg e as well. That makes him survive in the world by making a place for himself. Fo r example, if a person gains the knowledge of carpentry, he can extend his knowl edge to others who do not have this specific skill and earn his living. A person goes on acquiring information unless he is satisfied. However, there ar e unlimited things unknown to man. There are a number of things that are unexpla inable and accepted as they are. It is only with the efforts of someone that we can have an explanation of these things. We did not know anything about the univ erse unless it was explored. The biggest of inventions and discoveries have been possible only by indulging in them. If we retreat our steps for the fear of get

ting jumbled up in complexities, new inventions and discoveries would never be p ossible. However, in the pursuit of acquiring knowledge, one must not lose ground and get lost in the complexities. While it is important to gain knowledge, it is also i mportant to keep your balance and not get lost in finding solutions to mysteriou s and complex situations.

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 11 "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 11 Intelligence is what helps us to survive in this competitive world. Where there are limited opportunities and unlimited number of candidates, the only way to fi ght it out is through intelligence. Where a dull person does not find a place an d is not recognized in the world, an intelligence person creates a niche for him self. Therefore, it always goes to one's benefit to polish one's intellectual sk ills. However, one must not mistake this with cunningness and deceit. While inte lligence is important it should not take the shape of foxiness. An empty mind is a devil's workshop. This means that the activity of the brain i s very important to keep a healthy mind and body. It ensures that the brain is w orking and occupied, which keeps all the negative vibes away. However, it is ver y important to keep a check on the activities of the brain. It should be under t he control of a person and not like a tame-less animal. Along with having intell ect, it is equally important for a person to be compassionate, trustworthy and l oving. While a place in the world is got with intelligence, a place in the heart s of people is got with compassion and trust. It is only with a proper combinati on of both that one can truly rule the world. Human intelligence is unfathomable. This is the only reason why humans are super ior to other beings on earth. Humans are capable of expressing themselves, reaso ning out and finding solutions in difficult situations. The brainpower of a pers on can take him a long way. For example, it is with the support of intellect tha t a person can get admission into the top colleges and prestigious courses. Gett ing admission into such colleges is a ticket to a bright future and successful l ife. This helps in establishing the person's career. Along with intelligence it is equally important to keep the faith of others in you. We live in a society wh ere people interact with each other and no one can survive in isolation. It is o nly if this interaction is healthy that the hard work and intellect pays off. If a doctor earns his degree by intelligence, he earns his patients with trust and good work. That is why is not only important to work hard but also to be sincer e. If a person is a slave of his intelligence, it does not make him think about the goodwill of others. His intelligence becomes a tool for gaining power. There is no place for compassion, trust, love and sincerity for such a person. In turn, he is not accepted in the society. However, the days of power may not last forev er since we are a subject to destiny. With his attitude and nature he will be le ft alone and will not have anyone to stand by his side in his difficult times. T his is how he will be responsible of his own fall and he will realize the import ance of having a soft heart along with brilliance.

Intelligence is therefore very important to survive in the world, but should not be the only guiding principle of one's life. As little knowledge is dangerous, so is trusting only intelligence, which can bring the fall of a person. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 10 The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with in their ac ademic fields is more a matter of personality than of training. Different interp retations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly th e same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 10 It is true that the way two people interpret two situations is entirely differen t. The reasons behind this might be many. It might be their upbringing, the envi ronment where they grew up or their personality. However, the role of training a lso cannot be under rated. Training might also affect their reaction to a situat ion to a little extent. There are two aspects of this statement. People interpret the materials accordin g to their temperament, their mood, and their outlook. For example, an optimisti c person will keep on pushing the things unless he is close to his desired resul ts. He will not be deterred by his failures. While a pessimist will be easily di sturbed by failure. Similarly, music can be soothing for a music lover and can h elp him in relieving him from the stresses of life. However, some other person m ight not like music and might consider it just a noise. Different people give di fferent meanings and emphasis to things that arise in their daily rituals accord ing to their particular interests. However, education and training change the way people interpret things. The back ground and training of a person can strongly influence how one interprets histor ical events involving human affairs, statistical data, and art. I do not agree w ith the authors' conclusion that different interpretations come about when peopl e with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things. In fact, education and trainings also have the ir effect on the personalities of people. People start thinking differently once they gain knowledge on certain subjects. For example, a student of political science may see British imperialism as one n ation's quest for power while a student of economics may see British imperialism as a strategy to gain control over distribution of goods and resources. A socio logy or anthropology student may consider it as a way of imposing one nation's c ulture onto another. Hence, education and training influence the way students an d scholars interpret data. Similarly, training and educational background has a profound role in the interpretation of art. The perception of art varies from pe rson to person. Art has a different meaning for a business student. He will meas ure an art piece for its economic value while for a theology student, an art pie ce is an expression of grace in life. An artist will look at an art piece for it s brushing strokes and other fundamental things. Personality and education or training go hand-in-hand. They affect each other. U sually a student tries to get training in a subject, which is of his interest an d matches his personality. At the same time, training in a specific subject or k nowledge on a certain topic changes the way a person thinks and perceives the wo rld. The point here is that people from different disciplines and cultures might react differently in the same situations. However, we cannot segregate personal ity traits and academic and practical training completely. We can conclude this

statement by saying that personality and training work together to make a person interpret data in a specific manner. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 9 Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system be cause moral behavior cannot be legislated.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 9 It is true that many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws, as mor al behavior is something for which a person has to be responsible himself. Altho ugh there are some problems that can be solved by laws, other problems like mora l behavior have to be solved by the persons themselves. It is a persons responsibility to judge his behavior and follow the rules formed for the welfare of the society. Law cannot punish every person for his or her b ehavior. For example, to save water or not to waste water is the moral responsib ility of every member of a society. Any law cannot punish an individual for such behavior. In the first look, it does not seem to be a big harm to the society b ut in the end, he is wasting a precious thing. Similarly, the behaviors like thr owing plastic in public or spitting in public places is certainly not good behav ior. Laws can do little to stop these behaviors. However, there are countries wh ere there are laws to punish a person who does not behave properly in public pla ces. Similarly, with the invention of internet, there are more and more of cyber crim es where it is difficult to find a witness. A person can easily hide his identit y, his name, sex, address on the internet. Hence, it becomes very difficult for law to punish the criminal. Although now a days, lawmakers have also found the w ays to identify these persons. However, here again, moral behavior can play a ro le in reducing these kind of crimes. However, we cannot underestimate the importance of laws in our life. We need law s to protect ourselves and punish those who harm the society. Law helps in balan cing the society to be more harmonious and peaceful. Although moral behavior can not be legislated, thorough enforcement of a few laws can help to solve social p roblems to some extent. Laws teach people many things about moral behavior and f orce them to follow those rules. If everyone conforms to laws, it would be very easy for everyone to get rid of social problems. Still, there are people who find it difficult to follow the laws. Then for these types of people, there should be strict punishments. Otherwise, it will be very difficult to live in the society. Only enactment of stringent laws can protect everyone in the society from the problems caused by the non-moral behavior of a few persons. To make our society, we have to instill good values in the society at the school and college levels. It will help to teach the students a subject related to mor al behavior in their schools and colleges. This will help in reducing problems r elated to moral behavior. Hence, although moral behavior cannot be legislated, laws have to be there to cu rb the problems arising out of immoral behavior. The society and laws have to wo rk hand-in-hand to solve the problems of the modern society and to make our soci ety peaceful

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 8 What most human beings really want to attain is not knowledge, but certainty. Ga ining real knowledge requires taking risks and keeping the mind open-but most pe ople prefer to be reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettlin g truth about anything.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 8 Everybody wants reassurance and certainty in life but it is wrong to say that mo st human beings do not want knowledge. It is true that gaining knowledge require s taking risks and keeping the mind open but at the same time, it leads to devel opment and progress. If every person will think on the lines of the author, then there will be no new developments and inventions. The people who do not want to acquire knowledge also face risks in their lives. In fact, risks and uncertaint y will be there, even if a human being does not learn new things. Risks cannot b e avoided in one's life. However, it is also true that knowledge is about learni ng something complex. It often opens up more questions than the solutions. Medical professionals, lawyers, and business people have to deal with risks and uncertainties. If a doctor will think about the risk factor, he will not be able to treat his patients. Knowledge also brings reassurance. By acquiring knowledg e about our universe, environment, and weather, we can have forecasts of rain, t hunder, and earthquakes etc. It prepares people for unwanted weather disturbance s. If a natural disaster is known to occur then the government can plan to handl e it in advance. It has some adverse effects also. Knowledge of the universe has helped us to understand our place in the universe but also added another myster y to what existed before time and the universe. It is true that some systems are very complex to understand and add mystery but still they are interesting and do attract people to research on them. Sometimes the outcomes of these researches are very productive. For example, knowledge of SONAR, bats navigate by sonar. The study that bats can determine how far away pr ey or other objects are, by using SONAR, is very interesting. This knowledge of sonar illustrates the complexity of minds. Human beings have used the knowledge of SONAR. Knowledge, risk, and uncertainty are the foundations for new invention s and progress. If a person is assured and satisfied with his life, then there is very little sc ope for his growth. Our ancestors used to think about matter in very simple term s- ancient philosophers had simple theories about the composition of matter such as matter being composed of fire, water, air, and earth, but advanced technolog y has given us a more precise view of matter. Now, we have accurate understandin g of matter. We can explain chemical reactions. New atomic theory has given birt h to quantum and wave theories. However, each new discovery is also adding compl exity to the structure of matter. Hence, the conclusion is that though human beings want reassurance and certainty in their lives, they do require knowledge also. They want to learn about new an d complex things whether it involves taking risks. It gives them thrill also and helps them to grow. Moreover, real knowledge also helps in making our lives mor e comfortable. Therefore, though knowledge is complex and sometimes unsettling, still it is essential for the mankind. GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 7

It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people's behavior, b ut legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people' s hearts and minds.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 7 Law means a body of rules and regulations in the form of judicial opinions, or i n the form of constitutions etc. Law is used by the governing bodies to control the behavior of a society. The functions of law vary for different societies or countries. However, legal laws are different from the moral behavior or the trad itions of societies. The laws are formed by some authorized body like court whil e customs and traditions are made by the members of society. It is very importan t to understand here that both the things are made to run the society smoothly. However, I agree with the statement that although laws can place limits on peopl e's behavior but they cannot alter or convert people's heart. There is no second thought that very strict laws can sometimes have negative effects on the societ y. Usually laws help to give a peaceful life to people. It plays an essential ro le in maintaining stableness and development of society. It infuses a fear in th e public that if they do some illegal activity, they will be punished. If this f ear will not be there, then the instances of terrorism and crimes will increase that will make the life of the members of society unstable and disturbed. Laws m ake our lives comfortable. Hence, it is required to have laws that have positive impact on people's behavior. However, in history, we have many examples where laws had negative influence on the society. The laws made by some of the kings were so cruel and inhuman that t hey had bad effect on the human nature. However, it is also true that although l aws are used to make people's lives easy and secure, laws cannot change what is in people's heart. Despite many strict and cruel laws, feelings of hate and diso bedience keep growing in the hearts of public, if the laws are not changed accor ding to time. Many revolutions in the history of humankind are the evidence of t his statement. Russian revolution and the freedom fight of India are the best ex amples of the outcry of public against the laws and legislations of the governme nt. Laws should be changed according to the human nature. Hence, it is true that law s and rules reflect the human nature but these cannot change the way people thin k. Although laws should not be altered at every outcry, they should be modified according to human nature that reflects people's minds and hearts. It is essenti al to make people respect laws. Otherwise, there will be more and more instances of people not following laws. You cannot ignore the fact that some degree of fr eedom is required for a balanced society. Without people obeying any law, it wil l be like an empty law. Hence, the social attitude towards laws should be consid ered while making a formal law. If the authorities want to use the laws to contr ol or alter human nature, then they have to make the laws more flexible. Hence, it can be concluded that the laws that control or place limits on people' s behavior cannot reform human nature.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 6 I strongly agree with the author's statement that education or studying a discip le can alter your way of seeing the world. Education can change the way you perc eive the world. Anyways, every person has a different view point, hence a differ ent way of seeing things. We can compare it with our thought process when we are

young and how it changes when we grow up. Similarly, education changes our thou ght process. For example, earlier, when man was not aware of the solar system, humankind used to consider earth as a flat structure. However, once we studied the outer space and discovered about the solar system, we came to know about earth being round. It was also clear after studying the solar system that the earth is roaming aro und the sun and it is not the other way round. It proves that the study of an ac ademic discipline changes the way we recognize the world. Similarly, in the past, our ancestors used to consider lunar and solar eclipses as the anger of gods. However, after the development and study of natural scienc e, people understood that these are natural phenomena and not the curse of gods. Education unveiled many mysteries that used to make man worried in the past. It gives us clear and true picture of things. For example, the concept of mirage, earlier people used to be confused about mirage. However, now it is clear that m irage is nothing but reflection of light. Still there are people who believe in ghosts and miracles, but there number has decreased. Most of the educated people look for an explanation for anything new. That is the foundation for new resear ch and innovations everyday. There is another way of understanding the point of view of the author. Different people from different socio-economic environments perceive a situation in diffe rent manners. Education makes us realize that the world cannot be divided in goo d or bad. Sometimes, the situations are very complex and we have to change our v iewpoint keeping in mind all the aspects of the situation. For example, if somet hing wrong happens, then two people can perceive the situation oppositely. One p erson might think negatively and remorse however, another person who has positiv e attitude, will try to study the situation and will try to correct it. The prob lems and crisis can also sometimes work as awakening calls and as the reasons fo r development. Like, to know the mysteries of day and night, stars, sun, other p lanets, man has studied cosmic science and this has changed the way we used to t hink before. There is also another example of Asian financial crisis. It had a very negative effect on the Asian economy. However, this also forced people to sit back and st udy the financial situation. The Asian governments took the situation in their h and to correct the financial situation. After that, Asia has developed very fast . Hence, it can be concluded that as time flows, our way to perceive the world cha nges. This is not because the world is changing, but because our knowledge is ch anging. Studies let us think more intelligently and objectively.

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 5 The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset. Therein lies the value of each.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 5 Science and art, both play an important role in the development of humanity and society. Both of them have unique purposes. However, you cannot say that science can only reassure and art can only upset. Both of them can reverse their roles also.

There is no doubt of science performing the function of reassuring as each inven tion in science makes our life easy. It gives us security and the feeling of com fort. For example, inventions like telephone, automobiles, and aeroplanes have m ade our lives easy and comfortable. Our ancestors had dreamt of flying like a bi rd, but science has made this dream come true. Similarly, the invention of elect ricity, has removed many unknown and unexplained fears from our minds. The development of medical science has played a vital role in reassuring humans. Earlier, human beings used to wait for some miracle to be treated. However, now the most dreaded diseases can also be treated with the help of medicines. However, science can also upset our lives. The invention of nuclear weapons and the harmful by products of scientific experiments have started threatening human life and the environment. Hence, the reassuring purpose of science is failed. M oreover, man has lost his peace of mind as with the development of science, huma n nature of exploring the unknown world has also grown. With the development of technology, people have more chances and resources to explore the huge cosmos an d the solar system, which makes us upset and gives us large encouragement at the same time. Meanwhile, all these high tech researches, atomic science, medical r esearch are trying to solve the old problems but initiating new puzzling thought s. On the other hand, art has an altogether different purpose. It is considered an activity that relaxes our mind. However, we cannot generalize the things as it d epends on the artist's state of mind when he creates certain art piece. For exam ple, listening to music makes you calm and comfortable. These days yoga gurus us e music therapy to treat the patients suffering with stress related diseases. If you watch at the famous smiling painting of Mona Lisa, it brings a smile to you r face. Similarly, the famous childhood story of "The Ugly Duckling" gives a chi ld reassurance. The movements in classical dance give you unlimited imagination. There are also some art pieces, which upset you. If a painting shows hunger and poverty, then surely it will upset you. However, that is the artists' way of en lightening the society. Sometimes, the artist can also depict his sad state of m ind on the canvas or in a music piece. For example the famous painting "Pigeon a nd Guernica" by Picasso shows us the feeling of his being upset. Both art and science are important to us. There is no point defining their funct ions. It is difficult as well as meaningless. Science is required for the benefi t and growth of man, however, its abuse can destroy the world. Hence, we can con clude that both science and art play both the functions of reassuring and upsett ing us in different circumstances

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 4 It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and uniqu e perception of an individual.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 4 There is no second thought that an individual who owns an enterprise has his own interest in the growth of his enterprise. It is true that he has to possess a u nique perception for his growth. However, an individual cannot attain success al one without the support provided by his team. An individual needs foundation wor k like research work, new methods to make an innovation etc. A person and the me

mbers of his team usually work hand in hand to make a task successful. An indivi dual works as a force behind his team. I agree with the author that there has to be a thought process behind a new inno vation. A talented individual plays an important role in innovations. In history , we have many examples that explain the role of an individual and his persisten ce in the inventions of the things that have changed our lives. New innovated id eas need courage and perception to be executed. One has to be brave enough to ta ke risks and undergo distress. For example, Wright brothers invented planes. However, nobody is able to know th e risk they had taken and the way they handled the failures, they faced while wo rking. Similarly, Bill Gates was the thoughtful mind behind the success of softw are. He judged the potential of software when the other companies like IBM were concentrating on hardware. He got the benefit and established Microsoft. Althoug h Microsoft was altogether his idea, he was able to make it successful with the help of his team. Further, Microsoft has created many new software. There is also an example of steel tycoon Laxmi Mittal, who did not leave his cou rage after he failed to start his business in India. However, his persistence an d enterprise made him successful and now he is one of the most successful men in the world. There is no doubt that an individual with foresight and talent can play a vital role in an enterprise. However, we cannot deny the importance of teamwork. These days, there are so many complex problems that cannot be solved by a single pers on. The recent Nobel Prize winners are a group or team of three of four persons as they worked together to make new inventions. Many companies when innovate new products, divide the whole task into small tasks and then integrate the whole t hing to achieve the final product. That way every person in the team gets a chan ce to express his own unique idea. That way everybody can contribute to the ente rprise. Especially, in the field of medicine, teamwork is required. New medicine s invented by a single person cannot be used without the verifications and resea rch done by the other scientists. In the end, we can agree with the statement that an individual with talent and t he unique quality of enterprise can help in making new inventions and discoverie s. However, when it comes to complex problems and new researches then the need o f teamwork and cooperation of team members cannot be ignored.

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 3 Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to ta ke account of various circumstances, times, and places.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 3 Laws are the basic principles of our day-to-day life; hence, behavior of people should not go beyond the lines confined by laws. Laws are strong weapons to main tain peace and harmony in a society. However, everyday and every situation can b e different. You cannot generalize the circumstances beyond a certain limit. Sam e is the case with laws. You cannot apply the same law in each situation. It has to be flexible. Change and flexibility are required for growth. In general, there are many laws. Violation of laws can have different forms. The re are different laws for different situations. However, within a particular typ

e of crime also, the situation might be different. Hence, while taking a decisio n, one has to take decisions keeping in mind circumstances of a particular case. For example, it has to be considered whether a person has made an offence delib erately, unintentionally, just for fun or for money. There are many examples in history, which make you think in favor of flexibility of laws. The latest law is one child rule in China. This law was made to contro l population in China. According to this law in China, each couple can have only one child. Now after the earthquake, the Chinese government is thinking about r evising this law. Hence, as a society is growing and developing, proper changes in laws are required. Laws have to keep pace with the changing times. Another example of a law changing with time is the law related to the legal heir . In ancient times, only the oldest son or only the sons of the family had the r ight to the family property. As time has progressed and women have started askin g for their rights, law has changed and now all the offspring have equal right t o the family wealth. Now a days, another aspect in this context also plays a rol e. That is the will of the dying person. Family wealth is distributed according to the will of the dying person. Similarly, you cannot give the same punishment to two persons who have killed so me other persons for different reasons. While one person might have killed for s ome personal gain and the other person could have killed to save his own life. B oth the situations are entirely different. There is no doubt that fixed laws hel p the judges in determining whether a person is guilty or not. However, it also forces people to follow laws, as they are afraid of punishments. It instills the fear in their minds that if they do some wrong, they will be punished. Finally, it can be said that there should be a balance between the two aspects. There should be a fixed law for every crime to guide the judges and the governme nt to install rules and regulations. It gives the feeling of security and stabil ity. However, at the same time, there should be flexibility when it comes to app lying the laws in different circumstances. There should be a scope of modifying the existing and fading laws to give way to the development of the society and j ustice to people.

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 2 Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it m eans putting old ideas together in new ways.

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 2 Originality has a different meaning for everyone. It is something new, useful, a nd interesting. It is a basis for many inventions. You cannot define originality in one word or one sentence. It can be inventing new things, innovations or jus t putting old ideas together to invent something new. Originality has very vast scope; you cannot bind it with few statements. It is related to creativity. Originality is key to success in the new developing world. It is a key factor in almost every sector. However, you cannot restrict originality with something, w hich no one has thought before. It can be using good old ideas or part of old th ings to create a new thing or representing old ideas in new frames. It can be go od sometimes because this way you can restore old things. Music industry is a go od example of this. These days many artists are presenting old songs with new mu sic instruments and new videos. In a way, they are making new generation aware o

f the old cultural and musical heritage. The quantum theory is a good example of originality depending on the old and pro ven facts. The basic of quantum mechanics is Newton's old mechanics and it is fu ll of new ideas. The new quantum mechanics has restored the old and valuable ide as of Newton's mechanics. Sometimes, it is one's outlook, which gives birth to new ideas. Every individual has a different way of looking at the things. For example, everybody knows the power of steam. However, James Watt thought about using steam in a way that nobo dy had thought before and invented steam engine. His thinking differently gave b irth to a new invention. Sometimes, new ideas and inventions have no strong base . They come out without any prior evidence or old ideas. Similarly, the idea of internet did not spring out all of a sudden. It was inspired from ARPNET that wa s initially used by the army. However, there are arguments about the level of originality. What type of inspir ation is considered original? This is an important question as there is a very t hin line between getting inspired from somebody's work and using it to create a new thing and copying somebody else's work. In fashion industry, old fashions an d styles are coming back. New designers are inventing new fusion dresses by comb ining old styles with new modern look. Therefore, one has to look for old ideas to think creatively. One has to researc h the old data to understand the demand, requirement, and the trend. Then only c an one make a basis for his new process of thoughts. The value of old ideas cann ot be simply ignored. Therefore, you cannot say that originality has to be something that was never th ought before. It can be a new angle to an existing thought. Originality can be s tretched human knowledge, which gives way to new inventions. One should have the freedom to take inspiration from existing ideas or from Nature. Thus, one can t ake inspiration from old work but after giving respect to the person behind the old ideas.

GRE Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Topic - 1 "Important truths begin as outrageous, or at least uncomfortable, attacks upon t he accepted wisdom of the time."

GRE AWA Analytical Writing ISSUE Essay Sample Solution - 1 This is a proven fact that truth is the initial stage of progress. However, it i s also believed that truth always starts away from the traditions and convention s. Therefore, people consider truths as attacks upon their beliefs, which people are following from ages. Truth also means some new facts that are unknown to us . People do not want to deviate from the facts, which they have learnt from thei r ancestors, and it is true to say that shedding ones dogmas is often difficult. They feel that it is an attack on their wisdom. If we look at the history of the world, we will find many examples where truth h as generated commotions in the society. Different people have different views ab out the existence of God, life after death and origin of earth etc. For example, people took a long time to accept that the earth is round. Religious leaders an d clergymen opposed this idea as it was against what they were teaching. Similar ly, when Polish astronomer, Copernicus discovered that the earth goes round the

sun and not vice versa, he was opposed by churches for many years. In fact he an d his supporters were convicted for their ideas. Hence, it is very difficult to change the traditions that are followed by majority of people. Similarly, when Darwin gave the theory of evolution, and challenged the old ideo logy, he was resisted by public. Nobody was ready to believe that apes were the ancestors of humankind. However, it is important to accept truths, otherwise it would hinder the growth of mankind. It is important for us to accept new ideas s o as to bring out reforms in society and thus adopt new ideologies. It would ope n doors for various kinds of development. One should not blindly accept and foll ow old ideas or new truths. There should be enough scientific approach and expla nations for everything. However, there might be different reasons for this kind of uncomfortable reactio ns against truth. The first and the most responsible reason is the human nature. Most people will not prefer to change their ways of life and thinking, as it is accepted and prevalent from time unknown. They believe in what they are doing a nd experiencing for their whole life. The second factor is that truths often cha llenge the other persons authority. In order to save their status and honor, aut horitarians oppose new ideas and truths. In getting their own way, they provoke the public. Sometimes these reactions go violent also. However, these days, people are becoming more open minded. They are ready to acc ept new ideas. Our societies all over the world are getting more flexible and op en to new truths. Hence, new ideas and truths are accepted peacefully and there are no violent commotions. The conclusion is that important truths, which challenge the proven wisdom, alwa ys, face oppression. However, if these truths hold any ground, then these are ac cepted over a period of time after facing trials.