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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH Mathematical Olympiad Problems Around The World (by 2009) Edited by:Amir Hossein Parvardi

Problems from: www.mathlinks.ro Published:2010-02


Visit my web: www.math-olympiad.blogsky.com

Subject
APMO Austria Balkan Baltic Way Belgium(Flanders Junior Olympiad) Belgium(Flanders Math Olympiad) Bosnia Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Canada Centro American China(National Olympiad) China(China Girls Math Olympiad) China(Team Selection Test) China(Western Mathematical Olympiad) China(North and South) Costa Rica France(Team Selection Test) Germany(Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik) Germany(Team Selection Test) Greece Hong Kong Hungary-Israel IberoAmerican IMC(Undergraduate Competitions) India Indonesia Iran(Pre-Preparation Course Examination) Iran(IMS) Iran(National Math Olympiad-3rd round) Iran(Team Selection Test) Italy Junior Balkan((International Competitions) Junior Balkan(Short List) Korea Mediterranean

Page
2-23 24-30 31-38 39-46 47-51 52-75 76-82 83-110 111-117 112-139 140-155 156-162 163-179 180-274 275-291 292-296 297-302 303-309 310-340 341-391 392-398 399-403 404-439 440-479 480-500 501-521 522-541 542-554 555-559 560-594 595-601 602-611 612-623 624-628 629-633 634-636

Poland(1st and 2nd round) Poland(Finals) Putnam Romania(National Olympiad) Romania(District Olympiad) Romania(Masters In Mathematics) Romania(Team Selection Tests) Russia(All-Russian Olympiad) Russia(Sharygin Geometry Olympiad) Serbia Singapore Ukraine(Kyiv Mathematical Festival) Ukraine(IMO Team Selection Test) USA(AIME) USA(AMC 10) USA(AMC 8) USA(IMTS) USA(USAMTS) USA(USAMO) USA(Team Selection Test) Vietnam(National Olympiad) Vietnam(Team Selection Tests) Some Other Countries IMO Shortlist IMO Longlist

637-642 643-673 674-730 731-764 765-773 774-778 779-834 835-859 860-868 869-875 876-880 881-889 890-894 895-973 974-1050 1051-1054 1055-1059 1060-1076 1077-1112 1113-1135 1136-1186 1187-1227 1228-1254 1255-1384 1385-1417

APMO
1989-2009

APMO 1989

1 Let x1 , x2 , , xn be positive real numbers, and let S = x1 + x2 + + xn . Prove that (1 + x1 )(1 + x2 ) (1 + xn ) 1 + S + 2 Prove that the equation 6(6a2 + 3b2 + c2 ) = 5n2 has no solutions in integers except a = b = c = n = 0. 3 Let A1 , A2 , A3 be three points in the plane, and for convenience, let A4 = A1 , A5 = A2 . For n = 1, 2, and 3, suppose that Bn is the midpoint of An An+1 , and suppose that Cn is the midpoint of An Bn . Suppose that An Cn+1 and Bn An+2 meet at Dn , and that An Bn+1 and Cn An+2 meet at En . Calculate the ratio of the area of triangle D1 D2 D3 to the area of triangle E1 E2 E3 . 4 Let S be a set consisting of m pairs (a, b) of positive integers with the property that 1 a < b n. Show that there are at least (m n ) 4 4m 3n triples (a, b, c) such that (a, b), (a, c), and (b, c) belong to S. 5 Determine all functions f from the reals to the reals for which (1) f (x) is strictly increasing and (2) f (x) + g(x) = 2x for all real x, where g(x) is the composition inverse function to f (x). (Note: f and g are said to be composition inverses if f (g(x)) = x and g(f (x)) = x for all real x.)
2

Sn S2 S3 + + + 2! 3! n!

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1990

1 Given triangle ABC, let D, E, F be the midpoints of BC, AC, AB respectively and let G be the centroid of the triangle. For each value of BAC, how many non-similar triangles are there in which AEGF is a cyclic quadrilateral? 2 Let a1 , a2 , , an be positive real numbers, and let Sk be the sum of the products of a1 , a2 , , an taken k at a time. Show that Sk Snk for k = 1, 2, , n 1. 3 Consider all the triangles ABC which have a xed base AB and whose altitude from C is a constant h. For which of these triangles is the product of its altitudes a maximum? 4 A set of 1990 persons is divided into non-intersecting subsets in such a way that 1. No one in a subset knows all the others in the subset, 2. Among any three persons in a subset, there are always at least two who do not know each other, and 3. For any two persons in a subset who do not know each other, there is exactly one person in the same subset knowing both of them. (a) Prove that within each subset, every person has the same number of acquaintances. (b) Determine the maximum possible number of subsets. Note: It is understood that if a person A knows person B, then person B will know person A; an acquaintance is someone who is known. Every person is assumed to know ones self. 5 Show that for every integer n 6, there exists a convex hexagon which can be dissected into exactly n congruent triangles. n k
2

a1 a2 an

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1991

1 Let G be the centroid of a triangle ABC, and M be the midpoint of BC. Let X be on AB and Y on AC such that the points X, Y , and G are collinear and XY and BC are parallel. Suppose that XC and GB intersect at Q and Y B and GC intersect at P . Show that triangle M P Q is similar to triangle ABC. 2 Suppose there are 997 points given in a plane. If every two points are joined by a line segment with its midpoint coloured in red, show that there are at least 1991 red points in the plane. Can you nd a special case with exactly 1991 red points? 3 Let a1 , a2 , , an , b1 , b2 , , bn be positive real numbers such that a1 + a2 + + an = b1 + b2 + + bn . Show that a2 a2 a1 + a2 + + an a2 n 2 1 + + + a1 + b1 a2 + b2 an + bn 2 4 During a break, n children at school sit in a circle around their teacher to play a game. The teacher walks clockwise close to the children and hands out candies to some of them according to the following rule: He selects one child and gives him a candy, then he skips the next child and gives a candy to the next one, then he skips 2 and gives a candy to the next one, then he skips 3, and so on. Determine the values of n for which eventually, perhaps after many rounds, all children will have at least one candy each. 5 Given are two tangent circles and a point P on their common tangent perpendicular to the lines joining their centres. Construct with ruler and compass all the circles that are tangent to these two circles and pass through the point P .

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1992

a+b+c . 1 A triangle with sides a, b, and c is given. Denote by s the semiperimeter, that is s = 2 Construct a triangle with sides s a, s b, and s c. This process is repeated until a triangle can no longer be constructed with the side lengths given. For which original triangles can this process be repeated indenitely? 2 In a circle C with centre O and radius r, let C1 , C2 be two circles with centres O1 , O2 and radii r1 , r2 respectively, so that each circle Ci is internally tangent to C at Ai and so that C1 , C2 are externally tangent to each other at A. Prove that the three lines OA, O1 A2 , and O2 A1 are concurrent. 3 Let n be an integer such that n > 3. Suppose that we choose three numbers from the set {1, 2, . . . , n}. Using each of these three numbers only once and using addition, multiplication, and parenthesis, let us form all possible combinations. (a) Show that if we choose all three n numbers greater than , then the values of these combinations are all distinct. (b) Let p be 2 a prime number such that p n. Show that the number of ways of choosing three numbers so that the smallest one is p and the values of the combinations are not all distinct is precisely the number of positive divisors of p 1. 4 Determine all pairs (h, s) of positive integers with the following property: If one draws h horizontal lines and another s lines which satisfy (i) they are not horizontal, (ii) no two of them are parallel, (iii) no three of the h + s lines are concurrent, then the number of regions formed by these h + s lines is 1992. 5 Find a sequence of maximal length consisting of non-zero integers in which the sum of any seven consecutive terms is positive and that of any eleven consecutive terms is negative.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1993

1 Let ABCD be a quadrilateral such that all sides have equal length and ABC = 60o . Let l be a line passing through D and not intersecting the quadrilateral (except at D). Let E and F be the points of intersection of l with AB and BC respectively. Let M be the point of intersection of CE and AF . Prove that CA2 = CM CE. 2 Find the total number of dierent integer values the function f (x) = [x] + [2x] + [ takes for real numbers x with 0 x 100. 3 Let 5x ] + [3x] + [4x] 3

f (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a0 and g(x) = cn+1 xn+1 + cn xn + + c0 be non-zero polynomials with real coecients such that g(x) = (x + r)f (x) for some real a number r. If a = max(|an |, . . . , |a0 |) and c = max(|cn+1 |, . . . , |c0 |), prove that n + 1. c 4 Determine all positive integers n for which the equation xn + (2 + x)n + (2 x)n = 0 has an integer as a solution. 5 Let P1 , P2 , . . ., P1993 = P0 be distinct points in the xy-plane with the following properties: (i) both coordinates of Pi are integers, for i = 1, 2, . . . , 1993; (ii) there is no point other than Pi and Pi+1 on the line segment joining Pi with Pi+1 whose coordinates are both integers, for i = 0, 1, . . . , 1992. Prove that for some i, 0 i 1992, there exists a point Q with coordinates (qx , qy ) on the line segment joining Pi with Pi+1 such that both 2qx and 2qy are odd integers.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1994

1 Let f : R R be a function such that (i) For all x, y R, f (x) + f (y) + 1 f (x + y) f (x) + f (y) (ii) For all x [0, 1), f (0) f (x), (iii) f (1) = f (1) = 1. Find all such functions f . 2 Given a nondegenerate triangle ABC, with circumcentre O, orthocentre H, and circumradius R, prove that |OH| < 3R. 3 Let n be an integer of the form a2 + b2 , where a and b are relatively prime integers and such that if p is a prime, p n, then p divides ab. Determine all such n. 4 Is there an innite set of points in the plane such that no three points are collinear, and the distance between any two points is rational? 5 You are given three lists A, B, and C. List A contains the numbers of the form 10k in base 10, with k any integer greater than or equal to 1. Lists B and C contain the same numbers translated into base 2 and 5 respectively: A 10 100 1000 . . . B 1010 1100100 1111101000 . . . C 20 400 13000 . . .

Prove that for every integer n > 1, there is exactly one number in exactly one of the lists B or C that has exactly n digits.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1995

1 Determine all sequences of real numbers a1 , a2 , . . ., a1995 which satisfy: 2 and an (n 1) an+1 (n 1), for n = 1, 2, . . . 1994, 2 a1995 1994 a1 + 1.

2 Let a1 , a2 , . . ., an be a sequence of integers with values between 2 and 1995 such that: (i) Any two of the ai s are realtively prime, (ii) Each ai is either a prime or a product of primes. Determine the smallest possible values of n to make sure that the sequence will contain a prime number. 3 Let P QRS be a cyclic quadrilateral such that the segments P Q and RS are not parallel. Consider the set of circles through P and Q, and the set of circles through R and S. Determine the set A of points of tangency of circles in these two sets. 4 Let C be a circle with radius R and centre O, and S a xed point in the interior of C. Let AA and BB be perpendicular chords through S. Consider the rectangles SAM B, SBN A , SA M B , and SB N A. Find the set of all points M , N , M , and N when A moves around the whole circle. 5 Find the minimum positive integer k such that there exists a function f from the set Z of all integers to {1, 2, . . . k} with the property that f (x) = f (y) whenever |x y| {5, 7, 12}.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1996

1 Let ABCD be a quadrilateral AB = BC = CD = DA. Let M N and P Q be two segments BD perpendicular to the diagonal BD and such that the distance between them is d > , with 2 M AD, N DC, P AB, and Q BC. Show that the perimeter of hexagon AM N CQP does not depend on the position of M N and P Q so long as the distance between them remains constant. 2 Let m and n be positive integers such that n m. Prove that 2n n! (m + n)! (m2 + m)n (m n)!

3 If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then prove that the incenters of the triangles ABC, BCD, CDA, DAB are the vertices of a rectangle. 4 The National Marriage Council wishes to invite n couples to form 17 discussion groups under the following conditions: (1) All members of a group must be of the same sex; i.e. they are either all male or all female. (2) The dierence in the size of any two groups is 0 or 1. (3) All groups have at least 1 member. (4) Each person must belong to one and only one group. Find all values of n, n 1996, for which this is possible. Justify your answer. 5 Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. Prove that a+bc+ b+ca+ c+ab a+ b+ c

and determine when equality occurs.

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APMO 1998

1 Let F be the set of all n-tuples (A1 , . . . , An ) such that each Ai is a subset of {1, 2, . . . , 1998}. Let |A| denote the number of elements of the set A. Find |A1 A2 An |
(A1 ,...,An )F

2 Show that for any positive integers a and b, (36a + b)(a + 36b) cannot be a power of 2. 3 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that 1+ a b 1+ b c 1+ c a 2 1+ a+b+c . 3 abc

4 Let ABC be a triangle and D the foot of the altitude from A. Let E and F lie on a line passing through D such that AE is perpendicular to BE, AF is perpendicular to CF , and E and F are dierent from D. Let M and N be the midpoints of the segments BC and EF , respectively. Prove that AN is perpendicular to N M . 5 Find the largest integer n such that n is divisible by all positive integers less than 3 n.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 1999

1 Find the smallest positive integer n with the following property: there does not exist an arithmetic progression of 1999 real numbers containing exactly n integers. 2 Let a1 , a2 , . . . be a sequence of real numbers satisfying ai+j ai + aj for all i, j = 1, 2, . . . . Prove that a2 a3 an a1 + + + + an 2 3 n for each positive integer n. 3 Let 1 and 2 be two circles intersecting at P and Q. The common tangent, closer to P , of 1 and 2 touches 1 at A and 2 at B. The tangent of 1 at P meets 2 at C, which is dierent from P , and the extension of AP meets BC at R. Prove that the circumcircle of triangle P QR is tangent to BP and BR. 4 Determine all pairs (a, b) of integers with the property that the numbers a2 + 4b and b2 + 4a are both perfect squares. 5 Let S be a set of 2n + 1 points in the plane such that no three are collinear and no four concyclic. A circle will be called Good if it has 3 points of S on its circumference, n 1 points in its interior and n 1 points in its exterior. Prove that the number of good circles has the same parity as n.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2000

101

1 Compute the sum:


i=0

x3 i i 2 for xi = 101 . 1 3xi + 3xi

2 Find all permutations a1 , a2 , . . . , a9 of 1, 2, . . . , 9 such that a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 = a4 + a5 + a6 + a7 = a7 + a8 + a9 + a1 and a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 = a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 = a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 1 3 Let ABC be a triangle. Let M and N be the points in which the median and the angle bisector, respectively, at A meet the side BC. Let Q and P be the points in which the perpendicular at N to N A meets M A and BA, respectively. And O the point in which the perpendicular at P to BA meets AN produced. Prove that QO is perpendicular to BC. 4 Let n, k be given positive integers with n > k. Prove that: 1 nn n! nn k < < k n + 1 k (n k)nk k!(n k)! k (n k)nk 5 Given a permutation (a0 , a1 , . . . , an ) of the sequence 0, 1, . . . , n. A transportation of ai with aj is called legal if ai = 0 for i > 0, and ai1 + 1 = aj . The permutation (a0 , a1 , . . . , an ) is called regular if after a number of legal transportations it becomes (1, 2, . . . , n). For which numbers n is the permutation (1, n, n 1, . . . , 3, 2, 0) regular?

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2001

1 For a positive integer n let S(n) be the sum of digits in the decimal representation of n. Any positive integer obtained by removing several (at least one) digits from the right-hand end of the decimal representation of n is called a stump of n. Let T (n) be the sum of all stumps of n. Prove that n = S(n) + 9T (n). 2 Find the largest positive integer N so that the number of integers in the set {1, 2, . . . , N } which are divisible by 3 is equal to the number of integers which are divisible by 5 or 7 (or both). 3 Let two equal regular n-gons S and T be located in the plane such that their intersection is a 2n-gon (n 3). The sides of the polygon S are coloured in red and the sides of T in blue. Prove that the sum of the lengths of the blue sides of the polygon S T is equal to the sum of the lengths of its red sides. 4 A point in the plane with a cartesian coordinate system is called a mixed point if one of its coordinates is rational and the other one is irrational. Find all polynomials with real coecients such that their graphs do not contain any mixed point. 5 Find the greatest integer n, such that there are n + 4 points A, B, C, D, X1 , . . . , Xn in the plane with AB = CD that satisfy the following condition: for each i = 1, 2, . . . , n triangles ABXi and CDXi are equal.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2002

1 Let a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , an be a sequence of non-negative integers, where n is a positive integer. Let An = Prove that a1 !a2 ! . . . an ! ( An !)n where An is the greatest integer less than or equal to An , and a! = 1 2 a for a 1(and 0! = 1). When does equality hold? 2 Find all positive integers a and b such that a2 + b b2 a are both integers. 3 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle. Let P be a point on the side AC and Q be a point on the side AB so that both triangles ABP and ACQ are acute. Let R be the orthocentre of triangle ABP and S be the orthocentre of triangle ACQ. Let T be the point common to the segments BP and CQ. Find all possible values of CBP and BCQ such that the triangle T RS is equilateral. 4 Let x, y, z be positive numbers such that 1 1 1 + + = 1. x y z Show that x + yz + y + zx + z + xy xyz + x+ y+ z and b2 + a a2 b a1 + a2 + + an . n

5 Let R denote the set of all real numbers. Find all functions f from R to R satisfying: (i) there are only nitely many s in R such that f (s) = 0, and (ii) f (x4 + y) = x3 f (x) + f (f (y)) for all x, y in R.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2003

1 Let a, b, c, d, e, f be real numbers such that the polynomial p(x) = x8 4x7 + 7x6 + ax5 + bx4 + cx3 + dx2 + ex + f factorises into eight linear factors x xi , with xi > 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , 8. Determine all possible values of f . 2 Suppose ABCD is a square piece of cardboard with side length a. On a plane are two parallel lines 1 and 2 , which are also a units apart. The square ABCD is placed on the plane so that sides AB and AD intersect 1 at E and F respectively. Also, sides CB and CD intersect 2 at G and H respectively. Let the perimeters of AEF and CGH be m1 and m2 respectively. Prove that no matter how the square was placed, m1 + m2 remains constant. 3 Let k 14 be an integer, and let pk be the largest prime number which is strictly less than k. You may assume that pk 3k/4. Let n be a composite integer. Prove: (a) if n = 2pk , then n does not divide (n k)!; (b) if n > 2pk , then n divides (n k)!. 4 Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle, with a + b + c = 1, and let n 2 be an integer. Show that n 2 n n n + n bn + cn + n cn + an < 1 + a +b 2 5 Given two positive integers m and n, nd the smallest positive integer k such that among any k people, either there are 2m of them who form m pairs of mutually acquainted people or there are 2n of them forming n pairs of mutually unacquainted people.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2004

1 Determine all nite nonempty sets S of positive integers satisfying i+j (i, j) is an element of S for all i,j in S,

where (i, j) is the greatest common divisor of i and j. 2 Let O be the circumcenter and H the orthocenter of an acute triangle ABC. Prove that the area of one of the triangles AOH, BOH and COH is equal to the sum of the areas of the other two. 3 Let a set S of 2004 points in the plane be given, no three of which are collinear. Let L denote the set of all lines (extended indenitely in both directions) determined by pairs of points from the set. Show that it is possible to colour the points of S with at most two colours, such that for any points p, q of S, the number of lines in L which separate p from q is odd if and only if p and q have the same colour. Note: A line point on . separates two points p and q if p and q lie on opposite sides of with neither

4 For a real number x, let x stand for the largest integer that is less than or equal to x. Prove that (n 1)! n(n + 1) is even for every positive integer n. 5 Prove that the inequality a2 + 2 a, b, c. b2 + 2 c2 + 2 3 (a + b + c)2 holds for all positive reals

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2005

1 Prove that for every irrational real number a, there are irrational real numbers b and b so that a + b and ab are both rational while ab and a + b are both irrational. 2 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 8. Prove that a2 (1 + a3 )(1 + b3 ) + b2 (1 + b3 )(1 + c3 ) + c2 (1 + c3 )(1 + a3 ) 4 3

3 Prove that there exists a triangle which can be cut into 2005 congruent triangles. 4 In a small town, there are n n houses indexed by (i, j) for 1 i, j n with (1, 1) being the house at the top left corner, where i and j are the row and column indices, respectively. At n time 0, a re breaks out at the house indexed by (1, c), where c . During each subsequent 2 time interval [t, t + 1], the re ghters defend a house which is not yet on re while the re spreads to all undefended neighbors of each house which was on re at time t. Once a house is defended, it remains so all the time. The process ends when the re can no longer spread. At most how many houses can be saved by the re ghters? A house indexed by (i, j) is a neighbor of a house indexed by (k, l) if |i k| + |j l| = 1. 5 In a triangle ABC, points M and N are on sides AB and AC, respectively, such that M B = BC = CN . Let R and r denote the circumradius and the inradius of the triangle ABC, respectively. Express the ration M N/BC in terms of R and r.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

APMO 2006

1 Let n be a positive integer. Find the largest nonnegative real number f (n) (depending on n) with the following property: whenever a1 , a2 , ..., an are real numbers such that a1 +a2 + +an 1 f (n). is an integer, there exists some i such that ai 2 2 Prove that every positive integer can be written as a nite sum of distinct integral powers of the golden ratio. 3 Let p 5 be a prime and let r be the number of ways of placing p checkers on a p p checkerboard so that not all checkers are in the same row (but they may all be in the same column). Show that r is divisible by p5 . Here, we assume that all the checkers are identical. 4 Let A, B be two distinct points on a given circle O and let P be the midpoint of the line segment AB. Let O1 be the circle tangent to the line AB at P and tangent to the circle O. Let l be the tangent line, dierent from the line AB, to O1 passing through A. Let C be the intersection point, dierent from A, of l and O. Let Q be the midpoint of the line segment BC and O2 be the circle tangent to the line BC at Q and tangent to the line segment AC. Prove that the circle O2 is tangent to the circle O. 5 In a circus, there are n clowns who dress and paint themselves up using a selection of 12 distinct colours. Each clown is required to use at least ve dierent colours. One day, the ringmaster of the circus orders that no two clowns have exactly the same set of colours and no more than 20 clowns may use any one particular colour. Find the largest number n of clowns so as to make the ringmasters order possible.

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APMO 2007

1 Let S be a set of 9 distinct integers all of whose prime factors are at most 3. Prove that S contains 3 distinct integers such that their product is a perfect cube. P.S:It from http://www.kms.or.kr/competitions/apmo/ Now I see { The contest problems are to be kept condential until they are posted on the ocial APMO website. Please do not disclose nor discuss the problems over the internet until that date. No calculators are to be used during the contest. Am I wrong? If so, Please Mods locked topics of mine on this contest. :) Thanks! 2 Let ABC be an acute angled triangle with BAC = 600 and AB > AC. Let I be the incenter, and H the orthocenter of the triangle ABC . Prove that 2AHI = 3ABC. P.S:It from http://www.kms.or.kr/competitions/apmo/ Now I see { The contest problems are to be kept condential until they are posted on the ocial APMO website. Please do not disclose nor discuss the problems over the internet until that date. No calculators are to be used during the contest. Am I wrong? If so, Please Mods locked topics of mine on this contest. :) Thanks! 3 Consider n disks C1 ; C2 ; ...; Cn in a plane such that for each 1 i < n, the center of Ci is on the circumference of Ci+1 , and the center of Cn is on the circumference of C1 . Dene the score of such an arrangement of n disks to be the number of pairs (i; j) for which Ci properly contains Cj . Determine the maximum possible score. P.S:It from http://www.kms.or.kr/competitions/apmo/ Now I see { The contest problems are to be kept condential until they are posted on the ocial APMO website. Please do not disclose nor discuss the problems over the internet until that date. No calculators are to be used during the contest. Am I wrong? If so, Please Mods locked topics of mine on this contest. :) Thanks! 4 Let x; y and z be positive real numbers such that y 2 + zx 2y 2 (z + x) Now I see + z 2 + xy 2z 2 (x + y) 1. x+ y+ z = 1. Prove that x2 + yz 2x2 (y + z) +

P.S:It from http://www.kms.or.kr/competitions/apmo/

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APMO 2007

{ The contest problems are to be kept condential until they are posted on the ocial APMO website. Please do not disclose nor discuss the problems over the internet until that date. No calculators are to be used during the contest. Am I wrong? If so, Please Mods locked topics of mine on this contest. :) Thanks! 5 A regular (5 5)-array of lights is defective, so that toggling the switch for one light causes each adjacent light in the same row and in the same column as well as the light itself to change state, from on to o, or from o to on. Initially all the lights are switched o. After a certain number of toggles, exactly one light is switched on. Find all the possible positions of this light.

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APMO 2008

1 Let ABC be a triangle with A < 60 . Let X and Y be the points on the sides AB and AC, respectively, such that CA + AX = CB + BX and BA + AY = BC + CY . Let P be the point in the plane such that the lines P X and P Y are perpendicular to AB and AC, respectively. Prove that BP C < 120 . See all problems from APMO 2008 here, http://www.mathlinks.ro/viewtopic.php?p=10739771073977 2 Students in a class form groups each of which contains exactly three members such that any two distinct groups have at most one member in common. Prove that, when the class size is 46, there is a set of 10 students in which no group is properly contained. See all problems from APMO 2008 here, http://www.mathlinks.ro/viewtopic.php?p=10739771073977 3 Let be the circumcircle of a triangle ABC. A circle passing through points A and C meets the sides BC and BA at D and E, respectively. The lines AD and CE meet again at G and H, respectively. The tangent lines of at A and C meet the line DE at L and M , respectively. Prove that the lines LH and M G meet at . See all problems from APMO 2008 here, http://www.mathlinks.ro/viewtopic.php?p=10739771073977 4 Consider the function f : N0 N0 , where N0 is the set of all non-negative integers, dened by the following conditions : (i) f (0) = 0; (ii) f (2n) = 2f (n) and (iii) f (2n + 1) = n + 2f (n) for all n 0. (a) Determine the three sets L = {n|f (n) < f (n + 1)}, E = {n|f (n) = f (n + 1)}, and G = {n|f (n) > f (n + 1)}. (b) For each k 0, nd a formula for ak = max{f (n) : 0 n 2k } in terms of k. See all problems from APMO 2008 here, http://www.mathlinks.ro/viewtopic.php?p=10739771073977 5 Let a, b, c be integers satisfying 0 < a < c 1 and 1 < b < c. For each k, 0 k a, Let rk , 0 rk < c be the remainder of kb when divided by c. Prove that the two sets {r0 , r1 , r2 , , ra } and {0, 1, 2, , a} are dierent. See all problems from APMO 2008 here, http://www.mathlinks.ro/viewtopic.php?p=10739771073977

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APMO 2009

1 Consider the following operation on positive real numbers written on a blackboard: Choose a number r written on the blackboard, erase that number, and then write a pair of positive real numbers a and b satisfying the condition 2r2 = ab on the board. Assume that you start out with just one positive real number r on the blackboard, and apply this operation k 2 1 times to end up with k 2 positive real numbers, not necessarily distinct. Show that there exists a number on the board which does not exceed kr. 2 Let a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 be real numbers satisfying the following equations: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 2 for k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 2+1 k k +2 k +3 k +4 k +5 k a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 + + + + (Express the value in a single fraction.) Find the value of 37 38 39 40 41 3 Let three circles 1 , 2 , 3 , which are non-overlapping and mutually external, be given in the plane. For each point P in the plane, outside the three circles, construct six points A1 , B1 , A2 , B2 , A3 , B3 as follows: For each i = 1, 2, 3, Ai , Bi are distinct points on the circle i such that the lines P Ai and P Bi are both tangents to i . Call the point P exceptional if, from the construction, three lines A1 B1 , A2 B2 , A3 B3 are concurrent. Show that every exceptional point of the plane, if exists, lies on the same circle. 4 Prove that for any positive integer k, there exists an arithmetic sequence a1 a2 a3 ak , , , ..., b1 b2 b3 bk of rational numbers, where ai , bi are relatively prime positive integers for each i = 1, 2, ..., k such that the positive integers a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 , ..., ak , bk are all distinct.

5 Larry and Rob are two robots travelling in one car from Argovia to Zillis. Both robots have control over the steering and steer according to the following algorithm: Larry makes a 90 degrees left turn after every kilometer driving from start, Rob makes a 90 degrees right turn after every r kilometer driving from start, where and r are relatively prime positive integers. In the event of both turns occurring simultaneously, the car will keep going without changing direction. Assume that the ground is at and the car can move in any direction. Let the car start from Argovia facing towards Zillis. For which choices of the pair ( , r) is the car guaranteed to reach Zillis, regardless of how far it is from Argovia?

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Austria
(Gebietswettbewerb)

2004-2008

Austria
Gebietswettbewerb Fr Fortgeschrittene 2004

1 Determine all integers a and b, so that (a3 + b)(a + b3 ) = (a + b)4 2 Solve the following equation for real numbers: 5x 6 2 x2 (all square roots are non negative) 4 x 4 (x 2) 1 + (x 5)(x 7) =

3 Given is a convex quadrilateral ABCD with ADC = BCD > 90 . Let E be the point of intersection of the line AC with the parallel line to AD through B and F be the point of intersection of the line BD with the parallel line to BC through A. Show that EF is parallel to CD 4 The sequence < xn > is dened through: xn+1 = n 1 n3 + x2 + 1 for n > 0 n 2004 n 2004 Let x1 be a non-negative integer smaller than 204 so that all members of the sequence are non-negative integers. Show that there exist innitely many prime numbers in this sequence.

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Austria
Gebietswettbewerb Fr Fortgeschrittene 2005

1 Show for all integers n 2005 the following chaine of inequalities: (n + 830)2005 < n(n + 1) . . . (n + 2004) < (n + 1002)2005 2 Construct the semicircle h with the diameter AB and the midpoint M . Now construct the semicircle k with the diameter M B on the same side as h. Let X and Y be points on k, such 3 that the arc BX is times the arc BY . The line M Y intersects the line BX in D and the 2 semicircle h in C. Show that Y ist he midpoint of CD. 3 For which values of k and d has the system x3 + y 3 = 2 and y = kx + d no real solutions (x, y)? 4 Prove: if an innte arithmetic sequence (an = a0 + nd) of positive real numbers contains two dierent powers of an integer a > 1, then the sequence contains an innite geometric sequence (bn = b0 q n ) of real numbers.

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Austria
Gebietswettbewerb Fr Fortgeschrittene 2006

1 Let 0 < x < y be real numbers. Let H =

2xy x+y x2 + y 2 , G = xy , A = ,Q= x+y 2 2 be the harmonic, geometric, arithmetic and root mean square (quadratic mean) of x and y. As generally known H < G < A < Q. Arrange the intervals [H, G] , [G, A] and [A, Q] in ascending order by their length.

2 Let n > 1 be a positive integer an a a real number. Determine all real solutions (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) to following system of equations: x1 + ax2 = 0 x2 + a2 x3 = 0 xk + ak xk+1 = 0 xn + an x1 = 0 3 In a non isosceles triangle ABC let w be the angle bisector of the exterior angle at C. Let D be the point of intersection of w with the extension of AB. Let kA be the circumcircle of the triangle ADC and analogy kB the circumcircle of the triangle BDC. Let tA be the tangent line to kA in A and tB the tangent line to kB in B. Let P be the point of intersection of tA and tB . Given are the points A and B. Determine the set of points P = P (C) over all points C, so that ABC is a non isosceles, acute-angled triangle. 4 Let < hn > n N a harmonic sequence of positive real numbers (that means that every hn 2hn1 hn+1 is the harmonic mean of its two neighbours hn1 and hn+1 : hn = ) Show that: hn1 + hn+1 if the sequence includes a member hj , which is the square of a rational number, it includes innitely many members hk , which are squares of rational numbers.

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Austria
Gebietswettbewerb Fr Fortgeschrittene 2007

1 Let 0 < x0 , x1 , . . . , x669 < 1 be pairwise distinct real numbers. Show that there exists a pair 1 (xi , xj ) with 0 < xi xj (xj xi ) < 2007 2 Find all tuples (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 ) of positive integers with x1 > x2 > x3 > x4 > x5 > 0 and x3 + x4 2 x2 + x3 2 x4 + x5 2 x1 + x2 2 + + + = 38. 3 3 3 3 3 Let a be a positive real number and n a non-negative integer. Determine S T , where
2n+1

S=
k=2n

(k 1)2 a|
k 2

2n+1

and T =
k=2n

k2 a|
k 2

4 Let M be the intersection of the diagonals of a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Determine all such quadrilaterals for which there exists a line g that passes through M and intersects the side AB in P and the side CD in Q, such that the four triangles AP M , BP M , CQM , DQM are similar.

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Austria
Gebietswettbewerb Fr Fortgeschrittene 2008

1 Show: For all real numbers a, b, c with 0 < a, b, c < 1 is: 3

a2 bc + ab2 c + abc2 + (1 a)2 (1 b)(1 c) + (1

2 For a real number x is [x] the next smaller integer to x, that is the integer g with g < g + 1, and {x} = x [x] is the decimal part of x. Determine all triples (a, b, c) of real numbers, which full the following system of equations: {a} + [b] + {c} = 2, 9 {b} + [c] + {a} = 5, 3 {c} + [a] + {b} = 4, 0 3 Given is an acute angled triangle ABC. Determine all points P inside the triangle with AP B BP C CP A 1 , , 2 ACB BAC CBA
2n

4 For every positive integer n let an =


k=n

(2k + 1)n Show that there exists no n, for which an k

is a non-negative integer.

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Austria
(Bundeswettbewerb)

2005-2008

Balkan
1984-2009

Balkan MO 1984
Athens, Greece

1 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Find all real solutions (x, y, z) of the sistem: ax + by = (x y)2 by + cz = (y z)2 cz + ax = (z x)2 2 Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral and let HA , HB , HC , HD be the orthocenters of the triangles BCD, CDA, DAB and ABC respectively. Show that the quadrilaterals ABCD and HA HB HC HD are congruent. 3 Show that for any positive integer m, there exists a positive integer n so that in the decimal representations of the numbers 5m and 5n , the representation of 5n ends in the representation of 5m . 4 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Find all real solutions (x, y, z) of the sistem: ax + by = (x y)2 by + cz = (y z)2 cz + ax = (z x)2

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Balkan MO 1985

1 In a given triangle ABC, O is its circumcenter, D is the midpoint of AB and E is the centroid of the triangle ACD. Show that the lines CD and OE are perpendicular if and only if AB = AC. 2 Let a, b, c, d [ , ] be real numbers such that sin a + sin b + sin c + sin d = 1 and cos 2a + 2 2 10 cos 2b + cos 2c + cos 2d . Prove that a, b, c, d [0, ] 3 6 3 Let S be the set of all positive integers of the form 19a + 85b, where a, b are arbitrary positive integers. On the real axis, the points of S are colored in red and the remaining integer numbers are colored in green. Find, with proof, whether or not there exists a point A on the real axis such that any two points with integer coordinates which are symmetrical with respect to A have necessarily distinct colors. 4 There are 1985 participants to an international meeting. In any group of three participants there are at least two who speak the same language. It is known that each participant speaks at most ve languages. Prove that there exist at least 200 participans who speak the same language.

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Balkan MO 1986

1 A line passing through the incenter I of the triangle ABC intersect its incircle at D and E and its circumcircle at F and G, in such a way that the point D lies between I and F . Prove that: DF EG r2 . 2 Let ABCD be a tetrahedron and let E, F, G, H, K, L be points lying on the edges AB, BC, CD, DA, DB, DC respectively, in such a way that AE BE = BF CF = CG AG = DH AH = DK BK = DL CL. Prove that the points E, F, G, H, K, L lie all on a sphere.

3 Let a, b, c be real numbers such that ab is not 0, c > 0 and let (an )n1 be the sequence of real a2 + c , n 2. Show that all the sequences numbers dened by: a1 = a, a2 = b and an+1 = n an1 a2 + b2 + c terms are integer numbers if and only if the numbers a, b and are integers. ab Remark : as Valentin mentions here [url]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=492872searchi d = 51674358492872[/url], the5thromaniantstproblemf rom2006, f ollowsimmediatlyf romthisbmoproblem.He Let ABC a triangle and P a point such that the triangles P AB, P BC, P CA have the same area and the same perimeter. Prove that if: a) P is in the interior of the trinagle ABC then ABC is equilateral. b) P is in the exterior of the trinagle ABC then ABC is right angled triangle. ;)

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Balkan MO 1987

1 Let a be a real number and let f : R R be a function satisfying: f (0) = f (x)f (a y) + f (y)f (a x), x, y R. Prove that f is constant.

1 and f (x + y) = 2 x 1+

2 Find all real numbers x, y greater than 1, satisfying the condition that the numbers y 1 and x + 1 + y + 1 are nonconsecutive integers.

B B A A = sin23 cos48 . Deter3 In the triangle ABC the following equality holds: sin23 cos48 2 2 2 2 AC mine the value of . BC 4 Two circles K1 and K2 , centered at O1 and O2 with radii 1 and 2 respectively, intersect at A and B. Let C be a point on K2 such that the midpoint of AC lies on K1 . Find the lenght of the segment AC if O1 O2 = 2

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Balkan MO 1988

1 Let ABC be a triangle and let M, N, P be points on the line BC such that AM, AN, AP are the altitude, the angle bisector and the median of the triangle, respectively. It is known that 3 [AM P ] 1 [AN P ] = and =1 . Find the angles of triangle ABC. [ABC] 4 [ABC] 2 2 Find all polynomials of two variables P (x, y) which satisfy P (a, b)P (c, d) = P (ac + bd, ad + bc), a, b, c, d R 3 Let ABCD be a tetrahedron and let d be the sum of squares of its edges lengths. Prove that the tetrahedron can be included in a region bounded by two parallel planes, the distances d between the planes being at most 2 3 4 Let (an )n1 be a sequence dened by an = 2n + 49. Find all values of n such that an = pg, an+1 = rs, where p, q, r, s are prime numbers with p < q, r < s and q p = s r.

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Balkan MO 2006
Nicosia, Cyprus

1 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove the inequality 1 1 3 1 + + . a (b + 1) b (c + 1) c (a + 1) 1 + abc 2 Let ABC be a triangle and m a line which intersects the sides AB and AC at interior points D and F , respectively, and intersects the line BC at a point E such that C lies between B and E. The parallel lines from the points A, B, C to the line m intersect the circumcircle of triangle ABC at the points A1 , B1 and C1 , respectively (apart from A, B, C). Prove that the lines A1 E , B1 F and C1 D pass through the same point. Greece 3 Find all triplets of positive rational numbers (m, n, p) such that the numbers m+ p+ 1 are integers. mn Valentin Vornicu, Romania 4 Let m be a positive integer and {an }n0 be a sequence given by a0 = a N, and an+1 = an 2 an + m if an 0 otherwise. (mod 2), 1 1 , n+ , np pm

Find all values of a such that the sequence is periodical (starting from the beginning).

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Balkan MO 2009

1 Solve the equation 3x 5y = z 2 in positive integers.

2 Let M N be a line parallel to the side BC of a triangle ABC, with M on the side AB and N on the side AC. The lines BN and CM meet at point P . The circumcircles of triangles BM P and CN P meet at two distinct points P and Q. Prove that BAQ = CAP .

3 A 9 12 rectangle is partitioned into unit squares. The centers of all the unit squares, except for the four corner squares and eight squares sharing a common side with one of them, are coloured red. Is it possible to label these red centres C1 , C2 ..., C96 in such way that the following to conditions are both fullled (i) the distances C1 C2 , ...C95 C96 , C96 C1 are all equal to 13 (ii) the closed broken line C1 C2 ...C96 C1 has a centre of symmetry? {Bulgaria. 4 Denote by S the set of all positive integers. Find all functions f : S S such that f f 2 (m) + 2f 2 (n) {Bulgaria. = m2 + 2n2 for all m, n S.

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Baltik
2004-2008

Baltic Way 2004


Vilnius, Lithuania

1 Given a sequence a1 , a2 , ... of non-negative real numbers satisfying the conditions: 1. an + a2n 3n 2. an+1 + n 2 an (n + 1) for all n = 1, 2, ... indices (1) Prove that the inequality an n holds for evere n N (2) Give an example of such a sequence 2 Let P (x) be a polynomial with a non-negative coecients. Prove that if the inequality 1 P P (x) 1 holds for x = 1, then this inequality holds for each positive x. x 3 Let p, q, r be positive real numbers and n a natural number. Show that if pqr = 1, then pn 1 1 1 + n + n 1. n+1 n+1 +q q +r r + pn + 1

4 Let x1 , x2 , ..., xn be real numbers with arithmetic mean X. Prove that there is a positive integer K such that for any natural number i satisfying 1 i < K, we have 1 K i
K

xj
j=i+1

X. (In other words, the arithmetic mean of each of the lists {x1 , x2 , ..., xK }, {x2 , x3 , ..., xK }, {x3 , ..., xK }, ..., {xK1 , xK }, {xK } is not greater than X.) 5 Determine the range of the following function dened for integer k, f (k) = (k)3 + (2k)5 + (3k)7 6k where (k)2n+1 denotes the multiple of 2n + 1 closest to k 6 A positive integer is written on each of the six faces of a cube. For each vertex of the cube we compute the product of the numbers on the three adjacent faces. The sum of these products is 1001. What is the sum of the six numbers on the faces? 7 Find all sets X consisting of at least two positive integers such that for every two elements m and n of the set X, where n m, there exists an element k of X such that n = mk 2 . 8 Let f (x) be a non-constant polynomial with integer coecients, and let u be an arbitrary positive integer. Prove that there is an integer n such that f (n) has at least u distinct prime factors and f (n) = 0. 9 A set S of n 1 natural numbers is given (n 3). There exist at least at least two elements in this set whose dierence is not divisible by n. Prove that it is possible to choose a non-empty subset of S so that the sum of its elements is divisible by n.

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Baltic Way 2004


Vilnius, Lithuania

10 Is there an innite sequence of prime numbers p1 , p2 , . . ., pn , pn+1 , . . . such that |pn+1 2pn | = 1 for each n N? 11 Given a table m x n, in each cell of which a number +1 or -1 is written. It is known that initially exactly one -1 is in the table, all the other numbers being +1. During a move it is allowed to cell containing -1, replace this -1 by 0, and simultaneously multiply all the numbers in the neighbouring cells by -1 (we say that two cells are neighbouring if they have a common side). Find all (m,n) for which using such moves one can obtain the table containing zeros only, regardless of the cell in which the initial -1 stands. 12 There are 2n dierent numbers in a row. Bo one move we can onterchange any two numbers or interchange any 3 numbers cyclically (choose a, b, c and place a instead of b, b instead of c, c instead of a). What is the minimal number of moves that is always sucient to arrange the numbers in increasing order ? 13 The 25 member states of the European Union set up a committee with the following rules: 1) the committee should meet daily; 2) at each meeting, at least one member should be represented; 3) at any two dierent meetings, a dierent set of member states should be represented; 4) at nth meeting, for every k < n, the set of states represented should include at least one state that was represented at the k th meeting. For how many days can the committee have its meetings ? 14 We say that a pile is a set of four or more nuts. Two persons play the following game. They start with one pile of n 4 nuts. During a move a player takes one of the piles that they have and split it into two nonempty sets (these sets are not necessarily piles, they can contain arbitrary number of nuts). If the player cannot move, he loses. For which values of n does the rst player have a winning strategy? 15 A circle is divided into 13 segments, numbered consecutively from 1 to 13. Five eas called A,B,C,D and E are sitting in the segments 1,2,3,4 and 5. A ea is allowed to jump to an empty segment ve positions away in either direction around the circle. Only one ea jumps at the same time, and two eas cannot be in the same segment. After some jumps, the eas are back in the segments 1,2,3,4,5, but possibly in some other order than they started. Which orders are possible ? 16 Through a point P exterior to a given circle pass a secant and a tangent to the circle. The secant intersects the circle at A and B, and the tangent touches the circle at C on the same side of the diameter through P as the points A and B. The projection of the point C on the diameter is called Q. Prove that the line QC bisects the angle AQB. 17 Consider a rectangle with sidelengths 3 and 4, pick an arbitrary inner point on each side of this rectangle. Let x, y, z and u denote the side lengths of the quadrilateral spanned by these four points. Prove that 25 x2 + y 2 + z 2 + u2 50.

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Baltic Way 2004


Vilnius, Lithuania

18 A ray emanating from the vertex A of the triangle ABC intersects the side BC at X and the 1 4 1 + . circumcircle of triangle ABC at Y . Prove that AX XY BC 19 Let D be the midpoint of the side BC of a triangle ABC. Let M be a point on the side BC such that BAM = DAC. Further, let L be the second intersection point of the circumcircle of the triangle CAM with the side AB, and let K be the second intersection point of the circumcircle of the triangle BAM with the side AC. Prove that KL BC. 20 Three xed circles pass through the points A and B. Let X be a variable point on the rst circle dierent from A and B. The line AX intersects the other two circles at Y and Z (with XY Y between X and Z). Show that the ratio is independent of the position of X. YZ

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Baltic Way 2005

1 Let a0 be a positive integer. Dene the sequence {an }n0 as follows: if


j

an =
i=0

ci 10i

where ci {0, 1, 2, , 9}, then an+1 = c2005 + c2005 + + c2005 . 0 1 j Is it possible to choose a0 such that all terms in the sequence are distinct? 2 Let , and be three acute angles such that sin + sin + sin = 1. Show that 3 tan2 + tan2 + tan2 . 8 3 Consider the sequence {ak }k1 dened by a1 = 1, a2 = 1 and 2

1 1 ak+2 = ak + ak+1 + for k 1. 2 4ak ak+1 Prove that 1 1 1 1 + + + + < 4. a1 a3 a2 a4 a3 a5 a98 a100

4 Find three dierent polynomials P (x) with real coecients such that P x2 + 1 = P (x)2 + 1 for all real x. 5 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Proove that a2 b c a + 2 + 2 1 +2 b +2 c +2

6 Let N and K be positive integers satisfying 1 K N . A deck of N dierent playing cards is shued by repeating the operation of reversing the order of K topmost cards and moving these to the bottom of the deck. Prove that the deck will be back in its initial order after a number of operations not greater than (2N/K)2 . 7 A rectangular array has n rows and 6 columns, where n > 2. In each cell there is written either 0 or 1. All rows in the array are dierent from each other. For each two rows (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 ) and (y1 , y2 , y3 , y4 , y5 , y6 ), the row (x1 y1 , x2 y2 , x3 y3 , x4 y4 , x5 y5 , x6 y6 ) can be found in the array as well. Prove that there is a column in which at least half of the entries are zeros.

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Baltic Way 2005

8 Consider a 25 25 grid of unit squares. Draw with a red pen contours of squares of any size on the grid. What is the minimal number of squares we must draw in order to colour all the lines of the grid? 9 A rectangle is divided into 200 3 unit squares. Prove that the number of ways of splitting this rectangle into rectangles of size 1 2 is divisible by 3. 10 Let m = 30030 and let M be the set of positive divisors of m which have exactly 2 prime factors. Determine the smallest positive integer n with the following property: for any choice of n numbers from M , there exist 3 numbers a, b, c among them satisfying abc = m. 13 What the smallest number of circles of radius 2 that are nedeed to cover a rectangle . (a)of size 6 3 ? (b)- of size 5 3 ? 16 Let n be a positive integer, let p be prime and let q be a divisor of (n + 1)p np . Show that p divides q 1. 19 Is it possible to nd 2005 dierent positive square numbers such that their sum is also a square number ? 20 Find all positive integers n = p1 p2 pk which divide (p1 + 1)(p2 + 1) (pk + 1) where p1 p2 pk is the factorization of n into prime factors (not necessarily all distinct).

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Baltic Way 2008

1 Problem 1 Determine all polynomials p(x) with real coecients such that p((x + 1)3 ) = (p(x) + 1)3 and p(0) = 0. 2 Problem 2 Prove that if the real numbers a, b and c satisfy a2 + b2 + c2 = 3 then a2 (a + b + c)2 . When does the inequality hold? 2 + b + c2 12 3 Does there exist an angle (0, /2) such that sin , cos , tan and cot , taken in some order, are consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression? 4 The polyminal P has integer coecients and P(x)=5 for ve dierent integers x.Show that there is no integer x such that -7P(x)5 or 5P(x)17 5 Suppose that Romeo and Juliet each have a regular tetrahedron to the vertices of which some positive real numbers are assigned. They associate each edge of their tetrahedra with the product of the two numbers assigned to its end points. Then they write on each face of their tetrahedra the sum of the three numbers associated to its three edges. The four numbers written on the faces of Romeos tetrahedron turn out to coincide with the four numbers written on Juliets tetrahedron. Does it follow that the four numbers assigned to the vertices of Romeos tetrahedron are identical to the four numbers assigned to the vertices of Juliets tetrahedron? 6 Find all nite sets of positive integers with at least two elements such that for any two numbers b2 a, b (a > b) belonging to the set, the number belongs to the set, too. ab 7 How many pairs (m, n) of positive integers with m < n fulll the equation 3 1 1 = + ? 2008 m n

8 Consider a set A of positive integers such that the least element of A equals 1001 and the product of all elements of A is a perfect square. What is the least possible value of the greatest element of A? 9 Suppose that the positive integers a and b satisfy the equation ab ba = 1008 Prove that a and b are congruent modulo 1008. 10 For a positive integer n, let S(n) denote the sum of its digits. Find the largest possible value S(n) of the expression . S(16n) 11 Consider a subset A of 84 elements of the set {1, 2, . . . , 169} such that no two elements in the set add up to 169. Show that A contains a perfect square.

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Baltic Way 2008

12 In a school class with 3n children, any two children make a common present to exactly one other child. Prove that for all odd n it is possible that the following holds: For any three children A, B and C in the class, if A and B make a present to C then A and C make a present to B. 13 For an upcoming international mathematics contest, the participating countries were asked to choose from nine combinatorics problems. Given how hard it usually is to agree, nobody was surprised that the following happened: i) Every country voted for exactly three problems. ii) Any two countries voted for dierent sets of problems. iii) Given any three countries, there was a problem none of them voted for. Find the maximal possible number of participating countries. 14 Is it possible to build a 4 4 4 cube from blocks of the following shape consisting of 4 unit cubes? 15 Some 1 2 dominoes, each covering two adjacent unit squares, are placed on a board of size nn such that no two of them touch (not even at a corner). Given that the total area covered by the dominoes is 2008, nd the least possible value of n. 16 Problem 16 Let ABCD be a parallelogram. The circle with diameter AC intersects the line BD at points P and Q. The perpendicular to the line AC passing through the point C intersects the lines AB and AD at points X and Y , respectively. Prove that the points P, Q, X and Y lie on the same circle. Click: I proved that XYKL is cyclic (where K,L are intersection points of circle with diameter AC and AB, AD) and I tried to show that KL,XY,PQ intersect in one point but I failed... 17 Assume that a, b, c and d are the sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in a given circle. Prove that the product (ab + cd)(ac + bd)(ad + bc) acquires its maximum when the quadrilateral is a square. 18 Let AB be a diameter of a circle S, and let L be the tangent at A. Furthermore, let c be a xed, positive real, and consider all pairs of points X and Y lying on L, on opposite sides of A, such that |AX| |AY | = c. The lines BX and BY intersect S at points P and Q, respectively. Show that all the lines P Q pass through a common point. 19 In a circle of diameter 1, some chords are drawn. The sum of their lengths is greater than 19. Prove that there is a diameter intersecting at least 7 chords. 20 Let M be a point on BC and N be a point on AB such that AM and CN are angle bisectors of BN M BM N the triangle ABC. Given that = , prove that the triangle ABC is isosceles. M N C N M A

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Belgium
(Flanders Junior)

2002-2005

Belgium
Flanders Junior Olympiad 2002

1 Prove that for all a, b, c R+ we have 0 a b c 2 2 2 + + + bc ac ab a b c and determine when equality occurs. 11 22 33 44 2 Prove that there are no perfect squares in the array below: 55 66 77 88 99 111 222 333 444 555 666 777 888 999 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555 6666 7777 8888 9999 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

3 Is it possible to number the 8 vertices of a cube from 1 to 8 in such a way that the value of the sum on every edge is dierent? 4 Two congruent right-angled isosceles triangles (with baselength 1) slide on a line as on the picture. What is the maximal area of overlap? [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 287[/img]

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Belgium
Flanders Junior Olympiad 2003

1 Playing soccer with 3 goes as follows: 2 eld players try to make a goal past the goalkeeper, the one who makes the goal stands goalman for next game, etc. Arne, Bart and Cauchy played this game. Later, they tell their math teacher that A stood 12 times on the eld, B 21 times on the eld, C 8 times in the goal. Their teacher knows who made the 6th goal. Who made it? 2 Through an internal point O of ABC one draws 3 lines, parallel to each of the sides, intersecting in the points shown on the picture. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 289[/img] Find the value of |AF | |BE| |CN | + + . |AB| |BC| |CA|

3 Yesterday (=April 22, 2003) was Gittes birthday. She notices that her age equals the sum of the 4 digits of the year she was born in. How old is she? 4 The points in the plane with integer coordinates are numbered as below. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 288[/img] What are the coordinates of the number 2003?

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Belgium
Flanders Junior Olympiad 2004

1 Two 5 1 rectangles have 2 vertices in common as on the picture. (a) Determine the area of overlap (b) Determine the length of the segment between the other 2 points of intersection, A and B.

[img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 290[/img]Howcanyougof romthenumber11to25 2 A car has a 4-digit integer price, which is written digitally. (so in digital numbers, like on your 3 watch probably) While the salesmen isnt watching, the buyer turns the price upside down and gets the car for 1626 less. How much did the car initially cost? 4 How many pairs of positive integers (a, b) satisfy 1 1 1 + = ? a b 2004

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Belgium
Flanders Junior Olympiad 2005

1 [were 2005 while writing] According to a legend there is a monster that awakes every now and then to swallow everyone who is solving this problem, and then falls back asleep for as many years as the sum of the digits of that year. The monster rst hit mathlinks/aops in the year +234. But guys, dont worry! Get your hopes up, and prove youre safe this year, as well as for the coming 10 years! :D [wording slightly adapted from original wording] 2 Starting with two points A and B, some circles and points are constructed as shown in the gure:the circle with centre A through B the circle with centre B through A the circle with centre C through A the circle with centre D through B the circle with centre E through A the circle with centre F through A the circle with centre G through A (I think the wording is not very rigorous, you should assume intersections from the drawing) Show that M is the midpoint of AB. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 291[/img]P rovethat20052 can be written in at least 4 ways as the sum of 2 perfect (non-zero) squares. 4 3 (a) Be M an internal point of the convex quadrilateral ABCD. Prove that |M A| + |M B| < |AD| + |DC| + |CB|. (b) Be M an internal point of the triangle ABC. Note k = min(|M A|, |M B|, |M C|). Prove k + |M A| + |M B| + |M C| < |AB| + |BC| + |CA|.

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Belgium
(Flanders Math Olympiad)

1986-2006

Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1986

2 Prove that for integer n we have: n! n+1 2


n

(please note that the pupils in the competition never heard of AM-GM or alikes, it is intended to be solved without any knowledge on inequalities) 3 Let {ak }k0 be a sequence given by a0 = 0, ak+1 = 3 ak + 1 for k N. Prove that 11 | a155 4 Given a cube in which you can put two massive spheres of radius 1. Whats the smallest possible value of the side - length of the cube? Prove that your answer is the best possible.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1987

3 Find all continuous functions f : R R such that f (x)3 = 4 Show that for p > 1 we have 1p + 2p + ... + (n 1)p + np + (n 1)p + ... + 2p + 1p = + n+ n2 lim Find the limit if p = 1. x x2 + 7x f (x) + 16 f (x)2 , x R. 12

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1988

1 show that the polynomial x4 + 3x3 + 6x2 + 9x + 12 cannot be written as the product of 2 polynomials of degree 2 with integer coecients. 2 A 3-dimensional cross is made up of 7 cubes, one central cube and 6 cubes that share a face with it. The cross is inscribed in a circle with radius 1. Whats its volume? 3 Work base 3. (so each digit is 0,1,2) A good number of size n is a number in which there are no consecutive 1s and no consecutive 2s. How many good 10-digit numbers are there? 1 4 Be R a positive real number. If R, 1, R + are triangle sides, call the angle between R and 2 1 R + (in rad). 2 Prove 2R is between 1 and .

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1989

1 Show that every subset of 1,2,...,99,100 with 55 elements contains at least 2 numbers with a dierence of 9. 2 When drawing all diagonals in a regular pentagon, one gets an smaller pentagon in the middle. Whats the ratio of the areas of those pentagons? 3 Show that: = + k (k Z) |tan | + |cot | = 4 12 2

4 Let D be the set of positive reals dierent from 1 and let n be a positive integer. If for 1 f : D R we have xn f (x) = f (x2 ), and if f (x) = xn for 0 < x < and for x > 1989, 1989 n then prove that f (x) = x for all x D.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1990

1 On the standard unit circle, draw 4 unit circles with centers [0,1],[1,0],[0,-1],[-1,0]. You get a gure as below, nd the area of the colored part. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 277[/img]Leta and b be two primes having at least two digits, such that a > b. Show that 240| a4 b4 and show that 240 is the greatest positive integer having this property. 3 2 We form a decimal code of 21 digits. the code may start with 0. Determine the probability that the fragment 0123456789 appears in the code. 4 Let f : R+ R+ be a strictly decreasing function. 0 0 (a) Be an a sequence of strictly positive reals so that k N0 : k f (ak ) (k + 1) f (ak+1 ) Prove that an is ascending, that lim f (ak ) = 0and that lim ak = +
k+ k+

(b) Prove that there exist such a sequence (an ) in

R+ 0

if you know lim f (x) = 0.


x+

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1991

1 Show that the number 111...111 with 1991 times the number 1, is not prime. 2 (a) Show that for every n N there is exactly one x R+ so that xn + xn+1 = 1. Call this xn . (b) Find lim xn .
n+

3 Given ABC equilateral, with X [A, B]. Then we dene unique points Y,Z so that Y [B, C], Z [A, C], XY Z equilateral. AX BY CZ , , . If Area (ABC) = 2 Area (XY Z), nd the ratio of XB Y C ZA 4 A word of length n that consists only of the digits 0 and 1, is called a bit-string of length n. (For example, 000 and 01101 are bit-strings of length 3 and 5.) Consider the sequence s(1), s(2), ... of bit-strings of length n > 1 which is obtained as follows : (1) s(1) is the bitstring 00...01, consisting of n 1 zeros and a 1 ; (2) s(k + 1) is obtained as follows : (a) Remove the digit on the left of s(k). This gives a bit-string t of length n 1. (b) Examine whether the bit-string t1 (length n, adding a 1 after t) is already in {s(1), s(2), ..., s(k)}. If this is the not case, then s(k + 1) = t1. If this is the case then s(k + 1) = t0. For example, if n = 3 we get : s(1) = 001 s(2) = 011 s(3) = 111 s(4) = 110 s(5) = 101 s(6) = 010 s(7) = 100 s(8) = 000 s(9) = 001 ... Suppose N = 2n . Prove that the bit-strings s(1), s(2), ..., s(N ) of length n are all dierent.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1992

1 For every positive integer n, determine the biggest positive integer k so that 2k | 3n + 1 2 It has come to a policemans ears that 5 gangsters (all of dierent height) are meeting, one of them is the clan leader, hes the tallest of the 5. He knows the members will leave the building one by one, with a 10-minute break between them, and too bad for him Belgium has not enough policemen to follow all gangsters, so hes on his own to spot the clanleader, and he can only follow one member. So he decides to let go the rst 2 people, and then follow the rst one that is taller than those two. Whats the chance he actually catches the clan leader like this? 1 3 a conic with apotheme 1 slides (varying height and radius, with r < ) so that the conics 2 area is 9 times that of its inscribed sphere. Whats the height of that conic? 4 Let A, B, P positive reals with P A+B. (a) Choose reals 1 , 2 with A cos 1 +B cos 2 = P and prove that A sin 1 + B sin 2 (A + B P )(A + B + P ) (b) Prove equality is attained when 1 = 2 = arccos and P = 1 1 P . (c) Take A = xy, B = wz A+B 2 2

1 2 x + y 2 z 2 w2 with 0 < x y x + z + w, z, w > 0 and z 2 + w2 < x2 + y 2 . 4 Show that we can translate (a) and (b) into the following theorem: from all quadrilaterals with (ordered) sidelenghts (x, y, z, w), the cyclical one has the greatest area.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1993

1 The 20 pupils in a class each send 10 cards to 10 (dierent) class members. [note: you cannot send a card to yourself.] (a) Show at least 2 pupils sent each other a card. (b) Now suppose we had n pupils sending m cards each. For which (m, n) is the above true? (That is, nd minimal m(n) or maximal n(m)) 2 A jeweler covers the diagonal of a unit square with small golden squares in the following way: - the sides of all squares are parallel to the sides of the unit square - for each neighbour is their sidelength either half or double of that square (squares are neighbour if they share a vertex) - each midpoint of a square has distance to the vertex of the unit square equal to 1 1 1 , , , ... of the diagonal. (so real length: 2) - all midpoints are on the diagonal 2 4 8 (a) What is the side length of the middle square? (b) What is the total gold-plated area? [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 281[/img]F ora, b, c > 0 we have: 1 < ab a+b
1993

bc b+c

1993

ca c+a

1993

<1

4 3 Dene the sequence oan as follows: oa0 = 1, oan = oan1 cos Find lim oan .
n+

2n+1

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1994

1 Let a, b, c > 0 the sides of a right triangle. Find all real x for which ax > bx + cx , with a is the longest side. 2 Determine all integer solutions (a,b,c) with c 94 for which: (a+ c)2 +(b+ c)2 = 60+20 c 3 Two regular tetrahedrons A and B are made with the 8 vertices of a unit cube. (this way is unique) Whats the volume of A B? 4 Let (fi ) be a sequence of functions dened by: f1 (x) = x, fn (x) = 1 fn1 (x) . (n N, n 4 2) (a) Prove that fn (x) fn1 (x) for all x where both functions are dened. (b) Find for each n the points of x inside the domain for which fn (x) = x.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1995

1 Four couples play chess together. For the match, theyre paired as follows: (man Clara indicates the husband of Clara, etc.) Bea Eddy

An man Clara

F reddy woman Guy

Debby man An

Guy woman Eddy Who is Hubert married to? 2 How many values of x [1, 3] are there, for which x2 has the same decimal part as x? 3 Points A, B, C, D are on a circle with radius R. |AC| = |AB| = 500, while the ratio between |DC|, |DA|, |DB| is 1, 5, 7. Find R. 4 Given a regular n-gon inscribed in a circle of radius 1, where n > 3. Dene G(n) as the average length of the diagonals of this n-gon. 4 Prove that if n , G(n) .

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1996

1 In triangle ADC we got AD = DC and D = 100 . In triangle CAB we got CA = AB and A = 20 . Prove that AB = BC + CD. 2 Determine the gcd of all numbers of the form p8 1, with p a prime above 5. 1 1 3 Consider the points 1, , , ... on the real axis. Find the smallest value k N0 for which all 2 3 1 points above can be covered with 5 closed intervals of length . k 4 Consider a real poylnomial p(x) = an xn + ... + a1 x + a0 . (a) If deg(p(x)) > 2 prove that deg(p(x)) = 2 + deg(p(x + 1) + p(x 1) 2p(x)). (b) Let p(x) a polynomial for which there are real constants r, s so that for all real x we have p(x + 1) + p(x 1) rp(x) s = 0 Prove deg(p(x)) 2. (c) Show, in (b) that s = 0 implies a2 = 0.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1997

1 Write the number 1997 as the sum of positive integers for which the product is maximal, and prove theres no better solution. 2 In the cartesian plane, consider the curves x2 + y 2 = r2 and (xy)2 = 1. Call Fr the convex polygon with vertices the points of intersection of these 2 curves. (if they exist) (a) Find the area of the polygon as a function of r. (b) For which values of r do we have a regular polygon? 3 oa1 b1 is isosceles with a1 ob1 = 36 . Construct a2 , b2 , a3 , b3 , ... as below, with |oai+1 | = |ai bi | and ai obi = 36 , Call the summed area of the rst k triangles Ak . Let S be the area of the isocseles triangle, drawn in - - -, with top angle 108 and |oc| = |od| = |oa1 |, going through the points b2 and a2 as shown on the picture. (yes, cd is parallel to a1 b1 there) Show Ak < S for every positive integer k.

[img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 284[/img]T hirteenbirdsarriveandsitdowninap tupleof birds, atleastf ourbirdssitonacircle.DeterminethegreatestM {1, 2, ..., 13} such that from these 13 birds, at least M birds sit on a circle, but not necessarily M + 1 birds sit on a circle. (prove that your M is optimal)

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1998

1 Prove there exist positive integers a,b,c for which a + b + c = 1998, the gcd is maximized, and 0 < a < b c < 2a. Find those numbers. Are they unique? 2 Given a cube with edges of length 1, e the midpoint of [bc], and m midpoint of the face cdc1 d1 , as on the gure. Find the area of intersection of the cube with the plane through the points a, m, e. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 279[/img]amagical3 3 square is a 3 3 matrix containing all number from 1 to 9, and of which the sum of every row, every column, every diagonal, are all equal. Determine all magical 3 3 square 4 3 A billiard table. (see picture) A white ball is on p1 and a red ball is on p2 . The white ball is shot towards the red ball as shown on the pic, hitting 3 sides rst. Find the minimal distance the ball must travel. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 280[/img]

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 1999

1 Determine all 6-digit numbers (abcdef ) so that (abcdef ) = (def )2 where (x1 x2 ...xn ) is no multiplication but an n-digit number. 2 Let [mn] be a diameter of the circle C and [AB] a chord with given length on this circle. [AB] neither coincides nor is perpendicular to [M N ]. Let C, D be the orthogonal projections of A and B on [M N ] and P the midpoint of [AB]. Prove that CP D does not depend on the chord [AB]. 3 Determine all f : R R for which 2 f (x) g(x) = f (y) y and f (x) g(x) x + 1. 4 Let a, b, m, n integers greater than 1. If an 1 and bm + 1 are both primes, give as much info as possible on a, b, m, n.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2000

1 An integer consists of 7 dierent digits, and is a multiple of each of its digits. What digits are in this nubmer? 2 Given two triangles and such that the lengths of the sides of the rst triangle are the lengths of the medians of the second triangle. Determine the ratio of the areas of these triangles. 3 Let pn be the n-th prime. (p1 = 2) Dene the sequence (fj ) as follows: - f1 = 1, f2 = 2 j 2: if fj = kpn for k < pn then fj+1 = (k + 1)pn - j 2: if fj = p2 then fj+1 = pn+1 n (a) Show that all fi are dierent (b) from which index onwards are all fi at least 3 digits? (c) which integers do not appear in the sequence? (d) how many numbers with less than 3 digits appear in the sequence? 4 Solve for x [0, 2[: sin x < cos x < tan x < cot x

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2001

1 may be challenge for beginner section, but anyone is able to solve it if you really try. show that for every natural n > 1 we have: (n 1)2 | nn1 1 2 Consider a triangle and 2 lines that each go through a corner and intersects the opposing segment, such that the areas are as on the attachment. Find the ? 3 In a circle we enscribe a regular 2001-gon and inside it a regular 667-gon with shared vertices. Prove that the surface in the 2001-gon but not in the 667-gon is of the form k.sin3 .cos3 2001 2001 with k a positive integer. Find k. 4 A student concentrates on solving quadratic equations in R. He starts with a rst quadratic equation x2 + ax + b = 0 where a and b are both dierent from 0. If this rst equation has solutions p and q with p q, he forms a second quadratic equation x2 + px + q = 0. If this second equation has solutions, he forms a third quadratic equation in an identical way. He continues this process as long as possible. Prove that he will not obtain more than ve equations.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2002

1 Is it possible to number the 8 vertices of a cube from 1 to 8 in such a way that the value of the sum on every edge is dierent? x 2 2 Determine all functions f : R R so that x : x f ( ) f ( ) = 1 2 x 3 show that 1 1 3 99 1 < < 15 2 4 100 10

4 A lamp is situated at point A and shines inside the cube. A (massive) square is hung on the midpoints of the 4 vertical faces. Whats the area of its shadow? [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 285[/img]

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2003

11-12

1 Playing soccer with 3 goes as follows: 2 eld players try to make a goal past the goalkeeper, the one who makes the goal stands goalman for next game, etc. Arne, Bart and Cauchy played this game. Later, they tell their math teacher that A stood 12 times on the eld, B 21 times on the eld, C 8 times in the goal. Their teacher knows who made the 6th goal. Who made it? 2 Two circles C1 and C2 intersect at S. The tangent in S to C1 intersects C2 in A dierent from S. The tangent in S to C2 intersects C1 in B dierent from S. Another circle C3 goes through A, B, S. The tangent in S to C3 intersects C1 in P dierent from S and C2 in Q dierent from S. Prove that the distance P S is equal to the distance QS. 3 A number consists of 3 dierent digits. The sum of the 5 other numbers formed with those digits is 2003. Find the number. 4 Consider all points with integer coordinates in the carthesian plane. If one draws a circle with M(0,0) and well-chose radius r, the circles goes through some of those points. (like a circle with r = 2 2 goes through 4 points) Prove that n N, r so that the circle with midpoint 0,0 and radius r goes through at least n points.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2003

9-10

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2004

11-12

1 Consider a triangle with side lengths 501m, 668m, 835m. How many lines can be drawn with the property that such a line halves both area and perimeter? 2 Two bags contain some numbers, and the total number of numbers is prime. When we tranfer the number 170 from 1 bag to bag 2, the average in both bags increases by one. If the total sum of all numbers is 2004, nd the number of numbers. 3 A car has a 4-digit integer price, which is written digitally. (so in digital numbers, like on your watch probably) While the salesmen isnt watching, the buyer turns the price upside down and gets the car for 1626 less. How much did the car initially cost? 4 Each cell of a beehive is constructed from a right regular 6-angled prism, open at the bottom and closed on the top by a regular 3-sided pyramidical mantle. The edges of this pyramid are connected to three of the rising edges of the prism and its apex T is on the perpendicular line through the center O of the base of the prism (see gure). Let s denote the side of the base, h the height of the cell and the angle between the line T O and T V . (a) Prove that the surface of the cell consists of 6 congruent trapezoids and 3 congruent 9s2 s2 3 3 rhombi. (b) the total surface area of the cell is given by the formula 6sh + 2 tan 2 sin [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 286[/img]

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2004

9-10

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2005

1 For all positive integers n, nd the remainder of

(7n)! upon division by 7. 7n n!

2 We can obviously put 100 unit balls in a 10 10 1 box. How can one put 105 unit balls in? How can we put 106 unit balls in? 3 Prove that 20052 can be written in at least 4 ways as the sum of 2 perfect (non-zero) squares. 4 If n is an integer, then nd all values of n for which n + n + 2005 is an integer as well.

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Belgium
Flanders Math Olympiad 2006

1 (a) Solve for R: cos(4) = cos(3) 2 4 6 , cos and cos are the roots of an equation of the form ax3 + bx2 + 7 7 7 cx + d = 0 where a, b, c, d are integers. Determine a, b, c and d. (b) cos 2 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let P be a point on [AB]. Q is the point on BC such that P Q is perpendicular to AB. R is the point on AC such that QR is perpendicular to BC. And S is the point on AB such that RS is perpendicular to AC. Q is the point on BC such that P Q is perpendicular to BC. R is the point on AC such that Q R is perpendicular |P B| to AC. And S is the point on AB such that R S is perpendicular to AB. Determine |AB| if S = S . 3 Elfs and trolls are seated at a round table, 60 creatures in total. Trolls always lie, and all elfs always speak the truth, except when they make a little mistake. Everybody claims to sit between an elf and a troll, but exactly two elfs made a mistake! How many trolls are there at this table? 4 Find all functions f : R\{0, 1} R such that f (x) + f 1 1x =1+ 1 . x(1 x)

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Bosnia
Herzegovina 2008

Bosnia Herzegovina
Regional Olympiad - Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina 2008

First Grades

1 Squares BCA1 A2 , CAB1 B2 , ABC1 C2 are outwardly drawn on sides of triangle AB1 A C2 , BC1 B A2 , CA1 C B2 are parallelograms then prove that: (i) Lines BC and AA are orthogonal. (ii)Triangles ABC and A B C have common centroid

ABC. If

2 For arbitrary reals x, y and z prove the following inequality: x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx max{ 3(x y)2 3(y z)2 3(y z)2 , , } 4 4 4 bn 1 is b1

3 Let b be an even positive integer. Assume that there exist integer n > 1 such that perfect square. Prove that b is divisible by 8.

4 Given are two disjoint sets A and B such that their union is N. Prove that for all positive integers n there exist dierent numbers a and b, both greater than n, such that either {a, b, a+ b} is contained in A or {a, b, a + b} is contained in B.

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Bosnia Herzegovina
Regional Olympiad - Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina 2008

Fourth Grades

1 Given are three pairwise externally tangent circles K1 , K2 and K3 . denote by P1 tangent point of K2 and K3 and by P2 tangent point of K1 and K3 . Let AB (A and B are dierent from tangency points) be a diameter of circle K3 . Line AP2 intersects circle K1 (for second time) at point X and line BP1 intersects circle K2 (for second time) at Y . If Z is intersection point of lines AP1 and BP2 prove that points X, Y and Z are collinear. 2 Find all positive integers a and b such that a4 + a3 + 1 is an integer. a2 b2 + ab2 + 1

3 A rectangular table 9 rows 2008 columns is fullled with numbers 1, 2, ...,2008 in a such way that each number appears exactly 9 times in table and dierence between any two numbers from same column is not greater than 3. What is maximum value of minimum sum in column (with minimal sum)?

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Bosnia Herzegovina
Regional Olympiad - Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina 2008

Second Grades

1 Given is an acute angled triangle ABC with side lengths a, b and c (in an usual way) and circumcenter O. Angle bisector of angle BAC intersects circumcircle at points A and A1 . Let D be projection of point A1 onto line AB, L and M be midpoints of AC and AB , respectively. 1 (i) Prove that AD = (b + c) 2 (ii) If triangle ABC is an acute angled prove that A1 D = OM + OL 2 IF a, b and c are positive reals such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 prove the inequality: a5 + b5 b5 + c5 c5 + a5 + + 3(ab + bc + ca) 2 ab(a + b) bc(b + c) ca(a + b) 3 Prove that equation p4 + q 4 = r4 does not have solution in set of prime numbers. 4 n points (no three being collinear) are given in a plane. Some points are connected and they form k segments. If no three of these segments form triangle ( equiv. there are no three n2 points, such that each two of them are connected) prove that k 4

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Bosnia Herzegovina
Regional Olympiad - Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina 2008

Third Grades

1 Two circles with centers S1 and S2 are externally tangent at point K. These circles are also internally tangent to circle S at points A1 and A2 , respectively. Denote by P one of the intersection points of S and common tangent to S1 and S2 at K.Line P A1 intersects S1 at B1 while P A2 intersects S2 at B2 . Prove that B1 B2 is common tangent of circles S1 and S2 . 2 If a, b and c are positive reals prove inequality: (1 + 4a 4b 4c )(1 + )(1 + ) > 25 b+c a+c a+b a4 + a3 + 1 is an integer. a2 b2 + ab2 + 1

3 Find all positive integers a and b such that

4 A rectangular table 9 rows 2008 columns is fullled with numbers 1, 2, ...,2008 in a such way that each number appears exactly 9 times in table and dierence between any two numbers from same column is not greater than 3. What is maximum value of minimum sum in column (with minimal sum)?

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Bosnia Herzegovina
Team Selection Test 2008

Day 1
1 Prove that in an isosceles triangle b > r, where r is inradius. ABC with AC = BC = b following inequality holds

2 Find all pairs of positive integers m and n that satisfy (both) following conditions: (i) m2 n divides m + n2 (ii) n2 m divides n + m2 3 30 persons are sitting at round table. 30 N of them always speak true (true speakers) while the other N of them sometimes speak true sometimes not (lie speakers). Question: Who is your right neighbour - true speaker or lie speaker ? is asked to all 30 persons and 30 answers are collected. What is maximal number N for which (with knowledge of these answers) we can always be sure (decide) about at least one person who is true speaker.

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Bosnia Herzegovina
Team Selection Test 2008

Day 2
1 8 students took part in exam that contains 8 questions. If it is known that each question was solved by at least 5 students, prove that we can always nd 2 students such that each of questions was solved by at least one of them. 2 Let AD be height of triangle ABC and R circumradius. Denote by E and F feet of perpendiculars from point D to sides AB and AC. If AD = R 2, prove that circumcenter of triangle ABC lies on line EF . 3 Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (f (x) + y) = f (x2 y) + 4f (x)y for all x, y R.

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Brazil
1990-2008

Brazil
National Olympiad 1990

1 Show that a convex polyhedron with an odd number of faces has at least one face with an even number of edges. 2 There exists inniteli many positive integers such that a3 + 1990b3 = c4 . 3 Each face of a tetrahedron is a triangle with sides a, b,c and the tetrahedon has circumradius 1. Find a2 + b2 + c2 . 4 ABCD is a quadrilateral, E, F, G, H are midpoints of AB, BC, CD, DA. Find the point P such that area(P HAE) = area(P EBF ) = area(P F CG) = area(P GDH). 5 Let f (x) = ax + b Fn (x) = f (f (f...f (x)...)) (with n f s) cx + d Suppose that f (0) = 0, f (f (0)) = 0, and for some n we have Fn (0) = 0, show that Fn (x) = x (for any valid x, it is clear :P).

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1991

1 At a party every woman dances with at least one man, and no man dances with every woman. Show that there are men M and M and women W and W such that M dances with W, M dances with W, but M does not dance with W, and M does not dance with W. 2 P is a point inside the triangle ABC. The line through P parallel to AB meets AC A0 and BC at B0 . Similarly, the line through P parallel to CA meets AB at A1 and BC at C1 , and the line through P parallel to BC meets AB at B2 and AC at C2 . Find the point P such that A0 B0 = A1 B1 = A2 C2 . 3 Given k > 0, the sequence an is dened by its rst two members and an+2 = an+1 + k an n

a)For which k can we write an as a polynomial in n? b) For which k can we write an+1 p(n) = ? (p, q are polynomials in R[X]). an q(n)

4 Show that there exists n > 2 such that 1991|1999 . . . 91 (with n 9s). 5 P0 = (1, 0), P1 = (1, 1), P2 = (0, 1), P3 = (0, 0). Pn+4 is the midpoint of Pn Pn+1 . Qn is the quadrilateral Pn Pn+1 Pn+2 Pn+3 . An is the interior of Qn . Find n0 An .

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1992

Day 1
1 The equation x3 + px + q = 0 has three distinct real roots. Show that p < 0 2 Show that there is a positive integer n such that the rst 1992 digits of n1992 are 1. 3 Given positive real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , xn nd the polygon A0 A1 . . . An with Ai Ai+1 = xi+1 and which has greatest area. 4 ABC is a triangle. Find D on AC and E on AB such that area(ADE) = area(DEBC) and DE has minimum possible length.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1992

Day 2
5 Let d(n) =
0<d|n

1. Show that, for any natural n > 1,

2in

1 i

d(i) n

1in

1 i

6 Given a set of n elements, nd the largest number of subsets such that no subset is contained in any other 7 Find all 4-tuples (a, b, c, n) of naturals such that na + nb = nc 8 In a chess tournament each player plays every other player once. A player gets 1 point for a win, 0.5 point for a draw and 0 for a loss. Both men and women played in the tournament and each player scored the same total of points against women as against men. Show that the total number of players must be a square.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1993

1 The sequence (an )nN is dened by a1 = 8, a2 = 18, an+2 = an+1 an . Find all terms which are perfect squares. 2 A real number with absolute value less than 1 is written in each cell of an n x n array, so that the sum of the numbers in each 2 x 2 square is zero. Show that for n odd the sum of all the numbers is less than n. 3 Given a circle and its center O, a point A inside the circle and a distance h, construct a triangle BAC with BAC = 90 , B and C on the circle and the altitude from A length h. 4 ABCD is a convex quadrilateral with BAC = 30 CAD = 20 ABD = 50 DBC = 30 If the diagonals intersect at P , show that P C = P D. 5 Find at least one function f : R R such that f (0) = 0 and f (2x + 1) = 3f (x) + 5 for any real x.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1994

Day 1
1 The edges of a cube are labeled from 1 to 12 in an arbitrary manner. Show that it is not possible to get the sum of the edges at each vertex the same. Show that we can get eight vertices with the same sum if one of the labels is changed to 13. 2 Given any convex polygon, show that there are three consecutive vertices such that the polygon lies inside the circle through them. 3 We are given n objects of identical appearance, but dierent mass, and a balance which can be used to compare any two objects (but only one object can be placed in each pan at a time). How many times must we use the balance to nd the heaviest object and the lightest object?

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1994

Day 2
4 Let a, b > 0 be reals such that a3 = a + 1b6 = b + 3a Show that a > b 5 Call a super-integer an innite sequence of decimal digits: . . . dn . . . d2 d1 . (Formally speaking, it is the sequence (d1 , d2 d1 , d3 d2 d1 , . . .) ) Given two such super-integers . . . cn . . . c2 c1 and . . . dn . . . d2 d1 , their product . . . pn . . . p2 p1 is formed by taking n . . . p2 p1 to be the last n digits of the product cn . . . c2 c1 and dn . . . d2 d1 . Can we nd two non-zero super-integers with zero product? (a zero super-integer has all its digits zero) 6 A triangle has semi-perimeter s, circumradius R and inradius r. Show that it is right-angled i 2R = s r.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1995

Day 1
1 ABCD is a quadrilateral with a circumcircle center O and an inscribed circle center I. The diagonals intersect at S. Show that if two of O, I, S coincide, then it must be a square. 2 Find all real-valued functions on the positive integers such that f (x + 1019) = f (x) for all x, and f (xy) = f (x)f (y)for all xy. 3 For any positive integer n > 1, let P (n) denote the largest prime divisor of n. Prove that there exist innitely many positive integers n for which P (n) < P (n + 1) < P (n + 2).

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Brazil
National Olympiad 1995

Day 2
4 A regular tetrahedron has side L. What is the smallest x such that the tetrahedron can be passed through a loop of twine of length x? 5 Show that no one nth root of a rational (for n a positive integer) can be a root of the polynomial x5 x4 4x3 + 4x2 + 2. 6 X has n elements. F is a family of subsets of X each with three elements, such that any two of the subsets have at most one element in common. Show that there is a subset of X with at least 2n members which does not contain any members of F .

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2000

Day 1
1 A rectangular piece of paper has top edge AD. A line L from A to the bottom edge makes an angle x with the line AD. We want to trisect x. We take B and C on the vertical ege through A such that AB = BC. We then fold the paper so that C goes to a point C on the line L and A goes to a point A on the horizontal line through B. The fold takes B to B . Show that AA and AB are the required trisectors. 2 Let s(n) be the sum of all positive divisors of n, so s(6) = 12. We say n is almost perfect if s(n) = 2n 1. Let mod (n, k) denote the residue of n modulo k (in other words, the remainder of dividing n by k). Put t(n) = mod (n, 1) + mod (n, 2) + + mod (n, n). Show that n is almost perfect if and only if t(n) = t(n 1). 3 Dene f on the positive integers by f (n) = k 2 + k + 1, where n = 2k (2l + 1) for some k, l nonnegative integers. Find the smallest n such that f (1) + f (2) + ... + f (n) 123456.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2000

Day 2
4 An innite road has trac lights at intervals of 1500m. The lights are all synchronised and 3 are alternately green for minutes and red for 1 minute. For which v can a car travel at a 2 constant speed of vm/s without ever going through a red light? 5 Let X the set of all sequences {a1 , a2 , . . . , a2000 }, such that each of the rst 1000 terms is 0, 1 or 2, and each of the remaining terms is 0 or 1. The distance between two members a and b of X is dened as the number of i for which ai and bi are dierent. Find the number of functions f : X X which preserve the distance. 6 Let it be is a wooden unit cube. We cut along every plane which is perpendicular to the segment joining two distinct vertices and bisects it. How many pieces do we get?

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2002

Day 1
1 Show that there is a set of 2002 distinct positive integers such that the sum of one or more elements of the set is never a square, cube, or higher power. 2 ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral and M a point on the side CD such that ADM and ABCM have the same area and the same perimeter. Show that two sides of ABCD have the same length. 3 The squares of an m n board are labeled from 1 to mn so that the squares labeled i and i + 1 always have a side in common. Show that for some k the squares k and k + 3 have a side in common.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2002

Day 2
4 For any non-empty subset A of {1, 2, . . . , n} dene f (A) as the largest element of A minus the smallest element of A. Find f (A) where the sum is taken over all non-empty subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n}. 5 A nite collection of squares has total area 4. Show that they can be arranged to cover a square of side 1. 6 Show that we cannot form more than 4096 binary sequences of length 24 so that any two dier in at least 8 positions.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2003

Day 1
1 Find the smallest positive prime that divides n2 + 5n + 23 for some integer n. 2 Let S be a set with n elements. Take a positive integer k. Let A1 , A2 , . . . , Ak be any distinct subsets of S. For each i take Bi = Ai or Bi = S Ai . Find the smallest k such that we can
k

always choose Bi so that


i=1

Bi = S, no matter what the subsets Ai are.

3 ABCD is a rhombus. Take points E, F , G, H on sides AB, BC, CD, DA respectively so that EF and GH are tangent to the incircle of ABCD. Show that EH and F G are parallel.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2003

Day 2
1 Given a circle and a point A inside the circle, but not at its center. Find points B, C, D on the circle which maximise the area of the quadrilateral ABCD. 2 Let f (x) be a real-valued function dened on the positive reals such that (1) if x < y, then f (x) < f (y), (2) f 2xy x+y f (x) + f (y) for all x. 2

Show that f (x) < 0 for some value of x. 3 A graph G with n vertices is called cool if we can label each vertex with a dierent positive n2 integer not greater than and nd a set of non-negative integers D so that there is an 4 edge between two vertices i the dierence between their labels is in D. Show that if n is suciently large we can always nd a graph with n vertices which is not cool.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2004

Day 1 - 16 October 2004


1 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. Prove that the incircles of the triangles ABC, BCD, CDA and DAB have a point in common if, and only if, ABCD is a rhombus. 2 Determine all values of n such that it is possible to divide a triangle in n smaller triangles such that there are not three collinear vertices and such that each vertex belongs to the same number of segments. 3 Let x1 , x2 , ..., x2004 be a sequence of integer numbers such that xk+3 = xk+2 + xk xk+1 , 1 k 2001. Is it possible that more than half of the elements are negative?

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2004

Day 2 - 17 October 2004


4 Consider all the ways of writing exactly ten times each of the numbers 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9 in the squares of a 10 10 board. Find the greatest integer n with the property that there is always a row or a column with n dierent numbers. 5 Consider the sequence (an )nN with a0 = a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 and an an4 = an1 an3 + a2 . n2 Prove that all the terms of this sequence are integer numbers. 6 Let a and b be real numbers. Dene fa,b : R2 R2 by fa,b (x; y) = (a by x2 ; x). If k+1 0 k P = (x; y) R2 , dene fa,b (P ) = P and fa,b (P ) = fa,b (fa,b (P )) for all nonnegative integers k.
n The set per(a; b) of the periodic points of fa,b is the set of points P R2 such that fa,b (P ) = P for some positive integer n.

Fix b. Prove that the set Ab = {a R | per(a; b) = } admits a minimum. Find this minimum.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2005

Day 1 - 22 October 2005


1 A natural number is a palindrome when one obtains the same number when writing its digits in reverse order. For example, 481184, 131 and 2 are palindromes. Determine all pairs (m, n) of positive integers such that 111 . . . 1 111 . . . 1 is a palindrome.
m ones n ones

2 Determine the smallest real number C such that the inequality C(x2005 + x2005 + + x2005 ) x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 (x125 + x125 + + x125 )16 1 2 5 1 2 5 holds for all positive real numbers x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 . 3 A square is contained in a cube when all of its points are in the faces or in the interior of the cube. Determine the biggest > 0 such that there exists a square of side contained in a cube with edge 1.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2005

Day 2 - 23 October 2005


4 We have four charged batteries, four uncharged batteries and a radio which needs two charged batteries to work. Suppose we dont know which batteries are charged and which ones are uncharged. Find the least number of attempts sucient to make sure the radio will work. An attempt consists in putting two batteries in the radio and check if the radio works or not. 5 Let ABC be a triangle with all angles 120 . Let F be the Fermat point of triangle ABC, that is, the interior point of ABC such that AF B = BF C = CF A = 120 . For each one of the three triangles BF C, CF A and AF B, draw its Euler line - that is, the line connecting its circumcenter and its centroid. Prove that these three Euler lines pass through one common point. Remark. The Fermat point F is also known as the rst Fermat point or the rst Toricelli point of triangle ABC. Floor van Lamoen 6 Given positive integers a, c and integer b, prove that there exists a positive integer x such that ax + x b (mod c), that is, there exists a positive integer x such that c is a divisor of ax + x b.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2006

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a triangle. The internal bisector of B meets AC in P and I is the incenter of ABC. Prove that if AP + AB = CB, then AP I is an isosceles triangle. 2 Let n be an integer, n 3. Let f (n) be the largest number of isosceles triangles whose vertices belong to some set of n points in the plane without three colinear points. Prove that there exists positive real constants a and b such that an2 < f (n) < bn2 for every integer n, n 3. 3 Find all functions f : R R such that f (xf (y) + f (x)) = 2f (x) + xy for every reals x, y.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2006

Day 2
4 A positive integer is bold i it has 8 positive divisors that sum up to 3240. For example, 2006 is bold because its 8 positive divisors, 1, 2, 17, 34, 59, 118, 1003 and 2006, sum up to 3240. Find the smallest positive bold number. 5 Let P be a convex 2006-gon. The 1003 diagonals connecting opposite vertices and the 1003 lines connecting the midpoints of opposite sides are concurrent, that is, all 2006 lines have a common point. Prove that the opposite sides of P are parallel and congruent. 6 Professor Piraldo takes part in soccer matches with a lot of goals and judges a match in his own peculiar way. A match with score of m goals to n goals, m n, is tough when m f (n), where f (n) is dened by f (0) = 0 and, for n 1, f (n) = 2n f (r) + r, where r is the largest integer such that r < n and f (r) n. 1+ 5 Let = . Prove that a match with score of m goals to n, m n, is tough if m n 2 and is not tough if m n + 1.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2007

Day 1
1 Let f (x) = x2 +2007x+1. Prove that for every positive integer n, the equation f (f (. . . (f (x)) . . .)) =
n times

0 has at least one real solution. 2 Find the number of integers c such that 2007 c 2007 and there exists an integer x such that x2 + c is a multiple of 22007 . 3 Consider n points in a plane which are vertices of a convex polygon. Prove that the set of the lengths of the sides and the diagonals of the polygon has at least n/2 elements.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2007

Day 2
4 20072 unit squares are arranged forming a 2007 2007 table. Arnold and Bernold play the following game: each move by Arnold consists of taking four unit squares that forms a 2 2 square; each move by Bernold consists of taking a single unit square. They play anternatively, Arnold being the rst. When Arnold is not able to perform his move, Bernold takes all the remaining unit squares. The person with more unit squares in the end is the winner. Is it possible to Bernold to win the game, no matter how Arnold play? 5 Let ABCD be a convex quadrangle, P the intersection of lines AB and CD, Q the intersection of lines AD and BC and O the intersection of diagonals AC and BD. Show that if P OQ = 90 then P O is the bisector of AOD and OQ is the bisector of AOB. 6 Given real numbers x1 < x2 < . . . < xn such that every real number occurs at most two times among the dierences xj xi , 1 i < j n, prove that there exists at least n/2 real numbers that occurs exactly one time among such dierences.

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2008

Day 1
1 A positive integer is dapper if at least one of its multiples begins with 2008. For example, 7 is dapper because 200858 is a multiple of 7 and begins with 2008. Observe that 200858 = 28694 7. Prove that every positive integer is dapper. 2 Let S be a set of 6n points in a line. Choose randomly 4n of these points and paint them blue; the other 2n points are painted green. Prove that there exists a line segment that contains exactly 3n points from S, 2n of them blue and n of them green. 3 Let x, y, z real numbers such that x + y + z = xy + yz + zx. Find the minimum value of x2 x y z + 2 + 2 +1 y +1 z +1

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Brazil
National Olympiad 2008

Day 2
1 Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral and r and s the lines obtained reecting AB with respect to the internal bisectors of CAD and CBD, respectively. If P is the intersection of r and s and O is the center of the circumscribed circle of ABCD, prove that OP is perpendicular to CD. 2 Prove that for all integers a > 1 and b > 1 there exists a function f from the positive integers to the positive integers such that f (a f (n)) = b n for all n positive integer. [Moderator: its function, not funo] 3 The venusian prophet Zabruberson sent to his pupils a 10000-letter word, each letter being A or E: the Zabrubic word. Their pupils consider then that for 1 k 10000, each word comprised of k consecutive letters of the Zabrubic word is a prophetic word of length k. It is known that there are at most 7 prophetic words of lenght 3. Find the maximum number of prophetic words of length 10.

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Undergraduate Competitions
Brazil Undergrad MO 2005

Day 1 - 22 October 2005


1 Determine the number of possible values for the determinant of A, given that A is a n n matrix with real entries such that A3 A2 3A + 2I = 0, where I is the identity and 0 is the all-zero matrix. 2 Let f and g be two continuous, distinct functions from [0, 1] (0, +) such that
1 1

f (x)dx =
0 0 1

g(x)dx

Let yn =
0

f n+1 (x) dx, for n 0, natural. g n (x)


n

Prove that (yn ) is an increasing and divergent sequence. 3 Let v1 , v2 , . . . , vn vectors in R such that |vi | 1 for 1 i n and
i=1 k 2

vi = 0. Prove that

there exists a permutation of (1, 2, . . . , n) such that


j=1

v(j)

5 for every k, 1 k n.

Remark : If v = (x, y) R2 , |v| =

x2 + y 2 .

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Undergraduate Competitions
Brazil Undergrad MO 2005

Day 2 - 23 October 2005


1 an
2005

4 Let an+1 = an + 5 Prove that

and a1 = 1. Show that


n=1

1 converge. nan

n=1

1 = nn

1 0

xx dx.

6 Prove that for any natural numbers 0 i1 < i2 < < ik and 0 j1 < j2 < < jk , the ir + js (ir + js )! matrix A = (ars )1r,sk , ars = = (1 r, s k) is nonsingular. ir ir ! js !

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Bulgaria
2004-2007

Bulgaria
National Olympiad 2004

Day 1
1 Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC, and let A1 , B1 , C1 be arbitrary points on the segments (AI), (BI), (CI), respectively. The perpendicular bisectors of AA1 , BB1 , CC1 intersect each other at A2 , B2 , and C2 . Prove that the circumcenter of the triangle A2 B2 C2 coincides with the circumcenter of the triangle ABC if and only if I is the orthocenter of triangle A1 B1 C1 . 2 For any positive integer n the sum 1 + and Q(n) are relatively prime. a) Prove that P (67) is not divisible by 3; b) Find all possible n, for which P (n) is divisible by 3. 3 A group consist of n tourists. Among every 3 of them there are 2 which are not familiar. For every partition of the tourists in 2 buses you can nd 2 tourists that are in the same bus and 2 are familiar with each other. Prove that is a tourist familiar to at most n tourists. 5 1 P (n) 1 + + is written in the form , where P (n) 2 n Q(n)

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Bulgaria
National Olympiad 2004

Day 2
4 In a word formed with the letters a, b we can change some blocks: aba in b and back, bba in a and backwards. If the initial word is aaa . . . ab where a appears 2003 times can we reach the word baaa . . . a, where a appears 2003 times. 5 Let a, b, c, d be positive integers such that the number of pairs (x, y) (0, 1)2 such that both ax + by and cx + dy are integers is equal with 2004. If gcd(a, c) = 6 nd gcd(b, d). 6 Let p be a prime number and let 0 a1 < a2 < < am < p and 0 b1 < b2 < < bn < p be arbitrary integers. Let k be the number of distinct residues modulo p that ai + bj give when i runs from 1 to m, and j from 1 to n. Prove that a) if m + n > p then k = p; b) if m + n p then k m + n 1.

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Bulgaria
National Olympiad Soa 2005

Day 1 - 14 May 2005


1 Determine all triples (x, y, z) of positive integers for which the number 2005 + x+y is an integer . 2 Consider two circles k1 , k2 touching externally at point T . a line touches k2 at point X and intersects k1 at points A and B. Let S be the second intersection point of k1 with the line XT . On the arc T S not containing A and B is chosen a point C . Let CY be the tangent line to k2 with Y k2 , such that the segment CY does not intersect the segment ST . If I = XY SC . Prove that : (a) the points C, T, Y, I are concyclic. (b) I is the excenter of triangle ABC with respect to the side BC. 3 Let M = (0, 1) Q. Determine, with proof, whether there exists a subset A M with the property that every number in M can be uniquely written as the sum of nitely many distinct elements of A. 2005 + y+z 2005 z+x

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Bulgaria
National Olympiad Soa 2005

Day 2 - 15 May 2005


4 Let ABC be a triangle with AC = BC, and let A B C be a triangle obtained from ABC after some rotation centered at C. Let M, E, F be the midpoints of the segments BA , AC and CB respectively. If EM = F M , nd EM F . 5 For positive integers t, a, b,a (t, a, b)-game is a two player game dened by the following rules. Initially, the number t is written on a blackboard. At his rst move, the 1st player replaces t with either t a or t b. Then, the 2nd player subtracts either a or b from this number, and writes the result on the blackboard, erasing the old number. After this, the rst player once again erases either a or b from the number written on the blackboard, and so on. The player who rst reaches a negative number loses the game. Prove that there exist innitely many values of t for which the rst player has a winning strategy for all pairs (a, b) with a + b = 2005. 6 Let a, b and c be positive integers such that ab divides c(c2 c + 1) and a + b is divisible by c2 + 1. Prove that the sets {a, b} and {c, c2 c + 1} coincide.

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Bulgaria
Team Selection Tests 2007

Day 1
1 Let ABC is a triangle with BAC = and the circumradius equal to 1. If X is a point 6 inside or in its boundary let m(X) = min(AX, BX, CX). Find all the angles of this triangle 3 if max(m(X)) = . 3

2 Find all a R for which there exists a non-constant function f : (0, 1] R such that a + f (x + y xy) + f (x)f (y) f (x) + f (y) for all x, y (0, 1]. 3 Let I be the center of the incircle of non-isosceles triangle ABC, A1 = AI BC and B1 = BI AC. Let la be the line through A1 which is parallel to AC and lb be the line through B1 parallel to BC. Let la CI = A2 and lb CI = B2 . Also N = AA2 BB2 and M is the CN midpoint of AB. If CN IM nd . IM 4 Let G is a graph and x is a vertex of G. Dene the transformation x over G as deleting all incident edges with respect of x and drawing the edges xy such that y G and y is not connected with x with edge in the beginning of the transformation. A graph H is called Gattainable if there exists a sequece of such transformations which transforms G in H. Let n N and 4|n. Prove that for each graph G with 4n vertices and n edges there exists Gattainable graph with at least 9n2 /4 triangles.

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Bulgaria
Team Selection Tests 2007

Day 2
1 In isosceles triangle ABC(AC = BC) the point M is in the segment AB such that AM = 2M B, F is the midpoint of BC and H is the orthogonal projection of M in AF. Prove that BHF = ABC. 2 Let n, k be positive integers such that n 2k > 3 and A = {1, 2, ..., n}. Find all n and k such that the number of k-element subsets of A is 2n k times bigger than the number of 2-element subsets of A. 3 Let n 2 is positive integer. Find the best constant C(n) such that
n

xi C(n)
i=1

(2xi xj +
1j<in

xi xj )

1 is true for all real numbers xi (0, 1), i = 1, ..., n for which (1xi )(1xj ) , 1 j < i n. 4 4 Let p = 4k + 3 be a prime number. Find the number of dierent residues mod p of (x2 + y 2 )2 where (x, p) = (y, p) = 1.

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Canada
1969-2008

Canada
Canadian Open Math Challenge 1996

Part A

1 The roots of the equation x2 +4x5 = 0 are also the roots of the equation 2x3 +9x2 6x5 = 0. What is the third root of the second equation? 2 The numbers a, b, c are the digits of a three digit number which satisfy 49a + 7b + c = 286. What is the three digit number (100a + 10b + c)? 3 The vertices of a right-angled triangle are on a circle of radius R and the sides of the triangle are tangent to another circle of radius r (this is the circle that is inside triangle). If the lengths of the sides about the right angles are 16 and 30, determine the value of R + r. 4 Determine the smallest positive integer, n, which satises the equation n3 + 2n2 = b, where b is the square of an odd integer. 5 Edward starts in his house, which is at (0,0) and needs to go point (6,4), which is coordinate for his school. However, there is a park that shaped as a square and has coordinates (2,1),(2,3),(4,1), and (4,3). There is no road for him to walk inside the park but there is a road for him to walk around the perimeter of the square. How many dierent shortest road routes are there from Edwards house to his school? 6 In a 14 team baseball league, each team played each of the other teams 10 times. At the end of the season, the number of games won by each team diered from those won by the team that immediately followed it by the same amount. Determine the greatest number of games the last place team could have won, assuming that no ties were allowed. 7 Triangle ABC is right angled at A. The circle with center A and radius AB cuts BC and AC internally at D and E respectively. If BD = 20 and DC = 16, determine AC 2 . 8 Determine all pairs of integers (x, y) which satisfy the equation 6x2 3xy 13x + 5y = 11 9 If log2n 1994 = logn 486 2 , compute n6 . 10 Determine the sum of angles A, B, where 0 A, B, 180 and sin A + sin B = 3 , cos A + cos B = 2 1 2

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Canada
National Olympiad 1969

1 If a1 /b1 = a2 /b2 = a3 /b3 and p1 , p2 , p3 are not all zero, show that for all n N, a1 b1
n

p1 an + p2 an + p3 an 1 2 3 . p1 b n + p2 b n + p3 b n 1 2 3 c, c c 1 is greater for any c 1.

2 Determine which of the two numbers

c+1

3 Let c be the length of the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle whose two other sides have lengths a and b. Prove that a + b c 2. When does the equality hold? 4 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle, and P be an arbitrary point within the triangle. Perpendiculars P D, P E, P F are drawn to the three sides of the triangle. Show that, no matter where P is chosen, PD + PE + PF 1 = . AB + BC + CA 2 3 5 Let ABC be a triangle with sides of length a, b and c. Let the bisector of the angle C cut AB in D. Prove that the length of CD is 2ab cos C 2 . a+b 6 Find the sum of 11!+22!+33!+ +(n1)(n1)!+nn!, where n! = n(n1)(n2) 21. 7 Show that there are no integers a, b, c for which a2 + b2 8c = 6. 8 Let f be a function with the following properties: 1) f (n) is dened for every positive integer n; 2) f (n) is an integer; 3) f (2) = 2; 4) f (mn) = f (m)f (n) for all m and n; 5) f (m) > f (n) whenever m > n. Prove that f (n) = n. 9 Show that for any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle of radius 1, the length of the shortest side is less than or equal to 2. 10 Let ABC be the right-angled isosceles triangle whose equal sides have length 1. P is a point on the hypotenuse, and the feet of the perpendiculars from P to the other sides are Q and R. Consider the areas of the triangles AP Q and P BR, and the area of the rectangle QCRP . Prove that regardless of how P is chosen, the largest of these three areas is at least 2/9.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1970

1 Find all number triples (x, y, z) such that when any of these numbers is added to the product of the other two, the result is 2. 2 Given a triangle ABC with angle A obtuse and with altitudes of length h and k as shown in the diagram, prove that a + h b + k. Find under what conditions a + h = b + k.

[img]http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/albump ic.php?pici d = 860[/img]Asetof ballsisgiven.Each 3 a) Find all positive integers with initial digit 6 such that the integer formed by deleting 6 is 1/25 4 of the original integer. b) Show that there is no integer such that the deletion of the rst digit produces a result that is 1/35 of the original integer. 5 A quadrilateral has one vertex on each side of a square of side-length 1. Show that the lengths a, b, c and d of the sides of the quadrilateral satisfy the inequalities 2 a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 4. 6 Given three non-collinear points A, B, C, construct a circle with centre C such that the tangents from A and B are parallel. 7 Show that from any ve integers, not necessarily distinct, one can always choose three of these integers whose sum is divisible by 3. 8 Consider all line segments of length 4 with one end-point on the line y = x and the other end-point on the line y = 2x. Find the equation of the locus of the midpoints of these line segments. 9 Let f (n) be the sum of the rst n terms of the sequence 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, . . . . a) Give a formula for f (n). b) Prove that f (s + t) f (s t) = st where s and t are positive integers and s > t. 10 Given the polynomial f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 + + an1 x + an with integer coecients a1 , a2 , . . . , an , and given also that there exist four distinct integers a, b, c and d such that f (a) = f (b) = f (c) = f (d) = 5, show that there is no integer k such that f (k) = 8.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1971

1 DEB is a chord of a circle such that DE = 3 and EB = 5. Let O be the centre of the circle. Join OE and extend OE to cut the circle at C. (See diagram). Given EC = 1, nd the radius of the circle. [img]6704[/img] 2 Let x and y be positive real numbers such that x + y = 1. Show that 1+ 1 x 1+ 1 y 9.

3 ABCD is a quadrilateral with AD = BC. If ADC is greater than BCD, prove that AC > BD. 4 Determine all real numbers a such that the two polynomials x2 + ax + 1 and x2 + x + a have at least one root in common. 5 Let p(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 , where the coecients ai are integers. If p(0) and p(1) are both odd, show that p(x) has no integral roots. 6 Show that, for all integers n, n2 + 2n + 12 is not a multiple of 121. 7 Let n be a ve digit number (whose rst digit is non-zero) and let m be the four digit number formed from n by removing its middle digit. Determine all n such that n/m is an integer. 8 A regular pentagon is inscribed in a circle of radius r. P is any point inside the pentagon. Perpendiculars are dropped from P to the sides, or the sides produced, of the pentagon. a) Prove that the sum of the lengths of these perpendiculars is constant. b) Express this constant in terms of the radius r. 9 Two ag poles of height h and k are situated 2a units apart on a level surface. Find the set of all points on the surface which are so situated that the angles of elevation of the tops of the poles are equal. 10 Suppose that n people each know exactly one piece of information, and all n pieces are dierent. Every time person A phones person B, A tells B everything that A knows, while B tells A nothing. What is the minimum number of phone calls between pairs of people needed for everyone to know everything? Prove your answer is a minimum.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1972

1 Given three distinct unit circles, each of which is tangent to the other two, nd the radii of the circles which are tangent to all three circles. 2 Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be non-negative real numbers. Dene M to be the sum of all products of pairs ai aj (i < j), i.e., M = a1 (a2 + a3 + + an ) + a2 (a3 + a4 + + an ) + + an1 an . Prove that the square of at least one of the numbers a1 , a2 , . . . , an does not exceed 2M/n(n1). 3 a) Prove that 10201 is composite in all bases greater than 2. b) Prove that 10101 is composite in all bases. 4 Describe a construction of quadrilateral ABCD given: (i) the lengths of all four sides; (ii) that AB and CD are parallel; (iii) that BC and DA do not intersect. 5 Prove that the equation x3 + 113 = y 3 has no solution in positive integers x and y. 6 Let a and b be distinct real numbers. Prove that there exist integers m and n such that am + bn < 0, bm + an > 0. 7 a) Prove that the values of x for which x = (x2 +1)/198 lie between 1/198 and 197.99494949 . b) Use the result of problem a) to prove that 2 < 1.41421356. c) Is it true that 2 < 1.41421356? 8 During a certain election campaign, p dierent kinds of promises are made by the dierent political parties (p > 0). While several political parties may make the same promise, any two parties have at least one promise in common; no two parties have exactly the same set of promises. Prove that there are no more than 2p1 . 9 Four distinct lines L1 , L2 , L3 , L4 are given in the plane: L1 and L2 are respectively parallel to L3 and L4 . Find the locus of a point moving so that the sum of its perpendicular distances from the four lines is constant. 10 What is the maximum number of terms in a geometric progression with common ratio greater than 1 whose entries all come from the set of integers between 100 and 1000 inclusive?

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Canada
National Olympiad 1974

1 i) If x =

1 1+ n

and y =

1 1+ n

n+1

, show that y x = xy .

ii) Show that, for all positive integers n, 12 22 + 32 42 + + (1)n (n 1)2 + (1)n+1 n2 = (1)n+1 (1 + 2 + + n). 2 Let ABCD be a rectangle with BC = 3AB. Show that if P, Q are the points on side BC with BP = P Q = QC, then DBC + DP C = DQC. 3 Let f (x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn be a polynomial with coecients satisfying the conditions: 0 ai a0 , i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

Let b0 , b1 , . . . , b2n be the coecients of the polynomial

(f (x))2 = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + an xn = b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + + b2n x2n .

Prove that bn+1

1 (f (1))2 . 2

4 Let n be a xed positive integer. To any choice of real numbers satisfying 0 xi 1, there corresponds the sum |xi xj |.
1i<jn

i = 1, 2, . . . , n,

Let S(n) denote the largest possible value of this sum. Find S(n).

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Canada
National Olympiad 1974

5 Given a circle with diameter AB and a point X on the circle dierent from A and B, let ta , tb and tx be the tangents to the circle at A, B and X respectively. Let Z be the point where line AX meets tb and Y the point where line BX meets ta . Show that the three lines Y Z, tx and AB are either concurrent (i.e., all pass through the same point) or parallel. [img]6762[/img] 6 An unlimited supply of 8-cent and 15-cent stamps is available. Some amounts of postage cannot be made up exactly, e.g., 7 cents, 29 cents. What is the largest unattainable amount, i.e., the amount, say n, of postage which is unattainable while all amounts larger than n are attainable? (Justify your answer.) 7 A bus route consists of a circular road of circumference 10 miles and a straight road of length 1 mile which runs from a terminus to the point Q on the circular road (see diagram). [img]6763[/img] It is served by two buses, each of which requires 20 minutes for the round trip. Bus No. 1, upon leaving the terminus, travels along the straight road, once around the circle clockwise and returns along the straight road to the terminus. Bus No. 2, reaching the terminus 10 minutes after Bus No. 1, has a similar route except that it proceeds counterclockwise around the circle. Both buses run continuously and do not wait at any point on the route except for a negligible amount of time to pick up and discharge passengers. A man plans to wait at a point P which is x miles (0 x < 12) from the terminus along the route of Bus No. 1 and travel to the terminus on one of the buses. Assuming that he chooses to board that bus which will bring him to his destination at the earliest moment, there is a maximum time w(x) that his journey (waiting plus travel time) could take. Find w(2); nd w(4). For what value of x will the time w(x) be the longest? Sketch a graph of y = w(x) for 0 x < 12.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1975

1 Simplify 1 2 4 + 2 4 8 + + n 2n 4n 1 3 9 + 2 6 18 + + n 3n 9n
1 3

2 A sequence of numbers a1 , a2 , a3 , ... satises 1 (i) a1 = (ii) a1 + a2 + + an = n2 an (n 1) 2 Determine the value of an (n 1). 3 For each real number r, [r] denotes the largest integer less than or equal to r, e.g. [6] = 6, [] = 3, [1.5] = 2. Indicate on the (x, y)-plane the set of all points (x, y) for which [x]2 + [y]2 = 4. 4 For a positive number such as 3.27, 3 is referred to as the integral part of the number and .27 as the decimal part. Find a positive number such that its decimal part, its integral part, and the number itself form a geometric progression. 5 A, B, C, D are four consecutive points on the circumference of a circle and P, Q, R, S are points on the circumference which are respectively the midpoints of the arcs AB, BC, CD, DA. Prove that P R is perpendicular to QS. 6 (i) 15 chairs are equally placed around a circular table on which are name cards for 15 guests. The guest fail to notice these cards until after they have sat down, and it turns out that no one is sitting in the correct seat. Prove that the table can be rotated so that at least two of the guests are simultaneously correctly seated. (ii) Give an example of an arrangement in which just one of the 15 guests is correctly seated and for which no rotation correctly places more than one person. 7 A function f (x) is periodic if there is a positive number p such that f (x + p) = f (x) for all x. For example, sin x is periodic with period 2. Is the function sin(x2 ) periodic? Prove your assertion. 8 Let k be a positive integer. Find all polynomials P (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn , where the ai are real, which satisfy the equation P (P (x)) = {P (x)}k

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Canada
National Olympiad 1976

1 Given four weights in geometric proression and an equal arm balance, show how to nd the heaviest weight using the balance only twice. 2 Suppose n(n + 1)an+1 = n(n 1)an (n 2)an1 for every positive integer n 1. Given that a0 = 1, a1 = 2, nd a0 a1 a2 a50 + + ++ . a1 a2 a3 a51 3 Two grade seven students were allowed to enter a chess tournament otherwise composed of grade eight students. Each contestant played once with each other contestant and received one point for a win, one half point for a tie and zero for a loss. The two grade seven students together gained a total of eight points and each grade eight student scored the same number of points as his classmates. How many students for grade eight participated in the chess tournament? Is the solution unique? 4 Let AB be a diameter of a circle, C be any xed point between A and B on this diameter, and Q be a variable point on the circumference of the circle. Let P be the point on the line AC QC determined by Q and C for which = . Describe, with proof, the locus of the point CB CP P. 5 Prove that a positive integer is a sum of at least two consecutive positive integers if and only if it is not a power of two. 6 If A, B, C, D are four points in space, such that ABC = BCD = CDA = DAB = /2, prove that A, B, C, D lie in a plane. 7 Let P (x, y) be a polynomial in two variables x, y such that P (x, y) = P (y, x) for every x, y (for example, the polynomial x2 2xy + y 2 satises this condition). Given that (x y) is a factor of P (x, y), show that (x y)2 is a factor of P (x, y). 8 Each of the 36 line segments joining 9 distinct points on a circle is coloured either red or blue. Suppose that each triangle determined by 3 of the 9 points contains at least one red side. Prove that there are four points such that the 6 segments connecting them are all red.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1989

1 The integers 1, 2, ..., n are placed in order so that each value is either strictly bigger than all the preceding values or is strictly smaller than all preceding values. In how many ways can this be done? 2 Let ABC be a right angled triangle of area 1. Let A B C be the points obtained by reecting A, B, C respectively, in their opposite sides. Find the area of A B C . 3 Dene {an }n=1 as follows: a1 = 19891989 ; an , n > 1, is the sum of the digits of an1 . What is the value of a5 ? 4 There are 5 monkeys and 5 ladders and at the top of each ladder there is a banana. A number of ropes connect the ladders, each rope connects two ladders. No two ropes are attached to the same rung of the same ladder. Each monkey starts at the bottom of a dierent ladder. The monkeys climb up the ladders but each time they encounter a rope they climb along it to the other ladder at the end of the rope and then continue climbing upwards. Show that, no matter how many ropes there are, each monkey gets a banana. 5 Given the numbers 1, 2, 22 , . . . , 2n1 , for a specic permutation = x1 , x2 , . . . , xn of these numbers we dene S1 () = x1 , S2 () = x1 +x2 , . . . and Q() = S1 ()S2 ()Sn (). Evaluate 1/Q(), where the sum is taken over all possible permutations.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1992

1 Prove that the product of the rst n natural numbers is divisible by the sum of the rst n natural numbers if and only if n + 1 is not an odd prime. 2 For x, y, z 0, establish the inequality x(x z)2 + y(y z)2 (x z)(y z)(x + y z) and determine when equality holds. 3 In the diagram, ABCD is a square, with U and V interior points of the sides AB and CD respectively. Determine all the possible ways of selecting U and V so as to maximize the area of the quadrilateral P U QV . [img]http://i250.photobucket.com/albums/gg265/geometry101/CMO1992Number3.jpg[/img] 4 Solve the equation x2 + x2 =3 (x + 1)2

5 A deck of 2n + 1 cards consists of a joker and, for each number between 1 and n inclusive, two cards marked with that number. The 2n + 1 cards are placed in a row, with the joker in the middle. For each k with 1 k n, the two cards numbered k have exactly k 1 cards between them. Determine all the values of n not exceeding 10 for which this arrangement is possible. For which values of n is it impossible?

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Canada
National Olympiad 1993

1 Determine a triangle for which the three sides and an altitude are four consecutive integers and for which this altitude partitions the triangle into two right triangles with integer sides. Show that there is only one such triangle. 2 Show that the number x is rational if and only if three distinct terms that form a geometric progression can be chosen from the sequence x, x + 1, x + 2, x + 3, . . . . 3 In triangle ABC, the medians to the sides AB and AC are perpendicular. Prove that cot B + 2 cot C . 3 4 Anumber of schools took part in a tennis tournament. No two players from the same school played against each other. Every two players from dierent schools played exactly one match against each other. A match between two boys or between two girls was called a single and that between a boy and a girl was called a mixed single. The total number of boys diered from the total number of girls by at most 1. The total number of singles diered from the total number of mixed singles by at most 1. At most how many schools were represented by an odd number of players? 5 Let y1 , y2 , y3 , . . . be a sequence such that y1 = 1 and, for k > 0, is dened by the relationship: y2k = 2yk 2yk + 1 2yk 2yk + 1 if k is even if k is odd if k is odd if k is even

y2k+1 =

Show that the sequence takes on every positive integer value exactly once.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1996

1 If , , and are the roots of x3 x 1 = 0, compute

1+ 1+ 1+ + + . 1 1 1

2 Find all real solutions to the following system of equations. Carefully justify your answer. 2 4x 1 + 4x2 = y 4y 2 =z 1 + 4y 2 4z 2 =x 1 + 4z 2 3 We denote an arbitrary permutation of the integers 1, 2, . . ., n by a1 , a2 , . . ., an . Let f (n) denote the number of these permutations such that: (1) a1 = 1; (2):|ai ai+1 | 2, i = 1, . . . , n 1. Determine whether f (1996) is divisible by 3. 4 Let triangle ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. Suppose that the angle bisector of its angle B meets the side AC at a point D and that BC = BD + AD. Determine A.
m

5 Let r1 , r2 , . . ., rm be a given set of m positive rational numbers such that


m k=1

rk = 1. Dene

the function f by f (n) = n


k=1

[rk n] for each positive integer n. Determine the minimum

and maximum values of f (n). Here [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1998

1 Determine the number of real solutions a to the equation: 1 a + 2 1 a + 3 1 a =a. 5

Here, if x is a real number, then [ x ] denotes the greatest integer that is less than or equal to x. Find all real numbers x such that: x= x 1 + x 1 1 x

Let n be a natural number such that n 2. Show that 1 n+1 1+ 1 1 ++ 3 2n 1 > 1 n 1 1 1 + ++ 2 4 2n .

Let ABC be a triangle with BAC = 40 and ABC = 60 . Let D and E be the points lying on the sides AC and AB, respectively, such that CBD = 40 and BCE = 70 . Let F be the point of intersection of the lines BD and CE. Show that the line AF is perpendicular to the line BC. Let m be a positive integer. Dene the sequence a0 , a1 , a2 , by a0 = 0, a1 = m, and an+1 = m2 an an1 for n = 1, 2, 3, . Prove that an ordered pair (a, b) of non-negative integers, with a b, gives a solution to the equation a2 + b2 = m2 ab + 1 if and only if (a, b) is of the form (an , an+1 ) for some n 0.

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Canada
National Olympiad 1999

1 Find all real solutions to the equation 4x2 40 x + 51 = 0. 2 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle of altitude 1. A circle with radius 1 and center on the same side of AB as C rolls along the segment AB. Prove that the arc of the circle that is inside the triangle always has the same length. 3 Determine all positive integers n with the property that n = (d(n))2 . Here d(n) denotes the number of positive divisors of n. 4 Suppose a1 , a2 , , a8 are eight distinct integers from {1, 2, , 16, 17}. Show that there is an integer k > 0 such that the equation ai aj = k has at least three dierent solutions. Also, nd a specic set of 7 distinct integers from {1, 2, . . . , 16, 17} such that the equation ai aj = k does not have three distinct solutions for any k > 0. 5 Let x, y, and z be non-negative real numbers satisfying x + y + z = 1. Show that x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x and nd when equality occurs. 4 27

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Canada
National Olympiad 2000

1 At 12:00 noon, Anne, Beth and Carmen begin running laps around a circular track of length 300 meters, all starting from the same point on the track. Each jogger maintains a constant speed in one of the two possible directions for an indenite period of time. Show that if Annes speed is dierent from the other two speeds, then at some later time Anne will be at least 100 meters from each of the other runners. (Here, distance is measured along the shorter of the two arcs separating two runners.) 2 A permutation of the integers 1901, 1902, , 2000 is a sequence a1 , a2 , , a100 in which each of those integers appears exactly once. Given such a permutation, we form the sequence of partial sums s1 = a1 , s2 = a1 + a2 , s3 = a1 + a2 + a3 , . . . , s100 = a1 + a2 + + a100 .

How many of these permutations will have no terms of the sequence s1 , . . . , s100 divisible by three? Let A = (a1 , a2 , , a2000 ) be a sequence of integers each lying in the interval [1000, 1000]. Suppose that the entries in A sum to 1. Show that some nonempty subsequence of A sums to zero. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with CBD = 2ADB, ABD = 2CDB and AB = CB. Prove that AD = CD. Suppose that the real numbers a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 satisfy 0 a100 a99 a2 a1 , a1 + a2 100 a3 + a4 + + a100 100. Determine the maximum possible value of a2 + a2 + + a2 , and nd all possible sequences 1 2 100 a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 which achieve this maximum.

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Canada
National Olympiad 2001

1 Randy: Hi Rachel, thats an interesting quadratic equation you have written down. What are its roots? Rachel: The roots are two positive integers. One of the roots is my age, and the other root is the age of my younger brother, Jimmy. Randy: That is very neat! Let me see if I can gure out how old you and Jimmy are. That shouldnt be too dicult since all of your coecients are integers. By the way, I notice that the sum of the three coecients is a prime number. Rachel: Interesting. Now gure out how old I am. Randy: Instead, I will guess your age and substitute it for x in your quadratic equation . . . darn, that gives me 55, and not 0. Rachel: Oh, leave me alone! (1) Prove that Jimmy is two years old. (2) Determine Rachels age. 3 Let ABC be a triangle with AC > AB. Let P be the intersection point of the perpendicular bisector of BC and the internal angle bisector of A. Construct points X on AB (extended) and Y on AC such that P X is perpendicular to AB and P Y is perpendicular to AC. Let Z BZ be the intersection point of XY and BC. Determine the value of . ZC 4 Let n be a positive integer. Nancy is given a rectangular table in which each entry is a positive integer. She is permitted to make either of the following two moves: (1) select a row and multiply each entry in this row by n; (2) select a column and subtract n from each entry in this column. Find all possible values of n for which the following statement is true: Given any rectangular table, it is possible for Nancy to perform a nite sequence of moves to create a table in which each entry is 0. 5 Let P0 , P1 , P2 be three points on the circumference of a circle with radius 1, where P1 P2 = t < 2. For each i 3, dene Pi to be the centre of the circumcircle of Pi1 Pi2 Pi3 . (1) Prove that the points P1 , P5 , P9 , P13 , are collinear. (2) Let x be the distance from P1 to P1001 , and let y be the distance from P1001 to P2001 . x Determine all values of t for which 500 is an integer. y

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Canada
National Olympiad 2002

1 Let S be a subset of {1, 2, . . . , 9}, such that the sums formed by adding each unordered pair of distinct numbers from S are all dierent. For example, the subset {1, 2, 3, 5} has this property, but {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} does not, since the pairs {1, 4} and {2, 3} have the same sum, namely 5. What is the maximum number of elements that S can contain? 2 Call a positive integer n practical if every positive integer less than or equal to n can be written as the sum of distinct divisors of n. For example, the divisors of 6 are 1, 2, 3, and 6. Since 1 = 1, we see that 6 is practical. Prove that the product of two practical numbers is also practical. 3 Prove that for all positive real numbers a, b, and c, b3 c3 a3 + + a+b+c bc ca ab and determine when equality occurs. 4 Let be a circle with radius r. Let A and B be distinct points on such that AB < 3r. Let the circle with centre B and radius AB meet again at C. Let P be the point inside such that triangle ABP is equilateral. Finally, let the line CP meet again at Q. Prove that P Q = r. 5 Let N = {0, 1, 2, . . .}. Determine all functions f : N N such that xf (y) + yf (x) = (x + y)f (x2 + y 2 ) for all x and y in N. 2 = 2, 3 = 3, 4 = 1 + 3, 5 = 2 + 3, 6 = 6,

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Canada
National Olympiad 2003

1 Consider a standard twelve-hour clock whose hour and minute hands move continuously. Let m be an integer, with 1 m 720. At precisely m minutes after 12:00, the angle made by the hour hand and minute hand is exactly 1 . Determine all possible values of m. 2 Find the last three digits of the number 20032002 3 Find all real positive solutions (if any) to x3 + y 3 + z 3 = x + y + z, and
2001

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = xyz. 4 Prove that when three circles share the same chord AB, every line through A dierent from XY , where X is an arbitrary point dierent from B on the AB determines the same ratio YZ rst circle while Y and Z are the points where AX intersects the other two circles (labelled so that Y is between X and Z). 5 Let S be a set of n points in the plane such that any two points of S are at least 1 unit apart. n Prove there is a subset T of S with at least points such that any two points of T are at 7 least 3 units apart.

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Canada
National Olympiad 2006

1 Let f (n, k) be the number of ways of distributing k candies to n children so that each child receives at most 2 candies. For example f (3, 7) = 0, f (3, 6) = 1, f (3, 4) = 6. Determine the value of f (2006, 1) + f (2006, 4) + . . . + f (2006, 1000) + f (2006, 1003) + . . . + f (2006, 4012). 2 Let ABC be acute triangle. Inscribe a rectangle DEF G in this triangle such that D AB, E AC, F BC, G BC. Describe the locus of (i.e., the curve occupied by) the intersections of the diagonals of all possible rectangles DEF G. 3 In a rectangular array of nonnegative reals with m rows and n columns, each row and each column contains at least one positive element. Moreover, if a row and a column intersect in a positive element, then the sums of their elements are the same. Prove that m = n. 4 Consider a round-robin tournament with 2n + 1 teams, where each team plays each other team exactly one. We say that three teams X, Y and Z, form a cycle triplet if X beats Y , Y beats Z and Z beats X. There are no ties. a)Determine the minimum number of cycle triplets possible. b)Determine the maximum number of cycle triplets possible. 5 The vertices of a right triangle ABC inscribed in a circle divide the circumference into three arcs. The right angle is at A, so that the opposite arc BC is a semicircle while arc BC and arc AC are supplementary. To each of three arcs, we draw a tangent such that its point of tangency is the mid point of that portion of the tangent intercepted by the extended lines AB, AC. More precisely, the point D on arc BC is the midpoint of the segment joining the points D and D where tangent at D intersects the extended lines AB, AC. Similarly for E on arc AC and F on arc AB. Prove that triangle DEF is equilateral.

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Canada
National Olympiad 2008

1 ABCD is a convex quadrilateral for which AB is the longest side. Points M and N are located on sides AB and BC respectively, so that each of the segments AN and CM divides the quadrilateral into two parts of equal area. Prove that the segment M N bisects the diagonal BD. 2 Determine all functions f dened on the set of rational numbers that take rational values for which f (2f (x) + f (y)) = 2x + y, for each x and y. 3 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers for which a + b + c = 1. Prove that 3 a bc b ca c ab + + . a + bc b + ca c + ab 2 4 Determine all functions f dened on the natural numbers that take values among the natural numbers for which (f (n))p n mod f (p) for all n N and all prime numbers p. 5 A self-avoiding rook walk on a chessboard (a rectangular grid of unit squares) is a path traced by a sequence of moves parallel to an edge of the board from one unit square to another, such that each begins where the previous move ended and such that no move ever crosses a square that has previously been crossed, i.e., the rooks path is non-self-intersecting. Let R(m, n) be the number of self-avoiding rook walks on an m n (m rows, n columns) chessboard which begin at the lower-left corner and end at the upper-left corner. For example, R(m, 1) = 1 for all natural numbers m; R(2, 2) = 2; R(3, 2) = 4; R(3, 3) = 11. Find a formula for R(3, n) for each natural number n.

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Centro
American
1999-2009

CentroAmerican 1999
San Jos, Costa Rica

Day 1 - 08 July 1999


1 Suppose that each of the 5 persons knows a piece of information, each piece is dierent, about a certain event. Each time person A calls person B, A gives B all the information that A knows at that moment about the event, while B does not say to A anything that he knew. (a) What is the minimum number of calls are necessary so that everyone knows about the event? (b) How many calls are necessary if there were n persons? 2 Find a positive integer n with 1000 digits, all distinct from zero, with the following property: its possible to group the digits of n into 500 pairs in such a way that if the two digits of each pair are multiplied and then add the 500 products, it results a number m that is a divisor of n. 3 The digits of a calculator (with the exception of 0) are shown in the form indicated by the gure below, where there is also a button +: [img]6965[/img] Two players A and B play in the following manner: A turns on the calculator and presses a digit, and then presses the button +. A passes the calculator to B, which presses a digit in the same row or column with the one pressed by A that is not the same as the last one pressed by A; and then presses + and returns the calculator to A, repeating the operation in this manner successively. The rst player that reaches or exceeds the sum of 31 loses the game. Which of the two players have a winning strategy and what is it?

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CentroAmerican 1999
San Jos, Costa Rica

Day 2 - 09 July 1999


4 In the trapezoid ABCD with bases AB and CD, let M be the midpoint of side DA. If BC = a, M C = b and M CB = 150 , what is the area of trapezoid ABCD as a function of a and b? 5 Let a be an odd positive integer greater than 17 such that 3a 2 is a perfect square. Show that there exist distinct positive integers b and c such that a + b, a + c, b + c and a + b + c are four perfect squares. 6 Denote S as the subset of {1, 2, 3, . . . , 1000} with the property that none of the sums of two dierent elements in S is in S. Find the maximum number of elements in S.

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CentroAmerican 2000
Nueva San Salvador, El Salvador

Day 1 - 11 July 2000


1 Find all three-digit numbers abc (with a = 0) such that a2 + b2 + c2 is a divisor of 26. 2 Determine all positive integers n such that it is possible to tile a 15 n board with pieces shaped like this: [asy]size(100); draw((0,0)(3,0)); draw((0,1)(3,1)); draw((0,2)(1,2)); draw((2,2)(3,2)); draw((0,0) (0,2)); draw((1,0)(1,2)); draw((2,0)(2,2)); draw((3,0)(3,2)); draw((5,0)(6,0)); draw((4,1) (7,1)); draw((4,2)(7,2)); draw((5,3)(6,3)); draw((4,1)(4,2)); draw((5,0)(5,3)); draw((6,0) (6,3)); draw((7,1)(7,2));[/asy] 3 Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon. If P , Q, R and S are the respective centroids of the triangles ABE, BCE, CDE and DAE, show that P QRS is a parallelogram and its area is 2/9 of that of ABCD.

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CentroAmerican 2000
Nueva San Salvador, El Salvador

Day 2 - 12 July 2000


1 Write an integer on each of the 16 small triangles in such a way that every number having at least two neighbors is equal to the dierence of two of its neighbors. Note: Two triangles are said to be neighbors if they have a common side. [asy]size(100); pair P=(0,0); pair Q=(2, 2*sqrt(3)); pair R=(4,0); draw(PQRcycle); pair B=midpoint(PQ); pair A=midpoint(PB); pair C=midpoint(BQ); pair E=midpoint(QR); pair D=midpoint(QE); pair F=midpoint(ER); pair H=midpoint(RP); pair G=midpoint(R H); pair I=midpoint(HP); draw(AI); draw(BH); draw(CG); draw(ID); draw(HE); draw(G F); draw(CD); draw(BE); draw(AF);[/asy] 2 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. C1 and C2 are two circles of diameters AB and AC, respectively. C2 and AB intersect again at F , and C1 and AC intersect again at E. Also, BE meets C2 at P and CF meets C1 at Q. Prove that AP = AQ. 3 Lets say we have a nice representation of the positive integer n if we write it as a sum of powers of 2 in such a way that there are at most two equal powers in the sum (representations diering only in the order of their summands are considered to be the same). a) Write down the 5 nice representations of 10. b) Find all positive integers with an even number of nice representations.

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CentroAmerican 2001

Day 1
1 Two players A, B and another 2001 people form a circle, such that A and B are not in consecutive positions. A and B play in alternating turns, starting with A. A play consists of touching one of the people neighboring you, which such person once touched leaves the circle. The winner is the last man standing. Show that one of the two players has a winning strategy, and give such strategy. Note: A player has a winning strategy if he/she is able to win no matter what the opponent does. 2 Let AB be the diameter of a circle with a center O and radius 1. Let C and D be two points on the circle such that AC and BD intersect at a point Q situated inside of the circle, and AQB = 2COD. Let P be a point that intersects the tangents to the circle that pass through the points C and D. Determine the length of segment OP . 3 Find all the real numbers N that satisfy these requirements: 1. Only two of the digits of N are distinct from 0, and one of them is 3. 2. N is a perfect square.

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CentroAmerican 2001

Day 2
1 Determine the smallest positive integer n such that there exists positive integers a1 , a2 , , an , that smaller than or equal to 15 and are not necessarily distinct, such that the last four digits of the sum, a1 ! + a2 ! + + an ! Is 2001. 2 Let a, b and c real numbers such that the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has two distinct real solutions p1 , p2 and the equation cx2 + bx + a = 0 has two distinct real solutions q1 , q2 . We know that the numbers p1 , q1 , p2 , q2 in that order, form an arithmetic progression. Show that a + c = 0. 3 In a circumference of a circle, 10000 points are marked, and they are numbered from 1 to 10000 in a clockwise manner. 5000 segments are drawn in such a way so that the following conditions are met: 1. Each segment joins two marked points. 2. Each marked point belongs to one and only one segment. 3. Each segment intersects exactly one of the remaining segments. 4. A number is assigned to each segment that is the product of the number assigned to each end point of the segment. Let S be the sum of the products assigned to all the segments. Show that S is a multiple of 4.

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CentroAmerican 2005
San Salvador, El Salvador

Day 1 - 21 June 2005


1 Among the positive integers that can be expressed as the sum of 2005 consecutive integers, which occupies the 2005th position when arranged in order? Roland Hablutzel, Venezuela 2 Show that the equation a2 b2 + b2 c2 + 3b2 c2 a2 = 2005 has no integer solutions. Arnoldo Aguilar, El Salvador 3 Let ABC be a triangle. P , Q and R are the points of contact of the incircle with sides AB, BC and CA, respectively. Let L, M and N be the feet of the altitudes of the triangle P QR from R, P and Q, respectively. a) Show that the lines AN , BL and CM meet at a point. b) Prove that this points belongs to the line joining the orthocenter and the circumcenter of triangle P QR. Aarn Ramrez, El Salvador

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CentroAmerican 2005
San Salvador, El Salvador

Day 2 - 22 June 2005


4 Two players, Red and Blue, play in alternating turns on a 10x10 board. Blue goes rst. In his turn, a player picks a row or column (not chosen by any player yet) and color all its squares with his own color. If any of these squares was already colored, the new color substitutes the old one. The game ends after 20 turns, when all rows and column were chosen. Red wins if the number of red squares in the board exceeds at least by 10 the number of blue squares; otherwise Blue wins. Determine which player has a winning strategy and describe this strategy. 5 Let ABC be a triangle, H the orthocenter and M the midpoint of AC. Let be the parallel through M to the bisector of AHC. Prove that divides the triangle in two parts of equal perimeters. Pedro Marrone, Panam 6 Let n be a positive integer and p a xed prime. We have a deck of n cards, numbered 1, 2, . . . , n and p boxes for put the cards on them. Determine all posible integers n for which is possible to distribute the cards in the boxes in such a way the sum of the numbers of the cards in each box is the same.

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CentroAmerican 2006
Panama City, Panama

Day 1 - 01 August 2006


1 For 0 d 9, we dene the numbers Sd = 1 + d + d2 + + d2006 Find the last digit of the number S0 + S1 + + S9 . 2 Let and be two congruent circles centered at O and O , respectively, and let A be one of their two points of intersection. B is a point on , C is the second point of intersection of AB and , and D is a point on such that OBDO is a parallelogram. Show that the length of CD does not depend on the position of B. 3 For every natural number n we dene f (n) = n + Show that for every integer k 1 the equation f (f (n)) f (n) = k has exactly 2k 1 solutions. n+ 1 2

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CentroAmerican 2006
Panama City, Panama

Day 2 - 02 August 2006


4 The product of several distinct positive integers is divisible by 20062 . Determine the minimum value the sum of such numbers can take. 5 The Olimpia country is formed by n islands. The most populated one is called Panacenter, and every island has a dierent number of inhabitants. We want to build bridges between these islands, which well be able to travel in both directions, under the following conditions: a) No pair of islands is joined by more than one bridge. b) Using the bridges we can reach every island from Panacenter. c) If we want to travel from Panacenter to every other island, in such a way that we use each bridge at most once, the number of inhabitants of the islands we visit is strictly decreasing. Determine the number of ways we can build the bridges. 6 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. I = AC BD, and E, H, F and G are points on AB, BC, CD and DA respectively, such that EF GH = I. If M = EG AC, N = HF AC, show that AM IN IA = . IM CN IC

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CentroAmerican 2007
Mrida, Venezuela

Day 1 - 05 June 2007


1 The Central American Olympiad is an annual competition. The ninth Olympiad is held in 2007. Find all the positive integers n such that n divides the number of the year in which the n-th Olympiad takes place. 2 In a triangle ABC, the angle bisector of A and the cevians BD and CE concur at a point P inside the triangle. Show that the quadrilateral ADP E has an incircle if and only if AB = AC. 3 Let S be a nite set of integers. Suppose that for every two dierent elements of S, p and q, there exist not necessarily distinct integers a = 0, b, c belonging to S, such that p and q are the roots of the polynomial ax2 + bx + c. Determine the maximum number of elements that S can have.

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CentroAmerican 2007
Mrida, Venezuela

Day 2 - 06 June 2007


1 In a remote island, a language in which every word can be written using only the letters a, b, c, d, e, f , g is spoken. Lets say two words are synonymous if we can transform one into the other according to the following rules: i) Change a letter by another two in the following way: a bc, b cd, c de, d ef, e f g, f ga, g ab ii) If a letter is between other two equal letters, these can be removed. For example, df d f . Show that all words in this language are synonymous. 2 Given two non-negative integers m > n, lets say that m ends in n if we can get n by erasing some digits (from left to right) in the decimal representation of m. For example, 329 ends in 29, and also in 9. Determine how many three-digit numbers end in the product of their digits. 3 Consider a circle S, and a point P outside it. The tangent lines from P meet S at A and B, respectively. Let M be the midpoint of AB. The perpendicular bisector of AM meets S in a point C lying inside the triangle ABP . AC intersects P M at G, and P M meets S in a point D lying outside the triangle ABP . If BD is parallel to AC, show that G is the centroid of the triangle ABP . Arnoldo Aguilar (El Salvador)

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CentroAmerican 2008

1 Find the least positive integer N such that the sum of its digits is 100 and the sum of the digits of 2N is 110. 2 Let ABCD be a convex cuadrilateral inscribed in a circumference centered at O such that AC is a diameter. Pararellograms DAOE and BCOF are constructed. Show that if E and F lie on the circumference then ABCD is a rectangle. 3 There are 2008 bags numbered from 1 to 2008, with 2008 frogs in each one of them. Two people play in turns. A play consists in selecting a bag and taking out of it any number of frongs (at least one), leaving x frogs in it (x 0). After each play, from each bag with a number higher than the selected one and having more than x frogs, some frogs scape until there are x frogs in the bag. The player that takes out the last frog from bag number 1 looses. Find and explain a winning strategy. 4 Five girls have a little store that opens from Monday through Friday. Since two people are always enough for taking care of it, they decide to do a work plan for the week, specifying who will work each day, and fullling the following conditions: a) Each girl will work exactly two days a week b) The 5 assigned couples for the week must be dierent In how many ways can the girls do the work plan? 5 Find a polynomial p (x) with real coecients such that (x + 10) p (2x) = (8x 32) p (x + 6) for all real x and p (1) = 210. 6 Let ABC be an acute triangle. Take points P and Q inside AB and AC, respectively, such that BP QC is cyclic. The circumcircle of ABQ intersects BC again in S and the circumcircle of AP C intersects BC again in R, P R and QS intersect again in L. Prove that the intersection of AL and BC does not depend on the selection of P and Q.

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CentroAmerican 2009
Girardot and Bogot, Colombia

Day 1 - 06 October 2009


1 Let P be the product of all non-zero digits of the positive integer n. For example, P (4) = 4, P (50) = 5, P (123) = 6, P (2009) = 18. Find the value of the sum: P(1) + P(2) + ... + P(2008) + P(2009). 2 1. Two circles 1 and 2 intersect at points A and B. Consider a circle contained in 1 and 2 , which is tangent to both of them at D and E respectively. Let C be one of the intersection points of line AB with , F be the intersection of line EC with 2 and G be the intersection of line DC with 1 . Let H and I be the intersection points of line ED with 1 and 2 respectively. Prove that F , G, H and I are on the same circle. 3 There are 2009 boxes numbered from 1 to 2009, some of which contain stones. Two players, A and B, play alternately, starting with A. A move consists in selecting a non-empty box i, taking one or more stones from that box and putting them in box i + 1. If i = 2009, the selected stones are eliminated. The player who removes the last stone wins a) If there are 2009 stones in the box 2 and the others are empty, nd a winning strategy for either player. b) If there is exactly one stone in each box, nd a winning strategy for either player.

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CentroAmerican 2009
Girardot and Bogot, Colombia

Day 2 - 07 October 2009


4 We wish to place natural numbers around a circle such that the following property is satised: the absolute values of the dierences of each pair of neighboring numbers are all dierent. a) Is it possible to place the numbers from 1 to 2009 satisfying this property b) Is it possible to suppress one of the numbers from 1 to 2009 in such a way that the remaining 2008 numbers can be placed satisfying the property 5 Given an acute and scalene triangle ABC, let H be its orthocenter, O its circumcenter, E and F the feet of the altitudes drawn from B and C, respectively. Line AO intersects the circumcircle of the triangle again at point G and segments F E and BC at points X and Y respectively. Let Z be the point of intersection of line AH and the tangent line to the circumcircle at G. Prove that HX is parallel to Y Z. Author: Arnoldo Aguilar (El Salvador)... me :D 6 Find all prime numbers p and q such that p3 q 5 = (p + q)2 .

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China
(National Olympiad)

2005-2009

China
National Olympiad 2005

Day 1
1 Suppose i ( , ), i = 1, 2, 3, 4. Prove that, there exist x R, satisfying two inequalities 2 2 cos2 1 cos2 2 (sin sin 2 x)2 0, cos2 3 cos2 4 (sin 3 sin 4 x)2 0 if and only if
4 4 4

sin2 i 2(1 +
i=1 i=1

sin i +
i=1

cos i ).

2 A circle meets the three sides BC, CA, AB of a triangle ABC at points D1 , D2 ; E1 , E2 ; F1 , F2 respectively. Furthermore, line segments D1 E1 and D2 F2 intersect at point L, line segments E1 F1 and E2 D2 intersect at point M , line segments F1 D1 and F2 E2 intersect at point N . Prove that the lines AL, BM, CN are concurrent. 3 As the graph, a pond is divided into 2n (n 5) parts. Two parts are called neighborhood if they have a common side or arc. Thus every part has three neighborhoods. Now there are 4n+1 frogs at the pond. If there are three or more frogs at one part, then three of the frogs of the part will jump to the three neighborhoods repsectively. Prove that for some time later, the frogs at the pond will uniformily distribute. That is, for any part either there are frogs at the part or there are frogs at the each of its neighborhoods. [img]http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/les/china200522 14.gif [/img]

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China
National Olympiad 2005

Day 2
21 , and for n 2, 16 3 . 2n+1

4 The sequence {an } is dened by: a1 =

2an 3an1 =

Let m be an integer with m 2. Prove that: for n m, we have n(m1) 1 2 m m 3 m 2 < m 1 . an + n+3 2 3 mn+1 5 There are 5 points in a rectangle (including its boundary) with area 1, no three of them are in 1 the same line. Find the minimum number of triangles with the area not more than , vertex 4 of which are three of the ve points. 6 Find all nonnegative integer solutions (x, y, z, w) of the equation 2x 3y 5z 7w = 1.

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China
National Olympiad 2006

Day 1 - 12 January 2006


1 Let a1 , a2 , . . . , ak be real numbers and a1 + a2 + . . . + ak = 0. Prove that max a2 i k (a1 a2 )2 + (a2 a3 )2 + + (ak1 ak )2 . 3

1ik

2 For positive integers a1 , a2 , . . . , a2006 such that

a1 a2 a2005 , ,..., are pairwise distinct, nd a2 a3 a2006 the minimum possible amount of distinct positive integers in the set{a1 , a2 , ..., a2006 }.

3 Positive integers k, m, n satisfy mn = k 2 + k + 3, prove that at least one of the equations x2 + 11y 2 = 4m and x2 + 11y 2 = 4n has an odd solution.

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China
National Olympiad 2006

Day 2 - 13 January 2006


4 In a right angled-triangle ABC, ACB = 90o . Its incircle O meets BC, AC, AB at D,E,F respectively. AD cuts O at P . If BP C = 90o , prove AE + AP = P D. 5 Let {an } be a sequence such that: a1 = that n 1 2(a1 + a2 + + an )
n

1 1 , ak+1 = ak + for all k = 1, 2, . . .. Prove 2 2 ak


n

a1 + a2 + + an n

1 1 a1

1 1 a2

1 1 . an

6 Suppose X is a set with |X| = 56. Find the minimum value of n, so that for any 15 subsets of X, if the cardinality of the union of any 7 of them is greater or equal to n, then there exists 3 of them whose intersection is nonempty.

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China
National Olympiad 2009

Day 1
1 Given an acute triangle P BC with P B = P C. Points A, D lie on P B, P C, respectively. AC intersects BD at point O. Let E, F be the feet of perpendiculars from O to AB, CD, respectively. Denote by M, N the midpoints of BC, AD. (1): If four points A, B, C, D lie on one circle, then EM F N = EN F M. (2): Determine whether the converse of (1) is true or not, justify your answer. 2 Find all the pairs of prime numbers (p, q) such that pq|5p + 5q . 3 Given two integers m, n satisfying 4 < m < n. Let A1 A2 A2n+1 be a regular 2n+1 polygon. Denote by P the set of its vertices. Find the number of convex m polygon whose vertices belongs to P and exactly has two acute angles.

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China
National Olympiad 2009

Day 2
1 Given an integer n > 3. Let a1 , a2 , , an be real numbers satisfying min|ai aj | = 1, 1
n

i j n. Find the minimum value of


k=1

|ak |3 .

2 Let P be a convex n polygon each of which sides and diagnoals is colored with one of n distinct colors. For which n does: there exists a coloring method such that for any three of n colors, we can always nd one triangle whose vertices is of P and whose sides is colored by the three colors respectively. 3 Given an integer n > 3. Prove that there exists a set S consisting of n pairwisely distinct x positive integers such that for any two dierent non-empty subset of S:A, B, xA and |A| x xB are two composites which share no common divisors. |B|

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China
(Girls Math Olympiad)

2002-2009

China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2002

Day 1
1 Find all positive integers n such 20n + 2 can divide 2003n + 2002. 2 There are 3n, n Z+ girl students who took part in a summer camp. There were three girl students to be on duty every day. When the summer camp ended, it was found that any two of the 3n students had just one time to be on duty on the same day. (1) When n = 3, is there any arrangement satisfying the requirement above. Prove yor conclusion. (2) Prove that n is an odd number. 3 Find all positive integers k such that for any positive numbers a, b and c satisfying the inequality k(ab + bc + ca) > 5(a2 + b2 + c2 ), there must exist a triangle with a, b and c as the length of its three sides respectively. 4 Circles 01 and 02 interest at two points B and C, and BC is the diameter of circle 01 . Construct a tangent line of circle 01 at C and interesting circle O2 at another point A. We join AB to intersect circle 01 at point E, then join CE and extend it to intersect circle 02 at point F. Assume H is an arbitrary point on line segment AF. We join HE and extend it to intersect circle 01 at point G, and then join BG and extend it to intersect the extend line of AC at point D. Prove: AH AC = . HF CD

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2002

Day 2
1 There are n 2 permutations P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn each being an arbitrary permutation of {1, . . . , n}. Prove that n1 1 n1 > . Pi + Pi+1 n+2
i=1

2 Find all pairs of positive integers (x, y) such that xy = y xy . Albania 3 An acute triangle ABC has three heights AD, BE and CF respectively. Prove that the perimeter of triangle DEF is not over half of the perimeter of triangle ABC. 4 Assume that A1 , A2 , . . . , A8 are eight points taken arbitrarily on a plane. For a directed line l taken arbitrarily on the plane, assume that projections of A1 , A2 , . . . , A8 on the line are P1 , P2 , . . . , P8 respectively. If the eight projections are pairwise disjoint, they can be arranged as Pi1 , Pi2 , . . . , Pi8 according to the direction of line l. Thus we get one permutation for 1, 2, . . . , 8, namely, i1 , i2 , . . . , i8 . In the gure, this permutation is 2, 1, 8, 3, 7, 4, 6, 5. Assume that after these eight points are projected to every directed line on the plane, we get the number of dierent permutations as N8 = N (A1 , A2 , . . . , A8 ). Find the maximal value of N8 .

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2003

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a triangle. Points D and E are on sides AB and AC, respectively, and point F AE DF AD = x, = y, = z. Prove that is on line segment DE. Let AB AC DE (1) S BDF = (1 x)yS ABC and S CEF = x(1 y)(1 z)S ABC ; (2)
3

BDF

CEF

ABC .

2 There are 47 students in a classroom with seats arranged in 6 rows 8 columns, and the seat in the i-th row and j-th column is denoted by (i, j). Now, an adjustment is made for students seats in the new school term. For a student with the original seat (i, j), if his/her new seat is (m, n), we say that the student is moved by [a, b] = [i m, j n] and dene the position value of the student as a + b. Let S denote the sum of the position values of all the students. Determine the dierence between the greatest and smallest possible values of S. 3 As shown in the gure, quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle with AC as its diameter, BD AC, and E the intersection of AC and BD. Extend line segment DA and BA through A to F and G respectively, such that DG||BF. Extend GF to H such that CH GH. Prove that points B, E, F and H lie on one circle. 4 (1) Prove that there exist ve nonnegative real numbers a, b, c, d and e with their sum equal to 1 such that for any arrangement of these numbers around a circle, there are always two 1 neighboring numbers with their product not less than . 9 (2) Prove that for any ve nonnegative real numbers with their sum equal to 1 , it is always possible to arrange them around a circle such that there are two neighboring numbers with 1 their product not greater than . 9

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2003

Day 2
1 Let {an } be a sequence of real numbers such that a1 = 2, and 1 an+1 = a2 an + 1, n N. n Prove that 1 1 < 20032003
2003 i=1

1 < 1. ai

2 Let n 2 be an integer. Find the largest real number such that the inequality
n1

a2 n
i=1

ai + 2 an .

holds for any positive integers a1 , a2 , . . . an satisfying a1 < a2 < . . . < an . 3 Let the sides of a scalene triangle ABC be AB = c, BC = a, CA = b, and D, E, F be points on BC, CA, AB such that AD, BE, CF are angle bisectors of the triangle, respectively. Assume that DE = DF. Prove that a b c (1) = + b+c c+a a+b (2) BAC > 90 . 4 Let n be a positive integer, and Sn , be the set of all positive integer divisors of n (including 1 and itself). Prove that at most half of the elements in Sn have their last digits equal to 3.

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2004

Day 1
1 We say a positive integer n is good if there exists a permutation a1 , a2 , . . . , an of 1, 2, . . . , n such that k + ak is perfect square for all 1 k n. Determine all the good numbers in the set {11, 13, 15, 17, 19}. 2 Let a, b, c be positive reals. Find the smallest value of a + 3c 4b 8c + . a + 2b + c a + b + 2c a + b + 3c 3 Let ABC be an obtuse inscribed in a circle of radius 1. Prove that ABC can be covered by an isosceles right-angled triangle with hypotenuse of length 2 + 1. 4 A deck of 32 cards has 2 dierent jokers each of which is numbered 0. There are 10 red cards numbered 1 through 10 and similarly for blue and green cards. One chooses a number of cards from the deck. If a card in hand is numbered k, then the value of the card is 2k , and the value of the hand is sum of the values of the cards in hand. Determine the number of hands having the value 2004.

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2004

Day 2
1 Let u, v, w be positive real numbers such that u vw + v wu + w uv 1. Find the smallest value of u + v + w. 2 Given an acute triangle ABC with O as its circumcenter. Line AO intersects BC at D. Points E, F are on AB, AC respectively such that A, E, D, F are concyclic. Prove that the length of the projection of line segment EF on side BC does not depend on the positions of E and F . 3 Let p and q be two coprime positive integers, and n be a non-negative integer. Determine the number of integers that can be written in the form ip + jq, where i and j are non-negative integers with i + j n. 4 When the unit squares at the four corners are removed from a three by three squares, the resulting shape is called a cross. What is the maximum number of non-overlapping crosses placed within the boundary of a 10 11 chessboard? (Each cross covers exactly ve unit squares on the board.)

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2005

Day 1
1 As shown in the following gure, point P lies on the circumcicle of triangle ABC. Lines AB and CP meet at E, and lines AC and BP meet at F. The perpendicular bisector of line segment AB meets line segment AC at K, and the perpendicular bisector of line segment AC meets line segment AB at J. Prove that CE BF
2

AJ JE . AK KF

2 Find all ordered triples (x, y, z) of real numbers such that 5 x+ and xy + yz + zy = 1. 3 Determine if there exists a convex polyhedron such that (1) it has 12 edges, 6 faces and 8 vertices; (2) it has 4 faces with each pair of them sharing a common edge of the polyhedron. 4 Determine all positive real numbers a such that there exists a positive integer n and sets A1 , A2 , . . . , An satisfying the following conditions: (1) every set Ai has innitely many elements; (2) every pair of distinct sets Ai and Aj do not share any common element (3) the union of sets A1 , A2 , . . . , An is the set of all integers; (4) for every set Ai , the positive dierence of any pair of elements in Ai is at least ai . 1 x = 12 y + 1 y = 13 z + 1 z ,

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2005

Day 2
1 Let x and y be positive real numbers with x3 + y 3 = x y. Prove that x2 + 4y 2 < 1. 2 An integer n is called good if there are n 3 lattice points P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn in the coordinate plane satisfying the following conditions: If line segment Pi Pj has a rational length, then there is Pk such that both line segments Pi Pk and Pj Pk have irrational lengths; and if line segment Pi Pj has an irrational length, then there is Pk such that both line segments Pi Pk and Pj Pk have rational lengths. (1) Determine the minimum good number. (2) Determine if 2005 is a good number. (A point in the coordinate plane is a lattice point if both of its coordinate are integers.) 3 Let m and n be positive integers with m > n 2. Set S = {1, 2, . . . , m}, and T = {al , a2 , . . . , an } is a subset of S such that every number in S is not divisible by any two distinct numbers in T. Prove that
n i=1

1 m+n < . ai m

4 Given an a b rectangle with a > b > 0, determine the minimum length of a square that covers the rectangle. (A square covers the rectangle if each point in the rectangle lies inside the square.)

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2006

Day 1
1 Let a > 0, the function f : (0, +) R satises f (a) = 1, if for any positive reals x and y, there is a a f = 2f (xy) f (x)f (y) + f x y then prove that f (x) is a constant. 2 Let O be the intersection of the diagonals of convex quadrilateral ABCD. The circumcircles of OAD and OBC meet at O and M . Line OM meets the circumcircles of OAB and OCD at T and S respectively. Prove that M is the midpoint of ST . 3 Show that for any i = 1, 2, 3, there exist innity many positive integer n, such that among n, n + 2 and n + 28, there are exactly i terms that can be expressed as the sum of the cubes of three positive integers. 4 8 people participate in a party. (1) Among any 5 people there are 3 who pairwise know each other. Prove that there are 4 people who paiwise know each other. (2) If Among any 6 people there are 3 who pairwise know each other, then can we nd 4 people who pairwise know each other?

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2006

Day 2
1 The set S = {(a, b) | 1 a, b 5, a, b Z} be a set of points in the plane with integeral coordinates. T is another set of points with integeral coordinates in the plane. If for any point P S, there is always another point Q T , P = Q, such that there is no other integeral points on segment P Q. Find the least value of the number of elements of T . 2 Let M = {1, 2, , 19} and A = {a1 , a2 , , ak } M . Find the least k so that for any b M , there exist ai , aj A, satisfying b = ai or b = ai ai (ai and aj do not have to be dierent) . 3 Given that xi > 0, i = 1, 2, , n, k 1. Show that:
n i=1

1 1 + xi

xi
i=1 i=1

xk+1 i 1 + xi

n i=1

1 xk i

4 Let p be a prime number that is greater than 3. Show that there exist some integers a1 , a2 , ak that satisfy: p p < a1 < a2 < < ak < 2 2 making the product: p a1 p a2 p ak |a1 | |a2 | |ak | equals to 3m where m is a positive integer.

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2007

Day 1
1 A positive integer m is called good if there is a positive integer n such that m is the quotient of n by the number of positive integer divisors of n (including 1 and n itself). Prove that 1, 2, . . . , 17 are good numbers and that 18 is not a good number. 2 Let ABC be an acute triangle. Points D, E, and F lie on segments BC, CA, and AB, respectively, and each of the three segments AD, BE, and CF contains the circumcenter of BD CE AF BF AE CD ABC. Prove that if any two of the ratios , , , , , are integers, then DC EA F B F A EC DB triangle ABC is isosceles. 3 Let n be an integer greater than 3, and let a1 , a2 , , an be non-negative real numbers with a1 + a2 + + an = 2. Determine the minimum value of a2 2 a1 a2 an + 2 + + 2 . + 1 a3 + 1 a1 + 1

4 The set S consists of n > 2 points in the plane. The set P consists of m lines in the plane such that every line in P is an axis of symmetry for S. Prove that m n, and determine when equality holds.

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2007

Day 2
1 Point D lies inside triangle ABC such that DAC = DCA = 30 and DBA = 60 . Point E is the midpoint of segment BC. Point F lies on segment AC with AF = 2F C. Prove that DE EF . 2 For a, b, c 0 with a + b + c = 1, prove that a+ (b c)2 + b+ c 3 4

3 Let a, b, c be integers each with absolute value less than or equal to 10. The cubic polynomial f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c satises the property f 2+ Determine if 2 + 3 is a root of f . 3 < 0.0001.

4 In a round robin chess tournament each player plays every other player exactly once. The winner of each game gets 1 point and the loser gets 0 points. If the game is tied, each player gets 0.5 points. Given a positive integer m, a tournament is said to have property P (m) if the following holds: among every set S of m players, there is one player who won all her games against the other m 1 players in S and one player who lost all her games against the other m 1 players in S. For a given integer m 4, determine the minimum value of n (as a function of m) such that the following holds: in every n-player round robin chess tournament with property P (m), the nal scores of the n players are all distinct.

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2008

Day 1
1 (a) Determine if the set {1, 2, . . . , 96} can be partitioned into 32 sets of equal size and equal sum. (b) Determine if the set {1, 2, . . . , 99} can be partitioned into 33 sets of equal size and equal sum. 2 Let (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d be a polynomial with real coecients. Given that (x) has three positive real roots and that (0) < 0, prove that 2b3 + 9a2 d 7abc 0. 3 Determine the least real number a greater than 1 such that for any point P in the interior of the square ABCD, the area ratio between two of the triangles P AB, P BC, P CD, P DA lies 1 in the interval ,a . a 4 Equilateral triangles ABQ, BCR, CDS, DAP are erected outside of the convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let X, Y , Z, W be the midpoints of the segments P Q, QR, RS, SP , respectively. Determine the maximum value of XZ + Y W . AC + BD

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2008

Day 2
1 In convex quadrilateral ABCD, AB = BC and AD = DC. Point E lies on segment AB and point F lies on segment AD such that B, E, F , D lie on a circle. Point P is such that triangles DP E and ADC are similar and the corresponding vertices are in the same orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise). Point Q is such that triangles BQF and ABC are similar and the corresponding vertices are in the same orientation. Prove that points A, P , Q are collinear. 2 Let (x1 , x2 , ) be a sequence of positive numbers such that (8x2 7x1 )x7 = 8 and 1 xk+1 xk1 x2 = k x8 x8 k1 k for k = 2, 3, . . . x7 x7 k k1

Determine real number a such that if x1 > a, then the sequence is monotonically decreasing, and if 0 < x1 < a, then the sequence is not monotonic. 3 On a given 2008 2008 chessboard, each unit square is colored in a dierent color. Every unit square is lled with one of the letters C, G, M, O. The resulting board is called harmonic if every 2 2 subsquare contains all four dierent letters. How many harmonic boards are there? 4 For positive integers n, fn = 2n 2008 + 2n 2009 . Prove there are innitely many odd numbers and innitely many even numbers in the sequence f1 , f2 , . . ..

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2009

Day 1
1 Show that there are only nitely many triples (x, y, z) of positive integers satisfying the equation abc = 2009(a + b + c). 2 Right triangle ABC, with A = 90 , is inscribed in circle . Point E lies on the interior of arc BC (not containing A) with EA > EC. Point F lies on ray EC with EAC = CAF. Segment BF meets again at D (other than B). Let O denote the circumcenter of triangle DEF. Prove that A, C, O are collinear. 3 Let n be a given positive integer. In the coordinate set, consider the set of points {P1 , P2 , ..., P4n+1 } = {(x, y)|x, y Z, xy = 0, |x| n, |y| n}. Determine the minimum of (P1 P2 )2 + (P2 P3 )2 + ... + (P4n P4n+1 )2 + (P4n+1 P1 )2 . 4 Let n be an integer greater than 3. Points V1 , V2 , ..., Vn , with no three collinear, lie on a plane. Some of the segments Vi Vj , with 1 i < j n, are constructed. Points Vi and Vj are neighbors if Vi Vj is constructed. Initially, chess pieces C1 , C2 , ..., Cn are placed at points V1 , V2 , ..., Vn (not necessarily in that order) with exactly one piece at each point. In a move, one can choose some of the n chess pieces, and simultaneously relocate each of the chosen piece from its current position to one of its neighboring positions such that after the move, exactly one chess piece is at each point and no two chess pieces have exchanged their positions. A set of constructed segments is called harmonic if for any initial positions of the chess pieces, each chess piece Ci (1 i n) is at the point Vi after a nite number of moves. Determine the minimum number of segments in a harmonic set.

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China
China Girls Math Olympiad 2009

Day 2
1 Let x, y, z be real numbers greater than or equal to 1. Prove that (x2 2x + 2) (xyz)2 2xyz + 2. 2 Circle 1 , with radius r, is internally tangent to circle 2 at S. Chord AB of 2 is tangent to 1 at C. Let M be the midpoint of arc AB (not containing S), and let N be the foot of the perpendicular from M to line AB. Prove that AC CB = 2r M N. 3 On a 10 10 chessboard, some 4n unit squares are chosen to form a region R. This region R can be tiled by n 2 2 squares. This region R can also be tiled by a combination of n pieces of the following types of shapes (see below, with rotations allowed). Determine the value of n. 4 For a positive integer n, an = n 5 n 5 . Compute the maximum value and the minimum value of a1 , a2 , ..., a2009 .

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China
(Team Selection Test)

1986-2009

China
Team Selection Test 1986

Day 1
1 If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then prove that the incenters of the triangles ABC, BCD, CDA, DAB are the vertices of a rectangle. 2 Let a1 , a2 , ..., an and b1 , b2 , ..., bn be 2 n real numbers. Prove that the following two statements are equivalent:
n

i) For any n real numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn satisfying x1 x2 . . . xn , we have


n k=1

ak xk

bk xk ,
k=1 s s n n

ii) We have
k=1

ak
k=1

bk for every s {1, 2, ..., n 1} and


k=1

ak =
k=1

bk .

3 Given a positive integer A written in decimal expansion: (an , an1 , . . . , a0 ) and let f (A)
n

denote
k=0

2nk ak . Dene A1 = f (A), A2 = f (A1 ). Prove that:

I. There exists positive integer k for which Ak+1 = Ak . II. Find such Ak for 1986 . Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 4 Given a triangle ABC for which C = 90 degrees, prove that given n points inside it, we can name them P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn in some way such that:
n1

(PK Pk+1 )2 AB 2 (the sum is over the consecutive square of the segments from 1 up to
k=1

n 1). Edited by orl.

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China
Team Selection Test 1986

Day 2
1 Given a square ABCD whose side length is 1, P and Q are points on the sides AB and AD. If the perimeter of AP Q is 2 nd the angle P CQ. 2 Given a tetrahedron ABCD, E, F , G, are on the respectively on the segments AB, AC and AD. Prove that: i) area EF G maxarea ABC,area ABD,area ACD,area BCD. ii) The same as above replacing area for perimeter. 3 Let xi , 1 i n be real numbers with n 3. Let p and q be their symmetric sum of degree 1 and 2 respectively. Prove that: n1 2q 0 i) p2 n p 2nq n 1 ii) xi p2 for every meaningful i. n n1 n 4 Mark 4 k points in a circle and number them arbitrarily with numbers from 1 to 4 k. The chords cannot share common endpoints, also, the endpoints of these chords should be among the 4 k points. I. Prove that 2 k pairwisely non-intersecting chords can be drawn for each of whom its endpoints dier in at most 3 k 1. II. Prove that the 3 k 1 cannot be improved. Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url]

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China
Team Selection Test 1987

Day 1
1 1 a.) For all positive integer k nd the smallest positive integer f (k) such that 5 sets s1 , s2 , . . . , s5 exist satisfying: I. each has k elements; II. si and si+1 are disjoint for i = 1, 2, ..., 5 (s6 = s1 ) III. the union of the 5 sets has exactly f (k) elements. b.) Generalisation: Consider n 3 sets instead of 5. Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 2 A closed recticular polygon with 100 sides (may be concave) is given such that its vertices have integer coordinates, its sides are parallel to the axis and all its sides have odd length. Prove that its area is odd. Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url]
n1

3 Let r1 = 2 and rn =
n k=1 k=1

ri + 1, n 2. Prove that among all sets of positive integers such that

1 < 1, the partial sequences r1 , r2 , ..., rn are the one that gets nearer to 1. ai

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China
Team Selection Test 1987

Day 2
1 Given a convex gure in the Cartesian plane that is symmetric with respect of both axis, we construct a rectangle A inside it with maximum area (over all posible rectangles). Then we enlarge it with center in the center of the rectangle and ratio lamda such that is covers the convex gure. Find the smallest lamda such that it works for all convex gures. 2 Find all positive integer n such that the equation x3 + y 3 + z 3 = n x2 y 2 z 2 has positive integer solutions. 3 Let G be a simple graph with 2 n vertices and n2 + 1 edges. Show that this graph G contains a K4 one edge, that is, two triangles with a common edge.

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China
Team Selection Test 1988

Day 1
1 Suppose real numbers A, B, C such that for all real numbers x, y, z the following inequality holds: A(x y)(x z) + B(y z)(y x) + C(z x)(z y) 0. Find the necessary and sucient condition A, B, C must satisfy (expressed by means of an equality or an inequality). 2 Find all functions f : Q C satisfying (i) For any x1 , x2 , . . . , x1988 Q, f (x1 + x2 + . . . + x1988 ) = f (x1 )f (x2 ) . . . f (x1988 ). (ii) f (1988)f (x) = f (1988)f (x) for all x Q. 3 In triangle ABC, C = 30 , O and I are the circumcenter and incenter respectively, Points D AC and E BC, such that AD = BE = AB. Prove that OI = DE and OIDE. 4 Let k N, Sk = {(a, b)|a, b = 1, 2, . . . , k}. Any two elements (a, b), (c, d) Sk are called undistinguishing in Sk if a c 0 or 1 (mod k) and b d 0 or 1 (mod k); otherwise, we call them distinguishing. For example, (1, 1) and (2, 5) are undistinguishing in S5 . Considering the subset A of Sk such that the elements of A are pairwise distinguishing. Let rk be the maximum possible number of elements of A. (i) Find r5 . (ii) Find r7 . (iii) Find rk for k N.

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China
Team Selection Test 1988

Day 2
1 Let f (x) = 3x + 2. Prove that there exists m N such that f 100 (m) is divisible by 1988. 2 Let ABCD be a trapezium AB//CD, M and N are xed points on AB, P is a variable point on CD. E = DN AP , F = DN M C, G = M C P B, DP = CD. Find the value of for which the area of quadrilateral P EF G is maximum. 3 A polygon is given in the OXY plane and its area exceeds n. Prove that there exist n + 1 such that i, j {1, 2, . . . , n + 1},

points P1 (x1 , y1 ), P2 (x2 , y2 ), . . . , Pn+1 (xn+1 , yn+1 ) in xj xi and yj yi are all integers.

4 There is a broken computer such that only three primitive data c, 1 and 1 are reserved. Only allowed operation may take u and v and output u v + v. At the beginning, u, v {c, 1, 1}. After then, it can also take the value of the previous step (only one step back) besides {c, 1, 1}. Prove that for any polynomial Pn (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an with integer coecients, the value of Pn (c) can be computed using this computer after only nite operation.

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China
Team Selection Test 1989

Day 1
3 5 3 , 2 is folded along a variable line perpendicular to the side of . 1 A triangle of sides , 2 2 2 Find the maximum value of the coincident area. 2 Let v0 = 0, v1 = 1 and vn+1 = 8 vn vn1 , n = 1, 2, .... Prove that in the sequence {vn } there arent terms of the form 3 5 with , N. 3 Find the greatest n such that (z + 1)n = z n + 1 has all its non-zero roots in the unitary circumference, e.g. ( + 1)n = n + 1, = 0 implies || = 1. 4 Given triangle ABC, squares ABEF, BCGH, CAIJ are constructed externally on side AB, BC, CA, respectively. Let AH BJ = P1 , BJ CF = Q1 , CF AH = R1 , AG CE = P2 , BI AG = Q2 , CE BI = R2 . Prove that triangle P1 Q1 R1 is congruent to triangle P2 Q2 R2 .

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China
Team Selection Test 1989

Day 2
1 Let N = {1, 2, . . .}. Does there exists a function f : N N such that n N, f 1989 (n) = 2 n ? 2 AD is the altitude on side BC of triangle ABC. If BC + AD AB AC = 0, nd the range of BAC. Alternative formulation. Let AD be the altitude of triangle ABC to the side BC. If BC + AD = AB + AC, then nd the range of A. 3 1989 equal circles are arbitrarily placed on the table without overlap. What is the least number of colors are needed such that all the circles can be painted with any two tangential circles colored dierently. 4 n N, P (n) denotes the number of the partition of n as the sum of positive integers (disregarding the order of the parts), e.g. since 4 = 1+1+1+1 = 1+1+2 = 1+3 = 2+2 = 4, so P (4) = 5. Dispersion of a partition denotes the number of dierent parts in that partitation. And denote q(n) is the sum of all the dispersions, e.g. q(4) = 1 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 = 7. n 1. Prove that
n1

(1) q(n) = 1 +
i=1 n1

P (i).

(2) 1 +
i=1

P (i)

2 n P (n).

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China
Team Selection Test 1990

Day 1
1 In a wagon, every m 3 people have exactly one common friend. (When A is Bs friend, B is also As friend. No one was considered as his own friend.) Find the number of friends of the person who has the most friends. 2 Finitely many polygons are placed in the plane. If for any two polygons of them, there exists a line through origin O that cuts them both, then these polygons are called properly placed. Find the least m N, such that for any group of properly placed polygons, m lines can drawn through O and every polygon is cut by at least one of these m lines. 3 In set S, there is an operation such that a, b S, a unique a b S exists. And (i) a, b, c S, (a b) c = a (b c). (ii) a b = b a when a = b. Prove that: a.) a, b, c S, (a b) c = a c. b.) If S = {1, 2, . . . , 1990}, try to dene an operation in S with the above properties. 4 Number a is such that a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 R, there are integers k1 , k2 , k3 , k4 such that
1i<j4

((ai

ki ) (aj kj ))2 a. Find the minimum of a.

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China
Team Selection Test 1990

Day 2
1 Given a triangle ABC with angle C 60 . Prove that: (a + b) 1 1 1 + + a b c 4+ 1 sin
C 2

2 Find all functions f, g, h : R R such that f (x) g(y) = (x y) h(x + y) for x, y R. 3 Prove that for every integer power of 2, there exists a multiple of it with all digits (in decimal expression) not zero. 4 There are arbitrary 7 points in the plane. Circles are drawn through every 4 possible concyclic points. Find the maximum number of circles that can be drawn.

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China
Team Selection Test 1991

Day 1
1 Let real coecient polynomial f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + . . . + an has real roots b1 , b2 , . . . , bn , n 2, prove that x max{b1 , b2 , . . . , bn }, we have f (x + 1)
1 xb1

2 n2 1 + xb2 + . . . +

1 xbn

2 For i = 1, 2, . . . , 1991, we choose ni points and write number i on them, every point are written only one number. A set of chords are drawn such that: (i) They are pairwise non-intersecting. (ii) The endpoints of each chord have distinct numbers. If for all possible assignments of numbers the operation can always be done, nd the necessary and sucient condition the numbers n1 , n2 , . . . , n1991 must satisfy for this to be possible. 3 5 points are given in the plane. Any three of them are non-collinear. Any four are non-cyclic. If three points determine a circle that has one of the remaining points inside it and the other one outside it, then the circle is said to be good. Let the number of good circles be n, nd all possible values of n.

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China
Team Selection Test 1991

Day 2
1 We choose 5 points A1 , A2 , . . . , A5 on a circumference of radius 1 and centre O. P is a point inside the circle. Denote Qi as the intersection of Ai Ai+2 and Ai+1 P , where A7 = A2 and
5

A6 = A1 . Let OQi = di , i = 1, 2, . . . , 5. Find the product


i=1

Ai Qi in terms of di .

2 Let f be a function f : N {0} N, and satises the following conditions: (1) f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1, (2) f (n + 2) = 23 f (n + 1) + f (n), n = 0, 1, . . . . Prove that for any m N, there exist a d N such that m|f (f (n)) d|n. 3 All edges of a polyhedron are painted with red or yellow. For an angle determined by consecutive edges on the surface, if the edges are of distinct colors, then the angle is called excentric. The excentricity of a vertex A, namely SA , is dened as the number of excentrix angles it has. Prove that there exist two vertices B and C such that SB + SC 4.

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China
Team Selection Test 1992

Day 1
1 16 students took part in a competition. All problems were multiple choice style. Each problem had four choices. It was said that any two students had at most one answer in common, nd the maximum number of problems. 2 Let n 2, n N, nd the least positive real number such that for arbitrary ai R with 1 i = 1, 2, . . . , n and bi 0, with i = 1, 2, . . . , n, the following holds: 2
n n n n

ai =
i=1 i=1

bi = 1
i=1

ai
i=1

ai bi .

3 For any prime p, prove that there exists integer x0 such that p|(x2 x0 + 3) there exists 0 2 integer y0 such that p|(y0 y0 + 25).

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China
Team Selection Test 1992

Day 2
1 A triangle ABC is given in the plane with AB = 7, BC = 13 and CA = 19, circles are 1 2 drawn with centers at A, B and C and radii , and 1, respectively. Prove that there are 3 3 points A , B , C on these three circles respectively such that triangle ABC is congruent to triangle A B C . 2 A (3n + 1) (3n + 1) table (n N) is given. Prove that deleting any one of its squares yields a shape cuttable into pieces of the following form and its rotations: L shape formed by cutting one square from a 4 4 squares. 3 For any n, T 2, n, T N, nd all a N such that ai > 0, i = 1, 2, . . . , n, we have
n k=1 k

ak+ Sk

a2 4

< T2
k=1

1 , ak

where Sk =
i=1

ai .

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

China
Team Selection Test 1993

Day 1
p1 2

1 For all primes p 3, dene F (p) =


k=1

k 120 and f (p) =

1 2

F (p) , where {x} = x [x], p

nd the value of f (p). c a c a 2 Let n 2, n N, a, b, c, d N, + < 1 and a + c n, nd the maximum value of + b d b d for xed n. 3 A graph G = (V, E) is given. If at least n colors are required to paints its vertices so that between any two same colored vertices no edge is connected, then call this graph ncolored. Prove that for any n N, there is a ncolored graph without triangles.

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China
Team Selection Test 1993

Day 2
1 Find all integer solutions to 2 x4 + 1 = y 2 . 2 Let S = {(x, y)|x = 1, 2, . . . , 1993, y = 1, 2, 3, 4}. If T S and there arent any squares in T. Find the maximum possible value of |T |. The squares in T use points in S as vertices. 3 Let ABC be a triangle and its bisector at A cuts its circumcircle at D. Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC, M be the midpoint of BC, P is the symmetric to I with respect to M (Assuming P is in the circumcircle). Extend DP until it cuts the circumcircle again at N. Prove that among segments AN, BN, CN , there is a segment that is the sum of the other two.

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China
Team Selection Test 1994

Day 1
1 Find all sets comprising of 4 natural numbers such that the product of any 3 numbers in the set leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by the remaining number. 2 An n by n grid, where every square contains a number, is called an n-code if the numbers in every row and column form an arithmetic progression. If it is sucient to know the numbers in certain squares of an n-code to obtain the numbers in the entire grid, call these squares a key. a.) Find the smallest s N such that any s squares in an ncode (n 4) form a key. b.) Find the smallest t N such that any t squares along the diagonals of an n-code (n 4) form a key. 3 Find the smallest n N such that if any 5 vertices of a regular n-gon are colored red, there exists a line of symmetry l of the n-gon such that every red point is reected across l to a non-red point.

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China
Team Selection Test 1994

Day 2
1 n
n

1 Given 5n real numbers ri , si , ti , ui , vi 1(1 i n), let R = T = 1 n


n

ri , S =
i=1

1 n

si ,
i=1 n

ti , U =
i=1

1 n

ui , V =
i=1

1 n

vi . Prove that
i=1 i=1

ri si ti ui vi + 1 ri si ti ui vi 1

RST U V + 1 RST U V 1

2 Given distinct prime numbers p and q and a natural number n 3, nd all a Z such that the polynomial f (x) = xn + axn1 + pq can be factored into 2 integral polynomials of degree at least 1. 3 For any 2 convex polygons S and T , if all the vertices of S are vertices of T , call S a subpolygon of T . I. Prove that for an odd number n 5, there exists m sub-polygons of a convex n-gon such that they do not share any edges, and every edge and diagonal of the n-gon are edges of the m sub-polygons. II. Find the smallest possible value of m.

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China
Team Selection Test 1995

Day 1
1 Find the smallest prime number p that cannot be represented in the form |3a 2b |, where a and b are non-negative integers. 2 Given a xed acute angle and a pair of internally tangent circles, let the line l which passes through the point of tangency, A, cut the larger circle again at B (l does not pass through the centers of the circles). Let M be a point on the major arc AB of the larger circle, N the point where AM intersects the smaller circle, and P the point on ray M B such that M P N = . Find the locus of P as M moves on major arc AB of the larger circle. Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 3 21 people take a test with 15 true or false questions. It is known that every 2 people have at least 1 correct answer in common. What is the minimum number of people that could have correctly answered the question which the most people were correct on?

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

China
Team Selection Test 1995

Day 2
1 Let S = {A = (a1 , . . . , as ) | ai = 0 or 1, i = 1, . . . , 8}. For any 2 elements of S, A = 8|ai bi |. Call d(A, B) the distance {a1 , . . . , a8 } and B = {b1 , . . . , b8 }. Let d(A, B) =
i=1

between A and B. At most how many elements can S have such that the distance between any 2 sets is at least 5? 2 A and B play the following game with a polynomial of degree at least 4: x2n + x2n1 + x2n2 + . . . + x + 1 = 0 A and B take turns to ll in one of the blanks with a real number until all the blanks are lled up. If the resulting polynomial has no real roots, A wins. Otherwise, B wins. If A begins, which player has a winning strategy? 3 Prove that the interval [0, 1] can be split into black and white intervals for any quadratic polynomial P (x), such that the sum of weights of the black intervals is equal to the sum of weights of the white intervals. (Dene the weight of the interval [a, b] as P (b) P (a).) Does the same result hold with a degree 3 or degree 5 polynomial?

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China
Team Selection Test 1996

Day 1
1 Let side BC of ABC be the diameter of a semicircle which cuts AB and AC at D and E respectively. F and G are the feet of the perpendiculars from D and E to BC respectively. DG and EF intersect at M . Prove that AM BC. 2 S is the set of functions f : N R that satisfy the following conditions: n I. f (1) = 2 II. f (n + 1) f (n) f (2n) for n = 1, 2, . . . n+1 Find the smallest M N such that for any f S and any n N, f (n) < M . 3 Let M = {2, 3, 4, . . . 1000}. Find the smallest n N such that any n-element subset of M contains 3 pairwise disjoint 4-element subsets S, T, U such that I. For any 2 elements in S, the larger number is a multiple of the smaller number. The same applies for T and U . II. For any s S and t T , (s, t) = 1. III. For any s S and u U , (s, u) > 1.

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China
Team Selection Test 1996

Day 2
1 3 countries A, B, C participate in a competition where each country has 9 representatives. The rules are as follows: every round of competition is between 1 competitor each from 2 countries. The winner plays in the next round, while the loser is knocked out. The remaining country will then send a representative to take on the winner of the previous round. The competition begins with A and B sending a competitor each. If all competitors from one country have been knocked out, the competition continues between the remaining 2 countries until another country is knocked out. The remaining team is the champion. I. At least how many games does the champion team win? II. If the champion team won 11 matches, at least how many matches were played?
n

2 Let 1 , 2 , . . . , n , 1 , 2 , . . . , n (n 4) be 2 sets of real numbers such that


n n 2 i < 1. Let A2 = 1 i=1 i=1 2 i , B 2 = 1 i=1 n

2 i < i=1

1,

1 2 i , W = (1 2

n i=1

i i )2 . Find all

real numbers such that xn + (xn1 + + x3 + W x2 + ABx + 1) = 0 only has real roots. Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 3 Does there exist non-zero complex numbers a, b, c and natural number h such that if integers 1 k, l, m satisfy |k| + |l| + |m| 1996, then |ka + lb + mc| > is true? h

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China
Team Selection Test 1997

Day 1
1 Given a real number > 1, let P be a point on the arc BAC of the circumcircle of ABC. Extend BP and CP to U and V respectively such that BU = BA, CV = CA. Then extend U V to Q such that U Q = U V . Find the locus of point Q. 2 There are n football teams in a round-robin competition where every 2 teams meet once. The winner of each match receives 3 points while the loser receives 0 points. In the case of a draw, both teams receive 1 point each. Let k be as follows: 2 k n 1. At least how many points must a certain team get in the competition so as to ensure that there are at most k 1 teams whose scores are not less than that particular teams score? 3 Prove that there exists m N such that there exists an integral sequence {an } which satises: I. a0 = 1, a1 = 337; 3 II. (an+1 an1 a2 ) + (an+1 + an1 2an ) = m, n 1; n 4 1 III. (an + 1)(2an + 1) is a perfect square n 1. 6

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China
Team Selection Test 1997

Day 2
1 Find all real-coecient polynomials f (x) which satisfy the following conditions:
n

I. f (x) = a0 x

2n

+ a2 x

2n2

+ + a2n2 x + a2n , a0 > 0; II.


j=0

a2j a2n2j

2n n

a0 a2n ;

III. All the roots of f (x) are imaginary numbers with no real part. Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 2 Let n be a natural number greater than 6. X is a set such that |X| = n. A1 , A2 , . . . , Am are n(n 1)(n 2)(n 3)(4n 15) distinct 5-element subsets of X. If m > , prove that there 600
6

exists Ai1 , Ai2 , . . . , Ai6 (1 i1 < i2 < , i6 m), such that


k=1

Aik = 6.

3 There are 1997 pieces of medicine. Three bottles A, B, C can contain at most 1997, 97, 17 pieces of medicine respectively. At rst, all 1997 pieces are placed in bottle A, and the three bottles are closed. Each piece of medicine can be split into 100 part. When a bottle is opened, all pieces of medicine in that bottle lose a part each. A man wishes to consume all the medicine. However, he can only open each of the bottles at most once each day, consume one piece of medicine, move some pieces between the bottles, and close them. At least how many parts will be lost by the time he nishes consuming all the medicine?

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China
Team Selection Test 1998

Day 1
1 Find k N such that a.) For any n N, there does not exist j Z which satises the conditions 0 j n k + 1 n n n , ,..., forms an arithmetic progression. and j j+1 j+k1 b.) There exists n N such that there exists j which satises 0 j n k + 2, and n n n ,..., forms an arithmetic progression. , j j+1 j+k2 Find all n which satises part b.) Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 2 n 5 football teams participate in a round-robin tournament. For every game played, the winner receives 3 points, the loser receives 0 points, and in the event of a draw, both teams receive 1 point. The third-from-bottom team has fewer points than all the teams ranked before it, and more points than the last 2 teams; it won more games than all the teams before it, but fewer games than the 2 teams behind it. Find the smallest possible n. 3 For a xed [0, ], nd the smallest a R+ which satises the following conditions: 2 a a I. + > 1. cos sin a a , ] such that [(1 x) sin a x2 cos2 ]2 + [x cos II. There exists x [1 sin cos a (1 x)2 sin2 ]2 a.

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China
Team Selection Test 1998

Day 2
1 In acute-angled ABC, H is the orthocenter, O is the circumcenter and I is the incenter. Given that C > B > A, prove that I lies within BOH. 2 Let n be a natural number greater than 2. l is a line on a plane. There are n distinct points P1 , P2 , , Pn on l. Let the product of distances between Pi and the other n 1 points be di (i = 1, 2, , n). There exists a point Q, which does not lie on l, on the plane. Let the distance n c2 from Q to Pi be Ci (i = 1, 2, , n). Find Sn = (1)ni i . di
i=1

Corrected due to the courtesy of [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/prole.php?mode=viewproleu=2616]zhaoli.[/url] 3 For any h = 2r (r is a non-negative integer), nd all k N which satisfy the following condition: There exists an odd natural number m > 1 and n N, such that k | mh 1, m | n
mh 1 k

+ 1.

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China
Team Selection Test 1999

Day 1
1 For non-negative real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , xn which satisfy x1 + x2 + + xn = 1, nd the
n

largest possible value of


j=1

(x4 x5 ). j j

2 Find all prime numbers p which satisfy the following condition: For any prime q < p, if p = kq + r, 0 r < q, there does not exist an integer q > 1 such that a2 | r. 3 Let S = {1, 2, . . . , 15}. Let A1 , A2 , . . . , An be n subsets of S which satisfy the following conditions: I. |Ai | = 7, i = 1, 2, . . . , n; II. |Ai Aj | 3, 1 i < j n III. For any 3-element subset M of S, there exists Ak such that M Ak . Find the smallest possible value of n.

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China
Team Selection Test 1999

Day 2
1 A circle is tangential to sides AB and AD of convex quadrilateral ABCD at G and H respectively, and cuts diagonal AC at E and F . What are the necessary and sucient conditions such that there exists another circle which passes through E and F , and is tangential to DA and DC extended? 2 For a xed natural number m 2, prove that a.) There exists integers x1 , x2 , . . . , x2m such that xi xm+i = xi+1 xm+i1 + 1, i = 1, 2, . . . , m ()

b.) For any set of integers {x1 , x2 , . . . , x2m which fulls (*), an integral sequence . . . , yk , . . . , y1 , y0 , y1 , . . . , yk can be constructed such that yk ym+k = yk+1 ym+k1 + 1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . such that yi = xi , i = 1, 2, . . . , 2m.
10

3 For every permutation of 1, 2, . . . , 10, = (x1 , x2 , . . . , x10 ), dene S( ) =


k=1

|2xk 3xk1 |.

Let x11 = x1 . Find I. The maximum and minimum values of S( ). II. The number of which lets S( ) attain its maximum. III. The number of which lets S( ) attain its minimum.

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China
Team Selection Test 2000

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a triangle such that AB = AC. Let D, E be points on AB, AC respectively such that DE = AC. Let DE meet the circumcircle of triangle ABC at point T . Let P be a point on AT . Prove that P D + P E = AT if and only if P lies on the circumcircle of triangle ADE. 2 Given positive integers k, m, n such that 1 k m n. Evaluate
n i=0

1 (m + n + i)! . n + k + i i!(n i)!(m + i)!

3 For positive integer a 2, denote Na as the number of positive integer k with the following property: the sum of squares of digits of k in base a representation equals k. Prove that: a.) Na is odd; b.) For every positive integer M , there exist a positive integer a 2 such that Na M .

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China
Team Selection Test 2000

Day 2
1 Let F be the set of all polynomials such that all the coecients of (x) are integers and (x) = 1 has integer roots. Given a positive intger k, nd the smallest integer m(k) > 1 such that there exist F for which (x) = m(k) has exactly k distinct integer roots. 2 a.) Let a, b be real numbers. Dene sequence xk and yk such that x0 = 1, y0 = 0, xk+1 = a xk b yl , Prove that
[k/2]

yk+1 = xk a yk for k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

xk =
l=0 [k/2]

(1)l ak2l a2 + b k,l

where k,l =
m=l [k/2]

m k l 2m k,l . For positive integer m, denote the remainder of uk divided by 2m as

b.) Let uk =
l=0

zm,k . Prove that zm,k , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . is a periodic function, and nd the smallest period. 3 Let n be a positive integer. Denote M = {(x, y)|x, y are integers , 1 x, y n}. Dene function f on M with the following properties:
n

a.) f (x, y) takes non-negative integer value;

b.)
y=1

f (x, y) = n 1 for 1x n; c.) If

f (x1 , y1 )f (x2, y2) > 0, then (x1 x2 )(y1 y2 ) 0. Find N (n), the number of functions f that satisfy all the conditions. Give the explicit value of N (4).

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China
Team Selection Test 2001

Day 1
1 E and F are interior points of convex quadrilateral ABCD such that AE = BE, CE = DE, AEB = CED, AF = DF , BF = CF , AF D = BF C. Prove that AF D+AEB = . 2 a and b are natural numbers such that b > a > 1, and a does not divide b. The sequence of natural numbers {bn } satises bn+1 2bn n N. Does there exist a sequence {an } of n=1 n=1 natural numbers such that for all n N, an+1 an {a, b}, and for all m, l N (m may be equal to l), am + al {bn } ? n=1 3 For a given natural number k > 1, nd all functions f : R R such that for all x, y R, f [xk + f (y)] = y + [f (x)]k .

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China
Team Selection Test 2001

Day 2
1 For a given natural number n > 3, the real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , xn+1 , xn+2 satisfy the conditions 0 < x1 < x2 < < xn < xn+1 < xn+2 . Find the minimum possible value of ( (
xi+1 n i=1 xi )( xj+2 n j=1 xj+1 )
2 n xl+1 +xl xl+2 ) l=1 xl xl+1

xk+1 xk+2 n k=1 x2 +xk xk+2 )( k+1

and nd all (n + 2)-tuplets of real numbers (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , xn+1 , xn+2 ) which gives this value. 2 In the equilateral ABC, D is a point on side BC. O1 and I1 are the circumcenter and incenter of ABD respectively, and O2 and I2 are the circumcenter and incenter of ADC respectively. O1 I1 intersects O2 I2 at P . Find the locus of point P as D moves along BC. 3 Let F = max1x3 |x3 ax2 bx c|. When a, b, c run over all the real numbers, nd the smallest possible value of F .

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 1

1 Given n 3, n is a integer. Prove that: (2n 2) 2i 1


j=0 i1

i1 j Cn + Cn1

where if n is even, then 1 i

n1 n ; if n is odd, then 1 i . 2 2

2 There are n points (n 4) on a sphere with radius R, and not all of them lie on the same semi-sphere. Prove that among all the angles formed by any two of the n points and the sphere centre O (O is the vertex of the angle), there is at least one that is not less than 6 2 arcsin . 3 3 The positive integers , , are the roots of a polynomial f (x) with degree 4 and the coecient of the rst term is 1. If there exists an integer such that f (1) = f 2 (s). Prove that is not a perfect square.

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 2

1 If Pn (x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn , n 2 is a real-coecient polynomial. Prove that if there


n2

exists a > 0, making Pn (x) = (x + a)

2 i=0

bi xi , bi R+ , i = 0, 1, 2, , n 2, and there

is some i, 1 i n 1, making a2 4ai1 ai+1 0. i 2 A1 , B1 and C1 are the projections of the vertices A, B and C of triangle ABC on the respective sides. If AB = c, AC = b, BC = a and AC1 = 2tAB, BA1 = 2rBC, CB1 = 2AC. Prove that: 2 2 2 b2 c2 a2 t r + 2 + 2 + 16tr 1 b2 1 2t c 1 2r a 1 2 3 Let pi 2, i = 1, 2, n be n integers such that any two of them are relatively prime. Let:
n n

P = {x =
i=1

xi
j=1,j=i

pj | xi is a non - negative integer, i = 1, 2, n}


n

Prove that the biggest integer M such that M P is greater than M.

n2 2

pi , and also nd
i=1

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 3

1 Given triangle ABC and AB = c, AC = b and BC = a satisfying a b c, BE and CF are two interior angle bisectors. P is a point inside triangle AEF . R and Q are the projections of P on sides AB and AC. Prove that P R + P Q + RQ < b. 2 For any two rational numbers p and q in the interval (0, 1) and function f , there is always f (p) + f (q) p+q f . Then prove that for any rational numbers , x1 , x2 (0, 1), there 2 2 is always: f (x1 + (1 )x2 ) f (xi ) + (1 )f (x2 ) 3 Sequence {fn (a)} satises fn+1 (a) = 2 a , f1 (a) = 2, n = 1, 2, . If there exists a fn (a) natural number n, such that fn+k (a) = fk (a), k = 1, 2, , then we call the non-zero real a a periodic point of fn (a). Prove that the sucient and necessary condition for a being a periodic point of fn (a) is [ n1 ] 2 a a 2k+1 (1)k Cn xk , here we dene = and pn (a 1) = 0, where pn (x) = = 0. 0
k=0

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 4

1 Given a positive integer n, for all positive integers a1 , a2 , , an that satisfy a1 = 1, ai+1
n

ai + 1, nd
i=1

a1 a2 ai .

2 Circles 1 and 2 intersect at points A and B. Points C and D are on circles 1 and 2 , respectively, such that lines AC and AD are tangent to circles 2 and 1 , respectively. Let I1 and I2 be the incenters of triangles ABC and ABD, respectively. Segments I1 I2 and AB 1 1 1 intersect at E. Prove that: = + AE AC AD 3 Find all groups of positive integers (a, x, y, n, m) that satisfy a(xn xm ) = (axm 4)y 2 and m n (mod 2) and ax is odd.

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 5

1 In acute triangle ABC, show that: sin3 A cos2 (B C) + sin3 B cos2 (C A) + sin3 C cos2 (A B) 3 sin A sin B sin C and nd out when the equality holds. 2 m and n are positive integers. In a 8 8 chessboard, (m, n) denotes the number of grids a Horse can jump in a chessboard (m horizontal n vertical or n horizontal m vertical ). If a (m, n)Horse starts from one grid, passes every grid once and only once, then we call this kind of Horse jump route a H Route. For example, the (1, 2)Horse has its H Route. Find the smallest positive integer t, such that from any grid of the chessboard, the (t, t + 1)Horse does not has any H Route. 3 n sets S1 , S2 , Sn consists of non-negative numbers. xi is the sum of all elements of Si , prove that there is a natural number k, 1 < k < n, and:
n

xi <
i=1

n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 1 n(n + 1) k (k + 1)2 k+1 6 2

and there exists subscripts i, j, t, and l (at least 3 of them are distinct) such that xi + xj = xt + xl .

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 6
an an1 a2 + a2 + 1 n n1

1 Given that a1 = 1, a2 = 5, an+1 = of {an }. 2

. Find a expression of the general term

O1 and O2 meet at points P and Q. The circle through P , O1 and O2 meets O1 and O2 at points A and B. Prove that the distance from Q to the lines P A, P B and AB are equal. (Prove the following three cases: O1 and O2 are in the common space of O1 and O2 ; O1 and O2 are out of the common space of O1 and O2 ; O1 is in the common space of O1 and O2 , O2 is out of the common space of O1 and O2 .

3 There is a game. The magician let the participant think up a positive integer (at least two digits). For example, an integer a1 a2 an is rearranged as ai1 ai2 ain , that is, i1 , i2 , , in is a permutation of 1, 2, , n. Then we get n! 1 integers. The participant is asked to calculate the sum of the n! 1 numbers, then tell the magician the sum S. The magician claims to be able to know the original number when he is told the sum S. Try to decide whether the magician can be successful or not.

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 7

1 Circle O is inscribed in a trapzoid ABCD, A and B are all acute angles. A line through O intersects AD at E and BC at F , and satises the following conditions: (1) DEF and CF E are acute angles. (2) AE + BF = DE + CF . Let AB = a, BC = b, CD = c, then use a, b, c to express AE. 2 Find all non-negative integers m and n, such that (2n 1) (3n 1) = m2 . 3 Given positive integer m 17, 2m contestants participate in a circular competition. In each round, we devide the 2m contestants into m groups, and the two contestants in one group play against each other. The groups are re-divided in the next round. The contestants compete for 2m 1 rounds so that each contestant has played a game with all the 2m 1 players. Find the least possible positive integer n, so that there exists a valid competition and after n rounds, for any 4 contestants, non of them has played with the others or there have been at least 2 games played within those 4.

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

Quiz 8

1 A is a set of points on the plane, L is a line on the same plane. If L passes through one of the points in A, then we call that L passes through A. (1) Prove that we can divide all the rational points into 100 pairwisely non-intersecting point sets with innity elements. If for any line on the plane, there are two rational points on it, then it passes through all the 100 sets. (2) Find the biggest integer r, so that if we divide all the rational points on the plane into 100 pairwisely non-intersecting point sets with innity elements with any method, then there is at least one line that passes through r sets of the 100 point sets. 2 Does there exist 2002 distinct positive integers k1 , k2 , k2002 such that for any positive integer n 2001, one of k1 2n + 1, k2 2n + 1, , k2002 2n + 1 is prime? 3 c is a positive integer, , , are pairwise distinct positive integers, and a=++ b=++ c2 =

A number satises the condition 4 2a2 + 8c + a2 4b = 0. Prove that is an integer if and only if , , are all perfect squares.

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

TST

Day 1
1 Let E and F be the intersections of opposite sides of a convex quadrilateral ABCD. The two diagonals meet at P . Let O be the foot of the perpendicular from O to EF . Show that BOC = AOD. 1 1 2 Let (an ) be the sequence of reals dened by a1 = and the recurrence an = (1+an1 )2 , n 4 4 2. Find the minimum real such that for any non-negative reals x1 , x2 , . . . , x2002 , it holds
2002

Ak a2002 ,
k=1

where Ak =

xk k (xk + + x2002 +
k(k1) 2

+ 1)2

, k 1.

3 Seventeen football fans were planning to go to Korea to watch the World Cup football match. They selected 17 matches. The conditions of the admission tickets they booked were such that - One person should book at most one admission ticket for one match; - At most one match was same in the tickets booked by every two persons; - There was one person who booked six tickets. How many tickets did those football fans book at most? space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 Find all natural numbers n(n 2) such that there exists reals a1 , a2 , . . . , an which satisfy {|ai aj | | 1 i < j n} = 1, 2, . . . , n(n 1) 2 .

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, B = {7, 8, 9, . . . , n}. Ai (i = 1, 2, . . . , 20) contains eight numbers, three of which are chosen from A and the other ve numbers from B. |Ai Aj | 2, 1 i < j 20. Find the minimum possible value of n.

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China
Team Selection Test 2002

2 Given an integer k. f (n) is dened on negative integer set and its values are integers. f (n) satises f (n)f (n + 1) = (f (n) + n k)2 , for n = 2, 3, . Find an expression of f (n). 3 Let f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 2 (x3 + x3 + x3 ) + 3 (x2 (x2 + x3 ) + x2 (x1 + x3 ) + x2 (x1 + x2 ) 12x1 x2 x3 . 1 2 3 1 2 3 For any reals r, s, t, we denote g(r, s, t) = Find the minimum value of g(r, s, t).
tx3 t+2

max

|f (r, r + 2, x3 ) + s|.

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 1

1 x, y and z are positive reals such that x + y + z = xyz. Find the minimum value of: x7 (yz 1) + y 7 (zx 1) + z 7 (xy 1) 2 In triangle ABC, the medians and bisectors corresponding to sides BC, CA, AB are ma , mb , mc and wa , wb , wc respectively. P = wa mb , Q = wb mc , R = wc ma . Denote the areas of triangle ABC and P QR by F1 and F2 respectively. Find the least positive constant F1 m such that < m holds for any ABC. F2 3 There is a frog in every vertex of a regular 2n-gon with circumcircle(n 2). At certain time, all frogs jump to the neighborhood vertices simultaneously (There can be more than one frog in one vertex). We call it as a way of jump. It turns out that there is a way of jump with respect to 2n-gon, such that the line connecting any two distinct vertice having frogs on it after the jump, does not pass through the circumcentre of the 2n-gon. Find all possible values of n.

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 2

1 Let ABCD be a quadrilateral which has an incircle centered at O. Prove that OA OC + OB OD = AB BC CD DA 2 Let x < y be positive integers and P = x3 y . Find all integer values that P can take. 1 + xy
n

3 The n roots of a complex coecient polynomial f (z) = z n + a1 z n1 + + an1 z + an are


n

z1 , z2 , , zn . If
k=1

|ak | 1, then prove that


k=1

|zk |2 n.

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 3

m 1 m and n are positive integers. Set A = {1, 2, , n}. Let set Bn = {(a1 , a2 , am ) | ai A, i = 1, 2, , m} satisfying: (1) |ai ai+1 | = n 1, i = 1, 2, , m 1; and

(2) at least three of a1 , a2 , , am (m 3) are pairwise distince.


m 3 Find |Bn | and |B6 |.

2 Can we nd positive reals a1 , a2 , , a2002 such that for any positive integer k (1 k 2002), every complex root z of polynomial ak+2001 x2001 + ak+2000 x2000 + + ak+1 x + ak satisfy the condition |Imz| |Rez|, where a2002+i = ai , i = 1, 2, , 2001. 3 Let x0 + 2003y0 be the minimum positive integer root of Pell function x2 2003y 2 = 1. Find all the positive integer solutions (x, y) of the equation, such that x0 is divisible by any prime factor of x.

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 4

1 In triangle ABC, AB > BC > CA, AB = 6, B C = 90o . The incircle touches BC at E and EF is a diameter of the incircle. Radical AF intersect BC at D. DE equals to the circumradius of ABC. Find BC and AC. 2 Find all functions f, g:R R such that f (x + yg(x)) = g(x) + xf (y) for x, y R. 3 Let A = {a1 , a2 , , an } and B = {b1 , b2 , bn } be two positive integer sets and |A B| = 1. C = {all the 2 - element subsets of A} {all the 2 - element subsets of B}. Function f : A 2 B {0, 1, 2, 2Cn } is injective. For any {x, y} C, denote |f (x) f (y)| as the mark of {x, y}. If n 6, prove that at least two elements in C have the same mark.

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 5

1 Let S be the set of points inside and on the boarder of a regular haxagon with side length 1. Find the least constant r, such that there exists one way to colour all the points in S with three colous so that the distance between any two points with same colour is less than r. 2 Denote by (ABC) the circumcircle of a triangle ABC. Let ABC be an isosceles right-angled triangle with AB = AC = 1 and CAB = 90 . Let D be the midpoint of the side BC, and let E and F be two points on the side BC. Let M be the point of intersection of the circles (ADE) and (ABF ) (apart from A). Let N be the point of intersection of the line AF and the circle (ACE) (apart from A). Let P be the point of intersection of the line AD and the circle (AM N ). Find the length of AP . 3 Sequence {an } satises: a1 = 3, a2 = 7, a2 + 5 = an1 an+1 , n 2. If an + (1)n is prime, n prove that there exists a nonnegative integer m such that n = 3m .

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 6

1 Let g(x) =
n k=1

ak cos kx, a1 , a2 , , an , x R. If g(x) 1 holds for every x R, prove

that
k=1

ak n.

2 Positive integer n cannot be divided by 2 and 3, there are no nonnegative integers a and b such that |2a 3b | = n. Find the minimum value of n. 3 (1) D is an arbitary point in ABC. Prove that: o 2 sin A, A < 90 BC min AD, BD, CD 2, A 90o

(2)E is an arbitary point in convex quadrilateral ABCD. Denote k the ratio of the largest and least distances of any two points among A, B, C, D, E. Prove that k 2 sin 70o . Can equality be achieved?

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 7

1 There are n(n 3) circles in the plane, all with radius 1. In among any three circles, at least two have common point(s), then the total area covered by these n circles is less than 35. 2 Given an integer a1 (a1 = 1), nd a real number sequence {an }(ai = 0, i = 1, 2, , 5) such that x1 , x2 , , x5 and y1 , y2 , , y5 satisfy bi1 x1 + bi2 x2 + + bi5 x5 = 2yi , i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, then x1 y1 + x2 y2 + + x5 y5 = 0, where bij = (1 + jak ).
1ki

3 Given S be the nite lattice (with integer coordinate) set in the xy-plane. A is the subset of S with most elements such that the line connecting any two points in A is not parallel to x-axis or y-axis. B is the subset of integer with least elements such that for any (x, y) S, x B or y B holds. Prove that |A| |B|.

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

Quiz 8

1 Triangle ABC is inscribed in circle O. Tangent P D is drawn from A, D is on ray BC, P is on ray DA. Line P U (U BD) intersects circle O at Q, T , and intersect AB and AC at R and S respectively. Prove that if QR = ST , then P Q = U T . 2 Let S be a nite set. f is a function dened on the subset-group 2S of set S. f is called monotonic decreasing if when X Y S, then f (X) f (Y ) holds. Prove that: f (X Y ) + f (X Y ) f (X) + f (Y ) for X, Y S if and only if g(X) = f (X {a}) f (X) is a monotonic decreasing funnction on the subset-group 2S\{a} of set S \ {a} for any a S.
n

3 Let a1 , a2 , ..., an be positive real number (n 2),not all equal,such that


n k=1

a2n = 1,prove k

that:
k=1

a2n n2 . k

1i<jn

aj ai ( )2 > n2 aj ai

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China
Team Selection Test 2003

TST

Day 1
1 ABC is an acute-angled triangle. Let D be the point on BC such that AD is the bisector of A. Let E, F be the feet of perpendiculars from D to AC, AB respectively. Suppose the lines BE and CF meet at H. The circumcircle of triangle AF H meets BE at G (apart from H). Prove that the triangle constructed from BG, GE and BF is right-angled. 2 Suppose A {0, 1, . . . , 29}. It satises that for any integer k and any two members a, b A(a, b is allowed to be same), a+b+30k is always not the product of two consecutive integers. Please nd A with largest possible cardinality. 3 Suppose A {(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) | ai R, i = 1, 2 . . . , n}. For any = (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) A and = (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) A, we dene (, ) = (|a1 b1 |, |a2 b2 |, . . . , |an bn |),

D(A) = {(, ) | , A}. Please show that |D(A)| |A|. space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 Find all functions f : Z+ R, which satises f (n + 1) f (n) for all n 1 and f (mn) = f (m)f (n) for all (m, n) = 1. 2 Suppose A = {1, 2, . . . , 2002} and M = {1001, 2003, 3005}. B is an non-empty subset of A. B is called a M -free set if the sum of any two numbers in B does not belong to M . If A = A1 A2 , A1 A2 = and A1 , A2 are M -free sets, we call the ordered pair (A1 , A2 ) a M -partition of A. Find the number of M -partitions of A. 3 Let (xn ) be a real sequence satisfying x0 = 0, x2 = 1 1 3 2x1 , and xn+1 = xn + 4xn1 + xn2 3 2 4 for every integer n 2, and such that x3 is a positive integer. Find the minimal number of integers belonging to this sequence. 3

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

Quiz 1

1 Using AB and AC as diameters, two semi-circles are constructed respectively outside the acute triangle ABC. AH BC at H, D is any point on side BC (D is not coinside with B or C ), through D, construct DE AC and DF AB with E and F on the two semi-circles respectively. Show that D, E, F and H are concyclic. 2 Twenty-one girls and twenty-one boys took part in a mathematical competition. It turned out that each contestant solved at most six problems, and for each pair of a girl and a boy, there was at least one problem that was solved by both the girl and the boy. Show that there is a problem that was solved by at least three girls and at least three boys. 3 Find all positive integer n satisfying the following condition: There exist positive integers m,
m1

a1 , a2 , , am1 , such that n = 1 ai m 1.


i=1

ai (m ai ), where a1 , a2 , , am1 may not distinct and

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

Quiz 2

1 Given integer n larger than 5, solve the system of equations: x1 + x2 + x3 + + xn = n + 2 x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + + nxn = 2n + 2

x1 + 22 x2 + 32 x3 + + n2 xn = n2 + n + 4 x1 + 23 x2 + 33 x3 + + n3 xn = n3 + n + 8 where xi 0, i = 1, 2, n. 2 Convex quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle, A = 60o , BC = CD = 1, rays AB and DC intersect at point E, rays BC and AD intersect each other at point F . It is given that the perimeters of triangle BCE and triangle CDF are both integers. Find the perimeter of quadrilateral ABCD. 3 S is a non-empty subset of the set {1, 2, , 108}, satisfying: (1) For any two numbers a, b S ( may not distinct), there exists c S, such that gcd(a, c) = gcd(b, c) = 1. (2) For any two numbers a, b S ( may not distinct), there exists c S, c = a, c = b, such that gcd(a, c ) > 1, gcd(b, c ) > 1. Find the largest possible value of |S|.

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

Quiz 3

1 Let m1 , m2 , , mr (may not distinct) and n1 , n2 , ns (may not distinct) be two groups of positive integers such that for any positive integer d larger than 1, the numbers of which can be divided by d in group m1 , m2 , , mr (including repeated numbers) are no less than that in group n1 , n2 , ns (including repeated numbers). m1 m2 mr is integer. Prove that n1 n2 ns 2 Two equal-radii circles with centres O1 and O2 intersect each other at P and Q, O is the midpoint of the common chord P Q. Two lines AB and CD are drawn through P ( AB and CD are not coincide with P Q ) such that A and C lie on circle O1 and B and D lie on circle O2 . M and N are the mipoints of segments AD and BC respectively. Knowing that O1 and O2 are not in the common part of the two circles, and M , N are not coincide with O. Prove that M , N , O are collinear. 3 Given arbitrary positive integer a larger than 1, show that for any positive integer n, there always exists a n-degree integral coecient polynomial p(x), such that p(0), p(1), , p(n) are pairwise distinct positive integers, and all have the form of 2ak + 3, where k is also an integer.

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

Quiz 4

1 Find the largest value of the real number , such that as long as point P lies in the acute triangle ABC satisfying P AB = P BC = P CA, and rays AP , BP , CP intersect the circumcircle of triangles P BC, P CA, P AB at points A1 , B1 , C1 respectively, then SA1 BC + SB1 CA + SC1 AB SABC . 2 Find the largest positive real k, such that for any positive reals a, b, c, d, there is always: (a + b + c) 34 (a + b + c + d)5 + 24 (a + b + c + 2d)5 kabcd3 3 Find all positive integer m if there exists prime number p such that nm m can not be divided by p for any integer n.

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

Quiz 5

1 Given non-zero reals a, b, nd all functions f : R R, such that for every x, y R, y = 0, x f (2x) = af (x) + bx and f (x)f (y) = f (xy) + f . y 2 Let k be a positive integer. Set A Z is called a k - set if there exists x1 , x2 , , xk Z such that for any i = j, (xi + A) (xj + A) = , where x + A = {x + a | a A}. Prove that 1 1 1 if Ai is ki - set(i = 1, 2, , t), and A1 A2 At = Z, then + + + 1. k1 k2 kt 3 In convex quadrilateral ABCD, AB = a, BC = b, CD = c, DA = d, AC = e, BD = f . If max{a, b, c, d, e, f } = 1, then nd the maximum value of abcd.

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

Quiz 6

1 Given sequence {cn } satisfying the conditions that c0 = 1, c1 = 0, c2 = 2005, and cn+2 = 3cn 4cn1 + 2008, (n = 1, 2, 3, ). Let {an } be another sequence such that an = 5(cn+1 cn ) (502 cn1 cn2 ) + 4n 2004 501, (n = 2, 3, ). Is an a perfect square for every n > 2? 2 There are n 5 pairwise dierent points in the plane. For every point, there are just four points whose distance from which is 1. Find the maximum value of n. 3 The largest one of numbers p1 , p2 , , pt is called a Good Number of positive integer n, t 1 2 if n = p1 p2 pt , where p1 , p2 , , pt are pairwisely dierent primes and 1 , 2 , , t t 1 2 are positive integers. Let n1 , n2 , , n10000 be 10000 distinct positive integers such that the Good Numbers of n1 , n2 , , n10000 are all equal. Prove that there exist integers a1 , a2 , , a10000 such that any two of the following 10000 arithmetical progressions {ai , ai +ni , ai +2ni , ai +3ni , }(i = 1, 2, 10000) have no common terms.

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China
Team Selection Test 2004

TST

Day 1
1 Let XOY = ; P is a point inside XOY and we have OP = 1; XOP = . A line passes 2 6 P intersects the Rays OX and OY at M and N . Find the maximum value of OM +ON M N. 2 Let u be a xed positive integer. Prove that the equation n! = u u has a nite number of solutions (n, , ). 3 Let k 2, 1 < n1 < n2 < . . . < nk are positive integers, a, b Z+ satisfy
k i=1

1 1 ni
k

a < b

k1

1
i=1

1 ni

Prove that:

ni (4 a)2
i=1

k 1

space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 Points D, E, F are on the sides BC, CA and AB, respectively which satisfy EF ||BC, D1 is a point on BC, Make D1 E1 ||DE , D1 F1 ||DF which intersect AC and AB at E1 and F1 , respectively. Make P BC DEF such that P and A are on the same side of BC. Prove that E, E1 F1 , P D1 are concurrent. {[Edit by Darij: See my post 4 below for a possible correction of this problem. However, I am not sure that it is in fact the problem given at the TST... Does anyone have a reliable translation?] 2 Let p1 , p2 , . . . , p25 are primes which dont exceed 2004. Find the largest integer T such that every positive integer T can be expressed as sums of distinct divisors of (p1 p2 . . . p25 )2004 . 3 Let a, b, c be sides of a triangle whose perimeter does not exceed 2., Prove that sin a, sin b, sin c are sides of a triangle.

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

Quiz 1

1 Triangle ABC is inscribed in circle . Circle is tangent to AB and AC at points P and Q respectively. Also circle is tangent to circle at point S. Let the intesection of AS and P Q be T . Prove that BT P = CT Q. 1 2 Let a, b, c be nonnegative reals such that ab + bc + ca = . Prove that 3 a2 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 3 bc + 1 b ca + 1 c ab + 1

3 Let a1 , a2 an and x1 , x2 xn be integers and r 2 be an integer. It is known that


n n

aj xk j
j=0

= 0 for k = 1, 2, r. Prove that


j=0

aj xm 0( mod m) for all m {r + 1, r + j

2, , 2r + 1}

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

Quiz 2

1 Let k be a positive integer. Prove that one can partition the set {0, 1, 2, 3, , 2k+1 1} into
2k 2k

two disdinct subsets {x1 , x2 , , x2k } and {y1 , y2 , , y2k } such that
i=1

xm i

=
i=1

m yi for all

m {1, 2, , k}. 2 Cyclic quadrilateral ABCD has positive integer side lengths AB, BC, CA, AD. It is known that AD = 2005, ABC = ADC = 90o , and max{AB, BC, CD} < 2005. Determine the maximum and minimum possible values for the perimeter of ABCD. 3 Let a, b, c, d > 0 and abcd = 1. Prove that: 1 1 1 1 + + + 1 2 2 2 (1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c) (1 + d)2

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

Quiz 3

1 Triangle ABC is inscribed in circle . Circle is tangent to AB and AC at points P and Q respectively. Also circle is tangent to circle at point S. Let the intesection of AS and P Q be T . Prove that BT P = CT Q. 2 Determine whether not? 10012 + 1 + 10022 + 1 + + 20002 + 1 be a rational number or

3 We call a matrix binary matrix if all its entries equal to 0 or 1. A binary matrix is Good if it simultaneously satises the following two conditions: (1) All the entries above the main diagonal (from left to right), not including the main diagonal, are equal. (2) All the entries below the main diagonal (from left to right), not including the main diagonal, are equal. Given positive integer m, prove that there exists a positive integer M , such that for any positive integer n > M and a given n n binary matrix An , we can select integers 1 i1 < i2 < < inm n and delete the ii -th, i2 -th, , inm -th rows and ii -th, i2 -th, , inm -th columns of An , then the resulting binary matrix Bm is Good.

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

Quiz 4

1 Prove that for any n (n 2) pairwise disdinct fractions in the inteval (0, 1), the sum of their 1 3 denominators is no less than n 2 . 3 2 Let be the circumcircle of acute triangle ABC. Two tangents of from B and C intersect at P , AP and BC intersect at D. Point E, F are on AC and AB such that DE BA and DF CA. (1) Prove that F, B, C, E are concyclic. (2) Denote A1 the centre of the circle passing through F, B, C, E. B1 , C1 are dined similarly. Prove that AA1 , BB1 , CC1 are concurrent. 3 Let n be a positive integer, set Sn = {(a1 , a2 , , a2n ) | ai = 0 or 1, 1 i 2n }. For any two elements a = (a1 , a2 , , a2n ) and b = (b1 , b2 , , b2n ) of Sn , dene
2n

d(a, b) =
i=1

|ai bi |

We call A Sn a Good Subset if d(a, b) 2n1 holds for any two distinct elements a and b of A. How many elements can the Good Subset of Sn at most have?

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

Quiz 5

1 Find all positive integers m and n such that the inequality: [(m + n)] + [(m + n)] [m] + [n] + [n( + )] is true for any real numbers and . Here [x] denote the largest integer no larger than real number x. 2 Given prime number p. a1 , a2 ak (k 3) are integers not divible by p and have dierent residuals when divided by p. Let Sn = {n | 1 n p 1, (na1 )p < < (nak )p } Here (b)p denotes the residual when integer b is divided by p. Prove that |S| < 2p . k+1

3 Find the least positive integer n (n 3), such that among any n points (no three are collinear) in the plane, there exist three points which are the vertices of a non-isoscele triangle.

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

Quiz 6

1 Let b, m, n be positive integers such that b > 1 and m = n. Prove that if bm 1 and bn 1 have the same prime divisors, then b + 1 is a power of 2. 2 In acute angled triangle ABC, BC = a,CA = b,AB = c, and a > b > c. I, O, H are the incentre, circumcentre and orthocentre of ABC respectively. Point D BC, E CA and AE = BD, CD +CE = AB. Let the intersectionf of BE and AD be K. Prove that KH IO and KH = 2IO. 3 n is a positive integer, Fn = 22 + 1. Prove that for n 3, there exists a prime factor of Fn which is larger than 2n+2 (n + 1).
n

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China
Team Selection Test 2005

TST

Day 1
1 Convex quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic in circle (O), P is the intersection of the diagonals AC and BD. Circle (O1 ) passes through P and B, circle (O2 ) passes through P and A, Circles (O1 ) and (O2 ) intersect at P and Q. (O1 ), (O2 ) intersect (O) at another points E, F (besides B, A), respectively. Prove that P Q, CE, DF are concurrent or parallel. 2 Given positive integer n(n 2), nd the largest positive integer satisfying : For n bags, if every bag contains some balls whose weights are all integer powers of 2 (the weights of balls in a bag may not be distinct), and the total weights of balls in every bag are equal, then there exists a weight among these balls such that the total number of balls with this weight is at least . 3 Let n be a positive integer, and aj , for j = 1, 2, . . . , n are complex numbers. Suppose I is an arbitrary nonempty subset of {1, 2, . . . , n}, the inequality 1 +
jI

(1 + aj )

1 always 2

holds.
n

Prove that
j=1

|aj | 3.

space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 Let a1 , a2 , , a6 ; b1 , b2 , , b6 and c1 , c2 , , c6 are all permutations of 1, 2, , 6, respectively. Find
6

the minimum value of


i=1

ai bi ci .

2 Let n be a positive integer,and x be a positive real number. Prove that [img]http://www.artofproblemsolving.c [x] here means Gauss function. 3 Let be given positive real number, nd all the functions f : N + R such that f (k + m) = f (k) + f (m) holds for any positive integers k, m satisfying m k ( + 1)m.

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 1 - 19 March 2006


1 ABCD is a trapezoid with AB||CD. There are two circles 1 and 2 is the trapezoid such that 1 is tangent to DA, AB, BC and 2 is tangent to BC, CD, DA. Let l1 be a line passing trought A and tangent to 2 (other than AD), Let l2 be a line passing trought C and tangent to 1 (other than CB). Prove that l1 ||l2 . 2 Find all positive integer pairs (a, n) such that (a + 1)n an is an integer. n

3 Given n real numbers a1 , a2 . . . an . (n 1). Prove that there exists real numbers b1 , b2 . . . bn satisfying: (a) For any 1 i n, ai bi is a positive integer. (b) (bi bj )2
1i<jn

n2 1 12

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 2 - 20 March 2006


1 Two positive valued sequences {an } and {bn } satisfy: (a): a0 = 1 a1 , an (bn+1 + bn1 ) = an1 bn1 + an+1 bn+1 , n 1.
n

(b):
i=1

bi n 2 , n 1.

Find the general term of {an }. 2 Let be the circumcircle of ABC. P is an interior point of ABC. A1 , B1 , C1 are the intersections of AP, BP, CP respectively and A2 , B2 , C2 are the semetrical points of A1 , B1 , C1 with respect to the midpoints of side BC, CA, AB. Show that the circumcircle of A2 B2 C2 passes through the othorcentre of ABC. 3 Let ai and bi (i = 1, 2, , n) be rational numbers such that for any real number x there is:
n

x +x+4=
i=1

(ai x + b)2

Find the least possible value of n.

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 3 - 22 March 2006


1 The centre of the circumcircle of quadrilateral ABCD is O and O is not on any of the sides of ABCD. P = AC BD. The circumecentres of OAB, OBC, OCD and ODA are O1 , O2 , O3 and O4 respectively. Prove that O1 O3 , O2 O4 and OP are concurrent.
n

2 x1 , x2 , , xn are positive numbers such that


i=1 n i=1

xi = 1. Prove that 1 1 + xi n2 n+1

xi
i=1

3 d and n are positive integers such that d | n. The n-number sets (x1 , x2 , xn ) satisfy the following condition: (1) 0 x1 x2 xn n (2) d | (x1 + x2 + xn ) Prove that in all the n-number sets that meet the conditions, there are exactly half satisfy xn = n.

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 4 - 24 March 2006


1 Let K and M be points on the side AB of a triangle ABC, and let L and N be points on the side AC. The point K is between M and B, and the point L is between N and C. If BK CL = , then prove that the orthocentres of the triangles ABC, AKL and AM N KM LN lie on one line. 2 Given three positive real numbers x, y, z such that x + y + z = 1, prove that yz zx xy 2 + + . xy + yz yz + zx zx + xy 2 3 Find all second degree polynomial d(x) = x2 + ax + b with integer coecients, so that there exists an integer coecient polynomial p(x) and a non-zero integer coecient polynomial q(x) that satisfy: (p(x))2 d(x) (q(x))2 = 1, x R.

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 5 - 26 March 2006


1 Let A be a non-empty subset of the set of all positive integers N . If any sucient big positive integer can be expressed as the sum of 2 elements in A(The two integers do not have to be dierent), then we call that A is a divalent radical. For x 1, let A(x) be the set of all elements in A that do not exceed x, prove that there exist a divalent radical A and a constant number C so that for every x 1, there is always |A(x)| C x. 2 A function f (n) satisfy f (0) = 0, f (n) = n f (f (n 1)), n = 1, 2, 3 . Please nd all real coecient polynomials g(x) so that: f (n) = [g(n)], n = 0, 1, 2

Where [g(n)] denote the greatest integer that does not exceed g(n). 3 Given positive integers m and n so there is a chessboard with mn 1 1 grids. Colour the grids into red and blue (Grids that have a common side are not the same colour and the grid in the left corner at the bottom is red). Now the diagnol that goes from the left corner at the bottom to the top right corner is coloured into red and blue segments (Every segment has the same colour with the grid that contains it). Find the sum of the length of all the red segments.

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 6 - 28 March 2006


1 Let the intersections of O1 and O2 be A and B. Point R is on arc AB of O1 and T is on arc AB on O2 . AR and BR meet O2 at C and D; AT and BT meet O1 at Q and P . If P R and T D meet at E and QR and T C meet at F , then prove: AE BT BR = BF AT AR. 2 Prove that for any given positive integer m and n, there is always a positive integer k so that 2k m has at least n dierent prime divisors. 3 k and n are positive integers that are greater than 1. N is the set of positive integers. A1 , A2 , Ak are pairwise not-intersecting subsets of N and A1 A2 Ak = N . Prove that for some i {1, 2, , k}, there exsits innity many non-factorable n-th degree polynomials so that coecients of one polynomial are pairwise distinct and all the coecients are in Ai .

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 7 - 31 March 2006


1 H is the orthocentre of ABC. D, E, F are on the circumcircle of ABC such that AD BE CF . S, T , U are the semetrical points of D, E, F with respect to BC, CA, AB. Show that S, T, U, H lie on the same circle. 2 Given positive integer n, nd the biggest real number C which satisfy the condition that if the sum of the reciprocals of a set of integers (They can be the same.) that are greater than 1 is less than C, then we can divide the set of numbers into no more than n groups so that the sum of reciprocals of every gruop is less than 1. 3 For a positive integer M , if there exist integers a, b, c and d so that: M a b c d M + 49, ad = bc

then we call M a GOOD number, if not then M is BAD. Please nd the greatest GOOD number and the smallest BAD number.

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China
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 8 - 01 April 2006


1 k is an odd number that is greater or equal than 3. Prove that there exist a k-th degree integer valued polynomial with non-integer coecients that has the following properties: (1) f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1. (2) There exist innity many positive integer n so that if the equation: n = f (x1 ) + + f (xs ) has integer solutions x1 xs , then s 2k 1. 2 Given positive integers m, a, b, (a, b) = 1. A is a non-empty subset of the set of all positive integers, so that for every positive integer n there is an A and bn A. For all A that satisfy the above condition, nd the minimum of the value of |A {1, 2, , m}| 3 ABC can cover a convex polygon M .Prove that there exsit a triangle which is congruent to ABC such that it can also cover M and has one side line paralel to or superpose one side line of M .

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

Quiz 1

1 When all vertex angles of a convex polygon are equal, call it equiangular. Prove that p > 2 is a prime number, if and only if the lengths of all sides of equiangular p polygon are rational numbers, it is a regular p polygon. 2 Let I be the incenter of triangle ABC. Let M, N be the midpoints of AB, AC, respectively. Points D, E lie on AB, AC respectively such that BD = CE = BC. The line perpendicular to IM through D intersects the line perpendicular to IN through E at P. Prove that AP BC. 3 Prove that for any positive integer n, there exists only n degree polynomial f (x), satisfying f (0) = 1 and (x + 1)[f (x)]2 1 is an odd function.

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

Quiz 2

1 u, v, w > 0,such that u + v + w +

uvw = 4 prove that

uv + w

vw + u

wu u+v+w v

2 Find all positive integers n such that there exists sequence consisting of 1 and 1 : a1 , a2 , , an satisfying a1 12 + a2 22 + + a2 = 0. n 3 Assume there are n 3 points in the plane, Prove that there exist three points A, B, C AB n+1 . satisfying 1 AC n1

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

Quiz 3

1 Let ABC be a triangle. Circle passes through points B and C. Circle 1 is tangent internally to and also to sides AB and AC at T, P, and Q, respectively. Let M be midpoint of arc BC (containing T ) of . Prove that lines P Q, BC, and M T are concurrent. 2 Given an integer k > 1. We call a kdigits decimal integer a1 a2 ak is pmonotonic, if for each of integers i satisfying 1 i k 1, when ai is an odd number, ai > ai+1 ; when ai is an even number, ai < ai+1 . Find the number of pmonotonic kdigits integers. 3 Show that there exists a positive integer k such that k 2n + 1 is composite for all n N0 .

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

Quiz 4

1 Let a1 , a2 , , an be positive real numbers satisfying a1 + a2 + + an = 1. Prove that a1 a2 an n . (a1 a2 + a2 a3 + + an a1 )( 2 + 2 + + 2 ) n+1 a2 + a2 a3 + a3 a1 + a1 2 After multiplying out and simplifying polynomial (x1)(x2 1)(x3 1) (x2007 1), getting rid of all terms whose powers are greater than 2007, we acquire a new polynomial f (x). Find its degree and the coecient of the term having the highest power. Find the degree of f (x) = (1 x)(1 x2 )...(1 x2007 ) (mod x2008 ). 3 Let n be positive integer, A, B [0, n] are sets of integers satisfying | A | + | B | n + 2. Prove that there exist a A, b B such that a + b is a power of 2.

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

Quiz 5

1 Let convex quadrilateral ABCD be inscribed in a circle centers at O. The opposite sides BA, CD meet at H, the diagonals AC, BD meet at G. Let O1 , O2 be the circumcenters of triangles AGD, BGC. O1 O2 intersects OG at N. The line HG cuts the circumcircles of triangles AGD, BGC at P, Q, respectively. Denote by M the midpoint of P Q. Prove that N O = N M. 2 Given n points arbitrarily in the plane: P1 , P2 , , Pn , among them no three points are collinear. Each of them Pi , (1 i n) is colored by red or blue arbitrarily. Let S be the set of triangles taking {P1 , P2 , , Pn } as its vertices, and has the following property: for any two segmets Pi Pj and Pu Pv , the number of triangles taking Pi Pj as its side and the number of triangles taking Pu Pv as its side are the same in S. Find the smallest n such that in S, there exist two triangles, the vertices of each triangle have the same color. 3 Find the smallest constant k such that x y z k x+y+z + + x+y y+z z+x for all positive x, y, z.

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

Quiz 6

1 Find all the pairs of positive integers (a, b) such that a2 + b 1 is a power of prime number ; a2 + b + 1 can divide b2 a3 1, but it cant divide (a + b 1)2 . 2 Let ABCD be the inscribed quadrilateral with the circumcircle .Let be another circle that internally tangent to and to the lines BC and AD at points M, N respectively.Let I1 , I2 be the incenters of the ABC and ABD.Prove that M, I1 , I2 , N are collinear. 3 Consider a 7 7 numbers table aij = (i2 + j)(i + j 2 ), 1 i, j 7. When we add arbitrarily each term of an arithmetical progression consisting of 7 integers to corresponding to term of certain row (or column) in turn, call it an operation. Determine whether such that each row of numbers table is an arithmetical progression, after a nite number of operations.

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China
Team Selection Test 2007

TST
Day 1
1 Points A and B lie on the circle with center O. Let point C lies outside the circle; let CS and CT be tangents to the circle. M be the midpoint of minor arc AB of (O). M S, M T intersect AB at points E, F respectively. The lines passing through E, F perpendicular to AB cut OS, OT at X and Y respectively. A line passed through C intersect the circle (O) at P, Q (P lies on segment CQ). Let R be the intersection of M P and AB, and let Z be the circumcentre of triangle P QR. Prove that: X, Y, Z are collinear. p 2 A national number x is called good if it satises: x = > 1 with p, q being positive integers, q gcd(p, q) = 1 and there exists constant numbers , N such that for any integer n N , |{xn } | Find all the good numbers. 3 There are 63 points arbitrarily on the circle C with its diameter being 20. Let S denote the number of triangles whose vertices are three of the 63 points and the length of its sides is no less than 9. Fine the maximum of S. space*0.4cm 1 2(p + q)

Day 2
1 Find all functions f : Q+ Q+ such that: f (x) + f (y) + 2xyf (xy) =
n

f (xy) . f (x + y)

2 Let x1 , , xn (n > 1) be n real numbers satisfying: A = |


i=1

xi | = 0 and B = max |xj


1i<jn

xi | = 0. Prove that for any n vectors i in the plane, there exists a permutations (k1 , , kn ) of the numbers (1, , n) such that
n

|
i=1

xki i |

AB max |i | 2A + B 1in

3 Let n be a positive integer, let A be a subset of {1, 2, , n}, satisfying for any two numbers x, y A, the least common multiple of x, y not more than n. Show that |A| 1.9 n + 5.

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

Quiz 1

1 Let P be an arbitary point inside triangle ABC, denote by A1 (dierent from P ) the second intersection of line AP with the circumcircle of triangle P BC, dene B1 , C1 similarly. Prove PB PC PA )(1 + 2 )(1 + 2 ) 8. that (1 + 2 P A1 P B1 P C1 2 Let n > 1 be an integer, and n can divide 2(n) + 3(n) + + n(n) , let p1 , p2 , , pk be all 1 1 1 1 distinct prime divisors of n. Show that + ++ + is an integer. ( where p1 p2 pk p1 p2 pk (n) is dened as the number of positive integers n that are relatively prime to n.) 3 Determine the greatest positive integer n such that in three-dimensional space, there exist n points P1 , P2 , , Pn , among n points no three points are collinear, and for arbitary 1 i < j < k n, Pi Pj Pk isnt obtuse triangle.

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

Quiz 2

1 Let ABC be a triangle, line l cuts its sides BC, CA, AB at D, E, F , respectively. Denote by O1 , O2 , O3 the circumcenters of triangle AEF, BF D, CDE, respectively. Prove that the orthocenter of triangle O1 O2 O3 lies on line l. 2 In a plane, there is an innite triangular grid consists of equilateral triangles whose lengths of the sides are equal to 1, call the vertices of the triangles the lattice points, call two lattice points are adjacent if the distance between the two points is equal to 1; A jump game is played by two frogs A, B, A jump is called if the frogs jump from the point which it is lying on to its adjacent point, A round jump of A, B is called if rst A jumps and then B by the following rules: Rule (1): A jumps once arbitrarily, then B jumps once in the same direction, or twice in the opposite direction; Rule (2): when A, B sits on adjacent lattice points, they carry out Rule (1) nishing a round jump, or A jumps twice continually, keep adjacent with B every time, and B rests on previous position; If the original positions of A, B are adjacent lattice points, determine whether for A and B,such that the one can exactly land on the original position of the other after a nite round jumps. 3 Let z1 , z2 , z3 be three complex numbers of which moduli are less than or equal to 1. w1 , w2 are two roots of the equation (z z1 )(z z2 ) + (z z2 )(z z3 ) + (z z3 )(z z1 ) = 0. Prove that for j = 1, 2, 3, min{|zj w1 |, |zj w2 |} 1 holds.

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

Quiz 3

1 Let P be the the isogonal conjugate of Q with respect to triangle ABC, and P, Q are in the interior of triangle ABC. Denote by O1 , O2 , O3 the circumcenters of triangle P BC, P CA, P AB, O1 , O2 , O3 the circumcenters of triangle QBC, QCA, QAB, O the circumcenter of triangle O1 O2 O3 , O the circumcenter of triangle O1 O2 O3 . Prove that OO is parallel to P Q. 2 Prove that for arbitary integer n > 16, there exists the set S that contains n positive integers and has the following property:if the subset A of S satises for arbitary a, a A, a = a , a + a S holds, then |A| 4 n. / 3 Let n > m > 1 be odd integers, let f (x) = xn +xm +x+1. Prove that f (x) cant be expressed as the product of two polynomials having integer coecients and positive degrees.

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

Quiz 4

1 Given a rectangle ABCD, let AB = b, AD = a(a b), three points X, Y, Z are put inside or on the boundary of the rectangle, arbitrarily. Find the maximum of the minimum of the distances between any two points among the three points. (Denote it by a, b) 2 Let x, y, z be positive real numbers, show that xy yz zx + + > 2 3 x3 + y 3 + z 3 . z x y

3 Let S be a set that contains n elements. Let A1 , A2 , , Ak be k distinct subsets of S, where k 2, |Ai | = ai 1(1 i k). Prove that the number of subsets of S that dont contain
k

any Ai (1 i k) is greater than or equal to 2n


i=1

(1

1 ). 2ai

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

Quiz 5

1 Let ABC be an acute triangle, let M, N be the midpoints of minor arcs CA, AB of the circumcircle of triangle ABC, point D is the midpoint of segment M N, point G lies on minor arc BC. Denote by I, I1 , I2 the incenters of triangle ABC, ABG, ACG respectively.Let P be the second intersection of the circumcircle of triangle GI1 I2 with the circumcircle of triangle ABC. Prove that three points D, I, P are collinear. 2 For a given integer n 2, determine the necessary and sucient conditions that real numbers a1 , a2 , , an , not all zero satisfy such that there exist integers 0 < x1 < x2 < < xn , satisfying a1 x1 + a2 x2 + + an xn 0. 3 Let 0 < x1
n n

x2 xn , 0 < yn yn1 y1 , Prove that ( 2 n

xk yk )2
k=1

(
k=1

yk )(
k=1

1 (x2 xk xk1 )yk ). where x0 = 0. k 4

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

Quiz 6

1 Prove that in a plane, arbitrary n points can be overlapped by discs that the sum of all the diameters is less than n, and the distances between arbitrary two are greater than 1. (where the distances between two discs that have no common points are dened as that the distances between its centers subtract the sum of its radii; the distances between two discs that have common points are zero) 2 Prove that for all n 2, there exists n-degree polynomial f (x) = xn + a1 xn1 + + an such that (1) a1 , a2 , , an all are unequal to 0; (2) f (x) cant be factorized into the product of two polynomials having integer coecients and positive degrees; (3) for any integers x, |f (x)| isnt prime numbers. 3 Find all positive integers n having the following properties:in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, there exists a convex n lattice polygon whose lengths of all sides are odd numbers, and unequal to each other. (where lattice polygon is dened as polygon whose coordinates of all vertices are integers in Cartesian coordinates.)

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China
Team Selection Test 2008

TST

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a triangle, let AB > AC. Its incircle touches side BC at point E. Point D is the second intersection of the incircle with segment AE (dierent from E). Point F (dierent from E) is taken on segment AE such that CE = CF . The ray CF meets BD at point G. Show that CF = F G. 2 The sequence {xn } is dened by x1 = 2, x2 = 12, and xn+2 = 6xn+1 xn , (n = 1, 2, . . .). Let p be an odd prime number, let q be a prime divisor of xp . Prove that if q = 2, 3, then q 2p 1. 3 Suppose that every positve integer has been given one of the colors red, blue,arbitrarily. Prove that there exists an innite sequence of positive integers a1 < a2 < a3 < < an < , a1 + a2 a2 + a3 a3 + a4 such that ininite sequence of positive integers a1 , , a2 , , a3 , , has 2 2 2 the same color. space*0.4cm

Day 2
4 Prove that for arbitary positive integer n 4, there exists a permutation of the subsets that contain at least two elements of the set Gn = {1, 2, 3, , n}: P1 , P2 , , P2n n1 such that |Pi Pi+1 | = 2, i = 1, 2, , 2n n 2. 5 For two given positive integers m, n > 1, let aij (i = 1, 2, , n, j = 1, 2, , m) be nonnegative real numbers, not all zero, nd the maximum and the minimum values of f , where n n ( m aij )2 + m m ( n aij )2 i=1 j=1 j=1 i=1 f= m m 2 . ( n aij )2 + mn n i=1 j=1 i=1 i=j aij 6 Find the maximal constant M , such that for arbitrary integer n 3, there exist two sequences
n

of positive real number a1 , a2 , , an , and b1 , b2 , , bn , satisfying (1):


k=1 k

bk = 1, 2bk bk1 +

bk+1 , k = 2, 3, , n 1;

(2):a2 k

1+
i=1

ai bi , k = 1, 2, 3, , n, an M .

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

Quiz 1

1 Given that circle is tangent internally to circle at S. touches the chord AB of at T . Let O be the center of . Point P lies on the line AO. Show that P B AB if and only if P S T S. 2 Let n, k be given positive integers satisfying k 2n 1. On a table tennis tournament 2n players take part, they play a total of k rounds match, each round is divided into n groups, each group two players match. The two players in dierent rounds can match on many occasions. Find the greatest positive integer m = f (n, k) such that no matter how the tournament processes, we always nd m players each of pair of which didnt match each other.
m n

3 Let x1 , x2 , , xm , y1 , y2 , , yn be positive real numbers. Denote by X =


i=1 m n n n m m

x, Y =
j=1

y.

Prove that 2XY


i=1 j=1

|xi yj | X

2 j=1 l=1

|yi yl | + Y

2 i=1 k=1

|xi xk |

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

Quiz 2

1 In convex pentagon ABCDE, denote by AD BE = F, BE CA = G, CA DB = H, DB EC = I, EC AD = J; AI BE = A , BJ = B , CF = C , DG EC = D , EH AD = E . AB CD EA BC DE Prove that = 1. BC DE AB CD EA 2 Find all the pairs of integers (a, b) satisfying ab(a b) = 0 such that there exists a subset Z0 of set of integers Z, for any integer n, exactly one among three integers n, n + a, n + b belongs to Z0 . 3 Consider function f : R R which satises the conditions for any mutually distinct real ab ad numbers a, b, c, d satisfying + = 0, f (a), f (b), f (c), f (d) are mutully dierent and bc dc f (a) f (b) f (a) f (d) + = 0. Prove that function f is linear f (b) f (c) f (d) f (c)

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

Quiz 3

1 Let , be real numbers satisfying 1 < < . Find the greatest positive integer r having the following property: each of positive integers is colored by one of r colors arbitrarily, there x always exist two integers x, y having the same color such that . y 2 In convex quadrilateral ABCD, CB, DA are external angle bisectors of DCA, CDB, respectively. Points E, F lie on the rays AC, BD respectively such that CEF D is cyclic quadrilateral. Point P lie in the plane of quadrilateral ABCD such that DA, CB are external angle bisectors of P DE, P CF respectively. AD intersects BC at Q. Prove that P lies on AB if and only if Q lies on segment EF . 3 Let f (x) be a ndegree polynomial all of whose coecients are equal to 1, and having x = 1 as its m multiple root. If m 2k (k 2, k N ), then n 2k+1 1.

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

Quiz 4

1 Given that points D, E lie on the sidelines AB, BC of triangle ABC, respectively, point P is in interior of triangle ABC such that P E = P C and DEP P CA. Prove that BP is tangent of the circumcircle of triangle P AD. 2 Find all integers n 2 having the following property: for any k integers a1 , a2 , , ak which arent congruent to each other (modulo n), there exists an integer polynomial f (x) such that congruence equation f (x) 0(modn) exactly has k roots x a1 , a2 , , ak (modn). 3 Let X be a set containing 2k elements, F is a set of subsets of X consisting of certain k elements such that any one subset of X consisting of k 1 elements is exactly contained in an element of F. Show that k + 1 is a prime number.

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

Quiz 5
1 Let n be a composite. Prove that there exists positive integer m satisfying m|n, m n, and d(n) d3 (m). Where d(k) denotes the number of positive divisors of positive integer k. 2 In acute triangle ABC, points P, Q lie on its sidelines AB, AC, respectively. The circumcircle of triangle ABC intersects of triangle AP Q at X (dierent from A). Let Y be the reection of X in line P Q. Given P X > P B. Prove that S XP Q > S Y BC . Where S XY Z denotes the area of triangle XY Z.
4

3 Let nonnegative real numbers a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 satisfy a1 +a2 +a3 +a4 = 1. Prove that max{
1

a2 + ai ai1 + a2 i i

2. Where for all integers i, ai+4 = ai holds.

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

Quiz 6
3n . n

1 Let a > b > 1, b is an odd number, let n be a positive integer. If bn |an 1, then ab >

2 Find all complex polynomial P (x) such that for any three integers a, b, c satisfying a + b + c = P (a) + P (b) + P (c) 0, is an integer. a+b+c 3 Let (an )n1 be a sequence of positive integers satisfying (am , an ) = a(m,n) (for all m, n N + ). Prove that for any n N + ,
d|n ( n ) d

ad

is an integer. where d|n denotes d take all positive

divisors of n. Function (n) is dened as follows: if n can be divided by square of certain prime number, then (1) = 1; (n) = 0; if n can be expressed as product of k dierent prime numbers, then (n) = (1)k .

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China
Team Selection Test 2009

TST

1 Let ABC be a triangle. Point D lies on its sideline BC such that CAD = CBA. Circle (O) passing through B, D intersects AB, AD at E, F , respectively. BF meets DE at G.Denote byM the midpoint of AG. Show that CM AO. 2 Given an integer n 2, nd the maximal constant (n) having the following property: if a sequence of real numbers a0 , a1 , a2 , , an satises 0 = a0 a1 a2 an , and n n 1 2 iai ) (n) a2 . ai (ai+1 + ai1 ), i = 1, 2, , n 1, then ( i 2
i=1 i=1

3 Prove that for any odd prime number p, the number of positive integer n satisfying p|n! + 1 2 is less than or equal to cp 3 . where c is a constant independent of p. 4 Let positive real numbers a, b satisfy b a > 2. Prove that for any two distinct integers m, n belonging to [a, b), there always exists non-empty set S consisting of certain integers belonging to [ab, (a + 1)(b + 1)) such that
xS

mn

is square of a rational number.

5 Let m > 1 be an integer, n is an odd number satisfying 3 n < 2m, number ai,j (i, j N, 1 i m, 1 j n) satises (1) for any 1 j n, a1,j , a2,j , , am,j is a permutation of 1, 2, 3, , m; (2) for any 1 < i m, 1 j n 1, |ai,j ai,j+1 | 1 holds. Find the
n

minimal value of M , where M = max1<i<m


j=1

ai,j .

6 Determine whether there exists an arithimethical progression consisting of 40 terms and each of whose terms can be written in the form 2m +3n or not. where m, n are nonnegative integers.

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China
(Western Mathematical Olympiad)

2001-2008

China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2001

Day 1
x2 1 1 The sequence {xn } satises x1 = , xn+1 = xn + n . Prove that x2001 < 1001. 2 n2 2 ABCD is a rectangle of area 2. P is a point on side CD and Q is the point where the incircle of P AB touches the side AB. The product P A P B varies as ABCD and P vary. When P A P B attains its minimum value, a) Prove that AB 2BC, b) Find the value of AQ BQ. 3 Let n, m be positive integers of dierent parity, and n > m. Find all integers x such that n x2 1 is a perfect square. x2m 1 4 Let x, y, z be real numbers such that x + y + z xyz. Find the smallest possible value of x2 + y 2 + z 2 . xyz

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2001

Day 2
1 Find all real numbers x such that x3 = 4x + 3. 2 P is a point on the exterior of a circle centered at O. The tangents to the circle from P touch the circle at A and B. Let Q be the point of intersection of P O and AB. Let CD be any chord of the circle passing through Q. Prove that P AB and P CD have the same incentre. 3 Find, with proof, all real numbers x [0, ], such that (2 sin 2x) sin(x + ) = 1. 2 4 4 We call A1 , A2 , . . . , An an n-division of A if (i) A1 A2 An = A, (ii) Ai Aj = . Find the smallest positive integer m such that for any 14-division A1 , A2 , . . . , A14 of A = {1, 2, . . . , m}, there exists a set Ai (1 i 14) such that there are two elements a, b of Ai 4 such that b < a b. 3

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2002

Day 1
1 Find all positive integers n such that n4 4n3 + 22n2 36n + 18 is a perfect square. 2 Let O be the circumcenter of acute triangle ABC. Point P is in the interior of triangle AOB. Let D, E, F be the projections of P on the sides BC, CA, AB, respectively. Prove that the parallelogram consisting of F E and F D as its adjacent sides lies inside triangle ABC. 3 In the complex plane, consider squares having the following property: the complex numbers its vertex correspond to are exactly the roots of integer coecients equation x4 + px3 + qx2 + rx + s = 0. Find the minimum of square areas. 4 Let n be a positive integer, let the sets A1 , A2 , , An+1 be non-empty subsets of the set {1, 2, , n}. prove that there exist two disjoint non-empty subsets of the set {1, 2, , n+1}: {i1 , i2 , , ik } and {j1 , j2 , , jm } such that Ai1 Ai2 Aik = Aj1 Aj2 Ajm .

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2002

Day 2
1 Given a trapezoid ABCD with AD BC, E is a moving point on the side AB, let O1 , O2 be the circumcenters of triangles AED, BEC, respectively. Prove that the length of O1 O2 is a constant value. 2 Given a positive integer n, nd all integers (a1 , a2 , , an ) satisfying the following conditions: (1) : a1 + a2 + + an n2 ; (2) : a2 + a2 + + a2 n3 + 1. 1 2 n 3 Assume that and are two roots of the equation: x2 x 1 = 0. Let an = n n , n = 1, 2, . (1) Prove that for any positive integer n, we have an+2 = an+1 + an . (2) Find all positive integers a and b, a < b, satisfying that b divides an 2n an for any positive integer n.

4 Assume that S = (a1 , a2 , , an ) consists of 0 and 1 and is the longest sequence of number, which satises the following condition: Every two sections of successive 5 terms in the sequence of numbers S are dierent, i.e., for arbitrary 1 i < j n 4, (ai , ai+1 , ai+2 , ai+3 , ai+4 ) and (aj , aj+1 , aj+2 , aj+3 , aj+4 ) are dierent. Prove that the rst four terms and the last four terms in the sequence are the same.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2003

Day 1
1 Place the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 at the vertices of a cuboid such that the sum of any 3 numbers on a side is not less than 10. Find the smallest possible sum of the 4 numbers on a side.
2n1

2 Let a1 , a2 , . . . , a2n be 2n real numbers satisfying the condition


i=1

(ai+1 ai )2 = 1. Find the

greatest possible value of (an+1 + an+2 + . . . + a2n ) (a1 + a2 + . . . + an ). 3 Let n be a given positive integer. Find the smallest positive integer un such that for any positive integer d, in any un consecutive odd positive integers, the number of them that can be divided by d is not smaller than the number of odd integers among 1, 3, 5, . . . , 2n 1 that can be divided by d. 4 Given that the sum of the distances from point P in the interior of a convex quadrilateral ABCD to the sides AB, BC, CD, DA is a constant, prove that ABCD is a parallelogram.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2003

Day 2
1 The sequence {an } satises a0 = 0, an+1 = kan + (k 2 1)a2 + 1, n = 0, 1, 2, . . ., where k n is a xed positive integer. Prove that all the terms of the sequence are integral and that 2k divides a2n , n = 0, 1, 2, . . .. 2 A circle can be inscribed in the convex quadrilateral ABCD. The incircle touches the sides AB, BC, CD, DA at A1 , B1 , C1 , D1 respectively. The points E, F, G, H are the midpoints of A1 B1 , B1 C1 , C1 D1 , D1 A1 respectively. Prove that the quadrilateral EF GH is a rectangle if and only if A, B, C, D are concyclic.
5

3 The non-negative numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , x5 satisfy


i=1

1 = 1. Prove that 1 + xi

5 i=1

xi 1. 4 + x2 i

4 1650 students are arranged in 22 rows and 75 columns. It is known that in any two columns, the number of pairs of students in the same row and of the same sex is not greater than 11. Prove that the number of boys is not greater than 928.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2004

Day 1
1 Find all integers n, such that the following number is a perfect square N = n4 + 6n3 + 11n2 + 3n + 31. 2 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral, I1 and I2 be the incenters of triangles ABC and DBC respectively. The line I1 I2 intersects the lines AB and DC at points E and F respectively. Given that AB and CD intersect in P , and P E = P F , prove that the points A, B, C, D lie on a circle. 3 Find all reals k such that a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 + 1 k(a + b + c + d) holds for all a, b, c, d 1. Edited by orl. 4 Let N be the set of positive integers. Let n N and let d(n) be the number of divisors of n. Let (n) be the Euler-totient function (the number of co-prime positive integers with n, smaller than n). Find all non-negative integers c such that there exists n N such that d(n) + (n) = n + c, and for such c nd all values of n satisfying the above relationship.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2004

Day 2
1 The sequence {an }n satises the relations a1 = a2 = 1 and for all positive integers n, an+2 = Find a2004 . 2 All the grids of a m n chess board (m, n 3), are colored either with red or with blue. Two adjacent grids (having a common side) are called a good couple if they have dierent colors. Suppose there are S good couples. Explain how to determine whether S is odd or even. Is it prescribed by some specic color grids? Justify your answers. 3 Let be the perimeter of an acute-angled triangle ABC which is not an equilateral triangle. Let P be a variable points inside the triangle ABC, and let D, E, F be the projections of P on the sides BC, CA, AB respectively. Prove that 2(AF + BD + CE) = if and only if P is collinear with the incenter and the circumcenter of the triangle ABC. 4 Suppose that a, b, c are positive real numbers, prove that a b c 3 2 1< + + 2 a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2 1 + an . an+1

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad Chendu, Sichuan 2005

Day 1 - 05 November 2005


1 It is known that a2005 + b2005 can be expressed as the polynomial of a + b and ab. Find the coecients sum of this polynomial. 2 Given three points P , A, B and a circle such that the lines P A and P B are tangent to the circle at the points A and B, respectively. A line through the point P intersects that circle at two points C and D. Through the point B, draw a line parallel to P A; let this line intersect the lines AC and AD at the points E and F , respectively. Prove that BE = BF . 3 Set S = {1, 2, 3, ..., 2005}. If among any n pairwise coprime numbers in S there exists at least a prime number, nd the minimum of n. 4 Given is the positive integer n > 2. Real numbers | xi | 1 (i = 1, 2, ..., n) satisfying
n k n

|
i=1

xi |> 1. Prove that there exists positive integer k such that |


i=1

xi
i=k+1

xi | 1.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad Chendu, Sichuan 2005

Day 2 - 06 November 2005


5 Circles C(O1 ) and C(O2 ) intersect at points A, B. CD passing through point O1 intersects C(O1 ) at point D and tangents C(O2 ) at point C. AC tangents C(O1 ) at A. Draw AECD, and AE intersects C(O1 ) at E. Draw AF DE, and AF intersects DE at F . Prove that BD bisects AF . 6 In isosceles right-angled triangle ABC, CA = CB = 1. P is an arbitrary point on the sides of ABC. Find the maximum of P A P B P C. 7 If a, b, c are positive reals such that a + b + c = 1, prove that 10(a3 + b3 + c3 ) 9(a5 + b5 + c5 ) 1. 8 For n people, if it is known that (a) there exist two people knowing each other among any three people, and (b) there exist two people not knowing each other among any four people. Find the maximum of n. Here, we assume that if A knows B, then B knows A.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2006

Day 1
1 Let n be a positive integer with n 2, and 0 < a1 , a2 , ..., an < 1. Find the maximum value
n

of the sum
i=1

(ai (1 ai+1 )) 6 where an+1 = a1

2 Find the smallest positive real k satisfying the following condition: for any given four DIFFERENT real numbers a, b, c, d, which are not less than k, there exists a permutation (p, q, r, s) of (a, b, c, d), such that the equation (x2 + px + q)(x2 + rx + s) = 0 has four dierent real roots. 3 In P BC, P BC = 60o , the tangent at point P to the circumcircleg of P BC intersects with line CB at A. Points D and E lie on the line segment P A and g respectively, satisfying DBE = 90o , P D = P E. BE and P C meet at F . It is known that lines AF, BP, CD are concurrent. a) Prove that BF bisect P BC b) Find tan P CB 4 Assuming that the positive integer a is not a perfect square, prove that for any positive integer
n

n, the sum Sn =
i=1

{a 2 }i is irrational.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2006

Day 2
1 Let S = {n|n 1, n, n + 1 can be expressed as the sum of the square of two positive integers.}. Prove that if n in S, n2 is also in S. 2 AB is a diameter of the circle O, the point C lies on the line AB produced. A line passing though C intersects with the circle O at the point D and E. OF is a diameter of circumcircle O1 of BOD. Join CF and produce, cutting the circle O1 at G. Prove that points O, A, E, G are concyclic. 3 Let k be a positive integer not less than 3 and x a real number. Prove that if cos(k 1)x and cos kx are rational, then there exists a positive integer n > k, such that both cos(n 1)x and cos nx are rational. 4 Given a positive integer n 2, let B1 , B2 , ..., Bn denote n subsets of a set X such that each Bi contains exactly two elements. Find the minimum value of |X| such that for any such choice of subsets B1 , B2 , ..., Bn , there exists a subset Y of X such that: (1) |Y | = n; (2) |Y Bi | 1 for every i {1, 2, ..., n}.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2007

Day 1
1 Let set T = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}.Find the number of all nonempty subsets A of T such that 3|S(A) and 5 S(A),where S(A) is the sum of all elements of A. 2 Let C and D be two intersection points of circle O1 and circle O2 .A line,passing through D,intersects with circle O1 and circle O2 at points A and B respectively.The points P and Q are on circles O1 and O2 respectively.The lines P D and AC intersect at H,and the lines QD and BC intersect at M .Suppose that O is the circumcenter of the triangle ABC,prove that OD M H is and only if P, Q, M and H are concyclic. Ill add an image later,because there was an image on the problem list. 3 Let a, b, c be real numbers,such that a + b + c = 3.Prove that 1 1 . 5c2 4c + 11 4 1 1 + + 5a2 4a + 11 5b2 4b + 11

4 Let O be an interior point of the triangle ABC.Prove that there exist positive integers p, q 1 and r,such that |p OA + q OB + r OC| < . 2007

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2007

Day 2
1 Is there a triangle with sides of integer lengths,satisfying that the length of the shortest side 2007 and that the largest angle is twice the smallest. 2 Find all natural numbers n,such that there exist x1 , x2 . . . , xn , y Z, (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y = 0) and x1 + x2 + + xn = 0 ny 2 = x2 + x2 + + x2 . 1 2 n 3 Let P be an interior point of an acute angled triangle ABC.The lines AP, BP, CP meet BC, CA, AB at points D, E, F respectively.Given that triangle DEF and ABC are similar.Prove that P is the centroid of ABC. 4 A circular disk is partitioned into 2n equal sectors by n straight lines through its center. Then, these 2n sectors are colored in such a way that exactly n of the sectors are colored in blue, and the other n sectors are colored in red. We number the red sectors with numbers from 1 to n in counter-clockwise direction (starting at some of these red sectors), and then we number the blue sectors with numbers from 1 to n in clockwise direction (starting at some of these blue sectors). Prove that one can nd a half-disk which contains sectors numbered with all the numbers from 1 to n (in some order). (In other words, prove that one can nd n consecutive sectors which are numbered by all numbers 1, 2, ..., n in some order.) Problem 8 from CWMO 2007: n white and n black balls are placed at random on the circumference of a circle.Starting from a certain white ball,number all white balls in a clockwise direction by 1, 2, . . . , n. Likewise number all black balls by 1, 2, . . . , n in anti-clockwise direction starting from a certain black ball.Prove that there exists a chain of n balls whose collection of numbering forms the set {1, 2, 3 . . . , n}.

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2008

Day 1
1 A sequence of real numbers {an } is deneds by a0 = 0, 1, a1 = 1 a0 ,an+1 = 1 an (1 an ), n = 1, 2, .... 1 1 1 Prove that for any positive integer n, we have a0 a1 ...an ( + + ... + ) = 1 a0 a1 an 2 In triangle ABC, AB = AC, the inscribed circle I touches BC, CA, AB at points D, E and F respectively. P is a point on arc EF opposite D. Line BP intersects circle I at another point Q, lines EP , EQ meet line BC at M, N respectively. Prove that (1) P, F, B, M concyclic BD EM = (2) EN BP (P.S. Can anyone help me with using GeoGebra, the incircle function of the plugin doesnt work with my computer.) 3 Given an integer m 2, m positive integers a1 , a2 , ...am . Prove that there exist innitely many positive integers n, such that a1 1n + a2 2n + ... + am mn is composite. 4 Given an integer m 2, and two real numbers a, b with a > 0 and b = 0. The sequence {xn } is such that x1 = b and xn+1 = axm + b, n = 1, 2, .... Prove that (1)when b < 0 and m is n even, the sequence is bounded if and only if abm1 2; (2)when b < 0 and m is odd, or (m 1)m1 when b > 0 the sequence is bounded if and only if abm1 . mm

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China
Western Mathematical Olympiad 2008

Day 2
1 Four frogs are positioned at four points on a straight line such that the distance between any two neighbouring points is 1 unit length. Suppose the every frog can jump to its corresponding point of reection, by taking any one of the other 3 frogs as the reference point. Prove that, there is no such case that the distance between any two neighbouring points, where the frogs stay, are all equal to 2008 unit length. 2 Given x, y, z (0, 1) satisfying that value of xyz. 3 For a given positive integer n, nd the greatest positive integer k, such that there exist three sets of k non-negative distinct integers, A=x1 , x2 , ..., xk , B = y1 , y2 , ..., xykandC = z1 , z2 , ..., zk withxj + yj + zj = n for any 1 j k. 4 Let P be an interior point of a regular n-gon A1 A2 ...An , the lines Ai P meet the regular n-gon at another point Bi , where i = 1, 2, ..., n. Prove that sums of all P Ai sum of all P Bi . 1x + yz 1y + xz 1z = 2. Find the maximum xy

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China
(Sourth and North)

2005 & 2007

China
Northern Mathematical Olympiad 2007

Day 1
1 Let ABC be acute triangle. The circle with diameter AB intersects CA, CB at M, N, respectively. Draw CT AB and intersects above circle at T , where C and T lie on the same side of AB. S is a point on AN such that BT = BS. Prove that BS SC. 2 Let a, b, c be side lengths of a triangle and a + b + c = 3. Find the minimum of a2 + b2 + c2 + 4abc 3

3 Sequence {an } is dened by a1 = 2007, an+1 =

a2 n for n 1. Prove that [an ] = 2007 n an + 1 for 0 n 1004, where [x] denotes the largest integer no larger than x.

4 For every point on the plane, one of n colors are colored to it such that: (1) Every color is used innitely many times. (2) There exists one line such that all points on this lines are colored exactly by one of two colors. Find the least value of n such that there exist four concyclic points with pairwise distinct colors.

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China
Northern Mathematical Olympiad 2007

Day 2
1 Let , be acute angles. Find the maximum value of 1 tan tan cot + cot 2 Let f be a function given by f (x) = lg(x + 1) a) Solve the equation f (x) = 0. b) Find the number of the subsets of the set {n|f (n2 214n 1998) 0, n Z}. 3 Let n be a positive integer and [ n] = a. Find the largest integer n such that the following two conditions are satised: (1) n is not a perfect square; (2) a3 divides n2 . 4 The inradius of triangle ABC is 1 and the side lengths of ABC are all integers. Prove that triangle ABC is right-angled.
2

1 log3 x. 2

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China
South East Mathematical Olympiad Fuzhou 2005

Day 1 - 10 July 2005


1 Let a R be a parameter. (1) Prove that the curves of y = x2 + (a + 2)x 2a + 1 pass through a xed point; also, the vertices of these parabolas all lie on the curve of a certain parabola. (2) If the function x2 + (a + 2)x 2a + 1 = 0 has two distinct real roots, nd the value range of the larger root. 2 Circle C (with center O) does not have common point with line l. Draw OP perpendicular to l, P l. Let Q be a point on l (Q is dierent from P ), QA and QB are tangent to circle C, and intersect the circle at A and B respectively. AB intersects OP at K. P M , P N are perpendicular to QB, QA, respectively, M QB, N QA. Prove that segment KP is bisected by line M N . 3 Let n be positive integer, set M = {1, 2, . . . , 2n}. Find the minimum positive integer k such that for any subset A (with k elements) of set M , there exist four pairwise distinct elements in A whose sum is 4n + 1. 4 Find all positive integer solutions (a, b, c) to the function a2 + b2 + c2 = 2005, where a b c.

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China
South East Mathematical Olympiad Fuzhou 2005

Day 2 - 11 July 2005


5 Line l tangents unit circle S in point P . Point A and circle S are on the same side of l, and the distance from A to l is h (h > 2). Two tangents of circle S are drawn from A, and intersect line l at points B and C respectively. Find the value of P B P C. 6 Let P (A) be the arithmetic-means of all elements of set A = {a1 , a2 , . . . , an }, namely P (A) = n 1 ai . We denote B balanced subset of A, if B is a non-empty subset of A and P (B) = n i=1 P (A). Let set M = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. Find the number of all balanced subset of M . 7 (1) Find the possible number of roots for the equation |x + 1| + |x + 2| + |x + 3| = a, where x R and a is parameter. (2) Let {a1 , a2 , . . . , an } be an arithmetic progression, n N, and satisfy the condition
n n n

|ai | =
i=1 i=1

|ai + 1| =
i=1

|ai 2| = 507.

Find the maximum value of n. 8 Let 0 < , , < and sin3 + sin3 + sin3 = 1. Prove that 2 3 3 2 2 2 . tan + tan + tan 2

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Costarica
2003-2008

Costa Rica
Final Round 2003

Day 1 - 26 August 2003


1 Two players A and B participate in the following game. Initially we have a pile of 2003 stones. A plays rst, and he picks a divisor of 2003 and removes that number of stones from the pile. Then B picks a divisor of the number of remaining stones, and removes that number of stones from the pile, and so forth. The players who removes the last stone loses. Prove that one of the players has a winning strategy and describe it. 2 Let AB be a diameter of circle . is the tangent line to at B. Take two points C, D on such that B is between C and D. E, F are the intersections of and AC, AD, respectively, and G, H are the intersections of and CF , DE, respectively. Prove that AH = AG. 3 If a > 1 and b > 2 are positive integers, show that ab + 1 b(a + 1), and determine when equality holds.

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Costa Rica
Final Round 2003

Day 2 - 27 August 2003


4 S1 and S2 are two circles that intersect at distinct points P and Q. 1 and 2 are two parallel lines through P and Q. 1 intersects S1 and S2 at points A1 and A2 , dierent from P , respectively. 2 intersects S1 and S2 at points B1 and B2 , dierent from Q, respectively. Show that the perimeters of the triangles A1 QA2 and B1 P B2 are equal. 5 Each of the squares of an 8 8 board can be colored white or black. Find the number of colorings of the board such that every 2 2 square contains exactly 2 black squares and 2 white squares. 6 Lets say a positive integer is tico if the sum of its digits is divisible by 2003. i) Show that there exists a number N such that its rst 2003 multiples N, 2N, , 2003N are all tico. ii) Does there exist a positive integer such that all its multiples are tico?

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Costa Rica
Final Round 2006

Day 1
1 Consider the set S = {1, 2, ..., n}. For every k S, dene Sk = {X S, k X, X = }. / Determine the value of the sum
Sk = {i1 ,i2 ,...,ir }Sk

1 i1 i2 ... ir

in fact, this problem was taken from an austrian-polish 2 If a, b, c are the sidelengths of a triangle, then prove that 3 a4 + b4 + c4 (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 + bc + ca + ab 2. a2 + b2 + c2

3 Let ABC be a triangle. Let P, Q, R be the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respectively. Let U, V, W be the midpoints of QR, RP, P Q respectively. Let x = AU, y = BV, z = CW . Prove that there exist a triangle with sides x, y, z.

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Costa Rica
Final Round 2006

Day 2
1 Let f be a function that satises : f (x) + 2f Find f (2004). 2 Let n be a positive integer, and let p be a prime, such that n > p. Prove that : n p n p (mod p). x + 2001 2 x1 = 4014 x.

3 Given a triangle ABC satisfying AC + BC = 3 AB. The incircle of triangle ABC has center I and touches the sides BC and CA at the points D and E, respectively. Let K and L be the reections of the points D and E with respect to I. Prove that the points A, B, K, L lie on one circle.

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Costa Rica
Final Round 2008

1 We want to colour all the squares of an nxn board of red or black. The colorations should be such that any subsquare of 2x2 of the board have exactly two squares of each color. If n 2 how many such colorations are possible? 2 Let ABC be a triangle and let P be a point on the angle bisector AD, with D on BC. Let E, F and G be the intersections of AP , BP and CP with the circumcircle of the triangle, respectively. Let H be the intersection of EF and AC, and let I be the intersection of EG and AB. Determine the geometric place of the intersection of BH and CI when P varies. 3 Find all polinomials P (x) with real coecients, such that P ( 3(a b)) + P ( 3(b c)) + P ( 3(c a)) = P (2a b c) + P (a + 2b c) + P (a b + 2c) for any a,b and c real numbers 4 Let x, y and z be non negative reals, such that there are not two simultaneously equal to 0. Show that x+y y+z y+z z+x z+x x+y x2 + y 2 + z 2 + + + + + 5+ and determine the y+z x+y z+x y+z x+y z+x xy + yz + zx equality cases. 5 Let p be a prime number such that p 1 is a perfect square. Prove that the equation a2 + (p 1)b2 = pc2 has innite many integer solutions a, b and c with (a, b, c) = 1 6 Let O be the circumcircle of a ABC and let I be its incenter, for a point P of the plane let f (P ) be the point obtained by reecting P by the midpoint of OI, with P the homothety R of P with center O and ratio with r the inradii and R the circumradii,(understand it by r OP R = ). Let A1 , B1 and C1 the midpoints of BC, AC and AB, respectively. Show that OP r the rays A1 f (A), B1 f (B) and C1 f (C) concur on the incircle.

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France
(Team Selection Test)

2005-2007

France
Team Selection Test Paris 2005

Day 1 - 26 May 2005


1 Let x, y be two positive integers such that 3x2 + x = 4y 2 + y. Prove that x y is a perfect square. 2 Two right angled triangles are given, such that the incircle of the rst one is equal to the circumcircle of the second one. Let S (respectively S ) be the area of the rst triangle (respectively of the second triangle). S 3 + 2 2. Prove that S 3 In an international meeting of n 3 participants, 14 languages are spoken. We know that: - Any 3 participants speak a common language. - No language is spoken more that by the half of the participants. What is the least value of n?

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France
Team Selection Test Paris 2005

Day 2 - 27 May 2005


4 Let X be a non empty subset of N = {1, 2, . . .}. Suppose that for all x X, 4x X and x X. Prove that X = N. 1 5 Let ABC be a triangle such that BC = AC + AB. Let P be a point of AB such that 2 AP = 3P B. Show that P AC = 2CP A. 6 Let P be a polynom of degree n 5 with integer coecients given by P (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a0 with ai Z, an = 0. Suppose that P has n dierent integer roots (elements of Z) : 0, 2 , . . . , n . Find all integers k Z such that P (P (k)) = 0.

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France
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 1
1 Let ABCD be a square and let be the circumcircle of ABCD. M is a point of belonging to the arc CD which doesnt contain A. P and R are respectively the intersection points of (AM ) with [BD] and [CD], Q and S are respectively the intersection points of (BM ) with [AC] and [DC]. Prove that (P S) and (QR) are perpendicular. 2 Let a, b, c be three positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Show that: a b c 3 + + . (a + 1)(b + 1) (b + 1)(c + 1) (c + 1)(a + 1) 4 When is there equality? 3 Let a, b be positive integers such that bn + n is a multiple of an + n for all positive integers n. Prove that a = b.

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France
Team Selection Test 2006

Day 2
1 In a 2 n array we have positive reals s.t. the sum of the numbers in each of the n columns is 1. Show that we can select a number in each column s.t. the sum of the selected numbers n+1 . in each row is at most 4 2 Given a triangle ABC satisfying AC + BC = 3 AB. The incircle of triangle ABC has center I and touches the sides BC and CA at the points D and E, respectively. Let K and L be the reections of the points D and E with respect to I. Prove that the points A, B, K, L lie on one circle. 3 Let M = {1, 2, . . . , 3 n}. Partition M into three sets A, B, C which card A = card B = card C = n. Prove that there exists a in A, b in B, c in C such that or a = b + c, or b = c + a, or c=a+b Edited by orl.

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France
Team Selection Test 2007

Day 1
1 For a positive integer a, a is the integer obtained by the following method: the decimal writing of a is the inverse of the decimal writing of a (the decimal writing of a can begin by zeros, but not the one of a); for instance if a = 2370, a = 0732, that is 732. Let a1 be a positive integer, and (an )n1 the sequence dened by a1 and the following formula for n 1: an+1 = an + an . Can a7 be prime? 2 Let a, b, c, d be positive reals such taht a + b + c + d = 1. Prove that: 1 6(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + . 8

3 Let A, B, C, D be four distinct points on a circle such that the lines (AC) and (BD) intersect at E, the lines (AD) and (BC) intersect at F and such that (AB) and (CD) are not parallel. Prove that C, D, E, F are on the same circle if, and only if, (EF )(AB).

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France
Team Selection Test 2007

Day 2
1 Do there existe 5 points in the space such that for all n {1, 2, . . . , 10} there exist two points such that the distance between them is n? 2 Find all functions f : Z Z such that for all x, y Z: f (x y + f (y)) = f (x) + f (y). 3 Let ABC be a triangle such that ACB < BAC < . Let D be a point of [AC] such that 2 BD = BA. The incircle of ABC touches [AB] at K and [AC] at L. Let J be the center of the incircle of BCD. Prove that (KL) intersects [AJ] at its middle.

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Germany
(Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik)

1971-2006

Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1971

Day 1
1 The numbers 1, 2, ..., 1970 are written on a board. One is allowed to remove 2 numbers and to write down their dierence instead. When repeated often enough, only one number remains. Show that this number is odd. 2 You are given a piece of paper. You can cut the paper into 8 or 12 pieces. Then you can do so for any of the new pieces or let them uncut and so on. Can you get exactly 60 pieces Show that you can get every number of pieces greater than 60. 3 Given ve segments such that any three of them can be used to form a triangle. Show that at least one of these triangles is acute-angled. Alternative formulation: Five segments have lengths such that any three of them can be sides of a triangle. Prove that there exists at least one acute-angled triangle among these triangles. 4 Let P and Q be two horizontal neighbouring squares on a n n chess board, P on the left and Q on the right. On the left square P there is a stone that shall be moved around the board. The following moves are allowed: 1) move it one square upwards 2) move it one square to the right 3) move it one square down and one square to the left (diagonal movement) Example: you can get from e5 to f 5, e6 and d4. Show that for no n there is tour visting every square exactly once and ending in Q.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1971

Day 2
1 a, b, c, d are positive integers with ab = cd. Show that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 is not prime. Find and prove also a generalization. 2 The inhabitants of a planet speak a language only using the letters A and O. To avoid mistakes, any two words of equal length dier at least on three positions. Show that there 2n are not more than words with n letters. n+1 3 Between any two cities of a country there is only one one-way road. Show that there is a city from that every other city can be reached directly or by going over only one intermediate city. Im sure it was posted before but couldnt nd it. 4 Inside a square with side lengths 1 a broken line of length > 1000 without selntersection is drawn. Show that there is a line parallel to a side of the square that intersects the broken line in at least 501 points.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1972

Day 1
1 Theres a real number written on every eld of a n n chess board. The sum of all numbers of a cross (union of a line and a column) is a. Whats the smallest possible sum of all numbers on the board 2 In a plane, there are n 3 circular beer mats B1 , B2 , ..., Bn of equal size. Bk touches Bk+1 (k = 1, 2, ..., n); Bn+1 = B1 . The beer mats are placed such that another beer mat B of equal size touches all of them in the given order if rolling along the outside of the chain of beer mats. How many rotations B makes untill it returns to its starting position 3 2n1 subsets are choosen from a set with n elements, such that every three of these subsets have an element in common. Show that all subsets have an element in common.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1972

Day 2
1 Given an innity chess board and a knight on it. On how many dierent elds the knight can be after n steps 2 Prove: out of 79 consecutive positive integers, one can nd at least one whose sum of digits is divisible by 13. Show that this isnt true for 78 consecutive integers. 3 The arithmetic mean of two dierent positive integers x, y is a two digit integer. If one interchanges the digits, the geometric mean of these numbers is archieved. a) Find x, y. b) Show that a)s solution is unique up to permutation if we work in base g = 10, but that there is no solution in base g = 12. c) Give more numbers g such that a) can be solved; give more of them such that a) cant be solved, too. 4 p > 2 persons participate at a chess tournament, two players play at most one game against each other. After n games were made, no more game is running and in every subset of three p2 players, we can nd at least two that havemt played against each other. Show that n . 4

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1973

Day 1
1 A positive integer has 1000 digits (decimal system), all but at most one of them being the digit 5. Show that this number isnt a perfect square. 2 In a planar lake, every point can be reached by a straight line from the point A. The same holds for the point B. Show that this holds for every point on the segment [AB], too. 3 Given n digits a1 , a2 , ..., an in that order. Does there exist a positive integer such that the rst n decimal digits after the dot of that numbers square root are exactly those given digits Give reason for your answer. 4 n persons sit around a round table. The number of persons having the same gender than the person at the right of them is the same as the number of those it isnt true for. Show that 4|n.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1973

Day 2
1 In a square of sidelength 7, 51 points are given. Show that theres a disk of radius 1 covering at least 3 of these points. 2 We work in the decimal system and the following operations are allowed to be done with a positive integer: a) append 4 at the end of the number. b) append 0 at the end of the number. c) divide the number by 2 if its even. Show that starting with 4, we can reach every positive integer by a nite number of these operations 3 For covering the oor of a rectangular room rectangular tiles of sizes 2 2 and 4 1 were used. Show that its not possible to cover the oor if there is one plate less of one type and one more of the other type. 4 Prove: for every positive integer there exists a positive integer having n digits, all of them being 1s and 2s only, such that this number is divisible by 2n . Is this still true in base 4 or 6

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1985

Day 1
3 Starting with the sequence F1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, . . .) of the natural numbers further sequences are generated as follows: Fn+1 is created from Fn by the following rule: the order of elements remains unchanged, the elements from Fn which are divisible by n are increased by 1 and the other elements from Fn remain unchanged. Example: F2 = (2, 3, 4, 5 . . .) and F3 = (3, 3, 5, 5, . . .). Determine all natural numbers n such that exactly the rst n 1 elements of Fn take the value n. 4 Each point of the 3-dimensional space is coloured with exactly one of the colours red, green and blue. Let R, G and B, respectively, be the sets of the lengths of those segments in space whose both endpoints have the same colour (which means that both are red, both are green and both are blue, respectively). Prove that at least one of these three sets includes all non-negative reals.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1985

Day 2
3 From a point in space, n rays are issuing, whereas the angle among any two of these rays is at least 30 . Prove that n < 59.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1986

3 Let dn be the last digit, distinct from 0, in the decimal expansion of n!. Prove that the sequence d1 , d2 , d3 , . . . is not periodic.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1988

Day 1
2 Let ha , hb and hc be the heights and r the inradius of a triangle. Prove that the triangle is equilateral if and only if ha + hb + hc = 9r.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1988

Day 2
4 Provided the equation xyz = pn (x + y + z) where p 3 is a prime and n N. Prove that the equation has at least 3n + 3 dierent solutions (x, y, z) with natural numbers x, y, z and x < y < z. Prove the same for p > 3 being an odd integer.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1990

4 In the plane there is a worm of length 1. Prove that it can be always covered by means of half of a circular disk of diameter 1. Note. Under a worm, we understand a continuous curve. The half of a circular disk is a semicircle including its boundary.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1991

2 In the space there are 8 points that no four of them are in the plane. 17 of the connecting segments are coloured blue and the other segments are to be coloured red. Prove that this colouring will create at least four triangles. Prove also that four cannot be subsituted by ve. Remark: Blue triangles are those triangles whose three edges are coloured blue. 3 A set M of points in the plane will be called obtuse, if any 3 points from M are the vertices of an obtuse triangle. a.) Prove: For each nite obtuse set M there is a point in the plane with the following property: P is no element from M and M {P } is also obtuse. b.) Determine whether the statement from a.) will remain valid, if it is replaced by innite. 4 Given wo non-negative integers a and b, one of them is odd and the other one even. By the following rule we dene two sequences (an ), (bn ): a0 = a, a1 = b, an+1 = 2an an1 + 2 (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .)

b0 = b,

b1 = a,

bn+1 = 2an bn1 + 2

(n = 1, 2, 3, . . .)

Prove none of these two sequences contain a negative element if and only if we have that | a b| 1.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 1992

3 Provided a convex equilateral pentagon. On every side of the pentagon We construct equilateral triangles which run through the interior of the pentagon. Prove that at least one of the triangles does not protrude the pentagons boundary. 4 For three sequences (xn ), (yn ), (zn ) with positive starting elements x1 , y1 , z1 we have the following formulae: xn+1 = yn + 1 zn yn+1 = zn + 1 xn zn+1 = xn + 1 yn (n = 1, 2, 3, . . .)

a.) Prove that none of the three sequences is bounded from above. b.) At least one of the numbers x200 , y200 , z200 is greater than 20.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2001

Round 1

1 On a table there is a pile with T tokens which incrementally shall be converted into piles with three tokens each. Each step is constituted of selecting one pile removing one of its tokens. And then the remaining pile is separated into two piles. Is there a sequence of steps that can accomplish this process? a.) T = 1000 (Cono Sur) b.) T = 2001 (BWM) 2 For a sequence ai R, i {1, . . . , n} we have a0 = 1 and an+1 = an + an+1 + an n N.

Prove that this sequence is unique and nd an explicit formula for this recursively dened sequence. 3 Let ABC an acute triangle with circumcircle center O. The line (BO) intersects the circumcircle again in D, and the extension of the altitude from A intersects the circle in E. Prove that the quadrilateral BECD and the triangle ABC have the same area. 4 Prove: For each positive integer is the number of divisors whose decimal representations ends with a 1 or 9 not less than the number of divisors whose decimal representations ends with 3 or 7.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2001

Round 2

1 10 vertices of a regular 100-gon are coloured red and ten other (distinct) vertices are coloured blue. Prove that there is at least one connection edge (segment) of two red which is as long as the connection edge of two blue points. Hint: Possible approaches are pigeon hole principle, proof by contradiction, consider turns (bijective congruent mappings) which maps red in blue points. 2 For each n N we have two numbers pn , qn with the following property: For exactly n distinct integer numbers x the number x2 + pn x + qn is the square of a natural number. (Note the denition of natural numbers includes the zero here.) 3 Let ABC be a triangle. Points A , B , C are on the sides BC, CA, AB, respectively such that we have AB =BC =CA and AB = BC = CA . Prove that triangle ABC is equilateral. 4 A square R of sidelength 250 lies inside a square Q of sidelength 500. Prove that: One can always nd two points A and B on the perimeter of Q such that the segment AB has no common point with the square R, and the length of this segment AB is greater than 521.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2002

Day 1
1 Planet Ypsilon has a calendar similar to ours: A year consists of 365 days, and every month has 28, 30 or 31 days. Prove that on Planet Ypsilon, a year must have 12 months. 2 Each lottery ticket has a 9-digit numbers, which uses only the digits 1, 2, 3. Each ticket is colored red, blue or green. If two tickets have numbers which dier in all nine places, then the tickets have dierent colors. Ticket 122222222 is red, and ticket 222222222 is green. What color is ticket 123123123? (a) Green (b) Red (c) Blue (d) Data insucient 3 The circumference of a circle is divided into eight arcs by a convex quadrilateral ABCD with four arcs lying inside the quadrilateral and the remaining four lying outside it. The lengths of the arcs lying inside the quadrilateral are denoted by p, q, r, s in counter-clockwise direction. Suppose p + r = q + s. Prove that ABCD is cyclic. 4 Consider a 12-gon with sidelengths 1, 2, 3, 4, ..., 12. Prove that there are three consecutive sides in this 12-gon, whose lengths have a sum > 20.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2002

Day 2
1 A pile of cards, numbered with 1, 2, ..., n, is being shued. Afterwards, the following operation is repeatedly performed: If the uppermost card of the pile has the number k, then we reverse the order of the k uppermost cards. Prove that, after nitely many executions of this operation, the card with the number 1 will become the uppermost card of the pile. 2 We consider the sequences strictely increasing (a0 , a1 , ...) of naturals which have the following property : For every natural n, there is exactly one representation of n as ai + 2aj + 4ak , where i, j, k can be equal. Prove that there is exactly a such sequence and nd a2002 3 Given a convex polyhedron with an even number of edges. Prove that we can attach an arrow to each edge, such that for every vertex of the polyhedron, the number of the arrows ending in this vertex is even. 4 In an acute-angled triangle ABC, we consider the feet Ha and Hb of the altitudes from A and B, and the intersections Wa and Wb of the angle bisectors from A and B with the opposite sides BC and CA respectively. Show that the centre of the incircle I of triangle ABC lies on the segment Ha Hb if and only if the centre of the circumcircle O of triangle ABC lies on the segment Wa Wb .

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2003

Day 1
1 Given six consecutive positive integers, prove that there exists a prime such that one and only one of these six integers is divisible by this prime. 2 Find all triples (x, y, z) of integers satisfying the following system of equations: x3 4x2 16x + 60 = y; y 3 4y 2 16y + 60 = z; z 3 4z 2 16z + 60 = x. 3 Let ABCD be a parallelogram. Let M be a point on the side AB and N be a point on the side BC such that the segments AM and CN have equal lengths and are non-zero. The lines AN and CM meet at Q. Prove that the line DQ is the bisector of the angle ADC. Alternative formulation. Let ABCD be a parallelogram. Let M and N be points on the sides AB and BC, respectively, such that AM = CN = 0. The lines AN and CM intersect at a point Q. Prove that the point Q lies on the bisector of the angle ADC. 4 Determine all positive integers which cannot be represented as positive integers. a a+1 + with a, b being b b+1

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2003

Day 2
1 The graph of a function f : R R has two has at least two centres of symmetry. Prove that f can be represented as sum of a linear and periodic funtion. 2 The sequence {a1 , a2 , . . .} is recursively dened by a1 = 1, a2 = 1, a3 = 2, and an+3 = 1 (an+1 an+2 + 7), n > 0. an

Prove that all elements of the sequence are integers. 3 Consider a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, and let S be the intersection of AC and BD. Let E and F the orthogonal projections of S on AB and CD respectively. Prove that the perpendicular bisector of segment EF meets the segments AD and BC at their midpoints. 4 Let p and q be two positive integers that have no common divisor. The set of integers shall be partioned into three subsets A, B, C such that for each integer z in each of the sets A, B, C there is exactly one of the numbers z, z + p and z + q. a) Prove that such a decomposition is possible if and only if p + q is divisible by 3. b) In the case we omit the restriction that p, q may not have a common divisor, prove that p+q for p = q the number is divisible by 3. gcd(p, q)

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2004

Day 1
1 At the beginning of a game, I write the numbers 1, 2, ..., 2004 onto a desk. A move consists of - selecting some numbers standing on the desk; - calculating the rest of the sum of these numbers under division by 11 and writing this rest onto the desk; - deleting the selected numbers. In such a game, after a number of moves, only two numbers remained on the desk. One of them was 1000. What was the other one? 2 Consider a triangle whose sidelengths a, b, c are integers, and which has the property that one of its altitudes equals the sum of the two others. Then, prove that a2 + b2 + c2 is a perfect square. 3 Prove that two congruent regular hexagons can be cut up into (altogether) 6 parts such that these 6 parts can be composed to form an equilateral triangle (without gaps or overlaps). 4 A cube is decomposed in a nite number of rectangular parallelepipeds such that the volume of the cubes circum sphere volume equals the sum of the volumes of all parallelepipeds circum spheres. Prove that all these parallelepipeds are cubes.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2004

Day 2
1 Let k be a positive integer. A natural number m is called k-typical if each divisor of m leaves the remainder 1 when being divided by k. Prove: a) If the number of all divisors of a positive integer n (including the divisors 1 and n) is k-typical, then n is the k-th power of an integer. b) If k > 2, then the converse of the assertion a) is not true. 2 Let k be a positive integer. In a circle with radius 1, nitely many chords are drawn. You know that every diameter of the circle intersects at most k of these chords. Prove that the sum of the lengths of all these chords is less than k . 3 Given two circles k1 and k2 which intersect at two dierent points A and B. The tangent to the circle k2 at the point A meets the circle k1 again at the point C1 . The tangent to the circle k1 at the point A meets the circle k2 again at the point C2 . Finally, let the line C1 C2 meet the circle k1 in a point D dierent from C1 and B. Prove that the line BD bisects the chord AC2 . 4 Prove that there exist innitely many pairs (x; y) of dierent positive rational numbers, such that the numbers x2 + y 3 and x3 + y 2 are both rational.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2005

Day 1
1 In the centre of a 2005 2005 chessboard lies a dice that is to be moved across the board in a sequence of moves. One move consists of the following three steps: - The dice has to be turned with an arbitrary side on top, - then it has to be moved by the shown number of points to the right or left and nally moved by the concealed number of points upwards or downwards. The attained square is the starting square for the next move. Which squares of the chessboard can be reached in a nite sequence of such moves? 2 Let a be such an integer, that 3a can be written in the form x2 + 2y 2 , with integers x and y. Prove that the number a can also be written in this form. Additional problems: a) Find a general (necessary and sucent) criterion for an integer n to be of that form. b) In how many ways can the integer n be represented in that way? 3 Let ABC be a triangle with sides a, b, c and (corresponding) angles A, B, C. Prove that if 3A + 2B = 180 , then a2 + bc = c2 . Additional problem: Prove that the converse also holds, i. e. prove the following: Let ABC be an arbitrary triangle. Then, 3A + 2B = 180 if and only if a2 + bc = c2 . Similar problem: Let ABC be an arbitrary triangle. Then, 3A + 2B = 360 if and only if a2 bc = c2 . 4 More or less the same problem was used by the Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2005 as the problem 4 in the 1st round: For which positive integers n is it possible to arrange the n numbers 1, 2, 3, ..., n in a sequence such, that for any two numbers the arithmetic mean of these two numbers doesnt stand somewhere between them? Of course, the answer is: This is possible for all positive integers n.

Another thread with a discussion of the same topic: http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?t=14758 .

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2005

Day 2
1 Two players A and B have one stone each on a 100 100 chessboard. They move their stones one after the other, and a move means moving ones stone to a neighbouring eld (horizontally or vertically, not diagonally). At the beginning of the game, the stone of A lies in the lower left corner, and the one of B in the lower right corner. Player A starts. Prove: Player A is, independently from that what B does, able to reach, after nitely many steps, the eld Bs stone is lying on at that moment. 2 Let be x a rational number. Prove: There are only nitely many triples (a, b, c) of integers with a < 0 and b2 4ac = 5 such that ax2 + bx + c is positive. 3 Two circles k1 and k2 intersect at two points A and B. Some line through the point B meets the circle k1 at a point C (apart from B), and the circle k2 at a point E (apart from B). Another line through the point B meets the circle k1 at a point D (apart from B), and the circle k2 at a point F (apart from B). Assume that the point B lies between the points C and E and between the points D and F . Finally, let M and N be the midpoints of the segments CE and DF . Prove that the triangles ACD, AEF and AM N are similar to each other. 4 For any integer n 3, let A (n) denote the maximal number of self-intersections a closed broken line P1 P2 ...Pn P1 can have; hereby, we assume that no three vertices of the broken line P1 P2 ...Pn P1 are collinear. Prove that (a) if n is odd, then A (n) = n (n 3) n (n 4) ; (b) if n is even, then A (n) = + 1. 2 2 Note. A self-intersection of a broken line is a (non-ordered) pair of two distinct non-adjacent segments of the broken line which have a common point.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2006

Day 1
1 Find two consecutive integers with the property that the sums of their digits are each divisible by 2006. 2 Prove that there are no integers x, y for that it is x3 + y 3 = 4 (x2 y + xy 2 + 1). 3 Let a, b, c be the sidelengths of a triangle such that a2 + b2 > 5c2 holds. Prove that c is the shortest side of the triangle. 4 A piece of paper with the shape of a square lies on the desk. It gets dissected step by step into smaller pieces: in every step, one piece is taken from the desk and cut into two pieces by a straight cut; these pieces are put back on the desk then. Find the smallest number of cuts needed to get 100 20-gons.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2006

Day 2
1 A circular disk is partitioned into 2n equal sectors by n straight lines through its center. Then, these 2n sectors are colored in such a way that exactly n of the sectors are colored in blue, and the other n sectors are colored in red. We number the red sectors with numbers from 1 to n in counter-clockwise direction (starting at some of these red sectors), and then we number the blue sectors with numbers from 1 to n in clockwise direction (starting at some of these blue sectors). Prove that one can nd a half-disk which contains sectors numbered with all the numbers from 1 to n (in some order). (In other words, prove that one can nd n consecutive sectors which are numbered by all numbers 1, 2, ..., n in some order.) Problem 8 from CWMO 2007: n white and n black balls are placed at random on the circumference of a circle.Starting from a certain white ball,number all white balls in a clockwise direction by 1, 2, . . . , n. Likewise number all black balls by 1, 2, . . . , n in anti-clockwise direction starting from a certain black ball.Prove that there exists a chain of n balls whose collection of numbering forms the set {1, 2, 3 . . . , n}. 2 Find all functions f : Q+ R such that f (x) + f (y) + 2xyf (xy) = f (xy) for all x, y Q+ f (x + y)

3 A point P is given inside an acute-angled triangle ABC. Let A , B , C be the orthogonal projections of P on sides BC, CA, AB respectively. Determine the locus of points P for which BAC = B A C and CBA = C B A 4 A positive integer is called digit-reduced if at most nine dierent digits occur in its decimal representation (leading 0s are omitted.) Let M be a nite set of digit-reduced numbers. Show that the sum of the reciprocals of the elements in M is less than 180.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2007

Round 1

1 Consider a regular polygon with 2007 vertices. The natural numbers 1, 2, . . . , 4014 shall be distributed across the vertices and edge midpoints such that for each side the sum of its three numbers (two end points, one side center) has the same value. Show that such an assignment is possible. 2 Each positive integer shall be coloured red or green such that it satises the following properties: - The sum of three not necessarily distinct red numbers is a red number. - The sum of three not necessarily distinct green numbers is a green number. - There are red and green numbers. Find all such colorations! 3 In triangle ABC points E and F lie on sides AC and BC such that segments AE and BF have equal length, and circles formed by A, C, F and by B, C, E, respectively, intersect at point C and another point D. Prove that that the line CD bisects ACB. 4 Consider a regular polygon with 2007 vertices. The natural numbers 1, 2, . . . , 4014 shall be distributed across the vertices and edge midpoints such that for each side the sum of its three numbers (two end points, one side center) has the same value. Show that such an assignment is possible.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2007

Round 2

1 For which numbers n is there a positive integer k with the following property: The sum of digits for k is n and the number k 2 has sum of digits n2 . 2 At the start of the game there are r red and g green pieces/stones on the table. Hojoo and Kestutis make moves in turn. Hojoo starts. The person due to make a move, chooses a colour and removes k pieces of this colour. The number k has to be a divisor of the current number of stones of the other colour. The person removing the last piece wins. Who can force the victory? 3 A set E of points in the 3D space let L(E) denote the set of all those points which lie on lines composed of two distinct points of E. Let T denote the set of all vertices of a regular tetrahedron. Which points are in the set L(L(T ))? 4 A regular hexagon, as shown in the attachment, is dissected into 54 congruent equilateral triangles by parallels to its sides. Within the gure we yield exactly 37 points which are vertices of at least one of those triangles. Those points are enumerated in an arbitrary way. A triangle is called clocky if running in a clockwise direction from the vertex with the smallest assigned number, we pass a medium number and nally reach the vertex with the highest number. Prove that at least 19 out of 54 triangles are clocky.

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2008

Round 1

1 Fedja used matches to put down the equally long sides of a parallelogram whose vertices are not on a common line. He gures out that exactly 7 or 9 matches, respectively, t into the diagonals. How many matches compose the parallelograms perimeter? 2 Represent the number 2008 as a sum of natural number such that the addition of the reciprocals of the summands yield 1. 3 Prove: In an acute triangle ABC angle bisector w , median sb and the altitude hc intersect in one point if w , side BC and the circle around foot of the altitude hc have vertex A as a common point. 4 In a planar coordinate system we got four pieces on positions with coordinates. You can make a move according to the following rule: You can move a piece to a new position if there is one of the other pieces in the middle of the old and new position. Initially the four pieces have positions {(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)}. Given a nite number of moves can you yield the conguration {(0, 0), (1, 1), (3, 0), (2, 1)} ?

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Germany
Bundeswettbewerb Mathematik 2008

Round 2

1 Determine all real x satisfying the equation


5

x3 + 2x =

x5 2x.

Odd roots for negative radicands shall be included in the discussion. 2 Let the positive integers a, b, c chosen such that the quotients ca ab bc , and are b+c c+a a+b integers. Prove that a, b, c have a common divisor greater than 1.

3 Through a point in the interior of a sphere we put three pairwise perpendicular planes. Those planes dissect the surface of the sphere in eight curvilinear triangles. Alternately the triangles are coloured black and wide to make the sphere surface look like a checkerboard. Prove that exactly half of the spheres surface is coloured black. 4 On a bookcase there are n 3 books side by side by dierent authors. A librarian considers the rst and second book from left and exchanges them i they are not alphabetically sorted. Then he is doing the same operation with the second and third book from left etc. Using this procedure he iterates through the bookcase three times from left to right. Considering all possible initial book congurations how many of them will then be alphabetically sorted?

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Germany
(Team Selection Test)

2004-2009

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 1
1 A function f satises the equation 1 =1+x x for every real number x except for x = 0 and x = 1. f (x) + f 1 Find a closed formula for f . Comment: (This one may be from the ISL 2003, but in any case, [url=http://www.bundeswettbewerbmathematik.de/imo/aufgaben/aufgaben.htm]the ocial problems and solutions - in German -[/url] are already online, hence I take the liberty to post it here.) 2 In a triangle ABC, let D be the midpoint of the side BC, and let E be a point on the side AC. The lines BE and AD meet at a point F . BF BC Prove: If = + 1, then the line BE bisects the angle ABC. FE AB Comment: (This one may be from the ISL 2003, but in any case, [url=http://www.bundeswettbewerbmathematik.de/imo/aufgaben/aufgaben.htm]the ocial problems and solutions - in German -[/url] are already online, hence I take the liberty to post it here.) 3 Given six real numbers a, b, c, x, y, z such that 0 < b c < a < b + c and ax + by + cz = 0. What is the sign of the sum ayz + bzx + cxy ? Comment: Additional question by DG: Prove using triangle geometry.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 2
1 Here is a problem closely related to this, namely Problem 4 of the German pre-TST 2004, written in December 2003: In the plane, consider n circular disks K1 , K2 , ..., Kn with equal radius r. Assume that each point of the plane is contained in not more than 2003 of these circular disks. Show that each circular disk Ki intersects not more than 14020 other circular disks. 2 Given n real numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn , and n further real numbers y1 , y2 , ..., yn . The elements aij (with 1 i, j n) of an n n matrix are dened as follows: aij = 1 0 if if xi + yj 0; xi + yj < 0.

Further, let B be an n n matrix whose elements are numbers from the set 0; 1 satisfying the following condition: The sum of all elements of each row of B equals the sum of all elements of the corresponding row of A; the sum of all elements of each column of B equals the sum of all elements of the corresponding column of A. Show that in this case, A = B. comment: (This one is from the ISL 2003, but in any case, [url=http://www.bundeswettbewerbmathematik.de/imo/aufgaben/aufgaben.htm]the ocial problems and solutions - in German -[/url] are already online, hence I take the liberty to post it here.) Darij 3 Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AC = BC, whose incentre is I. Let P be a point on the circumcircle of the triangle AIB lying inside the triangle ABC. The lines through P parallel to CA and CB meet AB at D and E, respectively. The line through P parallel to AB meets CA and CB at F and G, respectively. Prove that the lines DF and EG intersect on the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. comment: (According to my team leader, last year some of the countries wanted a geometry question that was even easier than this...that explains IMO 2003/4...) [Note by Darij: This was also Problem 6 of the German pre-TST 2004, written in December 03.] Edited by Orl.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 3
1 Let aij (with the indices i and j from the set {1, 2, 3}) be real numbers such that aij > 0 for i = j; aij < 0 for i = j. Prove the existence of positive real numbers c1 , c2 , c3 such that the numbers a11 c1 + a12 c2 + a13 c3 , a21 c1 + a22 c2 + a23 c3 , a31 c1 + a32 c2 + a33 c3 are either all negative, or all zero, or all positive. 2 Let n 5 be an integer. Find the maximal integer k such that there exists a polygon with n vertices (convex or not, but not self-intersecting!) having k internal 90 angles. 3 Let ABC be a triangle with semiperimeter s and inradius r. The semicircles with diameters BC, CA, AB are drawn on the outside of the triangle ABC. The circle tangent to all of these three semicircles has radius t. Prove that s 3 s r. <t + 1 2 2 2 Alternative formulation. In a triangle ABC, construct circles with diameters BC, CA, and AB, respectively. Construct a circle w externally tangent to these three circles. Let the radius s s 1 of this circle w be t. Prove: <t + 2 3 r, where r is the inradius and s is the 2 2 2 semiperimeter of triangle ABC.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 4
1 Each positive integer a is subjected to the following procedure, yielding the number d = d (a): (a) The last digit of a is moved to the rst position. The resulting number is called b. (b) The number b is squared. The resulting number is called c. (c) The rst digit of c is moved to the last position. The resulting number is called d. (All numbers are considered in the decimal system.) For instance, a = 2003 gives b = 3200, c = 10240000 and d = 02400001 = 2400001 = d (2003). Find all integers a such that d (a) = a2 . 2 Given three xed pairwisely distinct points A, B, C lying on one straight line in this order. Let G be a circle passing through A and C whose center does not lie on the line AC. The tangents to G at A and C intersect each other at a point P . The segment P B meets the circle G at Q. Show that the point of intersection of the angle bisector of the angle AQC with the line AC does not depend on the choice of the circle G. 3 Regard a plane with a Cartesian coordinate system; for each point with integer coordinates, 1 draw a circular disk centered at this point and having the radius . 1000 a) Prove the existence of an equilateral triangle whose vertices lie in the interior of dierent disks; b) Show that every equilateral triangle whose vertices lie in the interior of dierent disks has a sidelength 96. Radu Gologan, Romania

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 5
1 Let ABC be an acute triangle, and let M and N be two points on the line AC such that the vectors M N and AC are identical. Let X be the orthogonal projection of M on BC, and let Y be the orthogonal projection of N on AB. Finally, let H be the orthocenter of triangle ABC. Show that the points B, X, H, Y lie on one circle. 2 Find all pairs of positive integers (n; k) such that n! = (n + 1)k 1. 3 Let n 2 be a natural number, and let (a1 ; a2 ; ...; an ) be a permutation of (1; 2; ...; n). For any integer k with 1 k n, we place ak raisins on the position k of the real number axis. [The real number axis is the x-axis of a Cartesian coordinate system.] Now, we place three children A, B, C on the positions xA , xB , xC , each of the numbers xA , xB , xC being an element of {1; 2; ...; n}. [It is not forbidden to place dierent children on the same place!] For any k, the ak raisins placed on the position k are equally handed out to those children whose positions are next to k. [So, if there is only one child lying next to k, then he gets the raisin. If there are two children lying next to k (either both on the same position or symmetric with respect to k), then each of them gets one half of the raisin. Etc..] After all raisins are distributed, a child is unhappy if he could have received more raisins than he actually has received if he had moved to another place (while the other children would rest on their places). For which n does there exist a conguration (a1 ; a2 ; ...; an ) and numbers xA , xB , xC , such that all three children are happy?

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 6
1 Let n be a positive integer. Find all complex numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn satisfying the following system of equations: x1 + 2x2 + ... + nxn = 0, x2 + 2x2 + ... + nx2 = 0, ... xn + 2xn + ... + nxn = 0. 1 2 n 1 2 n 2 Let ABC be a triangle, and P a point in the interior of this triangle. Let D, E, F be the feet of the perpendiculars from the point P to the lines BC, CA, AB, respectively. Assume that AP 2 + P D2 = BP 2 + P E 2 = CP 2 + P F 2 . Furthermore, let Ia , Ib , Ic be the excenters of triangle ABC. Show that the point P is the circumcenter of triangle Ia Ib Ic . 3 Let b be an integer greater than 5. For each positive integer n, consider the number xn = 11 1 22 2 5,
n1 n

written in base b. Prove that the following condition holds if and only if b = 10: there exists a positive integer M such that for any integer n greater than M , the number xn is a perfect square.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 7
1 The A-excircle of a triangle ABC touches the side BC at the point K and the extended side AB at the point L. The B-excircle touches the lines BA and BC at the points M and N , respectively. The lines KL and M N meet at the point X. Show that the line CX bisects the angle ACN . 2 [We denote by R+ the set of all non-negative real numbers.] 0 Find all functions f : R+ R+ with the following properties: 0 0 (a) We have f (xf (y)) f (y) = f (x + y) for all x and y. (b) We have f (2) = 0. (c) For every x with 0 < x < 2, the value f (x) doesnt equal 0. Comment: Comment. This problem nearly coincides with the B2 problem from the 27th IMO 1986. 3 We attach to the vertices of a regular hexagon the numbers 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0. Now, we are allowed to transform the numbers by the following rules: (a) We can add an arbitrary integer to the numbers at two opposite vertices. (b) We can add an arbitrary integer to the numbers at three vertices forming an equilateral triangle. (c) We can subtract an integer t from one of the six numbers and simultaneously add t to the two neighbouring numbers. Can we, just by acting several times according to these rules, get a cyclic permutation of the initial numbers? (I. e., we started with 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0; can we now get 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, or 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, or 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, or 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, or 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1 ?) 4 Let the positive integers x1 , x2 , ..., x100 satisfy the equation 1 1 1 = 20. + + ... + x1 x2 x100 Show that at least two of these integers are equal to each other.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 8
1 Consider two monotonically decreasing sequences (ak ) and (bk ), where k 1, and ak and bk are positive real numbers for every k. Now, dene the sequences ck = min (ak , bk ); Ak = a1 + a2 + ... + ak ; Bk = b1 + b2 + ... + bk ; Ck = c1 + c2 + ... + ck for all natural numbers k. (a) Do there exist two monotonically decreasing sequences (ak ) and (bk ) of positive real numbers such that the sequences (Ak ) and (Bk ) are not bounded, while the sequence (Ck ) is bounded? (b) Does the answer to problem (a) change if we stipulate that the sequence (bk ) must be 1 bk = for all k ? k 2 Let d be a diameter of a circle k, and let A be an arbitrary point on this diameter d in the interior of k. Further, let P be a point in the exterior of k. The circle with diameter P A meets the circle k at the points M and N . Find all points B on the diameter d in the interior of k such that M P A = BP N and P A P B (i. e. give an explicite description of these points without using the points M and N ). Comment: Comment. This is Eric Mllers variation of a problem from the Hungarian Mathematics Olympiad 1986. 3 Let f (k) be the number of all non-negative integers n satisfying the following conditions: (1) The integer n has exactly k digits in the decimal representation (where the rst digit is not necessarily non-zero!), i. e. we have 0 n < 10k . (2) These k digits of n can be permuted in such a way that the resulting number is divisible by 11. Show that for any positive integer number m, we have f (2m) = 10f (2m 1).

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2004

Day 9
1 Consider the real number axis (i. e. the x-axis of a Cartesian coordinate system). We mark the points 1, 2, ..., 2n on this axis. A ea starts at the point 1. Now it jumps along the real number axis; it can jump only from a marked point to another marked point, and it doesnt visit any point twice. After the (2n 1)-th jump, it arrives at a point from where it cannot jump any more after this rule, since all other points are already visited. Hence, with its 2n-th jump, the ea breaks this rule and gets back to the point 1. Assume that the sum of the (non-directed) lengths of the rst 2n 1 jumps of the ea was n (2n 1). Show that the length of the last (2n-th) jump is n. 2 Let two chords AC and BD of a circle k meet at the point K, and let O be the center of k. Let M and N be the circumcenters of triangles AKB and CKD. Show that the quadrilateral OM KN is a parallelogram. 3 We consider graphs with vertices colored black or white. Switching a vertex means: coloring it black if it was formerly white, and coloring it white if it was formerly black. Consider a nite graph with all vertices colored white. Now, we can do the following operation: Switch a vertex and simultaneously switch all of its neighbours (i. e. all vertices connected to this vertex by an edge). Can we, just by performing this operation several times, obtain a graph with all vertices colored black? [It is assumed that our graph has no loops (a loop means an edge connecting one vertex with itself) and no multiple edges (a multiple edge means a pair of vertices connected by more than one edge).]

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 1
1 Given the positive numbers a and b and the natural number n, nd the greatest among the n + 1 monomials in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n . 2 Let M be a set of points in the Cartesian plane, and let (S) be a set of segments (whose endpoints not necessarily have to belong to M ) such that one can walk from any point of M to any other point of M by travelling along segments which are in (S). Find the smallest total length of the segments of (S) in the cases In other words, nd the Steiner trees of the set M in the above two cases. 3 Let a, b, c, d and n be positive integers such that 7 4n = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 . Prove that the numbers a, b, c, d are all 2n1 .

(a) M = {(1, 0) , (0, 0) , (1, 0) , (0, 1) , (0, 1)}. (b) M = {(1, 1) , (1, 0) , (1, 1) , (0, 1) , (0, 0) , (0, 1) , (1

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 2
1 Let a0 , a1 , a2 , ... be an innite sequence of real numbers satisfying the equation an = |an+1 an+2 | for all n 0, where a0 and a1 are two dierent positive reals. Can this sequence a0 , a1 , a2 , ... be bounded? 2 Let be a circle and let d be a line such that and d have no common points. Further, let AB be a diameter of the circle ; assume that this diameter AB is perpendicular to the line d, and the point B is nearer to the line d than the point A. Let C be an arbitrary point on the circle , dierent from the points A and B. Let D be the point of intersection of the lines AC and d. One of the two tangents from the point D to the circle touches this circle at a point E; hereby, we assume that the points B and E lie in the same halfplane with respect to the line AC. Denote by F the point of intersection of the lines BE and d. Let the line AF intersect the circle at a point G, dierent from A. Prove that the reection of the point G in the line AB lies on the line CF . 3 Let n and k be positive integers. There are given n circles in the plane. Every two of them intersect at two distinct points, and all points of intersection they determine are pairwisely distinct (i. e. no three circles have a common point). No three circles have a point in common. Each intersection point must be colored with one of n distinct colors so that each color is used at least once and exactly k distinct colors occur on each circle. Find all values of n 2 and k for which such a coloring is possible. comment: This one is from the IMO Shortlist 2004, but its already published on the [url=http://www.bundeswettbewerb-mathematik.de/imo/aufgaben/aufgaben.htm]ocial BWM website[/url] und thus I take the freedom to post it here. Edited by orl.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 3 - 12 February 2005


1 Prove that there doesnt exist any positive integer n such that 2n2 + 1, 3n2 + 1 and 6n2 + 1 are perfect squares. 2 If a, b, c are positive reals such that a + b + c = 1, prove that 1+a 1+b 1+c + + 2 1a 1b 1c b c a + + . a b c

3 Let ABC be a triangle and let r, ra , rb , rc denote the inradius and ex-radii opposite to the vertices A, B, C respectively. Suppose that a > ra , b > rb , c > rc . Prove that {(a) ABC is acute. {(b) a + b + c > r + ra + rb + rc .

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 4 - 15 February 2005


1 Let (n) denote the number of positive divisors of the positive integer n. Prove that there exist innitely many positive integers a such that the equation (an) = n does not have a positive integer solution n. 2 If a, b ,c are three positive real numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 1, prove that
3

1 + 6b + a

1 + 6c + b

1 1 + 6a . c abc

3 For an n n matrix A, let Xi be the set of entries in row i, and Yj the set of entries in column j, 1 i, j n. We say that A is golden if X1 , . . . , Xn , Y1 , . . . , Yn are distinct sets. Find the least integer n such that there exists a 2004 2004 golden matrix with entries in the set {1, 2, . . . , n}. comment: Thats problem 3 of the 2nd German TST 2005 and Moldova TST 2005. Edited by orl.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 5 - 20 March 2005


1 Let k be a xed integer greater than 1, and let m = 4k 2 5. Show that there exist positive integers a and b such that the sequence (xn ) dened by x0 = a, x1 = b, xn+2 = xn+1 + xn for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , has all of its terms relatively prime to m. 2 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle such that ABC < ACB, let O be the circumcenter of triangle ABC, and let D = AO BC. Denote by E and F the circumcenters of triangles ABD and ACD, respectively. Let G be a point on the extension of the segment AB beyound A such that AG = AC, and let H be a point on the extension of the segment AC beyound A such that AH = AB. Prove that the quadrilateral EF GH is a rectangle if and only if ACB ABC = 60 . comment: Ocial version: Let O be the circumcenter of an acute-angled triangle ABC with B < C. The line AO meets the side BC at D. The circumcenters of the triangles ABD and ACD are E and F , respectively. Extend the sides BA and CA beyond A, and choose on the respective extensions points G and H such that AG = AC and AH = AB. Prove that the quadrilateral EF GH is a rectangle if and only if ACB ABC = 60 . Edited by orl. 3 A positive integer is called nice if the sum of its digits in the number system with base 3 is divisible by 3. Calculate the sum of the rst 2005 nice positive integers.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 6 - 24 April 2005


1 Find all monotonically increasing or monotonically decreasing functions f : R+ R+ which f (y) = 1 for any two numbers x and y from R+ . satisfy the equation f (xy) f x Hereby, R+ is the set of all positive real numbers. Note. A function f : R+ R+ is called monotonically increasing if for any two positive numbers x and y such that x y, we have f (x) f (y). A function f : R+ R+ is called monotonically decreasing if for any two positive numbers x and y such that x y, we have f (x) f (y). 2 Let ABC be a triangle satisfying BC < CA. Let P be an arbitrary point on the side AB (dierent from A and B), and let the line CP meet the circumcircle of triangle ABC at a point S (apart from the point C). Let the circumcircle of triangle ASP meet the line CA at a point R (apart from A), and let the circumcircle of triangle BP S meet the line CB at a point Q (apart from B). Prove that the excircle of triangle AP R at the side AP is identical with the excircle of triangle P QB at the side P Q if and only if the point S is the midpoint of the arc AB on the circumcircle of triangle ABC. 3 Let b and c be any two positive integers. Dene an integer sequence an , for n 1, by a1 = 1, a2 = 1, a3 = b and an+3 = ban+2 an+1 + can . Find all positive integers r for which there exists a positive integer n such that the number an is divisible by r.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 7 - 07 May 2005


1 In the following, a word will mean a nite sequence of letters a and b. The length of a word will mean the number of the letters of the word. For instance, abaab is a word of length 5. There exists exactly one word of length 0, namely the empty word. A word w of length consisting of the letters x1 , x2 , ..., x in this order is called a palindrome if and only if xj = x +1j holds for every j such that 1 j . For instance, baaab is a palindrome; so is the empty word. For two words w1 and w2 , let w1 w2 denote the word formed by writing the word w2 directly after the word w1 . For instance, if w1 = baa and w2 = bb, then w1 w2 = baabb. Let r, s, t be nonnegative integers satisfying r + s = t + 2. Prove that there exist palindromes A, B, C with lengths r, s, t, respectively, such that AB = Cab, if and only if the integers r + 2 and s 2 are coprime. 2 Let n be a positive integer, and let a1 , a2 , ..., an , b1 , b2 , ..., bn be positive real numbers such that a1 a2 ... an and b1 a1 , b1 b2 a1 a2 , b1 b2 b3 a1 a2 a3 , ..., b1 b2 ...bn a1 a2 ...an . Prove that b1 + b2 + ... + bn a1 + a2 + ... + an . 3 Let ABC be a triangle with area S, and let P be a point in the plane. Prove that AP + 4 BP + CP 2 3 S.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 8 - 29 May 2005


1 (a) Does there exist a positive integer n such that the decimal representation of n! ends with the string 2004, followed by a number of digits from the set {0; 4} ? (b) Does there exist a positive integer n such that the decimal representation of n! starts with the string 2004 ? 2 For any positive integer n, prove that there exists a polynomial P of degree n such that all coeents of this polynomial P are integers, and such that the numbers P (0), P (1), P (2), ..., P (n) are pairwisely distinct powers of 2. 3 Let ABC be a triangle with orthocenter H, incenter I and centroid S, and let d be the diameter of the circumcircle of triangle ABC. Prove the inequality 9 HS 2 + 4 (AH AI + BH BI + CH CI) 3d2 , and determine when equality holds.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2005

Day 9 - 30 May 2005


1 Find the smallest positive integer n with the following property: For any integer m with 0 < m < 2004, there exists an integer k such that k m+1 m < < . 2004 n 2005 2 Let n be a positive integer such that n 3. Let a1 , a2 , ..., an and b1 , b2 , ..., bn be 2n positive real numbers satisfying the equations a1 + a2 + ... + an = 1 and b2 + b2 + ... + b2 = 1. 1 2 n Prove the inequality a1 (b1 + a2 ) + a2 (b2 + a3 ) + ... + an1 (bn1 + an ) + an (bn + a1 ) < 1. 3 Prove that, among 32 integer numbers, one can always nd 16 whose sum is divisible by 16. Why this problem stands here: Why does this problem stand here? Well, it was problem 3 at the 7th German TST 2005, and it directly follows from the Erds-Ginzburg-Ziv theorem for p = 16 - in fact, p neednt be prime in that theorem. It also becomes clear that the 32 can be replaced by 31.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 1
1 Let A, B, C, D, E, F be six points on a circle such that AE BD and BC DF . Let X be the reection of the point D in the line CE. Prove that the distance from the point X to the line EF equals to the distance from the point B to the line AC. 2 In a room, there are 2005 boxes, each of them containing one or several sorts of fruits, and of course an integer amount of each fruit. a) Show that we can nd 669 boxes, which altogether contain at least a third of all apples and at least a third of all bananas. b) Can we always nd 669 boxes, which altogether contain at least a third of all apples, at least a third of all bananas and at least a third of all pears? 3 Is the following statement true? For each positive integer n, we can nd eight nonnegative integers a, b, c, d, e, f , g, h such 2a 2b 2e 2f that n = c . 2 2d 2g 2h

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 2
1 We denote by R+ the set of all positive real numbers. Find all functions f : R+ R+ which have the property: f (x) f (y) = 2f (x + yf (x)) for all positive real numbers x and y. 2 Given a triangle ABC satisfying AC + BC = 3 AB. The incircle of triangle ABC has center I and touches the sides BC and CA at the points D and E, respectively. Let K and L be the reections of the points D and E with respect to I. Prove that the points A, B, K, L lie on one circle. 3 Consider a m n rectangular board consisting of mn unit squares. Two of its unit squares are called adjacent if they have a common edge, and a path is a sequence of unit squares in which any two consecutive squares are adjacent. Two parths are called non-intersecting if they dont share any common squares. Each unit square of the rectangular board can be colored black or white. We speak of a coloring of the board if all its mn unit squares are colored. Let N be the number of colorings of the board such that there exists at least one black path from the left edge of the board to its right edge. Let M be the number of colorings of the board for which there exist at least two non-intersecting black paths from the left edge of the board to its right edge. Prove that N 2 M 2mn .

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 3
1 A house has an even number of lamps distributed among its rooms in such a way that there are at least three lamps in every room. Each lamp shares a switch with exactly one other lamp, not necessarily from the same room. Each change in the switch shared by two lamps changes their states simultaneously. Prove that for every initial state of the lamps there exists a sequence of changes in some of the switches at the end of which each room contains lamps which are on as well as lamps which are o. 2 In an acute triangle ABC, let D, E, F be the feet of the perpendiculars from the points A, B, C to the lines BC, CA, AB, respectively, and let P , Q, R be the feet of the perpendiculars from the points A, B, C to the lines EF , F D, DE, respectively. Prove that p (ABC) p (P QR) (p (DEF ))2 , where p (T ) denotes the perimeter of triangle T .

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 4
1 Let a, b, c, d, e, f be positive integers and let S = a + b + c + d + e + f . Suppose that the number S divides abc + def and ab + bc + ca de ef df . Prove that S is composite. 2 Four real numbers p, q, r, s satisfy p + q + r + s = 9 and p2 + q 2 + r2 + s2 = 21. Prove that there exists a permutation (a, b, c, d) of (p, q, r, s) such that ab cd 2. 3 Suppose we have a n-gon. Some n 3 diagonals are coloured black and some other n 3 diagonals are coloured red (a side is not a diagonal), so that no two diagonals of the same colour can intersect strictly inside the polygon, although they can share a vertex. Find the maximum number of intersection points between diagonals coloured dierently strictly inside the polygon, in terms of n.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 5
1 Does there exist a natural number n in whose decimal representation each digit occurs at least 2006 times and which has the property that you can nd two dierent digits in its decimal representation such that the number obtained from n by interchanging these two digits is dierent from n and has the same set of prime divisors as n ? 2 Find all functions f : R R such that f (x + y) + f (x) f (y) = f (xy) + 2xy + 1 for all real numbers x and y. 3 Let ABCD be a parallelogram. A variable line g through the vertex A intersects the rays BC and DC at the points X and Y , respectively. Let K and L be the A-excenters of the triangles ABX and ADY . Show that the angle KCL is independent of the line g.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 6
1 For any positive integer n, let w (n) denote the number of dierent prime divisors of the number n. (For instance, w (12) = 2.) Show that there exist innitely many positive integers n such that w (n) < w (n + 1) < w (n + 2). 2 Let A1 , B1 , C1 be the feet of the altitudes of an acute-angled triangle ABC issuing from the vertices A, B, C, respectively. Let K and M be points on the segments A1 C1 and B1 C1 , respectively, such that KAM = A1 AC. Prove that the line AK is the angle bisector of the angle C1 KM . 3 Does there exist a set M of points in space such that every plane intersects M at a nite but nonzero number of points?

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 7
1 Let n 3 be a xed integer. Each side and each diagonal of a regular n-gon is labelled with a number from the set {1; 2; ...; r} in a way such that the following two conditions are fullled: 1. Each number from the set {1; 2; ...; r} occurs at least once as a label. 2. In each triangle formed by three vertices of the n-gon, two of the sides are labelled with the same number, and this number is greater than the label of the third side. (a) Find the maximal r for which such a labelling is possible. (b) Harder version (IMO Shortlist 2005): For this maximal value of r, how many such labellings are there? Easier version (5th German TST 2006) - contains answer to the harder version: Easier version (5th German TST 2006): Show that, for this maximal value of r, there are exactly n! (n 1)! possible labellings. 2n1 2 Find all positive integers n such that there exists a unique integer a such that 0 a < n! with the following property: n! | an + 1 3 The diagonals AC and BD of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD meet at a point X. The circumcircles of triangles ABX and CDX meet at a point Y (apart from X). Let O be the center of the circumcircle of the quadrilateral ABCD. Assume that the points O, X, Y are all distinct. Show that OY is perpendicular to XY .

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 8
1 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle, and P, Q, R three points in its interior satisfying P CA = CAR = 15 , RBC = BCQ = 20 , QAB = ABP = 25 .

Compute the angles of triangle P QR. 2 There are n markers, each with one side white and the other side black. In the beginning, these n markers are aligned in a row so that their white sides are all up. In each step, if possible, we choose a marker whose white side is up (but not one of the outermost markers), remove it, and reverse the closest marker to the left of it and also reverse the closest marker to the right of it. Prove that, by a nite sequence of such steps, one can achieve a state with only two markers remaining if and only if n 1 is not divisible by 3. 3 Let n be a positive integer, and let b1 , b2 , ..., bn be n positive reals. Set a1 = and ak = b1 + b2 + ... + bk for every k > 1. Prove the inequality b1 + b2 + ... + bk1 1 1 1 + + ... + . a1 + a2 + ... + an a1 a2 an b1 b1 + b2 + ... + bn

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 8 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2006

Day 9
1 Find all real solutions x of the equation cos cos cos cos x = sin sin sin sin x. (Angles are measured in radians.) 2 The lengths of the altitudes of a triangle are positive integers, and the length of the radius of the incircle is a prime number. Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle. 3 Suppose that a1 , a2 , . . ., an are integers such that n | a1 + a2 + . . . + an . Prove that there exist two permutations (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) and (c1 , c2 , . . . , cn ) of (1, 2, . . . , n) such that for each integer i with 1 i n, we have n | ai bi ci

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 9 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 1

1 a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . is a sequence of real numbers such that an+1 = [an ] {an } prove that exist j such that for every i j we have ai+2 = ai . 2 Let ABC be a trapezoid with parallel sides AB > CD. Points K and L lie on the line AK DL = . Suppose that there are points P segments AB and CD, respectively, so that KB LC and Q on the line segment KL satisfying AP B = BCD and CQD = ABC. Prove that the points P , Q, B and C are concylic. 3 Let a > b > 1 be relatively prime positive integers. Dene the weight of an integer c, denoted by w(c) to be the minimal possible value of |x| + |y| taken over all pairs of integers x and y such that ax + by = c. An integer c is called a local champion if w(c) w(c a) and w(c) w(c b). Find all local champions and determine their number.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 2

1 We have n 2 lamps L1 , ..., Ln in a row, each of them being either on or o. Every second we simultaneously modify the state of each lamp as follows: if the lamp Li and its neighbours (only one neighbour for i = 1 or i = n, two neighbours for other i) are in the same state, then Li is switched o; otherwise, Li is switched on. Initially all the lamps are o except the leftmost one which is on. (a) Prove that there are innitely many integers n for which all the lamps will eventually be o. (b) Prove that there are innitely many integers n for which the lamps will never be all o. n 2 Let n, k N with 1 k 1. There are n points given on a circle. Arbitrarily we select 2 nk + 1 chords among the points on the circle. Prove that of these chords there are at least k + 1 chords which pairwise do not have a point in common. 3 Points A1 , B1 , C1 are chosen on the sides BC, CA, AB of a triangle ABC respectively. The circumcircles of triangles AB1 C1 , BC1 A1 , CA1 B1 intersect the circumcircle of triangle ABC again at points A2 , B2 , C2 respectively (A2 = A, B2 = B, C2 = C). Points A3 , B3 , C3 are symmetric to A1 , B1 , C1 with respect to the midpoints of the sides BC, CA, AB respectively. Prove that the triangles A2 B2 C2 and A3 B3 C3 are similar. Comment: This is my personal favourite of the ISL Geometry problems :D

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 3

1 We dene a sequence (a1 , a2 , a3 , ...) by setting an = 1 n n n n + + + 1 2 n

for every positive integer n. Hereby, for every real x, we denote by [x] the integral part of x (this is the greatest integer which is x). a) Prove that there is an innite number of positive integers n such that an+1 > an . b) Prove that there is an innite number of positive integers n such that an+1 < an . 2 Determine the sum of absolute values for the complex roots of 20x8 + 7ix7 7ix + 20. 3 Circles w1 and w2 with centres O1 and O2 are externally tangent at point D and internally tangent to a circle w at points E and F respectively. Line t is the common tangent of w1 and w2 at D. Let AB be the diameter of w perpendicular to t, so that A, E, O1 are on the same side of t. Prove that lines AO1 , BO2 , EF and t are concurrent.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 4
. Let D be a point of [AC] such that 2 BD = BA. The incircle of ABC touches [AB] at K and [AC] at L. Let J be the center of the incircle of BCD. Prove that (KL) intersects [AJ] at its middle.

1 Let ABC be a triangle such that ACB < BAC <

2 A cake has the form of an n x n square composed of n2 unit squares. Strawberries lie on some of the unit squares so that each row or column contains exactly one strawberry; call this arrangement A. Let B be another such arrangement. Suppose that every grid rectangle with one vertex at the top left corner of the cake contains no fewer strawberries of arrangement B than of arrangement A. Prove that arrangement B can be obtained from A by performing a number of switches, dened as follows: A switch consists in selecting a grid rectangle with only two strawberries, situated at its top right corner and bottom left corner, and moving these two strawberries to the other two corners of that rectangle. 3 Prove that the equation x7 1 = y 5 1 doesnt have integer solutions! x1

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 4 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 5

1 Let k N. A polynomial is called k-valid if all its coecients are integers between 0 and k inclusively. (Here we dont consider 0 to be a natural number.) a.) For n N let an be the number of 5-valid polynomials p which satisfy p(3) = n. Prove that each natural number occurs in the sequence (an )n at least once but only nitely often. b.) For n N let an be the number of 4-valid polynomials p which satisfy p(3) = n. Prove that each natural number occurs innitely often in the sequence (an )n . 2 Determine all functions f : R+ R+ which satisfy f f (x) yf (x) + 1 = x xf (y) + 1 x, y > 0

3 Let ABC be a triangle and P an arbitrary point in the plane. Let , , be interior angles of the triangle and its area is denoted by F. Prove: AP 2 sin 2 + BP 2 sin 2 + CP 2 sin 2 2F When does equality occur?

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 6

1 For a multiple of kb of b let a%kb be the greatest number such that a%kb = a mod b which is smaller than kb and not greater than a itself. Let n Z+ . Determine all integer pairs (a, b) with: a%b + a%2b + a%3b + . . . + a%nb = a + b 2 Let S be a nite set of points in the plane such that no three of them are on a line. For each convex polygon P whose vertices are in S, let a(P ) be the number of vertices of P , and let b(P ) be the number of points of S which are outside P . A line segment, a point, and the empty set are considered as convex polygons of 2, 1, and 0 vertices respectively. Prove that for every real number x: xa(P ) (1 x)b(P ) = 1, where the sum is taken over all convex polygons with vertices in S.
P

Alternative formulation: Let M be a nite point set in the plane and no three points are collinear. A subset A of M will be called round if its elements is the set of vertices of a convex Agon V (A). For each round subset let r(A) be the number of points from M which are exterior from the convex Agon V (A). Subsets with 0, 1 and 2 elements are always round, its corresponding polygons are the empty set, a point or a segment, respectively (for which all other points that are not vertices of the polygon are exterior). For each round subset A of M construct the polynomial PA (x) = x|A| (1 x)r(A) . Show that the sum of polynomials for all round subsets is exactly the polynomial P (x) = 1. 3 In triangle ABC we have a b and a c. Prove that the ratio of circumcircle radius to incircle diameter is at least as big as the length of the centroidal axis sa to the altitude aa . When do we have equality?

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 6 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

AIMO 7

1 Prove the inequality: ai aj n ai + aj 2(a1 + a2 + ... + an )


i<j

ai aj
i<j

for positive reals a1 , a2 , ..., an . 2 An (n, k) tournament is a contest with n players held in k rounds such that: (i) Each player plays in each round, and every two players meet at most once. (ii) If player A meets player B in round i, player C meets player D in round i, and player A meets player C in round j, then player B meets player D in round j. Determine all pairs (n, k) for which there exists an (n, k) tournament. 3 For all positive integers n, show that there exists a positive integer m such that n divides 2m + m.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 7 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2007

VAIMO

Day 1
1 Let n > 1, n Z and B = {1, 2, . . . , 2n }. A subset A of B is called weird if it contains exactly one of the distinct elements x, y B such that the sum of x and y is a power of two. How many weird subsets does B have? 2 Find all quadruple (m, n, p, q) Z4 such that pm q n = (p + q)2 + 1. 3 A point P in the interior of triangle ABC satises BP C BAC = CP A CBA = AP B ACB. Prove that P BC = P AC = P AB. A B C space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 Let a0 , a1 , a2 , ... be a sequence of reals such that a0 = 1 and an1 an2 a1 a0 an + + + ... + + = 0 for all n 1. 2 3 n n+1 Show that an > 0 for all n 1. 2 Consider a convex pentagon ABCDE such that BAC = CAD = DAE , ABC = ACD = ADE

Let P be the point of intersection of the lines BD and CE. Prove that the line AP passes through the midpoint of the side CD. 3 For x (0, 1) let y (0, 1) be the number whose n-th digit after the decimal point is the 2n -th digit after the decimal point of x. Show that if x is rational then so is y.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 8 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 1

1 Let n > 1 be an integer. Find all sequences a1 , a2 , . . . an2 +n satisfying the following conditions: (a) ai {0, 1} for all 1 i n2 + n;

(b) ai+1 + ai+2 + . . . + ai+n < ai+n+1 + ai+n+2 + . . . + ai+2n for all 0 i n2 n. Author: unknown author, Serbia 2 (i) Determine the smallest number of edges which a graph of n nodes may have given that adding an arbitrary new edge would give rise to a 3-clique (3 nodes joined pairwise by edges). (ii) Determine the smallest number of edges which a graph of n nodes may have given that adding an arbitrary new edge would give rise to a 4-clique (4 nodes joined pairwise by edges). 3 Denote by M midpoint of side BC in an isosceles triangle ABC with AC = AB. Take a point X on a smaller arc M A of circumcircle of triangle ABM . Denote by T point inside of angle BM A such that T M X = 90 and T X = BX. Prove that M T B CT M does not depend on choice of X. Author: unknown author, Canada

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 2

1 Consider those functions f : N N which satisfy the condition f (m + n) f (m) + f (f (n)) 1 for all m, n N. Find all possible values of f (2007). Author: unknown author, Bulgaria 2 Find all positive integers n for which the numbers in the set S = {1, 2, . . . , n} can be colored red and blue, with the following condition being satised: The set S S S contains exactly 2007 ordered triples (x, y, z) such that: (i) the numbers x, y, z are of the same color, and (ii) the number x + y + z is divisible by n. Author: Gerhard Wginger, Netherlands 3 Let X be a set of 10,000 integers, none of them is divisible by 47. Prove that there exists a 2007-element subset Y of X such that a b + c d + e is not divisible by 47 for any a, b, c, d, e Y. Author: Gerhard Wginger, Netherlands

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 3

1 Let A0 = (a1 , . . . , an ) be a nite sequence of real numbers. For each k 0, from the sequence Ak = (x1 , . . . , xk ) we construct a new sequence Ak+1 in the following way. 1. We choose a partition {1, . . . , n} = I J, where I and J are two disjoint sets, such that the expression xi
iI jJ

xj

attains the smallest value. (We allow I or J to be empty; in this case the corresponding sum is 0.) If there are several such partitions, one is chosen arbitrarily. 2. We set Ak+1 = (y1 , . . . , yn ) where yi = xi + 1 if i I, and yi = xi 1 if i J. Prove that for some k, the sequence Ak n contains an element x such that |x| . 2 Author: Omid Hatami, Iran 2 Let ABC be a xed triangle, and let A1 , B1 , C1 be the midpoints of sides BC, CA, AB, respectively. Let P be a variable point on the circumcircle. Let lines P A1 , P B1 , P C1 meet the circumcircle again at A , B , C , respectively. Assume that the points A, B, C, A , B , C are distinct, and lines AA , BB , CC form a triangle. Prove that the area of this triangle does not depend on P . Author: Christopher Bradley, United Kingdom 3 Find all surjective functions f : N N such that for every m, n N and every prime p, the number f (m + n) is divisible by p if and only if f (m) + f (n) is divisible by p. Author: Mohsen Jamaali and Nima Ahmadi Pour Anari, Iran

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 4

1 Determine Q R which is so big that a sequence with non-negative reals elements a1 , a2 , . . . which satises the following two conditions: 1 (i) m, n 1 we have am+n 2 (am + an ) (ii) k 0 we have a2k (k + 1)2008 such that for each sequence element we have the inequality an Q. 2 Tracey baked a square cake whose surface is dissected in a 10 10 grid. In some of the elds she wants to put a strawberry such that for each four elds that compose a rectangle whose edges run in parallel to the edges of the cake boundary there is at least one strawberry. What is the minimum number of required strawberries? 3 Let ABCD be an isosceles trapezium. Determine the geometric location of all points P such that |P A| |P C| = |P B| |P D|.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 5

1 A sequence (Sn ), n 1 of sets of natural numbers with S1 = {1}, S2 = {2} and Sn+1 = {k N|k 1 Sn XOR k Sn1 }. Determine S1024 . 2 For three points X, Y, Z let RXY Z be the circumcircle radius of the triangle XY Z. If ABC is a triangle with incircle centre I then we have: 1 RABI + 1 RBCI + 1 RCAI 1 1 1 + + . AI BI CI

3 Find all real polynomials f with x, y R such that 2yf (x + y) + (x y)(f (x) + f (y)) 0.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 6

1 Let ABC be an acute triangle, and Ma , Mb , Mc be the midpoints of the sides a, b, c. The perpendicular bisectors of a, b, c (passing through Ma , Mb , Mc ) intersect the boundary of the triangle again in points Ta , Tb , Tc . Show that if the set of points {A, B, C} can be mapped to the set {Ta , Tb , Tc } via a similitude transformation, then two feet of the altitudes of triangle ABC divide the respective triangle sides in the same ratio. (Here, ratio means the length of the shorter (or equal) part divided by the length of the longer (or equal) part.) Does the converse statement hold? 2 For every integer k 2, prove that 23k divides the number 2k+1 2k but 23k+1 does not. Author: unknown author, Poland 3 Determine all functions f : R R with x, y R such that f (x f (y)) = f (x + y) + f (y) 2k 2k1

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

AIMO 7

1 Let a1 , a2 , . . . , a100 be nonnegative real numbers such that a2 + a2 + . . . + a2 = 1. Prove that 1 2 100 a2 a2 + a2 a3 + . . . + a2 a1 < 1 2 100 12 . 25

Author: Marcin Kuzma, Poland 2 Point P lies on side AB of a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Let be the incircle of triangle CP D, and let I be its incenter. Suppose that is tangent to the incircles of triangles AP D and BP C at points K and L, respectively. Let lines AC and BD meet at E, and let lines AK and BL meet at F . Prove that points E, I, and F are collinear. Author: Waldemar Pompe, Poland 3 Given is a convex polygon P with n vertices. Triangle whose vertices lie on vertices of P is 2n called good if all its sides are equal in length. Prove that there are at most good triangles. 3 Author: unknown author, Ukraine

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2008

VAIMO

Day 1
1 Show that there is a digit unequal to 2 in the decimal represesentation of 1000000-th und 3141592-th position after decimal point. 3 3 between the

2 Let ABCD be an isosceles trapezium with AB||CD and BC = AD. The parallel to AD through B meets the perpendicular to AD through D in point X. The line through A drawn which is parallel to BD meets the perpendicular to BD through D in point Y. Prove that points C, X, D and Y lie on a common circle. 3 Prove there is an integer k for which k 3 36k 2 + 51k 97 is a multiple of 32008. space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 Find all pairs of natural number (a, b) satisfying 7a 3b divides a4 + b2 Author: Stephan Wagner, Austria 2 The diagonals of a trapezoid ABCD intersect at point P . Point Q lies between the parallel lines BC and AD such that AQD = CQB, and line CD separates points P and Q. Prove that BQP = DAQ. Author: unknown author, Ukraine 3 A rectangle D is partitioned in several ( 2) rectangles with sides parallel to those of D. Given that any line parallel to one of the sides of D, and having common points with the interior of D, also has common interior points with the interior of at least one rectangle of the partition; prove that there is at least one rectangle of the partition having no common points with Ds boundary. Author: unknown author, Japan

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 1

1 In the plane we consider rectangles whose sides are parallel to the coordinate axes and have positive length. Such a rectangle will be called a box. Two boxes intersect if they have a common point in their interior or on their boundary. Find the largest n for which there exist n boxes B1 , . . ., Bn such that Bi and Bj intersect if and only if i j 1 (mod n). Proposed by Gerhard Woeginger, Netherlands 2 Let k and n be integers with 0 k n 2. Consider a set L of n lines in the plane such that no two of them are parallel and no three have a common point. Denote by I the set of intersections of lines in L. Let O be a point in the plane not lying on any line of L. A point X I is colored red if the open line segment OX intersects at most k lines in L. Prove that 1 I contains at least (k + 1)(k + 2) red points. 2 Proposed by Gerhard Woeginger, Netherlands a b c d 3 Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that abcd = 1 and a + b + c + d > + + + . b c d a Prove that b c d a a+b+c+d< + + + a b c d Proposed by Pavel Novotn, Slovakia

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 2

1 Given trapezoid ABCD with parallel sides AB and CD, assume that there exist points E on line BC outside segment BC, and F inside segment AD such that DAE = CBF . Denote by I the point of intersection of CD and EF , and by J the point of intersection of AB and EF . Let K be the midpoint of segment EF , assume it does not lie on line AB. Prove that I belongs to the circumcircle of ABK if and only if K belongs to the circumcircle of CDJ. Proposed by Charles Leytem, Luxembourg 2 Let a1 , a2 , . . ., an be distinct positive integers, n 3. Prove that there exist distinct indices i and j such that ai + aj does not divide any of the numbers 3a1 , 3a2 , . . ., 3an . Proposed by Mohsen Jamaali, Iran 3 Let S = {x1 , x2 , . . . , xk+l } be a (k + l)-element set of real numbers contained in the interval [0, 1]; k and l are positive integers. A k-element subset A S is called nice if 1 k xi
xi A

1 l

xj
xj S\A

k+l 2kl

Prove that the number of nice subsets is at least

k+l 2 . k+l k Proposed by Andrey Badzyan, Russia

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 3

1 Let ABCD be a chordal/cyclic quadrilateral. Consider points P, Q on AB and R, S on CD with AP : P B = CS : SD, AQ : QB = CR : RD. How to choose P, Q, R, S such that P R AB + QS CD is minimal? 2 Let (an )nN dened by a1 = 1, and an+1 = a4 a3 + 2a2 + 1 for n 1. Show that there is n n n an innite number of primes p such that none of the an is divisible by p. 3 Find all functions f : R R such that x, y, z R we have: If x3 + f (y) x + f (z) = 0, then f (x)3 + y f (x) + z = 0.

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 4

1 Let I be the incircle centre of triangle ABC and be a circle within the same triangle with centre I. The perpendicular rays from I on the sides BC, CA and AB meets in A , B and C . Show that the three lines AA , BB and CC have a common point. 2 Tracy has been baking a rectangular cake whose surface is dissected by grid lines in square elds. The number of rows is 2n and the number of columns is 2n+1 where n 1, n N. Now she covers the elds with strawberries such that each row has at least 2n + 2 of them. Show that there four pairwise distinct strawberries A, B, C and D which satisfy those three conditions: (a) Strawberries A and B lie in the same row and A further left than B. Similarly D lies in the same row as C but further left. (b) Strawberries B and C lie in the same column. (c) Strawberries A lies further up and further left than D. 3 Prove that for any four positive real numbers a, b, c, d the inequality (a b)(a c) (b c)(b d) (c d)(c a) (d a)(d b) + + + 0 a+b+c b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b holds. Determine all cases of equality. Author: Darij Grinberg (Problem Proposal), Christian Reiher (Solution), Germany

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 5

1 Consider cubes of edge length 5 composed of 125 cubes of edge length 1 where each of the 125 cubes is either coloured black or white. A cube of edge length 5 is called quot;bigquot;, a cube od edge length is called quot;smallquot;. A posititve integer n is called quot;representablequot; if there is a big cube with exactly n small cubes where each row of ve small cubes has an even number of black cubes whose centres lie on a line with distances 1, 2, 3, 4 (zero counts as even number). (a) What is the smallest and biggest representable number? (b) Construct 45 representable numbers. 2 Let S R be a set of real numbers. We say that a pair (f, g) of functions from S into S is a Spanish Couple on S, if they satisfy the following conditions: (i) Both functions are strictly increasing, i.e. f (x) < f (y) and g(x) < g(y) for all x, y S with x < y; (ii) The inequality f (g (g (x))) < g (f (x)) holds for all x S. Decide whether there exists a Spanish Couple on the set S = N of positive integers; on the 1 set S = {a : a, b N} b Proposed by Hans Zantema, Netherlands 3 In an acute triangle ABC segments BE and CF are altitudes. Two circles passing through the point A anf F and tangent to the line BC at the points P and Q so that B lies between C and Q. Prove that lines P E and QF intersect on the circumcircle of triangle AEF . Proposed by Davood Vakili, Iran

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 6

1 In the coordinate plane consider the set S of all points with integer coordinates. For a positive integer k, two distinct points a, B S will be called k-friends if there is a point C S such that the area of the triangle ABC is equal to k. A set T S will be called k-clique if every two points in T are k-friends. Find the least positive integer k for which there exits a k-clique with more than 200 elements. Proposed by Jorge Tipe, Peru 2 For every n N let d(n) denote the number of (positive) divisors of n. Find all functions f : N N with the following properties: d (f (x)) = x for all x N. f (xy) divides (x 1)y xy1 f (x) for all x, y N. Proposed by Bruno Le Floch, France 3 Let A, B, C, M points in the plane and no three of them are on a line. And let A , B , C points such that M AC B, M BA C and M CB A are parallelograms: (a) Show that M A + M B + M C < AA + BB + CC . (b) Assume segments AA , BB and CC have the same length. Show that 2 M A + M B + M C AA + BB + CC . When do we have equality?

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Germany
Team Selection Tests 2009

TST 7

1 For which n 2, n N are there positive integers A1 , A2 , . . . , An which are not the same
n

pairwise and have the property that the product


i=1

(Ai + k) is a power for each natural

number k. 2 In Skinien there 2009 towns where each of them is connected with exactly 1004 other town by a highway. Prove that starting in an arbitrary town one can make a round trip along the highways such that each town is passed exactly once and nally one returns to its starting point. 3 There is given a convex quadrilateral ABCD. Prove that there exists a point P inside the quadrilateral such that P AB + P DC = P BC + P AD = P CD + P BA = P DA + P CB = 90 if and only if the diagonals AC and BD are perpendicular. Proposed by Dukan Dukic, Serbia

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Greece
2002-2007

Greece
National Olympiad 2002

Juniors

1 In the exterior of an equilateral triangle ABC of side we construct an isosceles right-angled triangle ACD with CAD = 900 .The lines DA and CB meet at point E. (a) Find the angle DBC. (b) Express the area of triangle CDE in terms of . (c) Find the length of BD. 2 In the Mathematical Competition of HMS (Hellenic Mathematical Society) take part boys and girls who are divided into two groups : Juniors and seniors.The number of the boys taking part of this year competition is 55 3 Determine all triples of positive integers (x, y, z) with x y z satisfying xy+yz+zxxyz = 2. 4 Prove that 1 2 3 2002 < 2003 2
2002

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Greece
National Olympiad 2002

Seniors
1 c2 0. Prove that 10(a2 + b2 + c2 bc3 ) bc

1 The real numbers a, b, c with bc = 0 satisfy 2ab + 5ac.

2 A student of the National Technical University was reading advanced mathematics last summer for 37 days according to the following rules : (a) He was reading at least one hour every day. (b) He was reading an integer number of hours, but not more than 12, each day. (c) He had to read at most 60 hours in total. Prove that there were some successive days during which the student was reading exactly 13 hours in total. 3 In a triangle ABC we have C > 100 and B = C + 100 .We consider point E on side AB such that ACE = 100 , and point D on side AC such that DBA = 150 . Let Z = A be a point of interection of the circumcircles of the triangles ABD and AEC.Prove that ZBA > ZCA. 4 (a) Positive integers p, q, r, a satisfy pq = ra2 , where r is prime and p, q are relatively prime. Prove that one of the numbers p, q is a perfect square. (b) Examine if there exists a prime p such that p(2p+1 1) is a perfect square.

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Greece
National Olympiad 2005

Juniors

1 We are given a trapezoid ABCD with AB CD, CD = 2AB and DB BC. Let E be the intersection of lines DA and CB, and M be the midpoint of DC. (a) Prove that ABM D is a rhombus. (b) Prove that triangle CDE is isosceles. (c) If AM and BD meet at O, and OE and AB meet at N, prove that the line DN bisects segment EB. 2 If f (n) = (a) f (1), (b) the sum A = f (1) + f (2) + ... + f (400). 3 Let A be a given point outside a given circle. Determine points B, C, D on the circle such that the quadrilateral ABCD is convex and has the maximum area . 4 Find all nonzero integers a, b, c, d with a > b > c > d that satisfy ab+cd = 34 and acbd = 19. 2n + 1 + n(n + 1) for all positive integers n, evaluate n+1+ n

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Greece
National Olympiad 2005

Seniors

1 Find the polynomial P (x) with real coecients such that P (2) = 12 and P (x2 ) = x2 (x2 + 1)P (x) for each x R. 2 The sequence (an ) is dened by a1 = 1 and an = an1 + for all n. (b) Given all n > n0 . 5 1 for n > 1. (a) Prove that an < n3 4 > 0, nd the smallest natural number n0 such that | an+1 an |< for

3 We know that k is a positive integer and the equation x3 + y 3 2y(x2 xy + y 2 ) = k 2 (x y) (1)

has one solution (x0 , y0 ) with x0 , y0 Z {0} and x0 = y0 . Prove that i) the equation (1) has a nite number of solutions (x, y) with x, y Z and x = y; ii) it is possible to nd 11 addition dierent solutions (X, Y ) of the equation (1) with X, Y Z {0} and X = Y where X, Y are functions of x0 , y0 . 4 Let OX1 , OX2 be rays in the interior of a convex angle XOY such that XOX1 = Y OY1 < 1 XOY . Points K on OX1 and L on OY1 are xed so that OK = OL, and points A, B 3 are vary on rays (OX, (OY respectively such that the area of the pentagon OAKLB remains constant. Prove that the circumcircle of the triangle OAB passes from a xed point, other than O.

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Greece
National Olympiad 2007

Juniors

1 In a triangle ABC with the incenter I, the angle bisector AD meets the circumcircle of triangle BIC at point N = I. (a) Express the angles of BCN in terms of the angles of triangle ABC. (b) Show that the circumcenter of triangle BIC is at the intersection of AI and the circumcenter of ABC. 2 If n is is an integer such that 4n + 3 is divisible by 11, nd the from of n and the remainder of n4 upon division by 11. 3 For an integer n, denote A = A B is an integer. n2 + 24 and B = n2 9. Find all values of n for which

4 Each of the 50 students in a class sent greeting cards to 25 of the others. Prove that there exist two students who greeted each other.

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Greece
National Olympiad 2007

Seniors

1 Find all positive integers n such that 4n + 2007 is a perfect square. 2 Let a, b, c be sides of a triangle, show that (c + a b)4 (a + b c)4 (b + c a)4 + + ab + bc + ca a(a + b c) b(b + c a) c(c + a b) 3 In a circular ring with radii 11r and 9r, we put circles of radius r which are tangent to the boundary circles and do not overlap. Determine the maximum number of circles that can be put this way. (You may use that 9.94 < 99 < 9.95) 4 Given a 2007x2007 array of numbers 1 and 1, let Ai denote the product of the entries in the ith row, and Bj denote the product of the entries in the jth column. Show that A1 + A2 + ... + A2007 + B1 + B2 + ... + B2007 = 0

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Hong Kong
2006-2008

Hong Kong
National Olympiad 2008

1 Let f (x) = cm xm + cm1 xm1 + ... + c1 x + c0 , where each ci is a non-zero integer. Dene a sequence {an } by a1 = 0 and an+1 = f (an ) for all positive integers n. (a) Let i and j be positive integers with i < j. Show that aj+1 aj is a multiple of ai+1 ai . (b) Show that a2008 = 0 2 Let n > 4 be a positive integer such that n is composite (not a prime) and divides (n)(n)+1, where (n) is the Eulers totient function of n and (n) is the sum of the positive divisors of n. Prove that n has at least three distinct prime factors. 3 ABC is a triangle such that AB = AC. The incircle of ABC touches BC, CA, AB at D, E, F respectively. H is a point on the segment EF such that DHEF . Suppose AHBC, prove that H is the orthocentre of ABC. Remark: the original question has missed the condition AB = AC 4 There are 2008 congruent circles on a plane such that no two are tangent to each other and each circle intersects at least three other circles. Let N be the total number of intersection points of these circles. Determine the smallest possible values of N .

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Hong Kong
Team Selection Tests 2006

1 On a planet there are 3 2005! aliens and 2005 languages. Each pair of aliens communicates with each other in exactly one language. Show that there are 3 aliens who communicate with each other in one common language. 2 Suppose there are 4n line segments of unit length inside a circle of radius n. Furthermore, a straight line L is given. Prove that there exists a straight line L that is either parallel or perpendicular to L and that L cuts at least two of the given line segments. 3 Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that a + b + c + d = 1. Prove that 6(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) (a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) + 1 8

4 Show that there exist innitely many square-free positive integers n that divide 2005n 1.

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Hong Kong
Team Selection Tests 2008

Test 1

Day 1
1 Let 1 , 2 , . . ., 2008 be real numbers. Find the maximum value of sin 1 cos 2 + sin 2 cos 3 + + sin 2007 cos 2008 + sin 2008 cos 1 2 Find the total number of solutions to the following system of equations: a2 + bc a (mod 37) b(a + d) b (mod 37) c(a + d) c (mod 37) bc + d2 d (mod 37) ad bc 1 (mod 37) 3 Let ABCDE be an arbitrary convex pentagon. Suppose that BD CE = A , CE DA = B , DAEB = C , EBAC = D and ACBD = E . Suppose also that (ABD )(AC E) = A , (BCE ) (BD A) = B , (CDA ) (CE B) = C , (DEB ) DA C = D and (EAC ) (EB D) = E . Prove that AA , BB , CC , DD and EE are concurrent. space*0.4cm

Day 2
1 In a school there are 2008 students. Students are members of certain committees. A committee has at most 1004 members and every two students join a common committee. (i) Determine the smallest possible number of committees in the school. (ii) If it is further required that the union of any two committees consists of at most 1800 students, will your answer in (i) still hold? 2 Let a, b, c be the three sides of a triangle. Determine all possible values of a2 + b2 + c2 ab + bc + ca 3 Show that the equation y 37 = x3 + 11 (mod p) is solvable for every prime p, where p 100.

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Hong Kong
Team Selection Tests 2008

Grade 2

1 Let f : Z Z be such that f (1) = 1, f (2) = 20, f (4) = 4 and f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) + axy(x + y) + bxy + c(x + y) + 4x, y Z, where a, b, c are constants. (a) Find a formula for f (x), where x is any integer. (b) If f (x) mx2 + (5m + 1)x + 4m for all non-negative integers x, nd the greatest possible value of m. 2 Dene a k-clique to be a set of k people such that every pair of them are acquainted with each other. At a certain party, every pair of 3-cliques has at least one person in common, and there are no 5-cliques. Prove that there are two or fewer people at the party whose departure leaves no 3-clique remaining. 3 Prove that there are innitely many primes p such that the total number of solutions mod p to the equation 3x3 + 4y 4 + 5z 3 y 4 z 0 is p2 4 Two circles C1 , C2 with dierent radii are given in the plane, they touch each other externally at T . Consider any points A C1 and B C2 , both dierent from T , such that AT B = 90 . (a) Show that all such lines AB are concurrent. (b) Find the locus of midpoints of all such segments AB.

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Hungary Israel
1990-2009

Hungary-Israel Binational 1990

1 Prove that there are no positive integers x and y such that x2 + y + 2 and y 2 + 4x are perfect squares 2 Let ABC be a triangle where ACB = 90 . Let D be the midpoint of BC and let E, and F be points on AC such that CF = F E = EA. The altitude from C to the hypotenuse AB is CG, and the circumcentre of triangle AEG is H. Prove that the triangles ABC and HDF are similar. 3 Prove that: 2 1 1 3 5 1989 1989 1988 1987 + + = + + + + 2 3 4 1989 1990 996 997 998 1990 4 A rectangular sheet of paper with integer length sides is given. The sheet is marked with unit squares. Arrows are drawn at each lattice point on the sheet in a way that each arrow is parallel to one of its sides, and the arrows at the boundary of the paper do not point outwards. Prove that there exists at least one pair of neighboring lattice points (horizontally, vertically or diagonally) such that the arrows drawn at these points are in opposite directions.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1991

1 Suppose f (x) is a polynomial with integer coecients such that f (0) = 11 and f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = ... = f (xn ) = 2002 for some distinct integers x1 , x2 , ..., xn . Find the largest possible value of n. 2 The vertices of a square sheet of paper are A, B, C, D. The sheet is folded in a way that the point D is mapped to the point D on the side BC. Let A be the image of A after the folding, and let E be the intersection point of AB and A D . Let r be the inradius of the triangle EBD . Prove that r = A E. 3 Let Hn be the set of all numbers of the form 2 2 2 . . . 2 where root signs appear n times. (a) Prove that all the elements of Hn are real. (b) Computer the product of the elements of Hn . (c) The elements of H11 are arranged in a row, and are sorted by size in an ascending order. Find the position in that row, of the elements of H11 that corresponds to the following combination of signs: ++++++++ 4 Find all the real values of for which the system of equations x + y + z + v = 0 and (xy + yz + zv) + (xz + xv + yv) = 0, has a unique real solution.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1992

Individual

1 Prove that if c is a positive number distinct from 1 and n a positive integer, then n2 cn + cn 2 . c + c1 2

2 A set S consists of 1992 positive integers among whose units digits all 10 digits occur. Show that there is such a set S having no nonempty subset S1 whose sum of elements is divisible by 2000. 3 We are given 100 strictly increasing sequences of positive integers: Ai = (a1 , a2 , ...), i = 1, 2, ..., 100. For 1 r, s 100 we dene the following quantities: fr (u) = the number of elements of Ar not exceeding n; fr,s (u) = the number of elements of Ar As not exceeding 1 n. Suppose that fr (n) n for all r and n. Prove that there exists a pair of indices (r, s) 2 8n with r = s such that fr,s (n) for at least ve distinct n s with 1 n < 19920. 33 4 We are given a convex pentagon ABCDE in the coordinate plane such that A, B, C, D, E are lattice points. Let Q denote the convex pentagon bounded by the ve diagonals of the pentagon ABCDE (so that the vertices of Q are the interior points of intersection of diagonals of the pentagon ABCDE). Prove that there exists a lattice point inside of Q or on the boundary of Q.
(i) (i)

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1992

Team

1 We examine the following two sequences: The Fibonacci sequence: F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 2; The Lucas sequence: L0 = 2, L1 = 1, Ln = Ln1 + Ln2 for n 2. It is known that for all n 0 n n Fn = , Ln = n + n , 5 1+ 5 1 5 where = , = . These formulae can be used without proof. 2 2 Prove that 1 + L2j 0 (mod 2j+1 ) for j 0. 2 We examine the following two sequences: The Fibonacci sequence: F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 2; The Lucas sequence: L0 = 2, L1 = 1, Ln = Ln1 + Ln2 for n 2. It is known that for all n 0 n n Fn = , Ln = n + n , 5 1 5 1+ 5 , = . These formulae can be used without proof. where = 2 2 Prove that n 1 [k Fk + ] = F2n+1 n > 1. 2
k=1

3 We examine the following two sequences: The Fibonacci sequence: F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 2; The Lucas sequence: L0 = 2, L1 = 1, Ln = Ln1 + Ln2 for n 2. It is known that for all n 0 n n Fn = , Ln = n + n , 5 1+ 5 1 5 where = , = . These formulae can be used without proof. 2 2 We call a nonnegative integer r-Fibonacci number if it is a sum of r (not necessarily distinct) Fibonacci numbers. Show that there innitely many positive integers that are not r-Fibonacci numbers for any r, 1 r 5. 4 We examine the following two sequences: The Fibonacci sequence: F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 2; The Lucas sequence: L0 = 2, L1 = 1, Ln = Ln1 + Ln2 for n 2. It is known that for all n 0 n n Fn = , Ln = n + n , 5

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1992

1 5 1+ 5 , = . These formulae can be used without proof. where = 2 2 Prove that Fn1 Fn Fn+1 Ln1 Ln Ln+1 (n 2) is not a perfect square. 5 We examine the following two sequences: The Fibonacci sequence: F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 2; The Lucas sequence: L0 = 2, L1 = 1, Ln = Ln1 + Ln2 for n 2. It is known that for all n 0 n n , Ln = n + n , Fn = 5 1+ 5 1 5 where = , = . These formulae can be used without proof. 2 2 Show that L2n+1 + (1)n+1 (n 1) can be written as a product of three (not necessarily distinct) Fibonacci numbers. 6 We examine the following two sequences: The Fibonacci sequence: F0 = 0, F1 = 1, Fn = Fn1 + Fn2 for n 2; The Lucas sequence: L0 = 2, L1 = 1, Ln = Ln1 + Ln2 for n 2. It is known that for all n 0 n n Fn = , Ln = n + n , 5 1 5 1+ 5 , = . These formulae can be used without proof. where = 2 2 The coordinates of all vertices of a given rectangle are Fibonacci numbers. Suppose that the rectangle is not such that one of its vertices is on the x-axis and another on the y-axis. Prove that either the sides of th rectangles are parallel to the axes, or make an angle of 450 with the axes.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1993

Individual
a 1 Find all pairs of coprime natural numbers a and b such that the fraction is written in the b decimal system as b.a. 2 Determine all polynomials f (x) with real coecients that satisfy f (x2 2x) = f 2 (x 2) for all x. 3 Distinct points A, B, C, D, E are given in this order on a semicircle with radius 1. Prove that AB 2 + BC 2 + CD2 + DE 2 + AB BC CD + BC CD DE < 4. 4 Find the largest possible number of rooks that can be placed on a 3n 3n chessboard so that each rook is attacked by at most one rook.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1993

Team

1 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Suppose k 2 is an integer such that for all x, y G and i {k 1, k, k + 1} the relation (xy)i = xi y i holds. Show that G is Abelian. 2 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Suppose that n 1 is such that the mapping x xn from G to itself is an isomorphism. Prove that for each a G, an1 Z(G). 3 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Show that every element of Sn is a product of 2-cycles. 4 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Let H G and a, b G. Prove that |aH Hb| is either zero or a divisor of |H|. 5 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Let H G, |H| = 3. What can be said about |NG (H) : CG (H)|? 6 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Let a, b G. Suppose that ab2 = b3 a and ba2 = a3 b. Prove that a = b = 1.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1993

7 In the questions below: G is a nite group; H G a subgroup of G; |G : H| the index of H in G; |X| the number of elements of X G; Z(G) the center of G; G the commutator subgroup of G; NG (H) the normalizer of H in G; CG (H) the centralizer of H in G; and Sn the n-th symmetric group. Assume |G | = 2. Prove that |G : G | is even.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1994

1 Let m and n be two distinct positive integers. Prove that there exists a real number x such 1 2 1 2 that {xn} and {xm} . Here, for any real number y, {y} denotes the 3 3 3 3 fractional part of y. For example {3.1415} = 0.1415. 2 Let a1 , . . ., ak , ak+1 , . . ., an be n positive numbers (k < n). Suppose that the values of ak+1 , ai ak+2 , . . ., an are xed. Choose the values of a1 , a2 , . . ., ak that minimize the sum aj
i,j,i=j

3 Three given circles have the same radius and pass through a common point P . Their other points of pairwise intersections are A, B, C. We dene triangle A B C , each of whose sides is tangent to two of the three circles. The three circles are contained in A B C . Prove that the area of A B C is at least nine times the area of ABC 4 An n m society is a group of n girls and m boys. Prove that there exists numbers n0 and m0 such that every n0 m0 society contains a subgroup of ve boys and ve girls with the following property: either all of the boys know all of the girls or none of the boys knows none of the girls.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1995

1 Let the sum of the rst n primes be denoted by Sn . Prove that for any positive integer n, there exists a perfect square between Sn and Sn+1 . 2 Let P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 be ve distinct points on a circle. The distance of P from the line Pi Pk is denoted by dik . Prove that d12 d34 = d13 d24 . 3 The polynomial f (x) = ax2 + bx + c has real coecients and satises |f (x)| 1 for all x [0, 1]. Find the maximal value of |a| + |b| + |c|. 4 Consider a convex polyhedron whose faces are triangles. Prove that it is possible to color its edges by either red or blue, in a way that the following property is satised: one can travel from any vertex to any other vertex while passing only along red edges, and can also do this while passing only along blue edges.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1996

1997

1997

1 Find all integer sequences of the form xi , 1 i 1997, that satisfy


k=1

2k1 x1997 = 1996 k


k=1

xk .

2 n > 2 is an integer such that n2 can be represented as a dierence of cubes of 2 consecutive positive integers. Prove that n is a sum of 2 squares of positive integers, and that such n does exist. 3 A given convex polyhedron has no vertex which belongs to exactly 3 edges. Prove that the number of faces of the polyhedron that are triangles, is at least 8. 4 a1 , a2 , , an is a sequence of real numbers, and b1 , b2 , , bn are real numbers that satisfy the condition 1 b1 b2 bn 0. Prove that there exists a natural number k n that satisifes |a1 b1 + a2 b2 + + an bn | |a1 + a2 + + ak |

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1997

Day 1

1998

1 Is there an integer N such that

1997

1996

N 1?

2 Find all the real numbers satisfy the following property: for any positive integer n there m 1 exists an integer m such that < . n 3n 3 Let ABC be an acute angled triangle whose circumcenter is O. The three diameters of the circumcircle that pass through A, B, and C, meet the opposite sides BC, CA, and AB at the points A1 , B1 and C1 , respectively. The circumradius of ABC is of length 2P , where P is a prime number. The lengths of OA1 , OB1 , OC1 are integers. What are the lengths of the sides of the triangle?

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1997

Day 2
1 Determine the number of distinct sequences of letters of length 1997 which use each of the letters A, B, C (and no others) an odd number of times. 2 The three squares ACC1 A , ABB1 A , BCDE are constructed externally on the sides of a triangle ABC. Let P be the center of the square BCDE. Prove that the lines A C, A B, P A are concurrent. 3 Can a closed disk can be decomposed into a union of two congruent parts having no common point?

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1998

Day 1
1 A player is playing the following game. In each turn he ips a coin and guesses the outcome. If his guess is correct, he gains 1 point; otherwise he loses all his points. Initially the player has no points, and plays the game until he has 2 points. (a) Find the probability pn that the game ends after exactly n ips. (b) What is the expected number of ips needed to nish the game? 2 A triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle with center O and radius R. If the inradii of the 1 1 1 4 3+6 triangles OBC, OCA, OAB are r1 , r2 , r3 , respectively, prove that + + . r1 r2 r3 R 3 Let a, b, c, m, n be positive integers. Consider the trinomial f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. Show that there exist n consecutive natural numbers a1 , a2 , ..., an such that each of the numbers f (a1 ), f (a2 ), ..., f (an ) has at least m dierent prime factors.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1998

Day 2
1 Find all positive integers x and y such that 5x 3y = 16. 2 On the sides of a convex hexagon ABCDEF , equilateral triangles are constructd in its exterior. Prove that the third vertices of these six triangles are vertices of a regular hexagon if and only if the initial hexagon is ane regular. (A hexagon is called ane regular if it is centrally symmetric and any two opposite sides are parallel to the diagonal determine by the remaining two vertices.) 3 Let n be a positive integer. We consider the set P of all partitions of n into a sum of positive integers (the order is irrelevant). For every partition , let ak () be the number of summands in 1 that are equal to k, k = 1, 2, ..., n. Prove that = a1 () a ()! 2a2 () a ()!...nan () a ()! 1 1 2 n P 1.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1999

Day 1
1 f (x) is a given polynomial whose degree at least 2. Dene the following polynomial-sequence: g1 (x) = f (x), gn+1 (x) = f (gn (x)), for all n N . Let rn be the average of gn (x)s roots. If r19 = 99, nd r99 . 2 2n + 1 lines are drawn in the plane, in such a way that every 3 lines dene a triangle with no right angles. What is the maximal possible number of acute triangles that can be made in this way? 3 Find all functions f : Q R that satisfy for every x, y Q: f (x + y) = f (x)f (y) f (xy) + 1

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Hungary-Israel Binational 1999

Day 2
1 c is a positive integer. Consider the following recursive sequence: a1 = c, an+1 = can + (c2 1)(a2 1), for all n N . Prove that all the terms of the sequence are positive n integers. 2 The function f (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 is dened for every x, y, z R whose sum is not 0. x+y+z 1 2 2 Find a point (x0 , y0 , z0 ) such that 0 < x2 + y0 + z0 < and 1.999 < f (x0 , y0 , z0 ) < 2. 0 1999

3 In a multiple-choice test, there are 4 problems, each having 3 possible answers. In some group of examinees, it turned out that for every 3 of them, there was a question that each of them gave a dierent answer to. What is the maximal number of examinees in this group?

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2000

Day 1
1 Let S be the set of all partitions of 2000 (in a sum of positive integers). For every such partition p, we dene f (p) to be the sum of the number of summands in p and the maximal summand in p. Compute the minimum of f (p) when p S. 2 Prove or disprove: For any positive integer k there exists an integer n > 1 such that the n binomial coecient is divisible by k for any 1 i n 1. i 3 Let ABC be a non-equilateral triangle. The incircle is tangent to the sides BC, CA, AB at A1 , B1 , C1 , respectively, and M is the orthocenter of triangle A1 B1 C1 . Prove that M lies on the line through the incenter and circumcenter of ABC . [deleted as merged with http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=2131121311 ]

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2000

Day 2
1 Let A and B be two subsets of S = {1, 2, ..., 2000} with |A| |B| 3999. For a set X , let X X denotes the set {s t|s, t X, s = t}. Prove that (A A) (B B) is nonempty. 2 For a given integer d, let us dene S = {m2 + dn2 |m, n Z}. Suppose that p, q are two elements of S , where p is prime and p|q. Prove that r = q/p also belongs to S . 3 Let k and l be two given positive integers and aij (1 i k, 1 j l) be kl positive integers. Show that if q p > 0, then
l k k l

(
j=1 i=1

ap )q/p )1/q ( ij

(
i=1 j=1

aq )p/q )1/p . ij

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2001

Individual

Day 1
1 Find positive integers x, y, z such that x > z > 199920002001 > y and 2000x2 +y 2 = 2001z 2 . 2 Points A, B, C, D lie on a line l, in that order. Find the locus of points P in the plane for which AP B = CP D. 3 Find all continuous functions f : R R such that for all x R, f (f (x)) = f (x) + x. space*0.4cm

Day 2
4 Let P (x) = x3 3x + 1. Find the polynomial Q whose roots are the fth powers of the roots of P . 5 In a triangle ABC , B1 and C1 are the midpoints of AC and AB respectively, and I is the incenter. The lines B1 I and C1 I meet AB and AC respectively at C2 and B2 . If the areas of ABC and AB2 C2 are equal, nd BAC . 6 Let be given 32 positive integers with the sum 120, none of which is greater than 60. Prove that these integers can be divided into two disjoint subsets with the same sum of elements.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2001

Team

1 Here Gn denotes a simple undirected graph with n vertices, Kn denotes the complete graph with n vertices, Kn,m the complete bipartite graph whose components have m and n vertices, and Cn a circuit with n vertices. The number of edges in the graph Gn is denoted e(Gn ). The edges of Kn (n 3) are colored with n colors, and every color is used. Show that there is a triangle whose sides have dierent colors. 2 Here Gn denotes a simple undirected graph with n vertices, Kn denotes the complete graph with n vertices, Kn,m the complete bipartite graph whose components have m and n vertices, and Cn a circuit with n vertices. The number of edges in the graph Gn is denoted e(Gn ). n2 If n 5 and e(Gn ) + 2, prove that Gn contains two triangles that share exactly one 4 vertex. 3 Here Gn denotes a simple undirected graph with n vertices, Kn denotes the complete graph with n vertices, Kn,m the complete bipartite graph whose components have m and n vertices, and Cn a circuit with n vertices. The number of edges in the graph Gn is denoted e(Gn ). n n n If e(Gn ) + ,prove that Gn contains C4 . 2 4 4 Here Gn denotes a simple undirected graph with n vertices, Kn denotes the complete graph with n vertices, Kn,m the complete bipartite graph whose components have m and n vertices, and Cn a circuit with n vertices. The number of edges in the graph Gn is denoted e(Gn ). n n (a) If Gn does not contain K2,3 , prove that e(Gn ) + n. (b) Given n 16 distinct 2 points P1 , ..., Pn in the plane, prove that at most n n of the segments Pi Pj have unit length. 5 Here Gn denotes a simple undirected graph with n vertices, Kn denotes the complete graph with n vertices, Kn,m the complete bipartite graph whose components have m and n vertices, and Cn a circuit with n vertices. The number of edges in the graph Gn is denoted e(Gn ). (a) Let p be a prime. Consider the graph whose vertices are the ordered pairs (x, y) with x, y {0, 1, ..., p1} and whose edges join vertices (x, y) and (x , y ) if and only if xx +yy 1 (mod p) . Prove that this graph does not contain C4 . (b) Prove that for innitely many values n n n there is a graph Gn with e(Gn ) n that does not contain C4 . 2

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2002

Day 1
1 Find the greatest exponent k for which 2001k divides 20002001
2002

+ 20022001

2000

2 Points A1 , B1 , C1 are given inside an equilateral triangle ABC such that B1 AB = A1BA = 150 , C1 BC = B1 CB = 200 , A1 CA = C1 AC = 250 . Find the angles of triangle A1 B1 C1 . 3 Let p 5 be a prime number. Prove that there exists a positive integer a < p 1 such that neither of ap1 1 and (a + 1)p1 1 is divisible by p2 .

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2002

Day 2
1 Suppose that positive numbers x and y satisfy x3 + y 4 x2 + y 3 . Prove that x3 + y 3 2. 2 Let A , B , C be the projections of a point M inside a triangle ABC onto the sides BC, CA, AB, MA MB MC respectively. Dene p(M ) = . Find the position of point M that maximizes MA MB MC p(M ). 3 Let p(x) be a polynomial with rational coecients, of degree at least 2. Suppose that a sequence (rn ) of rational numbers satises rn = p(rn+1 ) for every n 1. Prove that the sequence (rn ) is periodic.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2003

Day 1
x3 x3 1 2 + 2 + 2 + x x + x2 x1 x2 + x2 x3 + x2 1 2 2 3

1 If x1 , x2 , ..., xn are positive numbers, prove the inequality ... + x1 + x2 + ... + xn x3 n . 2 + x x + x2 3 xn n 1 1

2 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle. The tangents to its circumcircle at A, B, C form a triangle P QR with C P Q and B P R. Let C1 be the foot of the altitude from C in ABC . Prove that CC1 bisects QC1 P . 3 Let d > 0 be an arbitrary real number. Consider the set Sn (d) = {s = N, s < d}. Prove that Sn (d) has a maximum element. 1 1 1 + + ... + |xi x1 x2 xn

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2003

Day 2
1 Two players play the following game. They alternately write divisors of 100! on the blackboard, not repeating any of the numbers written before. The player after whose move the greatest common divisor of the written numbers equals 1, loses the game. Which player has a winning strategy? 2 Let M be a point inside a triangle ABC . The lines AM, BM, CM intersect BC, CA, AB at A1 , B1 , C1 , respectively. Assume that SM AC1 + SM BA1 + SM CB1 = SM A1 C + SM B1 A + SM C1 B . Prove that one of the lines AA1 , BB1 , CC1 is a median of the triangle ABC. 3 Let n be a positive integer. Show that there exist three distinct integers between n2 and n2 + n + 3 n, such that one of them divides the product of the other two.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2005

Day 1
1 Squares ABB1 A2 and BCC1 B2 are externally drawn on the hypotenuse AB and on the leg BC of a right triangle ABC . Show that the lines CA2 and AB2 meet on the perimeter of a square with the vertices on the perimeter of triangle ABC. 2 Let f be an increasing mapping from the family of subsets of a given nite set H into itself, i.e. such that for every X Y H we have f (X) f (Y ) H. Prove that there exists a subset H0 of H such that f (H0 ) = H0 . {Edit by Megus: original problem has instead of so Ive modied it 3 Find all sequences x1 , x2 , ..., xn of distinct positive integers such that 1 = 2
n i=1

1 . x2 i

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2005

Day 2
1 Does there exist a sequence of 2005 consecutive positive integers that contains exactly 25 prime numbers? 2 Let Fn be the n th Fibonacci number (where F1 = F2 = 1). Consider the functions fn (x) = ... |x| Fn | Fn1 | ... F2 | F1 |, gn (x) = |... x 1| 1| ... 1| (F1 + ... + Fn ones). Show that fn (x) = gn (x) for every real number x. 3 There are seven rods erected at the vertices of a regular heptagonal area. The top of each rod is connected to the top of its second neighbor by a straight piece of wire so that, looking from above, one sees each wire crossing exactly two others. Is it possible to set the respective heights of the rods in such a way that no four tops of the rods are coplanar and each wire passes one of the crossings from above and the other one from below?

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2006

Day 1
1 If natural numbers x, y, p, n, k with n > 1 odd and p an odd prime satisfy xn + y n = pk , prove that n is a power of p. 2 A block of size a b c is composed of 1 1 2 domino blocks. Assuming that each of the three possible directions of domino blocks occurs equally many times, what are the possible values of a, b, c? 3 Let H = A1 A2 . . . An be a convex n-gon. For i = 1, 2, . . . , n, let Ai be the point symmetric to Ai with respect to the midpoint of Ai1 Ai+1 (where An+1 = A1 ). We say that the vertex Ai is good if Ai lies inside H. Show that at least n 3 vertices of H are good.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2006

Day 2
1 A point P inside a circle is such that there are three chords of the same length passing through P . Prove that P is the center of the circle. 2 If x, y, z are nonnegative real numbers with the sum 1, nd the maximum value of S = x2 (y + z) + y 2 (z + x) + z 2 (x + y) and C = x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x. 3 A group of 100 students numbered 1 through 100 are playing the following game. The judge writes the numbers 1, 2, . . ., 100 on 100 cards, places them on the table in an arbitrary order and turns them over. The students 1 to 100 enter the room one by one, and each of them ips 50 of the cards. If among the cards ipped by student j there is card j, he gains one point. The ipped cards are then turned over again. The students cannot communicate during the game nor can they see the cards ipped by other students. The group wins the game if each student gains a point. Is there a strategy giving the group more than 1 percent of chance to win?

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2007

Day 1
1 You have to organize a fair procedure to randomly select someone from n people so that 1 every one of them would be chosen with the probability . You are allowed to choose two n real numbers 0 < p1 < 1 and 0 < p2 < 1 and order two coins which satisfy the following requirement: the probability of tossing heads on the rst coin p1 and the probability of tossing heads on the second coin is p2 . Before starting the procedure, you are supposed to announce an upper bound on the total number of times that the two coins are going to be ipped altogether. Describe a procedure that achieves this goal under the given conditions. Taken from http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=967228967228. 2 Let a, b, c, d be real numbers, such that a2 1, a2 +b2 5, a2 +b2 +c2 14, a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 30. Prove that a + b + c + d 10. Taken from http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=967228967228. I posted a nice solution to this problem at the above link. 3 Let AB be the diameter of a given circle with radius 1 unit, and let P be a given point on AB. A line through P meets the circle at points C and D, so a convex quadrilateral ABCD is formed. Find the maximum possible area of the quadrilateral. Taken from http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=967228967228.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2007

Day 2
1 A given rectangle R is divided into nm small rectangles by straight lines parallel to its sides. (The distances between the parallel lines may not be equal.) What is the minimum number of appropriately selected rectangles areas that should be known in order to determine the area of R? Taken from http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=967228967228. 2 Given is an ellipse e in the plane. Find the locus of all points P in space such that the cone of apex P and directrix e is a right circular cone. Taken from http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=967228967228. 3 Let t 3 be a given real number and assume that the polynomial f (x) satises: |f (k)tk | < 1, for k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n Prove that the degree of f (x) is at least n. Taken from http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=967228967228.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Hungary-Israel Binational 2008

Day 1
1 Find the largest value of n, such that there exists a polygon with n sides, 2 adjacent sides of length 1, and all his diagonals have an integer length. 2 For every natural number t, f (t) is the probability that if a fair coin is tossed t times, the number of times we get heads is 2008 more than the number of tails. What is the value of t for which f (t) attains its maximum? (if there is more than one, describe all of them) 3 A rectangle D is partitioned in several ( 2) rectangles with sides parallel to those of D. Given that any line parallel to one of the sides of D, and having common points with the interior of D, also has common interior points with the interior of at least one rectangle of the partition; prove that there is at least one rectangle of the partition having no common points with Ds boundary. Author: unknown author, Japan

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2008

Day 2
n2

1 Prove that:
i=1

i n2 (n2 1) = For all n N . 3 6 1 + a2 n . Prove that all the terms an1

2 The sequence an is dened as follows: a0 = 1, a1 = 1, an+1 = of the sequence are integers.

3 P and Q are 2 points in the area bounded by 2 rays, e and f, coming out from a point O. Describe how to construct, with a ruler and a compass only, an isosceles triangle ABC, such that his base AB is on the ray e, the point C is on the ray f, P is on AC, and Q on BC.

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2009

Day 1
1 For a given prime p > 2 and positive integer k let Sk = 1k + 2k + . . . + (p 1)k Find those values of k for which p | Sk . 2 Denote the three real roots of the cubic x3 3x 1 = 0 by x1 , x2 , x3 in order of increasing magnitude. (You may assume that the equation in fact has three distinct real roots.) Prove that x2 x2 = x3 x1 . 3 2 3 Does there exist a pair (f ; g) of strictly monotonic functions, both from N to N, such that f (g(g(n))) < g(f (n)) for every n N?

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Hungary-Israel Binational 2009

Day 2
1 Given is the convex quadrilateral ABCD. Assume that there exists a point P inside the quadrilateral for which the triangles ABP and CDP are both isosceles right triangles with the right angle at the common vertex P . Prove that there exists a point Q for which the triangles BCQ and ADQ are also isosceles right triangles with the right angle at the common vertex Q. 2 Let x, y and z be non negative numbers. Prove that x+y+z x2 + y 2 + z 2 + xy + yz + zx 6 3 x2 + y 2 + z 2 3

3 (a) Do there exist 2009 distinct positive integers such that their sum is divisible by each of the given numbers? (b) Do there exist 2009 distinct positive integers such that their sum is divisible by the sum of any two of the given numbers?

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Ibero
American
1985-2009

IberoAmerican 1985
Villa de Leyva, Colombia

Day 1
1 Find all the triples of integers (a, b, c) such that: a2 a+b+c = 24 2 + c2 = 210 +b abc = 440

2 Let P be a point in the interior of the equilateral triangle ABC such that P A = 5, P B = 7, P C = 8. Find the length of the side of the triangle ABC. 3 Find all the roots r1 , r2 , r3 y r4 of the equation 4x4 ax3 + bx2 cx + 5 = 0, knowing that they are real, positive and that: r1 r2 r3 r4 + + + = 1. 2 4 5 8

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IberoAmerican 1985
Villa de Leyva, Colombia

Day 2
1 If x = 1, y = 1, x = y and xz y 2 yz x2 = 1x 1y show that both fractions are equal to x + y + z. 2 To each positive integer n it is assigned a non-negative integer f (n) such that the following conditions are satised: (1) f (rs) = f (r) + f (s) (2) f (n) = 0, If the rst digit (from right to left) of n is 3. (3) f (10) = 0. Find f (1985). Justify your answer. 3 Given an acute triangle ABC, let D, E and F be points in the lines BC, AC and AB respectively. If the lines AD, BE and CF Pass by O the center of the circumcircle of the 1 1 2 1 + + = . triangle ABC, whose radio is R, show that AD BE CF R

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IberoAmerican 1990
Valladolid, Spain

Day 1 - 24 September 1990


1 Let f be a function dened for the non-negative integers, such that: a) f (n) = 0 if n = 2j 1 for some j 0. b) f (n + 1) = f (n) 1 otherwise. i) Show that for every n 0 there exists k 0 such that f (n) + n = 2k 1. ii) Find f (21990 ). 2 Let ABC be a triangle. I is the incenter, and the incircle is tangent to BC, CA, AB at D, E, F , respectively. P is the second point of intersection of AD and the incircle. If M is the midpoint of EF , show that P , I, M , D are concyclic. 3 Let b, c be integer numbers, and dene f (x) = (x + b)2 c. i) If p is a prime number such that c is divisible by p but not by p2 , show that for every integer n, f (n) is not divisible by p2 . ii) Let q = 2 be a prime divisor of c. If q divides f (n) for some integer n, show that for every integer r there exists an integer n such that f (n ) is divisible by qr.

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IberoAmerican 1990
Valladolid, Spain

Day 2 - 25 September 1990


4 Let 1 be a circle. AB is a diameter, is the tangent at B, and M is a point on 1 other than A. 2 is a circle tangent to , and also to 1 at M . a) Determine the point of tangency P of M varies. and 2 and nd the locus of the center of 2 as

b) Show that there exists a circle that is always orthogonal to 2 , regardless of the position of M . 5 A and B are two opposite vertices of an n n board. Within each small square of the board, the diagonal parallel to AB is drawn, so that the board is divided in 2n2 equal triangles. A coin moves from A to B along the grid, and for every segment of the grid that it visits, a seed is put in each triangle that contains the segment as a side. The path followed by the coin is such that no segment is visited more than once, and after the coins arrives at B, there are exactly two seeds in each of the 2n2 triangles of the board. Determine all the values of n for which such scenario is possible. 6 Let f (x) be a cubic polynomial with rational coecients. If the graph of f (x) is tangent to the x axis, prove that the roots of f (x) are all rational.

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IberoAmerican 1991
Cordoba, Argentina

1 Each vertex of a cube is assigned an 1 or a -1, and each face is assigned the product of the numbers assigned to its vertices. Determine the possible values the sum of these 14 numbers can attain. 2 A square is divided in four parts by two perpendicular lines, in such a way that three of these parts have areas equal to 1. Show that the square has area equal to 4. 3 Let f : [0, 1] R be an increasing function satisfying the following conditions: a) f (0) = 0; b) f x f (x) = ; 3 2 c) f (1 x) = 1 f (x). Determine f 18 . 1991

4 Find a positive integer n with ve non-zero dierent digits, which satises to be equal to the sum of all the three-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits of n. 5 Let P (x, y) = 2x2 6xy + 5y 2 . Let us say an integer number a is a value of P if there exist integer numbers b, c such that P (b, c) = a. a) Find all values of P lying between 1 and 100. b) Show that if r and s are values of P , then so is rs. 6 Let M , N and P be three non-collinear points. Construct using straight edge and compass a triangle for which M and N are the midpoints of two of its sides, and P is its orthocenter.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1992
Caracas, Venezuela

Day 1 - 21 September 1992


1 For every positive integer n we dene an as the last digit of the sum 1 + 2 + + n. Compute a1 + a2 + + a1992 . 2 Given the positive real numbers a1 < a2 < < an , consider the function f (x) = a2 an a1 + + + x + a1 x + a2 x + an

Determine the sum of the lengths of the disjoint intervals formed by all the values of x such that f (x) > 1. 3 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle of sidelength 2 and let be its incircle. a) Show that for every point P on the sum of the squares of its distances to A, B, C is 5. b) Show that for every point P on it is possible to construct a triangle of sidelengths AP , 3 . BP , CP . Also, the area of such triangle is 4

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1992
Caracas, Venezuela

Day 2 - 22 September 1992


1 Let {an }n0 and {bn }n0 be two sequences of integer numbers such that: i. a0 = 0, b0 = 8. ii. For every n 0, an+2 = 2an+1 an + 2, bn+2 = 2bn+1 bn . iii. a2 + b2 is a perfect square for every n 0. n n Find at least two values of the pair (a1992 , b1992 ). 2 Given a circle and the positive numbers h and m, construct with straight edge and compass a trapezoid inscribed in , such that it has altitude h and the sum of its parallel sides is m. 3 In a triangle ABC, points A1 and A2 are chosen in the prolongations beyond A of segments AB and AC, such that AA1 = AA2 = BC. Dene analogously points B1 , B2 , C1 , C2 . If [ABC] denotes the area of triangle ABC, show that [A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 ] 13[ABC].

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1993
Ciudad, Mexico

Day 1
1 { 8th Iberoamerican Olympiad Ciudad de Mexico, MEXICO. [1993] September 11st - 19th. {Problem 1 A number is called capicua if when it is written in decimal notation, it can be read equal from left to right as from right to left. Examples: 8, 23432, 6446. Let x1 < x2 < < xi < xi+1 , the sequence of all capicua numbers. For each i it is dened yi = xi+1 xi . How many distinct primes contains the set {y1 , y2 , . . .}?
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 8th Iberoamerican Olympiad Ciudad de Mexico, MEXICO. [1993] September 11st - 19th. {Problem 2 Show that for every convex poligon with area less than or equal to one there exists a paralelogram with area equal to two that contains it.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 8th Iberoamerican Olympiad Ciudad de Mexico, MEXICO. [1993] September 11st - 19th. {Problem 3 Let N = {1, 2, . . .}. Find al the functions f : N N such that (1) If x < y then f (x) < f (y) (2) f (yf (x)) = x2 f (xy) for all the x, y N .
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1993
Ciudad, Mexico

Day 2
1 { 8th Iberoamerican Olympiad Ciudad de Mexico, MEXICO. [1993] September 11st - 19th. {Problem 4 Let ABC an equilateral triangle and its inscribed circle. If D and E are points AD AE in the sides AB and AC respectively, such that DE is tangent to , show that + = 1. DB EC A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr] 2 { 8th Iberoamerican Olympiad Ciudad de Mxico, MEXICO. [1993] September 11st - 19th. e {Problem 5 Let P and Q be two distinct points in the plane. Let us denote by m(P Q) the segment bisector of P Q. Let S be a nite subset of the plane, with more than one element, that satises the following properties: (i) If P and Q are in S, then m(P Q) intersects S. (ii) If P1 Q1 , P2 Q2 , P3 Q3 are three diferent segments such that its endpoints are points of S, then, there is non point in S such that it intersects the three lines m(P1 Q1 ), m(P2 Q2 ), and m(P3 Q3 ). Find the number of points that S may contain.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 8th Iberoamerican Olympiad Ciudad de Mxico, MEXICO. [1993] September 11st - 19th. e {Problem 6 Two non negative integers a and b are tuanis if the decimal expresion of a + b contains only 0 and 1 as digits. Let A and B be two innite sets of non negative integers such that B is the set of all the tuanis numbers to elements of the set A and A the set of all the tuanis numbers to elements of the set B. Show that in at least one of the sets A and B there is an innite number of pairs (x, y) such that x y = 1.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1994
Fortaleza, Brasil

Day 1
1 { 9th Iberoamerican Olympiad Fortaleza-Ceara, BRAZIL. [1994] September 17th - 25th. {Problem 1 A number n is said to be nice if it exists an integer r > 0 such that the expression of n in base r has all its digits equal. For example, 62 and 15 are nice because 62 is 222 in base 5, and 15 is 33 in base 4. Show that 1993 is not nice, but 1994 is.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 Let ABCD a cuadrilateral inscribed in a circumference. Suppose that there is a semicircle with its center on AB, that is tangent to the other three sides of the cuadrilateral. (i) Show that AB = AD + BC. (ii) Calculate, in term of x = AB and y = CD, the maximal area that can be reached for such quadrilateral. 3 { 9th Iberoamerican Olympiad Fortaleza-Ceara, BRAZIL. [1994] September 17th - 25th. {Problem 3 In each square of an n n grid there is a lamp. If the lamp is touched it changes its state every lamp in the same row and every lamp in the same column (the one that are on are turned o and viceversa). At the begin, all the lamps are o. Show that always is possible, with an appropriated sequence of touches, that all the the lamps on the board end on and nd, in function of n the minimal number of touches that are necessary to turn on every lamp.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1994
Fortaleza, Brasil

Day 2
1 { 9th Iberoamerican Olympiad Fortaleza-Ceara, BRAZIL. [1994] September 17th - 25th. {Problem 4 Let A, B and C be given points on a circumference K such that the triangle ABC is acute. Let P be a point in the interior of K. X, Y and Z be the other intersection of AP, BP and CP with the circumference. Determine the position of P to obtain XY Z equilateral
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 9th Iberoamerican Olympiad Fortaleza-Ceara, BRAZIL. [1994] September 17th - 25th. {Problem 5 Let n and r two positive integers. It is wanted to make r subsets A1 , A2 , . . . , Ar from the set {0, 1, , n 1} such that all those subsets contain exactly k elements and such that, for all integer x with 0 x n 1 there exist x1 A1 , x2 A2 . . . , xr Ar (an element of each set) with x = x1 + x2 + + xr Find the minimum value of k in terms of n and r.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 9th Iberoamerican Olympiad Fortaleza-Ceara, BRAZIL. [1994] September 17th - 25th. {Problem 6 Show that every natural number n 21 000 000 can be obtained rst with 1 doing less than 1 100 000 sums; more precisely, there is a nite sequence of natural numbers x0 , x1 , . . . , xk with k 1 100 000, x0 = 1, xk = n such that for all i = 1, 2, . . . , k there exist r, s with 0 r s < i such that xi = xr + xs .
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page Page 2 http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1995
Region V, Chile

Day 1
1 { 10th Iberoamerican Olympiad Region V, CHILE. [1995] Date: September 23rd - 30th. {Problem 1 Find all the possible values of the sum of the digits of all the perfect squares. [Commented by djimenez] Comment: I would rewrite it as follows: Let f : N N such that f (n) is the sum of all the digits of the number n2 . Find the image of f (where, by image it A is understood the set of all x such that exists an n with f (n) = x). L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr] 2 { 10th Iberoamerican Olympiad Region V, CHILE. [1995] Date: September 23rd - 30th. {Problem 2 Let n be a positive integer greater than 1. Determine all the collections of real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , xn 1 and xn+1 0 such that the next two conditions hold: 1 3 1 x1 + x2 + + xn n 1 2 2 2 (i)x1 + x2 + + xn 2 = nxn+1 (ii) = xn+1 n A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr] 3 Let r and s two orthogonal lines that does not lay on the same plane. Let AB be their common perpendicular, where A r and B s(*).Consider the sphere of diameter AB. The points M r and N s varies with the condition that M N is tangent to the sphere on the point T . Find the locus of T . Note: The plane that contains B and r is perpendicular to s.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1995
Region V, Chile

Day 2
1 { 10th Iberoamerican Olympiad Region V, CHILE. [1995] Date: September 23rd - 30th. {Problem 4 In a m n grid are there are token. Every token dominates every square on its same row (), its same column ( ), and diagonal ( )(Note that the token does not dominate the diagonal ( ), determine the lowest number of tokens that must be on the board to dominate all the squares on the board.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 10th Iberoamerican Olympiad Region V, CHILE. [1995] Date: September 23rd - 30th. {Problem 5 The incircle of a triangle ABC touches the sides BC, CA, AB at the points D, E, F respectively. Let the line AD intersect this incircle of triangle ABC at a point X (apart from D). Assume that this point X is the midpoint of the segment AD, this means, AX = XD. Let the line BX meet the incircle of triangle ABC at a point Y (apart from X), and let the line CX meet the incircle of triangle ABC at a point Z (apart from X). Show that EY = F Z. 3 { 10th Iberoamerican Olympiad Region V, CHILE. [1995] Date: September 23rd - 30th. {Problem 6 A function f : is circular if for every p there exists n , n p such that f n (p) = p (f composed with itself n times) The function f has repulsion degree k > 0 if for k every p f i (p) = p for every i = 1, 2, . . . , . p Note:Here x is the integer part of x. Determine the maximum repulsion degree can have a circular function.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1996
Limon, Costa Rica

Day 1
1 Let n be a natural number. A cube of edge n may be divided in 1996 cubes whose edges length are also natural numbers. Find the minimum possible value for n. 2 { 11st Iberoamerican Olympiad Limon, COSTA RICA. [1996] {Problem 2 Let ABC be a triangle, D the midpoint of BC, and M be the midpoint of AD. The line BM intersects the side AC on the point N . Show that AB is tangent to the (BC)2 BM = circuncircle to the triangle N BC if and only if the following equality is true: MN (BN )2
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 11st Iberoamerican Olympiad Limon, COSTA RICA. [1996] {Problem 3 We have a grid of k 2 k + 1 rows and k 2 k + 1 columns, where k = p + 1 and p is prime. For each prime p, give a method to put the numbers 0 and 1, one number for each square in the grid, such that on each row there are exactly k 0s,on each column there are exactly k 0s, and there is non rectangle with sides parallel to the sides of the grid with 0s on each four vertices.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1996
Limon, Costa Rica

Day 2
1 { 11st Iberoamerican Olympiad Limon, COSTA RICA. [1996] 1 {Problem 4 Given a natural number n 2, consider all the fractions of the form , where ab a and b are natural numbers, relative primes and such that: a < b n, a + b > n. Show that 1 for each n, the sum of all this fractions are . 2 A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr] 2 { 11st Iberoamerican Olympiad Limon, COSTA RICA. [1996] {Problem 5 Three tokens A, B, C are, each one in a vertex of an equilateral triangle of side n. Its divided on equilateral triangles of side 1, such as it is shown in the gure for the case n=3 Initially, all the lines of the gure are painted blue. The tokens are moving along the lines painting them of red, following the next two rules: (1) First A moves, after that B moves, and then C, by turns. On each turn, the token moves over exactly one line of one of the little triangles, form one side to the other. (2) Non token moves over a line that is already painted red, but it can rest on one endpoint of a side that is already red, even if there is another token there waiting its turn. Show that for every positive integer n it is possible to paint red all the sides of the little triangles.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 11st Iberoamerican Olympiad Limon, COSTA RICA. [1996] {Problem 6 There are n dierent points A1 , . . . , An in the plain and each point Ai it is assigned a real number i distinct from zero in such way that (Ai Aj )2 = i + j for all the i,j with i = j Show that: 1 1 1 1 (1) n 4 (2) If n = 4, then + + + = 0. 1 2 3 4 A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1997
Guadalajara, Mexico

Day 1
1 { 12nd Iberoamerican Olympiad Guadalajara, MEXICO. [1998] Let r 1 be areal number that holds with the property that for each pair of positive integer numbers m and n, with n a multiple of m, it is true that nr is multiple of mr . Show that r has to be an integer number. Note: If x is a real number, x is the greatest integer lower than or equal to x.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 12nd Iberoamerican Olympiad Guadalajara, MEXICO. [1998] {Problem 2 In a triangle ABC, it is drawn a circumference with center in the incenter I and that meet twice each of the sides of the triangle: the segment BC on D and P (where D is nearer two B); the segment CA on E and Q (where E is nearer to C); and the segment AB on F and R ( where F is nearer to A). Let S be the point of intersection of the diagonals of the cuadrilateral EQF R. Let T be the point of intersection of the diagonals of the cuadrilateral F RDP . Let U be the point of intersection of the diagonals of the quadrilateral DP EQ. Show that the circuncircle to the triangle in common.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

F RT ,

DP U and

EQS have a unique point

3 { 12nd Iberoamerican Olympiad Guadalajara, MEXICO. [1997] {Problem 3 Let n 2 be an integer number and Dn the set of all the points (x, y) in the plane such that its coordinates are integer numbers with: n x n and n y n. (a) There are three possible colors in which the points of Dn are painted with (each point has a unique color). Show that with any distribution of the colors, there are always two points of Dn with the same color such that the line that contains them does not go through any other point of Dn . (b) Find a way to paint the points of Dn with 4 colors such that if a line contains exactly two points of Dn , then, this points have dierent colors.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1997
Guadalajara, Mexico

Day 2
1 { 12nd Iberoamerican Olympiad Guadalajara, MEXICO. [1997] {Problem 4 Let n be a positive integer. Consider the sum x1 y1 + x2 y2 + + xn yn , where that values of the variables x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn are either 0 or 1. Let I(n) be the number of 2n-tuples (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ) such that the sum of the number is odd, and let P (n) be the number of 2n-tuples (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , yn ) such that the sum is an even number. Show that: 2n + 1 P (n) = n I(n) 2 1
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 12nd Iberoamerican Olympiad Guadalajara, MEXICO. [1997] {Problem 5 In an acute triangle ABC, let AE and BF be highs of it, and H its orthocenter. The symmetric line of AE with respect to the angle bisector of A and the symmetric line of BF with respect to the angle bisector of B intersect each other on the point O. The lines AE and AO intersect again the circuncircle to ABC on the points M and N respectively. Let P be the intersection of BC with HN ; R the intersection of BC with OM ; and S the intersection of HR with OP . Show that AHSO is a paralelogram.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 12nd Iberoamerican Olympiad Guadalajara, MEXICO. [1997] {Problem 6 Let P = {P1 , P2 , ..., P1997 } be a set of 1997 points in the interior of a circle of radius 1, where P1 is the center of the circle. For each k = 1. . . . , 1997, let xk be the distance of Pk to the point of P closer to Pk , but dierent from it. Show that (x1 )2 +(x2 )2 +...+(x1997 )2 9.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1998
Puerto Plata, Republica Dominicana

Day 1
1 Given 98 points in a circle. Mary and Joseph play alternatively in the next way: - Each one draw a segment joining two points that have not been joined before. The game ends when the 98 points have been used as end points of a segments at least once. The winner is the person that draw the last segment. If Joseph starts the game, who can assure that is going to win the game. 2 The circumference inscribed on the triangle ABC is tangent to the sides BC, CA and AB on the points D, E and F , respectively. AD intersect the circumference on the point Q. Show that the line EQ meet the segment AF at its midpoint if and only if AC = BC. 3 Find the minimum natural number n with the following property: between any collection of n distinct natural numbers in the set {1, 2, . . . , 999} it is possible to choose four dierent a, b, c, d such that: a + 2b + 3c = d.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1998
Puerto Plata, Republica Dominicana

Day 2
1 There are representants from n dierent countries sit around a circular table (n 2), in such way that if two representants are from the same country, then, their neighbors to the right are not from the same country. Find, for every n, the maximal number of people that can be sit around the table. 2 Find the maximal possible value of n such that there exist points P1 , P2 , P3 , . . . , Pn in the plane and real numbers r1 , r2 , . . . , rn such that the distance between any two dierent points Pi and Pj is ri + rj . 3 Let the positive root of the equation t2 1998t 1 = 0. It is dened the sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , . . . by x0 = 1, xn+1 = xn for n = 1, 2 . . . Find the remainder of the division of x1998 by 1998. Note: x is the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1999
La Habana, Cuba

Day 1
1 { 14th Iberoamerican Olympiad La Habana, CUBA. [1999] {Problem 1 Find all the positive integers less than 1000 such that the cube of the sum of its digits is equal to the square of such integer.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 14th Iberoamerican Olympiad La Habana, CUBA. [1999] {Problem 2 Given two circumferences M and N , we say that M bisects N if they intersect in two points and the common chord is a diameter of N . Consider two xed circumferences C1 and C2 not concentric. (a)Show that there exists innite many circumferences B such that B bisects both C1 and C2 (b) Find the locus of the centers of such circumferences B.1
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 14th Iberoamerican Olympiad La Habana, CUBA. [1999] {Problem 3 Let P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn be n distinct points over a line in the plane (n 2). Consider all the circumferences with diameters Pi Pj (1 i, j n) and they are painted with k given colors. Lets call this conguration a (n, k)-cloud. For each positive integer k, nd all the positive integers n such that every possible (n, k)-cloud has two mutually exterior tangent circumferences of the same color.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 1999
La Habana, Cuba

Day 2
1 { 14th Iberoamerican Olympiad La Habana, CUBA. [1999] {Problem 4 Let B be an integer greater than 10 such that everyone of its digits belongs to the set {1, 3, 7, 9}. Show that B has a prime divisor greater than or equal to 11.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 14th Iberoamerican Olympiad La Habana, CUBA. [1999] {Problem 5 An acute triangle ABC is inscribed in a circumference of center O. The highs of the triangle are AD, BE and CF . The line EF cut the circumference on P and Q. (a) Show that OA is perpendicular to P Q. (b) If M is the midpoint of BC, show that AP 2 = 2AD OM .
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 14th Iberoamerican Olympiad La Habana, CUBA. [1999] {Problem 6 Let A and B points in the plane and C a point in the segment bisector of AB. It is constructed a sequence of points C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn , . . . in the following way: C1 = C and for n 1, if Cn does not belongs to AB, then Cn+1 is the circle of the triangle ABCn . Find all the points C such that the sequence C1 , C2 , . . . is dened for all n and turns eventually periodic. Note: A sequence C1 , C2 , . . . is called eventually periodic if there exist positive integers k and p such that Cn+p = cn for all n k.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2000
Merida, Venezuela

Day 1
1 A regular polygon of n sides (n 3) has its vertex numbered from 1 to n. One draws all the diagonals of the polygon. Show that if n is odd, it is possible to assign to each side and to each diagonal an integer number between 1 and n, such that the next two conditions are simultaneously satised: (a) The number assigned to each side or diagonal is dierent to the number assigned to any of the vertices that is endpoint of it. (b) For each vertex, all the sides and diagonals that have it as an endpoint, have dierent number assigned. 2 { 15th Iberoamerican Olympiad Merida, VENEZUELA. [2000] {Problem 2 Let S1 and S2 be two circumferences, with centers O1 and O2 respectively, and secants on M and N . The line t is the common tangent to S1 and S2 closer to M . The points A and B are the intersection points of t with S1 and S2 , C is the point such that BC is a diameter of S2 , and D the intersection point of the line O1 O2 with the perpendicular line to AM through B. Show that M , D and C are collinear.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 15th Iberoamerican Olympiad Merida, VENEZUELA. [2000] {Problem 3 Find all the solutions of the equation (x + 1)y xz = 1 For x, y, z integers greater than 1.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2000
Merida, Venezuela

Day 2
1 From an innite arithmetic progression 1, a1 , a2 , . . . of real numbers some terms are deleted, obtaining an innite geometric progression 1, b1 , b2 , . . . whose ratio is q. Find all the possible values of q. 2 { 15th Iberoamerican Olympiad Merida, VENEZUELA. [2000] {Problem 5 There are a buch of 2000 stones. Two players play alternatively, following the next rules: (a)On each turn, the player can take 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 stones of the bunch. (b) On each turn, the player has forbidden to take the exact same amount of stones that the other player took just before of him in the last play. The loser is the player who cant make a valid play. Determine which player has winning strategy and give such strategy.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 15th Iberoamerican Olympiad Merida, VENEZUELA. [2000] {Problem 6 A convex hexagon is called pretty if it has 4 (four) diagonals of length 1, such that their endpoints are all the vertex of the hexagon. (a) Given any real number k with 0 < k < 1 nd a pretty hexagon with area equal to k (b) Show that the area of any pretty hexagon is less than 1.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2001
Minas, Uruguay

Day 1
1 { 16th Iberoamerican Olympiad Minas, URUGUAY. [2001] We say that a natural number n is charrua if it satisfy simultaneously the next conditions: - Every digit of n is greater than 1. - Every time that four digits of n are multiplied, it is obtained a divisor of n Show that every natural number k there exists a charrua number with more than k digits.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 16th Iberoamerican Olympiad Minas, URUGUAY. [2001] {Problem 2 The incircle of the triangle ABC has center at O and it is tangent to the sides BC, AC and AB at the points X, Y and Z, respectively. The lines BO and CO intersect the line Y Z at the points P and Q, respectively. Show that if the segments XP and XQ has the same length, then the triangle isosceles.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

ABC is

3 { 16th Iberoamerican Olympiad Minas, URUGUAY. [2001] {Problem 3 Let S be a set of n elements and S1 , S2 , . . . , Sk are subsets of S (k 2), such that every one of them has at least r elements. Show that there exists i and j, with 1 i < j k, such that the number of common elements nk of Si and Sj is greater or equal to: r 4(k 1)
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2001
Minas, Uruguay

Day 2
1 { 16th Iberoamerican Olympiad Minas, URUGUAY. [2001] {Problem 4 Find the maximum number or increasing arithmetic progresions that can have a nite sequence of real numbers a1 < a2 < < an of n real numbers. Note: Three terms on ai , aj , ak of a sequence of real numbers are in increasing arithmetic progresion if i < j < k, ai < aj < ak and aj ai = ak aj
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 16th Iberoamerican Olympiad Minas, URUGUAY. [2001] {Problem 5 In a board of 2000 2001 squares with integer coordinates (x, y), 0 x 1999 and 0 y 2000. An ship in the table moves in the next way: before each movement, the ship is in position (x, y) and has a velocity of (h, v) where h and v are integers. The ship chooses new velocity (h , v ) such that h h is either -1, 0 or 1, and v v is either -1, 0 or 1. The new position of the ship will be (x , y ) where x is the remainder of the division of x + h by 2000 and y is the remainder of the division of y + v by 2001. There are two ships in the board: The Martian ship and the Terrestrial ship. The Terrestrial ship wants to catch the Martian ship. Initially each ship is in a dierent square and has velocity (0, 0). The rst ship to move is the Terrestrial, and they continue moving alternatively. There exists a strategy such that the Terrestrial ship always catch to the Martian ship, whatever are the initial positions? Note: The Terrestrial ship always see the Martian ship and it catch it if after a movement it reaches the same position of the Martian ship.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 16th Iberoamerican Olympiad Minas, URUGUAY. [2001] {Problem 6 Show that it is impossible to cover a unit square with ve equal squares with 1 side s < . 2 A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2002
San Salvador, El Salvador

Day 1
1 The integer numbers from 1 to 2002, are written in a blackboard on increasing order 1, 2,. . . , 2001, 2002. After that, somebody erases the numbers in the (3k + 1)th places (1, 4, 7, . . . ). After that, the same person erases the numbers in the (3k + 1)th positions of the new list (in this case, 2, 5, 9, . . . ). This process is repeated all the times that it is necessary to erase all the numbers in the list. What is the last number to be erased? 2 { 17th Iberoamerican Olympiad San Salvador, EL SALVADOR. [2002] {Problem 2 Given any set of 9 points in the plane such that there is no 3 of them colinear, show that for each point P of the set, the number of triangles with its vertices on the other 8 points and that contain P on its interior is even.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 17th Iberoamerican Olympiad San Salvador, EL SALVADOR. [2002] {Problem 3 Let P be a point in the interior of the equilateral triangle ABC such that AP C = 120 . Let M be the intersection of CP with AB, and N the intersection of AP and BC. Find the locus of the circumcenter of the triangle M BN when P varies.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2002
San Salvador, El Salvador

Day 2
1 { 17th Iberoamerican Olympiad San Salvador, EL SALVADOR. [2002] {Problem 4 In a triangle ABC with all its sides of diferent length, D is on the side AC, such that BD is the angle bisector of ABC. Let E and F , respectively, be the feet of the perpendicular drawn from A and C to the line BD and let M be the point on BC such that DM is perpendicular to BC. Show that EM D = DM F .
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 17th Iberoamerican Olympiad San Salvador, EL SALVADOR. [2002] {Problem 5 The sequence of real numbers a1 , a2 , . . . is dened as follows: a1 = 56 and an+1 = 1 for n 1 Show that there is an integer k, 1 k 2002 such that ak < 0. an an A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr] 3 { 17th Iberoamerican Olympiad San Salvador, EL SALVADOR. [2002] {Problem 6 A policeman try to catch a rober in a board of 2001 2001 squares. They play alternatively, and each one of them on its turn should move a space on each one of the next directions: (down); (right); (up-left diagonal). If the policeman is on the square in the right-down corner, he can go directly to the square in the left-up corner (the rober can not do this). Initially the pliceman is in the central square, and the rober is in the square over the diagonal from the right-up to the left-down corners, that is contiguos (right-up) to the square where the policeman is. Show that: (a) The rober may move at least 10000 times before the policeman catch it. (b) The policeman has an strategy such that he will eventually catch the rober Note: The policeman catch the rober if he reaches the square where the rober is. If the rober reaches the policeman square, there is not catch.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2003
Buenos Aires, Argentinia

Day 1
1 { 18th Iberoamerican Olympiad Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. [2003] {Problem 1 (a)There are two sequences of numbers, with 2003 consecutive integers each, and a table of Say if it is always possible to set the numbers 2 rows and 2003 columns on the rst sequence in the rst row and the second sequence in the second row, such that the sequence obtained of the 2003 columnwise sums form a new sequence of 2003 consecutive integers. (b)Same question, if 2003 is replaced with 2004? In both cases, if the answer is armative, explain how are the numbers distributed, and if the answer is negative, explain why.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 18th Iberoamerican Olympiad Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. [2003] {Problem 2 Let C and D be two points on the semicircumference with diameter AB such that B and C are in distinct semiplanes with respect to the line AD. Denote by M , N and P the midpoints of AC, BD and CD respectively. Let OA and OB the circumcenters of the triangles ACP and BDP . Show that the lines OA OB and M N are parallel.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 18th Iberoamerican Olympiad Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. [2003] {Problem 3 Pablo is copying from the chalkboard the next problem: Consider all the sequences of 2004 real numbers (x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . , x2003 ) such that: x0 = 1 0 x1 2x0 . 0 x2 2x1 . 0 x2003 2x2002 From all these sequences, determine the sequence where . the next expression reaches its maximum value S = When Pablo was going to copy the expression, it was erased from the board. The only thing that he could remember was that S was of the form S = x1 x2 x2002 + x2003 where the last term had coecient +1 and the others has coecients either +1 or -1. Show that, even when Pablo does not have the complete statement, he can determine the solution of the problem.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2003
Buenos Aires, Argentinia

Day 2
1 { 18th Iberoamerican Olympiad Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. [2003] {Problem 4 Let M = {1, 2, . . . , 49} the set of the rst 49 positive integers. Determine the maximum integer k such that the set M has a subset of k elements such that there is no 6 consecutive integers in such subset. For that value of k, calculate the amount of subset of M with k elements and the given property.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

2 { 18th Iberoamerican Olympiad Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. [2003] {Problem 5 In a square ABCD, let P and Q be points on the sides BC and CD respectively, diferent of its endpoints, such that BP = CQ. Consider points X and Y such that X = Y , in the segments AP and AQ respectively. Show that, for every X and Y choosen, there exists a triangle whose sides have lengths BX, XY and DY .
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

3 { 18th Iberoamerican Olympiad Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. [2003] {Problem 6 The sequences (an )n0 , (bn )n0 are dened as follows: a0 = 1, b0 = 4 and for all n 0 an+1 = a2001 + bn , bn+1 = b2001 + an Show that 2003 is not divisor of any of the terms in n n these two sequences.
A L TEXed by Carlos Bravo - [carlosbr]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2005

Day 1 - 27 September 2005


1 Determine all triples of real numbers (a, b, c) such that

xyz = 8 x y + y z + z 2 x = 73 x(y z)2 + y(z x)2 + z(x y)2 = 98. 2 A ea jumps in a straight numbered line. It jumps rst from point 0 to point 1. Afterwards, if its last jump was from A to B, then the next jump is from B to one of the points B+(BA)1, B + (B A), B + (B A) + 1. Prove that if the ea arrived twice at the point n, n positive integer, then it performed at least 2 n jumps. 3 Let p > 3 be a prime. Prove that if
p1 2 2

i=1

1 n = , p i m

with (n, m) = 1, then p divides n.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2005

Day 2 - 28 September 2005


4 Denote by a mod b the remainder of the euclidean division of a by b. Determine all pairs of positive integers (a, p) such that p is prime and a mod p + a mod 2p + a mod 3p + a mod 4p = a + p. 5 Let O be the circumcenter of acutangle triangle ABC and let A1 be some point in the smallest arc BC of the circumcircle of ABC. Let A2 and A3 points on sides AB and AC, respectively, such that BA1 A2 = OAC and CA1 A3 = OAB. Prove that the line A2 A3 passes through the orthocenter of ABC. 6 Let n be a xed positive integer. The points A1 , A2 , . . ., A2n are on a straight line. Color each point blue or red according to the following procedure: draw n pairwise disjoint circumferences, each with diameter Ai Aj for some i = j and such that every point Ak belongs to exactly one circumference. Points in the same circumference must be of the same color. Determine the number of ways of coloring these 2n points when we vary the n circumferences and the distribution of the colors.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2006

Day 1
1 In a scalene triangle ABC with A = 90 , the tangent line at A to its circumcircle meets line BC at M and the incircle touches AC at S and AB at R. The lines RS and BC intersect at N, while the lines AM and SR intersect at U. Prove that the triangle U M N is isosceles. 2 For n real numbers a1 , a2 , . . . , an , let d denote the dierence between the greatest and small|ai aj| . Prove that est of them and S =
i<j

(n 1)d S and nd when each equality holds.

n2 d 4

3 The numbers 1, 2, . . . , n2 are written in the squares of an n n board in some order. Initially there is a token on the square labelled with n2 . In each step, the token can be moved to any adjacent square (by side). At the beginning, the token is moved to the square labelled with the number 1 along a path with the minimum number of steps. Then it is moved to the square labelled with 2, then to square 3, etc, always taking the shortest path, until it returns to the initial square. If the total trip takes N steps, nd the smallest and greatest possible values of N.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2006

Day 2
1 Find all pairs (a, b) of positive integers such that 2a 1 and 2b + 1 are coprime and a + b divides 4ab + 1. 2 {The sides AD and CD of a tangent quadrilateral ABCD touch the incircle at P and Q, respectively. If M is the midpoint of the chord XY determined by on the diagonal BD, prove that AM P = CM Q. 3 Consider a regular n-gon with n odd. Given two adjacent vertices A1 and A2 , dene the sequence (Ak ) of vertices of the n-gon as follows: For k 3, Ak is the vertex lying on the perpendicular bisector of Ak2 Ak1 . Find all n for which each vertex of the n-gon occurs in this sequence.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2007
Coimbra, Portugal

Day 1 - 11 September 2007


1 Given an integer m, dene the sequence {an } as follows: a1 = m , an+1 = an an , if n 1 2

Find all values of m for which a2007 is the rst integer appearing in the sequence. Note: For a real number x, x is dened as the smallest integer greater or equal to x. For example, = 4, 2007 = 2007. 2 Let ABC be a triangle with incenter I and let be a circle centered at I, whose radius is greater than the inradius and does not pass through any vertex. Let X1 be the intersection point of and line AB, closer to B; X2 , X3 the points of intersection of and line BC, with X2 closer to B; and let X4 be the point of intersection of with line CA closer to C. Let K be the intersection point of lines X1 X2 and X3 X4 . Prove that AK bisects segment X2 X3 . 3 Two teams, A and B, ght for a territory limited by a circumference. A has n blue ags and B has n white ags (n 2, xed). They play alternatively and A begins the game. Each team, in its turn, places one of his ags in a point of the circumference that has not been used in a previous play. Each ag, once placed, cannot be moved. Once all 2n ags have been placed, territory is divided between the two teams. A point of the territory belongs to A if the closest ag to it is blue, and it belongs to B if the closest ag to it is white. If the closest blue ag to a point is at the same distance than the closest white ag to that point, the point is neutral (not from A nor from B). A team wins the game is their points cover a greater area that that covered by the points of the other team. There is a draw if both cover equal areas. Prove that, for every n, team B has a winning strategy.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2007
Coimbra, Portugal

Day 2 - 12 September 2007


4 In a 19 19 board, a piece called dragon moves as follows: It travels by four squares (either horizontally or vertically) and then it moves one square more in a direction perpendicular to its previous direction. It is known that, moving so, a dragon can reach every square of the board. The draconian distance between two squares is dened as the least number of moves a dragon needs to move from one square to the other. Let C be a corner square, and V the square neighbor of C that has only a point in common with C. Show that there exists a square X of the board, such that the draconian distance between C and X is greater than the draconian distance between C and V . 5 Lets say a positive integer n is atresvido if the set of its divisors (including 1 and n) can be split in in 3 subsets such that the sum of the elements of each is the same. Determine the least number of divisors an atresvido number can have. 6 Let F be a family of hexagons H satisfying the following properties: i) H has parallel opposite sides. ii) Any 3 vertices of H can be covered with a strip of width 1. Determine the least strip of width . R such that every hexagon belonging to F can be covered with a

Note: A strip is the area bounded by two parallel lines separated by a distance . The lines belong to the strip, too.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2008
Salvador da Bahia, Brasil

Day 1 - 23 September 2008


1 The integers from 1 to 20082 are written on each square of a 2008 2008 board. For every row and column the dierence between the maximum and minimum numbers is computed. Let S be the sum of these 4016 numbers. Find the greatest possible value of S. 2 Given a triangle ABC, let r be the external bisector of ABC. P and Q are the feet of the perpendiculars from A and C to r. If CP BA = M and AQ BC = N , show that M N , r and AC concur. 3 Let P (x) = x3 + mx + n be an integer polynomial satisfying that if P (x) P (y) is divisible by 107, then x y is divisible by 107 as well, where x and y are integers. Prove that 107 divides m.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

IberoAmerican 2008
Salvador da Bahia, Brasil

Day 2 - 24 September 2008


4 Prove that the equation x2008 + 2008! = 21y doesnt have solutions in integers. 5 Let ABC a triangle and X, Y and Z points at the segments BC, AC and AB, respectively.Let A , B and C the circuncenters of triangles AZY ,BXZ,CY X, respectively.Prove that 4(A B C ) (ABC) with equality if and only if AA , BB and CC are concurrents. Note: (XY Z) denotes the area of XY Z 6 Biribol is a game played between two teams of 4 people each (teams are not xed). Find all the possible values of n for which it is possible to arrange a tournament with n players in such a way that every couple of people plays a match in opposite teams exactly once.

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IberoAmerican 2009
Quertaro, Mexico

Day 1 - 22 September 2009


1 Given a positive integer n 2, consider a set of n islands arranged in a circle. Between every two neigboring islands two bridges are built as shown in the gure. Starting at the island X1 , in how many ways one can one can cross the 2n bridges so that no bridge is used more than once? 2 Dene the succession an , n > 0 as n + m, where m is the largest integer such that 22 n2n . Find all numbers that are not in the succession. 3 Let C1 and C2 be two congruent circles centered at O1 and O2 , which intersect at A and B. Take a point P on the arc AB of C2 which is contained in C1 . AP meets C1 at C, CB meets C2 at D and the bisector of CAD intersects C1 and C2 at E and L, respectively. Let F be the symmetric point of D with respect to the midpoint of P E. Prove that there exists a point X satisfying XF L = XDC = 30 and CX = O1 O2 . Author: Arnoldo Aguilar (El Salvador)
m

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IberoAmerican 2009
Quertaro, Mexico

Day 2 - 23 September 2009


4 Given a triangle ABC of incenter I, let P be the intersection of the external bisector of angle A and the circumcircle of ABC, and J the second intersection of P I and the circumcircle of ABC. Show that the circumcircles of triangles JIB and JIC are respectively tangent to IC and IB. 5 Consider the sequence {an }n1 dened as follows: a1 = 1, a2k = 1 + ak and a2k+1 = 1 for a2k every k 1. Prove that every positive rational number appears on the sequence {an } exactly once.

6 Six thousand points are marked on a circle, and they are colored using 10 colors in such a way that within every group of 100 consecutive points all the colors are used. Determine the least positive integer k with the following property: In every coloring satisfying the condition above, it is possible to nd a group of k consecutive points in which all the colors are used.

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IMC
1997-2007

Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 1997

Day 1
1 Let { n } be a sequence of positive reals with lim n=1 1 n n lim 2 Let an be a sequence of reals. Suppose
n n

n+

= 0. Find

ln
k=1

k + n

an converges. Do these sums converge aswell?

(a) a1 + a2 + (a4 + a3 ) + (a8 + ... + a5 ) + (a16 + ... + a9 ) + ... 3 Let A, B Rnn with A2 + B 2 = AB. Prove that if BA AB is invertible then 3|n. 4 Let be a real number, 1 < < 2. (a) Show that can uniquely be represented as the innte product = 1+ 1 n1 1+ 1 n2

(b) a1 + a2 + (a3 ) + (a4 ) + (a5 + a7 ) + (a6 + a8 ) + (a9 + a11 + a13 + a15 ) + (a10 + a12 + a14 + a16 ) + (a17 + a

with ni positive integers satisfying n2 ni+1 . i (b) Show that Q i from some k onwards we have nk+1 = n2 . k 5 For postive integer n consider the hyperplane
n n R0

= x = (x1 x2 ...xn ) R :
i=1

xi = 0

and the lattice


n n Z0 = {y R0 : (i : yi N)} n

Dene the quasi-norm in R by x

|xi |p if 0 < p < and x


i=1

= max |xi |.
i

n (a) If xn so that max xi min xi 1 then prove that p [1, ], y Z0 we have x p 0 n n x + y p (b) Prove that for every p ]0, 1[, there exist n N, x R0 , y Z0 with max xi min xi 1 and x p > x + y p

6 Suppose F is a family of nite subsets of N and for any 2 sets A, B F we have A B = . (a) Is it true that there is a nite subset Y of N such that for any A, B F we have A B Y = ? (b) Is the above true if we assume that all members of F have the same size?

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 1997

Day 2
1 Let f C 3 (R) nonnegative function with f (0) = f (0) = 0, f (0) > 0. Dene g(x) as follows: f (x) g(x) = f (x) for x = 0 g(x) = 0 for x = 0 (a) Show that g is bounded in some neighbourhood of 0. (b) Is the above true for f C 2 (R)? 2 Let M GL2n (K), represented in block form as M= Show that det M. det H = det A.

A B C D

, M 1 =

E F G H

3 Show that
n=1

(1)n1 sin(log n) converges i > 0. n

4 (a) Let f : Rnn R be a linear mapping. Prove that !C Rnn such that f (A) = T r(AC), A Rnn . (b) Suppose in addtion that A, B Rnn : f (AB) = f (BA). Prove that R : f (A) = T r(A) 5 Let X be an arbitrary set and f a bijection from X to X. Show that there exist bijections g, g : X X s.t. f = g g , g g = g g = 1X . 6 Let f : [0, 1] R continuous. We say that f crosses the axis at x if f (x) = 0 but y, z [x , x + ] : f (y) < 0 < f (z) for any . (a) Give an example of a function that crosses the axis innitely often. (b) Can a continuous function cross the axis uncountably often?

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 1998

1 Let V be a 10-dimensional real vector space and U1 , U2 two linear subspaces such that U1 U2 , dim U1 = 3, dim U2 = 6. Let be the set of all linear maps T : V V which have T (U1 ) U1 , T (U2 ) U2 . Calculate the dimension of . (again, all as real vector spaces) 2 Consider the following statement: for any permutation 1 = I of {1, 2, ..., n} there is a permutation 2 such that any permutation on these numbers can be obtained by a nite compostion of 1 and 2 . (a) Prove the statement for n = 3 and n = 5. (b) Disprove the statement for n = 4.
1

3 Let f (x) = 2x(1 x), x R and denote fn = f f ... f , n times. (a) Find lim
1

n 0

fn (x)dx.

(b) Now compute


0

fn (x)dx.

4 The function f : R R is twice dierentiable and satises f (0) = 2, f (0) = 2, f (1) = 1. Prove that there is a ]0, 1[ for which we have f () f () + f () = 0. 5 Let P be a polynomial of degree n with only real zeros and real coecients. Prove that for every real x we have (n 1)(P (x))2 nP (x)P (x). When does equality occur? 6 Let f : [0, 1] R be a continuous function satisfying xf (y) + yf (x) 1 for every x, y [0, 1]. 1 (a) Show that f (x)dx . (b) Find such a funtion for which equality occurs. 4 0

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 1999

Day 1
1 a) Show that n N0 , A Rnn : A3 = A + I. b) Show that det(A) > 0, A fullling the above condition.

2 Does there exist a bijective map f : N N so that


n=1 n

f (n) is nite? n2

3 Suppose that f : R R fulls


k=1

3k (f (x + ky) f (x ky)) 1 for all n N, x, y R.

Prove that f is a constant function. 4 Find all strictly monotonic functions f : R+ R+ for which f x2 f (x) = x for all x.

5 Suppose that 2n points of an n n grid are marked. Show that for some k > 1 one can select 2k distinct marked points, say a1 , ..., a2k , such that a2i1 and a2i are in the same row, a2i and a2i+1 are in the same column, i, indices taken mod 2n. 6 (a) Let p > 1 a real number. Find a real constant cp for which the following statement holds: If f : [1, 1] R is a continuously dierentiable function with f (1) > f (1) and | (y)| 1y [1, 1], then x [1, 1] : f (x) > 0 so that y [1, 1] : |f (y) f (x)| cp p f (x)|y x|. (b) What if p = 1?

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 1999

Day 2
1 Let R be a ring where a R : a2 = 0. Prove that abc + abc = 0 for all a, b, c R. 2 We roll a regular 6-sided dice n times. What is the probabilty that the total number of eyes rolled is a multiple of 5?
n n

3 Let xi 1 and
i=1

x3 = 0. Prove i
i=1

xi

n . 3

4 Prove that theres no function f : R+ R+ such that f (x)2 f (x + y) (f (x) + y) for all x, y > 0.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2000

Day 1
1 Does every monotone increasing function f : [0, 1] [0, 1] have a xed point? What about every monotone decreasing function? 2 Let p(x) = x5 + x and q(x) = x5 + x2 , Find al pairs (w, z) C C, w = z for which p(w) = p(z), q(w) = q(z). 3 Let A, B Cnn with (AB BA) = 1. Show that (AB BA)2 = 0. 4 Let (xi ) be a decreasing sequence of positive reals, then show that:
n n

(a) for every positive integer n we have


i=1

x2 i
i=1

x i . i

(b) there is a constant C for which we have

1 k k=1

x2 C i
i=k i=1

xi .

5 Let R be a ring of characteristic zero. Let e, f, g R be idempotent elements (an element x is called idempotent if x2 = x) satisfying e + f + g = 0. Show that e = f = g = 0. 6 Let f : R ]0, +[ be an increasing dierentiable function with lim f (x) = + and f is
x x+

bounded, and let F (x) =


0

f (t)dt. Dene the sequence (an ) recursively by a0 = 1, an+1 =

an +

1 Dene the sequence (bn ) by bn = F 1 (n). Prove that lim (an bn ) = 0. x+ f (an )

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2000

Day 2
2 Let f be continuous and nowhere monotone on [0, 1]. Show that the set of points on which f obtains a local minimum is dense. 3 Let p(z) be a polynomial of degree n > 0 with complex coecients. Prove that there are at least n + 1 complex numbers z for which p(z) {0, 1}. 5 Find all functions R+ R+ for which we have for all x, y R+ that f (x)f (yf (x)) = f (x+y).

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2001

1 Let n be a positive integer. Consider an n n matrix with entries 1, 2, ..., n2 written in order, starting at the left and moving along each row in turn left-to-right. (e.g. for n = 3 we top 1 2 3 get 4 5 6 ) We choose n entries of the matrix such that exactly one entry is chosen in 7 8 9 each row and each column. What are the possible values of the sum of the selected entries? 2 Let r, s, t positive integers which are relatively prime and a, b G, G a commutative multiplicative group with unit element e, and ar = bs = (ab)t = e. (a) Prove that a = b = e. (b) Does the same hold for a non-commutative group G?

3 Find lim (1 t)
t1 n=1

tn . 1 + tn

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2002

Day 1
1 A standard parabola is the graph of a quadratic polynomial y = x2 + ax + b with leading cocient 1. Three standard parabolas with vertices V 1, V 2, V 3 intersect pairwise at points e A1, A2, A3. Let A s(A) be the reection of the plane with respect to the x-axis. Prove that standard parabolas with vertices s(A1), s(A2), s(A3) intersect pairwise at the points s(V 1), s(V 2), s(V 3). 2 Does there exist a continuously dierentiable function f : R R such that for every x R we have f (x) > 0 and f (x) = f (f (x))? 3 Let n be a positive integer and let ak =
n

1
n k

, bk = 2kn , (k = 1..n).

Show that
k=1

ak bk = 0. k

4 Let f : [a, b] [a, b] be a continuous function and let p [a, b]. Dene p0 = p and pn+1 = f (pn ) for n = 0, 1, 2, .... Suppose that the set Tp = {pn : n = 0, 1, 2, ...} is closed, i.e., if x Tp then > 0 such that for all x Tp we have |x x| . Show that Tp has nitely many elements. 5 Prove or disprove the following statements: (a) There exists a monotone function f : [0, 1] [0, 1] such that for each y [0, 1] the equation f (x) = y has uncountably many solutions x. (b) There exists a continuously dierentiable function f : [0, 1] [0, 1] such that for each y [0, 1] the equation f (x) = y has uncountably many solutions x.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2002

Day 2
2 200 students participated in a math contest. They had 6 problems to solve. Each problem was correctly solved by at least 120 participants. Prove that there must be 2 participants such that every problem was solved by at least one of these two students.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2003

Day 1
3 1 (a) Let a1 , a2 , ... be a sequenceof reals with a1 = 1 and an+1 > an for all n. Prove that 2 an lim exists. (nite or innite) n1
n 3 2

(b) Prove that for all > 1 there is a sequence a1 , a2 , ... with the same properties such that an lim n1 =
3 2

2 Let a1 , a2 , ..., a51 be non-zero elements of a eld of characteristic p. We simultaneously replace each element with the sum of the 50 remaining ones. In this way we get a sequence b1 , ..., b51 . If this new sequence is a permutation of the original one, nd all possible values of p. 3 Let A Rnn such that 3A3 = A2 + A + I. Show that the sequence Ak converges to an idempotent matrix. (idempotent: B 2 = B) 4 Determine the set of all pairs (a,b) of positive integers for which the set of positive integers can be decomposed into 2 sets A and B so that a A = b B.
n

6 Let p =
k=0

ak X k R[X] a polynomial such that all his roots lie in the half plane {z

C|Re(z) < 0}. Prove that ak ak+3 < ak+1 ak+2 , for every k=0,1,2...,n-3.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2003

Day 2
1 Let A, B Rnn such that AB + B + A = 0. Prove that AB = BA.
2x

2 Evaluate lim

x0+

sinm (t) dt. (m, n N) tn

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2004

Day 1
1 Let S be an innite set of real numbers such that |x1 + x2 + + xn | 1 for all nite subsets {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } S. Show that S is countable. 2 Let f1 (x) = x2 1, and for each positive integer n 2 dene fn (x) = fn1 (f1 (x)). How many distinct real roots does the polynomial f2004 have?
n n

3 Let An be the set of all the sums


k=1

arcsin xk , where n 2, xk [0, 1], and


k=1

xk = 1.

a) Prove that An is an interval. b) Let an be the length of the interval An . Compute lim an .
n

4 Suppose n 4 and let S be a nite set of points in the space (R3 ), no four of which lie in a plane. Assume that the points in S can be colored with red and blue such that any sphere which intersects S in at least 4 points has the property that exactly half of the points in the intersection of S and the sphere are blue. Prove that all the points of S lie on a sphere. 5 Let S be a set of 2n + 1 real numbers, where n is an positive integer. Prove that there n exists a monotone sequence {ai }1in+2 S such that |xi+1 x1 | 2|xi x1 |, for all i = 2, 3, . . . , n + 1. 6 For every complex number z dierent from 0 and 1 we dene the following function f (z) := 1 log4 z

where the sum is over all branches of the complex logarithm. a) Prove that there are two polynomials P and Q such that f (z) = b) Prove that for all z C {0, 1} we have f (z) = z 3 + 4z 2 + z . 6(z 1)4 P (z) for all z C{0, 1}. Q(z)

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2004

Day 2
1 Let A be a real 4 2 matrix and B be a real 2 4 matrix such that AB = (010 1 10100 101

Find BA. Let f, g : [a, b] [0, ) be two continuous and non-decreasing functions such that each x [a, b] we have
x x b b

f (t) dt
a a b

g(t) dt and
a b

f (t) dt =
a

g(t) dt.

Prove that
a

1 + f (t) dt
a

1 + g(t) dt.

Let D be the closed unit disk in the plane, and let z1 , z2 , . . . , zn be xed points in D. Prove that there exists a point z in D such that the sum of the distances from z to each of the n points is greater or equal than n. For n 1 let M be an nn complex array with distinct eigenvalues 1 , 2 , . . . , k , with multiplicities m1 , m2 , . . . , mk respectively. Consider the linear operator LM dened by LM X = M X + XM T , for any complex n n array X. Find its eigenvalues and their multiplicities. (M T denotes the transpose matrix of M ). Prove that
0 1 0 1 1 x

dx dy 1. + | log y| 1

For n 0 dene the matrices An and Bn as follows: A0 = B0 = (1), and for every n > 0 let An = An1 An1 An1 Bn1 and Bn = An1 An1 An1 0 .

Denote by S(M ) the sum of all the elements of a matrix M . Prove that S(Ak1 ) = S(An1 ), for n k all n, k 2.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2005

Day 1
1 Let A be a n n matrix such that Aij = i + j. Find the rank of A. 2 2) all elements in 0,1,2; B[n] = number of rows with no 2 sequent 0s; A[n] with no 3 sequent elements the same; prove A[n+1]=3.B[n]
1

3 3) f cont di, R ]0, +[, prove |


0

f 3 f (0)2
0

f | max |f |(
[0,1] 0

f )2

4 4) nd all polynom with coes a permutation of [1, ..., n] and all roots rational 5 5) f twice cont di, |f (x) + 2xf (x) + (x2 + 1)f (x)| 1. prove lim f (x) = 0
x+

6 6) G group, Gm and Gn commutative subgroups being the m and n th powers of the elements in G. Prove Ggcd(m,n) is commutative.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2005

Day 2
1 1. Let f (x) = x2 + bx + c, M = x f(x)1. Prove |M | 2 2 (... = length of interval(s)) 2 Let f : R R be a function such that (f (x))n is a polynomial for every integer n 2. Is f also a polynomial? 3 What is the maximal dimension of a linear subspace V of the vector space of real n n matrices such that for all A in B in V , we have trace (AB) = 0 ? 4 Let f : R R be a three times dierentiable function. Prove that there exists w [1, 1] such that f (w) f (1) f (1) = f (0). 6 2 2 5 Find all r > 0 such that when f : R2 R is dierentiable, grad f (0, 0) = 1, grad f (u) grad f (v) u v , then the max of f on the disk u r, is attained at exactly one point. 6 6. If p, q are rationals, r = p + (I2 ) for which 7q, then prove there exists a matrix a b c d M2 (Z)

ar + b = r and det(A) = 1 cr + d

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2006

Day 1
1 Let f : R R be a real function. Prove or disprove each of the following statements. (a) If f is continuous and range(f)=R then f is monotonic (b) If f is monotonic and range(f)=R then f is continuous (c) If f is monotonic and f is continuous then range(f)=R 2 Find the number of positive integers x satisfying the following two conditions: 1. x < 102006 2. x2 x is divisible by 102006 3 Let A be an nxn matrix with integer entries and b1 , b2 , ..., bk be integers satisfying detA = b1 b2 ... bk . Prove that there exist nxn-matrices B1 , B2 , ..., Bk with integers entries such that A = B1 B2 ... Bk and detBi = bi for all i = 1, ..., k. 4 Let f be a rational function (i.e. the quotient of two real polynomials) and suppose that f (n) is an integer for innitely many integers n. Prove that f is a polynomial. 5 Let a, b, c, d three strictly positive real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = d2 + e2 ,

a4 + b4 + c4 = d4 + e4 . Compare a3 + b3 + c3 with d3 + e3 , 6 Find all sequences a0 , a1 , . . . , an of real numbers such that an = 0, for which the following statement is true: If f : R R is an n times dierentiable function and x0 < x1 < . . . < xn are real numbers such that f (x0 ) = f (x1 ) = . . . = f (xn ) = 0 then there is h (x0 , xn ) for which a0 f (h) + a1 f (h) + . . . + an f (n) (h) = 0.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC 2006

Day 2
1 Let V be a convex polygon. (a) Show that if V has 3k vertices, then V can be triangulated such that each vertex is in an odd number of triangles. (b) Show that if the number of vertices is not divisible with 3, then V can be triangulated such that exactly 2 vertices have an even number of triangles. 2 Find all functions f : R R such that for any a < b, f ([a, b]) is an interval of length b a 3 Compare tan(sin x) with sin(tan x), for x 0, . 2

4 Let v0 be the zero ector and let v1 , ..., vn+1 Rn such that the Euclidian norm |vi vj | is rational for all 0 i, j n + 1. Prove that v1 , ..., vn+1 are linearly dependent over the rationals. 5 Show that there are an innity of integer numbers m, n, with gcd(m, n) = 1 such that the equation (x + m)3 = nx has 3 dierent integer sollutions. 6 The scores of this problem were: one time 17/20 (by the runner-up) one time 4/20 (by Andrei Negut) one time 1/20 (by the winner) the rest had zero... just to give an idea of the diculty. Let Ai , Bi , Si (i = 1, 2, 3) be invertible real 2 2 matrices such that not all Ai have a common 1 real eigenvector, Ai = Si Bi Si for i = 1, 2, 3, A1 A2 A3 = B1 B2 B3 = I. Prove that there is an invertible 2 2 matrix S such that Ai = S 1 Bi S for all i = 1, 2, 3.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria 2007

Day 1 - 05 August 2007


1 Let f be a polynomial of degree 2 with integer coecients. Suppose that f (k) is divisible by 5 for every integer k. Prove that all coecients of f are divisible by 5. 2 Let n 2 be an integer. What is the minimal and maximal possible rank of an n n matrix whose n2 entries are precisely the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n2 ? 3 Call a polynomial P (x1 , . . . , xk ) good if there exist 2 2 real matrices A1 , . . . , Ak such that
k

P (x1 , . . . , xk ) = det
i=1

xi Ai

Find all values of k for which all homogeneous polynomials with k variables of degree 2 are good. (A polynomial is homogeneous if each term has the same total degree.) 4 Let G be a nite group. For arbitrary sets U, V, W G, denote by NU V W the number of triples (x, y, z) U V W for which xyz is the unity . Suppose that G is partitioned into three sets A, B and C (i.e. sets A, B, C are pairwise disjoint and G = A B C). Prove that NABC = NCBA . 5 Let n be a positive integer and a1 , . . . , an be arbitrary integers. Suppose that a function
n

f : Z R satises
i=1

f (k + ai l) = 0 whenever k and l are integers and l = 0. Prove that

f = 0. 6 How many nonzero coecients can a polynomial P (x) have if its coecients are integers and |P (z)| 2 for any complex number z of unit length?

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMC Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria 2007

Day 2 - 06 August 2007


1 Let f : R R be a continuous function. Suppose that for any c > 0, the graph of f can be moved to the graph of cf using only a translation or a rotation. Does this imply that f (x) = ax + b for some real numbers a and b? 2 Let x, y and z be integers such that S = x4 + y 4 + z 4 is divisible by 29. Show that S is divisible by 294 . 3 Let C be a nonempty closed bounded subset of the real line and f : C C be a nondecreasing continuous function. Show that there exists a point p C such that f (p) = p. (A set is closed if its complement is a union of open intervals. A function g is nondecreasing if g(x) g(y) for all x y.) 4 Let n > 1 be an odd positive integer and A = (aij )i,j=1..n be the n n matrix with 2 if i = j aij = 1 if i j 2 0 otherwise Find det A. 5 For each positive integer k, nd the smallest number nk for which there exist real nk nk matrices A1 , A2 , . . . , Ak such that all of the following conditions hold: (1) A2 = A2 = . . . = A2 = 0, 1 2 k (2) Ai Aj = Aj Ai for all 1 i, j k, and (3) A1 A2 . . . Ak = 0. 6 Let f = 0 be a polynomial with real coecients. Dene the sequence f0 , f1 , f2 , . . . of polynomials by f0 = f and fn+1 = fn + fn for every n 0. Prove that there exists a number N such that for every n N , all roots of fn are real.

(mod n) .

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India
1989-2009

India
National Olympiad 1989

1 Prove that the Polynomial f (x) = x4 + 26x3 + 56x2 + 78x + 1989 cant be expressed as a product f (x) = p(x)q(x) , where p(x) and q(x) are both polynomial with integral coecients and with degree at least 1. 2 Let a, b, c and d be any four real numbers, not all equal to zero. Prove that the roots of the polynomial f (x) = x6 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d cant all be real. 3 Let A denote a subset of the set {1, 11, 21, 31, . . . , 541, 551} having the property that no two elements of A add up to 552. Prove that A cant have more than 28 elements. 3 4 Determine all n N for which n is not the square of any integer, n divides n2 . 5 For positive integers n, dene A(n) to be which (a) A(n) is an even number, (b) A(n) is a multiple of 4. 6 Triangle ABC has incentre I and the incircle touches BC, CA at D, E respectively. Let BI meet DE at G. Show that AG is perpendicular to BG. 7 Let A be one of the two points of intersection of two circles with centers X, Y respectively.The tangents at A to the two circles meet the circles again at B, C. Let a point P be located so that P XAY is a parallelogram. Show that P is also the circumcenter of triangle ABC. (2n)! . Determine the sets of positive integers n for (n!)2

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India
National Olympiad 1990

1 Given the equation x4 + px3 + qx2 + rx + s = 0 has four real, positive roots, prove that (a) pr 16s 0 (b) q 2 36s 0 with equality in each case holding if and only if the four roots are equal. 2 Determine all non-negative integral pairs (x, y) for which (xy 7)2 = x2 + y 2 . 3 Let f be a function dened on the set of non-negative integers and taking values in the same set. Given that f (x) x 90 for all non-negative integers x; (a) x f (x) = 19 19 90 (b) 1900 < f (1990) < 2000, nd the possible values that f (1990) can take. (Notation : here [z] refers to largest integer that is z, e.g. [3.1415] = 3). 4 Consider the collection of all three-element subsets drawn from the set {1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 299, 300}. Determine the number of those subsets for which the sum of the elements is a multiple of 3. 5 Let a, b, c denote the sides of a triangle. Show that the quantity b c a + + b+c c+a a+b must lie between the limits 3/2 and 2. Can equality hold at either limits? 6 Triangle ABC is scalene with angle A having a measure greater than 90 degrees. Determine the set of points D that lie on the extended line BC, for which |AD| = |BD| |CD|

where |BD| refers to the (positive) distance between B and D. 7 Let ABC be an arbitrary acute angled triangle. For any point P lying within the triangle, let D, E, F denote the feet of the perpendiculars from P onto the sides AB, BC, CA respectively. Determine the set of all possible positions of the point P for which the triangle DEF is isosceles. For which position of P will the triangle DEF become equilateral?

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India
National Olympiad 1992

1 In a triangle ABC, A = 2 B. Prove that a2 = b(b + c). 2 If x, y, z R such that x + y + z = 4 and x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 6, then show that each of x, y, z lies 2 2 in the closed interval , 2 . Can x attain the extreme value or 2? 3 3 3 Find the remainder when 1992 is divided by 92. 4 Find the number of permutations (p1 , p2 , p3 , p4 , p5 , p6 ) of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 such that for any k, 1 k 5, (p1 , . . . , pk ) does not form a permutation of 1, 2, . . . , k. 5 Two circles C1 and C2 intersect at two distinct points in a plane. Let a line passing through P meet the circles C1 and C2 in A and B respectively. Let Y be the midpoint of AB and let QY meet the cirlces C1 and C2 in X and Z respectively. Show that Y is also the midpoint of XZ. 6 Let f (x) be a polynomial in x with integer coecients and suppose that for ve distinct integers a1 , . . . , a5 one has f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) = . . . = f (a5 ) = 2. Show that there does not exist an integer b such that f (b) = 9. 7 Let n 3 be an integer. Find the number of ways in which one can place the numbers 1, 2, 3, . . . , n2 in the n2 squares of a n n chesboard, one on each, such that the numbers in each row and in each column are in arithmetic progression. 8 Determine all pairs (m, n) of positive integers for which 2m + 3n is a perfect square. 9 Let A1 , A2 , . . . , An be an n -sided regular polygon. If 10 Determine all functions f : R [0, 1] R such that f (x) + f 1 1x = 2(1 2x) . x(1 x) 1 1 1 = + , nd n. A1 A2 A1 A3 A1 A4

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India
National Olympiad 1993

1 The diagonals AC and BD of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD intersect at P . Let O be the circumcenter of triangle AP B and H be the orthocenter of triangle CP D. Show that the points H, P, O are collinear. 2 Let p(x) = x2 + ax + b be a quadratic polynomial with a, b Z. Given any integer n , show that there is an integer M such that p(n)p(n + 1) = p(M ). 3 If a, b, c, d R+ and a + b + c + d = 1, show that 1 ab + bc + cd . 4 4 Let ABC be a triangle in a plane . Find the set of all points P (distinct from A, B, C ) in the plane such that the circumcircles of triangles ABP , BCP , CAP have the same radii. 5 Show that there is a natural number n such that n! when written in decimal notation ends exactly in 1993 zeros. 6 Let ABC be a triangle right-angled at A and S be its circumcircle. Let S1 be the circle touching the lines AB and AC, and the circle S internally. Further, let S2 be the circle touching the lines AB and AC and the circle S externally. If r1 , r2 be the radii of S1 , S2 prove that r1 r2 = 4A[ABC]. 7 Let A = {1, 2, 3, . . . , 100} and B be a subset of A having 53 elements. Show that B has 2 distinct elements x and y whose sum is divisible by 11. 8 Let f be a bijective function from A = {1, 2, . . . , n} to itself. Show that there is a positive integer M such that f M (i) = f (i) for each i in A, where f M denotes the composition f f f M times. 9 Show that there exists a convex hexagon in the plane such that (i) all its interior angles are equal; (ii) its sides are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in some order.

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India
National Olympiad 1994

1 Let G be the centroid of the triangle ABC in which the angle at C is obtuse and AD and CF be the medians from A and C respectively onto the sides BC and AB. If the points B, D, G AC and F are concyclic, show that 2. If further P is a point on the line BG extended BC such that AGCP is a parallelogram, show that triangle ABC and GAP are similar. 2 If x5 x3 + x = a, prove that x6 2a 1. 3 In any set of 181 square integers, prove that one can always nd a subset of 19 numbers, sum of whose elements is divisible by 19. 4 Find the number of nondegenerate triangles whose vertices lie in the set of points (s, t) in the plane such that 0 s 4, 0 t 4, s and t are integers. 5 A circle passes through the vertex of a rectangle ABCD and touches its sides AB and AD at M and N respectively. If the distance from C to the line segment M N is equal to 5 units, nd the area of rectangle ABCD. 6 Find all real-valued functions f on the reals such that f (x) = f (x), f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 1 f (x) for all x, and f = 2 for x = 0. x x

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India
National Olympiad 1995

1 In an acute angled triangle ABC, A = 30 , H is the orthocenter, and M is the midpoint of BC. On the line HM , take a point T such that HM = M T . Show that AT = 2BC. 2 Show that there are inntely many pairs (a, b) of relatively prime integers (not necessarily positive) such that both the equations

x2 + ax + b = 0 x2 + 2ax + b = 0

have integer roots. 3 Show that the number of 3element subsets {a, b, c} of {1, 2, 3, . . . , 63} with a + b + c < 95 is less than the number of those with a + b + c 95. 4 Let ABC be a triangle and a circle be drawn lying outside the triangle, touching its incircle externally, and also the two sides AB and AC. Show that the ratio of the radii of the circles A and is equal to tan2 . 4 5 Let n 2. Let a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . an be n real numbers all less than 1 and such that |ak ak+1 | < 1 for 1 k n 1. Show that an1 an a1 a2 a3 + + + ... + + < 2n 1. a2 a3 a4 an a1 6 Find all primes p for which the quotient 2p1 1 p is a square.

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India
National Olympiad 1996

1 a) Given any positive integer n, show that there exist distint positive integers x and y such that x + j divides y + j for j = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n; b) If for some positive integers x and y, x + j divides y + j for all positive integers j, prove that x = y. 2 Let C1 and C2 be two concentric circles in the plane with radii R and 3R respectively. Show that the orthocenter of any triangle inscribed in circle C1 lies in the interior of circle C2 . Conversely, show that every point in the interior of C2 is the orthocenter of some triangle inscribed in C1 . 3 Solve the following system for real a, b, c, d, e: 3a = (b + c + d)3 3b = (c + d + e)3 3c = (d + e + a)3 3d = (e + a + b)3 3e = (a + b + c)3 . 4 Let X be a set containing n elements. Find the number of ordered triples (A, B, C) of subsets of X such that A is a subset of B and B is a proper subset of C. 5 Dene a sequence (an )n1 by a1 = 1 and a2 = 2 and an+2 = 2an+1 an + 2 for n 1. prove that for any m , am am+1 is also a term in this sequence. 6 There is a 2n 2n array (matrix) consisting of 0 s and 1 s and there are exactly 3n zeroes. Show that it is possible to remove all the zeroes by deleting some n rows and some n columns.

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India
National Olympiad 1997

1 Let ABCD be a parallelogram. Suppose a line passing through C and lying outside the parallelogram meets AB and AD produced at E and F respectively. Show that AC 2 + CE CF = AB AE + AD AF. 2 Show that there do not exist positive integers m and n such that m n+1 + = 4. n m 3 If a, b, c are three real numbers and a+ 1 1 1 =b+ =c+ =t b c a

for some real number t, prove that abc + t = 0. 4 In a unit square one hundred segments are drawn from the centre to the sides dividing the square into one hundred parts (triangles and possibly quadruilaterals). If all parts have equal 14 15 perimetr p, show that <p< . 10 10 5 Find the number of 4 4 array whose entries are from the set {0, 1, 2, 3} and which are such that the sum of the numbers in each of the four rows and in each of the four columns is divisible by 4. 6 Suppose a and b are two positive real numbers such that the roots of the cubic equation x3 ax + b = 0 are all real. If is a root of this cubic with minimal absolute value, prove that b 3b << . a 2a

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India
National Olympiad 1998

1 In a circle C1 with centre O, let AB be a chord that is not a diameter. Let M be the midpoint of this chord AB. Take a point T on the circle C2 with OM as diameter. Let the tangent to C2 at T meet C1 at P . Show that P A2 + P B 2 = 4 P T 2 . 3 2 Let a and b be two positive rational numbers such that 3 a + b is also a rational number. 3 Prove that 3 a and b themselves are rational numbers. 3 Let p, q, r, s be four integers such that s is not divisible by 5. If there is an integer a such that pa3 + qa2 + ra + s is divisible be 5, prove that there is an integer b such that sb3 + rb2 + qb + p is also divisible by 5. 4 Suppose ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral inscribed in a circle of radius one unit. If AB BC CD DA 4, prove that ABCD is a square. 5 Suppose a, b, c are three rela numbers such that the quadratic equation x2 (a + b + c)x + (ab + bc + ca) = 0 has roots of the form + i where > 0 and 0 are real numbers. Show that (i) The = numbers a, b, c are all positive. (ii) The numbers a, b, c form the sides of a triangle. 6 It is desired to choose n integers from the collection of 2n integers, namely, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, . . . , n 1, n 1 such that the average of these n chosen integers is itself an integer and as minimum as possible. Show that this can be done for each positive integer n and nd this minimum value for each n.

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India
National Olympiad 1999

1 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle in which D, E, F are points on BC, CA, AB respectively such that AD BC;AE = BC; and CF bisects C internally, Suppose CF meets AD and DE in M and N respectively. If F M = 2, M N = 1, N C = 3, nd the perimeter of ABC. 2 In a village 1998 persons volunteered to clean up, for a fair, a rectangular eld with integer sides and perimeter equla to 3996 feet. For this purpose, the eld was divided into 1998 equal parts. If each part had an integer area, nd the length and breadth of the eld. 3 Show that there do not exist polynomials p(x) and q(x) each having integer coecients and of degree greater than or equal to 1 such that p(x)q(x) = x5 + 2x + 1. 4 Let and be two concentric circles. Let ABC and A B C be any two equilateral triangles inscribed in and respectively. If P and P are any two points on and respectively, show that P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 = A P 2 + B P 2 + C P 2 . 5 Given any four distint positive real numbers, show that one can choose three numbers , say A, B, C from among them such that all the three quadratic equation

Bx2 + x + C = 0 Cx2 + x + A = 0 Ax2 + x + B = 0 have only real roots or all the three equations have only imaginary roots. 6 For which positive integer values of n can the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , 4n} be split into n disjoint b+c+d 4-element subsets {a, b, c, d} such that in each of these sets a = . 3

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India
National Olympiad 2000

1 The incircle of ABC touches BC, CA, AB at K, L, M respectively. The line through A parallel to LK meets M K at P , and the line through A parallel to M K meets LK at Q. Show that the line P Q bisects AB and bisects AC. 2 Solve for integers x, y, z: x+y = 1z x3 + y 3 = 1 z 3 . 3 If a, b, c, x are real numbers such that abc = 0 and xc + (1 x)a xa + (1 x)b xb + (1 x)c = = , a b c then prove that a = b = c. 4 In a convex quadrilateral P QRS, P Q = RS, ( 3 + 1)QR = SP and RSP SQP = 30 . Prove that P QR QRS = 90 . 5 Let a, b, c be three real numbers such that 1 a b c 0. prove that if is a root of the cubic equation x3 + ax2 + bx + c = 0 (real or complex), then || 1. 6 For any natural numbers n, ( n 3), let f (n) denote the number of congruent integer-sided triangles with perimeter n. Show that (i) f (1999) > f (1996); (ii) f (2000) = f (1997).

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India
National Olympiad 2001

1 Let ABC be a triangle in which no angle is 90 . For any point P in the plane of the triangle, let A1 , B1 , C1 denote the reections of P in the sides BC, CA, AB respectively. Prove that (i) If P is the incenter or an excentre of ABC, then P is the circumenter of A1 B1 C1 ; (ii) If P is the circumcentre of ABC, then P is the orthocentre of A1 B1 C1 ; (iii) If P is the orthocentre of ABC, then P is either the incentre or an excentre of A1 B1 C1 . 2 Show that the equation x2 + y 2 + z 2 = (x y)(y z)(z x) has inntely many solutions in integers x, y, z. 3 If a, b, c are positive real numbers such that abc = 1, Prove that ab+c bc+a ca+b 1. 4 Show that given any nine integers, we can nd four, a, b, c, d such that a + b c dis divisible by 20. Show that this is not always true for eight integers. 5 ABC is a triangle. M is the midpoint of BC. M AB = C, and M AC = 15 . Show that AM C is obtuse. If O is the circumcenter of ADC, show that AOD is equilateral. 6 Find all functions f : R R such that f (x + y) = f (x)f (y)f (xy) for all x, y R.

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India
National Olympiad 2003

1 Let P be an interior point of an acute-angled triangle ABC. The line BP meets the line AC at E, and the line CP meets the line AB at F . The lines AP and EF intersect each other at D. Let K be the foot of the perpendicular from the point D to the line BC. Show that the line KD bisects the angle EKF . 2 Find all primes p, q and even n > 2 such that pn + pn1 + ... + 1 = q 2 + q + 1. 3 Show that 8x4 16x3 + 16x2 8x + k = 0 has at least one real root for all real k. Find the sum of the non-real roots. 4 Find all 7-digit numbers which use only the digits 5 and 7 and are divisible by 35. b c 5 Let a, b, c be the sidelengths and S the area of a triangle ABC. Denote x = a + , y = b + 2 2 a and z = c + . Prove that there exists a triangle with sidelengths x, y, z, and the area of this 2 9 triangle is S. 4 6 Each lottery ticket has a 9-digit numbers, which uses only the digits 1, 2, 3. Each ticket is colored {red, { blue or {green. If two tickets have numbers which dier in all nine places, then the tickets have dierent colors. Ticket 122222222 is red, and ticket 222222222 is {green. What color is ticket 123123123 ?

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India
National Olympiad 2004

1 ABCD is a convex quadrilateral. K, L, M , N are the midpoints of the sides AB, BC, CD, LK CD DA. BD bisects KM at Q. QA = QB = QC = QD , and = . Prove that ABCD LM CB is a square 2 p > 3 is a prime. Find all integers a, b, such that a2 + 3ab + 2p(a + b) + p2 = 0. 3 If a is a real root of x5 x3 + x 2 = 0, show that [a6 ] =3 4 ABC is a triangle, with sides a, b, c , circumradius R, and exradii ra , rb , rc If 2R ra , show that a > b, a > c, 2R > rb , and 2R > rc . 5 S is the set of all (a, b, c, d, e, f ) where a, b, c, d, e, f are integers such that a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 +e2 = f 2 . Find the largest k which divides abcdef for all members of S. 6 Show that the number of 5-tuples (a, b, c, d, e) such that abcde = 5(bcde + acde + abde + abce + abcd) is odd

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India
National Olympiad 2005

1 Let M be the midpoint of side BC of a triangle ABC. Let the median AM intersect the incircle of ABC at K and L, K being nearer to A than L. If AK = KL = LM , prove that the sides of triangle ABC are in the ratio 5 : 10 : 13 in some order. 2 Let and be positive integers such that of . 3 Let p, q, r be positive real numbers, not all equal, such that some two of the equations 43 17 < < . Find the minimum possible value 197 77

px2 + 2qx + r = 0 qx2 + 2rx + p = 0 rx2 + 2px + q = 0.

have a common root, say . Prove that a) is real and negative; b) the remaining third quadratic equation has non-real roots. 4 All possible 6-digit numbers, in each of which the digits occur in nonincreasing order (from left to right, e.g. 877550) are written as a sequence in increasing order. Find the 2005-th number in this sequence. 5 Let x1 be a given positive integer. A sequence {xn }n1 of positive integers is such that xn , for n 2, is obtained from xn1 by adding some nonzero digit of xn1 . Prove that a) the sequence contains an even term; b) the sequence contains innitely many even terms. 6 Find all functions f : R R such that f (x2 + yf (z)) = xf (x) + zf (y), for all x, y, z R.

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India
National Olympiad 2006

1 In a non equilateral triangle ABC the sides a, b, c form an arithmetic progression. Let I be the incentre and O the circumcentre of the triangle ABC. Prove that (1) IO is perpendicular to BI; (2) If BI meets AC in K, and D, E are the midpoints of BC, BA respectively then I is the circumcentre of triangle DKE. 2 Prove that for every positive integer n there exists a unique ordered pair (a, b) of positive integers such that 1 n = (a + b 1)(a + b 2) + a. 2 3 Let X = Z3 denote the set of all triples (a, b, c) of integers. Dene f : X X by f (a, b, c) = (a + b + c, ab + bc + ca, abc). Find all triples (a, b, c) such that f (f (a, b, c)) = (a, b, c). 4 Some 46 squares are randomly chosen from a 9 9 chess board and colored in {red. Show that there exists a 2 2 block of 4 squares of which at least three are colored in {red. 5 In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = a, BC = b, CD = c, ABC = 120 and ABD = 30 . Prove that (1) c a + b; (2) | c + a c + b| = c a b. 6 (a) Prove that if n is a integer such that n 40112 then there exists an integer l such that n < l2 < (1 + 1 )n. 2005

(b) Find the smallest positive integer M for which whenever an integer n is such that n M then there exists an integer l such that n < l2 < (1 + 1 )n. 2005

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India
National Olympiad 2007

1 In a triangle ABC right-angled at C , the median through B bisects the angle between BA and the bisector of B. Prove that 5 AB < <3 2 BC 2 Let n be a natural number such that n = a2 + b2 + c2 for some natural numbers a, b, c. Prove that 9n = (p1 a + q1 b + r1 c)2 + (p2 a + q2 b + r2 c)2 + (p3 a + q3 b + r3 c)2 where pj s , qj s , rj s are all nonzero integers. Further, if 3 does not divide at least one of a, b, c, prove that 9n can be expressed in the form x2 + y 2 + z 2 , where x, y, z are natural numbers none of which is divisible by 3. 3 Let m and n be positive integers such that x2 mx + n = 0 has real roots and . Prove that and are integers if and only if [m] + [m] is the square of an integer. (Here [x] denotes the largest integer not exceeding x) 4 Let = (a1 , a2 , , an ) be permutation of (1, 2, , n). A pair (ai , aj ) is said to correspond to an inversion of , if i < j but ai > aj . How many permutations of (1, 2, , n), n 3, have exactly two inversions? For example, In the permutation (2, , 4, 5, 3, 1), there are 6 inversions corresponding to the pairs (2, 1), (4, 3), (4, 1), (5, 3), (5, 1), (3, 1). 5 Let ABC be a triangle in which AB = AC. Let D be the midpoint of BC and P be a point on AD. Suppose E is the foot of perpendicular from P on AC. Dene AP BP = = , PD PE Prove that z 2 (3 2 2)z + 1 = 0 Hence show that 2 and = 2 if and only if ABC is equilateral. 6 If x, y, z are positive real numbers, prove that (x + y + z)2 (yz + zx + xy)2 3 y 2 + yz + z 2 z 2 + zx + x2 x2 + xy + y 2 . BD = m, AD z = m2 (1 + )

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India
National Olympiad 2008

1 Let ABC be triangle, I its in-center; A1 , B1 , C1 be the reections of I in BC, CA, AB respectively. Suppose the circum-circle of triangle A1 B1 C1 passes through A. Prove that B1 , C1 , I, I1 are concylic, where I1 is the in-center of triangle A1 , B1 , C1 . 2 Find all triples (p, x, y) such that px = y 4 + 4, where p is a prime and x and y are natural numbers. 3 Let A be a set of real numbers such that A has at least four elements. Suppose A has the property that a2 + bc is a rational number for all distinct numbers a, b, c in A. Prove that there exists a positive integer M such that a M is a rational number for every a in A. 4 All the points with integer coordinates in the xy-Plane are coloured using three colours, red, blue and green, each colour being used at least once. It is known that the point (0, 0) is red and the point (0, 1) is blue. Prove that there exist three points with integer coordinates of distinct colours which form the vertices of a right-angled triangle. 5 Let ABC be a triangle; A , B , C be three equal, disjoint circles inside ABC such that A touches AB and AC; B touches AB and BC; and C touches BC and CA. Let be a circle touching circles A , B , C externally. Prove that the line joining the circum-centre O and the in-centre I of triangle ABC passes through the centre of . 6 Let P (x) be a polynomial with integer coecients. Prove that there exist two polynomials Q(x) and R(x), again with integer coecients, such that (i) P (x) Q(x) is a polynomial in x2 , and (ii) P (x) R(x) is a polynomial in x3 .

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India
National Olympiad 2009

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a tringle and let P be an interior point such that BP C = 90, BAP = BCP .Let M, N be the mid points of AC, BC respectively.Suppose BP = 2P M .Prove that A, P, N are collinear. 2 Dene a a sequence < an > as follows n=1 an = 0, if number of positive divisors of n is odd an = 1, if number of positive divisors of n is even (The positive divisors of n include 1 as well as n.)Let x = 0.a1 a2 a3 ........ be the real number whose decimal expansion contains an in the n-th place,n 1.Determine,with proof,whether x is rational or irrational. 3 Find all real numbers x such that: [x2 + 2x] = [x]2 + 2[x] (Here [x] denotes the largest integer not exceeding x.)

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

India
National Olympiad 2009

Day 2
4 All the points in the plane are colored using three colors.Prove that there exists a triangle with vertices having the same color such that either it is isosceles or its angles are in geometric progression. 5 Let ABC be an acute angled triangle and let H be its ortho centre.Let hmax denote the largest altitude of the triangle ABC.Prove that: AH + BH + CH 2hmax 6 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a3 + b3 = c3 .Prove that: a2 + b2 c2 > 6(c a)(c b).

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
2004-2009

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2004

Day 1
1 Determine the number of positive odd and even factor of 56 1. 2 When lled with an cold water using a particular cold water tap, a tank will be full in 14 minutes. In 21 minutes, the full tank could be emptied by opening a hole on the base of the tank. If the cold water tap and the hot water tap are opened simultaneously (allowing hot and cold water ll the tank), and the hole on the base of the tank is opened, the tank will be full in 12.6 minutes. Determine the number of minutes needed to ll the tank with hot water until the tank is full, assuming at rst the tank is empty and the hole is closed. 3 In how many ways can we change the sign with + or , such that the following equation is true? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 = 29 4 There exists 4 circles, a, b, c, d, such that a is tangent to both b and d, b is tangent to both a and c, c is both tangent to b and d, and d is both tangent to a and c. Show that all these tangent points are located on a circle.

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Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2004

Day 2
1 a + 4b + 9c + 16d + 25e + 36f + 49g = 1

4a + 9b + 16c + 25d + 36e + 49f + 64g = 12

9a + 16b + 25c + 36d + 49e + 64f + 81f = 123 Determine the value of 16a + 25b + 36c + 49d + 64e + 81f + 100g. 2 Quadratic equation x2 + ax + b + 1 = 0 have 2 positive integer roots, for integers a, b. Show that a2 + b2 is not a prime. 3 Given triangle ABC with C a right angle, show that the diameter of the incenter is a + b c, where a = BC, b = CA, and c = AB. 4 8. Sebuah lantai luasnya 3 meter persegi ditutupi lima buah karpet dengan ukuran masingmasing 1 meter persegi. Buktikan bahwa ada dua karpet yang tumpang tindih dengan luas tumpang tindih minimal 0,2 meter persegi. A oor of a certain room has a 3 m2 area. Then the oor is covered by 5 rugs, each has an area of 1 m2 . Prove that there exists 2 overlapping rugs, with at least 0.2 m2 covered by both rugs.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2005

Day 1
1 Let n be a positive integer. Determine the number of triangles (non congruent) with integral side lengths and the longest side length is n. 2 For an arbitrary positive integer n, dene p(n) as the product of the digits of n (in decimal). Find all positive integers n such that 11p(n) = n2 2005. 3 Let k and m be positive integers such that (a) Prove that k is rational. (b) Prove that k is a positive integer. 1 2 k+4 m k is an integer.

4 Let M be a point in triangle ABC such that AM C = 90 , AM B = 150 , BM C = 120 . The centers of circumcircles of triangles AM C, AM B, BM C are P, Q, R, respectively. Prove that the area of P QR is greater than the area of ABC.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2005

Day 2
5 For an arbitrary real number x, x denotes the greatest integer not exceeding x. Prove that m there is exactly one integer m which satisfy m = 2005. 2005 6 Find all triples (x, y, z) of integers which satisfy x(y + z) = y 2 + z 2 2 y(z + x) = z 2 + x2 2 z(x + y) = x2 + y 2 2. 7 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. Square AB1 A2 B is constructed such that the two vertices A2 , B1 is located outside ABCD. Similarly, we construct squares BC1 B2 C, CD1 C2 D, DA1 D2 A. Let K be the intersection of AA2 and BB1 , L be the intersection of BB2 and CC1 , M be the intersection of CC2 and DD1 , and N be the intersection of DD2 and AA1 . Prove that KM is perpendicular to LN . 8 There are 90 contestants in a mathematics competition. Each contestant gets acquainted with at least 60 other contestants. One of the contestants, Amin, state that at least four contestants have the same number of new friends. Prove or disprove his statement.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2006

Day 1
1 Find all pairs (x, y) of real numbers which satisfy x3 y 3 = 4(x y) and x3 + y 3 = 2(x + y). 2 Let a, b, c be positive integers. If 30|a + b + c, prove that 30|a5 + b5 + c5 . 3 Let S be the set of all triangles ABC which have property: tan A, tan B, tan C are positive integers. Prove that all triangles in S are similar. 4 A black pawn and a white pawn are placed on the rst square and the last square of a 1 n chessboard, respectively. Wiwit and Siti move alternatingly. Wiwit has the white pawn, and Siti has the black pawn. The white pawn moves rst. In every move, the player moves her pawn one or two squares to the right or to the left, without passing the opponents pawn. The player who cannot move anymore loses the game. Which player has the winning strategy? Explain the strategy.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2006

Day 2
5 In triangle ABC, M is the midpoint of side BC and G is the centroid of triangle ABC. A line l passes through G, intersecting line AB at P and line AC at Q, where P = B and Q = C. 3 [BGM ] [CM G] + = . If [XY Z] denotes the area of triangle XY Z, show that [P AG] [QGA] 2 6 Every phone number in an area consists of eight digits and starts with digit 8. Mr Edy, who has just moved to the area, apply for a new phone number. What is the chance that Mr Edy gets a phone number which consists of at most ve dierent digits? 7 Let a, b, c be real numbers such that ab, bc, ca are rational numbers. Prove that there are integers x, y, z, not all of them are 0, such that ax + by + cz = 0. 8 Find the largest 85-digit integer which has property: the sum of its digits equals to the product of its digits.

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Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2007

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a triangle with ABC = ACB = 70 . Let point D on side BC such that AD is the altitude, point E on side AB such that ACE = 10 , and point F is the intersection of AD and CE. Prove that CF = BC. 2 For every positive integer n, b(n) denote the number of positive divisors of n and p(n) denote the sum of all positive divisors of n. For example, b(14) = 4 and p(14) = 24. Let k be a positive integer greater than 1. (a) Prove that there are innitely many positive integers n which satisfy b(n) = k 2 k + 1. (b) Prove that there are nitely many positive integers n which satisfy p(n) = k 2 k + 1. 3 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers which satisfy 5(a2 + b2 + c2 ) < 6(ab + bc + ca). Prove that these three inequalities hold: a + b > c, b + c > a, c + a > b. 4 A 10-digit arrangement 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 is called beautiful if (i) when read left to right, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 form an increasing sequence, and 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 form a decreasing sequence, and (ii) 0 is not the leftmost digit. For example, 9807123654 is a beautiful arrangement. Determine the number of beautiful arrangements.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2007

Day 2
5 Let r, s be two positive integers and P a chessboard with r rows and s columns. Let M denote the maximum value of rooks placed on P such that no two of them attack each other. (a) Determine M . (b) How many ways to place M rooks on P such that no two of them attack each other? [Note: In chess, a rook moves and attacks in a straight line, horizontally or vertically.] 6 Find all triples (x, y, z) of real numbers which satisfy the simultaneous equations x = y3 + y 8 y = z3 + z 8 z = x3 + x 8. 7 Points A, B, C, D are on circle S, such that AB is the diameter of S, but CD is not the diameter. Given also that C and D are on dierent sides of AB. The tangents of S at C and D intersect at P . Points Q and R are the intersections of line AC with line BD and line AD with line BC, respectively. (a) Prove that P , Q, and R are collinear. (b) Prove that QR is perpendicular to line AB. 8 Let m and n be two positive integers. If there are innitely many integers k such that k 2 + 2kn + m2 is a perfect square, prove that m = n.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2008

Day 1
1 Given triangle ABC. Points D, E, F outside triangle ABC are chosen such that triangles ABD, BCE, and CAF are equilateral triangles. Prove that cicumcircles of these three triangles are concurrent. 2 Prove that for x, y R+ , (1 + 1 x)2 + (1 + 1 y)2 2 x+y+2 a+b b+c c+a + + where a, b, c N c a b

3 Find all natural number which can be expressed in satisfy gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, c) = gcd(c, a) = 1

4 Let A = {1, 2, . . . , 2008} a) Find the number of subset of A which satisfy : the product of its elements is divisible by 7 b) Let N (i) denotes the number of subset of A which sum of its elements remains i when divided by 7. Prove that N (0) N (1) + N (2) N (3) + N (4) N (5) + N (6) N (7) = 0 EDITED : thx for cosinator.. BTW, your statement and my correction give 80

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2008

Day 2
1 Let m, n > 1 are integers which satisfy n|4m 1 and 2m |n 1. Is it a must that n = 2m + 1? 2 In a group of 21 persons, every two person communicate with dierent radio frequency. Its possible for two person to not communicate (means theres no frequency occupied to connect them). Only one frequency used by each couple, and its unique for every couple. In every 3 persons, exactly two of them is not communicating to each other. Determine the maximum number of frequency required for this group. Explain your answer. 3 Given triangle ABC with sidelengths a, b, c. Tangents to incircle of ABC that parallel with triangles sides form three small triangle (each small triangle has 1 vertex of ABC). Prove that the sum of area of incircles of these three small triangles and the area of incircle of (a2 + b2 + c2 )(b + c a)(c + a b)(a + b c) triangle ABC is equal to (a + b + c)3 (hmm,, looks familiar, isnt it? :wink: ) 4 Find all function f : N N satisfy f (mn) + f (m + n) = f (m)f (n) + 1 for all natural number n

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2009

Day 1
1 Find all positive integers n {1, 2, 3, . . . , 2009} such that 4n6 + n3 + 5 is divisible by 7. 2 For any real x, let x be the largest integer that is not more than x. Given a sequence of positive integers a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . such that a1 > 1 and a2 + 1 a3 + 1 a1 + 1 = = = a2 a3 a4 Prove that an + 1 1 an+1

holds for every positive integer n. 3 For every triangle ABC, let D, E, F be a point located on segment BC, CA, AB, respectively. Let P be the intersection of AD and EF . Prove that: AB AC AD DC + DB = BC AF AE AP 4 In an island, there exist 7 towns and a railway system which connected some of the towns. Every railway segment connects 2 towns, and in every town there exists at least 3 railway segments that connects the town to another towns. Prove that there exists a route that visits 4 dierent towns once and go back to the original town. (Example: A B C D A)

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2009

Day 2
1 In a drawer, there are at most 2009 balls, some of them are white, the rest are blue, which are randomly distributed. If two balls were taken at the same time, then the probability that 1 the balls are both blue or both white is . Determine the maximum amount of white balls 2 in the drawer, such that the probability statement is true? 2 Find the lowest possible values from the function f (x) = x2008 2x2007 + 3x2006 4x2005 + 5x2004 2006x3 + 2007x2 2008x + 2009 for any real numbers x. 3 A pair of integers (m, n) is called good if m | n2 + n and n | m2 + m Given 2 positive integers a, b > 1 which are relatively prime, prove that there exists a good pair (m, n) with a | m and b | n, but a n and b m. 4 Given an acute triangle ABC. The incircle of triangle ABC touches BC, CA, AB respectively at D, E, F . The angle bisector of A cuts DE and DF respectively at K and L. Suppose AA1 is one of the altitudes of triangle ABC, and M be the midpoint of BC. (a) Prove that BK and CL are perpendicular with the angle bisector of BAC. (b) Show that A1 KM L is a cyclic quadrilateral.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2008

Day 1
1 Given triangle ABC. Points D, E, F outside triangle ABC are chosen such that triangles ABD, BCE, and CAF are equilateral triangles. Prove that cicumcircles of these three triangles are concurrent. 2 Prove that for x, y R+ , (1 + 1 x)2 + (1 + 1 y)2 2 x+y+2 a+b b+c c+a + + where a, b, c N c a b

3 Find all natural number which can be expressed in satisfy gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, c) = gcd(c, a) = 1

4 Let A = {1, 2, . . . , 2008} a) Find the number of subset of A which satisfy : the product of its elements is divisible by 7 b) Let N (i) denotes the number of subset of A which sum of its elements remains i when divided by 7. Prove that N (0) N (1) + N (2) N (3) + N (4) N (5) + N (6) N (7) = 0 EDITED : thx for cosinator.. BTW, your statement and my correction give 80

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
National Science Olympiad 2008

Day 2
1 Let m, n > 1 are integers which satisfy n|4m 1 and 2m |n 1. Is it a must that n = 2m + 1? 2 In a group of 21 persons, every two person communicate with dierent radio frequency. Its possible for two person to not communicate (means theres no frequency occupied to connect them). Only one frequency used by each couple, and its unique for every couple. In every 3 persons, exactly two of them is not communicating to each other. Determine the maximum number of frequency required for this group. Explain your answer. 3 Given triangle ABC with sidelengths a, b, c. Tangents to incircle of ABC that parallel with triangles sides form three small triangle (each small triangle has 1 vertex of ABC). Prove that the sum of area of incircles of these three small triangles and the area of incircle of (a2 + b2 + c2 )(b + c a)(c + a b)(a + b c) triangle ABC is equal to (a + b + c)3 (hmm,, looks familiar, isnt it? :wink: ) 4 Find all function f : N N satisfy f (mn) + f (m + n) = f (m)f (n) + 1 for all natural number n

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
Indonesia TST 2009

Day 1
4n 1 Prove that for all odd n > 1, we have 8n + 4|C2n .

2 Let f (x) = a2n x2n + a2n1 x2n1 + + a1 x + a0 , with ai = a2n1 for all i = 1, 2, . . . , n and 1 xn = f (x). a2n = 0. Prove that there exists a polynomial g(x) of degree n such that g x + x 3 In how many ways we can choose 3 non empty and non intersecting subsets from (1, 2, . . . , 2008). 4 Given triangle ABC. Let the tangent lines of the circumcircle of AB at B and C meet at A0 . Dene B0 and C0 similarly. a) Prove that AA0 , BB0 , CC0 are concurrent. b) Let K be the point of concurrency. Prove that KG BC if and only if 2a2 = b2 + c2 .

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
Indonesia TST 2009

Day 2
1 Given an n n chessboard. a) Find the number of rectangles on the chessboard. b) Assume there exists an r r square (label B) with r < n which is located on the upper left corner of the board. Dene inner border of A as the border of A which is not the border of the chessboard. How many rectangles in B that touch exactly one inner border of B? 2 Given a triangle ABC, let I be the center of its inscribed circle. The internal bisectors of the angles A, B, C meet the opposite sides in A , B , C respectively. Prove that 8 AI BI CI 1 . < 4 AA BB CC 27 3 Let x, y, z be real numbers. Find the minimum value of x2 + y 2 + z 2 if x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz = 1. 4 Prove that there exist innitely many positive integers n such that n! is not divisible by n2 +1.

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Indonesia
Indonesia TST 2009

Day 3
1 a. Does there exist 4 distinct positive integers such that the sum of any 3 of them is prime? b. Does there exist 5 distinct positive integers such that the sum of any 3 of them is prime? 2 Consider the following array: 3, 53, 8, 53, 11, 13, 53, 14, 24, 18, 53, 17, 38, 42, 23, 5 . . . Find the 5-th number on the n-th row with n > 5. 3 Let ABC be an acute triangle with BAC = 60 . Let P be a point in triangle ABC with AP B = BP C = CP A = 120 . The foots of perpendicular from P to BC, CA, AB are X, Y, Z, respectively. Let M be the midpoint of Y Z. a) Prove that Y XZ = 60 b) Prove that X, P, M are collinear. 4 Let S be the set of nonnegative real numbers. Find all functions f : S S which satisfy f (x + y z) + f (2 xz) + f (2 yz) = f (x + y + z) for all nonnegative x, y, z with x + y z.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 3 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Indonesia
Indonesia TST 2009

Day 4
1 Let [a] be the integer such that [a] a < [a] + 1. Find all real numbers (a, b, c) such that {a} + [b] + {c} = 2.9{b} + [c] + {a} = 5.3{c} + [a] + {b} = 4.0. 2 Let ABC be a triangle with BAC = 60 . The incircle of ABC is tangent to AB at D. Construct a circle with radius DA and cut the incircle of ABC at E. If AF is an altitude, prove that AE AF . 3 Find integer n with 8001 < n < 8200 such that 2n 1 divides 2k(n1)!+k 1 for all integers k > n. 4 2008 boys and 2008 girls sit on 4016 chairs around a round table. Each boy brings a garland and each girl brings a chocolate. In an activity, each person gives his/her goods to the nearest person on the left. After some activities, it turns out that all boys get chocolates and all girls get garlands. Find the number of possible arrangements.
n

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Indonesia
Indonesia TST 2009

Day 5
1 2008 persons take part in a programming contest. In one round, the 2008 programmers are divided into two groups. Find the minimum number of groups such that every two programmers ever be in the same group. 2 Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be real numbers greater than 1. Show that x1 x2 x2 x3 xn x1 + + + 4n x3 x4 x2 and determine when the equality holds. 3 Let S = {1, 2, . . . , n}. Let A be a subset of S such that for x, y A, we have x + y A or x + y n A. Show that the number of elements of A divides n. 4 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. Let M, N be the midpoints of AB, AD respectively. The foot of perpendicular from M to CD is K, the foot of perpendicular from N to BC is L. Show that if AC, BD, M K, N L are concurrent, then KLM N is a cyclic quadrilateral.

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Iran
q
(Preparation Course Examination)

2004-2008

Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2004

1 A network is a simple directed graph such that each edge e has two intger lower and upper capacities 0 cl (e) cu (e). A circular ow on this graph is a function such that: 1) For each edge e, cl (e) f (e) cu (e). 2) For each vertex v: f (e) =
ev + ev

f (e)

a) Prove that this graph has a circular ow, if and only if for each partition X, Y of vertices of the network we have: cl (e) e = xy x X, y Y e = yx y Y, x X cl (e)

b) Suppose that f is a circular ow in this network. Prove that there exists a circular ow g in this network such that g(e) = f (e) or g(e) = f (e) for each edge e. 2 Let H(n) be the number of simply connected subsets with n hexagons in an innite hexagonal network. Also let P (n) be the number of paths starting from a xed vertex (that do not connect itself) with lentgh n in this hexagonal network. a) Prove that the limits := lim H(n) n , := lim P (n) n
n n
1 1

exist. b) Prove the following inequalities:

2 2 12.5 3.5 4

3 For a subset S of vertices of graph G, let (S) be the subset of all edges of G such that at least one of their ends is in S. Suppose that G is a graph with m edges. Let d : V (G) N {0} be a function such that a) d (u) = m. b) For each subset S of V (G):
u

d (u) |(S)|
uS

Prove that we can give directions to edges of G such that for each edge e, d+ (e) = d (e). 4 Let G be a simple graph. Suppose that size of largest independent set in G is . Prove that: a) Vertices of G can be partitioned to at most paths. b) Suppose that a vertex and an edge are also cycles. Prove that vertices of G can be partitioned to at most cycles. n 5 Let A = {A1 , . . . , Am } be a family distinct subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n} with at most elements. 2 Assume that Ai Aj and Ai Aj = for each i, j. Prove that:
m i=1

1
n1 |Ai |1

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2004

6 Let l, d, k be natural numbers. We want to prove that for large numbers n, for each k-coloring of the n-dimensional cube with side length l, there is a d-dimensional subspace that all of its vertices have the same color. Let H(l, d, k) be the least number such that for n H(l, d, k) the previus statement holds. a) Prove that: H(l, d + 1, k) H(l, 1, k) + H(l, d, k l )H(l,1,k) b) Prove that H(l + 1, 1, k + 1) H(l, 1 + H(l + 1, 1, k), k + 1) c) Prove the statement of problem. d) Prove Van der Waerdens Theorem. 7 Let G = (V, E) ve a simple graph. a) Let A, B be a subsets of E, and spanning subgraphs of G with edges A, B, A B and A B have a, b, c and d connected components respectively. Prove that a + b c + d We say that subsets A1 , A2 , . . . , Am of E have (R) property if and only if for each I {1, 2, . . . , m} the spanning subgraph of G with edges iI Ai has at most n |I| connected components. b) Prove that when A1 , . . . , Am , B have (R) property, and |B| 2, there exists an x B such that A1 , A2 , . . . , Am , B\{x} also have property (R). Suppose that edges of G are colored arbitrarily. A spanning subtree in G is called colorful if and only if it does not have any two edges with the same color. c) Prove that G has a colorful subtree if and only if for each partition of V to k non-empty subsets such as V1 , . . . , Vk , there are at least k 1 edges with distinct colors that each of these edges has its two ends in two dierent Vi s. d) Assume that edges of Kn has been colored such that each color is repeated n times. Prove that there exists a colorful subtree. e) Prove that in part d) if n 5 there 2 is a colorful subtree that is non-isomorphic to K1,n1 . f) Prove that in part e) there are at least two non-intersecting colorful subtrees.

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2006

Combinatorics

1 a) Find the value of


n=1

(n) ; 2n 1 n+k m
1 2

b) Show that
k

m k

=
k

m k
1

n k 2 for m, n 0; k

c) Using the identity (1 x)

(1 x) 2 = (1 x)1 derive a combinatorial identity!

d) Express the value of (2a1 1) . . . (2ak 1) where the sum is over all 2n1 ways of choosing (a1 , a2 , . . . , ak ) such that a1 + a2 + . . . + ak = n, as a function of some Fibonacci term. 2 If f (x) is the generating function of the sequence a1 , a2 , . . . and if f (x) = r(x) holds such s(x) that r(x) and s(x) are polynomials show that an has a homogenous recurrence.

3 The bell number bn is the number of ways to partition the set {1, 2, . . . , n}. For example kn . Using a combinatorial b3 = 5. Find a recurrence for bn and show that bn = e1 k!
k0

proof show that the number of ways to partition {1, 2, . . . , n}, such that now two consecutive numbers are in the same block, is bn1 . 4 Show that for every prime p and integer n, there is an irreducible polynomial of degree n in Zp [x] and use that to show there is a eld of size pn . 5 Express the sum Sm (n) = 1m + 2m + . . . + (n 1)m with Bernolli numbers. 6 Show that the product of every k consecutive members of the Fibonacci sequence is divisible by f1 f2 . . . fk (where f0 = 0 and f1 = 1). 1 7 Suppose that for every n the number m(n) is chosen such that m(n) ln(m(n)) = n . Show 2 that bn is asymptotic to the following expression where bn is the nth Bell number, that is the number of ways to partition {1, 2, . . . , n}: m(n)n em(n)n 2 . ln n Two functions f (n) and g(n) are asymptotic to each other if lim f (n) = 1. g(n)
1

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2006

8 Suppose that p(n) is the number of ways to express n as a sum of some naturall numbers (the two representations 4 = 1 + 1 + 2 and 4 = 1 + 2 + 1 are considered the same). Prove that for an innite number of ns p(n) is even and for an innite number of ns p(n) is odd.

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2006

Dynamical Systems

1 Suppose that X is a compact metric space and T : X X is a continous function. Prove that T has a returning point. It means there is a strictly increasing sequence ni such that lim T nk (x0 ) = x0 for some x0 .
k

2 Show that there exists a continuos function f : [0, 1] [0, 1] such that it has no periodic orbit of order 3 but it has a periodic orbit of order 5. 3 Show that if f : [0, 1] [0, 1] is a continous function and it has topological transitivity then periodic points of f are dense in [0, 1]. Topological transitivity means there for every open sets U and V there is n > 0 such that f n (U ) V = . 4 Show that (f ) changes continously over f . It means for every bijection f : S 1 S 1 and > 0 there is > 0 such that if g : S 1 S 1 is a bijection such that ||f g|| < then |(f ) (g)| < . Note that (f ) is the rotatation number of f and ||f g|| = sup{|f (x) g(x)||x S 1 }. 5 Powers of 2 in base 10 start with 3 or 4 more frequently? What is their state in base 3? First write down an exact form of the question. 6 Suppose that Pc (z) = z 2 + c. You are familiar with the Mandelbrot set: M = {c C| lim Pcn (0) = }. We know that if c M then the points of the dynamical system (C, Pc ) n that dont converge to are connected and otherwise they are completely disconnected. By seeing the properties of periodic points of Pc prove the following ones: a) Prove the existance of the heart like shape in the Mandelbrot set. b) Prove the existance of the large circle next to the heart like shape in the Mandelbrot set. [img]http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/ pbourke/fractals/mandelbrot/mandel1.gif[/img]

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2006

Geometry

1 Show that for a triangle we have max{ama , bmb , cmc } sR where ma denotes the length of median of side BC and s is half of the perimeter of the triangle. 2 Using projective transformations prove the Pascal theorem (also nd where the Pascal line intersects the circle). 3 There is a right angle whose vertex moves on a xed circle and one of its sides passes a xed point. What is the curve that the other side of the angle is always tangent to it. 4 Find a 3rd degree polynomial whose roots are ra , rb and rc where ra is the radius of the outer inscribed circle of ABC with respect to A. 5 Suppose is a xed line and F and F are two points with equal distance from that are on two sides of . The circle C is with center P and radius mP F where m is a positive number not equal to 1. The circle C is the circle that P F F is inscribed in it. a) What is the condition on P such that C and C intersect? b) If we denote the intersections of C and C to be M and M then what is the locus of M and M ; c) Show that C is always tangent to this locus.

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2006

Superior Algebra

1 Find out wich of the following polynomials are irreducible. a) t4 + 1 over R; b) t4 + 1 over Q; c) t3 7t2 + 3t + 3 over Q; d) t4 + 7 over Z17 ; e) t3 5 over Z11 ; f) t6 + 7 over Q(i). 2 a) Show that you can divide an angle to three equal parts using compass and ruler if and only if the polynomial 4t3 3t cos() is reducible over Q(cos()). b) Is it always possible to divide an angle into ve equal parts? 3 a) If K is a nite extension of the eld F and K = F (, ) show that [K : F ] [F () : F ][F () : F ] b) If gcd([F () : F ], [F () : F ]) = 1 then does the above inequality always become equality? c) By giving an example show that if gcd([F () : F ], [F () : F ]) = 1 then equality might happen. 4 If d Q, is there always an C such that n = 1 for some n N and Q( d) Q()?

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2007

Combinatorics

1 a) There is an innite sequence of 0, 1, like . . . , a1 , a0 , a1 , . . . (i.e. an element of {0, 1}Z ). At each step we make a new sequence. There is a function f such that for each i, new ai = f (ai100 , ai99 , . . . , ai+100 ). This operation is mapping F : {0, 1}Z {0, 1}Z . Prove that if F is 1-1, then it is surjective. b) Is the statement correct if we have an fi for each i? 2 There is a WORD game with the following rules. There are nite number of relations Ui Vi (Ui , Vi are words). There is are two words A, B. We start from A, and we want to reach to B. At each step we can change one subword Ui to Vi . Prove that there does not exist an algorithm that picks up A, B and Ui s,Vi s and decides whether we can reach from A to B or not.

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2007

Geometry

1 D is an arbitrary point inside triangle ABC, and E is inside triangle BDC. Prove that SEBC SDBC 2 (PDBC ) (PEBC )2 2 Let C1 , C2 and C3 be three circles that does not intersect and non of them is inside another. Suppose (L1 , L2 ), (L3 , L4 ) and (L5 , L6 ) be internal common tangents of (C1 , C2 ), (C1 , C3 ), (C2 , C3 ). Let L1 , L2 , L3 , L4 , L5 , L6 be sides of polygon AC BA CB . Prove that AA , BB , CC are concurrent. 3 ABC is an arbitrary triangle. A , B , C are midpoints of arcs BC, AC, AB. Sides of triangle ABC, intersect sides of triangle A B C at points P, Q, R, S, T, F . Prove that SP QRST F ab + ac + bc =1 SABC (a + b + c)2 4 Let (C) and (L) be a circle and a line. P1 , . . . , P2n+1 are odd number of points on (L). A1 is an arbitrary point on (C). Ak+1 is the intersection point of Ak Pk and (C) (1 k 2n + 1). Prove that A1 A2n+2 passes through a constant point while A1 varies on (C).

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2007

Number Theory Algebra

1 Let a 2 be a natural number. Prove that

1 is irrational. an2 n=0

2 Let {A1 , . . . , Ak } be matrices which make a group under matrix multiplication. Suppose M = A1 + + Ak . Prove that each eigenvalue of M is equal to 0 or k. 3 This question is both combinatorics and Number Theory : a ) Prove that we can color edges p1 of Kp with p colors which is proper, (p is an odd prime) and Kp can be partitioned to 2 rainbow Hamiltonian cycles. (A Hamiltonian cycle is a cycle that passes from all of verteces, and a rainbow is a subgraph that all of its edges have dierent colors.) b) Find all answers of x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 is Zp

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2007

Problem Solving Exam

1 a) Find all multiplicative functions f : Z Z (i.e. that x, y Z , f (xy) = f (x)f (y).) p p p b) How many bijective multiplicative does exist on Z c) Let A be set of all multiplicative p functions on Z , and V B be set of all bijective multiplicative functions on Z . For each p p x Z , calculate the following sums : p f (x),
f A f B

f (x)

2 a) Prove that center of smallest sphere containing a nite subset of Rn is inside convex hull of the point that lie on sphere. b) A is a nite subset of Rn , and distance of every two points of A is not larger than 1. Find radius of the largest sphere containing A. 3 Prove that for each a N, there are innitely many natural n, such that n | ana+1 1. 4 Prove that
2007 i=2007

|i + 1| |i| > |i| ( 2) ( 2)|i| i=2007

2007

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Iran
Pre-Preparation Course Examination 2008

1 Rk (m, n) is the least number such that for each coloring of k-subsets of {1, 2, . . . , Rk (m, n)} with blue and red colors, there is a subset with m elements such that all of its k-subsets are red or there is a subset with n elements such that all of its k-subsets are blue. a) If we give a direction randomly to all edges of a graph Kn then what is the probability that the resultant graph does not have directed triangles? b) Prove that there exists a c such that R3 (4, n) 2cn . 2 Seven points are selected randomly from S 1 C. What is the probability that origin is not contained in convex hull of these points? 1 3 Prove that we can put ( ) points on surface of a sphere with radius 1 such that distance of each of these points and the plane passing through center and two of other points is at least . 4 Sarah and Darah play the following game. Sarah puts n coins numbered with 1, . . . , n on a table (Each coin is in HEAD or TAIL position.) At each step Darah gives a coin to Sarah and she (Sarah) let him (Dara) to change the position of all coins with number multiple of a desired number k. At the end, all of the coins that are in TAIL position will be given to Sarah and all of the coins with HEAD position will be given to Darah. Prove that Sarah can put the coins in a position at the beginning of the game such that she gains at least (n) coins. Hint:: Chernov inequality! 5 A permutation is selected randomly through all n-permutations. a) if Ca () = the number of cycles of length a in then prove that E(Ca ()) = 1 b) Prove that if {a1 , a2 , . . . , ak } {1, 2, . . . , n} the probability a 1 that does not have any cycle with lengths a1 , . . . , ak is at most k i=1 ai

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Iran
q
IMS 2006-2009

Undergraduate Competitions
IMS 2006

1 Prove that for each m 1:


|k|< m

2m m+k

22m1

Hint: Maybe probabilistic method works 2 For each subset C of N, Suppose C C = {x + y|x, y C, x = y}. Prove that there exist a unique partition of N to sets A, B that A A and B B do not have any prime numbers. 3 G is a group that order of each element of it Commutator group is nite. Prove that subset of all elemets of G which have nite order is a subgroup og G. 4 Assume that X is a seperable metric space. Prove that if f : X R is a function that lim f (x) exists for each a R. Prove that set of points in which f is not continuous is xa countable. 5 Suppose that a1 , a2 , . . . , ak C that for each 1 i k we know that |ak | = 1. Suppose that
k

lim

an = c. i
i=1

Prove that c = k and ai = 1 for each i.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMS 2007

1 Suppose there exists a group with exactly n subgroups of index 2. Prove that there exists a nite abelian group G that has exactly n subgroups of index 2. 2 Does there exist two unfair dices such that probability of their sum being j be a number in 2 4 , for each 2 j 12? 33 33 3 Prove that R2 has a dense subset such that has no three collinear points. 4 Prove that: tr(A) 1 tr(A2 ) tr(A) det(A) = 1 n! tr(A3 ) tr(A2 ) . . . 0 2 tr(A) ... ... 0 0 ... 0 . . 3 .

n1 tr(An ) tr(An1 ) tr(An2 ) . . . . . . tr(A)

5 Find all real , such that the following limit exists and is nite: lim x2 y 2 x2 + y 3

x,y0+

6 Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Prove that R[x] has innitely many maximal ideals. 7 x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are real number such that for each i, the set {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }\{xi } could be partitioned into two sets that sum of elements of rst set is equal to the sum of the elements of the other. Prove that all of xi s are zero. Hint: It is a number theory problem. 8 Let T = {(tq, 1 t) R2 |t [0, 1], q Q} Prove that each continuous function f : T T has a xed point.

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMS 2008

1 Let A1 , A2 , . . . , An be idempotent matrices with real entries. Prove that: N(A1 ) + N(A2 ) + + N(An ) rank(I A1 A2 . . . An ) N(A) is dim(ker(A)) 2 Let f be an entire function on C and 1 , 2 are complex numbers such that that if for each z C, f (z) = f (z + 1 ) = f (z + 2 ) then f is constant. 1 C\Q. Prove 2

3 Let A, B be dierent points on a parabola. Prove that we can nd P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn between A, B on the parabola such that area of the convex polygon AP1 P2 . . . Pn B is maximum. In this case prove that the ratio of S(AP1 P2 . . . Pn B) to the sector between A and B doesnt depend on A and B, and only depends on n. 4 A subset of nn table is called even if it contains even elements of each row and each column. Find the minimum k such that each subset of this table with k elements contains an even subset 5 Prove that there does not exist a ring with exactly 5 regular elements. (a is called a regular element if ax = 0 or xa = 0 implies x = 0.) A ring is not necessarily commutative, does not necessarily contain unity element, or is not necessarily nite. 6 Let a0 , a1 , . . . , an+1 be natural numbers such that a0 = an+1 = 1, ai > 1 for all 1 i n, and for each 1 j n, ai |ai1 + ai+1 . Prove that there exist one 2 in the sequence. 7 In a contest there are n yes-no problems. We know that no two contestants have the same set of answers. To each question we give a random uniform grade of set {1, 2, 3, . . . , 2n}. Prove 1 that the probability that exactly one person gets rst is at least . 2 8 Find all natural numbers such that n(n) 2 (mod (n))

9 Let : [0, 1] [0, 1] [0, 1] be a mapping such that for each s, t [0, 1] |(s) (t)| M |s t| in which , M are xed numbers. Prove that if is surjective, then 1 2

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Undergraduate Competitions
IMS 2009

1 G is a group. Prove that the following are equivalent: 1. All subgroups of G are normal. 2. For all a, b G there is an integer m such that (ab)m = ba. 2 Let R be a ring with 1. Every element in R can be written as product of idempotent (un = u for some n) elements. Prove that R is commutative 3 Let A C be a closed and countable set. Prove that if the analytic function f : C\A C is bounded, then f is constant. 4 In this innite tree, degree of each vertex is equal to 3. A real number is given. We want to assign a real number to each node in such a way that for each node sum of numbers assigned to its neighbors is equal to times of the number assigned to this node. Find all for which this is possible. 5 Suppose that f : R2 R is a non-negative and continuous function that 1. Prove that there is a closed disc D with the least radius possible such that 1 . 2
D

f (x, y)dxdy =
R2

f (x, y)dxdy =

6 Suppose that there are 100 seats in a saloon for 100 students. All students except one know their seat. First student (which is the one who doesnt know his seat) comes to the saloon and sits randomly somewhere. Then others enter the saloon one by one. Every student that enters the saloon and nds his seat vacant, sits there and if he nds his seat occupied he sits somewhere else randomly. Find the probability that last two students sit on their seats. 7 Let G be a group such that G is abelian and each normal and abelian subgroup of G is nite. Prove that G is nite.

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Iran
q
National Math Olympiad (3 Round)
rd

1997-2008

Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 1997

2nd round

1 Let a, b, c be real numbers. Prove that there exists a triangle with side lengths a, b, c if and only if 2(a4 + b4 + c4 ) > (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 . 2 Prove that if a, b, c, dare positive integers such that ad = bc, then a + b + c + dcannot be a prime number. 3 Let N be the midpoint of side BC of triangle ABC. Right isosceles triangles ABM and ACP are constructed outside the triangle, with bases AB and AC. Prove that M N P is also a right isosceles triangle. 4 Let n blue points Ai and n red points Bi (i = 1, 2, ..., n) be situated on a line. Prove that Ai Bj
i,j i<j

Ai Aj +
i<j

Bi Bj

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 1997

3rd round

1 Suppose that S is a nite set of real numbers with the property that any two distinct elements of S form an arithmetic progression with another element inS. Give an example of such a set with 5 elements and show that no such set exists with more than 5 elements. 2 Suppose that 10 points are given in the plane, such that among any ve of them there are four lying on a circle. Find the minimum number of these points which must lie on a circle. 3 Consider a circle with diameter AB and center O, and let C and D be two points on this circle. The line CD meets the line AB at a point M satisfying M B < M A and M D < M C. Let K be the point of intersection (dierent from O) of the circumcircles of triangles AOC and DOB. Show that the lines M K and OK are perpendicular to each other, i. e. that M KO = 90 . 4 Determine all functions f : N0 N0 {1} such that for all n > 0 f (n + 1) + f (n + 3) = f (n + 5)f (n + 7) 1375. 5 Let O be the circumcenter and H the orthocenter of an acute-angled triangle ABC such that BC > CA. Let F be the foot of the altitude CH of triangle ABC. The perpendicular to the line OF at the point F intersects the line AC at P . Prove that F HP = BAC. 6 LetA be a symmetric {0, 1}-matrix with all the diagonal entries equal to 1. Show that there exist indices i1 < i2 < < ik nsuch that Ai1 + Ai2 + ... + Aik = (1, 1, ..., 1) ( mod 2) where Ai denotes the i th column of A.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 1997

4th round

1 Let n be a positive integer. Prove that there exist polynomialsf (x)and g(x) with integer n n coecients such that f (x)(x + 1)2 + g(x)(x2 + 1) = 2. 13 2 Suppose that f : R R has the following properties: (i) f (x) = 1 for all x; (ii) f (x + ) + 42 1 1 f (x) = f (x + ) + f (x + ) for all x. Prove that f is periodic. 6 7 3 Let1 , 2 , ..., k be distinct real numbers with a nonzero sum. Prove that there exist integers
k k

n1 , n2 , ..., nk such that


i=1

ni i > 0and for any non-identical permutation of {1, 2, . . . , k},


i=1

ni (i) <

0 4 Let P be a variable point on arcBC of the circumcircle of triangle ABC not containing A. Let I1 and I2 be the incenters of the triangles P AB and P AC respectively. Prove that: (a) The circumcircle of ?P I1 I2 passes through a xed point. (b) The circle with diameter I1 I2 passes through a xed point. (c) The midpoint of I1 I2 lies on a xed circle. 5 Suppose that f : R+ R+ is a function such that for all x, y > 0 f (x + y) + f (f (x) + f (y)) = f (f (x + f (y)) + f (y + f (x))). Prove that f (x) = f 1 (x). 6 A building consists of nitely many rooms which have been separated by walls. There are some doors on some of these walls which can be used to go around the building. Assume it is possible to reach any room from any other room. Two xed rooms are marked by S and E. A person starts walking from S and wants to reachE. A Program P = (Pi )iI is anR, L-sequence. The person uses it as follows: After passing through the n-th door, he chooses the door just to the right or left from the door just passed, meaning thatPn is R orL, and gets through it. In a room with one door, any symbol means selecting the door he has just passed. The person stops as soon as he reaches E. Prove that there is a (possibly innite) program P with the property that, no matter how the structure of the building is, the person can reach E by following it.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 1998

2nd round

1 Let x and y be positive integers such that3x2 + x = 4y 2 + y. Prove that x yis a square. 2 Let KL and KN be tangent to the circle C (withL, N on C), and letM be a point on the extension of KN beyond N . The circumcircle of triangle KLM meetsC again at P . PointQis the foot of the perpendicular from N toM L. Prove that M P Q = 2KM L. 3 An n ntable is lled with numbers 1, 0, 1 in such a manner that every row and column contains exactly one 1 and one 1. Prove that the rows and columns can be reordered so that in the resulting table each number has been replaced with its negative.
4 4 4

4 Let x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 be positive numbers with the product 1. Prove that:


i=1

x3 i

max{
i=1

xi ,
i=1

1 } x

5 In an acute triangle ABC,D is the foot of the altitude from A. The bisectors of the inner angles B and C respectively meet AD atE and F . If BE = CF , prove that ABC is an isosceles triangle. 6 Supposea, bare natural numbers such that: p = maximum possible value ofp? b 4 2a b is a prime number. What is the 2a + b

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 1998

3rd round

1 Suppose thata, b, x are positive integers such that: xa+b = ab b prove that a = xand b = xx . 2 In an acute triangle ABC, points D, E, F are the feet of the altitudes from A, B, C, respectively. A line through D parallel to EF meetsAC at Q and AB at R. Lines BCand EF intersect atP . Prove that the circumcircle of triangle P QR passes through the midpoint of BC. 3 LetS = {x0 , x1 , . . . , xn } be a nite set of numbers in the interval [0, 1] withx0 = 0 and x1 = 1. We consider pairwise distances between numbers in S. If every distance that appears, except the distance 1, occurs at least twice, prove that all the xi are rational. 4 Let ABC and XY Z be two triangles. Dene A1 = BC ZX, A2 = BC XY , B1 = CAXY , B2 = CA Y Z, C1 = AB Y Z, C2 = AB ZX. Hereby, the abbreviation g h means the point of intersection of two lines g and h. C1 C2 A1 A2 B1 B2 A1 C2 C1 B2 B1 A2 Prove that = = holds if and only if = = . AB BC CA XZ ZY YX 1 1 1 5 Let x, y, z be real numbers greater than 1 such that + + = 2 Prove that: x 1 + x y z y1+ z1 x+y+z 6 LetP be the set of all points in Rn with rational coordinates. For points A, B P , one can move from A to Bif the distance AB is 1. Prove that every point inP can be reached from any other point in P by a nite sequence of moves if and only ifn 5.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 1998

4th round

1 Let f1 , f2 , f3 : R R be functions such that a1 f1 + a2 f2 + a3 f3 is monotonous for all a1 , a2 , a3 R. Show that there exist real numbers c1 , c2 , c3 , not all zero, such that c1 f1 (x) + c2 f2 (x) + c3f 3(x) = 0 for all real x. 2 Let X be a set with n elements, and let A1 , A2 , ..., Am be subsets of X such that: 1) |Ai | = 3 for every i {1, 2, ..., m}; 2) |Ai Aj | 1 for all i, j {1, 2, ..., m} such that i = j. Prove that there exists a subset A of X such that A has at least 2n elements, and for every i {1, 2, ..., m}, the set A does not contain Ai . 3 The edges of a regular 2n gon are colored red and blue in some fashion. A step consists in recoloring each edge whose neighbors are both the same color in red, and recoloring each edge whose neighbors are of opposite colors in blue. Prove that after 2n 1 steps all of the edges will be red, and show that this neednt hold after fewer steps. 4 Let n1 < n2 < . . . be a sequence of natural numbers such that for i < j the decimal representation of ni does not occur as the leftmost digits of the decimal representation ofnj 1 . (For example, 137and 13729 cannot both occur in the sequence.) Prove that: ni i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + + + + + :D :D 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 5 Let ABC be a triangle andD be the point on the extension of sideBC past C such thatCD = AC. The circumcircle of ACD intersects the circle with diameterBC again atP . Let BP meet AC at E and CP meet AB at F . Prove that the points D, E, F are collinear. 6 Let K be a convex polygon in the plane. Show that for any triangle of the minimum possible area containing K, the midpoints of its sides lie on K

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2001

1 1 Find all functions f : Q Q such that: f (x) + f ( ) = 1 2f (f (x)) = f (2x) x 2 Does there exist a sequence {bi } of positive real numbers such that for each natural m: i=1 bm + b2m + b3m + = 1 m

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2002

1 Let a, b, c Rn , a + b + c = 0 and > 0. Prove that |a| + |b| + (2 + 1)|c| (2 + 3)3 |a| + |b| + |c|

cycle

2 f : R R+ is a non-decreasing function. Prove that there is a point a R that f (a + 1 ) < 2f (a) f (a)

3 an is a sequence that a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 3, and an+1 = an an1 + Prove that for each natural n, an is integer. 4 an (n is integer) is a sequence from positive reals that an Prove an is constant. 5 is circumcirlce of triangle ABC. We draw a line parallel to BC that intersects AB, AC at E, F and intersects at U, V . Assume that M is midpoint of BC. Let be circumcircle of U M V . We know that R(ABC) = R(U M V ). M E and intersect at T , and F T intersects at S. Prove that EF is tangent to circumcircle of M CS. an+2 + an+1 + an1 + an2 4 a2 n an2

6 M is midpoint of BC.P is an arbitary point on BC. C1 is tangent to big circle.Suppose radius of C1 is r1 Radius of C4 is equal to radius of C1 and C4 is tangent to BC at P. C2 and C3 are tangent to big circle and line BC and circle C4 . [img]http://aycu01.webshots.com/image/4120/2005120338156776027r s.jpg[/img] r1 + r2 + r3 = R(R radius of big circle) In triangle ABC, AD is angle bisector (D is on BC) if AB + AD = CD and AC + AD = BC, what are the angles of ABC? Circles C1 and C2 are tangent to each other at K and are tangent to circle C at M and N . External tangent of C1 and C2 intersect C at A and B. AK and BK intersect with circle C at E and F respectively. If AB is diameter of C, prove that EF and M N and OK are concurrent. (O is center of circle C.) Let M and N be points on the side BC of triangle ABC, with the point M lying on the segment BN , such that BM = CN . Let P and Q be points on the segments AN and AM , respectively, such that P M C = M AB and QN B = N AC. Prove that QBC = P CB.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2002

H, I, O, N are orthogonal center, incenter, circumcenter, and Nagelian point of triangle ABC. Ia , Ib , Ic are excenters of ABC corresponding vertices A, B, C. S is point that O is midpoint of HS. Prove that centroid of triangles Ia Ib Ic and SIN concide. In an m n table there is a policeman in cell (1, 1), and there is a thief in cell (i, j). A move is going from a cell to a neighbor (each cell has at most four neighbors). Thief makes the rst move, then the policeman moves and ... For which (i, j) the policeman can catch the thief? We have a bipartite graph G (with parts X and Y ). We orient each edge arbitrarily. Hessam chooses a vertex at each turn and reverse the orientation of all edges that v is one of their endpoint. Prove that with these steps we can reach to a graph that for each vertex v in part X, deg + (v) deg (v) and for each vertex in part Y , deg + v deg v f, g are two permutations of set X = {1, . . . , n}. We say f, g have common points i there is a n k X that f (k) = g(k). a) If m > , prove that there are m permutations f1 , f2 , . . . , fm from X 2 that for each permutation f X, there is an index i that f, fi have common points. b) Prove that n if m , we can not nd permutations f1 , f2 , . . . , fm satisfying the above condition. 2 A subset S of N is eventually linear i there are k, N N that for n > N, n S k|n. Let S be a subset of N that is closed under addition. Prove that S is eventually linear. Let A be be a point outside the circle C, and AB and AC be the two tangents from A to this circle C. Let L be an arbitrary tangent to C that cuts AB and AC in P and Q. A line through P parallel to AC cuts BC in R. Prove that while L varies, QR passes through a xed point. :) For positive a, b, c, a2 + b2 + c2 + abc = 4 Prove a + b + c 3 Find the smallest natural number n that the following statement holds : Let A be a nite subset of R2 . For each n points in A there are two lines including these n points. All of the points lie on two lines. Find all continious f : R R that for any x, y f (x) + f (y) + f (xy) = f (x + y + xy) I is incenter of triangle ABC. Incircle of ABC touches AB, AC at X, Y . XI intersects incircle at M . Let CM AB = X . L is a point on the segment X C that X L = CM . Prove that A, L, I are collinear i AB = AC. a0 = 2, a1 = 1 and for n 1 we know that : an+1 = an + an1 m is an even number and p is prime number such that p divides am 2. Prove that p divides am+1 1.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2002

Excircle of triangle ABC corresponding vertex A, is tangent to BC at P . AP intersects circumcircle of ABC at D. Prove r(P CD) = r(P BD) whcih r(P CD) and r(P BD) are inradii of triangles P CD and P BD. 15000 years ago Tilif ministry in Persia decided to dene a code for n 2 cities. Each code is a sequence of 0, 1 such that no code start with another code. We know that from 2m calls from n 1 mai = 1). Let li be length foreign countries to Persia 2 of them where from the i-th city (So 2ai
n i=1

of code assigned to i-th city. Prove that


i=1

li is minimum i i, li = ai 2i

Find all polynomials p with real coecients that if for a real a,p(a) is integer then a is integer. A, B, C are on circle C. I is incenter of ABC , D is midpoint of arc BAC. W is a circle that is tangent to AB and AC and tangent to C at P . (W is in C) Prove that P and I and D are on a line. An ant walks on the interior surface of a cube, he moves on a straight line. If ant reaches to an edge the he moves on a straight line on cubes net. Also if he reaches to a vertex he will return his path. a) Prove that for each beginning point ant can has innitely many choices for his direction that its path becomes periodic. b) Prove that if if the ant starts from point A and its path is periodic, then for each point B if ant starts with this direction, then his path becomes periodic.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2003

1 suppose this equation: x sup2/sup +y sup2/sup +z sup2/sup =w sup2/sup . show that the solution of this equation ( if w,z have same parity) are in this form: x=2d(XZYW), y=2d(XW+YZ),z=d(X sup2/sup +Y sup2/sup -Z sup2/sup -W sup2/sup ),w=d(X sup2/sup +Y sup2/sup +Z sup2/sup +W sup2/sup ) 2 assume ABCD a convex quadrilatral. P and Q are on BC and DC respectively such that angle BAP= angle DAQ .prove that [ADQ]=[ABP] ([ABC] means its area ) i the line which crosses through the orthocenters of these traingles , is perpendicular to AC.

3 assume that A is nite subset of prime number and a is an positive integer prove that ther are nite positive integer like m s.t: prime divisors of am 1arecontainedinA.XOY isangleintheplane.A, Barevar 1/OB = 1/K(kisconstant).drawtwocircleswithdiameterOAandOB.provethatcommonexternaltangenttoth 4 assume P is a odd prime number and S is the sum of the all primitive root mod P. show that If p-1 5 isnt empty of perfect square( I mean that we can show p-1 =k sup2/supm) then S=0(mod P). if not S=?(mod p). 6 let the incircle of a triangle ABC touch BC,AC,AB at A1,B1,C1 respectively. M and N are the midpoints of AB1 and AC1 respectively. MN meets A1C1 at T . draw two tangents TP and TQ through T to incircle. PQ meets MN at L and B1C1 meets PQ at K . assume I is the center of the incircle . prove IK is parallel to AL 7 f1 , f2 , . . . , fn are polynomials with integer coecients. Prove there exist a reducible g(x) with integer coecients that f1 + g, f2 + g, . . . , fn + g are irreducible. 8 Lets call perfect power any positive integer n such that n = ab for some integers a and b, with b > 1. a) Find 2004 perfect powers in arithmetic progression. b) Prove that perfect powers cannot form an innite arithmetic progression. 9 Does there exist an innite set S such that for every a, b S we have a2 + b2 ab | (ab)2 .

10 let p be a prime and a and n be natural numbers such that (pa 1)/(p1) = 2n f indthenumberof naturaldivisorsof n )assumethatXisasetof nnumber.and0 k n.the maximum number of permutation which acting on X st every two of them have at least k component in common,is an,k .and the maximum nuber of permutation st every two of them have at most k component in common,is bn,k . a)proeve that :an,k bn,k1 n! b)assume that p is prime number,determine the exact value of ap,2 . 12 11 There is a lamp in space.(Consider lamp a point) Do there exist nite number of equal sphers in space that the light of the lamp can not go to the innite?(If a ray crash in a sphere it stops) 13 here is the most dicult and the most beautiful problem occurs in 21th iranian (2003) olympiad assume that P is n-gon ,lying on the plane ,we name its edge 1,2,..,n. if S=s1,s2,s3,.... be a nite

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2003

or innite sequence such that for each i, si is in 1,2,...,n, we move P on the plane according to the S in this form: at rst we reect P through the s1 ( s1 means the edge which iys number is s1)then through s2 and so on like the gure below. a)show that there exist the innite sequence S sucth that if we move P according to S we cover all the plane b)prove that the sequence in a) isnt periodic. c)assume that P is regular pentagon ,which the radius of its circumcircle is 1,and D is circle ,with radius 1.00001 ,arbitrarily in the plane .does exist a sequence S such that we move P according to S then P reside in D completely?

14 n 6isaninteger.evaluatetheminimumof f (n)s.t : anygraphwithnverticesandf (n)edgecontainstwocyclewhichare n matrix which is lled with just 0, 1 and any two row dier in at least n/2 members, show that m 2n. ( for example the dirence of this two row is only in one index 110 100) Edited by Myth 16 15 Segment AB is xed in plane. Find the largest n, such that there are n points P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn in plane that triangles ABPi are similar for 1 i n. Prove that all of Pi s lie on a circle. 17 A simple calculator is given to you. (It contains 8 digits and only does the operations +,-,*,/, )
2

How can you nd 3

with accuracy of 6 digits.

18 In tetrahedron ABCD, radius four circumcircles of four faces are equal. Prove that AB = CD, AC = BD and AD = BC. 19 An integer n is called a good number if and only if |n| is not square of another intger. Find all integers m such that they can be written in innitely many ways as sum of three dierent good numbers and product of these three numbers is square of an odd number. 20 Suppose that M is an arbitrary point on side BC of triangle ABC. B1 , C1 are points on AB, AC such that M B = M B1 and M C = M C1 . Suppose that H, I are orthocenter of triangle ABC and incenter of triangle M B1 C1 . Prove that A, B1 , H, I, C1 lie on a circle. 21 Let ABC be a triangle. Wa is a circle with center on BC passing through A and perpendicular to circumcircle of ABC. Wb , Wc are dened similarly. Prove that center of Wa , Wb , Wc are collinear. 22 Let a1 = a2 = 1 and n(n + 1)an+1 + n2 an + 5 2 n+2 for each n N. Find all n such that an N. an+2 = 23 Find all homogeneous linear recursive sequences such that there is a T such that an = an+T for each n.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2003

24 A, B are xed points. Variable line l passes through the xed point C. There are two circles passing through A, B and tangent to l at M, N . Prove that circumcircle of AM N passes through a xed point. 25 Let A, B, C, Q be xed points on plane. M, N, P are intersection points of AQ, BQ, CQ with BC, CA, AB. D , E , F are tangency points of incircle of ABC with BC, CA, AB. Tangents drawn from M, N, P (not triangle sides) to incircle of ABC make triangle DEF . Prove that DD , EE , F F intersect at Q. 26 Circles C1 , C2 intersect at P . A line is drawn arbitrarily from P and intersects with C1 , C2 at B, C. What is locus of A such that the median of AM of triangle ABC has xed length k. 27 S N is called a square set, i for each x, y S, xy + 1 is square of an integer. a) Is S nite? b) Find maximum number of elements of S. 28 There are n points in R3 such that every three form an acute angled triangle. Find maximum of n. 29 Let c C and Ac = {p C[z]|p(z 2 + c) = p(z)2 + c}. a) Prove that for each c C, Ac is innite. b) Prove that if p A1 , and p(z0 ) = 0, then |z0 | < 1.7. c) Prove that each element of Ac is odd or even. Let fc = z 2 + c C[z]. We see easily that Bc := {z, fc (z), fc (fc (z)), . . . } is a subset of Ac . Prove that in the following cases Ac = Bc . d) |c| > 2. e) c Q\Z. f) c is a non-algebraic number 1 g) c is a real number and c [2, ]. 4

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2004

1 We say m n for natural m,n nth number of binary representation of m is 1 or mth number of binary representation of n is 1. and we say m nif andonlyif m, n doesnt have the relation We say A N is golden U, V A that are nite and arenot empty and U V = ,There exist z A that x U, y V we have z x, z y Suppose P is set of prime numbers.Prove if P = P1 ... Pk andPi Pj = then one of P1 , ..., Pk is golden. 2 A is a convex set in plane prove taht ther exist OinA that for every line XX passing throw OandXandX are boundry points of A then 1 OX 2 2 OX 3 Suppose V = Zn and for a vector x = (x1 , ..xn )inV and permutation .We have x = 2 (x(1) , ..., x(n) ) Suppose n = 4k + 2, 4k + 3andf : V V is injective and if xandy dier in more than n/2 places then f (x)andf (y) dier in more than n/2 places. Prove there exist permutaion and vector v that f (x) = x + v 4 We have nite white and nite black points that for each 4 oints there is a line that white points and black points are at dierent sides of this line.Prove there is a line that all white points and black points are at dierent side of this line.

5 assume that k,n are two positive integer k ncount the number of permutation { 1, . . . , n}$stf orany1 i, j kandanypositiveintegermwehavefm (i) = j(fm nF isapolygonwithlatticeverticesandsidesparralelltox axisandyaxis.SupposeS(F),P(F)areareaandperimeterof F.F indthesmallestkthat :S(F) k.P (F )2 Pisan gonwithsidesl1 , ..., ln andverticesonacircle.P rovethatnongonwiththissideshasareamorethanPABCbeatriangle, BACf : R2 R2 isinjectiveandsurjective.Distanceof XandYisnotlessthandistanceof f(X)andf(Y).P rovef orA S(A) S(f (A))Which S(A)isareaof AAPa beadiameterof thecircumcircle.thepependicularf romA toAPa meetsth 0, 1..9(N oticethat...000 N10 )Alsoweeasilyhave+ ,*inN10 .f irstknumberof a*b= f irstknubmerof (f irstknumber f irstknumberof b)f irstknumberof a + b= f irstknubmerof (f irstknumberof a+f irstknumberof b)F oreexample.. ...0001 = ...000P rovethateverymonicpolynomialinN10 [x]withdegreedhasatmostd2 f isapolynomialinZ[X]andmisin mandai+1 = f (ai )f indallpolynomialsfandalllintegersmthatf oreachif: N N,f(n) = n (k, n). k=1 a) Show that if gcd(m, n) = 1thenwehavef(mn) = f(m)f (n); b) Show that d|n f (d) = nd(n)AmovesinalinewithspeedvandBmovesalsowithspeedvthatateverytimethedire v .If weknowthepointof beginningof pathof A, thenBmustbewhereatf irstthatBcancatchAABCbeatriangle.Letp = 4k + 1beaprime.P rovethatphasatleast(p1) 2n , thereisasubsetof Nsuchas{a1 , . . . , an }thatf oreachsubsetSof {1 p2 +q 2 +r2 wherep,q,rp(x)isapolynomialinZ[x]suchthatf oreachm,n Nthereisanintegerasuchthatnp(am ).P rove aj )2 > 0.P rovethatthereareinf initelymanyprimenumberssuchaspthatf orsomekFisaf amilyof subsetsof X.A,Ba emptyintersectionwithA,B.W eknowthatnosubsetof Xwithn - 1elementshasthisproperty.P rovethatthereisarepre = {a1 , . . . , an }andB = {b1 , . . . , bn }suchthatf oreach1 i n, thereisanelementof Fcontainingbothai , bi Fisaf amil subsetsof setX.Everytwodistinctelementsof Xareexactlyinkelementsof F.Itisknownthatthereisapartitionof Fto emptyintersectionwithbothX1 , X2 .P rovethatX 4ABC, pointsM,NlieonlineACsuchthatMA =

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2004

ABandNB = NC.AlsoK,LlieonlineBCsuchthatKA = KBandLA = LC.ItisknowthatKL = 1 2BC andMN = AC.F indanglesof triangleABCR3 isgivensuchthateverythreehavenonemptyintersection.P rovethatthereisali = m2 +n2 andpm3 +n3 4ABCtouchesAB,ACatP,Q.BI, CIintersectwithPQatK,L.P rovethatcircumcircleof ILKi + AC = 3BCp Z[x]suchthat(m,n) = 1 (p(m), p(n)) = 1

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

Algebra

1 For positive numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , xs , we know that


i=1 s s

xk = 1. Prove that for each m n

xm k
k=1

k=1

xn k

2 Find all real polynomials that p(x + p(x)) = p(x) + p(p(x)) 3 Find all real x, y, z that x + y + zx = y + z + xy = z + x + yz =
1 2 1 2 1 2

4 p(x) is a real polynomial that for each x 0, p(x) 0. Prove that there are real polynomials A(x), B(x) that p(x) = A(x)2 + xB(x)2 5 Find the biggest real number k such that for each right-angled triangle with sides a, b, c, we have a3 + b3 + c3 k (a + b + c)3 . 6 P, Q, R are non-zero polynomials that for each z C, P (z)Q() = R(z). a) If P, Q, R R[x] z prove that Q is constant polynomial. b) IS the above statement correct for P, Q, R C[x]?

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

Combinatorics

1 Let A be a family of subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n} such that no member of A is contained in another. n . Find all the families for which the equality holds. Sperners Theorem states that |A| n
2

2 Let B be a subset of Zn with the property that for every two distinct members (a1 , . . . , an ) and 3 (b1 , . . . , bn ) of B there exist 1 i n such that ai bi + 1 (mod 3). Prove that |B| 2n . 3 Let C be a (probably innite) family of subsets of N such that for every chain C1 C2 . . . of members of C, there is a member of C containing all of them. Show that there is a member of C such that no other member of C contains it! 4 Let D be a family of s-element subsets of {1. . . . , n} such that every k members of D have non-empty intersection. Denote by D(n, s, k) the maximum cardinality of such a family. a) Find D(n, s, 4). b) Find D(n, s, 3). 5 Let E be a family of subsets of {1, 2, . . . , n} with the property that for each A {1, 2, . . . , n} nd n+d there exist B F such that |A B| . (where A B = (A \ B) (B \ A) 2 2 is the symmetric dierence). Denote by f (n, d) the minimum cardinality of such a family. a) n . Prove that if n is even then f (n, 0) n. b) Prove that if n d is even then f (n, d) d+1 c) Prove that if n is even then f (n, 0) = n 6 The National Foundation of Happiness (NFoH) wants to estimate the happiness of people of country. NFoH selected n random persons, and on every morning asked from each of them whether she is happy or not. On any two distinct days, exactly half of the persons gave the n same answer. Show that after k days, there were at most n persons whose yes answers k equals their no answers.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

Final Exam
1 A regular polyhedron is a polyhedron that is convex and all of its faces are regular polygons. We call a regular polhedron a Choombam i none of its faces are triangles. a) prove that each choombam can be inscribed in a sphere. b) Prove that faces of each choombam are polygons of at most 3 kinds. (i.e. there is a set {m, n, q} that each face of a choombam is n-gon or m-gon or q-gon.) c) Prove that there is only one choombam that its faces are pentagon and hexagon. (Soccer ball) [img]http://aycu08.webshots.com/image/5367/2001362702285797426r s.jpg[/img]d)F orn > 3, a prism that its faces are 2 regular n-gons and n squares, is a choombam. Prove that except these choombams there are nitely many choombams. 2 A liquid is moving in an innite pipe. For each molecule if it is at point with coordinate x then after t seconds it will be at a point of p(t, x). Prove that if p(t, x) is a polynomial of t, x then speed of all molecules are equal and constant. 3 For A Z and a, b Z. We dene aA + b := {ax + b|x A}. If a = 0 then we calll aA + b and A to similar sets. In this question the Cantor set C is the number of non-negative integers that in their base-3 representation there is no 1 digit. You see C = (3C)(3C + 2) (1)

(i.e. C is partitioned to sets 3C and 3C + 2). We give another example C = (3C)(9C + 6)(3C + 2). A representation of C is a partition of C to some similiar sets. i.e.
n

C=
i=1

Ci

(2)

and Ci = ai C +bi are similar to C. We call a representation of C a primitive representation i union of some of Ci is not a set similar and not equal to C. Consider a primitive representation of Cantor set. Prove that a) ai > 1. b) ai are powers of 3. c) ai > bi d) (1) is the only primitive representation of C.

4 The image shown below is a cross with length 2. If length of a cross of length k it is called a kcross. (Each k-cross ahs 6k+1 squares.) [img]http://aycu08.webshots.com/image/4127/2003057947601864020 crosses. b) Prove that space can be tiled with 2-crosses. c) Prove that for k 5 space can not be tiled with k-crosses. 5 A calculating ruler is a ruler for doing algebric calculations. This ruler has three arms, two of them are sationary and one can move freely right and left. Each of arms is gradient. Gradation of each arm depends on the algebric operation ruler does. For eaxample the ruler below is designed for multiplying two numbers. Gradations are logarithmic.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

[img]http://aycu05.webshots.com/image/5604/2000468517162383885r s.jpg[/img]F orworkingwithruler, (e.g we must move the middle arm that the arrow at the beginning of its gradation locate above the x in the lower arm. We nd y in the middle arm, and we will read the number on the upper arm. The number written on the ruler is the answer. 1) Design a ruler for calculating xy . Grade rst arm (x) and (y) from 1 to 10. 2) Find all rulers that do the multiplication in the interval [1, 10]. 3) Prove that there is not a ruler for calculating x2 + xy + y 2 , that its rst and second arm are grade from 0 to 10. 6 Assume that C is a convex subset of Rd . Suppose that C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn are translations of C that Ci C = but Ci Cj = . Prove that n 3d 1 Prove that 3d 1 is the best bound. P.S. In the exam problem was given for n = 3.

7 We have nite number of distinct shapes in plane. A convex Kearting of these shapes is covering plane with convex sets, that each set consists exactly one of the shapes, and sets intersect at most in border. [img]http://aycu30.webshots.com/image/4109/2003791140004582959t h.jpg[/img]Inwhich 3 points that are not collinear in Qn a) Suppose that ABC is triangle in Qn . Prove that there is a triangle A B C in Q5 that B A C = BAC. b) Find a natural m that for each traingle that can be embedded in Qn it can be embedded in Qm . c) Find a triangle that can be embedded in Qn and no triangle similar to it can be embedded in Q3 . d) Find a natural m that for each traingle that can be embedded in Qn then there is a triangle similar to it, that can be embedded in Qm . You must prove the problem for m = 9 and m = 6 to get complete mark. (Better results leads to additional mark.)

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

Geometry

1 Prove that in triangle ABC, radical center of its excircles lies on line GI, which G is Centroid of triangle ABC, and I is the incenter. 2 ABC is a triangle and R, Q, P are midpoints of AB, AC, BC. Line AP intersects RQ in E and circumcircle of ABC in F . T, S are on RP, P Q such that ES P Q, ET RP . F is on circumcircle of ABC that F F is diameter. The point of intersection of AF and BC is E . S , T are on AB, AC that E S AB, E T AC. Prove that T S and T S are perpendicular. 3 In triangle ABC, if L, M, N are midpoints of AB, AC, BC. And H is orthogonal center of triangle ABC, then prove that 1 LH 2 + M H 2 + N H 2 (AB 2 + AC 2 + BC 2 ) 4 4 Circle (O, R) and its chord AB is given. Suppose C is midpoint of arc AB. X is an arbitrary point on the cirlce. Perpendicular from B to CX intersects circle again in D. Perpendicular from C to DX intersects circle again in E. We draw three lines 1 , 2 , 3 from A, B, E parralell to OX, OD, OC. Prove that these lines are concurrent and nd locus of concurrncy point. 5 M is midpoint of side BC of triangle ABC, and I is incenter of triangle ABC, and T is midpoint of arc BC, that does not contain A. Prove that cos B + cos C = 1 M I = M T

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

Linear Algebra

1 Suppose that A Mn (R) with Rank(A) = k. Prove that A is sum of k matrices X1 , . . . , Xk with Rank(Xi ) = 1. 2 f : Rn Rm is a non-zero linear map. Prove that there is a base {v1 , . . . , vn m} for Rn that the set {f (v1 ), . . . , f (vn )} is linearly independent, after ommitting Repetitive elements. 3 Suppose (u, v) is an inner product on Rn and f : Rn Rn is an isometry, that f (0) = 0. 1) Prove that for each u, v we have (u, v) = (f (u), f (v) 2) Prove that f is linear. 4 f : Rn Rn is a bijective map, that Image of every n 1-dimensional ane space is a n 1-dimensional ane space. 1) Prove that Image of every line is a line. 2) Prove that f is an ane map. (i.e. f = goh that g is a translation and h is a linear map.)

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2006

Number Theory

1 n is a natural number. d is the least natural number that for each a that gcd(a, n) = 1 we know ad 1 (mod n). Prove that there exist a natural number that ordn b = d 2 n is a natural number that xn + 1 is irreducible over Z2 [x]. Consider a vector in Zn that 2 x+1 it has odd number of 1s (as entries) and at least one of its entries are 0. Prove that these vector and its translations are a basis for Zn 2

3 L is a fullrank lattice in R2 and K is a sub-lattice of L, that

A(K) = m. If m is the least A(L) number that for each x L, mx is in K. Prove that there exists a basis {x1 , x2 } for L that {x1 , mx2 } is a basis for K.

4 a, b, c, t are antural numbers and k = ct and n = ak bk . a) Prove that if k has at least q dierent prime divisors, then n has at least qt dierent prime divisors. b)Prove that (n) id t divisible by 2 2 5 For each n, suppsoe L(n) is the number of natural numbers 1 a n that n|an 1. If p1 , p2 , . . . , pk are prime divisors of n, dene T (n) as (p1 1)(p2 1) . . . (pk 1). a) Prove that for each n N n|L(n)T (n) b)Prove that if gcd(n, T (n)) = 1 then (n) = L(n)T (n) 6 a) P (x), Q(x) are polynomials with rational coecients and P (x) is not the zero polynomial. Prove that there exist a non-zero polynomial Q(x) Q[x] that P (x)|Q(R(x)) b) P, Q are polynomial with integer coecients and P is monic. Prove that there exist a monic polynomial Q(x) Z[x] that P (x)|Q(R(x))

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2007

AlgebraAnalysis

1 Let a, b be two complex numbers. Prove that roots of z 4 + az 2 + b form a rhombus with origin a2 as center, if and only if is a non-positive real number. b 2 a, b, c are three dierent positive real numbers. Prove that: a+b b+c c+a >1 + + ab bc ca 3 Find the largest real T such that for each non-negative real numbers a, b, c, d, e such that a + b = c + d + e: a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + e2 T ( a + b + c + d + e)2 4 a) Let n1 , n2 , . . . be a sequence of natural number such that ni 2 and sequence such that i {1, 2}. Prove that the sequence:
n1

1, 2, . . .

be a

n2

+ +

nk

n is convergent and its limit is in (1, 2]. Dene 1 1 + n2 2 + . . . to be this limit. b) Prove that for each x (1, 2] there exist sequences n1 , n2 , N and ni 2 and 1 , 2 , . . . , such n that ni 2 and i {1, 2}, and x = 1 1 + n2 2 + . . . 5 Prove that for two non-zero polynomials f (x, y), g(x, y) with real coecients the system: f (x, y) = 0 g(x, y) = 0 has nitely many solutions in C2 if and only if f (x, y) and g(x, y) are coprime.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2007

Final Exam

1 Consider two polygons P and Q. We want to cut P into some smaller polygons and put them together in such a way to obtain Q. We can translate the pieces but we can not rotate them or reect them. We call P, Q equivalent if and only if we can obtain Q from P (which is obviously an equivalence relation). [img]http://i3.tinypic.com/4lrb43k.png[/img] a) Let P, Q be two rectangles with the same area(their sides are not necessarily parallel). Prove that P and Q are equivalent. b) Prove that if two triangles are not translation of each other, they are not equivalent. c) Find a necessary and sucient condition for polygons P, Q to be equivalent. 2 We call the mapping : Z\{0} N, a degree mapping if and only if for each a, b Z such that b = 0 and b |a there exist integers r, s such that a = br + s, and (s) < (b). a) Prove that the following mapping is a degree mapping: (n) = Number of digits in the binary representation of n b) Prove that there exist a degree mapping 0 such that for each degree mapping and for each n = 0, 0 (n) (n). c) Prove that = 0 [img]http://i16.tinypic.com/4qntmd0.png[/img] 3 We call a set A a good set if it has the following properties: 1. A consists circles in plane. 2. No two element of A intersect. Let A, B be two good sets. We say A, B are equivalent if we can reach from A to B by moving circles in A, making them bigger or smaller in such a way that during these operations each circle does not intersect with other circles. Let an be the number of inequivalent good subsets with n elements. For example a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 4, a4 = 9. [img]http://i5.tinypic.com/4r0x81v.png[/img] If there exist a, b such that Aan an Bbn , we say growth ratio of an is larger than a and is smaller than b. a) Prove that growth ratio of an is larger than 2 and is smaller than 4. b) Find better bounds for upper and lower growth ratio of an . 4 In the following triangular lattice distance of two vertices is length of the shortest path between them. Let A1 , A2 , . . . , An be constant vertices of the lattice. We want to nd a vertex in the lattice whose sum of distances from vertices is minimum. We start from an arbitrary vertex. At each step we check all six neighbors and if sum of distances from vertices of one of the neighbors is less than sum of distances from vertices at the moment we go to that neighbor. If we have more than one choice we choose arbitrarily, as seen in the attached picture. Obviusly the algorithm nishes a) Prove that when we can not make any move we have reached to the problems answer. b) Does this algorithm reach to answer for each connected graph?

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2007

0 1 a+b 5 Look at these fractions. At rs step we have and , and at each step we write 1 0 c+d c a between and , and we do this forever b d
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 3

1 2 1 2

2 3

3 2

2 1 2 1

3 1

...

a) Prove that each of these fractions is irreducible. b) In the plane we have put innitely many circles of diameter 1, over each integer on the real line, one circle. The inductively we put circles that each circle is tangent to two adjacent circles and real line, and we do this forever. Prove that points of tangency of these circles are exactly all the num1 bers in part a(except ). [img]http://i2.tinypic.com/4m8tmbq.png[/img] c) Prove that in 0 these two parts all of positive rational numbers appear. If you dont understand the numbers, look at [url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Arabicn umerals en.svg]here[/url].Scientisthavesucceededtof indnewnumbersbetweenrealnumberswithstrongmicroscopes.N and also 4 operations addition, multiplication,... and these operation have all properties the same as R. [img]http://i14.tinypic.com/4tk6mnr.png[/img] a) Prove that in this larger system there is a number which is smaller than each positive integer and is larger than zero. b) Prove that none of these numbers are root of a polynomial in R[x]. 7 6 A ring is the area between two circles with the same center, and width of a ring is the dierence between the radii of two circles. [img]http://i18.tinypic.com/6cdmvi8.png[/img] a) Can we put uncountable disjoint rings of width 1(not necessarily same) in the space such that each two of them can not be separated. [img]http://i19.tinypic.com/4qgx30j.png[/img] b) Whats the answer if 1 is replaced with 0? 8 In this question you must make all numbers of a clock, each with using 2, exactly 3 times and Mathematical symbols. You are not allowed to use English alphabets and words like sin or lim or a, b and no other digits. [img]http://i2.tinypic.com/5x73dza.png[/img]

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2007

Geometry

1 Let ABC, l and P be arbitrary triangle, line and point. A , B , C are reections of A, B, C in point P . A is a point on B C such that AA l. B , C are dened similarly. Prove that A , B , C are collinear. 2 a) Let ABC be a triangle, and O be its circumcenter. BO and CO intersect with AC, AB at B , C . B C intersects the circumcircle at two points P, Q. Prove that AP = AQ if and only if ABC is isosceles. b) Prove the same statement if O is replaced by I, the incenter. 3 Let I be incenter of triangel ABC, M be midpoint of side BC, and T be the intersection point of IM with incircle, in such a way that I is between M and T . Prove that BIM CIM = 3 (B C), if and only if AT BC. 2 4 Let ABC be a triangle, and D be a point where incircle touches side BC. M is midpoint of BC, and K is a point on BC such that AK BC. Let D be a point on BC such that DM DM = . Dene a to be circle with diameter DD . We dene B ,C similarly. Prove DK DK that every two of these circles are tangent. 5 Let ABC be a triangle. Squares ABc Ba C, CAb Ac B and BCa Cb A are outside the triangle. Square Bc Bc Ba Ba with center P is outside square ABc Ba C. Prove that BP, Ca Ba and Ac Bc are concurrent.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2007

Number Theory

1 Let n be a natural number, such that (n, 2(21386 1)) = 1. Let {a1 , a2 , . . . , a(n) } be a reduced residue system for n. Prove that: n|a1386 + a1386 + + a1386 1 2 (n) 2 Let m, n be two integers such that (m) = (n) = c. Prove that there exist natural numbers b1 , b2 , . . . , bc such that {b1 , b2 , . . . , bc } is a reduced residue system with both m and n. 3 Let n be a natural number, and n = 22007 k + 1, such that k is an odd number. Prove that n |2n1 + 1 4 Find all integer solutions of x4 + y 2 = z 4 5 A hyper-primitive root is a k-tuple (a1 , a2 , . . . , ak ) and (m1 , m2 , . . . , mk ) with the following property: For each a N, that (a, m) = 1, has a unique representation in the following form: a a1 a2 . . . ak 1 2 k (mod m) 1 i mi

Prove that for each m we have a hyper-primitive root.


n

6 Something related to this [url=http://www.mathlinks.ro/Forum/viewtopic.php?p=845756845756]problem[/u Prove that for a set S N, there exists a sequence is irreducible in Z[x] if and only if |S| 2. By Omid Hatami {ai } i=0 in S such that for each n,
i=0

ai xi

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Algebra

1 Suppose that f (x) Z[x] be an irreducible polynomial. It is known that f has a root of norm 3 larger than . Prove that if is a root of f then f (3 + 1) = 0. 2 2 Find the smallest real K such that for each x, y, z R+ : x y+y z+z xK (x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

3 Let (b0 , b1 , b2 , b3 ) be a permutation of the set {54, 72, 36, 108}. Prove that x5 + b3 x3 + b2 x2 + b1 x + b0 is irreducible in Z[x]. 4 Let x, y, z R+ and x + y + z = 3. Prove that: y3 z3 1 2 x3 + 3 + 3 + (xy + xz + yz) 3+8 y z +8 x +8 9 27 5 Prove that the following polynomial is irreducible in Z[x, y]: x200 y 5 + x51 y 100 + x106 4x100 y 5 + x100 2y 100 2x6 + 4y 5 2

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Combinatorics

1 Prove that the number of permutations of {1, 2, . . . , n} and a subsets S of {1, 2, . . . , n} such that x S : (x) S is equal to n!Fn+1 in which Fn is the Fibonacci sequence such that F1 = F2 = 1 2 Prove that the number permutations of {1, 2, . . . , n} s.t. there does not exist i < j < n s.t. (i) < (j + 1) < (j) is equal to the number of partitions of that set. 3 Prove that for each n:
n k=1

n+k1 2k 1

= F2n

4 Let S be a sequence that: S0 = 0 S1 = 1 Sn = Sn1 + Sn2 + Fn (n > 1) such that Fn is Fibonacci sequence such that F1 = F2 = 1. Find Sn in terms of Fibonacci numbers. 5 n people decide to play a game. There are n 1 ropes and each of its two ends are in hand of one of the players, in such a way that ropes and players form a tree. (Each person can hold more than rope end.) At each step a player gives one of the rope ends he is holding to another player. The goal is to make a path of length n 1 at the end. But the game regulations change before game starts. Everybody has to give one of his rope ends only two one of his neighbors. Let a and b be minimum steps for reaching to goal in these two games. Prove that a = b if and only if by removing all players with one rope end (leaves of the tree) the remaining people are on a path. (the remaining graph is a path.) [img]http://i37.tinypic.com/2l9h1tv.png[/img]

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Complex numbers

1 Prove that for n > 0 and a = 0 the polynomial p(z) = az 2n+1 + bz 2n + + a has a root on bz unit circle 1 2 Let g, f : C C be two continuous functions such that for each z = 0, g(z) = f ( ). Prove z 1 that there is a z C such that f ( ) = f () z z 3 For each c C, let fc (z, 0) = z, and fc (z, n) = fc (z, n 1)2 + c for n 1. a) Prove that 1 if |c| then there is a neighborhood U of origin such that for each z U the sequence 4 1 fc (z, n), n N is bounded. b) Prove that if c > is a real number there is a neighborhood 4 U of origin such that for each z U the sequence fc (z, n), n N is unbounded.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Final Exam

1 Police want to arrest on the famous criminals of the country whose name is Kaiser. Kaiser is in one of the streets of a square shaped city with n vertical streets and n horizontal streets. In the following cases how many police ocers are needed to arrest Kaiser? [img]http://i38.tinypic.com/2i1icect h.png[/img][img]http : //i34.tinypic.com/28rk4s3t h.png[/img]a)Eachpo //i38.tinypic.com/35n615y.png[/img] 2 a) Prove that there are two polynomials in Z[x] with at least one coecient larger than 1387 such 3 that coecients of their product is in the set {1, 0, 1}. b) Does there exist a multiple of x2 3x+1 such that all of its coecient are in the set {1, 0, 1} 4 =A subset S of R2 is called an algebraic set if and only if there is a polynomial p(x, y) R[x, y] such that S = {(x, y) R2 |p(x, y) = 0} Are the following subsets of plane an algebraic sets? 1. A square [img]http://i36.tinypic.com/28uiaep.png[/img] 2. A closed half-circle [img]http://i37.tinypic.com/155m155.png[/img] 5 a) Suppose that RBR B is a convex quadrilateral such that vertices R and R have red color and vertices B and B have blue color. We put k arbitrary points of colors blue and red in the quadrilateral such that no four of these k + 4 point (except probably RBR B ) lie one a circle. Prove that exactly one of the following cases occur? 1. There is a path from R to R such that distance of every point on this path from one of red points is less than its distance from all blue points. 2. There is a path from B to B such that distance of every point on this path from one of blue points is less than its distance from all red points. We call these two paths the blue path and the red path respectively. Let n be a natural number. Two people play the following game. At each step one player puts a point in quadrilateral satisfying the above conditions. First player only puts red point and second player only puts blue points. Game nishes when every player has put n points on the plane. First players goal is to make a red path from R to R and the second players goal is to make a blue path from B to B . b) Prove that if RBR B is rectangle then for each n the second player wins. c) Try to specify the winner for other quadrilaterals. 6 There are ve research labs on Mars. Is it always possible to divide Mars to ve connected congruent regions such that each region contains exactly on research lab. [img]http://i37.tinypic.com/f2iq8g.png[/img] 7 A graph is called a self-interesting graph if and only if it is isomorphic to a graph whose every edge is a segment and every two edges intersect. Notice that no edge contains a vertex except its two endings. a) Find all ns for which the cycle of length n is self-intersecting. b)

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Prove that in a self-intersecting graph |E(G)| |V (G)|. c) Find all self-intersecting graphs. [img]http://i35.tinypic.com/x43s5u.png[/img] 8 In an old script found in ruins of Perspolis is written: [code:1] This script has been nished in a year whose 13th power is 258145266804692077858261512663 You should know that if you are skilled in Arithmetics you will know the year this script is nished easily.[/code:1] Find the year the script is nished. Give a reason for your answer.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Geometry

1 Let ABC be a triangle with BC > AC > AB. Let A , B , C be feet of perpendiculars from A, B, C to BC, AC, AB, such that AA = BB = CC = x. Prove that: a) If ABC A B C then x = 2r b) Prove that if A , B and C are collinear, then x = R + d or x = R d. (In this problem R is the radius of circumcircle, r is radius of incircle and d = OI) 2 Let la , lb , lc be three parallel lines passing through A, B, C respectively. Let la be reection of la into BC. lb and lc are dened similarly. Prove that la , lb , lc are concurrent if and only if la is parallel to Euler line of triangle ABC. 3 Let ABCD be a quadrilateral, and E be intersection points of AB, CD and AD, BC respectively. External bisectors of DAB and DCB intersect at P , external bisectors of ABC and ADC intersect at Q and external bisectors of AED and AF B intersect at R. Prove that P, Q, R are collinear. 4 Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC, and D be midpoint of BC, and E be foot of altitude from C. Let H be orthocenter of ABC and N be midpoint of CE. AN intersects with circumcircle of triangle ABC at K. The tangent from C to circumcircle of ABC intersects with AD at F . Suppose that radical axis of circumcircles of CHA and CKF is BC. Find BAC. 5 Let D, E, F be tangency point of incircle of triangle ABC with sides BC, AC, AB. DE and DF intersect the line from A parallel to BC at K and L. Prove that the Euler line of triangle DKL passes through Feuerbach point of triangle ABC.

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Iran
National Math Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008

Number Theory

1 Let k > 1 be an integer. Prove that there exists innitely many natural numbers such as n such that: n|1n + 2n + + k n 2 Prove that there exists innitely many primes p such that: 13|p3 + 1 3 Let P be a regular polygon. A regular sub-polygon of P is a subset of vertices of P with at least two vertices such that divides the circumcircle to equal arcs. Prove that there is a subset of vertices of P such that its intersection with each regular sub-polygon has even number of vertices. 4 Let u be an odd number. Prove that 33u 1 can be written as sum of two squares. 3u 1

5 Find all polynomials f Z[x] such that for each a, b, x N a + b + c|f (a) + f (b) + f (c)

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Iran
q
(Team Selection Test)

2002 & 2009

Iran
Team Selection Test 2002

1 ABCD is a convex quadrilateral. We draw its diagnals to divide the quadrilateral to four triabgles. P is the intersection of diagnals. I1 , I2 , I3 , I4 are excenters of P AD, P AB, P BC, P CD(excenters corresponding vertex P ). Prove that I1 , I2 , I3 , I4 lie on a circle i ABCD is a tangential quadrilateral. 2 n people (with names 1, 2, . . . , n) are around a table. Some of them are friends. At each step 2 friend can change their place. Find a necessary and sucient condition for friendship relation between them that with these steps we can always reach to all of posiible permutations. 3 A 2-line is the area between two parallel lines. Length of 2-line is distance of two parallel lines. We have covered unit circle with some 2-lines. Prove sum of lengths of 2-lines is at least 2. 4 O is a point in triangle ABC. We draw perpendicular from O to BC, AC, AB which intersect BC, AC, AB at A1 , B1 , C1 . Prove that O is circumcenter of triangle ABC i perimeter of ABC is not less than perimeter of triangles AB1 C1 , BC1 A1 , CB1 A1 . 5 A school has n students and k classes. Every two students in the same class are friends. For each two dierent classes, there are two people from these classes that are not friends. Prove that we can divide students into n k + 1 parts taht students in each part are not friends.
n n

6 Assume x1 , x2 , . . . , xn R+ ,
i=1

x2 = n, i
i=1

xi s > 0 and 0 1. Prove that at least s . n

s2 (1 )2 n

of these numbers are larger than

7 S1 , S2 , S3 are three spheres in R3 that their centers are not collinear. k 8 is the number of planes that touch three spheres. Ai , Bi , Ci is the point that i-th plane touch the spheres S1 , S2 , S3 . Let Oi be circumcenter of Ai Bi Ci . Prove that Oi are collinear. 8 We call A1 , A2 , A3 mangool i there is a permutation that A(2) A(1) , A(3) A(1) A(2) . A good family is a family of nite subsets of N like X, A1 , A2 , . . . , An . To each goo family we correspond a graph with vertices {A1 , A2 , . . . , An }. Connect Ai , Aj i X, Ai , Aj are mangool sets. Find all graphs that we can nd a good family corresponding to it. 9 (n) is the number of primes that are not bigger than n. For n = 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 33, . . . we have (n)|n. Does exist innitely many integers n that (n)|n? 10 Suppose from (m + 2) (n + 2) rectangle we cut 4, 1 1 corners. Now on rst and last row rst and last columns we write 2(m + n) real numbers. Prove we can ll the interior m n rectangle with real numbers that every number is average of its 4 neighbors.

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Iran
Team Selection Test 2002

11 A 10 10 10 cube has 1000 unit cubes. 500 of them are coloured black and 500 of them are coloured white. Show that there are at least 100 unit squares, being the common face of a white and a black unit cube. 12 We call a permutation (a1 , a2 , ..., an ) of (1, 2, ..., n) quadratic if there exists at least a perfect square among the numbers a1 , a1 + a2 , ..., a1 + a2 + ... + an . Find all natural numbers n such that all permutations in Sn are quadratic. Remark. Sn denotes the n-th symmetric group, the group of permutations on n elements. 13 Let ABC be a triangle. The incircle of triangle ABC touches the side BC at A , and the line AA meets the incircle again at a point P . Let the lines CP and BP meet the incircle of triangle ABC again at N and M , respectively. Prove that the lines AA , BN and CM are concurrent.

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Iran
Team Selection Test 2009

Day 1
1 Let ABC be a triangle and A , B and C lie on BC , CA and AB respectively such that the incenter of A B C and ABC are coincide and the inradius of A B C is half of inradius of ABC . Prove that ABC is equilateral . 2 Let a be a x natural number . Prove that the set of prime divisors of 22 + a for n = 1, 2, is innite 3 Suppose that a,b,c be three positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 3 . Prove that : 1 1 1 3 + + 2 + b2 2 + c2 2 + a2 2+a 2+b 2+c 4
n

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Iran
Team Selection Test 2009

Day 2
1 Find All Polynomials f with integer coecient such that , for every prime p and every natural numbers u and v with the condition : p|uv 1 we always have p|f (u)f (v) 1 2 ABC is a triangle and AA , BB and CC are three altitudes of this triangle . Let P be the feet of perpendicular from C to A B , and Q is a point on A B such that QA = QB . Prove that : P BQ = P AQ = P C C 3 We have a closed path on a vertices of a nn square which pass from each vertice exactly once . prove that we have two adjacent vertices such that if we cut the path from these points then length of each pieces is not less than quarter of total path .

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Iran
Team Selection Test 2009

Day 3
1 Suppose three direction on the plane . We draw 11 lines in each direction . Find maximum number of the points on the plane which are on three lines . 2 Find All Polynomials P (x, y) such that for all reals x, y we have : P (x2 , y 2 ) = P ( (x + y)2 (x y)2 , ) 2 2

3 In triangle ABC , D , E and F are the points of tangency of incircle with the center of I to BC , CA and AB respectively . Let M be the feet of perpendicular from D to EF and P is on DM such that : DP = M P . If H be the orthocenter of BIC, prove that P H bisects EF .

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Iran
Team Selection Test 2009

Day 4
1 Let ABC be a triangle and AB = AC . D is a point on BC such that BA = BD and B is between C and D . Let Ic be center of the circle which touches AB and the extensions of AC B + C then and BC . CIc intersect the circumcircle of ABC again at T . If T DIc = 4 nd A 2 n is a positive integer . prove that : 3
n 52 1 2n+2 n 32 1 2n+2

(5)

(mod 2n+4 )

3 T is a subset of 1, 2, ..., n which has this property : for all distinct i, j T , 2j is not divisible 4 by i . Prove that : |T | n + log2 n + 2 9

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 4 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Italy
2006-2008

Italy
Italy TST 2006

Day 1 - 24 May 2006


1 Let S be a string of 99 characters, 66 of which are A and 33 are B. We call S good if, for each n such that 1 n 99, the substring made from the rst n characters of S has an odd number of distinct permutations. How many good strings are there? Which strings are good? 2 Let ABC be a triangle, let H be its orthocenter and L, M, N the midpoints of sides AB, BC, CA respectively. Prove that HL2 + HM 2 + HN 2 < AL2 + BM 2 + CN 2 i ABC is acutangle. 3 Find all functions f : Z Z such that f (m n + f (n)) = f (m) + f (n) for all m, n Z

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Italy
Italy TST 2006

Day 2
1 Let 1 and 2 be two intersecting circumferences, and let Q and R be their intersection points. Let be a circumference such that the other two are internally tangent to it, and let A1 and A2 be the common tangency point with 1 and 2 , respectively. Let P be a point on and let B1 and B2 be the other intersection points of P A1 and P A2 with 1 and 2 , respectively. a) Prove that the tangent to 1 in B1 and the tangent to 2 in B2 are parallel. b) Prove that B1 B2 is the common tangent to 1 and 2 i P lies on QR. 2 Let n be a positive integer, and let An be the the set of all a such that n|(an + 1), 1 a n and a Z. a) Find all n such that An = b) Find all n such that |An | is even and non-zero. c) Is there n such that |An | = 130? 3 Let P (x) be a polynomial with complex coecients such that P (0) = 0. Prove that there exists a multiple of P (x) with real positive coecients i P (x) has no real positive root.

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Italy
Italy TST 2007

Day 1
1 Let ABC an acute triangle. (a) Find the locus of points that are centers of rectangles whose vertices lie on the sides of ABC; (b) Determine if exist some points that are centers of 3 distinct rectangles whose vertices lie on the sides of ABC. 2 In a competition, there were 2n + 1 teams. Every team plays exatly once against every other team. Every match nishes with the victory of one of the teams. We call cyclical a 3-subset of team A, B, C if A won against B, B won against C , C won against A. (a) Find the minimum of cyclical 3-subset (depending on n); (b) Find the maximum of cyclical 3-subset (depending on n). 3 Find all f : R R such that f (xy + f (x)) = xf (y) + f (x) for every pair of real numbers x, y.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Italy
Italy TST 2007

Day 2
1 We have a complete graph with n vertices. We have to color the vertices and the edges in a way such that: no two edges pointing to the same vertice are of the same color; a vertice and an edge pointing him are coloured in a dierent way. What is the minimum number of colors we need? 2 Let ABC a acute triangle. (a) Find the locus of all the points P such that, calling Oa , Ob , Oc the circumcenters of P BC, P AC, P AB: Oa Ob Ob Oc Oc Oa = = AB BC CA (b) For all points P of the locus in (a), show that the lines AOa , BOb , COc are cuncurrent (in X); (c) Show that the power of X wrt the circumcircle of ABC is: a2 + b2 + c2 5R2 4

Where a = BC , b = AC and c = AB. 3 Let p 5 be a prime. (a) Show that exists a prime q = p such that q|(p 1)p + 1
n

(b) Factoring in prime numbers (p 1)p + 1 =


i=1 n

pai show that: i p2 2

pi ai
i=1

[Edited by X, see below]

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Italy
ITAMO 2006

1 Two people play the following game: there are 40 cards numbered from 1 to 10 in 4 sets. At the beginning they are given 20 cards each. Each turn one player puts a card on the table or removes some cards from the table, whose sum is 15. At the end of the game, one player has a 5 and a 3 in his hand, on the table theres a 9, the other player has a card in his hand. What is its value? 2 Solve pn + 144 = m2 where m, n N and p is a prime number. 3 We have a circle and a chord AB with A B. A point P is such that P B and P A. Find the locus of the orthocenters of AP B 4 [img]http://img155.imageshack.us/img155/474/itamo200649kl.jpg[/img] On an innite chessboard, the natural numbers are written like in gure. We call rightline of C the set of the numbers on the right of C (example: the rightline of 6 is 1,2,11,...). i) Prove that exists a rightline without multiples of 3. ii) Are there innite rightlines not containing multiples of 3, pairwise disjoint? 5 We have the inequality (a1 + a2 + + an )2 4(a1 a2 + a2 a3 + + an a1 ) n3

a) Find all n such that the inequality is true in positive reals. b) Find all n such that the inequality is true in reals. 6 Alberto and Barbara play the following game. On a table there are some piles, each one containing an integer value of coins. Each player, in turn, can make one of the following moves: (1) split the pile in two smaller piles; (2) remove a coin from any pile and throw it away. The winner is the player who removes the last coin on the table. Alberto starts; tell, knowing the number of piles and coins per pile when the game starts, who has the winning strategy.

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Italy
ITAMO 2007

Day 1
1 It is given a regular hexagon in the plane. Let P be a point of the plane. Dene s(P) as the sum of the distances from P to each side of the hexagon, and v(P) as the sum of the distances from P to each vertex. a) Find the locus of points P that minimize s(P) b) Find the locus of points P that minimize v(P) 2 We dene two polynomials with integer coecients P,Q to be similar if the coecients of P are a permutation of the coecients of Q. a) if P,Q are similar, then P (2007) Q(2007) is even b) does there exist an integer k > 2 such that k | P (2007) Q(2007) for all similar polynomials P,Q? 3 Let ABC be a triangle, G its centroid, M the midpoint of AB, D the point on the line AG such that AG = GD, A = D, E the point on the line BG such that BG = GE, B = E. Show that the quadrilateral BDCM is cyclic if and only if AD = BE.

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Italy
ITAMO 2007

Day 2
4 Today is Barbaras birthday, and Alberto wants to give her a gift playing the following game. The numbers 0,1,2,...,1024 are written on a blackboard. First Barbara erases 29 numbers, then Alberto erases 28 numbers, then Barbara 27 and so on, until there are only two numbers a,b left. Now Barbara earns |a b| euro. Find the maximum number of euro that Barbara can always win, independently of Albertos strategy. 5 The sequence of integers (an )n1 is dened by a1 = 2, an+1 = 2a2 1. Prove that for each n positive integer n, n and an are coprime. 6 a) For each n 2, nd the maximum constant cn such that 1 1 1 + +. . .+ cn a1 + 1 a2 + 1 an + 1 for all positive reals a1 , a2 , . . . , an such that a1 a2 an = 1. 1 1 1 + +. . .+ b) For each n 2, nd the maximum constant dn such that 2a1 + 1 2a2 + 1 2an + 1 dn for all positive reals a1 , a2 , . . . , an such that a1 a2 an = 1.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Italy
ITAMO 2008

Day 1
1 Let ABCDEF GHILM N be a regular dodecagon, let P be the intersection point of the diagonals AF and DH. Let S be the circle which passes through A and H, and which has the same radius of the circumcircle of the dodecagon, but is dierent from the circumcircle of the dodecagon. Prove that: 1. P lies on S 2. the center of S lies on the diagonal HN 3. the length of P E equals the length of the side of the dodecagon 2 A square (n 1) (n 1) is divided into (n 1)2 unit squares in the usual manner. Each of the n2 vertices of these squares is to be coloured red or blue. Find the number of dierent colourings such that each unit square has exactly two red vertices. (Two colouring schemse are regarded as dierent if at least one vertex is coloured dierently in the two schemes.) 3 Find all functions f : Z R that verify the folowing two conditions: (i) for each pair of integers (m, n) with m < n one has f (m) < f (n); (ii) for each pair of integers (m, n) there exists an integer k such that f (m) f (n) = f (k).

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Italy
ITAMO 2008

Day 2
1 Find all triples (a, b, c) of positive integers such that a2 + 2b+1 = 3c . 2 Let ABC be a triangle, all of whose angles are greater than 45 and smaller than 90 . (a) Prove that one can t three squares inside ABC in such a way that: (i) the three squares are equal (ii) the three squares have common vertex K inside the triangle (iii) any two squares have no common point but K (iv) each square has two opposite vertices onthe boundary of ABC, while all the other points of the square are inside ABC. (b) Let P be the center of the square which has AB as a side and is outside ABC. Let rC be the line symmetric to CK with respect to the bisector of BCA. Prove that P lies on rC . 3 Francesca and Giorgia play the following game. On a table there are initially coins piled up in some stacks, possibly in dierent numbers in each stack, but with at least one coin. In turn, each player chooses exactly one move between the following: (i) she chooses a stack that has an even non-zero number of coins 2k and breaks it into two identical stacks of coins, i.e. each stack contains k coins; (ii) she removes from the table the stacks with coins in an odd number, i.e. all such in odd number, not just those with a specic odd number. At each turn, a player necessarily moves: if one choice is not available, the she must take the other. Francesca moves rst. The one who removes the last coin from the table wins. 1. If initially there is only one stack of coins on the table, and this stack contains 20082008 coins, which of the players has a winning strategy? 2. For which initial congurations of stacks of coins does Francesca have a winning strategy?

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Junior Balkan
(International Competitions)

1997-2009

Junior Balkan MO 1997


Belgrad, Yugoslavia

1 Show that given any 9 points inside a square of side 1 we can always nd 3 which form a 1 triangle with area less than . 8 Bulgaria 2 Let x2 + y 2 x2 y 2 + = k. Compute the following expression in terms of k: x2 y 2 x2 + y 2 E(x, y) = x8 + y 8 x8 y 8 . x8 y 8 x8 + y 8 Ciprus 3 Let ABC be a triangle and let I be the incenter. Let N , M be the midpoints of the sides AB and CA respectively. The lines BI and CI meet M N at K and L respectively. Prove that AI + BI + CI > BC + KL. Greece 4 Determine the triangle with sides a, b, c and circumradius R for which R(b + c) = a bc. Romania 5 Let n1 , n2 , . . ., n1998 be positive integers such that n2 + n2 + + n2 = n2 . 1 2 1997 1998 Show that at least two of the numbers are even.

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Junior Balkan MO 1998


Athens, Greece

1 Prove that the number 111 . . . 11 22 . . . 22 5 (which has 1997 of 1-s and 1998 of 2-s) is a perfect square.
1997 1998

Yugoslavia 2 Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon such that AB = AE = CD = 1, ABC = DEA = 90 and BC + DE = 1. Compute the area of the pentagon. Greece 3 Find all pairs of positive integers (x, y) such that xy = y xy . Albania 4 Do there exist 16 three digit numbers, using only three dierent digits in all, so that the all numbers give dierent residues when divided by 16? Bulgaria

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Junior Balkan MO 1999


Plovdiv, Bulgaria

1 Let a, b, c, x, y be ve real numbers such that a3 +ax+y = 0, b3 +bx+y = 0 and c3 +cx+y = 0. If a, b, c are all distinct numbers prove that their sum is zero. Ciprus 2 For each nonnegative integer n we dene An = 23n +36n+2 +56n+2 . Find the greatest common divisor of the numbers A0 , A1 , . . . , A1999 . Romania 3 Let S be a square with the side length 20 and let M be the set of points formed with the vertices of S and another 1999 points lying inside S. Prove that there exists a triangle with 1 vertices in M and with area at most equal with . 10 Yugoslavia 4 Let ABC be a triangle with AB = AC. Also, let D [BC] be a point such that BC > BD > DC > 0, and let C1 , C2 be the circumcircles of the triangles ABD and ADC respectively. Let BB and CC be diameters in the two circles, and let M be the midpoint of B C . Prove that the area of the triangle M BC is constant (i.e. it does not depend on the choice of the point D). Greece

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Junior Balkan MO 2000


Ohrid, Macedonia

1 Let x and y be positive reals such that x3 + y 3 + (x + y)3 + 30xy = 2000. Show that x + y = 10. 2 Find all positive integers n 1 such that n2 + 3n is the square of an integer. Bulgaria 3 A half-circle of diameter EF is placed on the side BC of a triangle ABC and it is tangent to the sides AB and AC in the points Q and P respectively. Prove that the intersection point K between the lines EP and F Q lies on the altitude from A of the triangle ABC. Albania 4 At a tennis tournament there were 2n boys and n girls participating. Every player played 7 every other player. The boys won times as many matches as the girls. It is knowns that 5 there were no draws. Find n. Serbia

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Junior Balkan MO 2001


Nicosia, Ciprus

1 Solve the equation a3 + b3 + c3 = 2001 in positive integers. Mircea Becheanu, Romania 2 Let ABC be a triangle with C = 90 and CA = CB. Let CH be an altitude and CL be an interior angle bisector. Show that for X = C on the line CL, we have XAC = XBC. Also show that for Y = C on the line CH we have Y AC = Y BC. Bulgaria 3 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle and D, E points on the sides [AB] and [AC] respectively. If DF , EF (with F AE, G AD) are the interior angle bisectors of the angles of the triangle ADE, prove that the sum of the areas of the triangles DEF and DEG is at most equal with the area of the triangle ABC. When does the equality hold? Greece 4 Let N be a convex polygon with 1415 vertices and perimeter 2001. Prove that we can nd 3 vertices of N which form a triangle of area smaller than 1.

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Junior Balkan MO 2002


Targu Mures, Romania

1 The triangle ABC has CA = CB. P is a point on the circumcircle between A and B (and on the opposite side of the line AB to C). D is the foot of the perpendicular from C to P B. Show that P A + P B = 2 P D. 2 Two circles with centers O1 and O2 meet at two points A and B such that the centers of the circles are on opposite sides of the line AB. The lines BO1 and BO2 meet their respective circles again at B1 and B2 . Let M be the midpoint of B1 B2 . Let M1 , M2 be points on the circles of centers O1 and O2 respectively, such that AO1 M1 = AO2 M2 , and B1 lies on the minor arc AM1 while B lies on the minor arc AM2 . Show that M M1 B = M M2 B. Ciprus 3 Find all positive integers which have exactly 16 positive divisors 1 = d1 < d2 < . . . < d16 = n such that the divisor dk , where k = d5 , equals (d2 + d4 )d6 . 4 Prove that for all positive real numbers a, b, c the following inequality takes place 1 1 27 1 + + . b(a + b) c(b + c) a(c + a) 2(a + b + c)2 Laurentiu Panaitopol, Romania

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Junior Balkan MO 2003


Kusadasi, Turkey

1 Let n be a positive integer. A number A consists of 2n digits, each of which is 4; and a number B consists of n digits, each of which is 8. Prove that A + 2B + 4 is a perfect square. 2 Suppose there are n points in a plane no three of which are collinear with the property that if we label these points as A1 , A2 , . . . , An in any way whatsoever, the broken line A1 A2 . . . An does not intersect itself. Find the maximum value of n. Dinu Serbanescu, Romania 3 Let D, E, F be the midpoints of the arcs BC, CA, AB on the circumcircle of a triangle ABC not containing the points A, B, C, respectively. Let the line DE meets BC and CA at G and H, and let M be the midpoint of the segment GH. Let the line F D meet BC and AB at K and J, and let N be the midpoint of the segment KJ. a) Find the angles of triangle DM N ; b) Prove that if P is the point of intersection of the lines AD and EF , then the circumcenter of triangle DM N lies on the circumcircle of triangle P M N . 4 Let x, y, z > 1. Prove that 1 + x2 1 + y2 1 + z2 + + 2. 1 + y + z 2 1 + z + x2 1 + x + y 2 Laurentiu Panaitopol

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Junior Balkan MO 2004


Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro

1 Prove that the inequality x+y 2 xy + y 2 x

2 2 x2 + y 2

holds for all real numbers x and y, not both equal to 0. 2 Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AC = BC, let M be the midpoint of its side AC, and let Z be the line through C perpendicular to AB. The circle through the points B, C, and M intersects the line Z at the points C and Q. Find the radius of the circumcircle of the triangle ABC in terms of m = CQ. 3 If the positive integers x and y are such that 3x + 4y and 4x + 3y are both perfect squares, prove that both x and y are both divisible with 7. 4 Consider a convex polygon having n vertices, n 4. We arbitrarily decompose the polygon into triangles having all the vertices among the vertices of the polygon, such that no two of the triangles have interior points in common. We paint in black the triangles that have two sides that are also sides of the polygon, in red if only one side of the triangle is also a side of the polygon and in white those triangles that have no sides that are sides of the polygon. Prove that there are two more black triangles that white ones.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Junior Balkan MO 2008

1 Find all real numbers a, b, c, d such that a + b + c + d = 20, ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd = 150. 2 The vertices A and B of an equilateral triangle ABC lie on a circle of radius 1, and the vertex C is in the interior of the circle k. A point D, dierent from B, lies on k so that AD = AB. The line DC intersects k for the second time at point E. Find the length of the line segment CE. 3 Find all prime numbers p, q, r, such that 4 p =1 q r+1

4 A 4 4 table is divided into 16 white unit square cells. Two cells are called neighbors if they share a common side. A move consists in choosing a cell and the colors of neighbors from white to black or from black to white. After exactly n moves all the 16 cells were black. Find all possible values of n.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Junior Balkan MO 2009

1 Let ABCDE be a convex pentagon such that AB +CD = BC +DE and k a circle with center on side AE that touches the sides AB, BC, CD and DE at points P , Q, R and S (dierent from vertices of the pentagon) respectively. Prove that lines P S and AE are parallel. 2 Solve in non-negative integers the equation 2a 3b + 9 = c2 3 Let x, y, z be real numbers such that 0 < x, y, z < 1 and xyz = (1 x)(1 y)(1 z). Show 1 that at least one of the numbers (1 x)y, (1 y)z, (1 z)x is greater than or equal to 4 4 Each one of 2009 distinct points in the plane is coloured in blue or red, so that on every blue-centered unit circle there are exactly two red points. Find the gratest possible number of blue points.

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Junior Balkan MO 2005


Veria, Greece

1 Find all positive integers x, y satisfying the equation 9(x2 + y 2 + 1) + 2(3xy + 2) = 2005. 2 Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle inscribed in a circle k. It is given that the tangent from A to the circle meets the line BC at point P . Let M be the midpoint of the line segment AP and R be the second intersection point of the circle k with the line BM . The line P R meets again the circle k at point S dierent from R. Prove that the lines AP and CS are parallel. 3 Prove that there exist (a) 5 points in the plane so that among all the triangles with vertices among these points there are 8 right-angled ones; (b) 64 points in the plane so that among all the triangles with vertices among these points there are at least 2005 right-angled ones. 4 Find all 3-digit positive integers abc such that abc = abc(a + b + c), where abc is the decimal representation of the number.

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Junior Balkan
(Short List)

2002 & 2006

JBMO ShortLists 2002

1 A student is playing computer. Computer shows randomly 2002 positive numbers. Games rules let do the following operations - to take 2 numbers from these, to double rst one, to add the second one and to save the sum. - to take another 2 numbers from the remainder numbers, to double the rst one, to add the second one, to multiply this sum with previous and to save the result. - to repeat this procedure, until all the 2002 numbers wont be used. Student wins the game if nal product is maximum possible. Find the winning strategy and prove it. 2 Positive real numbers are arranged in the form: 1 3 6 10 15... 2 5 9 14... 4 8 13... 5 12... 11... Find the number of the line and column where the number 2002 stays. 9 3 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = . Prove the inequality: a3 + b3 + c3 > 4 a b+c+b c+a+c a+b Jurys variant: Prove the same, but with abc = 2 5 Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove the inequality: a3 b3 c3 a2 b2 c2 + 2+ 2 + + b2 c a b c a

6 Let a1 , a2 , ..., a6 be real numbers such that: a1 = 0, a1 a6 + a3 + a4 = 2a2 a5 and a1 a3 a2 2 Prove that a4 a6 a2 . When does equality holds? 5 1 7 Consider integers ai , i = 1, 2002 such that a3 + a3 + . . . + a3 = Prove that at least 3 1 2 2002 2 of the numbers are equal. 8 Let ABC be a triangle with centroid G and A1 , B1 , C1 midpoints of the sides BC, CA, AB. A paralel through A1 to BB1 intersects B1 C1 at F . Prove that triangles ABC and F A1 A are similar if and only if quadrilateral AB1 GC1 is cyclic. 9 In triangle ABC, H, I, O are orthocenter, incenter and circumcenter, respectively. CI cuts circumcircle at L. If AB = IL and AH = OH, nd angles of triangle ABC. 10 Let ABC be a triangle with area S and points D, E, F on the sides BC, CA, AB. Perpendiculars at points D, E, F to the BC, CA, AB cut circumcircle of the triangle ABC at points (D1 , D2 ), (E1 , E2 ), (F1 , F2 ). Prove that: |D1 B D1 C D2 B D2 C| + |E1 A E1 C E2 A E2 C| + |F1 B F1 A F2 B F2 A| > 4S 11 Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC and A = 20 . On the side AC consider point D such that AD = BC. Find BDC. 12 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with AB = AD and BC = CD. On the sides AB, BC, CD, DA we consider points K, L, L1 , K1 such that quadrilateral KLL1 K1 is rectangle. Then consider rectangles M N P Q inscribed in the triangle BLK, where M KB, N

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JBMO ShortLists 2002

BL, P, Q LK and M1 N1 P1 Q1 inscribed in triangle DK1 L1 where P1 and Q1 are situated on the L1 K1 , M on the DK1 and N1 on the DL1 . Let S, S1 , S2 , S3 be the areas of the ABCD, KLL1 K1 , M N P Q, M1 N1 P1 Q1 respectively. Find the maximum possible value of the S1 + S2 + S3 expression: S 13 Let A1 , A2 , ..., A2002 be the arbitrary points in the plane. Prove that for every circle of the radius 1 and for every rectangle inscribed in this circle, exist 3 vertexes M, N, P of the rectangle such that: M A1 + M A2 + ... + M A2002 + N A1 + N A2 + ... + N A2002 + P A1 + P A2 + ... + P A2002 6006

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 2 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

JBMO ShortLists 2006

1 For an acute triangle ABC prove the inequality:


cyclic

9 m2 a where ma , mb , mc 2 + b2 + c2 a 4

are lengths of corresponding medians. 11 . Prove the inequality 2 Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that x + 2y + 3z = 12 107 6(3xy + 4xz + 2yz) + 6x + 3y + 4z + 72xyz . 18 3 Let n 3 be a natural number. A set of real numbers {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } is called summable if n 1 = 1. Prove that for every n 3 there always exists a summable set which consists of xi
i=1

n elements such that the biggest element is: a) bigger than 22n2 b) smaller than n2 4 Determine the biggest possible value of m for which the equation 2005x + 2007y = m has unique solution in natural numbers. 5 Determine all pairs (m, n) of natural numbers for which m2 = nk + 2 where k = n1. 6 Prove that for every composite number n > 4, numbers kn divides (n 1)! for every integer k such that 1 k n1 . 7 Determine all numbers abcd such that abcd = 11(a + b + c + d)2 . 8 Prove that there do not exist natural numbers n 10 such that every ns digit is not zero, and all numbers which are obtained by permutating its digits are perfect squares. 9 Let ABCD be a trapezoid with AB CD, AB > CD and A + B = 90 . Prove that the distance between the midpoints of the bases is equal to the semidierence of the bases. 10 Let ABCD be a trapezoid inscribed in a circle C with AB CD, AB = 2CD. Let {Q} = AD BC and let P be the intersection of tangents to C at B and D. Calculate the area of the quadrilateral ABP Q in terms of the area of the triangle P DQ. 11 Circles C1 and C2 intersect at A and B. Let M AB. A line through M (dierent from AB) cuts circles C1 and C2 at Z, D, E, C respectively such that D, E ZC. Perpendiculars at B to the lines EB, ZB and AD respectively cut circle C2 in F, K and N . Prove that KF = N C. 12 Let ABC be an equilateral triangle of center O, and M BC. Let K, L be projections of M onto the sides AB and AC respectively. Prove that line OM passes through the midpoint of the segment KL. 13 Let A be a subset of the set {1, 2, . . . , 2006}, consisting of 1004 elements. Prove that there exist 3 distinct numbers a, b, c A such that gcd(a, b): a) divides c b) doesnt divide c

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JBMO ShortLists 2006

14 Let n 5 be a positive integer. Prove that the set {1, 2, . . . , n} can be partitioned into two non-zero subsets Sn and Pn such that the sum of elements in Sn is equal to the product of elements in Pn .

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Korea
2005 & 2006

Korea
National Olympiad 2006

Day 1
1 In a triangle ABC with AB = AC, the incircle touches the sides BC, CA, AB at D, E, F , respectively. Line AD meets the incircle again at P . The line EF and the line through P perpendicular to AD meet at Q. Line AQ intersects DE at X and DF at Y . Prove that A is the midpoint of XY . 2 For a positive integer a, let Sa be the set of primes p for which there exists an odd integer b a such that p divides (22 )b 1. Prove that for every a there exist innitely many primes that are not contained in Sa . 3 Three schools A, B and C , each with ve players denoted ai , bi , ci respectively, take part in a chess tournament. The tournament is held following the rules: (i) Players from each school have matches in order with respect to indices, and defeated players are eliminated; the rst match is between a1 and b1 . (ii) If yj Y defeats xi X , his next opponent should be from the remaining school if not all of its players are eliminated; otherwise his next oponent is xi+1 . The tournament is over when two schools are completely eliminated. (iii) When xi wins a match, its school wins 10i1 points. At the end of the tournament, schools A, B, C scored PA , PB , PC respectively. Find the remainder of the number of possible triples (PA , PB , PC ) upon division by 8.

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Korea
National Olympiad 2006

Day 2
1 Given three distinct real numbers a1 , a2 , a3 , dene bj = (1 + aj ai aj ak )(1 + ), where aj ai aj ak {i, j, k} = {1, 2, 3}. Prove that 1 + |a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 | (1 + |a1 |)(1 + |a2 |)(1 + |a3 |) and nd the cases of equality.

2 In a convex hexagon ABCDEF triangles ABC, CDE, EF A are similar. Find conditions on these triangles under which triangle ACE is equilateral if and only if so is BDF. 3 A positive integer N is said to be n good if (i) N has at least n distinct prime divisors, and (ii) there exist distinct positive divisors 1, x2 , ..., xn whose sum is N . Show that there exists an n good number for each n 6.

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Korea
Second Round 2005

Day 1
1 For two positive integers a and b, which are relatively prime, nd all integer that can be the a2005 + b2005 great common divisor of a + b and . a+b 2 For triangle ABC, P and Q satisfy BP A + AQC = 90 . It is provided that the vertices of the triangle BAP and ACQ are ordered counterclockwise(or clockwise). Let the intersection of the circumcircles of the two triangles be N (A = N , however if A is the only intersection A = N ), and the midpoint of segment BC be M . Show that the length of M N does not depend on P and Q. 3 For a positive integer K, dene a sequence, {an }n , as following a1 = K, an+1 = for all n 1. Find the smallest value of K, which makes a2005 the rst term equal to 0. 4 Find all f : R R such that for all real numbers x, f (x) 0 and for all real numbers x and y, f (x + y) + f (x y) 2f (x) 2y 2 = 0. an 1, an 1 2 , if an is even , if an is odd

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Korea
Second Round 2005

Day 2
5 Let P be a point that lies outside of circle O. A line passes through P and meets the circle at A and B, and another line passes through P and meets the circle at C and D. The point A is between P and B, C is between P and D. Let the intersection of segment AD and BC be L and construct E on ray (P A so that BL P E = DL P D. Show that M is the midpoint of the segment DE, where M is the intersection of lines P L and DE. 6 Real numbers x1 , x2 , x3 , , xn satisfy x2 + x2 + x2 + + x2 = 1. Show that 1 2 3 n x1 x2 xn 2 + 1 + x2 + x2 + + 1 + x2 + x2 + x2 + + x2 < 1 + x1 n 1 1 2 2 3 n . 2

7 For a positive integer n, let f (n) be the number of factors of n2 + n + 1. Show that there are innitely many integers n which satisfy f (n) f (n + 1). 8 A group of 6 students decided to make study groups and service activity groups according to the following principle: Each group must have exactly 3 members. For any pair of students, there are same number of study groups and service activity groups that both of the students are members. Supposing there are at least one group and no three students belong to the same study group and service activity group, nd the minimum number of groups.

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Meditreanian 2002 & 2005

Mediterranean Mathematics Olympiad 2002

1 Find all natural numbers x, y such that y (x2 + 1) and x2 (y 3 + 1) .

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Mediterranean Mathematics Olympiad 2005

1 The professor tells Peter the product of two positive integers and Sam their sum. At rst, nobody of them knows the number of the other. One of them says: You cant possibly guess my number. Then the other says: You are wrong, the number is 136. Which number did the professor tell them respectively? Give reasons for your claim. 2 Let k and k be concentric circles with center O and radius R and R where R < R holds. A line passing through O intersects k at A and k at B where O is between A and B. Another line passing through O and distict from AB intersects k at E and k at F where E is between O and F . Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles OAE and OBF , the circle with diameter EF and the circle with diameter AB are concurrent. 3 Let A1 , A2 , . . . , An (n 3) be nite sets of positive integers. Prove, that 1 n
n

|Ai |
i=1

1
n 3 1i<j<kn

|Ai Aj Ak |

2
n 2 1i<jn

|Ai Aj |

holds, where |E| is the cardinality of the set E 4 Let A be the set of all polynomials f (x) of order 3 with integer coecients and cubic coecient 1, so that for every f (x) there exists a prime number p which does not divide 2004 and a number q which is coprime to p and 2004, so that f (p) = 2004 and f (q) = 0. Prove that there exists a innite subset B A, so that the function graphs of the members of B are identical except of translations

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Poland
(1 and 2 round)
st nd

1998-2007

Poland
First Round 1998

1 Prove that among the numbers of the form 50n + (50n + 1)50 , where n is a natural number, there exist innitely many composite numbers. 2 Show that for all real numbers a, b, c, d, the following inequality holds: (a + b + c + d)2 3(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) + 6ab 3 In the isosceles triangle ABC the angle BAC is a right angle. Point D lies on the side BC and satises BD = 2 CD. Point E is the foot of the perpendicular of the point B on the line AD. Find the angle CED. 4 Let x, y be real numbers such that the numbers x + y, x2 + y 2 , x3 + y 3 and x4 + y 4 are integers. Prove that for all positive integers n, the number xn + y n is an integer. 5 Find all pairs of positive integers x, y satisfying the equation y x = x50

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Poland
Second Round 2006

Day 1 - 24 February 2006


1 Positive integers a, b, c, x, y, z satisfy: a2 + b2 = c2 , x2 + y 2 = z 2 and |x a| 1 , |y b| 1. Prove that sets {a, b} and {x, y} are equal. 2 Given a triangle ABC satisfying AC + BC = 3 AB. The incircle of triangle ABC has center I and touches the sides BC and CA at the points D and E, respectively. Let K and L be the reections of the points D and E with respect to I. Prove that the points A, B, K, L lie on one circle. 3 Positive reals a, b, c satisfy ab + bc + ca = abc. Prove that: b4 + c4 c4 + a4 a4 + b4 + + 1 ab(a3 + b3 ) bc(b3 + c3 ) ca(c3 + a3 )

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Poland
Second Round 2006

Day 2 - 25 February 2006


1 Let c be xed natural number. Sequence (an ) is dened by: a1 = 1, an+1 = d(an ) + c for n = 1, 2, .... where d(m) is number of divisors of m. Prove that there exist k natural such that sequence ak , ak+1 , ... is periodic. 2 Point C is a midpoint of AB. Circle o1 which passes through A and C intersect circle o2 which passes through B and C in two dierent points C and D. Point P is a midpoint of arc AD of circle o1 which doesnt contain C. Point Q is a midpoint of arc BD of circle o2 which doesnt contain C. Prove that P Q CD. 3 Given is a prime number p and natural n such that p n 3. Set A is made of sequences of lenght n with elements from the set {0, 1, 2, ..., p 1} and have the following property: For arbitrary two sequence (x1 , ..., xn ) and (y1 , ..., yn ) from the set A there exist three dierent numbers k, l, m such that: xk = yk , xl = yl , xm = ym . Find the largest possible cardinality of A.

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Poland
Second Round 2007

Day 1
1 Polynomial P (x) has integer coecients. Prove, that if polynomials P (x) and P (P (P (x))) have common real root, they also have a common integer root. 2 ABCDE is a convex pentagon and: BC = CD, DE = EA, BCD = DEA = 90

Prove, that it is possible to build a triangle from segments AC, CE, EB. Find the value of its angles if ACE = and BEC = . 3 An equilateral triangle with side n is built with n2 plates - equilateral triangles with side 1. Each plate has one side black, and the other side white. We name the move the following operation: we choose a plate P , which has common sides with at least two plates, whose visible side is the same color as the visible side of P . Then, we turn over plate P . For any n 2 decide whether there exists an innitial conguration of plates permitting for an innite sequence of moves.

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Poland
Second Round 2007

Day 2
1 a, b, c, d are positive integers and ad = b2 + bc + c2 Prove that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 is a composed number. 2 We are given a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD AB = CD. Quadrilaterals AKDL and CM BN are rhombuses with equal sides. Prove, that KLM N is cyclic 3 a, b, c, d are positive real numbers satisfying the following condition: 1 1 1 1 + + + =4 a b c d Prove that:
3

a3 + b3 + 2

b3 + c3 + 2

c3 + d3 + 2

d3 + a3 2(a + b + c + d) 4 2

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Poland
(Final Round)

1977-2008

Poland
Finals 1977

Day 1
1 Let ABCD be a tetrahedron with BAD = 60 , BAC = 40 , ABD = 80 , ABC = 70 . Prove that the lines AB and CD are perpendicular. 2 Let s 3 be a given integer. A sequence Kn of circles and a sequence Wn of convex s-gons satisfy: Kn Wn Kn+1 for all n = 1, 2, ... Prove that the sequence of the radii of the circles Kn converges to zero. 3 Consider the set A = {0, 1, 2, ..., 22n 1}. The function f : A A is given by: f (x0 + 2x1 + 22 x2 + ... + 22n1 x2n1 ) =(1 x0 ) + 2x1 + 22 (1 x2 ) + 23 x3 + ... + 22n1 x2n1 for every 0 1 sequence (x0 , x1 , ..., x2n1 ). Show that if a1 , a2 , ..., a9 are consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression, then the sequence f (a1 ), f (a2 ), ..., f (a9 ) is not increasing.

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Poland
Finals 1977

Day 2
1 A function h : R R is dierentiable and satises h(ax) = bh(x) for all x, where a and b are given positive numbers and 0 = |a| = 1. Suppose that h (0) = 0 and the function h is continuous at x = 0. Prove that a = b and that there is a real number c such that h(x) = cx for all x. 2 Show that for every convex polygon there is a circle passing through three consecutive vertices of the polygon and containing the entire polygon 3 Consider the polynomial W (x) = (x a)k Q(x), where a = 0, Q is a nonzero polynomial, and k a natural number. Prove that W has at least k + 1 nonzero coecients.

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Poland
Finals 1988

Day 1
1 The real numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn belong to the interval (0, 1) and satisfy x1 +x2 +...+xn = m+r, where m is an integer and r [0, 1). Show that x2 + x2 + ... + x2 m + r2 . 1 2 n 2 For a permutation P = (p1 , p2 , ..., pn ) of (1, 2, ..., n) dene X(P ) as the number of j such that pi < pj for every i < j. What is the expected value of X(P ) if each permutation is equally likely? 3 W is a polygon which has a center of symmetry S such that if P belongs to W , then so does P , where S is the midpoint of P P . Show that there is a parallelogram V containing W such that the midpoint of each side of V lies on the border of W .

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Poland
Finals 1988

Day 2
1 d is a positive integer and f : [0, d] R is a continuous function with f (0) = f (d). Show that there exists x [0, d 1] such that f (x) = f (x + 1). 2 The sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , ... is dened by a1 = a2 = a3 = 1, an+3 = an+2 an+1 + an . Show that for any positive integer r we can nd s such that as is a multiple of r. 3 Find the largest possible volume for a tetrahedron which lies inside a hemisphere of radius 1.

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Poland
Finals 1989

Day 1
1 An even number of politicians are sitting at a round table. After a break, they come back and sit down again in arbitrary places. Show that there must be two people with the same number of people sitting between them as before the break.. Additional problem: Solve the problem when the number of people is in a form 6k + 3. 2 k1 , k2 , k3 are three circles. k2 and k3 touch externally at P , k3 and k1 touch externally at Q, and k1 and k2 touch externally at R. The line P Q meets k1 again at S, the line P R meets k1 again at T . The line RS meets k2 again at U , and the line QT meets k3 again at V . Show that P, U, V are collinear. 3 The edges of a cube are labeled from 1 to 12. Show that there must exist at least eight triples (i, j, k) with 1 i < j < k 12 so that the edges i, j, k are consecutive edges of a path. Also show that there exists labeling in which we cannot nd nine such triples.

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Poland
Finals 1989

Day 2
1 n, k are positive integers. A0 is the set {1, 2, ..., n}. Ai is a randomly chosen subset of Ai1 (with each subset having equal probability). Show that the expected number of elements of n Ak is k 2 2 Three circles of radius a are drawn on the surface of a sphere of radius r. Each pair of circles touches externally and the three circles all lie in one hemisphere. Find the radius of a circle on the surface of the sphere which touches all three circles. 3 Show that for positive reals a, b, c, d we have ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd 6
3

abc + abd + acd + bcd 4

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Poland
Finals 1990

Day 1
1 Find all functions f : R R that satisfy (x y)f (x + y) (x + y)f (x y) = 4xy(x2 y 2 ) 2 Let x1 , x2 , ..., xn be positive numbers. Prove that
n i=1

x2 i n1 x2 + xi+1 xi+2 i

Where xn+1 = x1 and xn+2 = x2 . 3 In a tournament, every two of the n players played exactly one match with each other (no draws). Prove that it is possible either (i) to partition the league in two groups A and B such that everybody in A defeated everybody in B; or (ii) to arrange all the players in a chain x1 , x2 , ..., xn , x1 in such a way that each player defeated his successor.

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Poland
Finals 1990

Day 2
1 A triangle whose all sides have length not smaller than 1 is inscribed in a square of side length 1. Prove that the center of the square lies inside the triangle or on its boundary. 2 Suppose that (an ) is a sequence of positive integers such that lim n = 0 Prove that there an exists k such that there are at least 1990 perfect squares between a1 + a2 + ... + ak and a1 + a2 + ... + ak+1 .
n [n/3]

3 Prove that for all integers n > 2, 3|


i=0 3i (1)i Cn

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Poland
Finals 1991

Day 1
1 Prove or disprove that there exist two tetrahedra T1 and T2 such that: (i) the volume of T1 is greater than that of T2 ; (ii) the area of any face of T1 does not exceed the area of any face of T2 . 2 Let X be the set of all lattice points in the plane (points (x, y) with x, y Z). A path of length n is a chain (P0 , P1 , ..., Pn ) of points in X such that Pi1 Pi = 1 for i = 1, ..., n. Let F (n) be the number of distinct paths beginning in P0 = (0, 0) and ending in any point Pn on 2n line y = 0. Prove that F (n) = n 3 Dene
60

N=
k=1

ek k k

where ek {1, 1} for each k. Prove that N cannot be the fth power of an integer.

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Poland
Finals 1991

Day 2
1 On the Cartesian plane consider the set V of all vectors with integer coordinates. Determine all functions f : V R satisfying the conditions: (i) f (v) = 1 for each of the four vectors v V of unit length. (ii) f (v +w) = f (v)+f (w) for every two perpendicular vectors v, w V (Zero vector is considered to be perpendicular to every vector). 2 Two noncongruent circles k1 and k2 are exterior to each other. Their common tangents intersect the line through their centers at points A and B. Let P be any point of k1 . Prove that there is a diameter of k2 with one endpoint on line P A and the other on P B. 3 If x, y, z are real numbers satisfying x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2, prove the inequality x + y + z 2 + xyz When does equality occur?

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Poland
Finals 1992

Day 1
1 Segments AC and BD meet at P , and |P A| = |P D|, |P B| = |P C|. O is the circumcenter of the triangle P AB. Show that OP and CD are perpendicular. 2 Find all functions f : Q+ Q+ , where Q+ is the set of positive rationals, such that f (x+1) = f (x) + 1 and f (x3 ) = f (x)3 for all x. 3 Show that for real numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn we have:
n n

i=1 j=1

xi xj 0 i+j

When do we have equality?

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Poland
Finals 1992

Day 2
1 The functions f0 , f1 , f2 , ... are dened on the reals by f0 (x) = 8 for all x, fn+1 (x) = For all n solve the equation fn (x) = 2x. x2 + 6fn (x).

2 The base of a regular pyramid is a regular 2n-gon A1 A2 ...A2n . A sphere passing through the top vertex S of the pyramid cuts the edge SAi at Bi (for i = 1, 2, ..., 2n). Show that
n n

SB2i1 =
i=1 i=1

SB2i .
2 +k+1

3 Show that (k 3 )! is divisible by (k!)k

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Poland
Finals 1993

Day 1
1 Find all rational solutions to:

t2 w2 + z 2 = 2xy t2 y 2 + w2 = 2xz t2 w2 + x2 = 2yz. 2 A circle center O is inscribed in the quadrilateral ABCD. AB is parallel to and longer than CD and has midpoint M . The line OM meets CD at F . CD touches the circle at E. Show that DE = CF i AB = 2CD. 3 Denote g(k) as the greatest odd divisor of k. Put f (k) = k k + for k even, and 2(k+1)/2 2 g(k) for k odd. Dene the sequence x1 , x2 , x3 , ... by x1 = 1, xn+1 = f (xn ). Find n such that xn = 800.

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Poland
Finals 1993

Day 2
1 Let be given a convex polyhedron whose all faces are triangular. The vertices of the polyhedron are colored using three colors. Prove that the number of faces with vertices in all the three colors is even. 2 Find all real-valued functions f on the reals such that f (x) = f (x), f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 f (x) 1 for all x, and f = 2 for x = 0. x x 3 Find out whether it is possible to determine the volume of a tetrahedron knowing the areas of its faces and its circumradius.

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Poland
Finals 1994

Day 1
1 1 1 + + and xyz are all x y z

1 Find all triples (x, y, z) of positive rationals such that x + y + z, integers.

2 Let be given two parallel lines k and l, and a circle not intersecting k. Consider a variable point A on the line k. The two tangents from this point A to the circle intersect the line l at B and C. Let m be the line through the point A and the midpoint of the segment BC. Prove that all the lines m (as A varies) have a common point. 3 k is a xed positive integer. Let an be the number of maps f from the subsets of {1, 2, ..., n} to {1, 2, ..., k} such that for all subsets A, B of {1, 2, ..., n} we have f (A B) = min(f (A), f (B)). Find lim n an .
n

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Poland
Finals 1994

Day 2
1 m, n are relatively prime. We have three jugs which contain m, n and m + n liters. Initially the largest jug is full of water. Show that for any k in {1, 2, ..., m + n} we can get exactly k liters into one of the jugs. 2 A parallelopiped has vertices A1 , A2 , ..., A8 and center O. Show that:
8 8 2

4
i=1

OA2 i

i=1 n

OAi
n

3 The distinct reals x1 , x2 , ..., xn ,(n > 3) satisfy


i=1

xi = 0,
i=1

x2 = 1. Show that four of the i

numbers a, b, c, d must satisfy:


n

a + b + c + nabc
i=1

x3 a + b + d + nabd i

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Poland
Finals 1995

Day 1
1 How many subsets of {1, 2, ..., 2n} do not contain two numbers with sum 2n + 1? 2 The diagonals of a convex pentagon divide it into a small pentagon and ten triangles. What is the largest number of the triangles that can have the same area? 3 Let p be a prime number, and dene a sequence by: xi = i for i =, 0, 1, 2..., p 1 and xn = xn1 + xnp for n p Find the remainder when xp3 is divided by p.

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Poland
Finals 1995

Day 2
1 The positive reals x1 , x2 , ..., xn have harmonic mean 1. Find the smallest possible value of x2 x3 xn x1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n . 2 3 n 2 An urn contains n balls labeled 1, 2, ..., n. We draw the balls out one by one (without replacing them) until we obtain a ball whose number is divisible by k. Find all k such that the expected number of balls removed is k. 3 P A, P B, P C are three rays in space. Show that there is just one pair of points B , C with B on the ray P B and C on the ray P C such that P C + B C = P A + AB and P B + B C = P A + AC .

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Poland
Finals 1996

Day 1
1 Find all pairs (n, r) with n a positive integer and r a real such that 2x2 + 2x + 1 divides (x + 1)n r. 2 Let P be a point inside a triangle ABC such that P BC = P CA < P AB. The line P B meets the circumcircle of triangle ABC at a point E (apart from B). The line CE meets the |AP EF | does circumcircle of triangle AP E at a point F (apart from E). Show that the ratio |ABP | not depend on the point P , where the notation |P1 P2 ...Pn | stands for the area of an arbitrary polygon P1 P2 ...Pn . 3 ai , xi are positive reals such that a1 + a2 + ... + an = x1 + x2 + ... + xn = 1. Show that 2
i<j

xi xj

n2 + n1

ai x2 i 1 ai

When do we have equality?

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Poland
Finals 1996

Day 2
1 ABCD is a tetrahedron with BAC = ACD and ABD = BDC. Show that AB = CD. 2 Let p(k) be the smallest prime not dividing k. Put q(k) = 1 if p(k) = 2, or the product of xn p(xn ) all primes < p(k) if p(k) > 2. Dene the sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , ... by x0 = 1, xn+1 = . q(xn ) Find all n such that xn = 111111 3 From the set of all permutations f of {1, 2, ..., n} that satisfy the condition: f (i) i 1 i = 1, ..., n one is chosen uniformly at random. Let pn be the probability that the chosen 1 permutation f satises f (i) i + 1 i = 1, ..., n Find all natural numbers n such that pn > . 3

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Poland
Finals 1997

Day 1
1 The positive integers x1 , x2 , ..., x7 satisfy x6 = 144, xn+3 = xn+2 (xn+1 + xn ) for n = 1, 2, 3, 4. Find x7 . 2 Find all real solutions to:

3(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 1 x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2 = xyz(x + y + z)3 . 3 In a tetrahedron ABCD, the medians of the faces ABD, ACD, BCD from D make equal angles with the corresponding edges AB, AC, BC. Prove that each of these faces has area less than or equal to the sum of the areas of the other two faces. Comment: Equivalent version of the problem: ABCD is a tetrahedron. DE, DF , DG are medians of triangles DBC, DCA, DAB. The angles between DE and BC, between DF and CA, and between DG and AB are equal. Show that: area DBC area DCA + area DAB.

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Poland
Finals 1997

Day 2
1 The sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , ... is dened by a1 = 0, an = a[n/2] + (1)n(n+1)/2 . Show that for any positive integer k we can nd n in the range 2k n < 2k+1 such that an = 0. 2 ABCDE is a convex pentagon such that DC = DE and C = E = 90 . F is a point on AE AF = . Show that F CE = ADE and F EC = BDC. the side AB such that BF BC n2 3 Given any n points on a unit circle show that at most of the segments joining two points 3 have length > 2.

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Poland
Finals 1998

Day 1
1 Find all solutions in positive integers to:

a + b + c = xyz x + y + z = abc 2 Fn is the Fibonacci sequence F0 = F1 = 1, Fn+2 = Fn+1 + Fn . Find all pairs m > k 0 such 2xn 1 Fk and xn+1 = for xn = 1, or 1 if that the sequence x0 , x1 , x2 , ... dened by x0 = Fm 1 xn xn = 1, contains the number 1 3 P ABCDE is a pyramid with ABCDE a convex pentagon. A plane meets the edges P A, P B, P C, P D, P E in points A , B , C , D , E distinct from A, B, C, D, E and P . For each of the quadrilaterals ABB A , BCC B, CDD C , DEE D , EAA E take the intersection of the diagonals. Show that the ve intersections are coplanar.

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Poland
Finals 1998

Day 2
1 Dene the sequence a1 , a2 , a3 , ... by a1 = 1, an = an1 + a[n/2] . Does the sequence contain innitely many multiples of 7? 2 The points D, E on the side AB of the triangle ABC are such that Show that ACD = BCE. 3 S is a board containing all unit squares in the xy plane whose vertices have integer coordinates and which lie entirely inside the circle x2 + y 2 = 19982 . In each square of S is written +1. An allowed move is to change the sign of every square in S in a given row, column or diagonal. Can we end up with exactly one 1 and +1 on the rest squares by a sequence of allowed moves? AD AE = DB EB AC CB
2

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Poland
Finals 2000

Day 1
1 Find number of solutions in non-negative reals to the following equations: x1 + x2 = 4xn n x2 + x2 = 4x1 1 ... xn + x2 n1 = 4xn1

2 Let a triangle ABC satisfy AC = BC; in other words, let ABC be an isosceles triangle with base AB. Let P be a point inside the triangle ABC such that P AB = P BC. Denote by M the midpoint of the segment AB. Show that AP M + BP C = 180 . 3 The sequence p1 , p2 , p3 , ... is dened as follows. p1 and p2 are primes. pn is the greatest prime divisor of pn1 + pn2 + 2000. Show that the sequence is bounded.

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Poland
Finals 2000

Day 2
1 P A1 A2 ...An is a pyramid. The base A1 A2 ...An is a regular n-gon. The apex P is placed so that the lines P Ai all make an angle 60 with the plane of the base. For which n is it possible to nd Bi on P Ai for i = 2, 3, ..., n such that A1 B2 + B2 B3 + B3 B4 + ... + Bn1 Bn + Bn A1 < 2A1 P ? 2 In the unit squre For the given natural number n 2 nd the smallest number k that from each set of k unit squares of the nxn chessboard one can achoose a subset such that the number of the unit squares contained in this subset an lying in a row or column of the chessboard is even 3 Show that the only polynomial of odd degree satisfying p(x2 1) = p(x)2 1 for all x is p(x) = x

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Poland
Finals 2005

Day 1
1 Find all triplets (x, y, n) of positive integers which satisfy: (x y)n = xy 2 The points A, B, C, D lie in this order on a circle o. The point S lies inside o and has properties SAD = SCB and SDA = SBC. Line which in which angle bisector of ASB in included cut the circle in points P and Q. Prove P S = QS. 3 In a matrix 2n2n,n N , are 4n2 real numbers with a sum equal zero. Absolute value of each of these numbers is no greater than 1. Prove that absolute value of a sum of all the numbers from one column or a row doesnt exceed n

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Poland
Finals 2005

Day 2
n

1 Given real c > 2. Prove that for positive reals x1 , ..., xn satisfying:
i=1

x2 + cxi xi+1 + x2 = i i+1

c+2
i=1

xi

holds c = 2 or x1 = ... = xn 2 Let k be a xed integer greater than 1, and let m = 4k 2 5. Show that there exist positive integers a and b such that the sequence (xn ) dened by x0 = a, x1 = b, xn+2 = xn+1 + xn for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , has all of its terms relatively prime to m. 3 Let be a convex polygon with n > 5 vertices and area 1. Prove that there exists a convex 3 hexagon inside the given polygon with area at least 4

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Poland
Finals 2008

Day 1
1 In each cell of a matrix n n a number from a set {1, 2, . . . , n2 } is written in the rst row numbers 1, 2, . . . , n, in the second n + 1, n + 2, . . . , 2n and so on. Exactly n of them have been chosen, no two from the same row or the same column. Let us denote by ai a number chosen from row number i. Show that: 22 n2 n+2 1 12 + + ... + 2 a1 a2 an 2 n +1 2 A function f : R3 R for all reals a, b, c, d, e satises a condition: f (a, b, c) + f (b, c, d) + f (c, d, e) + f (d, e, a) + f (e, a, b) = a + b + c + d + e Show that for all reals x1 , x2 , . . . , xn (n 5) equality holds: f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) + f (x2 , x3 , x4 ) + . . . + f (xn1 , xn , x1 ) + f (xn , x1 , x2 ) = x1 + x2 + . . . + xn 3 In a convex pentagon ABCDE in which BC = DE following equalities hold: ABE = CAB = AED 90 , Show that BCDE is a parallelogram. ACB = ADE

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Poland
Finals 2008

Day 2
4 There is nothing to show. The splitting eld of a set of polynomials S F [X] is simply the eld over F generated by the set of roots of the polynomials in S in some algebraic closure of F . And clearly {f1 , . . . , fn } and f1 fn have the same sets of roots. 5 Let R be a parallelopiped. Let us assume that areas of all intersections of R with planes containing centers of three edges of R pairwisely not parallel and having no common points, are equal. Show that R is a cuboid. 6 Let S be a set of all positive integers which can be represented as a2 + 5b2 for some integers a, b such that ab. Let p be a prime number such that p = 4n + 3 for some integer n. Show that if for some positive integer k the number kp is in S, then 2p is in S as well. Here, the notation ab means that the integers a and b are coprime.

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Putnam
1980-2008

Saturday, December 6, 1980

FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

on the parabola y = x + bx + c. For j = 1; 2; : : : ; 9, let Ij be the point of intersection of the tangents to the given parabola at (j; yj ) and (j + 1; yj+1 ). Determine the polynomial function y = g(x) of least degree whose graph passes through all nine points Ij . A2. Let r and s be positive integers. Derive a formula for the number of ordered quadruples (a; b; c; d) of positive integers such that 3r  7s = lcm[a; b; c] = lcm[a; b; d] = lcm[a; c; d] = lcm[b; c; d]: The answer should be a function of r and s. (Note that lcm[x; y; z] denotes the least common multiple of x; y; z.) A3. Evaluate =2

A1. Let b and c be xed real numbers and let the ten points (j; yj ), j = 1; 2; : : : ; 10, lie 2

dx p : 1 + (tan x) 2

(a) Prove that there exist integers a, b, c, not all zero and each of absolute value less than one million, such that p p ja + b 2 + c 3j < 10 11 : (b) Let a, b, c be integers, not all zero and each of absolute value less than one million. Prove that p p ja + b 2 + c 3j > 10 21 :

A4.

A5. Let P (t) be a nonconstant polynomial with real coecients. Prove that the system of simultaneous equations

Z 0=

Z P (t) sin t dt = Z

P (t) cos t dt

has only nitely many real solutions x. A6. Let C be the class of all real valued continuously di erentiable functions f on the interval 0  x  1 with f (0) = 0 and f (1) = 1. Determine the largest real number u such that 1 u  jf 0 (x) f (x)j dx for all f in C .
0

Saturday, December 6, 1980

FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


2

Examination B

the following system of six simultaneous conditions: x  0; y  0; z  0; x + y + z  11; 2x + 4y + 3z  36; 2x + 3z  24: (a) Determine the number of vertices v of S . (b) Determine the number of edges e of S . (c) Sketch in the bc-plane the set of points (b; c) such that (2; 5; 4) is one of the points (x; y; z) at which the linear function bx + cy + z assumes its maximum value on S . B3. For which real numbers a does the sequence de ned by the initial condition u0 = a and the recursion un+1 = 2un n2 have un > 0 for all n  0? (Express the answer in the simplest form.) B4. Let A1 ; A2 ; : : : ; A1066 be subsets of a nite set X such that jAi j > 1 jX j for 1  i  2 1066. Prove that there exist ten elements x1 ; : : : ; x10 of X such that every Ai contains at least one of x1; : : : ; x10 . (Here jS j means the number of elements in the set S .) B5. For each t  0, let St be the set of all nonnegative, increasing, convex, continuous, real-valued functions f (x) de ned on the closed interval [0; 1] for which f (1) 2f (2=3) + f (1=3)  t[f (2=3) 2f (1=3) + f (0)]: Develop necessary and sucient conditions on t for St to be closed under multiplication. (This closure means that, if the functions f (x) and g(x) are in St, so is their product f (x)g(x). A function f (x) is convex if and only if f (su + (1 s)v)  sf (u) + (1 s)f (v) whenever 0  s  1.) B6. An in nite array of rational numbers G(d; n) is de ned for integers d and n with 1  d  n as follows: 1 ; G(d; n) = d n G(d 1; i 1) for d > 1: G(1; n) =

B1. For which real numbers c is (ex + e x )=2  ecx for all real x. B2. Let S be the solid in three-dimensional space consisting of all points (x; y; z) satisfying

n i=d For 1 < d  p and p prime , prove that G(d; p) is expressible as a quotient s=t of integers s and t with t not an integral multiple of p. (For example, G(3; 5) = 7=4 with the denominator 4 not a multiple of 5.)

Saturday, December 5, 1981

FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1. Let1 E (n) denote the largest integer k such that 5k is an integral divisor of the 2 3 n
product 1 2 3    n . Calculate ( lim Enn) : n1

A-2. Two distinct squares of the 8 by 8 chessboard C are said to be adjacent if they have
a vertex or side in common. Also, g is called a C -gap if for every numbering of C with all the integers 1; 2; : : : ; 64 there exist two adjacent squares whose numbers di er by at least g. Determine the largest C -gap g.

A-3. Find

t1

lim e

Z tZ t x
0 0

or show that the limit does not exist.

e ey dx dy x y

A-4. A point P moves inside a unit square in a straight line at unit speed. When it meets

a corner it escapes. When it meets an edge its line of motion is re ected so that the angle of incidence equals the angle of re ection. Let N (T ) be the number of starting directions from a xed interior point P0 for which P escapes within T units of time. Find the least constant a for which constants b and c exist such that N (T )  aT 2 + bT + c for all T > 0 and all initial points P0.

A-5. Let P (x) be a polynomial with real coecients and form the polynomial
Q(x) = (x2 + 1)P (x)P 0 (x) + x [P (x)]2 + [P 0 (x)]2 :
Given that the equation P (x) = 0 has n distinct real roots exceeding 1, prove or disprove that the equation Q(x) = 0 has at least 2n 1 distinct real roots.


A-6. Suppose that each of the vertices of 4ABC is a lattice point in the (x; y)-plane and
jAP j : jPE j

that there is exactly one lattice point P in the interior of the triangle. The line AP is extended to meet BC at E . Determine the largest possible value for the ratio of lengths of segments [A lattice point is a point whose coordinates x and y are integers.]

Saturday, December 5, 1981

FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Find

n1

(5h4 18h2k2 + 5k4) : lim n5 h=1 k=1

n n XX

B-2. Determine the minimum value of


s 1 2 + t 1 2 4 1 2 (r 1) + r s t
2

for all real numbers r; s; t with 1  r  s  t  4.

B-3. Prove that there are in nitely many positive integers n with the property that2if p is 2 2
a prime divisor of n + 3, then p is also a divisor of k + 3 for some integer k with k < n.

also contains a matrix of rank 3. [The rank of a nonzero matrix M is the largest k such that the entries of some k rows and some k columns form a k by k matrix with nonzero determinant.]

rA + sB 2 V whenever A; B 2 V and r and s are scalars (i.e., real numbers). Prove or disprove the following assertion: If V contains matrices of ranks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 5, then it

B-4. Let V be a set of 5 by 7 matrices, with real entries and with the property that

n. For example, B(6) = B(1102 ) = 2 and B(15) = B(11112) = 4. Determine whether or not  1 X B (n) exp n(n + 1)
is a rational number. Here exp(x) denotes ex. of whose sides is tangent to C , let N (P; h; k) be the number of points common to P and the unit cirle with center (h; k). Let H (P ) be the region of all points (x; y) for which N (P; x; y)  1 and F (P ) be the area of H (P ). Find the smallest number u with 1 Z Z N (P; x; y) dx dy < u F (P ) for all polygons P , where the double integral is taken over H (P ).
n=1

B-5. Let B(n) be the numbers of ones in the base two expression for the positive integer

B-6. Let C be a xed unit circle in the Cartesian plane. For any convex polygon P each

Saturday, December 4, 1982

FORTY-THIRD ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1.

Let V be the region in the cartesian plane consisting of all points (x; y ) satisfying the simultaneous equations jxj  y  jxj + 3 and y  4: Find the centroid (x; y ) of V .

A-2. For positive real x. let

Prove or disprove the convergence of

Bn (x) = 1x + 2x + 3x +    + nx :
1 X Bn (logn 2) :

n=2

(n log2 n)2

A-3. Evaluate

Z 1 Arctan(x)
0

Arctan(x) dx:

A-4. Assume that the system of simultaneous di erential equations


with the initial conditions y (0) = 1, z (0) = 0 has a unique solution y = f (x), z = g (x) de ned for all real x. Prove that there exists a positive constant L such that for all real x, f (x + L) = f (x); g(x + L) = g (x):

y0 = z3 ; z0 = y3

A-5. Let a, b, c, and d be positive integers and


Given that a + c  1982 and r > 0, prove that

r=1 a b

c d:

1 r > 19833 :

A-6. Let  be a bijection of the positive integers, that is, a one-to-one function from f1; 2; 3; : : :g
onto itself. Let x1 ; x2 ; x3 ; : : : be a sequence of real numbers with the following properties: (i) jxn j is a strictly decreasing function of n; (ii) j (n) nP jxn j  0 as n  1; j n (iii) lim n1 k=1 xk = 1. Prove or disprove that these conditions imply that lim n1
n Xx k=1 (k)

= 1:

Saturday, December 4, 1982

FORTY-THIRD ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

Let M be the midpoint of side BC of a general 4ABC . Using the smallest possible n, describe a method for cutting 4AMB into n triangles which can be reassembled to form a triangle congruent to 4AMC .

B-1.

B-2. Let A(x; y) denote the number of points (m; n) in the plane with integer coordinates m and Pk=0 n satisfying m2 + n2  x2 + y 2. Let g = 1 e k2 . Express

Z1Z1
1

A(x; y)e

x2 y2

dx dy

as a polynomial in g .

B-3. Let pn be the probability that c + d is a perfect square when the integers c p d are and selected independently at random from the set f1; 2; 3; : : :; ng. Show that limn1 (pn n) exists p and express this limit in the form r( s t), where s and t are integers and r is a rational number. B-4. Let n ; n ; : : :ns be distinct integers such that
1 2

(n1 + k)(n2 + k)    (ns + k) is an integral multiple of n1 n2    ns for every integer k. For each of the following assertions, give a proof or a counterexample: (a) jni j = 1 for some i. (b) If further all ni are positive, then (n1 ; n2 ; : : :; ns ) = (1; 2; : : :; s):

B-5. For each x > ee de ne a sequence Sx = u ; u ; u ; : : : recursively as follows: u B-6.

0 1 2 0 = e, while for n  0, n + n + 1 is the logarithm of x to the base un . Prove that Sx converges to a number g (x) and that the function g de ned in this way is continuous for x > ee .

Let K (x; y; z ) denote the area of a triangle whose sides have lengths x, y , and z . For any two triangles with sides a, b, c and a0 , b0 , c0 , respectively, prove that

pK (a; b; c) + pK (a0 ; b0; c0)jlepK (a + a0 ; b + b0 ; c + c0)

and determine the cases of equality.

Saturday, December 3, 1983 numbers

FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1. How many positive integers n are there such that n is an exact divisor of at least one of the
10 ; 20 ?
40 30

A-2. The hands of an accurate clock have lengths 3 and 4. Find the distance between the tips of
the hands when that distance is increasing most rapidly.

A-3. Let p be in the set f3; 5; 7; 11; : : :g of odd primes and let
F (n) = 1 + 2n + 3n +    + (p 1)np :
2 2

Prove that if a and b are distinct integers in f0; 1; 2; : : :; p 1g then F (a) and F (b) are not congruent modulo p, that is, F (a) F (b) is not exactly divisible by p.

A-4. Let k be a positive integer and let m = 6k


S (m) =
For example with k = 3,
 
2

1. Let

+1

k 1 X j
=1

( 1)j

m : 3j 1


S (17) = 17 2

17 + 17 5 8
! !(

17 + 17 : 11 14

 m Prove that S (m) is never zero. [As usual, m = r m r .] r


)!

Prove or disprove that there exists a positive real number u such that [un ] n is an even integer for all positive integers n. Here [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

A-5.

A-6. Let exp(t) denote et and


F (x) = exp(x )
3

Z
0

xZ x u
0

exp(u + v ) dv du:
3 3

Find lim x1 F (x) or prove that it does not exist.

Saturday, December 3, 1983

FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Let v be a vertex (corner) of a cube C with edges of length 4. Let S be the largest sphere that can be inscribed in C . Let R be the region consisting of all points p between S and C such that p is closer to v that to any other vertex of the cube. Find the volume of R. B-2.
For positive integers n, let C (n) be the number of representations of n as a sum of nonincreasing powers of 2, where no power can be used more than three times. For example C (8) = 5 since the representations for 8 are: 8; 4 + 4; 4 + 2 + 2; 4 + 2 + 1 + 1; 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 1: Prove or disprove that there is a polynomial P (x) such that C (n) = [P (n)] for all positive integers n; here [u] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to u.

y000 + p(x)y 00 + q (x)y 0 + r(x)y = 0 has solutions y (x), y (x), and y (x) on the whole real line such that y (x) + y (x) + y (x) = 1 for all real x. Let f (x) = (y 0 (x)) + (y 0 (x)) + (y 0 (x)) : Find constants A and B such that f (x) is a solution to the di erential equation y 0 (x) + Ap(x)y = Br(x):
1 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3

B-3. Assume that the di erential equation

every positive integer m, the sequence m; f (m); f (f (m)); f (f (f (m))); : : : contains at least one square of an integer.

B-4. Let f (n) = n + [pn] where [x] is the largest integer less than or equal to x. Prove that, for

B-5.

Let kuk denote the distance from the real number u to the nearest integer. (For example, k2:8k = :2 = k3:2k.) For positive integers n, let 1 Z n n dx: an = n x Determine limn1 an . You may assume the identity  2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 1  3  3  5  5  7  7  9  = 2:
1

B-6. Let k be a positive integer, let m = 2k + 1, and let r 6= 1 be a complex root of zm


Prove that there exists polynomials P (z ) and Q(z ) with integer coecients such that (P (r)) + (Q(r)) = 1:
2 2

1 = 0.

FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 1, 1984 Examination A A-1. Let A be a solid a b c rectangular brick in three dimensions, where a, b, c > 0. Let B be the set of all points which are a distance at most one from some point of A (in particular, B contains A). Express the volume of B as a polynomial in a, b, and c.

A-2. Express
k=1

6k (3k+1 2k+1 )(3k 2k )

as a rational number

A-3. Let n be a positive integer. Let a, b, x be real numbers, with a = b, and let Mn denote the 2n 2n matrix whose (i, j) entry mij is given by mij = x b Thus, for example, M2 = a b polynomial in a, b, and n, where x if i = j, a if i = j and i + j is even, b if i = j and i + j is odd. b a b x b a . Express limxa det Mn /(x a)2n2 as a b x b a b x det Mn denotes the determinant of Mn .

A-4. A convex pentagon P = ABCDE, with vertices labeled consecutively, is inscribed in a circle of radius 1. Find the maximum area of P subject to the condition that the chords AC and BD be perpendicular. A-5. Let R be the region consisting of all triples (x, y, z) of nonnegative real numbers satisfying x + y + z 1. Let w = 1 x y z. Express the value of the triple integral x1 y 9 z 8 w4 dx dy dz
R

in the form a!b!c!d!/n!, where a, b, c, d, and n are positive integers. A-6. Let n be a positive integer, and let f (n) denote the last nonzero digit in the decimal expansion of n!. For instance, f (5) = 2. (a) Show that is a1 , a2 , . . . , ak are distinct nonnegative integers, then f (5a1 + 5a2 + + 5ak ) depends only on the sum a1 + a2 + + ak . (b) Assuming part (a), we can dene g(s) = f (5a1 + 5a2 + + 5ak ), where s = a1 + a2 + + ak . Find the least positive integer p for which g(s) = g(s + p), or else show that no such p exists.

for all s 1,

Questions Commitee: Melvin Hochster (Chair), Bruce Reznick, Richard P. Stanley

FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 1, 1984 Examination B

B-1. Let n be a positive integer, and dene f (n) = 1! + 2! + n!. Find polynomials P (x) and Q(x) such that f (n + 2) = P (n)f (n + 1) + Q(n)f (n), for all n 1. B-2. Find the minimum value of (u v) +
2 2

u2

for 0 < u <

9 v

2 and v > 0.

B-3. Prove or disprove the following statement: If F is a nite set with two or more elements, then there exists a binary operation on F such that for all x, y, z in F , (i) x z = y z implies x = y (right cancellation holds), and (ii) x (y z) = (x y) z (no case of associativity holds). B-4. Find, with proof, all real-valued functions y = g(x) dened and continuous on [0, ), positive on (0, ), such that for all x > 0 the y-coordinate of the centroid of the region Rx = {(s, t) : 0 s x, 0 t g(s)} is the same as the average value of g on [0, x]. B-5. For each nonnegative integer k, let d(k) denote the number of 1s in the binary expansion of k (for example, d(0) = 0 and d(5) = 2). Let m be a positive integer. Express
2m 1

(1)d(k) k m
k=0

in the form (1)m af (m) (g(m))!, where a is an integer and f and g are polynomials. B-6. A sequence of convex polygons {Pn }, n 0, is dened inductively as follows. P0 is an equilateral triangle with sides of length 1. Once Pn has been determined, its sides are trisected; the vertices of Pn+1 are the interior trisection points of the sides of Pn . Thus, Pn+1 is obtained by cutting corners o Pn , and Pn has 32n sides. (P1 is a regular hexagon with sides of length 1/3.) Express limn Area(Pn ) in the form a/b, where a and b are positive integers.

Saturday, December 7, 1985

FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1. Determine, with proof, the number of ordered triples (A1 ; A2; A3) of sets which have the property that (i) A1 [ A2 [ A3 = f1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10g. and (ii) A1 \ A2 \ A3 = ;, where ; denotes the empty set. Express the answer in the form 2a3b 5c 7d , where a, b, c and d are nonnegative integers. A-2. Let T be an acute triangle. Inscribe a pair R, S of rectangles in T as shown:

S R
Let A(X ) denote the area of polygon X . Find the maximum value, or show that no maximum )+ exists, of A(RA(T A(S ) , where T ranges over all triangles and R, S over all rectangles as above. )

A-3.

Let d be a real number. For each integer m  0, de ne a sequence fam (j )g, j = 0; 1; 2; : : : by the condition am (0) = d=2m ; and am (j + 1) = (am (j ))2 + 2am (j ); j  0: Evaluate limn1 an (n).

A-5. Let Im = R  cos(x) cos(2x)    cos(mx) dx. For which integers m, 1  m  10, is Im 6= 0? A-6. If p(x) = a + a x +    + amxm is a polynomial with real coecients ai , then set
2 0

= 3 and ai+1 = 3a for i  1. Which integers between 00 and 99 inclusive occur as the last two digits in the decimal expansion of in nitely many ai ?
1
i

A-4. De ne a sequence faig by a

(p(x)) = a2 + a2 +    + a2 : 0 1 m 2 Let f (x) = 3x + 7x + 2. Find, with proof, a polynomial g (x) with real coecients such that (i) g (0) = 1, and (ii) (f (x)n ) = (g (x)n ), for every integer n  1.

Saturday, December 7, 1985

FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


There are distinct integers m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , m5 such that the polynomial

Examination B

B-1. Let k be the smallest positive integer with the following property:

p(x) = (x m1 )(x m2)(x m3)(x m4)(x m5 )


has exactly k nonzero coecients. Find, with proof, a set of integers m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , m5 for which this minimum k is achieved.
0

B-2. De ne polynomials fn (x) for n  0 by f (x) = 1, fn (0) = 0 for n  1, and

d (f (x)) = (n + 1)f (x + 1) n dx n+1 for n  0. Find, with proof, the explicit factorization of f100 (1) into powers of distinct primes.

B-3. Let

. . . ... . . . . . . be a doubly in nite array of positive integers, and suppose each positive integer appears exactly eight times in the array. Prove that am;n > mn for some pair of positive integers (m; n). = 1. A point p chosen randomly on the circumference C and another point q chosen randomly from the interior of C (these points are chosen independently and uniformly over their domains). Let R be the rectangle with sides parallel to the x- and y -axes with diagonal pq . What is the probability that no point of R lies outside of C ?
2 2

a1;1 a1;2 a1;3    a2;1 a2;2 a2;3    a3;1 a3;2 a3;3   

B-4. Let C be the unit circle x + y


1 2 1985( +

B-5. Evaluate R 1 t = e t t dt. You may assume that R 1 e x dx = p. 1 B-6. Let G be a nite set of real nPr n matrices fMig, 1  i  r, which form a group under 
0

1)

matrix multiplication. Suppose that i=1 tr(Mi ) = 0, where tr(A) denotes the trace of the matrix Pi A. Prove that r=1 Mi is the n  n zero matrix.

Saturday, December 6, 1986

FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

integer  x. A-3. Evaluate P1=0 Arccot(n2 + n + 1), where Arccot t for t  0 denotes the number  in the interval 0 <   =2 with cot  = t. A-4. A transversal of an n  n matrix A consists of n entries of A, no two in the same row or column. Let f (n) be the number of n  n matrices A satisfying the following two conditions: (a) Each entry of A is in the set f 1; 0; 1g. (b) The sum of the n entries of a transversal is the same for all transversals of A. An example of such a matrix A is 0 1 0 11 A = ( 0 1 0 A: 0 1 0 Determine with proof a formula for f (n) of the form f (n) = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 + a4 ; where the a 's and b 's are rational numbers. A-5. Suppose f1 (x); f2 (x); : : : ; f (x) are functions of n real variables x = (x1 ; : : : ; x ) with continuous second-order partial derivatives everywhere on R . Suppose further that there are constants c such that @f = @f = c @x @x for all i and j , 1  i  n, 1  j  n. Prove that there is a function g(x) on R such that f + @g=@x is linear for all i, 1  i  n. (A linear function is one of the form a0 + a1x1 + a2 x2 +    + a x :)
n i;j n n n i i n n n ij i j ij j i n i i n n

A-1. Find, with explanation, the maximum value of f (x) = x3 3x on the set of all real numbers x satisfying x4 + 36  13x2 .  1020000  A-2. What is the units (i.e., rightmost) digit of 10100 + 3 ? Here [x] is the greatest

A-6. Let a1 ; a2 ; : : : ; a be real numbers, and let b1; b2 ; : : : ; b be distinct positive integers.
Suppose there is a polynomial f (x) satisfying the identity (1 x) f (x) = 1 +
n n n n

X
n i

Find a simple expression (not involving any sums) for f (1) in terms of b1 ; b2 ; : : : ; b and n (but independent of a1; a2 ; : : : ; a ).
n

=1

ax :
i bi

Saturday, December 6, 1986

FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

circle of radius one as shown. For what value of h do the rectangle and triangle have the same area?

B-1. Inscribe a rectangle of base b and height h and an isosceles triangle of base b in a

T = (x y; y z; z x) where x, y, and z are complex numbers satisfying the simultaneous equations x(x 1) + 2yz = y(y 1) + 2zx = z(z 1) + 2xy; and list all such triples T . B-3. Let consist of all polynomials in x with integer coecients. For f and g in and m a positive integer, let f g (mod m) mean that every coecient of f g is an integral multiple of m. Let n and p be positive integers with p prime. Given that f , g, h, r, and s are in with rf + sg 1 (mod p) and fg h (mod p), prove that there exist F and G in with F f (mod p), G g (mod p), and FG h (mod p ). B-4. For a positive real number r, let G(r) be the minimum value of jr pm2 + 2n2 j for all integers m and n. Prove or disprove the assertion that lim 1 G(r) exists and equals 0. B-5. Let f (x; y; z) = x2 + y2 + z2 + xyz. Let p(x; y; z), q(x; y; z), r(x; y; z) be polynomials with real coecients satisfying f (p(x; y; z); q (x; y; z); r(x; y; z)) = f (x; y; z): Prove or disprove the assertion that the sequence p, q, r consists of some permutation of x, y, z, where the number of minus signs is 0 or 2. B-6. Suppose A, B, C , D are n  n matrices with entries in a eld F , satisfying the conditions that AB and CD are symmetric and AD BC = I . Here I is the n  n identity matrix, and if M is an n  n matrix, M is the transpose of M . Prove that A D C B = I.
n r t t t t t t t

B-2. Prove that there are only a nite number of possibilities for the ordered triple

Saturday, December 5, 1987

FORTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


x A = (x; y) : x2 y 2 = x2 + y 2 ; o n y B = (x; y) : 2xy + x2 + y 2 = 3 ; C = f(x; y) : x3 3xy 2 + 3y = 1g; D = f(x; y) : 3x2y 3x y 3 = 0 g:

Examination A

A-1. Curves A, B, C , and D, are de ned in the plane as follows: o n

Prove that A \ B = C \ D. A-2. The sequence of digits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 ::: is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. If the 10n th digit in this sequence occurs in the part of the sequence in which the m-digit numbers are placed, de ne f (n) to be m. For example f (2) = 2 because the 100th digit enters the sequence in the placement of the two-digit integer 55. Find, with proof, f (1987). A-3. For all real x, the real-valued function y = f (x) satis es y 00 2y0 + y = 2ex : (a) If f (x) > 0 for all real x, must f 0 (x) > 0 for all real x? Explain. (b) If f 0 (x) > 0 for all real x, must f (x) > 0 for all real x? Explain. A-4. Let P be a polynomial, with real coecients, in three variables and F be a function of two variables such that P (ux; uy; uz) = u2 F (y x; z x) for all real x; y; z; u; and such that P (1; 0; 0) = 4, P (0; 1; 0) = 5, and P (0; 0; 1) = 6. Also let A; B; C be complex numbers with P (A; B; C ) = 0 and jB Aj = 10. Find jC Aj. A-5. Let
x G(x; y) = x2 +y4y2 ; x2 + 4y2 ; 0 : Prove or disprove that there is a vector-valued function F(x; y; z) = (M (x; y; z); N (x; y; z); P (x; y; z)) with the following properties: (i) M , N , P have continuous partial derivatives for all (x; y; z ) 6= (0; 0; 0); (ii) curl F = 0 for all (x; y; z ) 6= (0; 0; 0); (iii) F(x; y; 0) = G(x; y ). A-6. For each positive integer n, let a(n) be the number of zeros in the base 3 representation of n. For which positive real numbers x does the series
1 X xa(n)

converge?

n=1

n3

Saturday, December 5, 1987

FORTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


Z
2 4

Examination B

B-1. Evaluate:

ln(9 p) dx x : ln(9 x) + ln(x + 3)


s s  t r+s

B-2. Let r, s, and t be integers with 0  r, 0  s, and r + s  t. Prove that


s 0 t r

s
1

r+1

t 

s

r+2

t 

+ +

t+1 (t + 1 s)

t s r

:
2 2

B-3. Let F be a eld in which 1+1 6= 0. Show that the set of solutions to the equation x + y
with x and y in F is given by (x; y ) = (1; 0) and

2 r (x; y ) = r2 + 1 ; r22+ 1 ; r 1

=1

where r runs through the elements of F such that r2 6= 1. B-4. Let (x1 ; y1) = (0:8; 0:6) and let xn+1 = xn cos yn yn sin yn and yn+1 = xn sin yn + yn cos yn for n = 1; 2; 3; : : :. For each of lim n1 xn and lim n1 yn , prove that the limit exists and nd it or prove that the limit does not exist. B-5. Let On be the n-dimensional zero vector (0,0,...,0). Let M be a 2n  n matrix of complex numbers such that whenever (z1 ; z2 ; : : :; zn )M = On , with complex zi , not all zero, then at least one of the zi is not real. Prove that for arbitrary real numbers r1 ; r2; : : :r2n , there are complex numbers w1 ; w2 ; : : :; wn such that Re M (w1 ; : : :; wn )t = (r1 ; : : :; r2n )t : (Note: If C is a matrix of complex numbers, Re(C ) is the matrix whose entries are the real parts of the entries of C .) B-6. Let F be the eld of p2 elements where p is an odd prime. Suppose S is a set of (p2 1)=2 distinct nonzero elements of F with the property that for each a 6= 0 in F , exactly one of a and a is in S . Let N be the number of elements in the intersection S \ f2a : a 2 S g. Prove that N is even.
h i

Saturday, December 3, 1988


R x y y

FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


x; y R

Examination A

A-1. Let be the region consisting of the points ( ) of the cartesian plane satisfying both j j j j  1 and j j  1. Sketch the region and nd its area.
says that ( ) = . If ( ) = exp( 2 ), determine, with proof, whether there exists an open interval ( ) and a non-zero function de ned on ( ) such that the wrong product rule is true for in ( ).
fg
0

A-2. A not uncommon calculus mistake is to believe that the product rule for derivatives
f g
0 0

f x

a; b x

a; b

a; b

A-3. Determine, with proof, the set of real numbers for which X 1 1 x
x
1

n=1

csc

converges.

A-4. (a) If every point on the plane is painted one of three colors, do there necessarily
exist two points of the same color exactly one inch apart? (b) What if \three" is replaced by \nine"? Justify your answers.
f

A-5. Prove that there exists a unique function from the set R of positive real numbers to R such that
+ +
f f x

( ( )) = 6

f x

( ) and
n

f x

( ) 0 for all
>

x >

of the identity? Prove your answer.

A-6. If a linear transformation A on an -dimensional vector space has + 1 eigenvectors such that any of them are linearly independent, does it follow that A is a scalar multiple
n n

Saturday, December 3, 1988


; ; ;:::

FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


ab a b xy xz yz

Examination B

B-1. A composite (positive integer) is a product with and not necessarily distinct
integers in f2 3 4 g. Show that every composite is expressible as , , and positive integers.
x y z

+ + + 1, with
x

B-2. Prove or disprove: If and are real numbers with  0 and ( + 1)  ( + 1) ,


then (
y y

1)  .
x

y y

B-3. For every in the set Z = f1 2 g of positive integers, let n be the minimum p 3j for all nonnegative integers and with + = . Find, with proof, value of j the smallest positive real number with n  for all in Z . B-4. Prove n if Pn n is a convergent series of positive real numbers, then so is P ( )n= that.
n

;:::

n=1

an

( +1)

=1 a

B-5. For positive integers , let Mn be the 2 + 1 by 2 + 1 skew-symmetric matrix for which each entry in the rst subdiagonals below the main diagonal is 1 and each of the remaining entries below the main diagonal is 1. Find, with proof, the rank of Mn.
n n n n

(According to one de nition the rank of a matrix is the largest such that there is a  submatrix with nonzero determinant.) One may note that
k k

0 M =(
1

0 1 1 0 1 1 0

1 1 1A

and

0 B M =B B (
2

0 1 1 1 11 1 0 1 1 1C 1 1 0 1 1C C 1 1 1 0 1A 1 1 1 1 0
a; b

B-6. Prove that there exist an in nite number of ordered pairs ( ) of integers such that
for every positive integer the number + is a triangular number if and only if is a triangular number. (The triangular numbers are the ( ) = ( + 1) 2 with in f0 1 2 g.)
t at b t t n n n = n ; ; ;:::

Saturday, December 2, 1989

FIFTIETH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1. How many primes among the positive integers, written as usual in base 10, are alternating
1's and 0's, beginning and ending with 1?

A-2. Evaluate

Z Z
a

emaxf 2

b x ;a y

2 2

g dy dx where a and b are positive.

A-3. Prove that if

11z10 + 10iz 9 + 10iz 11 = 0; then jzj = 1: (Here z is a complex number and i2 = 1.)

A-4. If is an irrational number, 0 < < 1, is there a nite game with an honest coin such that the probability of one player winning the game is ? (An honest coin is one for which the probability of heads and the probability of tails are both 1 . A game is nite if with probability 2 1 it must end in a nite number of moves.)
Let m be a positive integer and let G be a regular (2m + 1)-gon inscribed in the unit circle. Show that there is a positive constant A, independent of m, with the following property. For any points p inside G there are two distinct vertices v1 and v2 of G such that 1 A j jp v1 j jp v2 j j < m m3 : Here js tj denotes the distance between the points s and t. elements. Let

A-5.

A-6. Let = 1 + a1x + a2 x2 +    be a formal power series with coecients in the eld of two 8 1 if every block of zeros in the binary expansion of n 9 > > > > has an even number of zeros in the block = < a => > > > ; :
n

0 otherwise.

(For example, a36 = 1 because 36 = 1001002 and a20 = 0 because 20 = 101002:) Prove that 3 + x + 1 = 0:

Saturday, December 2, 1989

FIFTIETH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

A dart, thrown at random, hits a square target. Assuming that any two parts of the target of equal area are equally likely to be hit, nd the probabilityp the point hit is nearer that to the center than to any edge. Express your answer in the form a b + c , where a; b; c; d are d integers. (xy = xz implies y = z , and yx = zx implies y = z ). Assume that for every a in S the set fa : n = 1; 2; 3; : : :g is nite. Must S be a group?
n

B-1.

B-2. Let S be a non-empty set with an associative operation that is left and right cancellative B-3. Let f be a function on [0; 1), di erentiable and satisfying
x

f 0(x) = 3f (x) + 6f (2x) p for x > 0. Assume that jf (x)j  e for x  0 (so that f (x) tends rapidly to 0 as x increases). For n a non-negative integer, de ne Z1  = x f (x) dx
n n

(sometimes called the nth moment of f ). a. Express  in terms of 0. n b. Prove that the sequence f 3 ! g always converges, and that the limit is 0 only if 0 = 0.
n n n

B-4.

Can a countably in nite set have an uncountable collection of non-empty subsets such that the intersection of any two of them is nite? unit circle as A; B; C; D so that AB is parallel to CD and A; B; C; D are in counterclockwise order. Let s1; s2, and d denote the lengths of the line segments AB; CD, and OE , where E is the point of intersection of the diagonals of T , and O is the center of the circle. Determine the least upper bound of 1 2 over all such T for which d 6= 0, and describe all cases, if any, in which it is attained.
s s d

B-5. Label the vertices of a trapezoid T (quadrilateral with two parallel sides) inscribed in the

) be a point chosen at random from the n-dimensional region de ned by 0 < x1 < x2 <    < x < 1: Let f be a continuous function on [0; 1] with f (1) = 0. Set x0 = 0 and x +1 = 1. Show that the expected value of the Riemann sum
n n n

B-6. Let (x1; x2 ; : : : x

X
n i

is 01 f (t)P (t) dt, where P is a polynomial of degree n, independent of f , with 0  P (t)  1 for 0  t  1.

=0

(x +1 x )f (x +1 )
i i i

Saturday, December 1, 1990

FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


T0 = 2; T1 = 3; T2 = 6;

Examination A

A-1. Let
and for n  3,

Tn = (n + 4)Tn 1 4nTn 2 + (4n 8)Tn 3: The rst few terms are 2; 3; 6; 14; 40; 152; 784; 5168; 40576: Find, with proof, a formula for Tn of the form Tn = An + Bn, where fAn g and fBng are well-known sequences.

A-2. Is p2 the limit of a sequence of numbers of the form pn pm (n; m = 0; 1; 2; : : :)?


3 3

A-3. Prove that any convex pentagon whose vertices (no three of which are collinear)
have integer coordinates must have area  5=2.

A-4. Consider a paper punch that can be centered at any point of the plane and that,

when operated, removes from the plane precisely those points whose distance from the center is irrational. How many punches are needed to remove every point?

A-5. If A and B are square matrices of the same size such that ABAB = 0, does it follow that BABA = 0?
(S; T ) of subsets of f1; 2; : : : ; ng admissible if s > jT j for each s 2 S , and t > jS j for each t 2 T . How many admissible ordered pairs of subsets of f1; 2; : : : ; 10g are there? Prove your answer.

A-6. If X is a nite set, let jX j denote the number of elements in X . Call an ordered pair

Saturday, December 1, 1990 for all x,

FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Find all real-valued continuously di erentiable functions f on the real line such that
(f (x))2 =
1 X(1 + xj ) (1 1+

Z x[(f (t))2 + (f 0(t))2] dt + 1990:


0

B-2. Prove that for jxj < 1, jzj > 1,


j =1

z)(1 zx)(1 zx2 )    (1 zxj 1 ) = 0: (z x)(z x2 )(z x3 )    (z xj )

B-3. Let S be a set of 2  2 integer matrices whose entries aij (1) are all squares of integers and, (2) satisfy aij  200. Show that if S has more than 50387 (= 154 152 15 + 2) elements, then it has two elements that commute. B-4. Let G be a nite group of order n generated by a and b. Prove or disprove: there is a sequence g1; g2; g3 ; : : : ; g2n such that (1) every element of G occurs exactly twice, and (2) gi+1 equals gia or gib for i = 1; 2; : : : ; 2n. (Interpret g2n+1 as g1.) B-5. Is there an in nite sequence a0; a1 ; a2 ; : : : of nonzero real numbers such that for
n = 1; 2; 3; : : : the polynomial pn(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 +    + anxn has exactly n distinct real roots?

B-6. Let S be a nonempty closed bounded convex set in the plane. Let K be a line and t

a positive number. Let L1 and L2 be support lines for S parallel to K1 , and let L be the line parallel to K and midway between L1 and L2 . Let BS (K; t) be the band of points whose distance from L is at most (t=2)w, where w is the distance between L1 and L2. What is the smallest t such that S \ BS (K; t) 6= ;

\
K

for all S ? (K runs over all lines in the plane.)

The Fifty-Second William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition


December 7, 1991

point (2; 0). It then rotates 90 clockwise about the point (5; 0), then 90 clockwise about the point (7; 0), and nally, 90 clockwise about the point (10; 0). (The side originally on the x-axis is now back on the x-axis.) Find the area of the region above the x-axis and below the curve traced out by the point whose initial position is (1; 1). be invertible? such that and

A-1. A 2  3 rectangle has vertices at (0; 0); (2; 0); (0; 3); and (2; 3). It rotates 90 clockwise about the

A-2. Let A and B be di erent n  n matrices with real entries. If A3 = B3 and A2 B = B2A, can A2 + B2 A-3. Find all real polynomials p(x) of degree n  2 for which there exist real numbers r1 < r2 <    < r
(i) p(r ) = 0;
i n

i = 1; 2; : : :; n; i = 1; 2; : : :; n 1;

(ii)

p0 ri + ri+1 = 0 2

where p0 (x) denotes the derivative of p(x).

c1 ; c2; c3; : : :, respectively, such that (i) the c have no limit point in the nite plane, (ii) the sum of the areas of the D is nite, and (iii) every line in the plane intersects at least one of the D ?
i i i

A-4. Does there exist an in nite sequence of closed discs D1 ; D2; D3; : : : in the plane, with centers

A-5. Find the maximum value of


for 0  y  1.
r r

Z p x4 + (y y2 )2 dx
y

A-6. Let A(n) denote the number of sums of positive integers a1 + a2 +    + a that add up to n with a1 > a2 +a3 ; a2 > a3 +a4 ; : : :; a 2 > a 1 +a ; a 1 > a . Let B(n) denote the number of b1 +b2 +    + b
r r r r s s i j j j j

that add up to n, with (i) b1  b2  : : :  b , (ii) each b is in the sequence 1; 2; 4; : : :; g ; : : : de ned by g1 = 1, g2 = 2, and g = g 1 + g 2 + 1, and (iii) if b1 = g then every element in f1; 2; 4; : ::; g g appears at least once as a b . Prove that A(n) = B(n) for each n  1. (For example, A(7) = 5 because the relevant sums are 7; 6+1; 5+2;4+3; 4+2+1, and B(7) = 5 because the relevant sums are 4 + 2 + 1; 2+ 2 + 2 + 1; 2+ 2 + 1 + 1 + 1; 2+ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1; 1+ 1 + 1 + 1+ 1 + 1 + 1.)
k k i

The Fifty-Second William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition


December 7, 1991

B-1. For each integer n  0, let S(n) = n m2, where m is the greatest integer with m2  n. De ne a sequence (a )1 by a0 = A and a +1 = a + S(a ) for k  0. For what positive integers A is this sequence =0
eventually constant?
k k k k k

that for each pair of real numbers x and y,

B-2. Suppose f and g are non-constant, di erentiable, real-valued functions on R. Furthermore, suppose
f(x + y) = f(x)f(y) g(x)g(y); g(x + y) = f(x)g(y) + g(x)f(y):

If f 0 (0) = 0, prove that (f(x))2 + (g(x))2 = 1 for all x.

B-3. Does there exist a real number L such that, if m and n are integers greater than L, then an m  n rectangle may be expressed as a union of 4  6 and 5  7 rectangles, any two of which intersect at most along
their boundaries?

B-4. Suppose p is an odd prime. Prove that


p j

X p p + j 2 j j  2 + 1 (mod p ): =0
p p

are in the set

B-5. Let p be an odd prime and let Z denote (the eld of) the integers modulo p. How many elements
fx2 : x 2 Z g \ fy2 + 1 : y 2 Z g?
p p

B-6. Let a and b be positive numbers. Find the largest number c, in terms of a and b, such that
u(1 a b1  a sinh ux + b sinhsinh u x) sinh u for all u with 0 < juj  c and for all x, 0 < x < 1. (Note: sinh u = (e e )=2.)
x x u u

Saturday, December 5, 1992

FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1. Prove that f (n) = 1 n is the only integer-valued function de ned on the integers that satis es the following conditions: (i) f (f (n)) = n, for all integers n; (ii) f (f (n + 2) + 2) = n for all integers n; (iii) f (0) = 1. A-2.
De ne C ( ) to be the coecient of x1992 in the power series about x = 0 of (1 + x) . Evaluate   Z 1 1 + 1 + 1 ++ 1 C ( y 1) y + 1 y + 2 y + 3 y + 1992 dy:
0

A-3. For a given positive integer mm nd all ntriples (n; x; y) of positive integers, with n relatively ,
prime to m, which satisfy (x2 + y 2 ) = (xy ) .
 

A-4. Let f be an in nitely di erentiable real-valued function de ned on the real numbers. If
2 1 f n = n2n+ 1 ;

n = 1; 2; 3; : : :;

compute the values of the derivatives f (k) (0); k = 1; 2; 3; : : :.

A-5. For each positive integer n, let


an = 0 if the number of 1's in the binary representation of n is even, 1 if the number of 1's in the binary representation of n is odd.
Show that there do not exist positive integers k and m such that


ak+j = ak+m+j = ak+m+2j ; for 0  j  m 1:

A-6. Four points are chosen at random on the surface of a sphere.

What is the probability that the center of the sphere lies inside the tetrahedron whose vertices are at the four points? (It is understood that each point is independently chosen relative to a uniform distribution on the sphere.)

Saturday, December 7?, 1992

FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Let S be a set of n distinct real numbers. Let AS be the set of numbers that occur as averages of two distinct elements of S . For a given n  2, what is the smallest possible number of distinct elements in AS ?
of (1 + x + x2 + x3 ) . Prove that


B-2. For nonnegative integers n and k, de ne Q(n; k) to be the coecient of xk in the expansion n
Q(n; k) =
k X n j =0

k 2j ;

where a is the standard binomial coecient. (Reminder: For integers a and b with a  0, b a = a!=(b!(a b)!) for 0  b  a, and a  otherwise.) b b=0

a0(x; y) = x; 2 2 an+1 (x; y) = (an (x; y2)) + y ; for n  0: Find the area of the region f(x; y )j(an(x; y ))n0 convergesg.
common with x3 x. Let

B-3. For any pair (x; y) of real numbers, a sequence (an(x; y))n

is de ned as follows:

B-4. Let p(x) be a nonzero polynomial of degree less than 1992 having no nonconstant factor in
for polynomials f (x) and g (x). Find the smallest possible degree of f (x).

d1992  p(x)  = f (x) dx1992 x3 x g (x)

B-5. Let Dn denote the value of the (n


3 1 1 1 . . . 1

Is the set fDn =n!gn2 bounded?

1 4 1 1 . . . 1

1)  (n 1) determinant 1 1  1 1 1  1 5 1  1 1 6  1 . . . .. . . . . . . . 1 1  n + 1

B-6. Let M be a set of real n  n matrices such that

(i) I 2 M, where I is the n  n identity matrix; (ii) if A 2 M and B 2 M, then either AB 2 M or AB 2 M, but not both; (iii) if A 2 M and B 2 M, then either AB = BA or AB = BA; (iv) if A 2 M and A 6= I , there is at least one B 2 M such that AB = BA. Prove that M contains at most n2 matrices.

Saturday, December 4, 1993

FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

A-1. The horizontal line y = c intersects the curve y = 2x 3x3 in the rst quadrant as

in the gure. Find c so that the areas of the two shaded regions are equal. [The gure indicates that the rst region is that bounded by the y-axis, the line y = c and the curve; the second is that below the curve and above the line y = c between their two points of intersection.]

A-2. Let (xn )n0 be a sequence of nonzero real numbers such that

x2 xn 1 xn+1 = 1; for n = 1; 2; 3; : : : : n Prove there exists a real number a such that xn+1 = axn xn 1 for all n  1.

A-3. Let Pn be the set of subsets of f1; 2; : : : ; ng. Let c(n; m) be the number of functions
f : Pn ! f1; 2; : : : ; mg such that f (A \ B) = minff (A); f (B)g. Prove that m X n c(n; m) = j :
j =1

A-4. Let x1; x2 ; : : : ; x19 be positive integers each of which is less than or equal to 93. Let A-5. Show that

y1 ; y2 ; : : : ; y93 be positive integers each of which is less than or equal to 19. Prove that there exists a (nonempty) sum of some xi 's equal to a sum of some yj 's.
1 Z 10 x2 x 2 Z 11 x2 x 2 Z 11 x2 x 2 10 dx + 1 x3 3x + 1 dx + 101 x3 3x + 1 dx 100 x3 3x + 1 101 100

is a rational number.

A-6. The in nite sequence of 2's and 3's

2; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 2; 3; 3; 3; 2; : : : has the property that, if one forms a second sequence that records the number of 3's between successive 2's, the result is identical to the given sequence. Show that there exists a real number r such that, for any n, the nth term of the sequence is 2 if and only if n = 1 + brmc for some nonnegative integer m. (Note: bxc denotes the largest integer less than or equal to x.)

Saturday, December 4, 1993

FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Find the smallest positive integer n such that for every integer m, with 0 < m < 1993,
there exists an integer k for which

m < k < m + 1: 1993 n 1994


2n. The deck is randomly shued and n cards are dealt to each of two players, A and B. Beginning with A, the players take turns discarding one of their remaining cards and announcing its number. The game ends as soon as the sum of the numbers on the discarded cards is divisible by 2n + 1. The last person to discard wins the game. Assuming optimal strategy by both A and B, what is the probability that A wins?

B-2. Consider the following game played with a deck of 2n cards numbered from 1 to

B-3. Two real numbers x and y are chosen at random in the interval (0; 1) with respect to

the uniform distribution. What is the probability that the closest integer to x=y is even? Express the answer in the form r + s, where r and s are rational numbers.

B-4. The function K (x; y) is positive and continuous for 0  x  1; 0  y  1, and the
functions f (x) and g(x) are positive and continuous for 0  x  1. Suppose that for all x, 0  x  1,

Z1
0

f (y)K (x; y) dy = g(x) and

Z1
0

g(y)K (x; y) dy = f (x):

Show that f (x) = g(x) for 0  x  1.

B-5. Show there do not exist four points in the Euclidean plane such that the pairwise
distances between the points are all odd integers. can transform S into a set containing 0 by a nite number of applications of the following rule: Select two of the three integers, say x and y, where x  y and replace them with 2x and y x.

B-6. Let S be a set of three, not necessarily distinct, positive integers. Show that one

Saturday, December 3, 1994 Prove that the series

FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


n=1 an

Examination A

A-1. Suppose that a P1 sequence a1 ; a2 ; a3 ; : : : satis es 0 < an  a2n + a2n+1 for all n  1.
diverges.

A-2. Let A be the area of1 the region in the rst quadrant bounded by the line y = 1 x, 2 2 2

the x-axis, and the ellipse 9 x + y = 1. Find the positive number m such that A is equal to the area of the region in the rst quadrant bounded by the line y = mx, the y-axis, and 1 the ellipse 9 x2 + y2 = 1.

A-3. SHow that if the points of an isosceles right triangle of side length 1 are each colored
with one of four colors, then there must be two points of the same color which are at least p a distance 2 2 apart.

A-4. Let A and B be 2  2 matrices with integer entries such that A, A + B, A + 2B,

A + 3B, and A + 4B are all invertible matrices whose inverses have integer entries. Show that A + 5B is invertible and that its inverse has integer entries.

A-5. Let (rn ) be a sequence of positive real numbers such that limn1 rn = 0. Let S be
the set of numbers representable as a sum

ri1 + ri2 +    + ri1994 ;


with i1 < i2 <    < i1994. Show that every nonempty interval (a; b) contains a nonempty subinterval (c; d) that does not intersect S .

A-6. Let f1; f2 ; : : : ; f10 be bijections of the set of integers such that for each integer n,
e10 F = ff1e1  f2e2      f10 g;

there is some composition fi1  fi2     fim of these functions (allowing repititions) which maps 0 to n. COnsider the set of 1024 functions

ei = 0 or 1 for 1  i  10. (fi0 is the identity function and fi1 = f .) Show that if A is any nonempty nite set of integers, than at most 512 of the functions in F map A to itself.

Saturday, December 3, 1994

FIFTY-FIFTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Find all positive integers that are within 250 of exactly 15 perfect squares. B-2. For which real numbers c is there a straight line that intersects the curve
y = x4 + 9x3 + cx2 + 9x + 4
in four distinct points?

B-3. Find the set of all real numbers0 k with the following property: For any positive, B-4. For n  1, let dn be the greatest common divisor of the entries of An I , where
A= 3 2 4 3
Show that limn dn = 1.

di erentiable function f that satis es f (x) > f (x) for all x, there is some number N such that f (x) > ekx for all x > N .

and I = 1 0 : 0 1

B-5. For any real number , de ne the function f (x) = b xc. Let n be a positive integer.
Show that there exists an such that for 1  k  n,
k f (n2 ) = n2 k = f k (n2 ):

B-6. For any integer a, set

na = 101a 100  2a: Show that for 0  a; b; c; d  99, na + nb  nc + nd (mod 10100) implies fa; bg = fc; dg.

Saturday, December 2, 1995

FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

S , then so is ab). Let T and U be disjoint subsets of S whose union is S . Given that the product of any three (not necessarily distinct) elements of T is in T and that the product of any three elements of U is in U , show that at least one of the two subsets T; U is closed under multiplication. A-2. For what pairs (a; b) of positive real numbers does the improper integral Z 1 qp px qpx px b dx x+a
b

A-1. Let S be a set of real numbers which is closed under multiplication (that is, if a and b are in

converge? A-3. The number d1d2 : : : d9 has nine (not necessarily distinct) decimal digits. The number e1 e2 : : : e9 is such that each of the nine 9-digit numbers formed by replacing just one of the digits d in d1 d2 : : : d9 by the corresponding digit e (1  i  9) is divisible by 7. The number f1 f2 : : : f9 is related to e1 e2 : : : e9 is the same way: that is, each of the nine numbers formed by replacing one of the e by the corresponding f is divisible by 7. Show that, for each i, d f is divisible by 7. [For example, if d1 d2 : : : d9 = 199501996, then e6 may be 2 or 9, since 199502996 and 199509996 are multiples of 7.] A-4. Suppose we have a necklace of n beads. Each bead is labeled with an integer and the sum of all these labels is n 1. Prove that we can cut the necklace to form a string whose consecutive labels x1 ; x2 ; : : :; x satisfy
i i i i i i n

X
k i

=1

k 1

for k = 1; 2; : : :; n:

A-5. Let x1 ; x2; : : : ; x

be di erentiable (real-valued) functions of a single variable t which satisfy


dx1 = a11 x1 + a12 x2 +    + a1 x dt dx2 = a21 x1 + a22 x2 +    + a2 x dt
n n n

dx = a 1 x1 + a 2 x2 +    + a x dt
n n n nn ij i n

. . .

. . .

. . .

for some constants a > 0. Suppose that for all i, x (t)  0 as t  1. Are the functions x1 ; x2; : : : ; x necessarily linearly dependent? A-6. Suppose that each of n people writes down the numbers 1, 2, 3 in random order in one column of a 3  n matrix, with all orders equally likely and with the orders for di erent columns independent of each other. Let the row sums a; b; c of the resulting matrix be rearranged (if necessary) so that a  b  c. Show that for some n  1995, it is at least four times as likely that both b = a + 1 and c = a + 2 as that a = b = c.

Saturday, December 2, 1995

FIFTY-SIXTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1.

p Express your answer in the form (a + b c)=d, where a; b; c; d are integers.

For a partition  of f1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9g, let  (x) be the number of elements in the part containing x. Prove that for any two partitions  and  0 , there are two distinct numbers x and y in f1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9g such that  (x) =  (y ) and  0 (x) =  0 (y ). [A partition of a set S is a collection of disjoint subsets (parts) whose union is S .] B-2. An ellipse, whose semi-axes have lengths a and b, rolls without slipping on the curve y = c sin(x=a). How are a; b; c related, given that the ellipse completes one revolution when it traverses one period of the curve? B-3. To each positive integer with n2 decimal digits we associate the determinant of the matrix obtained by writing the digits in order across the rows. For example, for n = 2, to the integer 8617 we associate det 8 6 = 50. Find, as a function of n, the sum of all the determinants associated 1 7 with n2 -digit integers. (Leading digits are assumed to be nonzero; for example, for n = 2, there are 9000 determinants.) B-4. Evaluate s 1 8 2207 : 1 2207 2207
:::

alternately. A move consists of taking either a. one bean from a heap, provided at least two beans are left behind in that heap, or b. a complete heap of two or three beans. The player who takes the last heap wins. To win the game, do you want to move rst or second? Give a winning strategy. B-6. For a positive real number , de ne
S ( ) = fbn c : n = 1; 2; 3; : : :g:

B-5. A game starts with four heaps of beans, containing 3,4,5 and 6 beans. The two players move

Prove that f1; 2; 3; : : :g cannot be expressed as the disjoint union of three sets S ( ); S ( ) and S ( ). [As usual, bxc is the greatest integer  x.]

Saturday, December 7, 1996

FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

of area A exists such that the two squares can be packed in the rectangle (without interior overlap). You may assume that the sides of the squares are parallel to the sides of the rectangle.

A-1. Find the least number A such that for any two squares of combined area 1, a rectangle

A-2. Let C1 and C2 be circles whose centers are 10 units apart, and whose radii are 1 and 3. Find, with proof, the locus of all points M for which there exists points X on C1 and Y on C2 such that M is the midpoint of the line segment XY .
from a total of 6 courses o ered. Prove or disprove: there are 5 students and 2 courses such that all 5 have chosen both courses or all 5 have chosen neither course.

A-3. Suppose that each of 20 students has made a choice of anywhere from 0 to 6 courses

A-4. Let S be the set of ordered triples (a; b; c) of distinct elements of a nite set A. Suppose that 1. (a; b; c) 2 S if and only if (b; c; a) 2 S ; 2. (a; b; c) 2 S if and only if (c; b; a) 2 S ; = 3. (a; b; c) and (c; d; a) are both in S if and only if (b; c; d) and (d; a; b) are both in S . Prove that there exists a one-to-one function g from A to R such that g(a) < g(b) < g(c) implies (a; b; c) 2 S . Note: R is the set of real numbers. A-5. If p is a prime number greater than 3 and k = b2p=3c, prove that the sum
p p p 1 + 2 + + k
of binomial coecients is divisible by p2 . continuous functions f : R  R such that f (x) = f (x + c) for all x 2 R. Note that R denotes the set of real numbers.

A-6. Let c > 0 be a constant. Give a complete description, with proof, of the set of all 2

Saturday, December 7, 1996

FIFTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. De ne a sel sh set to be a set which has its own cardinality (number of elements)
as an element. Find, with proof, the number of subsets of f1; 2; : : : ; ng which are minimal sel sh sets, that is, sel sh sets none of whose proper subsets is sel sh.

B-2. Show that for every positive integer n,

2n 1 2n2 1 2n + 1 2n2+1 < 1  3  5    (2n 1) < : e e

value, as a function of n (with n  2), of

B-3. Given that fx1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xng = f1; 2; : : : ; ng, nd, with proof, the largest possible
x1 x2 + x2 x3 +    + xn 1 xn + xn x1 :

B-4. For any square matrix A, we can de ne sin A by the usual power series:
1 X ( 1)n 2n+1 sin A = (2n + 1)! A : n=0

Prove or disprove: there exists a 2  2 matrix A with real entries such that sin A = 1 1996 : 0 1

B-5. Given a nite string S of symbols X and O, we write (S ) for the number of X 's in S minus the number of O's. For example, (XOOXOOX ) = 1. We call a string S balanced if every substring T of (consecutive symbols of) S has 2  (T )  2. Thus,
XOOXOOX is not balanced, since it contains the substring OOXOO. Find, with proof, the number of balanced strings of length n.

B-6. Let (a1 ; b1 ); (a2 ; b2 ); : : : ; (an ; bn ) be the vertices of a convex polygon which contains the origin in its interior. Prove that there exist positive real numbers x and y such that
(a1 ; b1 )xa1 yb1 + (a2 ; b2 )xa2 yb2 +    + (an; bn )xan ybn = (0; 0):

Saturday, December 6, 1997

FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination A

the altitudes, O the center of the circumscribed circle, M the midpoint of BC, and F the foot of the altitude from A. What is the length of BC? H O 5 F 11 M

A-1. A rectangle, HOMF , has sides HO = 11 and OM = 5. A triangle ABC has H as the intersection of

to player 2, who then passes two pennies to player 3. Player 3 then passes one penny to Player 4, who passes two pennies to Player 5, and so on, players alternately passing one penny or two to the next player who still has some pennies. A player who runs out of pennies drops out of the game and leaves the table. Find an in nite set of numbers n for which some player ends up with all n pennies.

A-2. Players 1; 2; 3; : : :; n are seated around a table, and each has a single penny. Player 1 passes a penny

A-3. Evaluate

  Z 1  x3 x5 x7 +    1 + x2 + x4 + x6 +    : x 2 + 24 246 22 22  42 22  42  62 0

A-4. Let G be a group with identity e and  : G  G a function such that


(g1)(g2 )(g3) = (h1 )(h2)(h3 ) whenever g1g2 g3 = e = h1h2 h3. Prove that there exists an element a 2 G such that (x) = a(x) is a homomorphism (i.e. (xy) = (x) (y) for all x; y 2 G).

A-5. Let Nn denote the number of ordered n-tuples of positive integers (a1; a2; : : :; an) such that 1=a1 + 1=a2 + : : : + 1=an = 1. Determine whether N10 is even or odd. A-6. For a positive integer n and any real number c, de ne xk recursively by x0 = 0, x1 = 1, and for k  0,
(n xk+2 = cxk+1 k + 1 k)xk : Fix n and then take c to be the largest value for which xn+1 = 0. Find xk in terms of n and k, 1  k  n.

Saturday, December 6, 1997

FIFTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

B-1. Let fxg denote the distance between the real number x and the nearest integer. For each positive
integer n, evaluate Fn =
6X1 n
m=1

m m min(f 6n g; f 3n g):

(Here min(a; b) denotes the minimum of a and b.)

B-2. Let f be a twice-di erentiable real-valued function satisfying


f(x) + f 00 (x) = xg(x)f 0 (x); where g(x)  0 for all real x. Prove that jf(x)j is bounded.
n X 1 in the form pn =qn, where pn and qn are relatively m=1 m prime positive integers. Determine all n such that 5 does not divide qn.

B-3. For each positive integer n, write the sum

B-4. Let am;n denote the coecient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x + x2)m . Prove that for all [integers]
k  0, 0
2k bXc 3

i=0

( 1)i ak i;i  1:

B-5. Prove that for n  2,

n z}|{ n terms 2 22


1 terms z}|{ 2 22


(mod n):

B-6. The dissection of the 3{4{5 triangle shown below has diameter 5=2.
4 5 3 Find the least diameter of a dissection of this triangle into four parts. (The diameter of a dissection is the least upper bound of the distances between pairs of points belonging to the same part.)

Saturday, December 4, 1999

SIXTIETH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION


 1

Examination A

A1. Find polynomials f (x), g(x) and h(x), if they exist, such that, for all x,
jf (x)j jg(x)j + h(x) = 3x + 2
are polynomials f1 (x); : : : ; fk (x) such that if x < 1 if 1  x  0 2x + 2 if x > 0.

A2. Let p(x) be a polynomial that is non-negative for all x. Prove that, for some k, there
p(x) =
k X j =1

(fj (x))2 :

1 X n 1 1 2x x2 = n=0 anx : Prove that, for each integer n  0, there is an integer m such that

A3. Consider the power series expansion

a2 + a2 +1 = am : n n

A4. Sum the series

m2 n 3m (n3m + m3n) : m=1 n=1

1 1 XX

A5. Prove that there is a constant C such that, if p(x) is a polynomial of degree 1999,
then

jp(0)j  C

Z1

jp(x)j dx:

A6. The sequence (an )n1 is de ned by a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 24, and, for n  4,


2 2 an = 6an 1an 3 a 8an 1 an 2 : an 2 n 3 Show that, for all n, an is an integer multiple of n.

Saturday, December 4, 1999

SIXTIETH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION

Examination B

AB so that jAC j = jADj = 1; the point E is chosen on BC so that 6 CDE = . The perpendicular to BC at E meets AB at F . Evaluate lim 0 jEF j. [Here jPQj denotes the length of the line segment PQ.] C E B

B1. Right triangle ABC has right angle at C and 6 BAC = ; the point D is chosen on

 D

quadratic polynomial and P (x) is the second derivative of P (x). Show that if P (x) has at least two distinct roots then it must have n distinct roots. [The roots may be either real or complex.]

B2. Let P (x) be a polynomial of degree n such that P (x) + Q(x)P 00 (x), where Q(x) is a 00 B3. Let A = f(x; y) : 0  x; y < 1g. For (x; y) 2 A, let
S (x; y) =

where the sum ranges over all pairs (m; n) of positive integers satisfying the indicated inequalities. Evaluate lim (1 xy2 )(1 x2 y)S (x; y): x;y  ; x;y 2A
    1 1

1 2

 m 2 n

xm yn ;

B4. Let000f be a real function with a continuous third derivative such that f (x), f 0 (x), 00 000

f (x), f (x) are positive for all x. Suppose that f (x)  f (x) for all x. Show that f 0 (x) < 2f (x) for all x.

B5. For an integer n  3, let  = 2=n. Evaluate the determinant of the n  n matrix
I + A, where I is the n  n identity matrix and A = (ajk ) has entries ajk = cos(j + k) for all j; k.

B6. Let S be a nite set of integers, each greater than 1. Suppose that for each integer n

there is some s 2 S such that gcd(s; n) = 1 or gcd(s; n) = s. Show that there exist s; t 2 S such that gcd(s; t) is prime. [Here gcd(a; b) denotes the greatest common divisor of a and b.]

SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 1, 2001 Examination A

A1. Consider a set S and a binary operation on S (that is, for each a, b in S, a b is in S). Assume that (a b) a = b for all a, b in S. Prove that a (b a) = b for all a, b in S.

A2. You have coins C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn . For each k, coin Ck is biased so that, when tossed, 1 it has probability 2k+1 of falling heads. If the n coins are tossed, what is the probability that the number of heads is odd? Express the answer as a rational function of n.

A3. For each integer m, consider the polynomial Pm (x) = x4 (2m + 4)x2 + (m 2)2 . For what values of m is Pm (x) the product of two nonconstant polynomials with integer coecients?

A4. Triangle ABC has area 1. Points E, F, G lie, respectively, on sides BC, CA, AB such that AE bisects BF at point R, BF bisects CG at point S, and CG bisects AE at point T . Find the area of triangle RST .

A5. Prove that there are unique positive integers a, n such that an+1 (a + 1)n = 2001.

A6. Can an arc of a parabola inside a circle of radius 1 have length greater than 4?

SIXTY-SECOND ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 1, 2001 Examination B B1. Let n be an even positive integer. Write the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n2 in the squares of an n n grid so that the k th row, from left to right, is (k 1)n + 1, (k 1)n + 2, . . . , (k 1)n + n. Color the squares of the grid so that half of the squares in each row and in each column are red and the other half are black (a checkerboard coloring is one possibility). Prove that for each such coloring, the sum of the numbers on the red squares is equal to the sum of the numbers on the black squares. B2. Find all pairs of real numbers (x, y) satisfying the system of equations 1 1 + = (x2 + 3y 2 )(3x2 + y 2 ) x 2y 1 1 = 2(y 4 x4 ). x 2y B3. For any positive integer n let n denote the closest integer to
n=1

n. Evaluate

+ 2 2n

B4. Let S denote the set of rational numbers dierent from 1, 0 and 1. Dene f : S S 1 by f (x) = x . Prove or disprove that x

f (n) (S) = ,
n=1

where f (n) = f f f . (Note: f (S) denotes the set of all values f (s) for s S.) B5. Let a and b be real numbers in the interval (0, 1 ) and let g be a continuous real2 valued function such that g(g(x)) = ag(x) + bx for all real x. Prove that g(x) = cx for some constant c. B6. Assume that (an )n1 is an increasing sequence of positive real numbers such that an lim = 0. Must there exist innitely many positive integers n such that n n an1 + an+i < 2an , for i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1 ?
n times

SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 6, 2003 Examination A A1. Let n be a xed positive integer. How many ways are there to write n as a sum of positive integers, n = a1 + a2 + ak , with k an arbitrary positive integer and a1 a2 ak a1 + 1 ? For example, with n = 4, there are four ways: 4, 2 + 2, 1 + 1 + 2, 1 + 1 + 1 + 1.

A2. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an and b1 , b2 , . . . , bn be nonnegative real numbers. Show that (a1 a2 an )1/n + (b1 b2 bn )1/n ((a1 + b1 )(a2 + b2 ) (an + bn ))
1/n

A3. Find the minimum value of sin x + cos x + tan x + cot x + sec x + csc x for real numbers x.

A4. Suppose that a, b, c, A, B, C are real numbers, a = 0 and A = 0, such that ax2 + bx + c Ax2 + Bx + C for all real numbers x. Show that b2 4ac B 2 4AC .

A5. A Dyck n-path is a lattice path of n upsteps (1, 1) and n downsteps (1, 1) that starts at the origin O and never dips below the x-axis. A return is a maximal sequence of contiguous downsteps that terminates on the x-axis. For example, the Dyck 5-path (up, up, down, up, up, down, down, down, up, down) has two returns, of length 3 and 1 respectively. Show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the Dyck n-paths with no return of even length and the Dyck (n 1)-paths.

A6. For a set S of nonnegative integers, let rS (n) denote the number of ordered pairs (s1 , s2 ) such that s1 S, s2 S, s1 = s2 , and s1 + s2 = n. Is it possible to partition the nonnegative integers into two sets A and B in such a way that rA (n) = rB (n) for all n?

SIXTY-FOURTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 6, 2003 Examination B

B1. Do there exist polynomials a(x), b(x), c(y), d(y) such that 1 + xy + x2 y 2 = a(x)c(y) + b(x)d(y) holds identically? 1 1 1 B2. Let n be a positive integer. Starting with the sequence 1, , , . . . , , form a new 2 3 n 3 5 2n 1 sequence of n 1 entries , , . . . , , by taking the averages of two consecutive 4 12 2n(n 1) entries in the rst sequence. Repeat the averaging of neighbors on the second sequence to obtain a third sequence of n 2 entries and continue until the nal sequence consists of a 2 single number xn . Show that xn < . n B3. Show that for each positive integer n,
n

n! =
i=1

lcm {1, 2, . . . , n/i } .

(Here lcm denotes the least common multiple, and x denotes the greatest integer x.) B4. Let f (z) = az 4 + bz 3 + cz 2 + dz + e = a(z r1 )(z r2 )(z r3 )(z r4 ) where a, b, c, d, e are integers, a = 0. Show that if r1 + r2 is a rational number, and if r1 + r2 = r3 + r4 , then r1 r2 is a rational number. B5. Let A, B and C be equidistant points on the circumference of a circle of unit radius centered at O, and let P be any point in the circles interior. Let a, b, c be the distances from P to A, B, C respectively. Show that there is a triangle with side lengths a, b, c, and that the area of this triangle depends only on the distance from P to O. B6. Let f (x) be a continuous real-valued function dened on the interval [0, 1]. Show that
1 0 0 1 1

|f (x) + f (y)| dx dy
0

|f (x)| dx.

SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 4, 2004 Examination A

A1. Basketball star Shanille OKeals team statistician keeps track of the number, S(N ), of successful free throws she has made in her rst N attempts of the season. Early in the season, S(N ) was less than 80% of N , but by the end of the season, S(N ) was more than 80% of N . Was there necessarily a moment in between when S(N ) was exactly 80% of N ? A2. For i = 1, 2, let Ti be a triangle with side lengths ai , bi , ci , and area Ai . Suppose that a1 a2 , b1 b2 , c1 c2 , and that T2 is an acute triangle. Does it follow that A1 A2 ? A3. Dene a sequence {un } by u0 = u1 = u2 = 1, and thereafter by the condition n=0 that un+1 un det = n! un+2 un+3 for all n 0. Show that un is an integer for all n. (By convention, 0! = 1.) A4. Show that for any positive integer n there is an integer N such that the product x1 x2 xn can be expressed identically in the form
N

x1 x2 xn =
i=1

ci (ai1 x1 + ai2 x2 + ain xn )n

where the ci are rational numbers and each aij is one of the numbers, 1, 0, 1. A5. An m n checkerboard is colored randomly: each square is independently assigned red or black with probability 1/2. We say that two squares, p and q, are in the same connected monochromatic region if there is a sequence of squares, all of the same color, starting at p and ending at q, in which successive squares in the sequence share a common side. Show that the expected number of connected monochromatic regions is greater that mn/8. A6. Suppose that f (x, y) is a continuous real-valued function on the unit square 0 x 1, 0 y 1. Show that
1 0 0 1 2 1 1 2

f (x, y) dx

dy +
0 1 1 0

f (x, y) dy
2

dx
1 1 0

0 0

f (x, y) dx dy

+
0

[f (x, y)] dx dy.

SIXTY-FIFTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 4, 2004 Examination B

B1. Let P (x) = cn xn + cn1 xn1 + + c0 be a polynomial with integer coecients. Suppose that r is a rational number such that P (r) = 0. Show that the n numbers cn r, cn r2 + cn1 r, cn r3 + cn1 r2 + cn2 r, . . . , cn rn + cn1 rn1 + + c1 r are integers. B2. Let m and n be positive integers. Show that m! n! (m + n)! < m n. (m + n)m+n m n

B3. Determine all real numbers a > 0 for which there exists a nonnegative continuous function f (x) dened on [0, a] with the property that the region R = {(x, y) : 0 x a, 0 y f (x)} has perimeter k units and area k square units for some real number k. B4. Let n be a positive integer, n 2, and put = 2/n. Dene points Pk = (k, 0) in the xy-plane, for k = 1, 2, . . . , n. Let Rk be the map that rotates the plane counterclockwise by the angle about the point Pk . Let R denote the map obtained by applying, in order, R1 , then R2 , . . ., then Rn . For an arbitrary point (x, y), nd, and simplify, the coordinates of R(x, y). B5. Evaluate
x1

lim

n=0

1 + xn+1 1 + xn

xn

B6. Let A be a non-empty set of positive integers, and let N (x) denote the number of elements of A not exceeding x. Let B denote the set of positive integers b that can be written in the form b = a a with a A and a A. Let b1 < b2 < be the members of B, listed in increasing order. Show that if the sequence bi+1 bi is unbounded, then limx N (x)/x = 0.

SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 3, 2005 Examination A

A1. Show that every positive integer is a sum of one or more numbers of the form 2r 3s , where r and s are nonnegative integers and no summand divides another. (For example, 23 = 9 + 8 + 6.)

A2. Let S = {(a, b) | a = 1, 2, . . . , n, b = 1, 2, 3}. A rook tour of S is a polygonal path made up of line segments connecting points p1 , p2 , . . . , p3n in sequence such that (i ) pi S, (ii ) pi and pi+1 are a unit distance apart, for 1 i < 3n, (iii ) for each p S there is a unique i such that pi = p. How many rook tours are there that begin at (1, 1) and end at (n, 1)? (An example of such a rook tour for n = 5 is depicted below.)

A3. Let p(z) be a polynomial of degree n, all of whose zeros have absolute value 1 in the complex plane. Put g(z) = p(z)/z n/2 . Show that all zeros of g (z) = 0 have absolute value 1.

A4. Let H be an n n matrix all of whose entries are 1 and whose rows are mutually orthogonal. Suppose H has an a b submatrix whose entries are all 1. Show that ab n.

A5. Evaluate
0

log(x + 1) dx. x2 + 1

A6. Let n be given, n 4, and suppose that P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn are n randomly, independently and uniformly, chosen points on a circle. Consider the convex n-gon whose vertices are the Pi . What is the probability that at least one of the vertex angles of this polygon is acute?

SIXTY-SIXTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 3, 2005 Examination B

B1. Find a nonzero polynomial P (x, y) such that P (a, 2a) = 0 for all real numbers a. (Note: is the greatest integer less than or equal to .) B2. Find all positive integers n, k1 , . . . , kn such that k1 + + kn = 5n 4 and 1 1 ++ = 1. k1 kn B3. Find all dierentiable functions f : (0, ) (0, ) for which there is a positive real number a such that x a = f x f (x) for all x > 0. B4. For positive integers m and n, let f (m, n) denote the number of n-tuples (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) of integers such that |x1 | + |x2 | + + |xn | m. Show that f (m, n) = f (n, m). B5. Let P (x1 , . . . , xn ) denote a polynomial with real coecients in the variables x1 , . . . , xn , and suppose that (a) and that (b) x2 + + x2 divides P (x1 , . . . , xn ). 1 n 2 2 ++ x2 x2 n 1 P (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0 (identically)

Show that P = 0 identically. B6. Let Sn denote the set of all permutations of the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n. For Sn , let () = 1 if is an even permutation and () = 1 if is an odd permutation. Also, let () denote the number of xed points of . Show that () n = (1)n+1 . () + 1 n+1

Sn

SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 2, 2006 Examination A

A1. Find the volume of the region of points (x, y, z) such that (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 8)2 36(x2 + y 2 ). A2. Alice and Bob play a game in which they take turns removing stones from a heap that initially has n stones. The number of stones removed at each turn must be one less than a prime number. The winner is the player who takes the last stone. Alice plays rst. Prove that there are innitely many n such that Bob has a winning strategy. (For example, if n = 17, then Alice might take 6 leaving 11; then Bob might take 1 leaving 10; then Alice can take the remaining stones to win.) A3. Let 1, 2, 3, . . . , 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012, 2016, . . . be a sequence dened by xk = k for k = 1, 2, . . . , 2006 and xk+1 = xk + xk2005 for k 2006. Show that the sequence has 2005 consecutive terms each divisible by 2006. A4. Let S = {1, 2, . . . , n} for some integer n > 1. Say a permutation of S has a local maximum at k S if (i) (k) > (k + 1) for k = 1; (ii) (k 1) < (k) and (k) > (k + 1) for 1 < k < n; (iii) (k 1) < (k) for k = n. (For example, if n = 5 and takes values at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of 2, 1, 4, 5, 3, then has a local maximum of 2 at k = 1, and a local maximum of 5 at k = 4.) What is the average number of local maxima of a permutation of S, averaging over all permutations of S? A5. Let n be a positive odd integer and let be a real number such that / is irrational. Set ak = tan( + k/n), k = 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that a1 + a2 + + an a1 a2 an

is an integer, and determine its value.

A6. Four points are chosen uniformly and independently at random in the interior of a given circle. Find the probability that they are the vertices of a convex quadrilateral.

SIXTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 2, 2006 Examination B

B1. Show that the curve x3 + 3xy + y 3 = 1 contains only one set of three distinct points, A, B, and C, which are vertices of an equilateral triangle, and nd its area. B2. Prove that, for every set X = {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } of n real numbers, there exists a non-empty subset S of X and an integer m such that m+
sS

1 . n+1

B3. Let S be a nite set of points in the plane. A linear partition of S is an unordered pair {A, B} of subsets of S such that A B = S, A B = , and A and B lie on opposite sides of some straight line disjoint from S (A or B may be empty). Let LS be the number of linear partitions of S. For each positive integer n, nd the maximum of LS over all sets S of n points. B4. Let Z denote the set of points in Rn whose coordinates are 0 or 1. (Thus Z has 2n elements, which are the vertices of a unit hypercube in Rn .) Given a vector subspace V of Rn , let Z(V ) denote the number of members of Z that lie in V . Let k be given, 0 k n. Find the maximum, over all vector subspaces V Rn of dimension k, of the number of points in V Z. B5. For each continuous function f : [0, 1] R, let I(f ) = 0 x2 f (x) dx and J(f ) = 1 2 x (f (x)) dx. Find the maximum value of I(f ) J(f ) over all such functions f . 0 B6. Let k be an integer greater than 1. Suppose a0 > 0, and dene 1 an+1 = an + k an for n 0. Evaluate ak+1 lim n . n nk
1

SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 1, 2007 Examination A

A1. Find all values of for which the curves y = x2 + x + are tangent to each other.

1 24

and x = y 2 + y +

1 24

A2. Find the least possible area of a convex set in the plane that intersects both branches of the hyperbola xy = 1 and both branches of the hyperbola xy = 1. (A set S in the plane is called convex if for any two points in S the line segment connecting them is contained in S.) A3. Let k be a positive integer. Suppose that the integers 1, 2, 3, . . . , 3k + 1 are written down in random order. What is the probability that at no time during this process, the sum of the integers that have been written down up to that time is a positive integer divisible by 3? Your answer should be inclosed form, but may include factorials. A4. A repunit is a positive integer whose digits in base 10 are all ones. Find all polynomials f with real coecients such that if n is a repunit, then so it f (n). A5. Suppose that a nite group has exactly n elements of order p, where p is a prime. Prove that either n = 0 or p divides n + 1. A6. A triangulation T of a polygon P is a nite collection of triangles whose union is P , and such that the intersection of any two triangles is either empty, or a shared vertex, or a shared side. Moreover, each side of P is a side of exactly one triangle in T , Say that T is admissible if every internal vertex is shared by 6 or more triangles. Prove that there is an integer Mn , depending only on n, such that any admissible triangulation of a polygon P with n sides has at most Mn triangles.

SIXTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 1, 2007 Examination B

B1. Let f be a polynomial with positive integer coecients. Prove that if n is a positive integer, then f (n) divides f (f (n) + 1) if and only if n = 1. B2. Suppose that f : [0, 1] R has a continuous derivative and that Prove that for every (0, 1),
0 1 0

f (x) dx = 0.

f (x) dx

1 max |f (x)|. 8 0x1

B3. Let x0 = 1 and for n 0, let xn+1 = 3xn + xn 5. In particular, x1 = 5, x2 = 26, x3 = 136, x4 = 712. Find a closed-form expression for x2007 . (a means the largest integer a.) B4. Let n be a positive integer. Find the number of pairs P, Q of polynomials with real coecients such that 2 2 (P (X)) + (Q(X)) = X 2n + 1 and deg P > deg Q. B5. Let k be a positive integer. Prove that there exist polynomials P0 (n), P1 (n), . . . , Pk1 (n) (which may depend on k) such that for any integer n, n k
k

= P0 (n) + P1 (n)

n n + + Pk1 (n) k k

k1

(a means the largest integer a.) B6. For each positive integer n, let f (n) be the number of ways to make n! cents using an unordered collection of coins, each worth k! cents for some k, 1 k n. Prove that for some constant C, independent of n, nn
2

2/2Cn

f (n) nn

/2+Cn n2 /4

SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 6, 2008 Examination A

A1. Let f : R2 R be a function such that f (x, y) + f (y, z) + f (z, x) = 0 for all real numbers x, y, and z. Prove that there exists a function g : R R such that f (x, y) = g(x) g(y) for all real numbers x and y. A2. Alan and Barbara play a game in which they take turns lling entries of an initially empty 2008 2008 array. Alan plays rst. At each turn, a player chooses a real number and places it in a vacant entry. The game ends when all the entries are lled. Alan wins if the determinant of the resulting matrix is nonzero; Barbara wins if it is zero. Which player has a winning strategy? A3. Start with a nite sequence a1 , a2 , . . . , an of positive integers. If possible, choose two indices j < k such that aj does not divide ak , and replace aj and ak by gcd(aj , ak ) and lcm(aj , ak ), respectively. Prove that if this process is repeated, it must eventually stop and the nal sequence does not depend on the choices made. (Note: gcd means greatest common divisor and lcm means least common multiple.) A4. Dene f : R R by f (x) = Does
1 n=1 f (n)

x, if x e, xf (ln x), if x > e.

converge?

A5. Let n 3 be an integer. Let f (x) and g(x) be polynomials with real coecients such that the points (f (1), g(1)), (f (2), g(2)), . . . , (f (n), g(n)) in R2 are the vertices of a regular n-gon in counterclockwise order. Prove that at least one of f (x) and g(x) has degree greater than or equal to n 1. A6. Prove that there exists a constant c > 0 such that in every nontrivial nite group G there exists a sequence of length at most c ln |G| with the property that each element of G equals the product of some subsequence. (The elements of G in the sequence are not required to be distinct. A subsequence of a sequence is obtained by selecting some of the terms, not necessarily consecutive, without reordering them; for example, 4, 4, 2 is a subsequence of 2, 4, 6, 4, 2, but 2, 2, 4 is not.)

SIXTY-NINTH ANNUAL WILLIAM LOWELL PUTNAM MATHEMATICAL COMPETITION Saturday, December 6, 2008 Examination B

B1. What is the maximum number of rational points that can lie on a circle in R2 whose center is not a rational point? (A rational point is a point both of whose coordinates are rational numbers.) B2. Let F0 (x) = ln x. For n 0 and x > 0, let Fn+1 (x) = n!Fn (1) . n ln n lim
x 0

Fn (t) dt. Evaluate

B3. What is the largest possible radius of a circle contained in a 4-dimensional hypercube of side length 1? B4. Let p be a prime number. Let h(x) be a polynomial with integer coecients such that h(0), h(1), . . . , h(p2 1) are distinct modulo p2 . Show that h(0), h(1), . . . , h(p3 1) are distinct modulo p3 . B5. Find all continuously dierentiable functions f : R R such that for every rational number q, the number f (q) is rational and has the same denominator as q. (The denominator of a rational number q is the unique positive integer b such that q = a/b for some integer a with gcd(a, b) = 1.) (Note: gcd means greatest common divisor.) B6. Let n and k be positive integers. Say that a permutation of {1, 2, . . . , n} is k-limited if |(i) i| k for all i. Prove that the number of k-limited permutations of {1, 2, . . . , n} is odd if and only if n 0 or 1 (mod 2k + 1).

Undergraduate Competitions
Putnam 2005

Part A

A1 Show that every positive integer is a sum of one or more numbers of the form 2r 3s , where r and s are nonnegative integers and no summand divides another. (For example, 23 = 9 + 8 + 6.) A2 Let S = {(a, b)|a = 1, 2, . . . , n, b = 1, 2, 3}. A rook tour of S is a polygonal path made up of line segments connecting points p1 , p2 , . . . , p3n is sequence such that (i) pi S, (ii) pi and pi+1 are a unit distance apart, for 1 i < 3n, (iii) for each p S there is a unique i such that pi = p. How many rook tours are there that begin at (1, 1) and end at (n, 1)? (The ocial statement includes a picture depicting an example of a rook tour for n = 5. This example consists of line segments with vertices at which there is a change of direction at the following points, in order: (1, 1), (2, 1), (2, 2), (1, 2), (1, 3), (3, 3), (3, 1), (4, 1), (4, 3), (5, 3), (5, 1).) A3 Let p(z) be a polynomial of degree n, all of whose zeros have absolute value 1 in the complex p(z) plane. Put g(z) = n/2 . Show that all zeros of g (z) = 0 have absolute value 1. z A4 Let H be an nn matrix all of whose entries are 1 and whose rows are mutually orthogonal. Suppose H has an a b submatrix whose entries are all 1. Show that ab n.
1

A5 Evaluate
0

ln(x + 1) dx. x2 + 1

A6 Let n be given, n 4, and suppose that P1 , P2 , . . . , Pn are n randomly, independently and uniformly, chosen points on a circle. Consider the convex n-gon whose vertices are the Pi . What is the probability that at least one of the vertex angles of this polygon is acute.?

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 1 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Undergraduate Competitions
Putnam 2005

Part B

B1 Find a nonzero polynomial P (x, y) such that P ( a , 2a ) = 0 for all real numbers a. (Note: v is the greatest integer less than or equal to v.) B2 Find all positive integers n, k1 , . . . , kn such that k1 + + kn = 5n 4 and 1 1 + + = 1. k1 kn B3 Find all dierentiable functions f : (0, ) (0, ) for which there is a positive real number a such that a x f = x f (x) for all x > 0. B4 For positive integers m and n, let f (m, n) denote the number of n-tuples (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) of integers such that |x1 | + |x2 | + + |xn | m. Show that f (m, n) = f (n, m). B5 Let P (x1 , . . . , xn ) denote a polynomial with real coecients in the variables x1 , . . . , xn , and suppose that (a) 2 2 + + 2 xn x2 1 and that P (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0 (identically)

(b) x2 + + x2 divides P (x1 , . . . , xn ). 1 n Show that P = 0 identically. B6 Let Sn denote the set of all permutations of the numbers 1, 2, . . . , n. For Sn , let () = 1 if is an even permutation and () = 1 if is an odd permutation. Also, let v() denote the number of xed points of . Show that n () = (1)n+1 . v() + 1 n+1

Sn

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Undergraduate Competitions
Putnam 2007

A
1 1 1 Find all values of for which the curves y = x2 + x + and x = y 2 + y + are 24 24 tangent to each other. 2 Find the least possible area of a convex set in the plane that intersects both branches of the hyperbola xy = 1 and both branches of the hyperbola xy = 1. (A set S in the plane is called convex if for any two points in S the line segment connecting them is contained in S.) 3 Let k be a positive integer. Suppose that the integers 1, 2, 3, . . . , 3k + 1 are written down in random order. What is the probability that at no time during this process, the sum of the integers that have been written up to that time is a positive integer divisible by 3 ? Your answer should be in closed form, but may include factorials. 4 A repunit is a positive integer whose digits in base 10 are all ones. Find all polynomials f with real coecients such that if n is a repunit, then so is f (n). 5 Suppose that a nite group has exactly n elements of order p, where p is a prime. Prove that either n = 0 or p divides n + 1. 6 A triangulation T of a polygon P is a nite collection of triangles whose union is P, and such that the intersection of any two triangles is either empty, or a shared vertex, or a shared side. Moreover, each side of P is a side of exactly one triangle in T . Say that T is admissible if every internal vertex is shared by 6 or more triangles. For example {[The included gure shows a heptagon. The rst and third vertices are connected by a diagonal. Every vertex except the second (the one outside the diagonal) is connected by an edge to a single internal vertex; that internal vertex has 6 edges connected to it. There are 7 triangles in the picture; 6 around the internal vertex and one outside the diagonal.] Prove that there is an integer Mn , depending only on n, such that any admissible triangulation of a polygon P with n sides has at most Mn triangles.

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Undergraduate Competitions
Putnam 2007

1 Let f be a polynomial with positive integer coecients. Prove that if n is a positive integer, then f (n) divides f (f (n) + 1) if and only if n = 1.
1

2 Suppose that f : [0, 1] R has a continuous derivative and that for every (0, 1),
0

f (x) dx = 0. Prove that

f (x) dx
0

1 max |f (x)| 8 0x1

3 Let x0 = 1 and for n 0, let xn+1 = 3xn + xn 5 . In particular, x1 = 5, x2 = 26, x3 = 136, x4 = 712. Find a closed-form expression for x2007 . ( a means the largest integer a.) 4 Let n be a positive integer. Find the number of pairs P, Q of polynomials with real coecients such that (P (X))2 + (Q(X))2 = X 2n + 1 and degP < degQ. 5 Let k be a positive integer. Prove that there exist polynomials P0 (n), P1 (n), . . . , Pk1 (n) (which may depend on k) such that for any integer n, n k
k

= P0 (n) + P1 (n)

n n + + Pk1 (n) k k

k1

( a means the largest integer a.) 6 For each positive integer n, let f (n) be the number of ways to make n! cents using an unordered collection of coins, each worth k! cents for some k, 1 k n. Prove that for some constant C, independent of n, 2 2 2 2 nn /2Cn en /4 f (n) nn /2+Cn en /4 .

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Romania
(National Olympiad) 2003-2008

Romania
National Olympiad 2003

Grade 7

1 Find the maximum number of elements which can be chosen from the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , 2003} such that the sum of any two chosen elements is not divisible by 3. 2 Compute the maximum area of a triangle having a median of length 1 and a median of length 2. 3 For every positive integer n consider An = 49n2 + 0, 35n.

(a) Find the rst three digits after decimal point of A1 . (b) Prove that the rst three digits after decimal point of An and A1 are the same, for every n. 4 In triangle ABC, P is the midpoint of side BC. Let M (AB), N (AC) be such that M N BC and {Q} be the common point of M P and BN . The perpendicular from Q on AC intersects AC in R and the parallel from B to AC in T . Prove that: (a) T P M R; (b) M RQ = P RQ. Mircea Fianu

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Romania
National Olympiad 2003

Grade 8

1 Let m, n be positive integers. Prove that the number 5n + 5m can be represented as sum of two perfect squares if and only if n m is even. Vasile Zidaru 2 In a meeting there are 6 participants. It is known that among them there are seven pairs of friends and in any group of three persons there are at least two friends. Prove that: (a) there exists a person who has at least three friends; (b) there exists three persons who are friends with each other. Valentin Vornicu 1 3 The real numbers a, b full the conditions (i) 0 < a < a + b; (ii) a40 + b40 = 1. Prove 2 that b has the rst 12 digits after the decimal point equal to 9. Mircea Fianu 4 In tetrahedron ABCD, G1 , G2 and G3 are barycenters of the faces ACD, ABD and BCD respectively. (a) Prove that the straight lines BG1 , CG2 and AG3 are concurrent. (b) Knowing that AG3 = 8, BG1 = 12 and CG2 = 20 compute the maximum possible value of the volume of ABCD.

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Romania
National Olympiad 2003

Grade 9
1 1 + [a, b]. x y

1 Find positive integers a, b if for every x, y [a, b],

2 An integer n, n 2 is called friendly if there exists a family A1 , A2 , . . . , An of subsets of the set {1, 2, . . . , n} such that: (1) i Ai for every i = 1, n; (2) i Aj if and only if j Ai , for every distinct i, j {1, 2, . . . , n}; (3) Ai Aj is non-empty, for every i, j {1, 2, . . . , n}. Prove that: (a) 7 is a friendly number; (b) n is friendly if and only if n 7. Valentin Vornicu 3 Prove that the midpoints of the altitudes of a triangle are collinear if and only if the triangle is right. Dorin Popovici 4 Let P be a plane. Prove that there exists no function f : P P such that for every convex quadrilateral ABCD, the points f (A), f (B), f (C), f (D) are the vertices of a concave quadrilateral. Dinu erbnescu

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Romania
National Olympiad Deva 2004

Grade 7

1 On the sides AB, AD of the rhombus ABCD are the points E, F such that AE = DF . The lines BC, DE intersect at P and CD, BF intersect at Q. Prove that: QF PE + = 1; (a) P D QB (b) P, A, Q are collinear. Virginia Tica, Vasile Tica 2 The sidelengths of a triangle are a, b, c. (a) Prove that there is a triangle which has the sidelengths a, b, c. (b) Prove that ab + bc + ca a + b + c < 2 ab + 2 bc + 2 ca.

3 Let ABCD be an orthodiagonal trapezoid such that A = 90 and AB is the larger base. The diagonals intersect at O, (OE is the bisector of AOD, E (AD) and EF AB, F (BC). Let P, Q the intersections of the segment EF with AC, BD. Prove that: (a) EP = QF ; (b) EF = AD. Claudiu-Stefan Popa 4 Let U = {(x, y) |x, y Z, 0 x, y < 4}. (a) Prove that we can choose 6 points from U such that there are no isosceles triangles with the vertices among the chosen points. (b) Prove that no matter how we choose 7 points from U, there are always three which form an isosceles triangle. Radu Gologan, Dinu Serbanescu

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Romania
National Olympiad Deva 2004

Grade 8

1 Find all non-negative integers n such that there are a, b Z satisfying n2 = a + b and n3 = a2 + b2 . Lucian Dragomir 2 Prove that the equation x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 = 22004 , where 0 x y z t, has exactly 2 solutions in Z. Mihai Baluna 3 Let ABCDA B C D be a truncated regular pyramid in which BC and DA are perpendicular. (a) Prove that AB , DA = 60 ; (b) If the projection of B on (ABC) is the center of the incircle of ABC, then prove that 1 d CB , AD = BC . 2 Mircea Fianu 4 In the interior of a cube of side 6 there are 1001 unit cubes with the faces parallel to the faces of the given cube. Prove that there are 2 unit cubes with the property that the center of one of them lies in the interior or on one of the faces of the other cube. Dinu Serbanescu

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Romania
National Olympiad Deva 2004

Grade 9

1 Find the strictly increasing functions f : {1, 2, . . . , 10} {1, 2, . . . , 100} such that x + y divides xf (x) + yf (y) for all x, y {1, 2, . . . , 10}. Cristinel Mortici 2 Let P (n) be the number of functions f : R R, f (x) = ax2 +bx+c, with a, b, c {1, 2, . . . , n} and that have the property that f (x) = 0 has only integer solutions. Prove that n < P (n) < n2 , for all n 4. Laurentiu Panaitopol 3 Let H be the orthocenter of the acute triangle ABC. Let BB and CC be altitudes of the triangle (B AC, C AB). A variable line passing through H intersects the segments [BC ] and [CB ] in M and N . The perpendicular lines of from M and N intersect BB and CC in P and Q. Determine the locus of the midpoint of the segment [P Q]. Gheorghe Szolosy 4 Let p, q N , p, q 2. We say that a set X has the property (S) if no matter how we choose p subsets Bi X, i = 1, n, not necessarily distinct, each with q elements, there is a subset Y X with p elements s.t. the intersection of Y with each of the Bi s has an element at most, i = 1, p. Prove that: (a) if p = 4, q = 3 then any set composed of 9 elements doesnt have (S); (b) any set X composed of pq q elements doesnt have the property (S); (c) any set X composed of pq q + 1 elements has the property (S). Dan Schwarz

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Romania
National Olympiad Deva 2004

Grade 10

1 Let f : R R be a function such that |f (x) f (y)| |x y|, for all x, y R. Prove that if for any real x, the sequence x, f (x), f (f (x)), . . . is an arithmetic progression, then there is a R such that f (x) = x + a, for all x R. 2 Let ABCD be a tetrahedron in which the opposite sides are equal and form equal angles. Prove that it is regular. 3 Let n > 2, n N and a > 0, a R such that 2a + log2 a = n2 . Prove that: 2 log2 n > a > 2 log2 n 1 . n Radu Gologan 4 Let (Pn )n1 be an innite family of planes and (Xn )n1 be a family of non-void, nite sets of points such that Xn Pn and the projection of the set Xn+1 on the plane Pn is included in the set Xn , for all n. Prove that there is a sequence of points (pn )n1 such that pn Pn and pn is the projection of pn+1 on the plane Pn , for all n. Does the conclusion of the problem remain true if the sets Xn are innite? Claudiu Raicu

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Romania
National Olympiad Deva 2004

Grade 11

1 Let n 3 be an integer and F be the focus of the parabola y 2 = 2px. A regular polygon A1 A2 . . . An has the center in F and none of its vertices lie on Ox. (F A1 , (F A2 , . . . , (F An intersect the parabola at B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn . Prove that F B1 + F B2 + . . . + F Bn > np. Calin Popescu 2 Let n N, n 2. (a) Give an example of two matrices A, B Mn (C) such that rank (AB) rank (BA) = (b) Prove that for all matrices X, Y Mn (C) we have rank (XY ) rank (Y X) n . 2 Ion Savu 3 Let f : (a, b) R be a function with the property that for all x (a, b) there is a nondegenerated interval [ax , bx ] with a < ax x bx < b such that f is constant on [ax , bx ]. (a) Prove that Im f is nite or numerable. (b) Find all continuous functions which have the property mentioned in the hypothesis. 4 (a) Build a function f : R R+ with the property (P), i.e. all x Q are local, strict minimum points. (b) Build a function f : Q R+ such that every point is a local, strict minimum point and such that f is unbounded on I Q, where I is a non-degenerate interval. (c) Let f : R R+ be a function unbounded on every I Q, where I is a non-degenerate interval. Prove that f doesnt have the property (P). n . 2

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Romania
National Olympiad Deva 2004

Grade 12

1 Find all continuous functions f : R R such that for all x R and for all n N we have n
2 x
1 x+ n

1 f (t) dt = nf (x) + . 2 Mihai Piticari

2 Let f Z[X]. For an n N, n 2, we dene fn : Z/nZ Z/nZ through fn (x) = f (x), for all x Z. (a) Prove that fn is well dened. (b) Find all polynomials f Z[X] such that for all n N, n 2, the function fn is surjective. Bogdan Enescu 3 Let f : [0, 1] R be an integrable function such that
1 1

f (x) dx =
0 0 1

xf (x) dx = 1.

Prove that
0

f 2 (x) dx 4. Ion Rasa 4 Let K be a eld of characteristic p, p 1 (mod4). (a) Prove that 1 is the square of an element from K. (b) Prove that any element = 0 from K can be written as the sum of three squares, each = 0, of elements from K. (c) Can 0 be written in the same way? Marian Andronache

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Romania
National Olympiad 2005

Grade 7

1 Let ABCD be a parallelogram. The interior angle bisector of ADC intersects the line BC in E, and the perpendicular bisector of the side AD intersects the line DE in M . Let F = AM BC. Prove that: a) DE = AF ; b) AD AB = DE DM . Daniela and Marius Lobaza, Timisoara 2 Let a, b be two integers. Prove that a) 13 | 2a + 3b if and only if 13 | 2b 3a; b) If 13 | a2 + b2 then 13 | (2a + 3b)(2b + 3a). Mircea Fianu 3 Let ABCD be a quadrilateral with AB CD and AC BD. Let O be the intersection of AC and BD. On the rays (OA and (OB we consider the points M and N respectively such that AN C = BM D = 90 . We denote with E the midpoint of the segment M N . Prove that a) OM N OBA; b) OE AB. Claudiu-Stefan Popa 4 On a circle there are written 2005 non-negative integers with sum 7022. Prove that there exist two pairs formed with two consecutive numbers on the circle such that the sum of the elements in each pair is greater or equal with 8. After an idea of Marin Chirciu

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Romania
National Olympiad 2005

Grade 8

1 We consider a cube with sides of length 1. Prove that a tetrahedron with vertices in the set 1 of the vertices of the cube has the volume if and only if 3 of the vertices of the tetrahedron 6 are vertices on the same face of the cube. Dinu Serbanescu 2 For a positive integer n, written in decimal base, we denote by p(n) the product of its digits. a) Prove that p(n) n; b) Find all positive integers n such that 10p(n) = n2 + 4n 2005. Eugen Pltnea 3 Let the ABCA B C be a regular prism. The points M and N are the midpoints of the sides BB , respectively BC, and the angle between the lines AB and BC is of 60 . Let O and P be the intersection of the lines A C and AC , with respectively B C and C N . a) Prove that AC (OP M ); b) Find the measure of the angle between the line AP and the plane (OP M ). Mircea Fianu 4 a) Prove that for all positive reals u, v, x, y the following inequality takes place: 4(uy + vx) u v + . x y (x + y)2 b) Let a, b, c, d > 0. Prove that b c d a + + + 1. b + 2c + d c + 2d + a d + 2a + b a + 2b + c Traian Tmian

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Romania
National Olympiad 2005

Grade 9

1 Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with AD BC. Dene the points E = AD BC and I = AC BD. Prove that the triangles EDC and IAB have the same centroid if and only if AB CD and IC 2 = IA AC. Virgil Nicula 2 Find all functions f : R R for which x(f (x + 1) f (x)) = f (x), for all x R and |f (x) f (y)| |x y|, for all x, y R. Mihai Piticari 3 Prove that for all positive integers n there exists a single positive integer divisible with 5n which in decimal base is written using n digits from the set 1,2,3,4,5. 4 Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive reals. Prove that 1 1 1 + + + < 1 + x1 1 + x1 + x2 1 + x1 + + xn 1 1 1 + + + . x1 x2 xn Bogdan Enescu

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Romania
National Olympiad 2005

Grade 10

1 Let n be a positive integer, n 2. For each t R, t = k, k Z, we consider the numbers


n n

xn (t) =
k=1

k(n k) cos (tk) and yn (t) =


k=1

k(n k) sin (tk).

Prove that if xn (t) = yn (t) = 0 if and only if tan

t nt = n tan . 2 2 Constantin Buse

2 The base A1 A2 . . . An of the pyramid V A1 A2 . . . An is a regular polygon. Prove that if V A1 A2 V A2 A3 V An1 An V An A1 , then the pyramid is regular. 3 a) Prove that there are no one-to-one (injective) functions f : N N {0} such that f (mn) = f (m) + f (n), m, n N. b) Prove that for all positive integers k there exist one-to-one functions f : {1, 2, . . . , k} N {0} such that f (mn) = f (m) + f (n) for all m, n {1, 2, . . . , k} with mn k. Mihai Baluna 4 For (0, 1) we consider the equation {x{x}} = . a) Prove that the equation has rational solutions if and only if there exist m, p, q Z, p 2 m 2004 0 < p < q, gcd(p, q) = 1, such that = + . b) Find a solution for = . q q 20052

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Romania
National Olympiad 2005

Grade 11

1 Let n 2 a xed integer. We shall call a n n matrix A with rational elements a radical matrix if there exist an innity of positive integers k, such that the equation X k = A has solutions in the set of n n matrices with rational elements. a) Prove that if A is a radical matrix then det A {1, 0, 1} and there exists an innity of radical matrices with determinant 1; b) Prove that there exist an innity of matrices that are not radical and have determinant 0, and also an innity of matrices that are not radical and have determinant 1. After an idea of Harazi 2 Let f : [0, 1) (0, 1) a continous onto (surjective) function. a) Prove that, for all a (0, 1), the function fa : (a, 1) (0, 1), given by fa (x) = f (x), for all x (a, 1) is onto; b) Give an example of such a function. 3 Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xm a numbering of the m = 2n 1 non-empty subsets of the set {1, 2, . . . , n}, n 2. We consider the matrix (aij )1i,jm , where aij = 0, if Xi Xj = , and aij = 1 otherwise. Prove that the determinant d of this matrix does not depend on the way the numbering was done and compute d. 4 Let f : R R be a convex function. a) Prove that f is continous; b) Prove that there exists an unique function g : [0, ) R such that for all x 0 we have f (x + g(x)) = f (g(x)) g(x).

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Romania
National Olympiad 2005

Grade 12

1 Prove that the group morphisms f : (C, +) (C, +) for which there exists a positive such that |f (z)| |z| for all z C, have the form f (z) = z + z for some complex , . Cristinel Mortici 2 Let G be a group with m elements and let H be a proper subgroup of G with n elements. For each x G we denote H x = {xhx1 | h H} and we suppose that H x H = {e}, for all x G H (where by e we denoted the neutral element of the group G). a) Prove that H x = H y if and only if x1 y H; b) Find the number of elements of the set H x as a function of m and n.
xG

Calin Popescu
x

3 Let f : [0, ) (0, ) a continous function such that lim Prove that 1 lim x x
x

n 0

f (t)dt exists and it is nite.

f (t)dt = 0.
0

Radu Miculescu 4 Let A be a ring with 2n + 1 elements, where n is a positive integer and let M = {k Z | k 2, xk = x, x A}. Prove that the following statements are equivalent: a) A is a eld; b) M is not empty and the smallest element in M is 2n + 1. Marian Andronache

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Romania
National Olympiad Iasi 2006

Grade 7

1 Let ABC be a triangle and the points M and N on the sides AB respectively BC, such that CN AM 2 = . Let P be a point on the line AC. Prove that the lines M N and N P are BC AB perpendicular if and only if P N is the interior angle bisector of M P C. 2 A square of side n is formed from n2 unit squares, each colored in red, yellow or green. Find minimal n, such that for each coloring, there exists a line and a column with at least 3 unit squares of the same color (on the same line or column). 3 In the acute-angle triangle ABC we have ACB = 45 . The points A1 and B1 are the feet of the altitudes from A and B, and H is the orthocenter of the triangle. We consider the points D and E on the segments AA1 and BC such that A1 D = A1 E = A1 B1 . Prove that A1 B 2 + A1 C 2 ; 2 b) CH = DE. a) A1 B1 = 4 Let A be a set of positive integers with at least 2 elements. It is given that for any numbers [a, b] a > b, a, b A we have A, where by [a, b] we have denoted the least common multiple ab of a and b. Prove that the set A has exactly two elements. Marius Gherghu, Slatina

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Romania
National Olympiad Iasi 2006

Grade 8

1 We consider a prism with 6 faces, 5 of which are circumscriptible quadrilaterals. Prove that all the faces of the prism are circumscriptible quadrilaterals. 2 Let n be a positive integer. Prove that there exists an integer k, k 2, and numbers ai {1, 1}, such that n= ai aj .
1i<jk

3 Let ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 be a cube and P a variable point on the side [AB]. The perpendicular plane on AB which passes through P intersects the line AC in Q. Let M and N be the midpoints of the segments A P and BQ respectively. a) Prove that the lines M N and BC are perpendicular if and only if P is the midpoint of AB. b) Find the minimal value of the angle between the lines M N and BC . 4 Let a, b, c 1 , 1 . Prove that 2 2 a+b b+c c+a + + 3. 1+c 1+a 1+b selected by Mircea Lascu

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Romania
National Olympiad Iasi 2006

Grade 9

1 Find the maximal value of x3 + 1 where x, y R, x + y = 1. Dan Schwarz 2 Let ABC and DBC be isosceles triangle with the base BC. We know that ABD = . Let 2 M be the midpoint of BC. The points E, F, P are chosen such that E (AB), P (M C), C (AF ), and BDE = ADP = CDF . Prove that P is the midpoint of EF and DP EF . 3 We have a quadrilateral ABCD inscribed in a circle of radius r, for which there is a point P on CD such that CB = BP = P A = AB. (a) Prove that there are points A, B, C, D, P which fulll the above conditions. (b) Prove that P D = r. Virgil Nicula 4 2n students (n 5) participated at table tennis contest, which took 4 days. In every day, every student played a match. (It is possible that the same pair meets twice or more times, in dierent days) Prove that it is possible that the contest ends like this: - there is only one winner; - there are 3 students on the second place; - no student lost all 4 matches. How many students won only a single match and how many won exactly 2 matches? (In the above conditions) y3 + 1 ,

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Romania
National Olympiad Iasi 2006

Grade 10

1 Let M be a set composed of n elements and let P(M ) be its power set. Find all functions f : P(M ) {0, 1, 2, . . . , n} that have the properties (a) f (A) = 0, for A = ; (b) f (A B) = f (A B)+f (AB), for all A, B P(M ), where AB = (A B) \ (A B). 2 Prove that for all a, b 0, 4 and n N we have

sinn a + sinn b sinn 2a + sinn 2b . n (sin a + sin b) (sin 2a + sin 2b)n 3 Prove that among the elements of the sequence numbers and an innity of odd numbers. 4 Let n N, n 2. Determine n sets Ai , 1 i n, from the plane, pairwise disjoint, such that: (a) for every circle C from the plane and for every i {1, 2, . . . , n} we have Ai Int (C) = ; (b) for all lines d from the plane and every i {1, 2, . . . , n}, the projection of Ai on d is not d. n 2 + n 3 are an innity of even

n0

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 4 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Romania
National Olympiad Iasi 2006

Grade 11

1 Let A be a n n matrix with complex elements and let A be the classical adjoint of A. Prove that if there exists a positive integer m such that (A )m = 0n then (A )2 = 0n . Marian Ionescu, Pitesti 2 We dene a pseudo-inverse B Mn (C) of a matrix A Mn (C) a matrix which fullls the relations A = ABA and B = BAB. a) Prove that any square matrix has at least a pseudo-inverse. b) For which matrix A is the pseudo-inverse unique? Marius Cavachi 3 We have in the plane the system of points A1 , A2 , . . . , An and B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn , which have dierent centers of mass. Prove that there is a point P such that P A1 + P A2 + . . . + P An = P B1 + P B2 + . . . + P Bn . 4 Let f : [0, ) R be a function such that for any x > 0 the sequence {f (nx)}n0 is increasing. a) If the function is also continuous on [0, 1] is it true that f is increasing? b) The same question if the function is continuous on Q [0, ).

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 5 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Romania
National Olympiad Iasi 2006

Grade 12

1 Let K be a nite eld. Prove that the following statements are equivalent: (a) 1 + 1 = 0; (b) for all f K [X] with deg f 1, f X 2 is reducible. 2 Prove that
n 1 0

lim n

n 4

xn dx 1 + x2n

=
0

f (x) dx,

where f (x) =

arctan x if x (0, 1] and f (0) = 1. x Dorin Andrica, Mihai Piticari

3 Let G be a nite group of n elements (n 2) and p be the smallest prime factor of n. If G has only a subgroup H with p elements, then prove that H is in the center of G. Note. The center of G is the set Z(G) = {a G |ax = xa, x G }. 4 Let f : [0, 1] R be a continuous function such that
1

f (x)dx = 0.
0

Prove that there is c (0, 1) such that


c

xf (x)dx = 0.
0

Cezar Lupu, Tudorel Lupu

This le was downloaded from the AoPS MathLinks Math Olympiad Resources Page http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/ Page 6 http://www.mathlinks.ro/

Romania
National Olympiad Pitesti 2007

Grade 7

1 In a triangle ABC, where a = BC, b = CA a