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DEC.1997 VOL. 123 NO.12 SSS Ree) CO) fochnical Wctivities Division of 3 ge ce er Ba {ga merican Society of Civil Engineers ‘Envron's NoTe ‘TEGHNICAL PAPERS Design of Bear-Colurmns in Stool Frames. I: Philosophies, ‘and Procedures D.W. White and M. J. Clarke Design of Beam-Colurns in Steel Frames. tl: Comparison of Standards .W. White and M. J. Clarke Biavaly Loatled Concrete. Encased Composite Columns: Design Equetion ‘Mafoz ond. (Cheng-Teu Thomas Ho uctity of 6550 Sheet Steels in Tension olin A. Rogers and ‘Gregory J. Hancock Evaluation of Rigety of Extndsd Erd-Plate Connecons R Hasan, N. Kishi W.F.Chen, and M. Komuro Load-Carrving Filet ‘Welds Using Buzl Boundary Elmert Memnoo 8.7. Lie and C. Bian Finite-Element Analysis of Unsifiened Flusn End-Plat Bolted Joints Bighwanath doss, Zai Min Wang, 2nd Susanta Sarkar Proctc Buctling anor for Transition Ringbeems in Steal Sos 4.6. Tang Generalized Elastic Bucking of Restrained 'Beams by FEM Mark Andrew Bradtont ‘and Hamid Reza Roxagh Relablty of Deterioreting RC Slab Britges Dict V. Val ard Robert F. Melchers ‘Suow Loads on Gable Roots Wichael O'Rourke and Michaet Auren Design Live Load {or Classrooms in United States and Mexico Sonia E. Rulz and ‘Antonio Sampayo-T Modeling Structural {nulated Panel (SIP) Fexural Creep Deflection Stover Taya, Horvey 8. Manbeck, John J. Janowiak, and Dennis R. Hiitunen contents contowed on back cover BIAXIALLY LOADED CONCRETE-ENCASED COMPOSITE COLUMN! DESIGN EQUATION By Pedro R. Mujioz,’ Member, ASCE, and Cheng-Tzu Thomas Hsu,’ Fellow, ASCE AmstRact: The main objective of the work presented in this paper is to propose a design equation to predict and check the ultimate load capacity of short and slender concretewencased equaze and rectangular composite columns under uniaxial or biaxial bending moments and axial load. The proposed design equation satisfies hasic analysis and design parameters of both the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). [tis simple to use, and is compatible with the principles of equilibrium consistent {deformation and structural stablty. The second order effects on slender columns are considered by incorporating ‘2 moment magnifisetion factor silat to the one used by the ACT for reinforced concrete colwmm, witl the Appropriate adjustments for rectangular composite columns. The propoted design equation was used to predict the ultimate axial load capacity of more than 80 square and rectangular compos site column specimens. The analytical results were compared with the actual test resulis and current ACI and AISC design methods. The accuracy obtained in predicting the ultimate axial load capacity and checking the design of a composite section ‘under uniaxial or biaxial bending moments and axial Joad confirms the validity ofthe proposed dasign equation, INTRODUCTION ‘Composite columns have become @ very practical and ef fective structural clement for high and low rise. buildings throughout the world. They provide the required stiffness to limit the total drift of the building to acceptable limits of Iat- tal displacsiseut, to sesist the latzval seismic and wind Toads vory effectively, and to speed up the constfuction process by advancing the erection of the structural steel framework 10 support several floors at a time before casting the concrete column encasement. A conetete-encased composite column section is obtained by adding a structural steel shape to 2 te inforeed concrete section that provides an increased load ca- pacity aud sitfucss propestics : ‘Although it is possible to analyze and design a composite column following either the American Concrete Institute (ACD) (21992) desien method or the American Institute of Steel Con struction (AISC) (Manual 1986) recommended load and resis- tance factor design method, one can notice that the two meth- ‘ods differ in format and do not always achieve consistent and comparable results of ultimate axial load capacity forthe same Composite section. Furlong (1983) presented a comparative study of the rules and specifications of the ACI, AISC, and the Structural Stability Research Couaci} applicable to the de- sign of composite columns. Griffis (1992) examined and com- pared the interaction diagrams for composite columns plotied according to the ACI and the LRED design approach. Design sucids, interaction equations, and empincal Formulas forthe analysis and design of composite columns have been propgscd by several researchers, including Stevens (1965), Basa and Sommerville (1969), Rondale (1966), Bretle (1973), Vidi and Dowling (1975), Wakabayashi (1977), Furfong (1983), John- son and Smith (1980), Yee et al. (1982), Lachance (1982), Roberts and Yam (1983), Rotk and Bergmann (1984), Johnson (4975), Visdi and Dowling (1979), and Watanabe (1966), among others. The design standards for composite, columns have been established by the British Standard BS 8/10 (Strucx "Pros Engr, Paul Beck Assocs, BA. Sauct Engrs, 122 Path Dr, Wayne, OTD "Spot, Dept, of Civ. an Eavi. Engr. New Jersey Int of Tecaol, 223 Man King J, Bw, Newer 19 07102 ‘Nite Ausclt dior W. Siac! Eaering. Disctsion open vt May I, 1998 Te extend the elotng ove one mont, «writen request imus be fled wai he ASCE Manager of Journals, Hoe manesct Coe Shs paper was tabi for row ond posible pubic 09 AUB 15, Jobe. This paper 1s par Ofte Journal of Sructral Enptnearng, Voi 123, No. Le, Decerter, 1997. ASCE ISSN O798.9448970012- 15 70~ I38o/Sa00 + 3.30 per peg. Paper Na. 13964. {1876 / JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING /DECEMBER 1987 tural 1985), The German standard DIN 18 806 (Deutsche 1984), the ACI code (ACI 1992), the AISC-ASD design man- ual (Allowable 1990), the AISC-LRFD specifications (Man- ual 1966), the Suuclural Specifications Liaison Commiuce (SLC) (Structural 1979), among others. "A generalized interaction equation of fiilure surface is herein proposed for the analysit and design of eonerete-en- cased composite columns under biaxial bending moments and axial load. A verification of the proposed interaction equation will be made by comparing the analytical results obtained by using the proposed design equation with those of compostte sections studied by Johnston (1976) and experimental tests of composite columps reported by Stevens (1965), Viedi and Dowling (1973), Marina at at. (104), Roik and Schwathen- hofer (1987), and Mufoz (1994), respectively. DERIVATION OF PROPOSED INTERACTION EQUATION OF FAILURE SURFACE ‘In the past, design interaction equations have been proposed for reinforced concrete columns, steel, and composite sections by Hsu (1988), Chen and Duan (1989), Furiong (1978), and others. In the present paper. the writers will present the deri- vation of a generalized interaction equation that incorporates both the toad-moment imzraction diagrams of a composi soc ‘ion about the two major axes and the load contour diagram ‘at a constant axial load into 2 single interaction equation. Fig 1 shows the failure surface, uniaxial interaction diagram. and ‘typical composite cross section. The interaction diagrams are calculated based on the principles of static equilibrium, sta- bility, and strain compatibility. It is possible to express each ‘uniaxial interaction diagram and the load contour diagram in the form of a continous mathematical function. Mufioz (1994) developed a special purpose computer program named “IN- TTRDIAG" to generate some numerical coefficients, « and fi, that define the best fit to the collection of points of each in- teraction and toad contour diagram shown in Fig. 1. ‘A continuous mathematical function may be defined to rep- resent the combined action of uniatial bending moments and. ‘axial loads on a composite section, The shape of the interac- ‘ion and the load contour diagram vary with the material prop- erties of concrete and steel, position and amount of reinforcing steel bars and structural steel, and geometry of the cross sec- tion. Fig. 1 shows a typical uniaxial load-moment interaction Ta ene cs not always occur at the came level of axial toad. For Se case when the balanced load for bending about the x-axis tip i greater than the belanced load for bending ebout the $F (Pe), the load-contout and load-roment ciagrams my 2 blond as shown in Fig. 2. From the load-contour diseram fn Fig. 2, the bending moments along the M, axis are M+ Me= Ms © Substituting the values of M,, M;, and My for thei come sponding values of bending enoments from Fig. 2 (4) may De feriten inthe following form: Mag + Mage — Med = Mae © Dividing each term of (2) BY Mtn vas obteine (Mas. (Miss = Mov fe)-Ccs) 8 Which represents the baci identity interaction equation. a Page > Py Ad Pa > Pat FIG. 2, Loed-Contour and Uniaxial Loac+Moment Interaction Diagrams “JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING | DECEMBER 1997 / 1377