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Chapter 11 Producing Enough Food for the World 1.

Which of the terms below refers to the farming of marine organisms: a) forage crops b) subsistence crops c) aquaculture d) mariculture e) agriculture Ans: d Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Easy

c) I and II d) I and III e) I, II, and III Ans: d Link to: 10.7 Difficulty: Medium 5. . Which of the following refers to lack of a specific chemical component of food: a) malnourishment b) famine c) undernourishment d) miasma e) nonnourishment Ans: a Link to: 11.2 Difficulty: Easy 6. Crops grown as food for domestic animals are called: a) domestic crops b) range land crops c) forage crops d) agricrops e) subsistence crops Ans: c Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: 7. Monoculture is associated with: a) gain of chemical elements in the soil b) decreased likelihood of crop diseases c) constant agro-ecosystem d) decreases in organic matter in the soil e) a high variety of crops produced Ans: d Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Easy 8. Econuts will grow in great abundance in the presence of certain minimum amounts of sunlight, water, and nitrogen in the soil. Industrial Farms Inc. has abundant sunlight and water, but terrible yields of econuts. What is the technical term for nitrogen in this example: a) limiting factor

2.

Which of the terms below refers to crops grown as food for domestic animals? a) forage crops b) subsistence crops c) aquaculture d) mariculture e) agriculture Ans: a Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Easy

3.

Which of the terms below refers to the farming of foods in marine and freshwater habitats: a) forage crops b) subsistence crops c) aquaculture d) mariculture e) agriculture Ans: c Link to: 10.3 Difficulty: Easy

4.

Which of the following would lead to a significant increase in per capita demand for food worldwide? I. lower food prices II. an increase in personal income of the richest 5% of a population III. rising expectations of the populace a) I only b) II only

b) synergism c) base resource d) artificial fertilizer e) a Liebeg Ans: a Link to: 11.5 Difficulty: Medium 9. Hydroponics refers to: a) monocultures that satisfy the per-capita food demand of a nation b) the growing of plants in a fertilized water solution on an artificial substrate c) the application of water and fertilizer to the soil from tubes that sprays this mixture in form of a fine mist d) fish farming making use of treated sewage e) anthropogen invented crop culture Ans: b Link to: 11.7 Difficulty: Easy 10. The majority of the world s food supply is obtained by: a) cattle ranching b) agriculture c) fishing and aquaculture in oceans and freshwater lakes d) hunting and gathering e) industrial production Ans: c Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Easy 11. Agriculture where a mixture of crops is utilized, including root, stem, and fruit crops is called: a) bush fallow b) milpa agriculture c) swidden agriculture d) fang agriculture e) all of the above Ans: e Link to: A Closer Look 11.1 Difficulty: Easy 12. . Irrigation of plants refers to: a) artificial addition of fertilizers

b) the spraying of pesticides c) the crossing of one or more varieties of species to produce an offspring with particular desired qualities d) artificial addition of water e) the growing of plants in a nutrient rich solution Ans: d Link to: 11.7 Difficulty: Easy

13. The reason that weeds compete so effectively against agricultural crops and must be inhibited or removed is that: a) weeds are early successional species and naturally do well on cleared land b) weeds try to restore the genetic variability lacking in monoculture c) weeds are more deeply rooted than crop plants and monopolize soil water d) weeds do not require the trace elements that limit the growth of crops e) herbicides are ineffective against most modern strains of weeds Ans: a Link to: 11.6 and refer to chapter 19o Difficulty: Medium

14. Which of the following is not a water-saving irrigation method? a) drip irrigation b) night time irrigation c) surge flow d) mulching e) all of the above are water-saving irrigation methods Ans: d Link to: critical thinking Difficulty: Medium

15. Increased production of food in the past has depended on ________ and _________. a) improving weather conditions, genetically engineered crops b) improved soil types, cash crops c) expanded irrigation, growing use of fertilizer d) critical trace elements, hydroponics e) increased soil age, high-yield crop strains

Ans: c Link to: 11.6 Difficulty: Easy

d) some single factor determines the presence and growth of a given species e) the lowest yielding crop species is the most sustainable Ans: d Link to: 11.5 Difficulty: Easy

16. Agriculture in less developed countries can be significantly affected by all of the following except: a) social disruptions b) droughts c) loss of soil organic matter and accumulation of chemical compounds d) insect infestations e) crop circles Ans: e Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Medium

20. . When did a shift from resource-based agriculture to demand-based agriculture happen a) 10,000 years ago th b) during the 20 century c) during the Middle Ages d) during the industrial revolution e) agriculture was always demand-based Ans: d Link to: 11.6 Difficulty: Easy

17. Aquaculture refers to: a) the production of flood-resistant crops b) the production of rice and other water-growing crops c) the production of aquatic animals for food d) open-ocean fishing e) the development of coastal tourist resorts Ans: c Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Easy 18. According to the Environmental Science text, what is the key to food production in the future? a) increased usage of fertilizers b) increased food production per unit area c) increased water availability d) conversion of forests to crop lands e) introduction of macronutrients to the soil Ans: b Link to: 11.6 Difficulty: Easy 19. . Liebig s Law of the Minimum says that a) missing macronutrients contribute to the growth of crop species b) the limiting factor in agriculture can be overcome by simply applying fertilizers c) only limited application of fertilizers is beneficial to the growth of a crop species

21. The current population of Demographica Island is 10 million inhabitants, and the population is doubling every 10 years. Current agriculture on Demographica could feed 20 million people, and technological improvement is expanding that capacity by 1 million every year. Given only this information, when should there be a food shortage on the island? a) never b) in 10 years c) in 15 years d) in 20 years e) in 25 years Ans: d Link to: 11.1 and 11.3 Difficulty: Hard 22. What is the most important cause of starvation worldwide? a) droughts b) inadequate distribution of food resources c) floods d) global warming e) genetically engineered crops replacing local crops Ans: b Link to: 11.4

Difficulty: Medium 23. . What is the main effect of year-to-year variability in climate on the ability of a county to feed its population? a) variable climates deplete soil of its fertility b) food supply may be adequate in normal years, but periodic subaverage years may cause famine c) variable climates are dryer than more steady ones d) countries with more variable climates have better distribution systems for food e) variable climates cause severe sediment pollution Ans: b Link to: 11.12 Difficulty: Medium

limits of gains from this method. List two other methods that may lead to increased crop yields. Ans: new high-yield crop strains improved irrigation techniques hydroponics Link to: 11.7 Difficulty: Medium

27. . Two varieties of aquaculture were mentioned in the textbook. List them and name two species produced by each type. Ans: Freshwater aquaculture -- catfish, shrimp, silkworms, etc. Mariculture -- oysters, other shellfish, etc. Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Medium

24. Aquaculture includes all of the following examples except: a) harvesting shellfish from offshore oil-drilling platforms b) growing rice in fields covered by water c) raising shrimp in carefully tended ponds d) growing oysters and mussels on rafts lowered into the ocean e) raising fish in flooded rice fields Ans: b Link to: 11.3 Difficulty: Easy

28. Explain why older soils are more likely to lack trace elements that are vital for agriculture. Ans: As a soil ages, its supply of chemical elements tends to be leached out by water from the upper layers to deeper layers below the reach of crop roots. Link to: 11.5 Difficulty: Medium

Essay

29. On global, national, and local scales, what three main factors lead to the problem of widespread malnutrition in the modern world? Ans: population growth, inadequate distribution of available food wars and political disruptions Link to: 11.2 Difficulty: Medium

25. In the figure below, suggest an appropriate type of productive land use (productive for humans) for each of the five numbered settings. Ans: 1) little or no appropriate agriculture 2) forestry, etc. 3) grazing, orchards 4) crop lands 5) mariculture, fishery Link to: 11.1 Difficulty: Medium

30. Why are older soils more likely to lack nutrients necessary for many crops? Ans: As a soil ages, its supply of chemical compounds tends to be leached by water from the upper layers to deeper layers. Link to: 11.5 Difficulty: Easy

26. To date, increases in crop yields were achieved largely by increased application of artificial fertilizer. However we may have reached the

31. Crop rotation is a technique to counteract a negative effect of monoculture agriculture. What is the benefit of crop rotation? Ans: replenishes soil nutrients Link to: 11.9 Difficulty: Easy

36. The current population of Demographica Island is 10 million inhabitants, and the population is doubling every 10 years. Current agriculture on Demographica could feed 20 million people, and technological improvement is expanding that capacity by 1 million every year. Given only this information, is there a problem in the future of the island? If so, when? Ans: yes, there will be food shortage in 20 years Link to: Case Study Difficulty: Medium

32. The Environmental Science text lists several qualities of organic farming, Name two of these qualities. Ans: It is more like natural ecosystems than monocultures It minimizes negative environmental impacts The food that results from it does not contain artificial compounds Link to: 11.8 Difficulty: Easy

37. What is the major drawback of food aid programs to less developed countries? Ans: Food aid can lower local food prices and reduce local food production. Free food undercuts the local farmers. Link to: 11.2 Difficulty: Medium

33. List two reasons why Africa remains the continent with the most acute food shortages in the world? Ans: Because of adverse weather conditions (e.g., droughts) and civil problems (e.g., war) Link to: A Closer Look 11.1 Difficulty: Easy

38. Farming greatly simplifies ecosystems, creating short and simple food webs. The simplicity of these ecosystems is their weakness. Explain briefly how the ecosystems are weaker. Ans: It makes the system highly vulnerable to the outbreak of diseases, undesired competitors, and herbivores. Link to: 11.1 Difficulty: Medium

34. What is the difference between pasture land and rangeland? Ans: Pastures are planted with forage plants for animals while range lands are not planted. The animals feed on whatever plants grow of their own accord. Link to: 11.10 Difficulty: Easy

39. What is monoculture, what are the drawbacks of monoculture, and how can these drawbacks be counteracted? Ans: In monoculture large areas are planted with a single species. It makes the entire crop vulnerable to attack by a single disease or a single change in environmental conditions. It can be counteracted by crop rotation or to a certain extent by artificial fertilizers. Link to: 11.9 Difficulty: Medium

35. List the three major aspects of the relation between world food supply and the environment. Ans: food production depends on the environment agriculture changes the environment significantly the modern food problem is the result of the great increase in human population and its influence on the environment Link to: 11.1 Difficulty: Easy

40. Describe the characteristics of land considered to be marginal for agriculture.

Ans: it has poor soil it lies on steep slopes or is otherwise difficult to access it has high erosion rates it lacks of water Link to: 11.5 Difficulty: Medium

Ans: d Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy 45. Which of the following is an agricultural practice in which the land is not plowed in most of the years: a) biomagnification b) traditional farming c) no-till agriculture d) contour plowing e) biological control Ans: c Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy 46. Soil eroded from one location has to go somewhere else. A lot of it is washed down streams and rivers. Which of the following is not a form of environmental degradation associated with eroding soils? a) destruction of fisheries b) destruction of coastal coral reefs c) deposition in reservoirs d) chemical enrichment of waters downstream e) global warming Ans: e Link to: 12.3,12.4 Difficulty: Easy 47. The purpose of adding a terminator gene to a genetically modified crop species is to prevent: a) attack by insect pests b) genetic crossover c) competition from weeds d) predation by grazing or browsing animals e) the crop from producing seeds for the following year Ans: e Link to: 12.8 Difficulty: Easy 48. Use of predators, parasites, and competitors for pest control defines which of the following? a) integrated waste management b) secondary pest outbreaks

41. The two kinds of food insufficiency are undernourishment and malnourishment. Define each one. Ans: undernourishment: lack of sufficient calories in the available food. malnourishment: lack of specific compounds of food (e.g. lack of protein, a vitamin or an essential chemical element) Link to: 11.2 Difficulty: Easy

42. What is an agricultural limiting factor ? Ans: a single requirement for growth that is in the least supply compared to the need of the crop Link to: 11.5 Difficulty: Easy

Chapter 12 Effects of Agriculture on the Environment 43. Which of the following terms refers to a set of methods to control pest organisms by using natural ecological interactions: a) biomagnification b) traditional ranching c) no-till agriculture d) contour plowing e) biological control Ans: e Link to: 12.6 Difficulty: Easy 44. The leading human cause(s) of desertification is/are: a) failure to use contour plowing b) conversion of rangelands to croplands in marginal areas c) poor forestry practices d) failure to use contour plowing e) all of the above

c) effective methods for controlling malaria d) game ranching e) biological pest control Ans: e Link to: 12.6 Difficulty: Easy 49. Rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley, California (Environmental Issue, Chapter 12) illustrates some of the effects of agriculture on the environment. To offset some of the negative impacts of rice cultivation, it has been suggested that the fields be flooded during the winter. The principal positive impact of this action would be to: a) create spawning grounds for salmon b) cleanse pesticides and herbicides from the land c) prevent off-road vehicle damage d) increase habitats for migratory waterfowl e) reduce groundwater recharge Ans: d Link to: critical thinking issue Difficulty: Medium 50. About one-third (~33%) of the Earth s land has climates that should produce deserts, but about 43% actually is desert. What one dominant force is believed to be the cause of this excess desert land? a) irrigation b) global warming c) changing climates since the last Ice Age d) human activities e) agriculture Ans: d Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Medium 51. No-till agriculture is an agricultural technique where: a) only natural pesticides and herbicides are used b) chemical wastes are naturally degraded by application to the land c) the land is not plowed d) fall plowing is favored e) no crop rotation takes place Ans: c Link to: 12.5 Difficulty: Easy

52. In the recent past, the single most effective method to reduce soil erosion has been: a) increased use of herbicides b) increased irrigation c) introduction of genetically modified crops d) crop rotation e) contour plowing Ans: e Link to: 12.5 Difficulty: Easy 53. . Overgrazing of pasture lands occurs when: a) the water table falls b) vegetative diversity of the pasture is reduced c) vegetation is seriously or permanently reduced by domesticated animals d) the carrying capacity of the pasture is reached e) the pasture is not irrigated Ans: c Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Easy 54. Deserts occur naturally where: a) there is low temperature and low rainfall throughout the year b) there is too little water for substantial plant growth c) overgrazing removes water-holding vegetation d) sand supply exceeds the ability of wind to transport it away e) there is insufficient soil to grow plants Ans: b Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy 55. What is the main reason that DDT is still being used in large areas of the world? a) need to maximize crop yields in populous developing countries b) coercion by U.S. chemical manufacturers c) the chemical breaks down in tropical climates to a benign form d) pests have developed a resistance to it e) to combat malaria Ans: e Link to: 12.6 Difficulty: Easy

56. When a pest develops resistance to a chemical, all of the following are true except: a) natural selection took place b) it developed adaptations during times of secondary pest outbreaks c) mutation and genetic drift took place d) evolution selected for individuals better resistant to the chemical e) higher quantities of pesticide will be required in the next application Ans: c Link to: 12.6 Difficulty: Easy 57. . All of the following measures can help prevent desertification except: a) proper irrigation b) using trees as windbreaks c) maximum use of marginal land d) no-till agriculture e) reforestation Ans: c Link to: 12.6 Difficulty: Easy 58. The type of soil at a particular site depends on many factors. Which of the following is not a factor influencing the soil type? a) climate b) slope c) biomagnification d) biological activity e) parent material Ans: c Link to: 12.3 Difficulty: Easy 59. What practice has greatly increased the farm yield per unit area a) irrigation b) contour plowing c) modern fertilizers d) pest control e) weed control Ans: c Link to: 12.5, 12.6 Difficulty: Medium

60. Practices that can sustain the fertility of soils include all of the following except: a) plowing in the fall b) plowing up and down slopes to channel runoff away quickly c) multiculture d) strip cropping e) crop rotation Ans: b Link to: 12.3, 12.4 Difficulty: Easy

61. Rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley, California (Environmental Issue, Chap. 12 in the textbook) illustrates some of the effects of agriculture on the environment. Adverse effects of cultivating rice include: a) low demand for water b) reduction of wetland habitats c) reduced pesticide use d) reduced herbicide use e) air pollution from smoke Ans: e Link to: Critical Thinking Issue Difficulty: Easy

62. Agriculture can be linked to the threat of global warming by which of the following mechanism? I. fires used to clear land release ozone into the atmosphere II. use of fossil fuels by mechanized agriculture III. clearing of land leads to decomposition of organic matter and increased atmospheric CO2 a) I only b) II only c) III only d) I and III e) I, II, and III Ans: e Link to: 12.4 Difficulty: Medium

63. What is the principle drawback of broad-spectrum pesticides? a) reduced crop yields

b) toxic to beneficial organisms and humans c) not only toxic, but carcinogenic d) they target only a single pest species e) they contribute to sediment pollution Ans: b Link to: 12.5-12.7 Difficulty: Medium

Difficulty: Easy 67. . Cattle can be maintained at relatively high densities on grazing land with: a) arid conditions b) polar climates c) moist conditions d) urban environments e) cattle can be maintained anywhere because cows adapt to any climatic conditions Ans: c Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Medium 68. Desertification can be reduced by all of the following measures except: a) soil conservation b) decreased emissions of greenhouse gases c) cessation of ocean dumping d) proper irrigation e) forest management Ans: c Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy 69. . Poor agricultural practices commonly lead to loss of soil fertility over time. The rate of that loss is commonly measured as: a) the time required for the soil to lose one half of its original storage of chemical nutrients b) the degree of molecular disorder of the chemical elements necessary for crops c) the ratio of crop production to the amount of chemical residue after each production period d) the number of years it for crop land to restore depleted chemical elements e) the amount of chemical fertilizer necessary for crops per production unit per year Ans: a Link to: 12.3, 12.4 Difficulty: Medium 70. Major symptoms of desertification include: a) higher water tables b) decreased salt content in the soil c) more abundant surface water

64. Even fertile land not naturally threatened can undergo desertification. Around the world, this has been most widely caused by: a) monoculture b) contour plowing c) overgrazing d) application of pesticides e) degradation of soils by toxic chemicals Ans: c Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy

65. What is a / are major advantage/s of contour plowing? I. reduces topsoil erosion II. is more fuel efficient III. is more time efficient a) I only b) II only c) III only d) I and III e) I, II, and III Ans: e Link to: 12.4 Difficulty: Easy 66. Which of the following is a true statement about insect pests in agriculture: a) slash-and-burn agriculture eliminates pest problems b) DDT is no longer used anywhere c) the only effective control method is chemical pesticides d) insect pests are the leading cause of lost crop production e) the cheapest and most effective method is biological Ans: d Link to: 12.5-12.7

d) decreased soil erosion e) loss of natural, native vegetation Ans: e Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy 71. Integrated Pest Management: a) is concerned with the effects of insect pests on agricultural crops b) will lead to increased pesticide use c) costs farmers more to control pests d) considers effects of the pest-control method on the entire ecosystem e) eliminates pests without any other environmental impact Ans: d Link to: 12.7 Difficulty: Easy

Ans: applying artificial fertilizer to the soil Link to: 12.3 Difficulty: Easy 75. Name at least three effects of overgrazing of rangeland. Ans: reduction in the diversity of plant species reduction of vegetation growth dominance of plant species that are relatively undesirable to cattle increase in soil loss by erosion overall damage to the rangeland through mechanical action of the cattle Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Medium 76. . List four of the major symptoms of desertification. Ans: lowered water table increased salt content in the soil reduced surface water increased soil erosion loss of natural vegetation Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy 77. In the ideal world, agriculture is an example of utilization of a completely renewable resource. However, the high crop yields achieved by modern agriculture are made possible by using a number of nonrenewable resources. Name three of these. Ans: soil, chemical fertilizer, fuel, metals for farm machinery Link to: 12.11 Difficulty: Easy 78. One effect of overgrazing is the dominance of plant species that are relatively undesirable to cattle. Explain how this happens. Ans: Desirable plant species are eaten by the cattle so fast that these species do not have the chance to recover properly. At the same time, the undesirable plant species have no competitors and can grow and reproduce easily. Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Medium 79.

Essay

72. . List three effects of modern, intensive agriculture that can deplete the fertility of crop land and pasture land. Ans: overgrazing plowing soil erosion (by both wind and water) salinization Link to: 12.4, 12.9, 12.10 Difficulty: Medium

73. Agricultural scientists refer to the ultimate, most desirable pesticide as a "magic bullet". What do they mean by this expression? Ans: A "magic bullet" is a chemical that is lethal only to a single crop species and rapidly seeks out individuals of that species and kills them with no effect on any other form of life. Link to: 12.5-12.7 Difficulty: Medium

74. In spite of declining natural fertility, crop yields from most agricultural land in the U.S. remain high. What is the one main method that farmers use to maintain crop yields?

Agriculture contributes to environmental effects at a range of scales. List one local, one regional, and one global effect of agriculture. Ans: e.g. soil erosion, sedimentation, global warming Link to: 12.3 Difficulty: Easy 80. How can desertification be prevented? List at least three such measures. Ans: soil conservation proper irrigation practices good farming and foresting practices appropriate to the climate and soil Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Medium 81. Rice cultivation in the Sacramento Valley, California (Environmental Issue, Chapter 12) illustrates some of the effects of agriculture on the environment. Most of the acres where rice is grown have alkaline, hardpan soils, unsuited to other crops. If rice were not grown on this land, it probably would be developed for housing. Each acre of rice requires 5 acre-feet of water per year. Less than 1 acre-foot could supply a family of four for a year. If 1000 acres were converted from rice cultivation to housing, and housing lots were one-eighth of an acre and all housed families of four, A) How many acre-feet of water would be used in a year? B) Which uses more water, an acre of rice or an acre of housing? C) Who would use the argument outlined in A) and B) above, a real estate developer or a rice farmer? Ans: A) 8,000 acre-feet/year B) housing C) the rice farmer Link to: critical thinking issue Difficulty: hard 82. Although DDT was believed to be close to the ideal pesticide, major problems appeared in long term. What attributes of DDT made it so desirable as a pesticide? Ans: DDT had no short-term effect on people and seemed to kill only insects. It is also relative insoluble in water. It was believed that DDT would not pose an environmental hazard by being transported off the sites into other environments. Link to: A Closer Look 12.2 Difficulty: Medium 83. Name three leading causes of desertification 84.

Ans: bad farming practices overgrazing conversion of rangelands in marginal areas to crop lands poor foresting practices heavy irrigation in arid areas and salinization of soil Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Easy

Explain how irrigation of soil in arid areas can lead to desertification. Ans: When irrigation water evaporates, a residue of salts is left behind. Over time, the salts builds up in the soil. Link to: 12.10 Difficulty: Medium 85. How can overgrazing be prevented? 86. Ans: proper management of the livestock using appropriate lands for grazing keeping livestock at a sustainable yield Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Medium 87. List at least three long-term effects of DDT which were discovered after years of use as a pesticide. Ans: DDT affects the ability of birds to produce eggs possible increase in cancer in humans biomagnification The storage of DDT in fats and oils allows the chemical to be transferred biologically Link to: A Closer Look 12.2 Difficulty: Easy 88. Explain how large-scale irrigation causes environmental problems. Ans: construction of reservoirs reduce wildlife habitats stream patterns change erosion rates increase salinization of soil rapid leaching of nutrients into the lower part of the soil Link to: 12.9 Difficulty: Medium

89. In the 1930s, soil erosion became a major issue in the United States. Large areas of the American Midwest became the so-called Dust Bowl. Explain how this happened. Ans: Intense plowing of fertile prairie lands, combined with a major drought, loosened the soil over large areas. Once the deep-rooted prairie grasses were plowed, wind, sun, and rain further loosened the soil which then easily eroded away. Link to: 12.2 Difficulty: Medium 90. What birds have been most affected by the long-term effects of DDT and why? Ans: Birds which are predators, and therefore high up in the food chain, have been most affected due to biomagnification. Link to: A Closer Look 12.2 Difficulty: Medium 91. Agriculture has significant effects on the environment from the local scale to the global. List four of the most important effects. Ans: climatic effects addition of particulates and CO2 to the atmosphere widespread pollution of freshwater and coastal waters through sediment pollution soil erosion ---> all this leads to large-scale changes in the biochemical cycles Link to: entire chapter 12 Difficulty: Medium 92. Agriculture has significant effects on the environment at all scales, from local, to regional, to global. List some of the major effects at each of these three scales. Ans: Local effects: erosion, loss of soil, increase of downstream sedimentation Regional effects: desertification, large-scale pollution events, increases of sedimentation in major rivers and at the mouths of rivers, changes in the fertility of soils over large areas Global effects: climatic change, extreme changes in the chemical cycles Link to: Chapter 12 Difficulty: Medium

93. Name at least five major environmental problems resulting from agriculture. Ans: deforestation desertification soil erosion overgrazing water pollution eutrophication of rivers, lakes, and ponds degradation of water resources salinization of the soil toxic metal accumulation in the soil accumulation of toxic organic compounds in the soil Link to: Chapter 12 Difficulty: Medium