"WET COOLING TOWERS:
'RULEOFTHUMB'
DESIGN AND SIMULATION"
Stephen A.
Leeper
U.S. Department of Energy
Idaho Operations Office
Idaho National Engineering Laboratory
EGGGTH5775
July 1981
This is an informal report intended for use as a preliminary or working document
Work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Resource Application, Office of Geothermal, under DOE Contract No. DEAC0776ID01570.
R
DISCLAIMER
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
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EGGGTH577 5 DE82 012196
EGGGTH5775
"WET COOLING TOWERS: 'RULEOFTHUMB' DESIGN AND SIMULATION"
Stephen A. Leeper
July 1981
ABSTRACT
NOMENCLATURE
I.
11.
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN
A. Problem Statement
CONTENTS
B. Outlet Air Temperature
C. Tower Characteristic
_{D}_{.} _{L}_{o}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{F}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}
E. Tower Dimensions
F. Water Consumption
G. Power Requirements
H. Cost Estimation
I. Sample Calculation
111. SAMPLE CALCULATION
FIGURES 
1 
REFERENCES 
i
Page
ii
iii
1
4
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
10
11
16
19
24
Abstract
A survey of wet cooling tower literature was performed to develop a simplified method of cooling tower design and simulation for use in power
plant cycle optimization.
In the report the theory of
heat exchange in wet cooling towers is
briefly sumnarized.
transfer in wet cooling towers) is presented and discussed.
fill constant (Ka) is defined and values derived. the optimized design of cooling towers is presented.
method provides information useful in power plant cycle optimization, including tower dimensions, water consumption rate, exit _{a}_{i}_{r} temperature, power require
ments and construction cost.
tower performance at various operating conditions is presented. This information
The Merkel equation (the fundamental equation of heat
A ruleofthumb
The ruleofthumb
The cooling tower
method for
design
In addition,
a method for simulation of cooling
is also useful in power plant cycle evaluation.
Using the information presented _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} report,
_{i}_{t} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l}
_{b}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{t}_{o}
incorporate wet cooling tower design and simulation into a procedure to evaluate
and optimize power plant cycles.
ii
NOMENCLATURE
a

3
Specific Transfer Surface (ft 2 TA/ft fill)
A Approach (T2 _{} twb; OF)
B
2
Base Area (ftg)

Bd
c
B1 owdown (1 bs 
HpO/hr) 
A constant 
cP  
Heat Capacity of Water (Btu/l b°F) 
D 
Drift (lbs H20/hr) 
E 
Evaporation (1bs H20/hr) 
F 
Air Flow Rate (actual cubic feed per minute; acfm) 
G 
Air Flow Rate (lbs air/hr) 
h 
Enthalpy of Air (Btu/lb dry air) 
H 
Air Humidity (lb H20/lb dry air) 

HP
K
Ka
 Kav

L

Head of
Pump (ft)
2
Air Mass Transfer Constant (lbs air/hr ftTA)
Volumetric Air Mass Transfer Constant (lbs air/hr
Tower Characteristic (1bs air/l b H20)
L Water
Flow Rate
(lbs H20/hr)
3
ftfill)
i Loading Factor (1bs HpO/hr fti)
L/G

WaterAir Flow Rate Ratio (lbs HpO/lb air)
M Makeup (lbs H20/hr)
P Power (hp)
Q Heat Load (Btu/hr)
R Range (Tl
_{}
T2;
OF)
t 
Air Temperature (OF) 

T 
Water Temperature (OF) 

TC 
 
Tower Characteristic 
(Kav/c
lbs air/lb H20)
iii
Page 2
V
B
Z
r7
P
$






Fill
Volume, Total
Specific Fill Volume
3
(ftfill)
(ftfil,/ftB)3
2
Fill
Fan Efficiency
Density
Dollars
Height
(ft)
(dimensionless; $0.80)
(lb/ft3)
Subsymbols
a Ai r
B Base Area

calc 
 
Cal cul ated Value 

des 
 
Design 

fill 
 
Fill 
Volume 
, 
F 
Fan 
mix 
OP

Mixture of Air and Water Vapor
Operation
P Pump
sa
t Ai r Temperature
T Water Temperature
 Saturated Air @ Water Temperature
,'
TA
W
wb



Transfer Area
Water Vapor
Wet Bulb Temperature
1 Inlet Condition
2 Exit Condition
iv
.,
.
0
f
I.
INTRODUCTION
The design of wet cooling towers is a competitive field of technology, where
design methods and constants are proprietary information.
mate design of cooling towers using rulesofthumb is presented _{a}_{n}_{d} provides
information suitable for use in power plant cycle optimization, including tower dimensions, water consumption rate, exit air temperature, power requirements
and construction cost.
at various operating conditions is also presented.
However, the approxi
A method for the simulation of cooling tower performance
Several types of wet cooling tower exist.
or mechanical draft. Mechanical draft towers can be either forced or induced
draft. Air and water flow can be crosscurrent, countercurrent or both.
fundamentals of wet cooling are presented by McKelvey _{a}_{n}_{d} Brooke _{(}_{1}_{)}_{.} Mechanical
draft cooling towers are the predominate types of cooling towers built in the
United States.
subject of this paper.
Wet cooling towers can be natural
The
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{g}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} draft cooling towers is the
In wet cooling towers, air and water are intimately mixed to provide heat trans _{f}_{e}_{r}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} psychometry is the basis for analysis of heat transfer in wet _{c}_{o}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} Airwater psychometric data and psychometry theory are pre sented in several references (1, 2, 3).
Heat transfer in cooling towers occurs by two major mechanisms:
sensible heat from water to air (convection) and transfer of latent heat by
the evaporation of water (diffusion).
airwater boundary layer. The total heat transfer is the sum of these two
_{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{l}_{a}_{y}_{e}_{r} _{m}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{s}_{m}_{s}_{.} The total heat transfer can also _{b}_{e} expressed _{i}_{n}
terms of the change in enthalpy of each bulk phase.
boundary layer is equal to the heat transfer in the bulk phases.
ulation of the terms, a fundamental equation of heat transfer in cooling towers
transfer of
Both of these mechanisms operate at the
The heat transfer _{a}_{t} the
After manip
c (the Merkel equation) _{i}_{s} obtained.
1
The Merkel equation, named after F.
KaB
LcP
= IT,hSaha
T1
4
dT
Merkel who first derived it, is:
The theory of heat transfer in wet cooling towers is presented in several
references (1, 3, 4, 5).
The air
is presented by Kern (6).
An especially clear derivation of
the Merkel _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
The enthalpy of the air stream is ha.
stream is in contact with water at a different temperature.
saturated air at the water temperature is hsa. Air does not reach this
The enthalpy of
enthalpy.
between the enthalpy of saturated air at the water temperature and the
enthalpy of air at the air temperature:
The driving force in the Merkel equation (AhDF) is the difference

"Driving Force" = AhDF  hsa

ha
Strictly speaking, enthalpy difference is not the driving force in wet cooling. The driving force in wet cooling is actually the difference _{i}_{n} water
pressure between the water _{a}_{n}_{d} air phases _{(}_{7}_{)}_{.}
or design point is determined by solving the righthand equation.
The tower
The Merkel equation is presented differently by various authors.
the Merkel equation, care is required to determine the units required by K.
As defined above, K is an air mass transfer constant.
the water mass transfer constant (2) or the convective heat transfer coeffi
cient (5).
value i% 1.0, a convention adopted in this paper.
overlooked , however.
cannot be
P is frequently left out of the Merkel equation since its
Before using
K is
In other sources,
Also,
C
The units of
C
P
The mass and heat transfer characteristics of cooling tower fill are described
by Ka, a volumetric mass transfer constant.
the wetted fill surface and on the surface of the drops. As a result, the
specific mass transfer surface _{(}_{a}_{)} is _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{t} to measure.
is regarded as a single constant.
Mass and heat transfer occur on
Therefore, Ka
the mass and heat
Ka
is a measure of
2
^{1}
transfer rate through the boundary layer per unit of fill volume.
values of Ka reflect better mass and heat transfer characteristics of fill.
Larger
Cooling tower and fill vendors do not release values of Ka. However, Ka
values can be determined by backcalculation for existing towers.
towers built by ResearchCottrell (8), Ka values are between 64 and 140 with
an average value of 95 + 35 (two standard deviations).
cooling towers (9), values of Ka varied from 49 to 152 with 100 + 30 as the
average value.
For 16 cooling
For 39 Marley Company
a
Ka value of
For conventional types of cooling tower fill,
100 gives reasonable fill heights (6, p.601).
but is a complex function of
This value of
Ka
to
is not strictly a
Ka applies
Ka
as defined in the above form of the Merkel equation.
constant,
remain relatively constant over normal operating variable ranges.
several operating variables.
Ka does
Detailed design of cooling towers is a trial and error iterative procedure. Once a set of design conditions is defined, designs are performed at several
outlet air temperatures.
Optimization requires a tradeoff between operating and construction costs. More detailed discussions of cooling tower optimization for use with power
plants can be found in Dickey (9) and Clark (10).
These designs are compared to determine the optimum.
3
11.
DESIGN PROCEDURE
A. Problem Statement
For a given cooling tower design, the quantity o'f water to be treat
ed (L) and its inlet temperature (T1)
temperature (T2) is specified. The difference between the inlet&and outlet water temperatures is the range (R). An ambient wetbulb temperature '(twb;tl)is chosen for design, such that it is exceeded only three to five percent of the time. _{T}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} wetbulb temperature and the outlet water temperature is the approach (A). The outlet water temperature approaches the air wetbulb temperature,
which is the limiting temperature to whichwater can be cooled. Gen erally, cooling towers are designed with an approach of 10 to 15 de
grees (Fahrenheit).
are known.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{u}_{t}_{l}_{e}_{t} _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}
The approach is seldom less than five degrees.
B. Outlet Air Temperature (t,)/WaterAirL
Flow Rate Ratio (L/G).
For a given set of cooling tower design conditions, an optimum de sign (outlet air temperature/waterair flow rate ratio) exists. optimum design will result in minimum construction and operating costs. A good correlation exists between the optimum outlet air temperature and the inlet and outlet water temperatures:
The
t2
 T1 + T2

2
_{i}
.
As is apparent in Figures 1 (1, p.177) and 2 (9), the approximated outlet air temperature is very close to the actual design outlet air temperature. The approximation for the outlet air temperature can be used as a first guess for a detailed design or may be considered as the optimum outlet air temperature in a ruleofthumb design. When the approximation is used, air flow rate will be within +lo% of the optimum design in most cases.
4
Water is evaporated during the wet cooling process. For each 10°F
drop in water temperature, approximately 1.0% of the treated water
evaporates (3, p.757).
However, the evaporation rate is small and is commonly neglected,
yielding the following energy balance _{(}_{1}_{1}_{,} p.589):
The water flow rate is not strictly constant.
The outlet air is usually saturated at the outlet air temperature. The enthalpies of the inlet and outlet are as found from a table or chart of psychometric data. Therefore, by specifying an outlet air temperature, the waterair flow rate ratio is fixed.
c. Tower Characteristic
The tower characteristic equati on :
Kaa
 i'


L
T2
dT
hsa 
ha
is determined from the Merkel
The righthand side of the Merkel equation is difficult to integrate directly because hsa  h is difficult to express explicitly in terms
of T.
Simpson's rule (see sample calculation). The most commonly used computer solution is the Tchebycheff method _{(}_{2}_{,} p.1213). _{A} nomograph _{i}_{s} also available for estimation of the tower characteristic (2, p.1214).
a
However, it can be graphically integrated or solved by
5
D.
Loading Factor
The loading factor (L), specific water flow rate or water flow rate density is the recommended water flow rate per unit of tower cross sectional area (base area; B). Through experience with various types
of fill, optimum loading factors have been determined as a function of
design wetbul b temperature, range and approach.
cooling jobs (large range and/or close approach), a low loading factor
For difficult
is required and visa versa.
Two graphical methods are presented for
determining the loading factor (Figures 3,
4,
5 and Figure 6).
4
The loading factors determined from these two methods agree well, but are lower than the loading factors used with presentlyused
fills.
Methods for determining modern loading factors are not
available, however.
Ka (100) was de Therefore, the
older loading factors must be used when calculations are
The backcalculated
value of
termined from the available,
available,
performed using the recommended value of Ka.
older loading factors.
E. Tower Dimensions
The required fill height (2) is
and is determined from the tower characteristic:
equal
to the specific volume
(q
The required
B
base area or crosssectional
=
L/i
area (B)
is:
A larger loading factor will
and in a smaller base area.
V=BxZ
result in both a smaller tower height
The fill
volume (V)
is:
6
_{F}_{.} Water Consumpt i on
Wet cooling towers consume water in three major ways: evaporation,
drift and blowdown. of the water flow rate
Drift (D) refers to water which leaves the cooling tower entrained in the exiting air and is approximately 0.2% of the water flow rate
(3, p.757).
in the cooling water.
system, and replaced by fresh water, to prevent sol ids/chemicals
The evaporation rate (E)
per each 10°F of
is approximately 1.0%
cooling range (3, p.757).
As water evaporates , sol ids and chemicals concentrate
Blowdown (Bd)
is the water removed from the
buildup in the cooling water.
of the evaporation rate and depends upon the solids/chemicals con centration which can be tolerated in the process in which the cooling water is being used and the solids/chemicals concentration of the
makeup water. Blowdown
Makeup (M) water is required to replace the consumed water:
Blowdown is expressed as a percentage
is usually about 20% of the evaporation rate.
Water Consumption
Rate
_{=}
_{M} _{=}
_{E} + _{D} _{+} Bd
E = 
.001 x 
R x L 

D = 
,002 
L 

M = 
(.0012 R 
+ 
.002) 
_{L} 
The evaporation rate can also be determined from a mass balance around the air stream:
E = (H2  HI) G
In this case,
M =
1.26
(H2

H1)
+ .002 L
7
This second method of determining the evaporation rate is more accurate than the first method, but the first method is easier to use because it involves fewer variables.
G. Power Requirements
Pump power (P ) is determined from the following equation:
P
^{p}^{p}

LxH
1.98 x:1
6
x
IT
The head (H _{)} is difficult to determine. Dickey (8, p.12) recommends
P
a 75 foot head.
However, the power requirement obtained with a
75 foot head is two to two and a half 'times greater than the require
ment obtained from other approximations. present the following approximation:
Fill Heiqht (Ft.)
hp/1000 gpm
McKelvey and Brooke (1, p. 178)
hp/106 1bs/hr
2024 
7 
14 
2428 
8.5 
17 
The power requirements obtained from the above approximations tend
to be low.
head has been found to be:
From an analysis of data, a good estimate of the pump
_{H}_{p} =
Z + 10
This equation is convenient and allows the tower height to affect the pump power requirements.
8
Fan power requirements can be estimated from the following approxima tions presented by McKelvey and Brooke (1, p.178):
Fill 
Heiqht (ft.) 
hp/1000 gpm 
hp/106 1bs/hr 
2024 
14 
28 

2428 
12 
24 
Fan power requirements can also _{b}_{e} estimated from the volume of
moist air moved by the fan.
of the inlet air is used in the calculation. For induced draft
towers, use the volume of the exit air.
required for each 8,000 actual cubic feet of air per minute (acfm)
moved by the fan (1, p.178), following formula:
For forced draft towers,
the volume
Assuming that one hp is
the fan power is approximated from the
F
 

pF 
 
8,000 
’ 

where 
PF 
= 
Fan Power (hp) 

F 
= Air Flow Rate (acfm) 
Ht = Air Humidity @ t (lbs HpO/lb dry air)
G = Air Flow Rate (lbs air/hr)
Pmix,t 
= Density of 
Moist Air 
(3 
t 
(lbs/ft3) 
Pa,t 
PW,t
42.6439

t
+ 460
= Density of

26.6525
Water Vapor (3 t
H (t + 460)
t
9
(lbs/ft3)
The formulas for calculation of
the ideal gas law.
with data reported by Research  Cottrell
and
are derived from
p
a ,t
p
w,t
The assumption of 1 hp/8,000 acfm is consistent
(11).
The total power is obtained by adding fan power and pump power. McKelvey and Brooke (1, p.179) present a method for approximating total power requirements from range, appoach, design wetbul b temper ature and water flow rate.
H. Cost Estimation
Zanker (12) has derived an equation for the estimation of cooling tower construction cost:
^{$}^{1}^{9}^{6}^{7}
 Q
C
x
A + 39.2R

586
where
$1967
= 1967 dollars
Q Heat Load (Btu/hr)
R (OF)
= Total
= Range
A = Approach
(OF)
^{C}^{=}
[ 1 t
279
0.0335
(85  twb)1.143]
twb
= Design WetBul b Temperature
Multiplication of
correct to 1980 dollars.
1967 dollars by
2.7
[ l.0813]
will
approximately
Dickey (9) presents a method for estimation of cooling tower con
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{c}_{o}_{s}_{t}_{s}_{.}
From analysis of 39 cooling towers built by
10
Marley Co, cooling tower construction cost was found to be $14.45
(1978 dollars) per cooling tower unit (TU).
The number of tower
units in a given cooling tower are found as follows:
TU = Water Flow Rate (gpm) x Rating Factor.
.
The rating factor is a measure of the cooling job difficulty.
the 39 Marley Co. cooling towers, a linear relationship (correlation coefficient = .9844) was found between the Rating Factor and the
tower characteristic (TC) :
For
Rating Factor =
.9964
x
TC

.3843
A method of estimating cooling tower cost from the tower character istic is therefore:
~ 
14.45 

 
L 
( .9964 
x 
TC 
 
3843) 

$1978 
500 
To convert from 1978 dollars to 1980 dollars, multiply by 1.4.
the tower characteristic equation, a separate construction cost is obtained for each design (outlet air temperature); whereas, the Zanker equation yields only one cost for each set of design con ditions.
From
I. Sample Calculation (Example 1)
6
Design a cooling tower to cool 120,000 gpm (60 x 10
119'F
to 89OF, when the wetbulb
temperature is 75OF.
lbs/hr) from
Also, estimate
water consumption rate, power requirements and construction cost. Assume Ka equals 100.
11
Sol uti on :
Estimate outlet air temperature (t2)and t/G:
t2


T1 +
2
T2
= 104OF
+(104°F,
sat'd) = 79.31 Btu/lb dry air
hl(twb
_{=} _{7}_{5}_{O}_{F}_{)}
L
G
h2 
hl
Cp (TI  T2)
= 38.62
Btu/lb dry air
 79.31  38.62 (1.0)(119  89)
^{=}
^{1}^{.}^{3}^{6}
Calculate tower characteristic by the Simpson rule. range into five equal sections of 6OF each, then
79.31  38.62
 
= 8.139 
Btu/lb 

Aha 
 
 
5 

89 
54.85 
38.62 
16.23 

95 
63.34 
46.76 
16.58 

_{1}_{0}_{1} 
_{7}_{3}_{.}_{5}_{8} 
54.90 
18.68 

_{1}_{0}_{7} 
_{8}_{5}_{.}_{5}_{9} 
63.04 
22.55 

113 
99.74 
71.18 
28.57 

_{1}_{1}_{9} 
_{1}_{1}_{6}_{.}_{5}_{0} 
79.31 
37.19 
air.
Ave =
(T)~~~~= R x ( hsa ha)
KaB
1
=
30
x
.0469 = 1.408
ave
12
Divide
.0616
.0603
.0535
_{.}_{0}_{4}_{4}_{3}
.0350
.0269
.2816
.0469
Determine the loading factor:

L = 2.75 gpm/fti
= 1375 lbS/hr/ftB2
Determine the tower dimensions:
B
V
=
=
=
1 KaV
1
L
Idc Ka
x

1.408 x 1375
100
2
L/i = 120,000/2.75 = 43,636 ftg
B
x
Z = 844,740
3
ftfill
13
= 19.4 ft.
Estimate pump power:
=
HP
pp

Z
+ 10 =
1.98
L
x
x
29.4
Hp
lo6
TI
ft.


(60 x lo6), 29.4
(1.98 x lO6)x(.8O)
Estimate fan power (Induced draft;
t2 = 104OF):
P 
a,t
42.6439
t2 + 460
= .0756 lbs/ft3
Ht
= .0491 lbs H20/lb air
P 
w,t
26.6525
(t + 460)~Ht
= .9624 1bs/ft3
2 1100
Total
F=
(1 +
Ht)
60 'mix,t
'F
 F

8000
=
G
= 10.52
1300 hp
x
10 6
3
acfm (ft /min)
power requirement is approximately 2400 hp.
14
hp
Estimate construction cost:
$1978
 14*45
500
L
(.9964
x
TC

Estimate water consumption:
M = (.0012R
= 3.36
x
+ .002)
L
6
10
lbs/hr
= 6720 gpm
15
.3843)
=
1.77
x
6
10
dollars
I I I.
SIMULATION CALCULATIONS
Cooling towers operate most of the time at conditions different than their
design conditions.
ditions is important in the optimization of power plant cycles. one operation parameter changes the performance of the tower. calculations are required to determine the new operating state.
Prediction of cooling tower performance at various con
A change in
Simulation
The parameter which changes most often is the ambient wetbulb temperature. A change in the wetbulb temperature will affect the range and the approach
of the tower, but the tower characteristic
The air flow rate is also frequently changed by reducing the fan speed. When the air flow rate is changed, not only is the approach affected, _{b}_{u}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} tower characteristic is also changed. Water flow rate also affects the tower characteristic. A change in the inlet water temperature does not affect the
tower characteristic,
(K;)

wi 11 remain unchanged.
but does change the approach and can change the range.
(‘p )
is a function of L/G by the following
The tower characteristic
re1ationshi _{p}_{:}
or
16
The slope (M) is approximately equal to 0.6 for most conditions (13, p.2.8).
If one point on the line is known (for instance,
the intercept (logloC) can be calculated and C determined.
KaV at design L/G),
L
Once C is deter
mined,
the tower characteristic can be determined for other L/G.
is accurate within the following range:
 x (k)d;s TCdes
1
2
The above
<
X(k)3
2
equation
.
des
Mathematical solutions to simulation problems must be solved by trialanderror. Two examples of arithmetically solved simulation problems are given below. The solution of simulation problems using Cooling Tower Institute Performance Curves (14) is given by the Cooling Tower Institute (15, 16).
Example 2
A cooling tower is designed to cool 8950 gpm (4.475 x lo6 lbs/hr) from llO°F
to 84OF (R = 26) at a wetbulb
characteristic of 1.49 (L/G = 1.30 and t2 = 97.3OF).
ature drops to 6OoF, what will T1 and T2 be for L/G and range held constant?
temperature of 69OF (A = 15OF) with a tower
When the wetbulb
temper
Solution (Trial and Error)
hl
Guess 1:
(twb = 6OOF) = 26.46
Btu/lb
T2
= 75OF
^{L}
(T1 = 101OF)

T2) = 60.26
air
Btu/lb
air
hsa
hsa
(T 
= 
75, 
sat'd) 
= 38.62 
Btu/lb 
(T 
= 
101, 
sat'd) 
= 73.58 
Btu/lb 
hsa
dT

ha
= 2.34
17
Guess 2:
T2 = 8OoF (TI =
106OF)
h2 = 60.26OF
(F)= 1.43
2
Guess 3:
Interpolation  T2 = 79OF (T1 = 105OF)
h2 = 60.26OF
(F) = 1.56
3
Guess 4:
Interpolation  Tp = 79.5OF
h2 = 60.26OF
('<)4 = 1.49
(TI = 105.5OF)
0
0
0
T2
=
79.5OF and T1 = 105.5OF
Example 3
Consider the above cooling tower.
approximately 40% reduction in air flow rate), what will T1 and T2 be
for twb = 6OoF and the range held constant?
If the fan rpm is reduced 50% (an
18
Solution:
(:)op
c =
(Trial and Error)
=
&(:)des
1.30
 = 2.17
.60
x (;>”des
= 1.7442
(F)op= C x(:) = 1.096
M
0.0
1.096 =
i1
OP
dT
T2
hsa

ha
Solve by trial
and error as in Example 2.
T2 = 89.6OF
and T1
= 115.6OF.
19
LL
0
aJ
c,
110
c,
a, 100
c
c,
J
O
na
90
L
aJ
c,
la
aJ
m
la
b
^{>}
70
60
50
I
50 60
70
80
90 100 110
Air outlet temp.,
OF
_{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E} _{1}_{:} Average of water inlet and outlet temperature vs. Design air outlet [From McKelvey & Brook (1, p.17711
20
21
c, ^{(}^{u}
c, ^{c}^{u}
I1
.C U aJ v) 07 ^{S}
Q
5 Q
m
_{0} _{m}
_{c}_{o} 0
(u
L).
c1 L) Q aJ ^{Q}^{)} E L 5
^{.}^{V}
v)
LU
^{a}^{J}^{a}
_{s} c,
>5
aJ 3 _{L}
LI,
0
QI
0,
lu S
cc
35
30
25
20
15
^{1}^{0}
I
!lb
200 
400 600 800 1000 1200 
.  

sq. 
ft/1000 U.S. 
gpm 

FIGURE 3: 
6OoF wet bulb  Design chart 

for mechanical draft towers 
LL
0
e
aJ
CEI
z
35
30
25
20
[YO15'o10'
Approach
5O
15
10
200
FIGURE 4:
400
600 800
1000
1200. sq.
70° wet bulb  Design chart
for mechanical
draft towers
22
ft./1000
U.S. gpm
r
1
20'
Approach
00
15' 10 5
I
I
I
I
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 sq/ft.
_{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E} _{5}_{:}
wet bulb  Design chart
for mechanical draft towers
80'
I
1000 U.S.
_{F}_{I}_{G}_{U}_{R}_{E} _{6}_{:}
Loading Factor (Water Concentration) Determination Chart for InducedDraf _{t} Cooling Towers
23
gpm
REFERENCES
1. K. K. McKelvey and M. Brooke, The Industrial Cooling Tower, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1959.
2. 
E. Bagnoli, 
F. H. Fuller, V. J. Johnson and R. W. Norris, "Psychometry, 
Evaporative Cooling, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration," Chemical Engineers Handbook 5th Ed., R. H. Perry and C. H. Chilton, Editors, McGrawHill Book Co., New York _{,} 1973. 

3. 
L. McCabe and J. C. Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering 3rd Ed., McGrawHill Book _{C}_{o}_{.}_{,} New York, 1976. W. 

4. 
W. S. Norman, Absorption, Distillation and Cooling Towers, Longmans, 

Green and Co. , Ltd., London, 1961. 

5. 
B. Woods and P. Betts, "A TemperatureTotal Heat Diagram for Cooling 
6.
Tower Calculations, No. I," The Engineer 189 (4912), 337 (1950).
D. Q. Kern, Process Heat Transfer, McGrawHill Book Co., New York, 1950.
7. W. Gloyer, "Review of Cooling Tower Calculation," Cooling Tower Institute  #TPl94A, January 1978.
8. ResearchCottrell (Hamon Cooling Tower Division) U. S. Installation List, 1980; Obtained from Mr. Allen J. George, P. 0. Box 1500, Somerville, NJ 08876 (201) 6854045.
9.
J. B. Dickey, "Managing Waste Heat with the Water Cooling Tower, 3rd Ed.,"
Marley Cooling Tower Co., Mission, Kansas 66202, 1978.
10. S. D. Clark, "Sizing Cooling Towers to Optimize Plant Performance," Cooling Tower Institute  #TP218A, January 1980.
11. ResearchCottrell (Hamon Cooling Tower Division), "Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Construction,'' Bound Brook, New Jersey 08805; data on the city of Tallahassee's Arvah B. Hopkins Unit #2 given inside front cover,
1976.
12.
A. Zanker, "Coolin Tawer Costs from Operating Data," Calculation and
Shortcut Handbook 907X), McGrawHill Book Co., New York, pp.4748.
13. Cooling 'Tower Institute, "Chapter 2: Basic Concepts of Cooling Tower Operation," Cooling Tower Manual , Cooling Tower Institute, Houston, Texas 77037, January 1977.
14. Cooling Tower Institute, Cooling Tower Performance Curves, 1967.
15. Cooling Tower Institute, "Acceptance Test Code for WaterCooling Towers," CTI #ATC105, February 1975.
16. Cooling Tower Institute, "Chapter 3:
Cooling Tower Performance Variables,"
Cooling Tower Manual, January 1977.
24
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