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Comed k 2005
112.According to Stanford-Binet test, non trainable type of mental retardation has an IQ of a. Below 20 b. Between 36 51 c. Above 51 d. Between 90 130

Ans is A.Refer

pediatric advisor

Mild (IQ range 55 to 69): Preschool-age children with mild MR often do not seem very different than other children to most people. Moderate (IQ range 40 to 54): Preschool-age children with moderate MR show noticeable delays in development of motor skills and speech. Severe (IQ range 25 to 39): Preschool-age children with severe MR have delays in motor development and little or no communication skills. With training, these children may be able to learn basic self-help skills, such as feeding themselves and bathing. Profound (IQ less than 24): Children with profound MR frequently have other medical problems, such as cerebral palsy, and may need nursing care. They have delays in all areas of development.. They are unable to take care of themselves..
113.Tell show do was a concept put forth by a. Jordan b. Sigmund Freud c. Addleston d. Erikson Ans is C.

114. An hour old Ellis class III injury to 21 in a 9-year-old boy is treated with a. Pulpectomy b. Apexification c. Direct pulp capping d. Pulpotomy Ans is C.

115. The eruption age of Maxillary permanent lateral incisor is a. 8-9 years b. 6-7 years c. 10-11 years d. 8-9 months A) (a) chronology Deciduous dentition Maxillary Central incisor Lateral incisor Cuspid First molar Second molar Mandibular Central incisor Lateral incisor Cuspid First molar Second molar Permanent dentition Maxillary Central incisor Lateral incisor Cuspid First bicuspid Second bicuspid First molar Second molar Third molar Mandibular Central incisor Lateral incisor Cuspid First bicuspid Second bicuspid First molar Second molar Third molar Age 7/1/2 mo 9 mo 18 mo 14 mo 24 mo

6 mo 7 mo 16 mo 12 mo 20 mo

7-8 yr 8-9 yr 11-12 yr 10-11yr 10-12 yr 6-7 yr 12-13 yr 17-21 yr 6-7 yr 7-8 yr 9-10 yr 10-12 yr 11-12 yr 6-7 yr 11-13 yr 17-21 yr

112. The ugly ducking stage of dentition in a child is corrected by the eruption of which tooth?

a. Central incisor. b. Lateral incisor. c. Canine. d. 1st premolar. Ans C Refer:page 116 shoba tandon. -Because of the pressure of erupting permanent canine crowns besides the developing roots of lateral incisors, the crowns of erupting incisors flare more laterally producing diastema. -The transitional mal-alignment during the exchange period of the upper anterior teeth is called ugly duckling stage (Broadbent phenomenon ). -This phenomenon is self correcting and normally the incisors straighten with the eruption of lateral incisors and canines. 113. In the absence of a second premolar the roots of the primary second molar will most likely: a. Resorb at normal site. b. Resorb more slowly than Normal. c. Resorb more rapidly than normal. d. Show no resorption as the initiator force is absent. Ans: (B) 114. Which of the following procedure is replaced by the use of occlusal sealants? a. Occlusal amalgam restoration. b. Topical fluoride restoration. c. Prophylactic odontomy. d. All the above. Ans C Refer pg 233 shoba tandon. -prophylactic odontomy proposed by hyatt in this technique fissures are filled with silver or copper oxy phosphate cement as soon as the teeth erupt into the oral cavity. Later when they are fully erupted, preparing a small occlusal cavity and filling it with amalgam. -fissure sealants are pits and fissures that occur on occlusal surfaces of molar and premolar teeth occluded by application of fluid materials which are then polymerized. 115. The green stains frequently seen in childrens teeth are caused by: a. Chromogenic bacteria. b. materia alba. c. Enamel defects. d. Dentin defects. Ans: (A) 116. Most common cause of acute generalized gingival inflammation in a preschool child is: a. Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis. b. Acute necrotising gingivitis. c. Apthous stomatittis d. Vitamin B deficiency.

AnsA Refer 1g 255/8th caranza. Acute herpetic gingivostomatis is the primary infection of the oral cavity caused by the herpes simplex virus HSV type I. -It occurs most requently in infants and children tounger than 6 years of age, but it is also seen in adolucents and females. 117. Which of the following is least likely to be used as a pit and fissure sealant? a. Cyanocrylates. b. Urethane. c. Gold alloy. d. BIS-GMA. Ans C Refer page 234. shoba tandon. -classification of pit and fissure sealants. I)polymerization methods. a)self activation (mixing two component) b)Light activation. Ist Gen-UV light 2nd self cure 3rd visible 4th flouride releasing. II)Resin systems BIS GMA Urethane acrylate III)filled and unfilled. IV)clear or tinted. 118. The optimal time to employ an orthodontic appliance that takes advantage of growth is during: a. Late primary dentition. b. Early mixed dentition. c. Late mixed dentition. d. Early permanent dentition. Ans: C Late mixed dentition. 119. On the first dental visit, basic fear of a child under the age of 2 is related to: a. Fear of injection. b. Anxiety over being separated from parent. c. Anxiety regarding instruments used to perform dental treatment. d. Not understanding the reason for dental treatment. Ans:- (B) Refer page 132 pedodontics shobha tendon

Fear is a reaction to a known danger (augmenting the fight or flight response). Its source is the consciousness. It may be defined as an umpleasant emotion or effect consisting of psychophysiological changes in response to realistic threat or danger to ones own experience.

120. A retained lower deciduous incisors will usually: a. Deflect the permanent tooth labially. b. Deflect the permanent tooth lingually. c. Causes ankylosis of the underlying permanent tooth. d. Causes impaction of the underlying permanent tooth. Ans B The permanent teeth erupt lingual to deciduous teeth. In case of retained. Deciduous incisors the permanent teeth will defect lingually. 121. The best age for giving a functional appliance for correcting skeletal dysplasia in girls is: a. 6-8 years. b. 10-11 years. c. 13-15 years. d. After 18 years. The ans is B . 122. The difference between the amount of space needed for the permanent incisors to erupt and the space available for them is called: a. Primate space. b. Leeway space. c. Interdental space. d. Incisor liability. Ans D Bhalahgi The permanent incisors are usually larger in total width than the primary incisors they replace. The difference is incisal liability . IT is 7.5 mm in maxilla and 6 mm in mandible. Leeway space -permanent canine, premolars are usually smaller in total width than primary canine and molar they replace the difference is leeway space. It is 3.4 mm in mandibular arch and 1.8mm in maxillary arch primate,simoan,anthropoid spaces -space seen mesial to maxillary deciduous canine and distal to deciduous mandibular canines.. 123. A disease that only affects formation and eruption of tooth but does not cause hypoplasia is: a. Hypoparathyroidism.

b. Hyperparalthyroidism. c. Rickets. d. Syphilis. The Ans is C Ref:shafer 4th/642 oral path.

Although many reports are found in literature linking rickets with enamel hypoplasia, infantile rickets does not always result in hypoplastic enamel.

124. The success of calcium hydroxide pulpotomy is determined by the: a. Formation of calcified bridge. b. Formation of hard base to support the restoration. c. Continuation of root formation and apexogenesis. d. All the above. .ans A Refer pg 340 shoba Tandon. -when Ca(OH)2 applied, there is necrosis of adjacent pulp tissue and an inflammation of the contiguous tissue. -Dentin bridge formation occurs at junction of necrotic tissue and vital inflamed tissue. 125. Teeth usually emerge when: a. of their roots are complete. b. of roots are complete. c. of roots are complete. d. After completion of root formation. The ans is c Refer page 95 shobha Tandon pedodontics
Tooth eruption begins upon the completion of crown formation and/or the beginning of root formation . At the time of clinical eruption, root formation is approximately three quarter complete.

126. In primary molars when proximal portion of Class II cavity preparation extends deep gingivally, a satisfactory gingival seat is not obtained because: a. Enamel rods extend occlusally in gingival third. b. Buccal and lingual surface converge occlusally. c. Primary teeth have marked cervical constriction. d. All the above. The ans isC Refer page 289 Refer Shoban Tandon Pedodontics
The box should however converge occlusally with the buccal and lingual wall paralleling the external tooth surface. Since the enamel rods, at the cervical area of the tooth, are oriented occlusally the gingival seat should not be beveled, rather should follow the enamel rod inclination.


147 Avulsed tooth may be stored in saliva for upto: 1. 2 hours. 2. 3 hours. 3. 4 hours. 4. Indefinitely. Ans.1 148) The partial Pulpotomy Technique was advocated by: 1. Bowenin 1974. 2. Clarice in 1976. 3. Cvek in 1978. 4. Willetinl980. Ans.3 He was the one to originally advocated partial pulptomy, removing only the diseased part of pulp will if reported distal shoare space maintainer. 149) Distal Shoe was first advocated by whom in 1929 ? 1. Wilson. 2. Willet 3. Wilhem 4. Rocfae. ans.2 Refer pg.396 shoba tandon. The first distal shoe space maintainer, was first reported by willets where there is a prematine loss of 2nd primary molar, prior to the eruption of Ist permanent molar. -The comonly used distal shoe space maintainer was proposed by Roche. The main difference between the two appliances is gingival extension. The Roche variety had a V shaped gingival extension while the willets one had a bar type. 150) Incipient or recurrent caries can be detected before they are visible on the radiograph by: 1. Visible light 2. Ultrasonic light. 3. Fibreoptk transillumination. 4. Digital Imaging fibreoptic transillumination. Ans 1

151) Stainless steel crowns are contraindicated in: 1. Medically compromised patient (VSD. ASD). 2. After endodontic therapy 3. Rampant caries.

4. Amelogenesis Imperfecta. Ans.1 Refer pg.318 shoba tandon Chrome steel crown as introduced by Humphrey, in 1950, has proved to be a serviceable restoration in selected cases and is now commonly called the stainless steel crown. Indications: In children with heart problem (VSD,ASD) prophylaxis has to be taken as in tooth reduction, subgingival procudure is done or in poor general condition of the child. Chair side at has to be taken into account Indications: 1)primary or young permanent tooth with extensive carious lesions. It is most often used to restore teeth with extensive carious lesions when there is inadequate support for the retention of an amalgam restoration. 2)Hypoplastic primary or permanent tooth that cannot be adequately restored with silver amalgam or a composite resin restoration. 3)Hereditary anomaly as dentinogenesis or amelogenesis imperfecta. 4)Following RCT,in both primary and permanent teeth as pulp therapy leaves treated tooth more brittle because of fluid loss, it is likely to fracture. 5)an attachment when there is an indication for a crown and loop space maintainer. 6)An attachment for habit breaking appliances. In severe cases of bruxism. 7)A restoration for fractured tooth. 8)A restoration for a 1st primary molar when it is to be the abutment for a distal extension appliance. 9)Single tooth cross-bite. 10)For replacing prematurely lost anterior teeth. *Factors to be considered in preoperative evaluation1)Dental age of patient-when a primary tooth can be expected to exfoliate within 2 years of restoration, amalgam restoration can be done. 2)Cooperation of the patient-if child is unable to cooperate because of age (<3yrs) then chair side GA may have to be considered. 3)Motivation of parents. 4)Medically compromised/disabled children.

MADHYA PRADESH 2006 109.Treatment of choice of immature pulpless teeth? a. Apexification. b. Apexogenesis . c. Pulpotmy

d. Pulpectomy Ans: (A ) 110.Which of the following is not a vital pulp therapy? a. Pulpotomy. b. Direct pulp capping. c. Indirect pulp capping. d. Pulpectomy. Ans; (D) 111.Combined mesiodistal width of canines, molars in primary dentition is ----- than permananet teeth a. b. c. d. Less Greater Same Not related

Ans: ( B )

MAHE 2006
63] Tell show do technique given by a.Joseph wolpe b.Addleslon c.Bandura d.coope Ans is b Densensitization Tell-show-D0-(TSD) Modeling -Joseph wolpe (1975) Addleslon (1959) Bandura (1969)

16. lactobaccilus count test was introduced by? a.miller in 1934 b.gottleib in 1932 c.hadley in 1933 d.listgarden in 1931

Ans is C Hadley in 1933 This L.A colony Michigan test caries activity test was introduced by Hadley in 1933. This test estimates the number of acidogenicand aciduric bacteria in the patient's saliva by counting the number of colonies appearing on tomatao peptone agar plates (pH 5.0) after inoculation with a sample of saliva. A selective media favouring the growth of aciduric lactobacilli is the basis of the test. No of organism/c.c. 0 1000 1000 5000 5000 10000 More than 10000 Symbolic designation + ++ +++ Degree of caries activity Little or none Slight Moderate Marked

66] Indirect pulp capping was introduced by a.sweet b.teusherand zander c.herman d.fauchard Ans is c The concept of indirect pulp capping was first described by Pierre Fauchard as reported by John Tomes in the mid-18th century, who recommended that all caries should not be removed in deep, sensitive cavities for fear of exposing the nerve and making the cure worse than the disease. Indirect pulp capping is indicated 1.When there is no direct pulp exposure 2.Used when pulpal inflammation is be minimal 3.complete removal of caries would cause a pulp exposure  Calcium hydroxide Herman [ 1930] introduced calcium hydroxide for. pulp capping. In 1938 Teuscher and Zander introduced calcium hydroxide in the United States. 97) which is not a stage in sigmond freuds classical psychoanalytic theory a.oral b.phallic c.latent d.maturation Ans is d Psychoanalytical theory was given by Sigmond freud

1Personality of child depends on Id; Ego and super ego. Id is unconscious instinctive urge that motivates behaviour Ego-is integrating or mediating part of personality super ego-Is the conscience, it is internal part of individual that makes value judgements Stages in child development a)Oral stage b) Anal stage c) Phallic stage d)Latent stage e)Genital stage . 98] In a 5 yr old, tooth number 85 lost, which is indicated? a.distal shoe b.bar and bar c.removable appliance d.band and loop. Ans is a Band and loop Fixed, non functional passive Both U/L arches Distal shoe Fixed, non functional passive Both U/L arches Unilateral single tooth loss usually the first primary molar UnILATERAL single tooth loss. Loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent

Fixed, intraalveola r eruption guidance appliance

Both U/L arches

first molar. Lingual arch Transpalatal arch Nancy arch or nancy appliance Removable partial denture Fixed, non functional passive Fixed non functional passive Fixed non functional passive Mandibular arch Maxillary arch Maxillary arch Bilateral multiple tooth loss UNILATERAL /Bilateral multiple tooth loss It is equivalent to the lingual arch of the mandible Multiple anterior upper tooth loss

Removable functional some times it can be made nonfunctional

94] compared to permanent dentition primary dentition a.enamel and dentin is more mineralized b.dentinoenamel junction is scalloped c.dentine is uniformly calcified c.enamel and dentin thickness is more Ans is c The mineral content of primary teeth is less .The thickness of enamel and dentin ( tooth structure ) is less compared to permanent tooth.. The dentin is uniformly calcicifed and there is absence of interglubular dentine. De junction id relatively less scalloped than permanent dentition. 146] clarks rule of drug dosages in children uses .a.height b.weight c.age d body mass index Ans is b youngs rule Age

Child dose =------------------x Adult dose age + 12 These are formulae to determine dose in a child: Young Formulae = Age x Adult dose Age + 12 Dilling Formula = Age x Adult dose 20 clarks rule = child weight (pound ) x Adult dose 150

28] stainless steel crown is a a..permanent restoration. b.temp. restoration. c.semi permanent restoration. d.none Ans is C Stainless steel crown is a semi-permanent restoration used in the primary and young permanent teeth.. It was introduced as chrome-steel crown by Humphrey in 1950 9.age of ugly duckling stage a.7-8 years b.9-10 years c.10-11 years d.12-14 years Ans is b The Ugly duckling stage is also called as Broadbent phenomenon discovered by Broadbent 1937. The condition is ugly duckling stage, a transient or self correcting malocclusion seen in maxillary incisor region between 8 9 years age. It is seen during eruption of permanent canines As the developing permanent canines erupt, they displace the roots of the lateral incisors mesially. This results distal divergence of the crowns of the two central incisors causes a midline spacing. This condition usually corrects by itself when the canines erupt and the pressure is transferred from the roots to the coronal area of the

incisors and the incisors gradually straighten with the eruption of the lateral incisors-and canines.

10.white noise is a method of a.distraction b.music c. analgesia d.all of above Ans is A Behaviour management Child can be managed by the following methods: 1. Audio analgesia or "white noise "is a method of reducing pain. This technique consists of providing a sound stimulus of such intensity that the patient finds it difficult to attend to anything else (Gardner, Licklider, 1959). 2. Biofeed back: 3. Humor 4. Coping: It is the mechanism by which the child copes up with the dental treatment. It is defined as the cognitive and behavioural efforts made by an individual to master, tolerate or reduce stressfull situations. (Lazaue 1980). Signal system: This method is followed as a part of coping, when it hurts, the child is asked to raise his hand as suggested by Musslemann 1991. 5. Voice control  It is the modification of intensity and pitch of own voice in an attempt to dominate interaction between the dentist and the child 6. Hypnosis Hypnosis is one of the most effective nonphannacologic therapies that can be used with children for a number of different procedures (Romanson. 1981)s an altered state of consciousness characterized b); a heightened suggestion likely to produce desirable behavioral and physiological changes.. When used in dentistry. it can be termed as hypnodontics (Richardson 1980) or psychosomatic or suggestion therapy.. 7. Relaxation:

8. Implosion therapy: Sudden flooding with a bar rage of stimuli which have affected him adversely and the child has no other choice but to face that stimuli until a negative response disappears. Implosion therapy mainly comprises o.f.HOME, voice sontrol and physical restraints 9 Aversive conditioning Aversive conditioning can be a safe and effective method of managing Child who displays a negative behavior and does not respond to moderate behavior modification technique.parentral consent should be obtained prior to its application Two common methods used in the clinical practice are HOME and physical restraint HOME ( hand-over-mouth exercise) The behavior modification method of aversive conditioning is also known as HOME. Introdued by Evangeline Jordan 1920. The purpose of this method is to gain the child's attention to establish communication. Indications 3-6 years old healthy child who can understand simple verbal cOmmands but who exhibits defiance and hysterical behavior during treatment. Contmindications  Child under 3 years of age, Handicapped child/immature child, frightened child The airway restriction avoided. was the critical element and it should be

Physical restraints : Last resort for handling uncooperative patients or handicapped patients. Restraints are usually needed for children who are hypermotive, stubborn or defiant Physical restraints involve restriction of movement of the child's head, hands, feets or body. It can be:  active - restraints performed by the dentist, staff or parent without the aid of a restraining device.

 passive - with the. aid of restraining device Types of restraints a) For body - Pedi wrap - Papoose board - Sheets - Beanbagwith straps - Towel and tapes b) For extremities - Velcro straps - Posey straps - Towel and tape c) For the head - Head positioner - Forearmh'Qdy support d) Mouth -Mouth blocks - Banded tongue blades 147] mouth props..are used as a.retractors b.restrainers c.retractors d.protectors Ans is b 1. Mouth props are used at the time of local anesthesia to prevent child from closing his mouth. Mouth props can also be used for: 2. Physical/mental handicapped child. 3. Young child who cannot keep the mouth open for a long time.

AIIMS 2007
81. The primary reason for aggressive behavior of a 5-year-old child in a dental office is: A. Fear B. Separation from parents C. Pain D. Unknown 81. Answer is: A. fear 82. The most common type of epilepsy in children is: A. Grand mal epilepsy B. Infantile spasm C. Petit mal D. None of above 82. Answer is: C. Petit mal

(Ref: Harrison-16th Ed/Pg 2858, KDT-5th Ed/Pg 369)


which of the following structures passes through the parotid gland A. Hypoglossal nerve, internal carotid artrery and auriculo temporary nerve B. Motor nerve of the muscles of mastication and lingual ner C. superficial temporal , retromandibular vein , facial nerve D. Lesser occipital nerve and spinal accessory nerve

Ans C
Medial to lateral side 1. External carotid artery enters the gland postero medially and divides into maxillary arter anterior medially, superficial temporal vessel superiorly and posterior auricular artery. Retro mandibular vein Superficial temporal and maxillary vein unite to form Retro mandibular vein with in the gland. Facial Nerve enters the gland postero medially and branches are given at the anterior border


AIPG 2007
188.The primary reason for aggressive behavior of a 5-year-old child in a dental (A) office is: A. Fear B. Separation from parents C. Pain D. Unknown Ans. 188. (A) fear (Ref: Finn/Pg 20) If we read all the options carefully well get the answer instantly. Option A. says fear ,while Option D. says unknown. Read these lines; The childs earliest fears associated with dentistry are those of the unknown & the unexpected. Now this is basically FEAR, option D says unknown i.e. the cause is not known. 189.Ellis Class III # of tooth involves: A. Enamel B. Enamel and dentin C. Enamel, dentin and pulp D. Crown and root Ans. 189. Enamel, dentin & pulp (ref: Damle-2nd Ed/Pg 334) Ellis classification of trauma to anterior teeth: Class I:Simple #s of crown involving enamel. Class II: Extensive #s of crown, with considerable amount of dentin involved but no pulp exposure. Class III: Extensive # of crown, with considerable amount of dentin involved with pulp exposure. Class IV: Traumatized tooth becomes nonvital (with or without loss of crown)

Class V: Tooth lost due to trauma Class VI: # of root with/ without loss of crown structure Class VII: Displacement of the tooth without crown #. Class VIII: # of crown en masse Class IX: # of deciduous teeth. 190.The most commonly exposed pulp horn during cavity preparation of lower (A) deciduous molar is: A. Mesiobuccal B. Distobuccal C. Mesiolingual D. Distolingual Ans: 190. (A) Mesiobuccal 191.The most common type of epilepsy in children is: A. Grand mal epilepsy B. Infantile spasm C. Petit mal D. None of the above. Ans. 191. Petit mal (Ref: Harrison-16th Ed/Pg 2858, KDT-5th Ed/Pg 369) Absence seizures usually begin in childhood ages (4-8 years) or early adolescence & are the main seizures in childhood. 192.The fear of a 6 year old related to dentistry is primarilary: (A) A. Subjective B. Objective C. Subjective and objective D. Psychological Ans: 192. (A) Subjective (Ref: Finn/Pg 18, 19) For most children, fear of dentistry is subjective & is not the result of previous dental care. Subjective fears are those based on feelings & attitudes that have been suggested to the child by others about him without the childs having had the experience personally. Children have intense fear of unknown. Objective fears are those produced by direct physical stimulation of the sense organs & are generally not of parental origin. 193.After how many days following concussion should the tooth be checked again for pulpal vitality? (B) A. 24hrs B. 10-12 days C. 1 month D. 3-6 months Ans: 193. (B) 10-12 days (Ref: Damle-2ndEd/Pg 338)

In trauma cases, the pulp vitality should be done in all cases & the teeth in the immediate area as well as those in opposite arch should be tested. But, the reliability of electric & thermal pulp testing methods immediately after trauma is debatable, as the tooth is in a state of shock. The failure of pulp to respond immediately after the trauma is not an indication for endodontic therapy. Instead, vitality test should be repeated in a week to 10 days after emergency treatment. At first the injured nerve bundles are paralyzed & do not respond, the blood vessels are torn & hemorrhage may be evident by slight discoloration of the tooth that gradually disappears as the tooth returns to its normal color.

194.The major problem involved in performing pulpectomy in primary teeth is: (C) A. Root resorption B. Inadequate operator skill C. Limited knowledge of pulpal anatomy of deciduous teeth D. All of the above. Ans.194.(C) limited knowledge of pulpal anatomy of deciduous teeth (Ref:mcdonalds-7th Ed/Pg 427) The morphohology of the root canals in primary teeth makes endodontic treatment difficult and impractical. Mature 1st primary molar canals are so small that they are inaccessible even to smallest barbed broach. If the canal cannot be cleaned of necrotic matrial, sterilized, and adequately filled, endodontic therapy is more likely to fail. There are many variations in deciduous teeth, like lateral branching, connecting fibrils, apical ramifications and partial fusion of teeth, which really make endodontic treatment in them difficult. Thus, the dentist has limited knowledge about deciduous teeth anatomy, due to the above mentioned reasons, hence the difficulty to treat such teeth with endodontics. 195.Best material for pulp capping is: (A) A. Calcium hydroxide B. Zinc phosphate cement C. ZOE D. Glass ionomer cement. Ans.195.(A) Calcium hydroxide (Ref:mcdonalds-7th Ed/Pg 427) Calcium hydroxide remains the standard material for pulp capping normal, vital pulp tissue. The possibility of its stimulating the repair is good.

It is generally agreed that the prognosis of any pulp therapy technique improves in absence of microorganisms.* Pulp capping procedures should be limited to small exposures that have been accidentally produced by trauma or during cavity preparation or true pinpoint carious exposures that are surrounded by sound dentin. Calcium hydroxide is used because of its predictability in dentin bridge formation and maintenance of vitality of the residual pulp.

196.Which of the following oropharyngeal function is not involuntary? (D) A. Tongue position B. Respiration C. Gagging D. Speech Ans.196.(D) Speech read below This question tests our common sense rather than our knowledge on dentistry and allied science! Tongue position: we are hardly aware of the tongue position in our day to day activities. (youll notice it now, while reading this line!). so definitely this is involuntary activity E.g. while masticating food, you dont have to think where to position your tongue? Gagging:take a spoon and gently rub against your posterior soft palate and youii get the answer! Speech:you have to think what you have to speak; otherwise you may land up in trouble!

MAHE 2007
Mode of technique used in blind child is a. Tell show do b. Tell feel do. c. HOME B d. physical restraints ans B Rather than using the tell-show-feel-do approach, invite the patient to touch, taste, or smell,recognizing that these senses are acute. Avoid sight references.

Which of the following theories of child psychological was proposed by pavlov a. b. c. d. operant conditioning classical conditioning Social learning theory Cognitive theory

Radiographs of the jaws of a newborn child ordinarily indicate calcification of a. 12 teeth b. 16 teeth c. 20 teeth d. 24 teeth D The ratio of ratio of formalin to cresol in Buckelys formaldehyde is, C a. b. c. d. 3:2 2:3 1:2 2:1

Abnormal loosening but without displacement of the tooth is called as a. Subluxation b. luxation c. avulsion d. dislocation

The cervical margin of stainless steel crown is placed a. Below A stainless steel crown should normally extend below the gingival crest approximately: [ A ] A. 1 mm B. 1.5 mm C. 2 mm D. 2.5 mm 11. Ans A [the gingival margin. b. c. d. Tooth preparation for stainless steel crown Occlusal 1.5 2 mm reduction Buccal and lingual 0.5 mm, least reduction Proximal 1 1.5mm reduction Gingival termination 0.5 1 mm into sulcus Gingival finish line Feather edge 79.Space maintainers a. not indicated in mandibular archas it is contained arch b. not usually indicated is maxillary arch but helps in esthetics B c. not indicated in maxillary arch as there is no physiological mesial drift

[KAR 01]

d. are indicated only to maintain the leeway space of nance 80.Restoration of choice for obturation in deciduous tooth a.Zinc oxide eugenol b. Reinforced zinc oxide eugenol c. Gutta percha d. Silver point AIPGDE 08


An 8-year-old child with normal tooth calcification and eruption has primary mandibular second molar extracted. The resulting space should . A. Maintained until the premolar root is 2/3rd developed. B. Closed slightly to accommodate the smaller premolar. C. Ignored, because the 2nd premolar will erupt in a short time. D. Left untreated, because the difference in size between the primary molar and the premolar will compensate for any drifting that might occur. In an 8-year-old child, the first permanent molar erupts ectopically in mesial direction in an intact arch without excessive resorption of the primary molar roots and does not retract itself. The treatment of choice is to:

Ans A. Maintained until the premolar root is 2/3rd developed Answering this type of questions requires the knowledge of chronology eruption and exfoliation of teeth and indications and contraindications of space maintainer. Loss of primary second molar at eight years of age is definitely premature loss. The expected exfoliation time is around 10 years. There will be loss of space in arch if some preventive measures are not intervened. The space needs to be maintained till the permanent tooth occupies the alveolar housing . When the posterior permanent tooth reach the crest of the alveolar ridge 2/3rd of root will be formed and is reading for cutting into the oral cavity..


Ans C. Use brass clip to distalize the molar. Ref: Park &Park's social and preventive medicine /19th- 37 Dentest vol II- social and preventive medicine

A. Extract the primary second molar. 'Primordial prevention, a new concept, is

B. Disking the distal surface ofthe primary second molar. C. Use brass clip to distalize the molar. D. No need of treatment, only observation. APPG 09

receiving special attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. This is primary prevention in purest sense, that is, prevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in countries or population groups in which they have not yet appeared


In a child of 5 years all the primary canines are discoloured and the dentine is removed as flecks. The lesion is most commonly due to a. Arrested caries b. Dentinogensis imperfecta c. Localized enamel hypoplasia d. Rampant caries

By elimination localized enamel hypoplasia seems to be the appropriate answer.


Which of the following is indicated in the fractures of permanent incisors with open apex. The fracture occurred 20 minutes back with pulp involvement a) Pulp capping b) formocresol Pulpotomy c) calcium hydroxide Pulpotomy d) Pulpectomy [ C]

Ans C calcium hydroxide Pulpotomy In open apex cases to maintain vitality of radicular pulp, calcium hydroxide pulpotomy is indicated to continue the root end formation. This is called as apexogenesis. However if the injury has occurred 48 hours before the beginning of the treatment assume pulp to be necrotic and proceed for pulpectomy and apexification.


There is a real relationship between the incidence of fractured anterior teeth and the a) Caries in those teeth b) Hardness of the enamel c) Hardness of the dentin d) Protrusion of those teeth

ans D. Protrusion of those teeth

Most common cause of primary tooth fractures occur at 2 year of age. Most of the fractures of primary teeth occur when child is learing to walk.This is due to lack of motor co-ordination In permanent dentition class I div I malocclusion is more prone for fracture due to proclined central Incisors. The most susceptible age is 8-10 years of age. ans A- A. Mc Donald pedododontics 8th/482, shobha Tandon pedodontics 1st/672 out of the available options narrow width of attached gingiva is the best answer. Gingival recession is often observed in children. Several factors predispose patients to gingival recession. These factors include presence of a narrow band of attached or keratinized gingiva, alveolar bony dehiscence, toothbrush trauma, tooth prominence, impinging frenum attachment, soft tissue impingement by opposing occlusion, orthodontic tooth movement, use of impression techniques including subgingival tissue retraction, oral habits, periodontitis, and pseudorecession (extrusion of teeth). Anterior teeth with narrow zones of keratinized gingival are are frequently encountered in children, as the width of KG varies greatly during the mixed dentition. The width of KG alone should not be the sole indicator of potential sites of gingival recession in children. However, the frenum is the primary etiologic factor in the stripping of the gingival tissue and labial pocket formation.


Gingival stripping in children a. is due to narrow attached gingiva b. is treated with Gingivectomy c. is due to increase in width of attached gingiva d. is treated by Gingivoplasty

When gingival recession occurs in children, a conservative approach to treatment should be adopted by elimination of the stimulus if possible, while excellent oral hygiene is maintained in the affected areas. The recession must then be monitored carefully until the permanent dentition is complete. Longitudinal studies of individual cases have shown that, as the supporting tissues mature, the gingival attachment tends to creep spontaneously in a coronal direction to cover at least part of the previously denuded root surface. This cautious approach is preferred to corrective surgical intervention to increase the width of KG. If the recession has progressed after a 4- to 8-week period of observation, other periodontal procedures may be required based on the identified predisposing factor. The options are differently given by some students are Gingival stripping in the incisal region of children a. Increase the width of attached gingiva b. is treated with Gingivectomy c. decrease the width of attached gingiva d. is treated by Gingivoplasty ans A. Mc Donald pedododontics 8th/442 As seen from the above discussion the narrow attached gingiva is the cause of stripping in children. If the width of the attached gingiva is normal then frenectomy is the treatment of choice. In case of narrow attached gingiva, vestibuloplasty along with frenectomy

procedures has to be done.

BHU 09 1. Exarticulation of teeth means A. B. C. D. Intrusion Extrusion Sublimation Avulsion


Ans D Injuries to the periodontal tissues are classified as Repeat PGI 02 Concussion Injury to supporting tissues without loosening or displacement but with marked reaction to percussion Subluxation Abnormal loosening but without displacement of the tooth Intrusion Displacement of the tooth into the alveolar bone [central accompanied by fracture of the alveolar socket. dislocation] Extrusion Partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket Exarticularion Complete displacement of tooth out of socket [complete avulsion] 2. Conservative Restorative Resin is another name given to A) Preventive Resin Restoration B) Prophylactic Odontotomy C) Pit & Fissure Sealant D) GICRestoration Ans.C Pit & Fissure Sealant-After Avulsion of the tooth 60 Minutes have elapsed , it is kept in Doxycycline for 5 Minutes forthe purpose of A) Revascularisation B) Blocks Ca2+ Channels C) Conditioning Of The Cementum D) Revitalisation Of Periodontal Ligament Ans. A Ref :Ingle 5th ed/838: cohen6th/508 Avulsed Teeth with Open Apices. The only exception to the rule ANS C



that replanted teeth must be treated endodontically is the situation in which a very immature developing tooth with a wide open apex has been avulsed and replanted (see Figure 15-43). Such teeth have the potential for revascularization and therefore should be monitored after replantation to look for signs of revascularization (ie, continued root formation and absence of resorption and ankylosis). It has been recommended to soak the avulsed tooth in a solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) prior to replantation. Soak the tooth in a 2.4% fluoride solution acidulated at pH 5.5 for 20 minutes or more. The fluoride will slow the resorptive process(cohen) . When the root has been dry for 60 minutes or more all periodontal cells will have died and soaking will be ineffective .In these cases steps should be taken to prepare the root to be as resistant to resorption as possible, in order to slow the process. The teeth should be soaked in citric acid for 5 minutes followed by a 5-minute soak in 2% stannous fluoride, followed by another 5 minutes in doxycycline, after which they are replanted( Ingle) 4. Distal Shoe Space Maintainer extends intragingivally A) 0.0 0.5 Mm B) 0.5 1.0 Mm C) 1.0 1.5 Mm D) 1.5 - 2.0 Mm Ans. B 0.5 1.0 Mm The guide plane of the appliance should be placed 1mm below the mesial marginal ridge of the unerupted permanent first molar in the alveolar bone.--Pinkham
The depth of the intragingival extension should be about 1.0 to 1.5 mm below the mesial marginal ridge of the molar, or just sufficient to "capture" its mesial surface as the tooth erupts and moves forward----Mc. Donald



Stainless Steel Crowns Should Extend Intragingivally A) 0.5 1.0 mm B) 1.0 1.5 mm C) 1.5 2.0 mm



0.0 0.5 mm

Ans. A) 0.5 1.0 mm Ref :- pedodontics by shoba tanddon1st/322

One has to concentrate on making the stainl:ess steel crown more physiologically acceptabl~ to Uie gingiva as it is seen in our clinical practice also that cement incre'ases the retentive capacity of all types of preparations., R~ducing supragingival bulge with reduction~x\enrling 0.5mm below the gingival crest helps to obt::iiTl all ~acceptable gingival response. The buccal and lingual surface are reduced at least 0.5mm with the reduction ending in a feather edge, extending 0.5 to 1mm into the gingival sulcus.


In Basket Crown Technique A) Window Is Prepared On Lingual Aspect For Aesthetics B) Window Is Prepared On Labial Aspect For Aesthetics C) Window Is Prepared On Occlusal Aspect For Aesthetics D) Window Is Prepared In Cervical Region For Aesthetics Ans. B Window Is Prepared On Labial Aspect For Aesthetics This is available in older versions of pedodontic text books. A basket crown is a temporary crown placed in the traumatic anterior tooth. Essentially it is th crown with reduction on lingual and proximal sides. The labial surface is left untouched and the crowns have window cut on the labial side.



In Children Most Commonly Observed Is A) B) C) D) Chronic Marginal Gingivitis Chronic Generalised Gingivitis Chronic Localised Periodontitis Chronic Generalised Periodontitis


Ans. A Chronic Marginal Gingivitis


7 Which of the following is an indication for serial extraction? 1 a) Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite . b) Class I malocclusion with severe mandibular anterior crowding c) Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite and arch length deficiency d) Class I malocclusion with well spaced arch Ans. B Class I malocclusion with severe mandibular anterior crowding 7 Which of the following extremes of parental behavior were 2 manifested either in Extreme Dominance or Indulgence . a) Overanxiety b) Rejection c) Identification d) Overprotection Ans is D--- Overprotection Shobha Tandon pedodontics -- , 1st/. 14 Parental(Maternal ) attitude Over protective dominant Over indulgent Childs behavior

Ans. B

Ans is D

Shy, submissive and anxious Aggressive, demanding, display of temper tantrums Under affectionate Well behavior uncooaparative, shy and cries easily Rejecting Aggressive, overactive and disobedient-Authorities Evasive and dawdling 7 Pacifier sucking is an example of Ans is B 3 . a) Digit sucking b) Not-nutritive sucking c) Implicative sucking d) Nutritive sucking Ans is B-- Not-nutritive sucking Shobha Tandon pedodontics -- 1st/. 429.

There are two forms of sucking Sucking habits can be classified into: 1. Nutritive sucking habits: a. Breast feeding b. Bottle feeding 2. Non-nutritive sucking habits (NNS habits): a. Thumb or finger sucking b. Pacifier sucking Nutritive sucking: This is the sucking mechanism involved in breast feeding and bottle feeding Non nutritive sucking(NNS) is the earliest form of sucking adapted by child in response to frustration or anxiety. Children who are not breast fed properly and the children who are deprived affection tries to satisfy their needs with habits like thumb sucking . other forms are dummy sucking(pacifier sucking) 7 4 For a 3yr old child a removable space maintainer is . fabricated. What is the biggest disadvantage of this appliance? a) Irritation to supporting tissues b) Difficult to clean c)Child may not tolerate wearing d) Function will be compromised Ans. C Child may not tolerate wearing 7 . 'Whistle' is a word substitute for explaining the following 5 instrument in Children . a) Highspeed hand piece b) Suction apparatus c) Low speed hand piece d) Air syringe McDonald pedodontics- 8th/ 44 For pediatric dentists, euphemisms or word substitutes are like a second language. Examples of word substitutes that can be used to explain procedures tochildren a Word Rubber dam Rubber dam clamp Rubber dam Sealant Topical fluoride gel Air syringe Water syringe Substitute raincoat for Tooth button Coat rack frame Tooth paint Cavity fighter Wind gun Water gun Ans is A Ans is C

Suction Vaccum cleaner Alginate Pudding Study models Statues High speed hand piece Whistle Low speed hand piece Motorcycle 7 Joseph Wolpe developed the following behavior 6 management technique . a) Modeling b) Tell- Show- Do c) Desensitization d) Voice Control Ans is C Desensitization 7 7 What is the amount of time required by erupting premolar to . move through 1 mm of bone as measured on a bite-wing radiograph? a) 2-3months b) 4-5months c) 6-7 months d) 7-8 months 98. ans B 7 . Behavior Management techniques were labeled as 8 'Embarrassment of Riches' in 1977 by . a) Jimmy R. pinkham b) Gerald Z.Wright c) David W Chambers d) J. C. Brauer Ans is C David W Chambers PINkHAM pedodontics 2nd/340 7 9 "Guidance to Eruption" is another term for . a) Frankel's appliance b) Activator c) Serial Extraction d) Bionator Ans. C ---Serial Extraction 8 0 . To maintain the space of a primary second molar that has

Ans is C

Ans is B

Ans is C

Ans is C

Ans is D

been lost before the permanent first molar, the choice of space maintainer is a) Band & Loop b) Crown & loop c) Band & Bar d) DistalShoe Ans is D DistalShoe 8 Mayne space maintainer represents which of the following 1 type of space maintainers? . a)Non-functional b) Functional c) Cantilever d) Crown & Crib Ans is A Non-functional 8 Which of the following is true about thermal and electrical 2 pulp tests after trauma . a) Sensitivity tests evaluate the nerve and circulatory condition of the tooth b) False positive tests.are more likely than false negative tests c) It may take up to nine months for normal blood flow to return. d) It may take a few hours for normal blood flow to return. Ans. C Ref: Cohen endodontics 9th/. 612, Ref: Ingle endodontics 5th/. 803  In traumatized teeth, vitality tests act as sensitivity tests and do not indicate the presence or absence of blood circulation within the pulp.  Subsequent to traumatic injury, the conduction capability ofthe nerve endings or sensory receptors is sufficiently deranged to inhibit the nerve impulse from an electric or thermal stimulus.  This makes the traumatized tooth vulnerable to false negative readings from these tests.  Teeth that give a positive response at the initial examination cannot be assumed to be healthy or that they will. continue to give a positive response over time.  Teeth that yield a negative response or no response cannot be assumed to have necrotic pulps because the may give a positive response at later follow-up visits.  As circulation is restored, the responsiveness to pulp returns Ans is A

Ans is C .

Pulps may deteriorate and become necrotic months or years after the original trauma, so periodic re-evaluation is important in the management of dental injuries. If pulpal recovery (eg, revascularization) is to be monitored, frequent initial re-evaluations (every3 to 4 weeks for the first 6 months) and then yearly are recommended.

1. . The distal shoe appliance is used a) When first primary molar is lost prematuredly b) When second primary molar is lost and first permanent molar has erupted c) When second primary molar is lost and first permanent molar has not erupted d) When first primary molar is lost and first permanent molar has erupted Ans is C When second primary molar is lost and first permanent molar has not erupted 2. The sensitive period for tetracycline induced discoloration in the permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines is a) 3 months postpartum to seventh year of life b) 4 months in utero to 3 months post partum c) 5 months in utero to 9 months post partum d) Birth to seventh year Ans is A ;3 months postpartum to seventh year of life Shaffer oral pathology 5th/778 Moffitt and his coworkers have emphasized that thecritical period for tetracycline-induced discoloration in the deciduous dentition (the period of mineralization of the first millimeter of dentin nearest the dentinoenameljunction) is four months in uteroto three months postpartum for maxillary and mandibular incisors and five months in uteroto nine months postpartum for maxillary and
mandibular canines. The period for permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines is three to five months postpartum to about seven years of age. The age at which tetracycline administration occurred can easily be pinpointed by reference to a chart on the chronology of odontogenesis.

Ans is C

Ans is A


A papoose board is used for immobilization of a) Whole body b) Extremities only c) Head only d) Jaws only ans A Whole body

Ans is A

Physical restrains are last resort for handling uncooperative or handicapped patients. It can be Active restraints performed by dentist or parents or staff. Passive with the aid of restraining device. For body Papoose board Pedi wrap Bean bag Towels and tapes Posey straps Velco straps Mouth blocks Mouth props Banded tongue blades
Ans is D

For extremities Mouth


Behavior modification includes all of the following EXCEPT a) Tell show do b) Desensitization c) Modeling d) HOME ans D. HOME


Obturation of deciduous tooth can be done with a) Gutta purcha b) Iodoform paste c) Silver points d) Thermoplastisized gutta purcha Ans is B Iodoform paste

Ans is B


The reasons for maxillary permanent canine impaction could be all EXCEPT

Ans is D

a) Long developmental period b) Dubious course in eruption c) Occupies several developmental positions in succession d) Asymmetrical development ans D) Asymmetrical development( this is untrue) 7. Mentally retarded child will have an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range a) 110-119 b) 80-89 c) 69 and below d) 40 and up ans C- 69 and below is the answer given in key, ans D also confers same meaning. Also refer comed 2005 paper Most of the normal children have IQ range 90-110 According to Stanford-Binet test, non trainable type of mental retardation has an IQ of Below 20 According to American association of mental deficiency classification scheme, a trainable mentally retarded child has an IQ range of 36 51 A child having IQ below 70 is considered to be idiot and mentally retarded. understood, and such individuals were often treated as inferior. They were described using the terms idiot (IQ [intelligence quotient] below 25), imbecile (IQ of 25 to 50), and moron (IQ of 50 to 70). 8. Prophylactic odontomy was proposed by a) HYATI b) CVEK c) LOUISRIPA d) MARTIIALER ans A; HYATI 9. Green stain is caused due to a) Chromogenic bacteria on enamel cuticle b) Consumption of beetle leaf for more than 1year c) Methyl red d) Stannous fluoride Ans is A Ans is A Ans is C

Ans is A ;Chromogenic bacteria on enamel cuticle 10. Eruption of fIrst permanent molar causes a) Early mesial shift c) Closure of leeway space b) Late mesial shift d) None of the above ans A. Early mesial shift The permanent first molar erupts into class I relation by utilising the generalized spaces in the primary dentition. This is called as early mesial shift. The leeway space is utilized in late mesial shift for acquiring class I relationship 11. i According to Ellis and Davey classifIcation a fracture of 51 involving dentin and associated loss of vitality is classified as . a) class 2 b) class 4 c) class 8 d) class 9 ans D class 9 All the fractures of deciduous dentition come under class 9 in Ellis classification. Ans is D Ans is A

Ellis and Deway classification Class 1 : Fracture involving enamel Class 2 : Fracture involving enamel and dentin Class 3 : Fracture involving dental pulp Class 4 : Non vital tooth Class 5 : Avulsion Class 6 : Root fracture with or without crown fracture Class 7 : Displacement of tooth without fracture of crown or root. Class 8 : Fracture of crown enmasse Class 9 : Deciduous tooth fractures.
12. Recently added in the centre of pediatric treatment triangle is . a) Typeof treatment b) Society c) Child response d) Facilities in Clinic ans B. Society child dentistry by mc.donald -7th/34 Ans is B

A major difference between the treatment of children and the treatment of adults is the relationship. Treatingadults generally involves a one-to-one relationship, that is, a dentist-patient relationship. Treating a child, however, usually relies on a one-to-two relationship among dentist, pediatric patient, and parents or guardians .This relationship is illustrated by which is known as the pediatric dentistry treatment triangle. Recently, society has been centered in the triangle
13. The best alternative storage medium for avulsed teeth in case culture media are NOT available is a) Milk b) Water c) saline d) Blood Ans is A -Milk child dentistry by mc.donald -7th/488 Ans is A

Milk has been shown to be a suitable storage medium that is also often readily available (skim or low-fat milk, if available, is preferred). Isotonic saline is another excellent solution to use for this purpose if it is available. saliva is a better storage medium. Neither water nor saliva is as good as milk or saline, if the tooth must be stored for a long period (more than 30 minutes before replantation). A compilation of the information indicates that Hanks buffered saline, isotonic saline, and pasteurized bovine milk may be the most favorable known storage media. If none of these solutions is readily available, human saliva is an acceptable short-term substitute storage liquid. Presumably, the patient's saliva (and perhaps blood) would be readily available to collect in a small container.
Because water is hypotonic, its use leads to rapid cell lysis and increased inflammation on replantation. 14. Percentage of APF used is a) 1.23% b) 12.3% c) 8% d) 2% Ans is A --1.23%

Ans is A


MAHE 09 The thickness of rubber dam for children A. 6 x 6 B. 3 x 3 C. 5 x 5 d.8 x 8 Ans is C 5 x 5 Ref pedodontics
Apexogenesis of incompletely formed roots is[KAR 98] a) Induce the formation of apical 1/3 of root b) Closure of apical formation in a developing tooth c) Induce the formation of apical 2/3 of root (PGI 93) d) Deposition of cellular cementum at open [ Ans is B Closure of apical formation in a developing tooth ]



Tell show do technique was found by a.bandura c.wolpe cskinner d Addleslon Ans is D Addleslon Thumb sucking habit is prevented by a.elbow bandage b.finger bandage c.lingual crib d.all of the above Ans is D all of the above



Q.Bean bag is used in dental chair for the following purpose a.restraining body b.restraining head c.comfort of patient d.in spondylitic patients Ans is A restraining body For body Papoose board Pedi wrap Bean bag

For extremities Mouth

Towels and tapes Posey straps Velco straps Mouth blocks Mouth props Banded tongue blades B



patients What is to be done in the initial stage of behaviour modification in children 1. adaption 2. awareness 3. evaluation 4. motivation Ans is B awareness?? Number of arms in rubber dam retainer is a. 4prongs+4jaws b. 2prongs+4jaws c. 4prongs+2jaws d. 2prongs+2jaws Ans is C 4prongs+2jaws
Ref conservative dentistry sturdvent 4th/446,447 In 1864, S.C. Barnum, a New York City dentist, introduced the rubber dam into dentistry

. The rubber dam retainer (clamp) consists of four prongs and two jaws
connected by a bow. The retainer is used to anchor the dam to the most posterior tooth to be isolated. A retainer usually is not required when the dam is
appliedfor treatment of the anterior teeth, except for thecervical retainer for Class V restorations .When positioned on a tooth, a properly selected retainer
should contact the tooth in four areas-two on the facial surface and two on the lingual surface. This four-point contact prevents rocking or tilting of the retainer.. The prongs of some retainers are gingivally directed (inverted) and are helpful when the anchor tooth is only partially erupted


What is the best restoration for a root anal treated deciduous tooth a. GIC b. Silver c. S.S.crown d. Leave it as it is Ans is C S.Scrown


According to the freudian psychosexual stages of B development the stage which corresponds with

Ans is B latency

development of mixed dentition and character formation is a. Concrete operational b. latency c. Phallic d. Genital Ans is B latency 10. Fluoride supplement for above 3 year old child living in an area with fluoride content of 0.25 ppm is A. B. C. D. 0.25 mg 0.5 mg 0.75 mg 1 mg D

Ans is D 1mg Ref community dentistry dentest vol II

The supplemental fluoride dosage depends on fluoride concentration of drinking water and age of the child.
Recommendation for use of fluoride tooth paste Fluoride content of water in ppm

Age [yrs] Birth to 2 2 to 3 3 to 13

< 0.3 0.25 0.5 1.0

0.3 00.7 0 0.25 0.5

> 0.7 0 0 0