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muRfSk; $l;lhfg; gpufldk; nra;jd. mg;NghJ> ,Lf;fp miziaf; fl;Lk; jpl;lj;jpy;
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Nghd;W> mjpfkhf ePh;j;Njf;fk; cauf;$lhJ vd;gjw;fhf 1906-1908 y; fypq;fpd; msT
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cah;e;jJ. kw;w Mz;Lfspy;> kio FiwT vd;gNjhL> ePh;tbg;gFjpfspy; Njapiy kw;Wk;
ney; rhFgb mjpfkhdjhy; mizf;Fs; tUk; ePhpd; msT Fiwe;J> mjpfgl;rkhf 147

mb

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,e;j epiyapy;> 16.10.1979 md;W kiyahs kNdhukh vDk; gpugykhd ehspjopy;
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(Central Water Commission)

rpwg;Gf; ftdk; nrYj;jp> fhy jhkjkpd;wp 25.11.1979 md;W jpUtde;jGuj;jpy;> mjd;


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nfhz;bUg;gJ

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nrd;id khfhz muRf;Fk; jpUtpjhq;$h; muRf;Fk; ,ilNaahd 999 tUlq;fSf;fhd
xg;ge;jk; 8000 Vf;fh; epyj;jpw;fhd Fj;jif xg;ge;jk; vd;gJ njhpahky; Nfus Kjy;th;>
nghpahW mizapd; MAl;fhyk; 50 Mz;Lfs;jhd;> mjw;F vg;gb 999 tUl xg;ge;jk;
Nghlyhk;? vdf; Nfl;L kf;fisf; Fog;Gfpwhh;.
mjd;gpwF

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cs;sjhfTk;

miz

cile;jhy;

30

yl;rk;

kf;fs; caphpoe;J tpLthh;fs; vd;Wk; jtwhd jfty;fis kf;fspilNa gug;gp Nfus


kf;fspilNa gPjpiaf; fpsg;Gfpwhh;. 2006k; Mz;L> miz ciltJ NghyTk; kf;fs;
nts;sj;jpy;

rpf;fp

moptJ

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glf;

fhl;rpfis

cUthf;fp

mjid

FWe;;jfLfspy; gjpe;J Nfus khepy fpuhkg;gFjpfspy; njhiyf;fhl;rpfspy; fhl;b kf;fisf;


fytug;gLj;jpdhh;. ,e;j fpuhgpf;]; fhl;rpfis Nfus murpd; mjpfhug;G+h;tkhd tiyj;
jsj;jpy; ntspapl;L tUtJ xU nghWg;Gs;s khepy murpd; rhpahd nrayy;y.
Nfus

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$WtJ
topahf

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miz

tope;Njhb

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Ky;iyg;nghpahW miziag; Nghy 7 klq;F nghpaJ. Ky;iyg; nghpahW mizapd;


ePh;

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2>12>000

fdmb.

,Lf;fp

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ePh;

ntspNaw;Wj;jpwd; tpdhbf;F 4>80>000 fdmb. Nfus Kjy;th; nrhy;Yk; 30 yl;rk;

kf;fSk; Nkl;Lg;gFjpapy; cs;sth;fs;. fly; kl;lj;jpypUe;J nghpahW miz kl;lk; 2889


mb cauj;jpy; cs;sJ. FKsp> mizapd; gpd;Gwk; fly; kl;lj;jpypUe;J 3100 mb
cauj;jpYk;> tz;bg; nghpahW 3350 mb cauj;jpYk;> ghk;gdhh; 3750 mb cauj;jpYk;>
Vyg;ghiw 4850 mb cauj;jpYk; mike;Js;sd. nts;s ePh; gs;sj;jpypUe;J Nkl;Lf;Fg;
ghAk; vd ePhpay; tpjpapidNa khw;wpf; $Wfpwhh;.
Nfus ePh;ghrd mikr;rh; gpNukre;jpud;> Ky;iy nghpahW miz gFjpapy; mil kio
nga;jhy; 3 ehl;fspy; mizf;F 16 b.vk;.rp jz;zPh; ngUfp miz cile;J tpLk;
Mgj;J cs;sJ vd;fpwhh;. ,thpd; $w;Wg;gbNa 3 ehl;fspy; 16 b.vk;.rp. kio nts;sk;
vd;gJ mjpfgl;rkhf tpdhbf;F xU yl;rk; fd mb. mizapd; ePh; ntspNaw;Wk; jpwd;
tpdhbf;F 212000 fdmb. vdNt miz ciltjw;fhd tha;g;Ng ,y;iy. NkYk;
,J Nghd;w epfo;T 1943y; Neh;e;Js;sJ vd;fpwhh;. ,J cz;ikahf ,Ue;jhy; 1943y;
,g;gbnahU epfo;it miz jhf;Fg;gpbj;J epd;wpUf;fpwJ vDk; cz;ik njspthfpwJ.
NkYk; jw;rkak; miz 1943y; ,Ue;j mizia tpl gy klq;F gyg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
C H
b PM b

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cs;Nehf;fj;ijAk; mwpe;J nfhs;tJ mtrpakhFk;.

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miz
cz;ik

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nghpahW

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,Ug;git 1. jkpo;ehl;bw;F nghpahW ePiuj;jUtjw;fhf 1886 y; Vw;gl;l xg;ge;jk;. 2.


gyg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s nghpahW miz jw;NghJ vt;tpj ghjpg;Gkpd;wp 142 mb cauj;jpw;F
ePiuj;Njf;Ftjw;F
jilfisAk;

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,lj;ijj;

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MW

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mizia
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miz fl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. mizapd; Nkw;Gwj;jpy; (fpof;F jpirapy;) nfl;bg;ghiw cs;s
gFjpNa ,y;iy. mizapd; fPo;Gwj;jpy; (Nkw;F jpirapy;) MW gs;sj;jpy; nry;tjhy;
mq;F rhpahd ghiw fpilj;J miziaf; fl;bdhYk;> fpilf;ff;$ba ePh;kl;lk; kpfTk;
jho;thf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gjhy; jkpofj;jpw;F ePh; ghahJ. Mw;wpd; mfyKk; mjpfk;. Mf>
nghpahW ePiuj; jkpo;ehl;bw;F vLj;Jnry;Yk; tifapy; Gjpa miz fl;lNtz;Lnkdpy;
gy;yhapuk;

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Ntz;Lnkd;why; Nfus muR vj;jid tpjkhd gpur;ridfis vOg;Gk;?. mg;gbNa xU
Gjpa miziaf; fl;btpl;lhy;> gpd;dh; mjd; gyk; gw;wp gpur;ridfs; vohJ vd;gJ
vg;gb epr;rakhFk;? Gjpa miz fl;lKbahJ vd;gJ Nfus muRf;Fk; ed;whf njhpAk;.
Gjpa miz Nfhhpf;ifia cr;rePjpkd;wj;jpw;F nfhz;L te;jhy; mJ rhj;jpakh vd;W
mwptjw;F

rpy

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Gjpa

xg;ge;jj;ij

KbT

nra;tjw;fhf

rpy

Mz;LfSk; MFk;. mJtiu nghpahW mizapy; 136 mbf;F Nky; ePiuj;Njf;fhky;


ghh;j;Jf;

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miz fUj;J

%yk;

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muR

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epyeLf;fk; Vw;gl tha;g;Gs;sjhy;> ,g;NghjpUe;J tUfpw miz cile;J caph;r;Nrjk;
Vw;gl;LtpLk; vd;W $wpte;j Nfus muR> mjw;F kpf mUfpNyNa Gjpa miziaf;
fl;Ltjw;fhd

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K H

F I C i

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fhd;fhPl; %yk; mizapd; KOePsj;jpw;Fk; %lg;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; mizapd; vil
12>300 ld; $bAs;sJ.

,Uk;Gf;

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eq;$u

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120

ld;

mOj;jj;jpy;

mizia

mbj;jsg;

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20

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fk;gp

KOePsj;jpw;Fk;

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,jdhy;

mizapd; vil Rkhh; 55>000 ld; $bAs;sJ.

Mw;wpy;

tuf;$ba

fypq;fpd;

mjpfgl;r

ePsk;

nts;sk;

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25.11.1979 md;W KbT nra;ag;gl;l Nkw;fz;l gzpfis> jkpo;ehL muR nrayhf;fj;
njhlq;fpaNj 1981 Mk; Mz;by;jhd;. mjd;gpd; 13 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J 1994 y; jhd;
gzpfs; Kbf;fg;gl;ld. gzpfisr; nrayhf;Ftjw;Ff; Nfus muR ,ila+Wfis nra;J
te;jJ cz;iknadpDk;> mtw;iwj; jkpo;ehL muR fLikahd eltbf;iffs; %yk;
epr;rak; jLj;jpUf;f KbAk;.
mjpfgl;rk; 3 Mz;LfSf;Fs; gyg;gLj;Jk; gzpfs; KOtijAk; Kbj;Jtpl;L mizapy;
KO mstpw;F ePiuj; Njf;f kj;jpa muir tw;GWj;jpapUf;fyhk;. mg;gbr; nra;ahjjJ Vd;
vd;W njhpatpy;iy.
Msutkw;w

fhl;Lg;gFjpapy;>

etPd

trjpfs;

VJk;

,y;yhj

fhyj;jpy;>

nghpahW

mizia kl;Lky;yhJ> rpf;fy; epiwe;j ruq;ff; fhy;tha;> kw;Wk; jkpo;ehl;by; Rkhh;


300

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nra;J

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13

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Kbj;Js;sJ.

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Mz;Lfs;

MdJ

Mdhy;

gyg;gLj;Jk;
murpd;

vl;Nl
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rhd;whFk;. nkj;jdkh my;yJ cs;Nehf;fkh vd;gJ njhpatpy;iy. ngUk;ghyhd Kf;fpa


jpl;lr;

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murpay;thjpfshy;>

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muR

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rk;ge;jg;gl;lg;

gzpfspd; fhyjhkjj;jpw;Fg; nghwpahsh;fs; nghWg;ghapUf;f KbahJ.


Fl;b mizia gyg;gLj;JtJ mtrpakh?
gyg;gLj;jg;gLk;

gzpfis

1986-y;

ghh;itapl;l

kj;jpa

ePh;tsf;

FOtpdh;>

gpujhd

mizia gyg;gLj;jpaJ Nghy;> Fl;b miziaAk; gyg;gLj;jpdhy;> mizapy; KO


msthd 152 mb cauj;jpw;Fk; ePiuj; Njf;fyhk; vd jkpo;ehL muRf;Fj; njhptpj;jdh;.
mij

mwpe;j

nfhz;L

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KOg;gyk;
Ntz;baJ

mtrpakh vd;W myRNthk;. Fl;b miz gpujhd mizf;F ,lJGwk; (njw;Fg;gFjp)


Nklhd Kf;Nfhzk; Nghd;w rpwpa ,Lf;fpy; fl;lg;gl;Ls;sij tiuglk;-2y;
njhpAk;.

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mjpfgl;rkhf

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30

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klq;Ff; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk;. ,e;j mizAk; chpa gyj;Jld; fl;lg;gl;Ls;sjhy; mJ
ciltjw;fhd tha;g;G kpfTk; mhpJjhd;. mizapy; KO msT ePiuj; Njf;Ftjw;F>
gpujhd miziag; gyg;gLj;jpaJNghy; Fl;b miziaAk; gyg;gLj;j Ntz;ba mtrpak;
,y;iynad;gij
,Jtiu

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jPh;g;gpy; Fl;b mizia gyg;gLj;jpa gpd;Ng KO msthd 152 mbf;F ePiuj; Njf;fyhk;
vd;W Fwpg;gl;Ls;sJ. Fl;b miziag; gyg;gLj;jj; Njitapy;iy vd;gij jkpo;ehL
muR tYthd fhuzq;fNshL tw;GWj;jpajhfj; njhpatpy;iy.
Vw;fdNt

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cs;s

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mizapd;

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152 mb cauj;jpw;F ePh; Njq;Fk; NghJ> 8000 Vf;fh; mstpw;F ePh; guTk; vd;gjhy;
,d;W tiu 8000 Vf;fh; gug;gpw;fhd
tUfpwJ.

Mdhy;

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30

Fj;jifj; njhifia Nfus muRf;F toq;fp

Mz;Lfshf

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mb

tiu

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tUtjhy;> me;j epiyapy; ePh;j;Njf;f gug;G 4677 Vf;fh; kl;LNk MFk;. vdNt nkhj;j
Fj;jifg; gug;gpy; 3323 Vf;fhpy; (8000-4677) fle;j 30 Mz;Lfshf ePh; Njq;fhkNyNa
cs;sJ. ,e;jg; gFjpfspy; Nfus muR Mf;fpukpg;Gfis Cf;Ftpj;J Rw;Wyh tpLjpfs;>
nrhFRf; FbapUg;Gfs; kw;Wk; Rw;Wyhf; fl;likg;G trjpfis cUthf;f Vw;ghL nra;jJ.
,g;NghJ mitfs; ed;F tsh;r;rpAw;W tUkhdk; <l;bj; jUfpd;wd. ,J> jkpo;ehl;bw;F
chpikahd epyj;jpy; rl;l tpNuhjkhd Mf;fpukpg;ghFk;. mJTk; ePh;j;Njf;fg; gFjpf;Fs;
Mf;fpukpg;ig mDkjpj;J tpl;L> ,g;NghJ mitfs; ePhpy; %o;Fk; mghaj;jpy; ,Ug;gjhf
Nfus

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Vd; nkj;jdkhf ,Ue;jJ vd;W njhpatpy;iy.

K H HF
C

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mizg; gpur;ridf;Ff; fPo;f;fz;l epue;ju jPh;Tfisg; ngw KbAk;.

1. ,Lf;fp mizf;Ff; fPo;> ePiug; gad;gLj;jf; $ba tha;g;Gfs; kpff; Fiwthf


,Ug;gjhy;> mq;F gad;gLj;jf; $ba ePhpd; mstpw;Nf> kpd; cw;gj;jpf;F ePiug;
gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;F ,Lf;fp mizf;fhd ePh;tbg;gFjpapypUe;J ,g;NghJ
fpilf;ff;$ba ePh; tsj;jpy; ghjpNa NghJkhdnjd;gjhy; nghpahW mizapypUe;J
ePh; ngWtJ Njitaw;wJ. fpilf;ff;$ba ePh;tsk; KOtijAk; gad;gLj;Jk;
mstpw;F> tha;g;Gfis cUthf;fpdhy; me;j mstpw;F kpd; cw;gj;jpiaAk;
mjpfhpf;f
KbAk;. kpd; cw;gj;jpiag; ngUf;f ,Lf;fp mizg;gFjpapy; mZkpd;
epiyak; mikf;f top nra;ayhk;. mJ tiu> nghpahW ePh; %yk; jkpo;ehl;by;
cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; 140 nkfhthl; kpd;rhuj;jpy;> kj;jpa muR eph;zapf;Fk; xU
gFjpia ,ytrkhf Nfus khepyj;jpw;F toq;fyhk;.
2. jkpo;ehL
muR
jw;NghJ
toq;fptUk;
epytuj;jpw;Nfw;wgb cah;j;jg;glNtz;Lk;.

Fj;jifj;

njhif

,d;iwa

3. Vw;fdNt gykhff; fl;lg;gl;Lj; njhlh;e;J gykhf ,Ue;J te;j nghpahW miz>


NkYk; gyg;gLj;jg;gl;L mizapd; gyk; gw;wpa gpur;ridf;Nf ,lkpy;yhjjhy;
mizapd; KOf; nfhs;ssthd 152 mb tiu ePiuj; Njf;fp 1886 kw;Wk;
1970 k; tUl xg;ge;jq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; jkpo;ehl;by; kpd; cw;gj;jpf;Fk;>
ghrdj;jpw;Fk;> FbePUf;Fk; KOikahfg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. "ve;jf; fl;LkhdKk;
(fl;blk;>

rhiy>

ghyk;>

mizf;fl;L

Nghd;wit)

mjidg;

gad;

gLj;jhtpl;lhYk; ghohFk;. guhkhpf;fhtpl;lhYk; ghohFk;" vd;gJ fl;Lkhdj; njhopy;


El;g;g
miz

tpjpahFk;.
Nghd;w

Kiwahfg;

gad;gLj;jpr;

ve;jf;fl;LkhdKk;

rhpahfg;

MAs;

guhkhpj;J

te;jhy;

fzf;fpy;yhky;

nghpahW

vd;nwd;Wk;

epiyj;jpUf;Fk; vd;gij midtUk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

4. nghpahW ePh;> jkpo;ehl;by; cs;s kpd; cw;gj;jp epiyaj;jpw;F 1700 mb cau


kiyapypUe;J gha;tjhy;> kpd; cw;gj;jpf;F kpf mjpf ePh; kpd;rf;jp fpilf;fpwJ.
kpd; cw;gj;jpf;Fg; gpd; ntspNaWk; ePhpd; msT> jkpo;ehl;by; ghrdj;jpw;Fj;
Njitg;gLk;
ePhpy; xU rpwpa gFjp vd;gjhy;> rpwe;j ghrd epH; Nkyhd;ik
Kiwfisf; ifahz;L NkYk; ghrd gug;ig tphpthf;Ftjpd;%yk; ePhpd;
cgNahfj;jpwDk; mjpfkhFk;.
5. twl;rpahd gFjp kf;fSf;F tho;thjhukhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;> nghpahW mizapd;
gad;ghl;il NkYk; mjpfg;gLj;j> ePhpay; kl;l msTfs; VJthf ,Uf;Fkhapd;>
Njf;fj;jpypUe;J ePh; ntspNa nry;Yk; fhy;thapd; Moj;ij ,d;Dk; 4 mb
mjpfg;gLj;jp Njf;f cauk; 100 mb te;jTlNdNa ePh; ntspNWk;gb nra;a
Ntz;Lk;.
6. ePh;j;Njitapd; mj;jpahtrpaj;ijg; nghWj;J> ePh;j;Njf;fj;jpypUe;J tpirg; gk;Gfs;
%yKk; ePiu ,iwj;J fhy;tha;f;Fs; nrYj;Jtjw;F mDkjp mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

7. nghpahW miziag; guhkhpg;gjpy; Nfus muR> jkpo;ehL muRf;F KO


xj;Jiog;G toq;f Ntz;Lk;. mizapd; gyk; mjd; guhkhpg;G rk;ge;jg;gl;ljhy;>
mizapd; gyj;jpw;F ,U muRfSk; nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk;.
8. ehl;by; ePh;tsk; cghpahf cs;s Mw;Wtbg; gFjpfisg; gl;baypl;L> mq;Fs;s
ePh;tsj;ij> Njitg;gLk; gpw gFjpfSf;Fg; gphpj;J toq;fp eph;tfpf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ij
kj;jpa muRf;F toq;Fk;gb ePh;tsg; gad;ghL rl;lj;jpy; jpUj;jq;fs; nfhz;L tu
Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb nra;jhy;jhd; xU cWjpahd Njrpa ePh;tsg; gad;ghl;Lf;
nfhs;ifia cUthf;fp> twl;rpahd gFjpfSf;F ePiu gq;fpl;L toq;Ftjd; %yk;
ehl;bd; xUikg;ghl;il tYg;gLj;j KbAk;.

KM

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