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CHAPTER 1 PRECEDENCE Precedence is the priority of place based on superiority of rank.

1 In protocol, the observance of precedence is important as it indicates basic recognition and respect for rank and seniority. Often it is the primary source of goodwill among diplomats and officials. (1) Precedence among Diplomatic Representatives. Diplomatic representatives, in international practice, are classified in the order of their ranks as follows: a. Heads of Mission: (1) Ambassadors or Nuncios accredited to Heads of State, and other heads of mission of equivalent rank. (2) Envoys, Ministers and Internuncios accredited to Heads of State (3) Charge d Affaires ad hoc (or de missi ) (4) Charge d Affaires ad interim. b. Diplomatic officers other than heads of mission (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (2) Ministers Ministers-Counsellor Counsellors First, Second, Third Secretaries Attachs

Precedence Among Heads of Diplomatic Missions 2.1. Among diplomatic representatives of the same class, for example Ambassadors, precedence is determined by priority in dates of presentation of credentials. The ranking of head of mission is the Dean or Doyen of the Diplomatic Corps. In Catholic countries, however, the representative of the Pope (Nuncio) is usually the Dean, regardless of the date of his accreditation. According to the Global Portal for Diplomats, the Dean or Doyen of the Diplomatic Corps serves an important function as the Dean represents the diplomatic corps in collective dealings with host country officials on matters of ceremonial or administrative character affecting the corps as a whole. 2 2.3. Among Charge d Affaires, precedence is determined by the dates of accreditation. However, a Charge d Affaires accredited to the Minister of Foreign Affairs outranks a Charg d Affaires adinterim (temporarily acting as Head of Mission in the absence of the Chief of Mission).


(3) Precedence of ranking officials of Host Country over foreign Ambassadors. While each country has its own rules, it is generally recognized that the

The Regulations of the Department of Foreign Affairs. 1993. Rules cited in this chapter are from this source, unless otherwise indicated. 2 www.ediplomat.com/nd/glossary.htm date accessed 11 February 2009.

Chief of State, the Prime Minister, the Presiding Officers of the Legislature, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the Minister of Foreign Affairs precede foreign Ambassadors. In the Philippines, the President, the Vice-President, former Presidents, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chief of Justice of the Supreme Court and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs precede foreign Ambassadors. (4) Precedence Among Foreign Service Officers. The following rules, unless modified by instructions issued to meet a specific case, shall be observed in determining precedence among Foreign Service Officers in diplomatic and consular offices abroad: 4.1. 4.2. An Officer with a higher rank shall precede one with a lower rank. In case two or more Officers at the same post belong to the same rank and class, the order or precedence shall be determined by the higher rate of salary within the class. In case two or more Officers at the post belong to the same class and receive the same salary, the Officer who first arrived at the post shall take precedence. When not within the jurisdiction of their assignment, Officers take precedence among themselves in accordance with their class and date of appointment to that class.




Precedence of officers in the Philippine Foreign Service: 5.1. Within a mission, the ranking of officers are as follows: Chief of Mission, Minister, Minister-Counsellor, Counsellor, First Secretary, Second Secretary, Third Secretary and Attach. Within a Consulate, the ranking of officers are as follows: Consul General, Consul and Vice Consul. The Chief of Mission of the Embassy or the Head of the Consular Post outranks any other Philippine officials, except the President, the Vice President, and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, although he may, if desirable for the prestige of the country, defer to any higher ranking official. The Chief of Mission, or in his absence, the Charg d Affaires, ad interim precede over all officials and representatives of other Departments or Agencies assigned in the same Post. The ranking Minister, Counsellor or First, Second, or Third Secretary who is a regular Foreign Service Officer, irrespective of class and grade and who becomes a Charg d Affaires, in the absence of the Chief of Mission, shall take precedence after the Head of Mission. Subject to the preceding rule, Attachs and Assistant Attachs, with assimilated ranks of Foreign Service Officers, shall rank with but immediately after other regular Foreign Service Officers belonging to the same class and grade. Attach belonging to the Armed Forces and after them, Trade Promotion Attachs shall have precedence over other attachs with the same assimilated rank of Foreign Service Officers. The same rule applies to Assistant Attachs.

5.2. 5.3.






Assistant Attachs with no assimilated rank of Foreign Service Officers shall rank after Assistant Attachs with assimilated rank.


The General Order of Precedence in the Philippines (as of 2008) (Note: It is always advisable to consult with the Department of Foreign Affairs Office of Protocol for the latest order of precedence) The President The Vice President Former Presidents of the Philippines The President of the Senate The Speaker of the House of Representatives The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court The Secretary of Foreign Affairs Foreign Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary The Executive Secretary The Secretary of Finance The Secretary of Justice The Secretary of Agriculture The Secretary of Public Works and Highways The Secretary of Education The Secretary of Labor and Employment The Secretary of National Defense The Secretary of Health The Secretary of Trade and Industry The Secretary of Social Welfare and Development The Secretary of Agrarian Reform The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources The Secretary of Interior and Local Government The Secretary of Tourism The Secretary of Transportation and Communication The Secretary of Science and Technology The Secretary of Budget and Management The Secretary of Energy Foreign Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary The Director General, National Economic and Development Authority Press Secretary National Security Council Director-General The Head of the Presidential Management Staff Presidential Spokesman Solicitor General Presidential Legal Counsel The Chairman of the MMDA The Head of the Office for Muslim Affairs Other Presidential Advisers with Cabinet Rank Members of the Senate (seniority in length of service) Members of House of Representatives (seniority in length of service) Associate Justices of the Supreme Court The Commissioners of Constitutional Commissions Members of the Council of State who are not Cabinet Members

Acting Heads of the Departments & Former Vice Presidents of the Philippines The Undersecretaries of Foreign Affairs Ambassadors of the Philippines assigned to foreign posts Undersecretaries of the Department, including the Assistant Executive Secretaries Assistant Secretaries of Departments, Directors-General & Chiefs of Mission I & II of the Department of Foreign Affairs The Governor of Central Bank Foreign Charges d Affaires de missi, Foreign Charge d Affairs ad interim The Mayor of Manila The Presiding Justice of the Court of Appeals, the President of the University of the Philippines, the Chief of Staff, Commissioners or Officials with the rank of Undersecretary Heads of permanent United Nations Agencies in the Philippines, who hold the rank of Director Provincial Governors The Vice Chief of Staff Foreign Ministers-Counsellors, Counsellors of Embassies, Consul General, Foreign Military Attachs with the rank of Major General or Rear Admiral, and Officers of equivalent rank of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Judges of the Regional Trial Court First Secretaries of Foreign Embassies, Foreign Military Attachs with the rank of Brigadier General or Commodore & Officers of equivalent rank of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Mayors of chartered cities Directors/Commissioners of Bureau & Chief of Offices Presidents, Chairmen & Managers of government corporations Second Secretaries & Consuls of Foreign Embassies, Foreign Military Attachs with the rank of Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel, and Officers of equivalent rank of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Third Secretaries & Vice Consuls of Foreign Embassies, Foreign Military Attachs with the rank of Major or Captain & Officers of equivalent rank of the Armed Forces of the Philippines


Some Practical Applications of the Protocol of Precedence: Charge dAffaires (CDA) of an embassy outranks CDA of a Legation. (Legations are seldom sent by States now) If Chief of Mission (CM) is a lady and the function involves only CM without their wives, the lady diplomat attends without the husband. Where the Ambassador or Minister is a lady and the function requires the presence of the CM, who are arranged either as a group or separately from their husbands, the lady Ambassador or Minister ranks after the wife of the Ambassador or Minister who precedes her (the Lady Ambassador or Minister). Her husband is ranked after the last accredited Minister. In standing, walking or sitting, the place of honor is at the right when the person entitled thereto stands or walks at the right.

Precedence is when the person entitled to it, goes a step before the other who is at his left side as in ascending a stair or entering a room. In lateral arrangement, when persons present stand side by side in a straight line, the outside place on the right or the central place is the first. When two persons enter a room or walk single file, the one of higher rank walks ahead or in front of the person of lower rank.

1 2
When two persons walk side by side, the one of higher rank walks to the right of the person of lower rank. When there are three persons, the second ranking person enters first, followed by the highest-ranking person. The last to go in is the person of lowest rank.

2 1 3
When there are four, the fourth enters first. If they are five, the fourth and the second go in first in that order, then the first, followed by the third and the fifth.

4 2 1 3 5
The place of honor depends on the number of people present. The person of higher rank in a public ceremony is always the last to arrive and the first to leave. In going up airplanes, the person of highest rank goes up last and comes down first. In entering a car, the person of highest rank enters first. However, when the intention is to give him the seat to the right, which is the place of honor, it is correct for the person of lower rank to go in first.


Protocol in International Organizations 8.1. ASEAN When ASEAN Heads of States meet in a Summit meeting or when ASEAN Foreign Ministers meet in a Foreign Ministers meeting, their positions in standing or sitting position is done according to the alphabetical listings of their countries in the English Language. Thus, the positions from left to right (from the view of the observer) are as follows:

4 4


Sec Gen

(Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Secretary General (Encode in a line) )

Observer 8.2. Asia-Pacific Economic Council (APEC) APEC is represented by either the Heads of State, Heads of Government, Foreign Ministers or a senior official. When standing together in a line or sitting together in a line, their positions are also according to the alphabetical listings of their countries from left to right from the view of the observer. The following illustration maybe used as a guide:
Third line: Second line: First line: STUVWXYZ RQPONMLKJ ABCDEFGHI


-Observers(Note: To conform to local protocol rules, consult with the MFA of the Host Country of the meeting) 8.3. If a member of a Royalty is present on the occasion, follow the normal rule of the precedence -- that is, the honored person is given the place of honor and stands or sits at the right of the Host.



President of the Philippines (Host)

Observer (Note: To conform to local protocol rules, consult with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Host Country of the meeting.) (9) Precedence in signing treaties 9.1. Principle of Alternat - in bilateral treaties, each country signs first on the original copy it retains.

In this example, the part of the document where the signatories would sign should be: Philippines Copy Signature Republic of the Philippines United States Copy Signature United States of America Republic of the Philippines United States of America


In multilateral treaties, signatories sign in alphabetical order in French or English language of the names of their countries. Example: ASEAN Countries Brunei Darussalam Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

CHAPTER 2 ASSUMPTION OF CHARGE I. ASSUMPTION OF CHARGE OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS (1) Agration and Agrment. Before the public announcement of the appointment of an Ambassador, an informal inquiry as to whether or not he is persona non grata is ordinarily made with the government of the country of his prospective assignment. The process of inquiry is called agration. The reply to the inquiry expressing acceptability of the Ambassador is called agreement, or agrment. (2) Documents for the Ambassador After taking his oath of office, an Ambassador shall be furnished the following papers: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Appointment as Ambassador A sealed letter of credence An open or office copy of the letter of credence Letter of recall of his predecessor, if any Instructions in writing Diplomatic passports for himself, his family and his suite A copy of the Regulations of the Department of Foreign Affairs

(3) Preparations Prior to Departure The Secretary of Foreign Affairs shall invite a newly appointed Ambassador for a briefing and give the necessary instructions to be carried out in the Ambassadors post of assignment. The Ambassador should familiarize himself with the operation of his post of assignment by going through relevant documents, such as treaties and agreements between the Philippines and the host country and, if necessary, with other countries that are part of his jurisdiction. He should meet with concerned officials, offices, and divisions which could give substantial inputs regarding his post and country of assignment. He should consult with the appropriate Department officials regarding general matters of administration and official procedures. (4) Preliminaries for Presentation of Credentials 4.1. Promptly upon arrival at the post, the newly appointed Ambassador shall request for an informal conference with the Minister or Secretary of Foreign Affairs to arrange for the formal presentation of his letter of credence and the letter of recall of his predecessor, if any, to the Chief of State. He shall at the same time, in his own name, address a formal note to the Secretary or Minister of Foreign Affairs, communicating the fact of his appointment and requesting the designation of a time and place for his official reception. In the informal conference, he shall present to the Minister or Secretary of Foreign Affairs the open copy of his letter of credence as well as the copy of his address to be delivered during the presentation of his credentials. If the diplomatic representative has the rank of Charge dAffaires, the letter of credence is addressed to the Minister or Secretary of Foreign Affairs. He shall address a formal note to the latter, conveying to the Minister or Secretary the open copy of his letter of credence and shall



await the Ministers or Secretarys pleasure for presentation of the original. 4.4. A copy of the letter of credence shall be placed in the archives of the mission.

(5) Ceremony in Presentation of Credentials 5.1. On the occasion of the presentation of letters of credence to the Chief of State, it is customary in most capitals for the incoming Ambassador to make a brief address. The address shall be delivered either in English or Filipino. Copies of the address and of the reply must be sent to the Department. The speeches made in the ceremonies are purely formal and should not allude to any controversial matter between the two governments. 5.2. The Chief of Protocol of the post should be consulted as to the proper attire to be worn in the ceremony. 5.3. The newly appointed diplomatic representative should be accompanied by all Foreign Service Officers, attachs and other officers assigned to the mission in a diplomatic capacity when presenting his letter of credence, if this arrangement is in accordance with local protocol. (6) Entry Upon Official Day The official duties of a diplomatic representative in so far as the receiving state is concerned begin on the day of his presentation of the letter of credence by the Ambassador to the Chief of State, or in the case of a charge d affaires, to the Minister or Secretary of Foreign Affairs. If the formal audience or reception is delayed, it is customary for the Minister or Secretary of Foreign Affairs to make necessary arrangements for the transaction of diplomatic business with the new representative pending such reception. (7) Official Calls Upon Entry to Duty The diplomatic representative shall, immediately upon his arrival, study the local rules and practices regarding official calls on other officials of the host government and members of the diplomatic corps, which a mission already established should have in its files. In his initial official visits, he may be accompanied by the ranking Foreign Service Officer assigned to the mission in a diplomatic capacity. In all cases, he should call on the diplomatic representatives of ASEAN member states. (8) Subordinate Diplomatic Officers No previous approval by a receiving government is ordinarily required in the case of subordinate diplomatic personnel in a mission, although it is generally recognized that the receiving government has the right to object to any prospective diplomatic officer. In some countries, however, previous approval is required for military and other armed forces attachs. (9) Preparation before Departure of other Diplomatic Officers Subordinate diplomatic personnel, before their departure for their foreign posts, should familiarize themselves with the work of the mission to which they are to be assigned. They should read the Post Reports and other pertinent documents

in the Department. The Office of Personnel and Administrative Services shall program their enrolment in the pre-departure orientation seminar conducted by the Foreign Service Institute. (10) Calls for Subordinate Officers 10.1. Local practice shall be followed as to whether subordinate diplomatic officers should call or not on their counterparts in the diplomatic corps or on other officials of the Foreign Office of the host government. In lieu of calls, the cards of the officers, accompanied by the card of the Head of Mission, are usually sent to members of the diplomatic corps with the mark p.p. (pour presenter) in pencil at the lower left-hand corner of the card of the Head of Mission. In the large capitals, calls might be impracticable. However, in all cases, the mission shall send notes to the Foreign Office and to the other diplomatic missions at the post informing them of the arrival and assumption of duties of the subordinate diplomatic officer. The arrival of all subordinate personnel, diplomatic and non-diplomatic, and changes in the order of precedence in the mission shall be communicated in a formal note to the Foreign Office of the host government.





ASSUMPTION OF CHARGE OF CONSULAR ESTABLISHMENTS (11) Need for Authority from the Receiving Government Performance of consular functions on the part of the consular officer requires previous authority from the foreign government given in the form of an exequatur; or pending its issuance, a provisional recognition. (12) Commission on Exequatur The consular commission is the formal appointment of a consular officer by the Head of State of the sending government, and the exequatur is the formal acceptance by the receiving government for him to perform consular functions. The consular commission is transmitted by the Department to the diplomatic mission, if there be one, in the country where the consular office is located, with instructions to request for an exequatur from the host Foreign Office. When obtained, the exequatur is transmitted by the diplomatic mission to the consular office. (13) Provisional Recognition Whenever there is delay in the issuance of a consular commission and/or of the exequatur, a provisional recognition shall be requested beforehand to enable the consular officer to perform consular functions. A provisional recognition is requested by the diplomatic mission, upon instructions from the Home Office, in a note to the local Foreign Office, which grants provisional recognition in a return note. (14) Preparation for Duty and Official Calls 14.1. A principal officer who will head a consular post shall prepare for his assignment in the same manner that the diplomatic representative does. A consular officer, upon assuming his official duties, shall send his official card to, or call personally on, the proper local officials and his counterparts in the consular corps, depending upon the local custom. The principal officer shall, in all cases, call on the heads of ASEAN missions in the area of his assignment.




The concerned Embassy should furnish in advance the Office of Protocol and State Visits of the Department of Foreign Affairs with the following: Car flag of the Ambassadors country Audio cassette or CD and musical score of the national anthem Advance copy of the speech which the Ambassador will hand over during the presentation of credentials Open copies of the Letters of Credence and Recall Two (2) 2 x 2 photographs of the Ambassador-designate Two (2) 2 x 2 photographs of the Ambassador-designates spouse (if any) Pre-arrival Arrangements 1.1.1 For a resident Ambassador-designate: The Embassy makes arrangements with the Office of Protocol and State Visits (OPSV) of the Department of Foreign Affairs for the arrival and presentation of credentials of the Ambassador designate. The Embassy is requested to inform the Department as soon as available or at least 3-4 weeks before the intended arrival in Manila so that initial verification of calendar possibilities for the courtesy calls and presentation of credentials could be made. However, the exact date and time of presentation of credentials are set only after the Ambassador-designate has actually arrived in the Philippines. For a non-resident Ambassador-designate: Arrangements for the arrival and presentation of credentials are made with the Office of Protocol and State Visits through the Philippine Embassy in the capital where the Ambassador-designate is a resident, and when applicable, through the consulate in Manila of the Ambassador-designates country. The Office of Protocol and State Visits can also make arrangements for the hotel and vehicle needs of the Ambassador-designate upon his request. Procedures for preparing the schedule of calls of a non-resident Ambassador-designate are similar to those of a resident Ambassador-designate. Scheduling of presentation of credentials of non-resident Ambassadors-designates are done on certain pre-determined periods/dates of the year. The non-resident Ambassadors are advised of the exact dates of presentation of credentials as early as possible in order to provide ample preparation time for travel arrangements.



From the Regulations of the Department of Foreign Affairs, 1995.



Arrival in the Philippines 1.3.1. For arrivals during regular working days, the Ambassadordesignate is met by the Deputy Chief of Protocol of the Department of Foreign Affairs. For arrivals on weekends, legal, official and religious holidays, the Ambassador-designate is met by a Protocol Officer of the Department of Foreign Affairs. However, it would be appreciated if the Ambassadordesignate could arrive at a convenient day or time (avoiding, as much as possible, legal, official and religious holidays, as well as early morning and late night arrivals). Following are regular holidays observed in the Philippines: Regular National Holidays New Years Day Maundy Thursday Good Friday Araw ng Kagitingan Labor Day Independence Day National Heroes Day Bonifacio Day Christmas Day Rizal Day January 1 Movable Movable April 9 May 1 June 12 (last Sunday of August) November 30 December 25 December 30

Nationwide Special Public Non-Working Holidays Anniversary of EDSA People Power Revolution Black Saturday Eid El Fitr All Saints Day Christmas Eve Last Day of the Year (Special Holiday) February 25 Movable Movable November 1 December 24 December 31

1.3.2. The Office of Protocol and State Visits makes appropriate arrangements for airport courtesies and related matters with the airport authorities regarding the arrival of the Ambassadordesignate. A designated airport lounge, at the NAIA Terminal he/she will be arriving in, will be used for the reception of the arriving Ambassador-designate. Aside from the Embassys Charg dAffaires a.i., a reasonable number of Embassy staff and spouses, if so desired, may be allowed at the airport for the Ambassador-designates arrival. Entry of persons and vehicles into restricted areas of the airport is subject to pre-arranged standard procedure. Immigration, customs and quarantine formalities for the Ambassador-designate and his party will be attended to and facilitated by the Office of Protocol and State Visits. 1.4. Official Welcome at the Department of Foreign Affairs; Calls on the DFA Chief of Protocol, the Assistant Secretary for the Geographic Region and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs


1.4.1. The Ambassador-designate, accompanied by an Embassy official normally the Charg dAffaires a.i.,), arrives at the Department of Foreign Affairs to make calls on the DFA Chief of Protocol, the Assistant Secretary for the Geographic Region and thereafter on the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. 1.4.2. Upon arrival at the Office of Protocol and State Visits, the Ambassador-designate signs the Register of Ambassadors and Distinguished Visitors. After a briefing on the ceremony and arrangements for the presentation of credentials, the Ambassador-designate is escorted by a Protocol Officer for the call on the Assistant Secretary of the Geographic Region. Thereafter, the Chief of Protocol accompanies the Ambassadordesignate and his companion to the Office of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs. 1.4.3. During the call on the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, the Ambassador-designate hands over to the Secretary the open copies of the Ambassadors Letter of Credence and the Letter of Recall of his predecessor, as well as a copy of the text of the presentation speech, the original of which the Ambassadordesignate shall hand over to the President during the presentation of credentials ceremony.


Calls on Other High Government Officials The Department, through the office handling the geographic region of the Ambassador-designate, should be informed if the Ambassador-designate intends to pay courtesy calls on other high government officials after the presentation of credentials. However, such calls are to be arranged by the Embassy directly with the offices of said officials.

(2) For Outgoing Ambassadors 2.1. Farewell Calls 2.1.1. For a resident Ambassador: When an Ambassador is about to end his/her tour of duty, the Embassy informs the Department, through a note verbale, indicating his/her intended date of departure. The Department would appreciate receiving information on the departure preferably 2-3 weeks before the Ambassadors intended departure. Requests for farewell calls on the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the President are arranged through the office of Protocol and State Visits in coordination with the concerned geographic office. The Office of Protocol and State Visits will inform the Embassy of the exact time/date of farewell calls on the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the President. All other farewell calls of the Ambassador on other government officials (other than the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and the President) may be arranged by the Embassy directly with the offices of said officials, however, the office handling the geographic region of the Ambassador-designate should be informed of such calls. 2.1.2. For a non-resident Ambassador: The procedure of arranging and scheduling farewell calls of a non-resident Ambassador shall be similar to that of a resident Ambassador. However, the Ambassadors intention to come to the Philippines to pay his


farewell calls on Philippine officials must be communicated as early as possible to the Philippine Embassy, in the capital where the Ambassador-designate is a resident, well in advance. 2.2. Airport Arrangements for Departure The Office of Protocol and State Visits, upon receipt of the notice of the Ambassadors departure, makes appropriate arrangements with the airport authorities. A special lounge at the airport will be used for the sending off of the Ambassador. During regular working days, the DFA Chief of Protocol/Deputy Chief of Protocol sends off the outgoing Ambassador at the designated special lounge at the airport. For departures on weekends, legal, official and religious holidays, the Ambassador is sent off by a Protocol Officer of the Department of Foreign Affairs. However, it would be appreciated if the Ambassador-designate could depart at a convenient day/time (avoiding, as much as possible, legal, official and religious holidays, as well as early morning and late night departures).


PROCEDURES FOR PRESENTATION OF CREDENTIALS (1) Attire The Ambassador-designate and members of his/her entourage may wear their national dress, diplomatic uniform, complete morning formals or business suit. A rosette or miniatures of decorations, if any, may be worn on the occasion. (2) Members of the Ambassador-designates entourage The entourage for the presentation of credentials shall be composed of the members of the diplomatic staff and shall not exceed a total of six (6) persons, including the Ambassador-designate. (A complete list of the entourage must be submitted to the Office of Protocol and State Visits at least 48 hours before the date of the presentation of credentials). (3) Departure for Malacaan Palace 3.1. The DFA Chief of Protocol, together with the Director of Ceremonials and the Philippine Military Aide, proceed to the Ambassador-designates residence in the ceremonial car with motorcade escorts. They are met at the door of the residence by a diplomatic officer who accompanies them to the room where the Ambassador-designate awaits to welcome them and introduce his/her spouse and members of the diplomatic staff present. The Ambassador-designate hands over to the Philippine Military Aide the original Letters of Credence and Recall together with the original text of the presentation speech for safekeeping until the actual ceremony. From the residence of the Ambassador-designate, the party shall proceed to Malacaan Palace in the following manner: 3.1.1. The Ambassador-designate, assisted by the Philippine Military Aide, boards the ceremonial car on the right side and takes the rear right seat. The DFA Chief of Protocol boards the ceremonial car on the left side and takes the rear left seat. The Philippine




Military Aide takes the front seat to the right of the chauffeur. The Philippine flag is unfurled and remains so during the time the ceremonial car is in use by the Ambassador-designate. 3.1.2. The rest of the entourage board their respective vehicles arranged in the order of precedence. It would be practical to have at least two entourage members per vehicle in order to shorten the length of the motorcade. The car of the Charg d Affaires shall fly the flag of his/her country. 3.1.3. The motorcade with escort cars and motorcycles leading the way proceed to Malacaan Palace. (4) Arrival Honors at Malacaan Palace 4.1. When the motorcade comes to a stop at the palace grounds, the Ambassador-designate and other passengers of the ceremonial car wait for few seconds before alighting. This momentary delay is to enable the rest of the entourage to leave their vehicles and position themselves at the point of disembarkation of the Ambassador-designate. After alighting from the ceremonial car, the DFA Chief of Protocol introduces the Military Host of the Presidential Security Group Honor Guards to the Ambassador-designate. They then proceed to the salute base, followed by the rest of the entourage, for the rendering of honors to the Ambassador-designate by the Honor Guards. In proceeding to the place of honor at the salute base, the Ambassador-designate is escorted on his left by the Military Host of the Presidential Security Group and on his right by the DFA Chief of Protocol. The Philippine Military Aide will be directly behind the Military Host from the Presidential Security Group. The rest of the entourage are guided by the Director of Ceremonials to the area behind the principal personages and position themselves in a horizontal line in accordance with their order of precedence. The highest ranking diplomatic staff member shall be the person at the right-most end of the line, to his left will be the other entourage members according to descending order of precedence. The Director of Ceremonials shall be positioned at the left flank of the line. As soon as the Ambassador-designate and his entourage are in their respective places, the Honor Guards execute Present Arms and the band plays the national anthem of the Ambassador-designate, followed by the Philippine National Anthem. During the playing of the anthems, all participants stand at attention and render appropriate respect. At the conclusion of the anthems, the Military Host from the Presidential Security Group invites the Ambassador-designate to review the troops. For this purpose, the Ambassador-designate is jointly escorted by the Military Host from the Presidential Security Group and the Honor Guards Commander. They proceed leftward to the front line of the assembled band and troops. As they walk down the line to the right side and reach the center where the Colors are located, the Ambassador-designate may salute the Colors by executing a hand salute or by a slight bow of the head. At the end of the line, they turn right and return in a diagonal angle to their original angle to their original places at the salute base. (This movement is similar to tracing the sides of a triangle).









The ceremony concludes when the Honor Guards Commander offers a handshake and executes a salute to the Ambassador-designate. As soon as the ceremony is over, the Ambassador-designate and the members of his entourage are escorted to the main doorway of Malacaan Palace. The Ambassador-designate is flanked on the right by the DFA Chief of Protocol and on the left by the Military Aide. The others follow according to their order of precedence. At the doorway, the Chief of Presidential Protocol awaits the Ambassador-designate. The DFA Chief of Protocol introduces the Chief of Presidential Protocol to the Ambassador-designate. The Chief of Presidential Protocol escorts the Ambassador-designate into the presidential palace and leads him to the table where the Presidential Registry Book is located. While the Ambassador-designate is signing the book, the rest of the entourage are assembled slightly behind him. The Chief of Presidential Protocol invites the Ambassador-designate and his entourage to a designated holding room for a briefing on the scenario of the presentation of credentials.




(5) The Presentation of Credentials Ceremony 5.1. Upon the signal of the Chief of Presidential Protocol, the Ambassadordesignate and his entourage are invited to take their positions. The Ambassador-designate takes the front position and slightly behind him on his left is the Philippine Military Aide and on his right is the DFA Chief of Protocol. Behind them on a horizontal line is the entourage of the Ambassador-designate, with the highest ranking member being the person in the right end followed to his left by the other members in descending order of precedence. The Director of Ceremonials takes his position on the left flank of the line formed by the entourage members. Upon arrival, the President proceeds to the designated position for the start of the presentation of credentials flanked to the right by the Secretary/Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs (a pace behind the President), and to the left by the Chief of Presidential Protocol (also a pace behind). The DFA Chief of Protocol then introduces the Ambassador-designate to the President as follows: Mr./Mme President, I have the honor to present, His/Her Excellency (name) Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the (country) to the Republic of the Philippines. 5.4. The Ambassador-designate delivers brief remarks (not the whole speech, but only a few sentences). The Philippine Military Aide steps forward to hand over the folder, continuing the Letters of Credence and Recall and the original text of the presentation speech to the Ambassador-designate. The Ambassador-designate then steps forward and hands to the President the said folder. The President delivers his/her remarks. The President and the new Ambassador shake hands and exchange amenities. The President informs the new Ambassador that he/she may now wish to present the members of his entourage. The Ambassador presents individually the members of the entourage who step forward, (the most senior in rank at the head of the line) and shake hands with the President. Then the entourage members return to their designated places.






After the introduction of the entourage the following photo opportunities may ensue: a. The President and the new Ambassador; b. The President, The Secretary of Foreign Affairs, the new Ambassador and his entourage.


The President invites the Ambassador for a private conversation in the adjoining room together with the Secretary/Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs. The invitation may expressly include the most senior staff member of the Ambassador. The rest of the entourage returns to wait at the receiving salon. At the conclusion of the private conversation, the Ambassador takes leave of the President and the Secretary/ Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs. The Ambassador is escorted from the room by the Chief of Presidential Protocol, then through the cordon of honor guards. The rest of the entourage follows the Ambassador. At the foyer, the Chief of Presidential Protocol bids farewell to the Ambassador and his entourage. The Ambassador, assisted by the Philippine Military Aide, boards the ceremonial car on the right side and takes the rear right seat. The DFA Chief of Protocol boards the ceremonial car on the left side and takes the rear left seat. The Philippine Military Aide takes the front seat to the right of the chauffeur. The car flag of the Ambassadors country is unfurled at the ceremonial car. The car flag on the motor car of the Charg dAffaires is no longer flown. The motorcade proceeds to Rizal Park.



(6) Wreath Laying Ceremony at the Monument of the National Hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal NOTE: This is an integral part of the presentation ceremonies. 6.1. Arrival/Anthems 6.1.1. In front of the monument of the National Hero Dr. Jose Rizal, the new Ambassador, accompanied by the DFA Chief of Protocol/Protocol Official, is greeted by the Military Host. The DFA Chief of Protocol/Protocol Official and the military Host escort the Ambassador to his place of honor at a position facing but distant from the monument. 6.1.2. The Ambassador is flanked on his right by the Chief of Protocol and on his left by the Military Host. The Ambassadors entourage is guided by the Director of Ceremonials to their respective positions in a horizontal line behind the Ambassador and his escorts. 6.1.3. The Commander orders the Ceremonial Guards to present arms. The military band plays the national anthem of the country of the Ambassador followed by the Philippine National Anthem. All civilian. 6.1.4. and military participants stand at attention and render appropriate respect to the national anthem. After the last note of the anthem, the guards are commanded to Order Arms. 6.2. Processional/Wreath Offering 6.2.1. The rest of the entourage remains in place while the Ambassador, on cue of and escorted by the Military Host and the DFA Chief of


Protocol/Protocol Official, walks toward the monument. The DFA Chief of Protocol/Protocol Official and the Military Host stop at the foot of the steps. 6.2.2. The Ambassador goes up to the base of the monument where he stops to place the wreath. The wreath is brought up and put in place by the Ambassador with the help of the military wreath bearers. 6.3 Gun Salute and Taps/Recessional 6.3.1. When the wreath is in place, the Ambassador, still facing the monument, takes two to three steps backwards and stands at attention. At this time, the ceremonial guards are commanded to Present Arms, followed by three volleys of rifle fire and the playing of Taps by the band. At the last note of Taps, the ceremonial guards are commanded to Order Arms (BABAta! in the Filipino language). 6.3.2. This is the signal for the Ambassador to turn around, walk away from the monument and toward the DFA Chief of Protocol/Protocol Official and the Philippine Military Aide. When the Ambassador reaches them, the DFA Chief of Protocol/Protocol Official and the Philippine Military Aide take their respective escort positions beside the Ambassador and they walk back to the Ambassadors original place of honor at the start of the ceremony. 6.3.3. On reaching their places in front of the rest of the entourage, the Ambassador and his escorts turn around to face the monument. At the conclusion of the ceremony, the Ambassador shakes hands with the Commander of the Ceremonial Guards. 6.3.4. The Ambassador is escorted to the ceremonial car by the Military Host and the DFA Chief of Protocol / Protocol Official, followed by the Military Aide and the rest of the entourage who board their respective vehicles for the motorcade back to the residence of the Ambassador. 6.3.5. After a few minutes of congratulatory amenities and informal conversation at the Ambassadors residence, the DFA Chief of Protocol/Protocol Official, the Military Aide, and their staff take leave of the Ambassador, his/her spouse and the diplomatic staff.



The Philippine Flag and Anthem, motto, coat-of-arms and other heraldic items are national symbols which embody the national ideals and traditions, and which express the principles of sovereignty and national solidarity; they seek to manifest the national virtues and to inculcate in the minds and hearts of our people a just pride in their native land. Thus, utmost reverence and respect should be accorded to these symbols. Republic Act 8491, or the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, prescribes how these national symbols should be properly treated. 4 I. THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL FLAG (1) Care of the National Flag The use and care of the flag of the Philippines shall be done in a manner manifesting deep respect for the national emblem. Every precaution shall be exercised in its handling and care. (2) Display of the National Flag in Philippine Missions and Official Functions Abroad 2.1. The flag shall be flown over a Philippine mission or consulate between the hours of sunrise and sunset on all Philippine national holidays; on certain holidays in the country where the mission or consulate is located; and on such other occasions as the officer in charge may deem appropriate. When necessary, the flag may also be flown for purposes of protection. However, the local usages in this display of the flag should be appropriately considered. The flag should be displayed only from sunrise to sunset or between hours as may be designated by the Department. It should always be hoisted briskly and lowered slowly and ceremoniously. It should not be flown when the weather is inclement. The flag shall not be raised when the weather is inclement. If already raised, the flag shall not be lowered 2.3. The flag, if flown from a flagpole, shall have its blue field on top in time of peace and the red field on top in time of war; if in a hanging position, the blue field shall be to the right (left of the observer) in time of peace, and the red field to the right (left of the observer) in time of war. The flagpole staff must be straight and slightly tapering at the top. 2.4. If planted on the ground, the flagpole shall be at a prominent place and shall be of such height as would give the flag commanding position in relation to the buildings in the vicinity. If attached to a building, the flagpole shall be on top of its roof or anchored on a sill projecting at an angle upward. If on a stage or platform or Philippine government office, the flag shall be at the left (facing the stage) or the left of the office upon entering. __________________________


Please refer to R.A. 8491 at the Official Philippine Government Portal, http:/www.gov.ph./aboutphil/RA8491.asp.



When the Philippine flag is flown with another flag, the flags, if both are national flags, must be flown on separate staffs of the same height and shall be of equal size. If in Philippine territory, the Philippine flag shall be hoisted first and lowered last. If the other flag is not a national flag, it may be flown in the same lineyard as the Philippine flag but below the latter and it cannot be of greater size than the Philippine flag.


In Philippine territory, when displayed with another flag, the Philippine flag shall be on the right of the other flag. If there is a line of other flags, the Philippine flag shall be in the middle of the line. When carried in a parade with flags which are not national flags, the Philippine flag shall be in front of the center of the line.


When used on a speakers platform, the flag should be displayed above and behind the speaker, never on the front of the platform. If flown from a staff, it should be on the speakers right. No flag or pennant should ever be flown above the Philippine flag, except the church pennant which should fly above the flag during divine services on board a Philippine war vessel. The flag shall be hoisted to the top briskly and lowered ceremoniously. The flag shall never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, flood, water or other objects. After being lowered, the flag shall be handled and folded solemnly as part of the ceremony.




The flag should never be draped over the head, top, or other part of a vehicle or of a railroad train or boat. When the flag is displayed in a motorcar, the staff should be affixed firmly to the chassis. The colors should never be draped with black crepe except when the President declares a national mourning. The flag should be loaned only when the purpose for which it is requested is a proper one, e.g., to drape on the casket of a deceased veteran. When it is desired to use the national colors as a covering for a speakers desk, in general, bunting should be used. Bunting should be arranged with the blue above, the white in the middle, and the red below. A flag worn out through wear and tear shall not be thrown away. It shall be solemnly burned to avoid misuse or desecration. The flag shall be replaced immediately when it begins to show signs of wear and tear.

2.11. 2.12.



(3) Salute to the Flag During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is passing in a parade or in a review, all persons present should face the flag, stand at attention, and salute. The salute is executed by placing the right hand over the heart. Men should remove their hats or head dresses with the right hand and hold them at the left breast. The salute to the flag in the moving column is rendered at the moment the flag passes. When the national anthem is played, the same manner of saluting the flag is to be observed. (4) Conduct of Flag-Raising Ceremony 4.1. All government offices and foreign missions shall observe the flag-raising ceremony every Monday morning and the flag-lowering ceremony every


Friday afternoon. The ceremony shall be simple and dignified and shall include the playing or singing of the Philippine National Anthem. 4.2. The observance of the flag ceremony in official or civic gatherings shall be simple and dignified and shall include the playing or singing of the anthem in its original Filipino lyrics and march tempo. During the flag-raising ceremony, the assembly shall stand in formation facing the flag. At the moment the first note of the anthem is heard, everyone in the premises shall come to attention; moving vehicles shall stop. All persons present shall place their right palms over their chests, those with hats shall uncover; while those in military, scouting, security guard, and citizens military training uniforms shall give the salute prescribed by their regulations, which salute shall be completed upon the last note of the anthem. The assembly shall sing the Philippine national anthem, accompanied by a band, if available, and at the first note, the flag shall be raised briskly. The same procedure shall be observed when the flag is passing in review or in parade.



(5) Conduct of the Flag-Lowering Ceremony During the flag-lowering, the flag shall be lowered solemnly and slowly so that the flag shall be down the mast at the sound of the last note of the anthem. Those in the assembly shall observe the same deportment or shall observe the same behavior as for the flag-raising ceremony. (6) Half Mast The flag shall be flown at half-mast as a sign or mourning on all the buildings and places where it is displayed, as provided for in this Act, on the day of official announcement of the death of any of the following officials: a. The President or a former President; for ten (10) days; b. The Vice-President, the Chief Justice, the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, for seven (7) days; and c. Other persons as determined by the government. The flag, when flown at half-mast, shall be first hoisted to peak for a moment then lowered to the half-mast position. The flag shall again be raised to the peak before it is lowered for the day. The flag may be used to cover the caskets of the honored dead of the military, veterans of previous wars, national artists, and of civilians who have rendered distinguished service to the nation, as may be determined by the local government unit concerned. In such cases, the flag shall be placed such that the white triangle shall be at the head and the blue portion shall cover the right side of the caskets. The flag shall not be lowered to the grave or allowed to touch the ground, but shall be folded solemnly and handed over to the heirs of the deceased.


(7) Pledge to the Flag The following shall be the Pledge of Allegiance to the Philippine flag: Ako ay Pilipino Buong katapatang nanunumpa Sa watawat ng Pilipinas At sa bansang kanyang sinasagisag Na may dangal, katarungan at kalayaan Na pinakikilos ng sambayanang Maka-Diyos Maka-tao Makakalikasan at Makabansa. Such pledge shall be recited while standing with the right hand with palm open raised shoulder high. Individuals whose faith or religious beliefs prohibit them from making such pledge must nonetheless show full respect when the pledge is being rendered by standing at attention. (8) Flag Days The period from May 28 to June 12 of each year is declared as Flag Days, during which period all offices, agencies and instrumentalities or government, Philippine business establishments, institutions of learning and private homes are enjoined to display the flag. (9) Specifications of the National Flag 9.1. 9.2. The flag shall have the following proportions. The width of the flag, 1; the length of the flag, 2; and the sides of the white triangle, 1. The technical specifications shall be as follows: The blue color shall bear Cable No. 80173; the white color, Cable No. 80001; the red color, Cable No. 80108; and the golden yellow, Cable No. 80068. 9.3. All requisitions for the purchase of the Philippine National Flag must be based on strict compliance with the design, color, craftsmanship and material requirements of the Government. Coordinate with the DFA Home Office for the purchase and acquisition of the Flag.

(10) Prohibited Acts on the Use of the Philippine Flag It shall be prohibited: 10.1. To mutilate, deface, defile, trample on or cast contempt or commit any act or omission casting dishonor or ridicule upon the flag or over its surface; To dip the flag to any person or object by way of compliment or salute; To use the flag: a. b. c. d. e. As a drapery, festoon, tablecloth; As covering for ceilings, walls, statues, or other objects; As a pennant in the hood, side, back and top of motor vehicles; As a staff or whip; For unveiling monuments or statues; and

10.2. 10.3.



As trademarks, or for industrial, commercial or agricultural labels or designs.

To display the flag: a. Under any painting or picture; b. Horizontally face-up. It shall always be hoisted aloft and be allowed to fall freely; c. Below any platform; or d. In discotheques, cockpits, night and day clubs, casinos, gambling joints and places of vice or where frivolity prevails. 10.4. 10.5. To wear the flag in whole or in part as a costume or uniform; To add any word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawings, advertisement, or imprint of any nature on the flag; To print, paint or attach representation of the flag on handkerchiefs, napkins, cushions, and other articles or merchandise; To display in public any foreign flag, except in embassies and other diplomatic establishments, and in offices of international organizations; and To use, display or be part of any advertisement or infomercial.




II. THE NATIONAL PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM (1) The National anthem, Lupang Hinirang, shall always be sung in the national language within or outside the country. The following shall be the lyrics of the National Anthem: Bayang magiliw, Perlas ng Silanganan Alab ng puso, Sa Dibdib moy buhay. Lupang Hinirang, Duyan ka ng magiting, Sa manlulupig, Di ka pasisiil. Sa dagat at bundok, Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw, May dilag ang tula, At awit sa paglayang minamahal. Ang kislap ng watawat moy Tagumpay na nagniningning, Ang bituin at araw niya, Kailan pa may di magdidilim, Lupa ng araw ng luwalhatit pagsinta, Buhay ay langit sa piling mo, Aming ligaya na pag may mang-aapi, Ang mamatay nang dahil sa iyo. (2) The rendition of the National Anthem, whether played or sung, shall be in accordance with the musical arrangement and composition of Julian Felipe.


(3) When the National Anthem is played at a public gathering, whether by a band or by singing or both, or reproduced by any means, the attending public shall sing the anthem. The singing must be done with fervor. (4) As a sign of respect, all persons shall stand at attention and face the Philippine flag, if there is one displayed, and if there is none, they shall face the band or the conductor. At the first note, all persons shall execute a salute by placing their right palms over their left chests. Those in military, scouting, citizen military training and security guard uniforms shall give the salute prescribed by their regulations. The salute shall be completed upon the last note of the anthem. (5) The anthem shall not be played and sung for mere recreation, amusement or entertainment purposes except on the following occasions: a) International competitions where the Philippines is the host or has a representative; b) Local competitions; c) During the signing off and signing on of radio broadcasting and television stations; d) Before the initial and last screening of films and before the opening of theater performances; and e) Other occasions as may be allowed by the National Historical Institute (NHI). III. THE NATIONAL MOTTO The National Motto shall be MAKA-DIYOS, MAKA-TAO, MAKAKALIKASAN AT MAKABANSA. IV. THE NATIONAL COAT-OF-ARMS The National Coat-of-Arms shall have: Paleways of two (2) pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three (3) mullets equidistant from each other; and, in point of honor, avoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays. Beneath shall be the scroll with the words REPUBLIKA NG PILIPINAS, inscribed thereon. V. THE GREAT SEAL (1) The Great Seal shall be circular in form, with the arms as described in the preceding section, but without the scroll and the inscription thereon. Surrounding the whole shall be a double marginal circle within which shall appear the words Republika ng Pilipinas. For the purpose of placing The Great Seal, the color of the arms shall not be deemed essential but tincture representation must be used. (2) The Great Seal shall also bear the National Motto. (3) The Great Seal shall be affixed to or placed upon all commissions signed by the President and upon such other official documents and papers of the Republic of the Philippines as may be provided by law, or as may be required by custom and usage. The President shall have custody of the Great Seal.


VI. OFFICIAL SEAL AND OTHER HERALDIC ITEMS AND DEVICES (1) Any government entity, including the military, may adopt appropriate coat-ofarms, administrative seals, logo, insignia, badges, patches, and banners; and initiate awards, citations, orders or decorations; as may be authorized by Congress or the Office of the President. (2) Such heraldic devices and items shall be filed with the National Historical Institute (NHI) for recording and evaluation as to precedence, design, customs and traditions. The NHI shall promulgate the corresponding rules and regulations which shall be submitted for approval to the Office of the President or to Congress. (3) All government offices including the military are to purchase all heraldic items and devices from manufacturers accredited and authorized by the NHI. Such items and devices shall be subject to inspection by the purchasing agencys internal inspector and the COA representatives using the design and specifications approved by the Office of the President or by the Congress, through the NHI. (4) No government official or employee shall accept any order or decoration from any foreign government without the consent of Congress, and without the prior evaluation and documentation of such order or decoration by the NHI.



(1) Conventions on Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges

The status, rights, privileges and immunities of members of the diplomatic and consular staff and household are governed by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. Officers and employees assigned abroad should be thoroughly acquainted with the provisions of these Conventions.

(2) Customs Privileges

While basic rules and practices on customs privileges are universally established by the Conventions, supplementary regulations may vary among countries. (3) Offenses against Diplomats In the Philippines, offenses committed against an accredited diplomat are legally considered as criminal acts. Sec. 6 of Republic Act No. 75, s.1946, provides: Any person who assaults, strikes, wounds, imprisons or in any manner offers violence to the person of an ambassador or a public minister, in violation of the law of nations, shall be imprisoned for not more than three years, and fined not exceeding two hundred pesos, in the discretion of the court, in addition to the penalties that may be imposed under the Revised Penal Code. II. PHILIPPINE RULES ON DIPLOMATIC MOTOR VEHICLES (1) Importation of Motor Vehicles Except as may be otherwise be provided for in reciprocal arrangements, only one car for the official use of the head of mission, to be registered in the name of the Embassy or Mission, shall be allowed to be imported or purchased tax-free and duty-free. Each Mission or Embassy is allowed to import or purchase tax-free and dutyfree, depending upon the size of each mission, not more than five motor vehicles for official use. (2) Importation for Personal Use 2.1. 2.2. Heads of Posts, during each tour of duty, may import or purchase for personal use not more than two motor vehicles tax-free and duty-free. Other consular officers, except honorary consular officials, during each tour of duty, may import or purchase locally for personal use one (1) motor vehicle tax-free and duty-free.



Administrative and other staff members of the diplomatic missions and consular establishments, including Filipino citizens and permanent residents and those who do not have diplomatic or consular officer status, are not entitled to import motor vehicles taxfree and duty-free.

(3) Replacement of Motor Vehicles Replacement of motor vehicles by means of imparting or purchasing tax-free and duty-free vehicles shall be allowed only after three (3) years from the date of registration of the motor vehicle to be replaced. In any case the old vehicle is sold to a non-privileged buyer, taxes and duties must be paid thereon, based on the value assessed at the time of sale to the non-privileged buyer. (4) Disposal of Motor Vehicle When the owner of a motor vehicle which was imported tax-free and dutyfree is transferred to another station before the end of the three-year period, the car may be re-exported or sold to another person who has the same privilege of importing or purchasing a motor vehicle tax-free and duty-free. (5) Sale of Tax-Exempt Motor Vehicle Any sale to any person or entity of any motor vehicle imported tax-free and duty-free should be reported to the Department and the corresponding license plates should be surrendered to the Department.


RESIDENCE AND OFFICES OF FILIPINO DIPLOMATS ABROAD (1) Place of Residence Diplomatic officers and employees shall, as a rule, establish their residence at the seat of the mission. With the approval of the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, however, they may establish temporary residence at a place other than the seat of the mission, if conveniently near it, and within the country where the mission is located. Consular officers and employees shall reside within the consular districts to which they are assigned and as near as practicable to the office. (2) Selection of Offices and Quarters Offices as well as residential quarters for diplomatic and consular officers shall be as presentable and dignified as the appropriations therefor permit. Except in combined offices, consular offices shall be as centrally and conveniently located as possible preferably in the business districts. (3) Coat of Arms The coat of arms of the mission shall be placed above or by the principal entrance of the residence of the Head of Mission and of the chancery, unless such arrangement is not practicable or is in conflict with local customs. The same rule is applicable to consular offices and residences.


(4) Acquisition of Property for Office and Residential Quarters Without in any way placing the Philippine Government under obligation, the feasibility shall be explored for acquiring ownership of real estate to house the chancery or the consular office and the residence of the Head of Mission or the Head of Consular Post and possibly of the other personnel, in lieu of the general practice of paying rental on leased properties. (5) Office Plan Diplomatic and consular offices shall be so planned that visitors shall enter first a waiting room or public reception room where an information or reception clerk shall be placed on constant duty during office hours. In diplomatic missions, the consular section shall as much as practicable be separated from the rest of the mission. If the mission occupies a building of more than one floor, the consular section should be on the first floor.


CHAPTER 6 CALLS AND SOCIAL FUNCTIONS I. CALLS (1) Upon Entrance to Duty Calls are made in accordance with local practice. This can be ascertained from the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, upon whom the Ambassador calls soon after the presentation of his credentials. (2) Arranging Calls for Diplomatic and Consular Officers A Head of Mission desiring to make a call on the Head of State, the Minister of Foreign Affairs or any other ranking official of the receiving Government shall ordinarily course his request through the Chief of Protocol of the Foreign Office. The same rules apply to calls by subordinate diplomatic officers on officials of the Foreign Office or other offices of the receiving Government. Subordinate officers do not, however, ordinarily call on officers of much higher category and rank than theirs. Calls of consular officers are arranged directly with the officer concerned. (3) Making and Returning Calls A courtesy call should be made promptly at the appointed time. It should generally not exceed fifteen minutes, unless the parties manifestly desire to prolong it. Calls made by officers of equal or superior rank shall be returned, but calls of officers of lower rank may be merely acknowledged by leaving cards at the latters offices. As a matter of courteous consideration, however, a call of an officer of lower rank may be returned. Calls should be returned within a week or, at most, ten days. (4) Calls among Diplomatic Ladies Inquiries with the local Protocol Office should be made as to what calls should be made by wives of the Head of Mission on wives of officials of the receiving Government or members of the Diplomatic Corps. (5) Calling Cards The following forms may be used for official calling cards (5.5 X 9 cms):

Juan de la Cruz
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Philippines


Juan de la Cruz
Third Secretary and Vice Consul

Embassy of the Philippines Tokyo


Less formal cards may indicate the address and telephone number at the bottom, thus:

Juan de la Cruz
Second Secretary
Embassy of the Philippines 11-24 Nampeidi-machi Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan 150 Tel. No. 34634245; 34966555 Fax No. (03) 34962731

II. SOCIAL FUNCTIONS (1) Invitations to Subordinate Officers Invitations issued by the Head of Mission to his subordinate officers and employees to official social functions partake of the nature of official orders and may not be declined, except for unavoidable reasons. Subordinate officers shall arrive earlier than the other guests to assist the Head of Mission in their entertainment. (2) Form of Invitations Invitations to special occasions, such as the national holiday reception, shall be specially printed with the seal of the Republic of the Philippines at the middletop. Invitations to less formal occasions may be made on printed forms with blanks left to be filled with the name of the invitee, the time, place, and, if desired, the purpose of the invitation at the space at the top. Invitations shall be issued in the name of the Head of Mission and his wife, if she is present at the post. (3) Accepting Invitations R.S.V.P. invitations shall be answered as soon as conveniently practicable. The answer must be categorical and never conditional or indefinite. (4) Greeting the Head of Mission Personnel of the Foreign Service establishment shall greet their Head of Mission and the latters spouse in any ceremony or social gathering even though they had seen the latter shortly earlier. (5) Guest of Honor and Other Guests To avoid difficulties in seating arrangements in a formal party, guests who outrank the guest of honor should, if possible, not be invited. (6) Place Cards Place cards shall state only the simple titles of Heads of Mission and other high ranking guests as The Minister of Foreign Affairs or The Ambassador of Spain, but the surname shall be used on place cards for the wives, as Mrs. Romulo.


(7) Seating Arrangement Under a single table arrangement, the guest of honor is always seated immediately to the right of the host or hostess, and the next ranking guest immediately to the left, and so forth. Ladies, as much as possible, should alternate with gentlemen. Husbands and wives should not, as much as possible, be seated side by side. When two guests are of the same rank and one is of the same nationality as the host, precedence shall be given the other. A Head of Mission who is single may request the wife of a subordinate to be a hostess for a social function although he may also make, in the alternative, the guest of honor his co-host. (8) Use of Card for Certain Occasions Cards are used for certain occasions to express felicitations, bid farewell, etc., proper abbreviated annotations being written in pencil on the lower left corner, as follows: p.p. pour presenter (to introduce an official) p.r. pour remercier (to express thanks) p.c. pour consoler (to express condolence) p.f. pour feliciter (to extend felicitations) p.p.c. pour prendre conge (to take leave) (9) Dress Officers shall see to it that they are properly dressed for each function or ceremony. The dress desired is ordinarily indicated at the lower right hand corner of the invitation card. 9.1. Full or evening dress or white tie, used by gentlemen for formal evening functions, consists of: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Black swallow tail coat with satin or fine grosgrain lapels; Black trousers with side braid along each outseam; White shirt with a stiff bosom; Wing collar and white bow tie; White waistcoat, single or double breasted, with or without lapels; 6) Black silk socks and black patent leather shoes; 7) High silk top hat or opera hat and white buck-skin gloves; and 8) When necessary, black or dark blue overcoat with white silk muffler. 9.2. Dinner dress, ordinarily black tie, and more colloquially, tuxedo, consists of the following: Black hip-length coat with silk or satin lapels; Black trousers with wide braid along each outseam (same as full evening dress); White, stiff or pleated bosomed shirt; or a soft evening shirt with studs instead of buttons; Turn-down, or attached collar and a black bow tie; Low-cut black waistcoat, unless coat is double breasted; and Opera hat or black homburg (usually the latter)

In the Philippines and other tropical countries, or in summer in temperate places, the coat may be of white or light cream color.


9.3. The morning dress or cutaway worn at formal functions held during the day, consists of 1) Black or oxford-gray cutaway tailcoat, hanging open in front, but without silk or satin lapels; 2) Matching waistcoat or drove-gray double breasted waistcoat; 3) Striped trousers, either gray and black or black with white lines; 4) White shirt with stiff front, or soft with stiff or semi-stiff collar; 5) Turn-down collar being more often used than wing collar even on formal occasions, and a gray or black and white four-inhand tie, or ascot; 6) Black socks and shoes; and 7) Top hat; or gray homburg on certain occasions if the gray cutaway is worn. (10) Meeting and Seeing-off Officials A Head of Mission shall ordinarily meet and see-off the Head of State and the Secretary or Minister of Foreign Affairs when any of them leaves for, or arrives from, other countries. The wife of the Head of Mission shall ordinarily be present when the official arriving or departing is accompanied by his wife. A Head of Mission shall also meet and see-off important official personages coming from, or going to the Philippines on official missions. (11) Leaving Post A Head of Mission, upon leaving his post, on termination of his tour of duty, personally bids farewell to the Head of the State, the Chief of the Foreign Office, to other Heads of Mission and to close friends, he sends cards marked p.p.c. in pencil.


CHAPTER 7 NAMES, INTRODUCTIONS, AND ADDRESSING OFFICIALS (1) Which name to use 1.1. Use the conservative approach, i.e., title followed by the last name, if spoken. In writing, note the different variations in different countries and cultures: 1.1.1. In the Philippines and most countries the order is: first name/s, middle name (maiden name of mother in males and single women, and family name of husbands in married women), and the last (family) name. Examples: Juan Villa Cruz, Christine Guzman Santiago Note that in the Philippines, especially among women professionals, it is also becoming popular to have a hyphenated family name containing both the maiden family name of the woman and her husbands family name. Example: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Note also that in the Philippines it is common to see Ma. in names of women, e.g. Ma. Erlinda Romero, sometimes even men, Jose Ma. Roque. This is an abbreviated form of Maria, a common first name in the country. 1.1.2. Among the Chinese, or people of Chinese descent, the order is reversed last name followed by the first name. Example: Yao Ming, Lee Kuan Yew 1.1.3. Among the Indians name + s / o or d / o (Rajiv don of India) Priyanba Daughter of Sonia 1.1.4. Malaysian name + bint or binte (Ahmad bint Abdullah) (Fatima binte Maryam) Note: It is always advisable to learn the local culture and practice pertaining to the use of names to properly address people. (2) It is always a sign of respect and courtesy to remember the names of people and to be able to say or write them correctly. This is the first step towards establishing friendships and goodwill with other people, whether in formal or informal circumstances. In official documents, memoranda, correspondence, and invitations, it is essential to get the names right. 2.1. If you forget the name of the person you are speaking to, politely say Could you please repeat your name for me so I could get it right. (If you still cant remember, you can say, Before I excuse myself, please tell me your name again.) Or I am sorry, but could I get your name again.


OTHER ALTERNATIVES IF MEMORY FAILS YOU There are other tactful ways of saving yourself without the other person knowing that at the moment you have no idea what he/she is called. If you encounter someone who greets you warmly but whose name or face you cant recall, stall. Return the persons greetings. Then let him/her do the talking, listening attentively and at the same time trying to remember his/her name. Sometimes the conversation will give you a clue as to the persons identity. In the meanwhile, try to appear as if you remember him/her as well. You can ask for a calling card or simply ask What do they call you for short? if the occasion permits. If you cannot recall the persons name and the conversation continues longer than you expected, sometimes it is better to ask the person apologetically and politely to remind you of his name rather than calling him by a name that you are not sure is his. 2.2. DEALING WITH UNCOMMON NAMES

Take extra care in pronouncing someones name if it is uncommon or difficult to pronounce. To ask that person to check your pronunciation of his/her name or to inquire about the correct way of saying it is appropriate and a compliment to that person. Never make fun of another persons name or ask how he or she ever came to be called that way. This is rude and inconsiderate. Be sensitive to one who is trying to pronounce a difficult name. Inform him/her of the proper way to say your name. If someone mispronounces your name, correct the other person immediately and gently. To make light of the situation so as not to embarrass the other, you can tell some anecdotes on the difficulty people have had with your name. 2.3. When you greet people you have not seen in a long time or those you dont usually encounter, it is polite to identify yourself immediately. Example: How are you Mr. Cruz? Im David Singson, we attended a conference together a couple of months ago. Im Ric Suarez. Mrs. Santos, We go to the same gym.

(3) Making Introduction

3.1. Introducing people to each other 3.1.1 The proper protocol in introducing people to each other is guided by considering their sex, age and rank, thus, introduce:


a man to a woman; a younger person to an older woman, also single women are introduced to married women and the younger one is introduced to the older one; a lower ranking person to a higher-ranking person. Example: Alice may I introduce Ric Cortazar then say to the man: Ric I would like you to meet Alice Cruz. However, if Ric is a person occupying a high rank (say President of a company) than Alice, the position should be considered first. Example: Mr. Cortazar, may I present Alice Cruz. Alice, this is Mr. Cortazar, President of the company. Should a person join a group, it is easier to say: Example: I would like you all to meet Gerry Alonzo. Gerry meet Diane Santos, Patricia Noble, and Nena Ortiz.

Introduce newcomer first to the group and then the group, usually at random, without observing priorities, if all are more or less of equal ranking. However, should the group include people of rank, it is best to introduce the newcomer, to the people of higher rank. Example: Your Excellency, Mr. Ambassador this is Gerry Alonzo.

Rulers of countries, church dignitaries and chiefs of delegations representing a country are always given the higher priority when people are introduced to them.


4.1. When you are doing the introductions, make sure to speak clearly and pronounce the names carefully and correctly. It is also polite to look at the persons you are speaking to. It is accepted to provide descriptions about the persons you are introducing, especially if it is relevant to the conversation. Observe professional titles, such as Doctor or Attorney, when introducing people. (Be careful with the use of the title DOCTOR, even if the person has a doctorate degree (PhD). This is usually appropriate only for Doctors of medicine.) 4.2. In the Philippines, titles such as Senator, Governor, Ambassador, Congressman, etc. are retained even though the persons term of office may have ended.



Some suggested words of introductions are: Madam may I present (mans name) Sir may I present (a younger persons name) May I introduce I have great pleasure in introducing (Name of guest speaker).


When you are being introduced it is always advisable to smile and acknowledge both the person making the introduction and the person/s being introduced to you. Should a man be seated, it is polite for him to stand up shake hands with other men and bow slightly to the women unless they offer to shake his hand. Shaking hands with the person you are meeting for the first time is already acceptable in most countries. However, when a man and a woman are being introduced to each other, it might be more prudent for the man to wait for the woman to extend her hand first. It is also prudent for a man not to address a woman by her first name or nickname unless she indicates that she wishes him to do so, this is especially true for formal occasions and business meetings.


When being introduced you may politely say How do you do? or How are you? You may also want to repeat the other persons name to help you remember it: How do you do, Mr. Bautista? . A warm Hi, Hello, or Good afternoon (or whatever is appropriate), is also acceptable. Avoid using lines such as: My pleasure, Charmed, Im sure, Delighted to make your acquaintance. These are unnatural and trite responses. You may say instead Im glad to meet you. Or Ive heard so much about you. But say these only if you really mean them. Should the person introducing you mispronounce your name, or provided incorrect information about you, point out the error immediately and set it right. Do this politely without offending or embarrassing the person introducing you.


There is nothing improper about introducing yourself to others, but do it politely and courteously. Timing is very important, especially if you are to interrupt a group of people in the middle of a conversation. Make sure that the group is receptive to your approach by making eye contact and offering a smile. Always be friendly in your approach and when necessary say: excuse me. When introducing yourself, state both your first and last names and avoid using mister or miss or any other title or honorific. If it is relevant to the conversation or you need to indicate what you do, simply state it: I am Ricardo Cruz, I am a lawyer or Good evening, I am Christina Santos, Second Secretary of the Philippine Embassy in New Delhi


Introductions are not always necessary. For instance, if you are walking with a group and you chance upon a person you know, it is not necessary to make introductions even if you talk briefly to that person. Also when eating out with a group and a friend or acquaintance passes by your table, you are under no obligation to present him to the group. It is prudent to consider that there might be local and cultural variations when making introductions. It is always wise to know the local practice and to follow them to avoid any misunderstanding.



(5) HANDSHAKE 5.1. In handshakes, the proper precedence are: The person of authority extends his/her hands first. A woman extends her hand to a man. A dignitary of the church extends his hand to a woman. An elder woman extends her hand first to a younger woman. Always shake hands with your right hand. In some cultures, shaking hands using the left hand is considered very impolite. Always accept a gesture of handshake. It is considered rude and disrespectful to ignore or refuse an offer of handshake. If you are holding a drink, especially during cocktails, hold it with your left hand so that your right hand is always free to shake hands when your are introduced to somebody. If your hands are both full, say with a drink on one hand and an appetizer on the other, and a person extends his hand to you, just politely say It is so nice to meet you, excuse me (or forgive me) but my hands are full. Make sure, however, to extend a gesture of handshake to that person if another opportunity arises and if it still appropriate, e.g., before you leave or before that person leaves. Shaking hands is not only for introductions, it is also an appropriate gesture when an agreement has been reached; when a meeting has been concluded; or when saying goodbye in formal occasions and official functions. Handshakes should be firm, but not too tight. It usually lasts no longer than 4 seconds. Always give a warm handshake, avoid being reluctant and hurried, however, also avoid being over eager, and never exaggerate your handshake.

5.2. 5.3. 5.4.




(6) CARDS 6.1. Types of Cards

6.1.1. Calling Card

Ricardo S. Cruz Minister

A calling card contains only the name and profession of the holder.


Business Card

Ricardo S. Cruz Minister

Embassy of the Philippines (Address) Tel. No.______ Fax No._____


A business card contains the name, profession of the holder and other information such as address and contact number of the holder. 6.2. Calling and Business Cards should always be formal. Fonts and font sizes should be easy to read. Use standard white stationery and avoid colored stationeries and those with decorations. Never use a scented card. Avoid putting pictures or unnecessary graphics, such as borders, drawings, and other art works. Remember that Cards serve many purposes. Aside from giving a new acquaintance a ready reference or guide in pronouncing your name, they are utilized in informal greetings or conveying informal messages. This is done by simply writing in pencil on the left hand corner of the card accepted French abbreviations, such as: p.r. p.p. p.c. pour remercier pour presenter pour consoler to express thanks or appreciation to introduce or present somebody to convey sympathies or condolence to congratulate or felicitate to take leave or say adieu


p.f. pour feliciter p.p.c. pour prendre cong 6.4.

Timing is also important in giving your card. Sometimes, it is not advisable to present your card immediately upon being introduced or when entering an office. One should wait for the proper occasion. Remarks like What sort of business are you in? or I hear you are an investment broker, how do I reach you? could be the right moment to present a card. In giving a card, always be polite and accompany it with a phrase like: May I give you my card in case I can be of help to you? When someone offers you a card, take it with your right hand. Glance at it and put it in a pocket or in handbag after a little while. Never put a card in your pocket or handbag without reading its content, this is considered as rude. In some cultures, like the Japanese and Chinese, you have to use both hands, using thumb and forefinger, in handing your card. The name printed on the card should face the receiver. Bow slightly as you hand the card to the person. It is the same when receiving a card from a Japanese or Chinese, use both hands, using thumb and forefingers, to receive card. Look at the card, read it to show appreciation. Do not put the card away immediately. Wait for a little while before putting card in your pocket or until giver has left. When you are seated and in front of a table, it is also very polite to place the cards on the table for a while, or throughout the duration of your conversation.






(7) Addressing Officials

Addressing Government Officials: A Sampling
Personage The President Introduction and Addressing Envelopes The President The White House Address (Abroad he is introduced as The President of the United States of America.) The First Lady Mrs. Madison (She is the only official woman always addressed out of respect as Mrs. Madison, without a given name.) A social invitation would be addressed to: The President and Mrs. Madison The Vice President Dear Mrs. Madison: Mrs. Madison Mrs. Madison Letter Salutation Dear Mr. President: Speaking to Mr. President Place Card The President

The Vice President

Vice Presidents Wife Speaker of the House

Dear Mr. Vice President: The White House Address A social invitation would be addressed to: The Vice President and Mrs. Adams Mrs. John Adams Dear Mrs. Adams: Address The Honorable Michael Duncan Speaker of the House or, socially: The Speaker of the House and Mrs. Duncan The Chief Justice The Supreme Court Address or, socially: The Chief Justice and Mrs. Warner Justice Zissu The Supreme Court or, socially: Justice Zissu and Mrs. Zissu The Honorable Desmond Palmer Secretary of Labor Address or, socially: The Secretary of Labor and Mrs. Palmer The Honorable Otto Norgren Undersecretary of Labor or, socially: The Undersecretary of Labor and Mrs. Norgren The Honorable Edward R. Warden Attorney General of the United States or, socially: The Attorney General and Mrs. Warden Dear Mr. Speaker

Mr. Vice President

The Vice President

Mrs. Adams Mr. Speaker

Mrs. Adams The Speaker of the House

Chief Justice

Dear Mr. Chief Justice

Mr. Chief Justice

The Chief Justice

Associate Justice

Dear Justice: or Dear Justice Zissu: Dear Mr. Secretary:

Justice or Justice Zissu

Justice Zissu

Cabinet Member

The Secretary or Secretary Palmer

The Secretary of Labor

Undersecretary of Labor

Dear Mr. Under secretary:

Mr. Undersecretary (subsequently Sir)

The Undersecretary of Labor

Attorney General

Dear Mr. Attorney General

Mr. Attorney General (Subsequently Sir)

The Attorney General


Addressing Government Officials: A Sampling Personage Director of Central Intelligence Introduction & Addressing Envelopes The Honorable Agnes L. Schmidt Director of Central Intelligence Address or, socially: The Director of Central Intelligence and Mr. Helmut Schmidt The Honorable Frederick H. Lee United States Senate Address or, socially: Senator and Mrs. Frederick H. Lee The Honorable Sarah Thune House of Representatives Address or, socially: The Honorable Sarah Thune and Mr. Christopher Thune The Honorable David R. Luce American Embassy Address or, socially: The Honorable David R. Luce and Mrs. Luce The Honorable Francis L. Fine Governor of Florida Address or, socially: Governor and Mrs. Francis Fine The Honorable Jorge Morales or, socially: State Senator Jorge Morales and Mrs. Morales The Honorable Stanley Breck, Jr. Mayor of Providence or, socially: Mayor and Mrs. Stanley Breck, Jr. Letter Salutation Dear Director: Speaking to Madam Director Place Card The Director of Central Intelligence

U.S. Senator

Dear Senator Lee:

Senator or Senator Lee

Senator Lee

U.S. Representative

Dear Ms. Thune: Ms. Thune Sarah The Honorable Thune or Ms. Thune

American Ambassador Abroad

Dear Ambassador Luce: or Dear Mr. Ambassador Dear Governor: or

Ambassador Luce Ambassador Luce


Governor or Governor Fine

The Governor of Florida

Dear Governor Fine: Dear Senator Morales: Senator Morales The Honorable Jorge Morales

State Senator


Dear Mr. Mayor: Mayor Breck or Dear Mayor Breck: Judge Quinlan

The Mayor of Providence


The Honorable Dear Judge Robert Quinlan Quinlan: Judge, Appellate Division Supreme Court of the State of New York or, socially: Judge and Mrs. Robert Quinlan

Judge Quinlan


Addressing Women Addressing the Spouses of Officially Ranked People

Introduction and Addressing Envelopes When an officials wife uses her husbands name When an officials wife goes by her own name Spouse of highranking woman When both husband and wife have rank The Secretary of Commerce and Mrs. Roe The Secretary of Commerce Mr. Ralph Baldwin and Ms. Marian Smith Senator Ann Green and Mr. David Green The Honorable David Green and The Honorable Ann Green Commander Jerome Tate and Lieutenant Tate Letter Salutation Dear Mrs. Roe: Speaking to Mrs. Roe Place Card Mrs. Roe

Dear Mrs. Smith: Ms. Smith

Ms. Smith

Dear Mr. Green: Mr. Green Dear Senator Green: Senator Green

Mr. Green Senator Green

Lieutenant Tate Lieutenant Tate Dear Lieutenant Tate:

USE MADAME WHEN ADDRESSING A WOMAN FROM A FOREIGN COUNTRY We call women in this country Mrs., Miss, or Ms., followed by a surname. When we meet a woman from another country, we often have trouble catching a complicated name, and we dont know whether to call her Miss or Mrs. The Solution is to call her simply Madame. French is the language of diplomacy throughout the world, and Madame is almost as much of a catch-all as Ms. In the American idiom. Use Madame for a woman who is out of her teens or if you know for a fact that she is married. It makes life very simple. You dont have to say Madame Abdourahmane when youre taking with her. Just Madame will do. THE HONORABLE A TITLE OF RESPECT IN AMERICA The Honorable in front of a persons name is a title held for life by a person who holds or has held high office at the federal, state, or city levels. However, there is a nuance that must be remembered: A person who is addressed by others as The Honorable should not put the title on her own business cards, a personal letterhead, or on the invitations she extends. If, for example, an ex-official is now a partner in a law firm, on firms stationery his name would be listed with the other partners with The Honorable before it, but if it his stationery alone, his name should not bear that honorific. In other words, it is a distinction bestowed by someone else on a person, not by the person on himself. The following are among those who carry The Honorable title through their lives: The President and the Vice President Cabinet members, Deputy Secretaries, Undersecretaries, and Assistant Secretaries Presidential Assistants American career and appointed ambassadors American representatives (including alternates and deputies) to international organizations The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, associate justices, judges of other courts All members of Congress The Secretary of the Senate; the clerk of the House The sergeants at arms of the Senate and House


Librarian of Congress Comptroller General (General Accounting Office) Heads, assistant heads, and commissioners of U.S. government agencies Governor and lieutenant governor of a state Secretary of State, Chief Justice, and attorney general of a state State treasurer, comptroller, or auditor State senator, representative, assemblyman, or delegate Mayor Members of the city council, commissioners, etc. In addressing an invitation to a married woman who is in office and whose husband has no rank, her name proceeds his: The Honorable Julia Rosen and Mr. Geoffrey Rosen Address When she is no longer in office, she still retains The Honorable, but her name returns to its place after her husbands: Mr. Geoffrey Rosen and The Honorable Julia Rosen Address THE BRITISH: OUR FRIENDS WITH MANY TITLES Since we do much business with Great Britain, it is important for those having a great deal of contact with the country to understand its layers of leadership: the Crown, the government, and the peers of the realm. Protocol for the Royal Family is carefully prescribed, and even though philosophically we do not adhere to the principles of a monarchy, we should respect our British friends admiration for it. It is impossible to please the British in their own country and to please British business people visiting here if we are totally unknowledgeable about their countrys history or the Crown. THE ROYAL FAMILY One does not write directly to a member of the Royal Family; write to The Private Secretary to Her Majesty the Queen His Royal Highness, Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness, The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales Her Royal Highness, The Princess Ann (married to Commodore Timothy Lawrence of the Royal Navy) His Royal Highness, The Prince William His Royal Highness, The Prince Harry His Royal Highness, The Duke of York Her Royal Highness, The Duchess of York His Royal Highness, The Prince Edward (married to Sophie Reese Jones, The Countess of Wessex) If you are fortunate enough to be invited to tea by Her Majesty the Queen, your invitation will come from her Master of the Household, and it might read as follows: The Master of the Household is Commanded by Her Majesty to invite [your name written on this line] to an Afternoon Party at Buckingham Palace on Tuesday, February 4th from four to six oclock


The British Government

Official The Prime Minister Introduction and Addressing Envelopes The Rt. Hon. Mary Smith, M.P. The Prime Minister (M.P. means Member Parliament) or, socially: The Prime Minister and Mr. Ivan Smith The Rt. Hon. Ronald Coates, P.C., M.P. Home Secretary or, socially: The Rt. Hon. Roland and Mrs. Coates Letter Salutation Dear Prime Minister: Speaking to Madam Prime Minister Place Card The Prime Minister

The Home Secretary (Equivalent or our Secretary of State)

Dear Mr. Coates: or, if titled: Dear Sir Ronald: or Dear Lord Coates:

Mr. Coates or, if he is titled, it might be: Sir Ronald or Lord Coates

The Home Secretary

(Other Cabinet posts would be addressed in a similar manner.) A British Ambassador to the United States His Excellency David Leeds Ambassador of Great Britain or, if he is titled, it might be: His Excellency Sir David Leeds et cetera Dear Ambassador Leeds: or, it titled: Dear Sir David: Mr. Ambassador or Sir David The Ambassador of Great Britain

The Peerage
Official A non-royal duke Introduction and Addressing Envelopes The Duke of Oakford or The Duke and Duchess of Oakford Letter Salutation Dear Duke: Dear Duchess: Speaking to Duke Duchess Place Card The Duke of Oakford The Duchess of Oakford

(The English often address a duke and duchess as Your Grace and speak of them as His Grace the Duke of but Americans are not expected to follow this procedure.) Dukes eldest son and daughter-in-law Marquesss eldest son; Earls wife, a countess Viscount eldest son of an earl Marquess of Chester or, socially: The Marquess and Marchioness of Chester Earl of Meads or, socially: Earl and Countess of Meads Dear Lord Chester: Dear Lady Chester: Lord Chester Lady Chester Lord Chester Lady Chester

Dear Lord of Meads: Dear Lady of Meads: Dear Viscount Brentwood: Dear Lady Brentwood: Dear Lord Lyndhurst: Dear Lady Lyndhurst: Dear Sir Albert: Dear Lady Northrop:

Lord Meads Lady Meads

Lord Meads Lady Meads

Viscount Brentwood or, socially: Viscount and Viscountess Brentwood The Lord Lyndhurst or, socially: Lord and Lady Lyndhurst

Lord Brentwood Lady Brentwood

Viscount Brentwood Viscountess Brentwood

Baron Baroness

Lord Lyndhurst Lady Lyndhurst

Lord Lyndhurst Lady Lyndhurst


Sir Albert Northrop, Bt. or, socially: Sir Albert and Lady Northrop

Sir Albert Lady Northrop

Sir Albert Lady Northrop


Canadian Officials
Official Governor General Introduction and Addressing Envelopes His Excellency Eric C. Johnson or, socially: Their Excellencies Governor General and Mrs. Johnson His Honour The Honourable Gerald L. Dowd Lieutenant Governor or, socially: Lieutenant Governor and Mrs. Dowd The Right Honourable Andrew C. Fitch, P.C., M.P. Prime Minister of Canada or, socially: The Prime Minister and Mrs. Fitch The Honourable Carolyn Cadr Premier of the Province of Quebec or, socially: The Honourable Carolyn Cadr and Mr. Jacques Cadr The Honourable Laura Flynn The Senate, Ottawa or, socially: The Honouralbe Laura Flynn and Mr. Lesley Flynn Samuel Morris, Esq., M.P. House of Commons or, socially: Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Morris His Worship Mayor Kenneth Woods City Hall or; socially: His Worship Mayor Kenneth Woods and Mrs. Woods The Right Honourable Roger C. Bolton Chief Justice of Canada or, socially: The Right Honourable Roger C. Bolton and Mrs. Bolton Letter Salutation Dear Governor General: Speaking to Governor General Place Card The Governor General of Canada

Lieutenant Governor of Canada

Dear Lieutenant Governor:

Lieutenant Governor Dowd

The Lieutenant Governor of Canada

Prime Minister of Canada

Dear Mr. Prime Minister:

Prime Minister Fitch

The Prime Minister of Canada

Premier of a province of Canada

Dear Madam Premier:

Premier Cadr

The Premier of Quebec

Member of Senate

Dear Senator Flynn:


The Honourable Laura Flynn

Member of House of Commons Mayor of a city or town

Dear Mr. Morris:

Mr. Morris

Samuel Morris, Esq., M.P. The Mayor of Toronto

Dear Mr. Mayor:

Mr. Mayor

Chief Justice

Dear Mr. Chief Justice:

Chief Justice Bolton

The Chief Justice of Canada

Note: Since people in Great Britain and the Commonwealth spell Honourable with the u, it is roper to use their own spelling.


Diplomatic Protocol with Other Nations Writing to Officials of Foreign Republics When you write to officials of a foreign republic, follow the style give in this table of the country of France. Official President of the Republic Introduction and Addressing Envelopes His Excellency Henri Vaudoyer President of the Republic of France Address or, socially: The President of France and Madame Vaudoyer His Excellency Jean de lAbeille Prime Minister of the Republic of France or, socially: The Prime Minister of the Republic of France and Madame de lAbeille Her Excellency Jeanne dArcy Minister of Foreign Affairs or, socially: The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Monsieur Pierre dArcy Letter Salutation Dear Mr. President: Speaking to Mr. President Place Card The President of the Republic of France

Prime Minister of the Republic of France

Dear Mr. Prime Minister:

Mr. Prime Minister The Prime Minister of the Republic of France

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of France

Dear Madame Minister:

Madame Minister The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of France

The United Nations

Official The Secretary General Introduction and Addressing Envelopes Her Excellency Franoise dEstain Secretary General of the United Nations Letter Salutation Dear Madame Secretary General: Speaking to Madame Secretary General (Madame dEstain, subsequently) Mr. Ambassador (Sir, subsequently) Place Card The Secretary General of the United Nations Ambassador Matsumada

A foreign UN Ambassador

His Excellency Koto Matsumada Ambassador of Japan Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations The Honorable Henry Gregory United States Representative to the United Nations

Dear Mr. Ambassador:

The United States Representative to the United Nations

Dear Mr. Ambassador:

Mr. Ambassador (Sir, subsequently)

Ambassador Gregory


MILITARY RANK The Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps have the following commissioned officers according to rank: General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant The Navy and Coast Guard have the following: Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant, junior grade Ensign
How to Address a Military Man or Woman
Examples of Military Rank First lieutenant Introduction and Addressing Envelopes First Lieutenant Richard Dix, USMC or, socially: First Lieutenant and Mrs. Richard Dix Captain Joseph Piteo, USN or, socially: Captain and Mrs. Joseph Piteo Lieutenant Colonel Frank Haig, USMC or, socially: Lieutenant Colonel and Mrs. Frank Haig Chief Warrant Officer Jane Turner or, socially: Chief Warrant Officer Jane Turner and Mr. Anthony Turner Master Sergeant Tony Tatum or, socially: Master Sergeant and Mrs. Tony Tatum Letter Salutation Dear Lieutenant Dix: Speaking to Lieutenant Dix, or Lieutenant Place Card Lieutenant Dix

Captain in the Navy

Dear Captain Piteo: Dear Colonel Haig:

Captain Piteo, or Captain Colonel Haig, or Colonel

Captain Piteo

Lieutenant colonel

Colonel Haig

Chief warrant officer

Dear Chief Warrant Officer Turner: or, informally: Dear Ms. Turner: Dear Sergeant Tatum:

Chief Warrant Officer Turner or, informally: Ms. Turner Sergeant Tatum

Ms. Turner

Noncommissioned officers in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps

Mr. Tatum

Follow same form for any rating, including Sergeant Major, Sergeant First Class, Platoon Sergeant, Corporal, Specialist [classes 4 to 9], Private First Class, etc.) Enlisted person in Navy SN Robert Peltz Address of his command or, socially: Seaman and Mrs. Robert Peltz Major Robert Orr, USAF Retired Address or, socially: Major and Mrs. Robert Orr Dear Seaman Peltz: Seaman Peltz Seaman Peltz

Retired officer in Army or Air Force

Dear Major Orr:

Major Orr

Major Orr


How to Address a Military Man or Woman

Examples of Military Rank
Retired officer in Navy or Coast Guard

Introduction and Addressing Envelopes

Rear Admiral Spencer Davis, USN Retired Address or, socially: Rear Admiral and Mrs. Spencer Davis Cadet Mark Boland, U.S. Army Company---,Corps of Cadets United States Military Academy West Point, NY 19 0996 Midshipman Joan Doan U.S. Naval Academy or Cadet Stephen Cole United States Coast Guard Academy

Letter Salutation
Dear Admiral Davis:

Speaking to
Admiral Davis

Place Card
Admiral Davis

Cadet at West Point (same for Air Force Academy, with address change) Midshipman at U.S. Naval Academy; Cadet at U.S. Coast Guard Academy

Dear Mr. Boland: or, Dear Cadet Boland:

Mr. Boland

Mr. Boland

Dear Ms. or Miss Doan: Ms. or Miss Doan Dear Mr. Cole: Mr. Cole

Ms. Doan

Mr. Cole

Protestant Clergy Official Clergyman with Doctors degree Introduction and Addressing Envelopes The Reverend Dr. Amos E. Long or, socially: The Reverend Dr. Amos E. Long and Mrs. Long The Reverend Anne Smith or, socially: The Reverend Anne Smith and Mr. Peter Smith The Right Reverend James Gard, Presiding Bishop or, socially: The Right Reverend James Gard and Mrs. Gard The Right Reverend David Webb Bishop of Washington or, socially: The Right Reverend David Webb and Mrs. Webb The Reverend Michael Forest Methodist Bishop or, socially: The Reverend Michael Forest and Mrs. Forest The Very Reverend Angus Dunn or, The Very Reverend Angus Dunn, Dean of St. Johns or, socially: The Very Reverend Angus Dunn and Mrs. Dunn The Venerable Stewart G. Dodd Archdeacon of Boston or, socially: The Venerable Stewart G. Dodd and Mrs. Dodd The Reverend Randolph Tate Canon of St. Andres or, socially: The Reverend Randolph Tate and Mrs. Tate Letter Salutation Dear Dr. Long: Speaking to Dr. Long Place Card Dr. Long

Clergywoman without Doctors degree Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States Bishop of the Episcopal Church

Dear Ms. or Miss Smith: Ms. or Miss Smith

Ms. or Miss Smith

Dear Bishop Gard:

Bishop Gard

Bishop Gard

Dear Bishop Webb:

Bishop Webb

Bishop Webb

Methodist Bishop

Dear Bishop Forest:

Bishop Forest

Bishop Forest


Dear Dean Dunn:

Dean Dunn

Dean Dunn


Dear Archdeacon Dodd:

Archdeacon Dodd

Archdeacon Dodd


Dear Canon Tate:

Canon Tate

Canon Tate


Mormon Clergy
Official Introduction and Addressing Envelopes Letter Salutation Speaking to Place Card

Mormon Bishop

Mr. Timothy Blake Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or, socially: Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Blake

Dear Mr. Blake:

Mr. Blake

Mr. Blake

Roman Catholic Hierarchy Official The Pope Introduction and Addressing Envelopes His Holiness, the Pope or His Holiness, Pope Augustus III His Excellency The Most Reverend Bishop of Washington, D.C. The Apostolic Delegate Address His Eminence, Joseph Cardinal Sheehan Archbishop of St. Louis The Most Reverend Paul Murphy, Bishop [Archbishop] of Chicago The Right Reverend Julius Cuneo The Reverend Father James Orr Church rectory address Brother David Maxwell Letter Salutation Your Holiness: Speaking to Your Holiness Place Card -------

The Apostolic Delegate in Washington (the Popes representative) Cardinal

Your Excellency:

Your Excellency/ His Excellency the Apostolic Delegate Your Eminence/ Cardinal Sheehan Excellency/ Bishop Murphy

Your Excellency/ His Excellency the Apostolic Delegate Your Eminence/ Cardinal Sheehan Excellency/ Bishop Murphy

Your Eminence: or, Dear Cardinal Sheehan: Your Excellency: or, Dear Bishop Murphy: Dear Monsignor Cuneo: Dear Father Orr:

Bishop and Archbishop

Monsignor Priest

Monsignor Cuneo Father Orr

Monsignor Cuneo Father Orr


Dear Brother David: or Dear Brother Maxwell: Dear Sister:

Brother David or Brother Maxwell

Brother David or Brother Maxwell


Joan Reynolds, R.S.C.J. or, Sister Mary Annunciata

Sister Reynolds or Sister Mary Annunciata

Sister Reynolds or Sister Mary Annunciata

Eastern Orthodox Communion Official Patriarch Bishop and priest Archimandrite Introduction and Addressing Envelopes His Holiness, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Same as Roman Catholic Church The Very Reverend Gregory Costos Reverend Sir: Father Costos Father Costos Letter Salutation Your Holiness: Speaking to Your Holiness Place Card Your Holiness


Jewish Faith
Official Rabbi Introduction and Addressing Envelopes Rabbi Melvin Schwartz Address or, socially: Rabbi and Mrs. Melvin Schwartz Cantor Samuel Stein Address or, socially: Cantor and Mrs. Samuel Stein Letter Salutation Dear Rabbi Schwartz: Speaking to Rabbi or Rabbi Schwartz Place Card Rabbi Schwartz


Dear Cantor Stein:

Cantor Stein

Cantor Stein

Military Chaplains Introduction and Addressing Envelopes Major John Martin, Chaplain Address Letter Salutation Dear Major Martin: or, Dear Chaplain: or, for a Catholic, chaplain: Dear Father Martin: or for a Jewish chaplain, Dear Rabbi Martin Speaking to Chaplain or Major Martin Place Card Major Martin

or, for Catholic, Father Martin or, for Jewish, Rabbi Martin


CHAPTER 8 HOSTING SOCIAL EVENTS The most common social events in diplomatic life are cocktail parties, formal dinners, vin d honneur, luncheon, and teas. (1) RECEPTION LINE 1.1. At formal receptions, there is usually a receiving line to give each guest the opportunity to greet the Host, Hostess and Guests of Honor. When entertaining in honor of distinguished guests, the following receiving line are recommended: a) Host, Guest of Honor, Hosts Wife, Wife of the Guest of Honor b) Host, Guest of Honor, Wife of the Guest of Honor, Hostess 1.2. It is also customary to announce the arrival of guests. This is usually done either by the Protocol Officer, Military Attach or a Junior Official. It is also useful to have one or more Junior Officers standing near the end of the line. At National Day receptions, the receiving line may include the Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) and his wife after the Chief of Mission (CM) and his wife. The receiving line at the reception or cocktail party should be kept as short as possible. A long receiving line tends to slow down a reception and serves no useful purpose. At the end of the function, when the guests depart, the order of the reception line is reversed.




(2) TOAST 2.1. Toasting is a graceful means of expressing good feelings and sentiment to an Honoree county. Thus, it is acceptable in almost all social functions such as Vin d honneur, National Day receptions, official dinners and luncheons, cocktail receptions, The toast is usually done either before or after dessert. A toast is usually preceded by a remark by the Host, after which the Host invites other guests to join him in a toast. The Honoree then responds with his own remarks and invites the guests for another toast. In diplomatic functions, toasts are usually made for a country, the Head of State or Government, and, as with other functions, the Host and Honoree. A toast can also refer to the healthy cooperation and good relations between countries and governments. It is customary toast with wines, but other beverages are also acceptable, especially in countries where wines or other alcoholic drinks are prohibited. Sample of a very simple toast: My friends A toast to the Republic of the Philippines To (name of person being toasted) For his health, happiness and good fortune To everyone here present and To people of goodwill everywhere






Mabuhay (the audience takes their sips first before the person offering a toast) (3) FOOD, DRINKS, and DINING 3.1. Cocktails, Wines, and Liquor 3.1.1. Different glasses are used for different drinks during parties and dinners. For cocktails like martinis, stingers, Manhattan, sidecars, and the like, cocktail glasses are used. These are stemmed glasses designed to keep the heat of the hand from the chilled content. Glasses for wines are also stemmed for the same purpose. For liquors which can be served on-the-rocks, i.e. with ice, such as scotch or vodka, tumblers or old-fashioned glasses are used. For tall drinks such as gin and tonic, scotch with soda, bourbon with ginger ale, Singapore sling, or any other drink requiring a glass with more volume, highball glasses are used. The following illustrates the different glasses and the drinks which they are used for:

3.1.2. Most common cocktails include: Martini, Sidecar, Whisky sour, Alexander, Daiquiri, Manhattan, Gin and Tonic, Singapore sling, Tom Collins, Sangria, Margarita. There are also a wide variety of wines, but there are basically three categories: Red, White, and Rose wines. 3.1.3. If you are hosting a cocktail party in your residence, it is advisable to have the following beverages called merry mixers: Whisky, Rum, Gin, Vodka, White wine, Red Wine, Tequila, Bourbon, Vermouth, Soda, Tonic water, Limejuice, Beer, Soft drinks, and fruits juice. You should also have some orange slice, cherries, onion pearls, assorted nuts, cocktail napkins, and toothpicks.


(4) FORMAL DINNER 4.1. Dinner requirements 4.1.1. China show plates: dinner plates, salad plates, soup plates, and bread plates (finer than those used for daily meals). Show plates are usually silver or brass, capiz or wood to be placed directly under the dinner plates. 4.1.2. Silvers or cutlery: fork, knives, spoons, usually of silver, although high quality stainless may be used. 4.1.3. Glasses 4.1.4. Linen: Tablecloth, napkins, placemats, table runners, doily. 4.1.5. Optional accessories: candelabra, salt and peppershakers, place card holders, ashtrays, hostess bell. 4.1.6. Table centerpiece (usually flower or fruits). 4.1.7. Seating diagram, place cards, and finger bowls. 4.2. Seating Arrangements 4.2.1 H 1 3 5 8 3 2 GH H Host LH Lady Host GH Guest of Honor LGH Lady Guest of Honor Entertainment SEATING ARRANGEMENTS 4.2.2. FOR RECTANGULAR TABLE 5 1 H 3 7 5 1 H 3 7 9 4 4 6 5 GH LGH 7 6 LH 2 1 FOR ROUND TABLE H






H Host LH Lady Host GH Guest of Honor LGH Lady Guest of Honor



Rectangular Table of Eight


GH 2


GH: gentleman of honor LH: lady of honor 4.2.4 Round Table of Eight Host




4.2.5. When dining out



2 1 GH

Tables of Ten Host





When only one sex is represented: 8





Host GH: gentleman of honor LH: lady of honor Seating at a UShape Table 2 1 Host Hostess 1 2 GH: guest of honor

3 5 7

4 6 8

4 6 8

3 5 7

Seating at the Head Table




Head Table:
GH : gentleman of honor LH : lady of honor MC : master of ceremonies


MultiTable Arrangements Asst. Host Host Asst. Host Asst. Host

4.4. Table Settings 4.4.1. Formal Table Setting


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Butter/Bread Knife Pepper Salt Dessert spoon Water Wine Champagne

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Fish fork Meat fork Napkin Dinner plate Meat knife Fish knife Soup spoon

15. Cocktail

4.4.2. Everyday Dinner Setting

4.4.3. Traditional Formal Service


4.4.4. Classic Formal Service

4.4.5 Royal Service

4.4.6. Table Setting: Some Basic Guidelines Forks are placed tines up on the left side of the dinner plate. The oyster fork, if needed, is also placed on the left. Spoons with their bowls facing up are placed on the right side of the dinner plate. The soup spoon (with a large rounded head and loops heavy) is the only spoon on the table. Knives are also placed on the right side of the dinner plate with the blades facing the plate. The silvers or utensils for all courses are arranged so that the diner picks up the farthest utensils on each side as different courses are served. The first large glass to the right of the plate is the water goblet.


The wine glasses are also set to the right above the dinner plate. Use matching glasses for each wine. The dessert spoon is placed above the dinner plate. The salt and peppershaker are to the left of the dinner plate. The bread plate with the butter knife on it is placed to the left of the dinner plate. After dinner, place the unfolded table napkin on the dinner plate. While it is not necessary to fold the used table napkin, place it on top of the dinner plate neatly. If you do not want your guests to smoke, do not put ashtrays on the dinner table. Prepare a seating diagram and display it at the entrance to the dining room for guests to know their place at the dinner table. Place cards are placed just above the dinner plates. If chocolates and mints will be served, put them in open bowls between the candles and the centerpiece. A finger bowl with doily underneath is used at the meals end by each guest. Put in cold water and a curl of lemon peel or flower dcor in the bowl. Coffee may be served at the table in demitasse cups, the teaspoon lay on each saucer, and the cups handle is directed towards the guest. Candles may be white or colored, but white or ivory candles are preferable. Very elaborate candles with color or metallic ornamentation are in poor taste and will detract the effect of the centerpiece. Candle flames should be above eye level or well below. Candle is seldom used in daytime. Do not overcrowd the table with ornaments, this will make serving difficult and the table itself will look cluttered, making it less attractive to the guests. Ensure proper lighting, if there is too little light, the food loses its attractiveness since people like to see what they are eating. 4.5. Menu 4.5.1. Standard Menu Hors d oeuvres Soup Salad Fish course Meat course Fruits Dessert Coffee/Tea


Optional items: Wines Sherbet Liqueur Brandy Chocolates

4.5.2. Sample menu for a formal dinner Hors d oeuvres shrimp cocktail Soup beef consomm Fish course tenderloin steaks with tossed green salad Dessert cake Coffee or Tea Brandy/liqueur

4.5.3. Sequence of food service Hors d oeuvres Bread / butter Soup Salad White wine Fish Sherbet Red wine Meat Fruits Dessert Tea / coffee Liqueur Brandy Chocolates

4.6. Dinner Service: Some Guidelines In a formal dinner, the service calls for a procedure of exchanging one plate for another so the place in front of the guest is always clean until dessert. Food is served from the left side of the guest and the plate is removed from the right. The waiter or server removes the plate with the right hand. All service starts with the Lady Guest of Honor followed by all other lady guests with the Hostess the last to be served among the ladies. Then the male Guest of Honor is served and then the other gentlemen and finally the Host. In a larger table, it is preferable to simultaneously serve the guests so that food will be eaten while still hot. Dry crackers or dry toast and butter are usually served with the soup. They are placed on the bread and butter plate. White wine should be properly chilled and is served first. It is then poured into the wine glass prior to the next course. All wines are served from the right of the diner. Salad is served after the soup or it may also before the meat course.


The following should not be brought to the guests: thermos bottle of hot water, bottle of instant coffee, or can of milk. Instead, have a special container for instant coffee and a similar one for tea. Use silver or porcelain coffee pot for hot water, a cream and sugar set and a small container for lemon or calamansi. Calamansi should be wrapped individually in cheesecloth. Water glasses are filled at intervals throughout the meal. Wines are poured before the courses and refilled when necessary. A tray of chocolate or mints are passed around after dinner amenities are taking place. These are called petit fours. (5) Dinner Etiquette 5.1. Napkin As soon as you sit down at the table, spread your napkin across your leg. A regular sized napkin (16 inches square) must be completely unfolded; a large dinner napkin (23 x 23 inches) should be only unfolded half. The napkin should stay on the lap until you rise to leave the table. If you must leave the table during the meal, put the napkin on the seat of the chair (not on the table). When dinner is over, fold the napkin neatly and leave it on the table to the left of the plate. If using napkin rings, fold the napkins carefully and slip them into their rings before leaving the table. Dont use the napkin as a bib. A woman should not blot her lipstick on the napkin. 5.2. Saying grace

If grace is to be said before the meal, follow your hosts lead. If the host remains standing for the blessing of the food, you should do too. Dont drink or eat anything before grace is said. Remain silent with your head bowed until the end of the prayer. You may say Amen, then put your napkin in your lap. 5.3. When to start eating.

The last person to be served is the host/hostess. Everyone at the table should wait until the last person is served before starting to eat. An exception to this is when the host urges the guests to begin eating at once as soon as the food is served. If there is no hostess, then the woman guest of honor on the hosts right should be the first one to begin eating. Everyone else will follow her. 5.4. Serving oneself from the platter

All food bowls and platters are passed from the left. To serve yourself from a platter, take the serving fork in your left hand and spoon in your right and scoop up the food in order to transfer them to your plate. Leave the serving utensils lying neatly side by side in a manner that makes it easy for the next person to serve himself.


Take modest portions. This is true even in a buffet, if the food is plentiful, you can always go back for more. 5.5. Special food preference

If you have any reason (medical, religious, etc.) that would not allow you to eat food normally served in parties, dinners or other formal meals, talk it over your host prior to the event. If you are not able to talk to the host prior to the event, just politely decline the food that is being served and discreetly explain to the host why you could not partake of the food. Being discreet on this matter will avoid embarrassment on the part of the host. Also avoid discussing the matter during the meal, as this might make the other guests uncomfortable. Be gracious not to draw attention to yourself so that the others can enjoy the meal. Do not force the host to prepare special food for you if the event is already going on, but if he insists and does prepare one, be sure to thank your host. Help yourself with the other food that you could eat, this would be very reassuring to the host. 5.6. Spilling

If you spill anything that could be blot out with napkin, do so. For a minor stain, such as drops of gravy or sauce, dab it and clean it as well as possible with three or four pats of the napkin. Return the napkin to the lap folded in such a way not to transfer the stain from the napkin to your clothes. In a restaurant, the host should call the waiter to clean up the spill. If you accidentally break a glass, or any dinnerware, or your spillage ruined a tablecloth or any linen, sincerely apologize to your host. If the dinnerware or linen is the personal property of the host, you can offer to replace the damaged wares or linens. Apologize to the other guests for having spilled something. Do not, however, prolong the apologies. The sooner the party gets back to normal, with the accident forgotten, the better for everyone. 5.7. Positions of Implements

When you pause from eating, put the fork, tines down, on the left side of the plate and the knife, with blade facing inward, on the right. When dinner is completely finished, put the knife, with blade facing inward, and fork next to each other on the right side of the plate (as in American style). In the case of coffee or tea, lay the spoon on the under saucer, do not leave it sticking up in the cup. Do not, however, lay the spoon in the soup plate, leave it instead, in the soup bowl. In a tall glass of iced tea with a tall spoon or stirrer, balance the stirrer on the under-saucer when not in use. If there is no under saucer, the stirrer remains upright in your glass; grasp it between your index and middle finger while you drink so that it does not fall out of the glass.



Table Manners

Always maintain good posture at table with your body straight in the chair and feet together on the floor. When not eating, rest your hands on the table (with bottom of the wrists balanced on the tables edge) or leave your hands under the table on your lap. Do not put your elbows on top of the table. Do not play with the utensils or with your food. Rather than reach across the table to grab something you like, ask the person nearest to the item to pass it on to you. Remember to say please when asking a favor and thank you once your favor has been granted. Do not pour salt and pepper over the food before you have even tasted it. If the dinner or lunch is prepared by the host, do not ask for condiments or sauces if none are provided, you may, however, do this in restaurants. Cut your meat one piece at a time. Cut one small piece, then eat it before cutting another. The only way to eat is quietly. Chew only small bites of food and swallow them with the mouth closed. Do not eat too fast. Swallow each mouthful before shoveling in the next. Never speak when your mouth is full. Wipe as often as necessary your fingers and mouth with the napkin. You may mop the sauce remaining on your plate, spear a small piece of roll of bread on your fork, squish it around in the sauce and then put it in your mouth taking care not to let it drip on you. Dont take a piece of bread in your fingers and do the mopping up because that can be messy. Using the bread on the fork is preferable. If you are served certain food that you dislike, either politely decline or, if it is already on your plate, leave it untouched, but as much as possible do try out all food that is served to you. Soups The proper way of scooping soup is to tip your soup bowl on plate away from you and spoon the soup away from you. Pick up your soup cup or bowl only after everything floating around it bits of meat, cheese, mushrooms, etc. has been consumed. Then and only then can you pick it up and take it to the last sip. Soup must not be cooled by stirring, lifting with the spoon, or blowing. If it is too hot, spoon the soup along the rim of the plate where it cools faster. Take the soup soundlessly, without a slurp. If you take soup from a cup, you will need to wipe off your mouth. Do not dunk a piece of bread or roll in the soup. If offered a spoon and a bowl of breadcrumbs, serve yourself some on top of the soup, if you desire, but only a very few. Never break the cracker into the soup, it will make it soggy. It is acceptable to tilt the soup plate backwards to get the remaining soup. This is acceptable but it is best to leave a little on your plate.


Take your soup from the side of your spoon, not from the front, as it is too large. Remove the soup plate from the right. American style of eating After cutting the meat, put the knife down on the plate, transfer the fork to your right from the left, spear a piece of meat and then eat it. Here there is a transfer of the fork after cutting, from the left hand to the right hand. Continental style of eating Keep your fork in the left hand and convey the food to the mouth after cutting a piece of meat. The knife remains in your right hand. Here the fork is held in the left hand and the knife in the right hand all through the meal. This is a much quieter, more graceful and more efficient way of eating than the American way. There is no clattering that occurs as one shifts the fork from the cutting positions in the left hand to the eating position in the right, meanwhile laying the knife down on the plate each time. The order of holding the utensils can be reversed if you are left- handed. Eating Dessert Dessert is eaten more easily continental style. It is easier to eat almost any dessert by using two implements a fork and a spoon. Eat the dessert with the spoon in your right hand and use the fork as a buttress on the left or do the opposite spoon in your left hand and fork in your right whichever is comfortable to you. Eating specific food Fish Filleted fish is easy to eat. If the fish is not filleted, however, the technique is to insert the tip of the knife under the backbone, slide the knife under the fishbone and then gently lift the fishbone with the knife. Put it on the side of the plate. If the fish is served with the head, cut it off first before you fillet the fish. Pasta The easiest way to eat noodles or pasta is with the fork in your left hand and the knife (or spoon) on the right. Twirl the strands of pasta around the fork. Pile a small amount of pasta on the fork and support by pushing the knife (or spoon) against it to keep it intact. Then bring the fork to your mouth. (If you are left handed, you can hold the fork with your right hand and the knife with your left.) Some people use a piece of bread on the right hand as a pusher to act like a spoon in keeping the noodles on the fork. Some people eat pasta without using the spoon as support. This is perfectly fine. Just twine some noodles around the fork, then, keep turning you fork around slowly until the strands are rolled compactly around it and put it in your mouth. Mix the sauce and grated cheese before eating the pasta dish. You may mop the last pasta sauce with a piece of bread speared on your fork. Never cut the strands of pasta into pieces.


Drinking wine and liquors Drinking wine is optional and politely refusing it is fine. Do not ask for a soft drink or beer unless it is offered. Hold the wine glass at its stem. Do not place the wine glass in between your fingers nor cup it with your palm. Wines taste better if they are chilled, and doing these with the wine glass will warm the wines contained in them. Do these, however, with liquors, such as brandy, as liquors taste better if they are warm. Brandies should occupy only of the glass, never fill to the brim. A brandy glass is held with the palm of the hands facing upwards and the stem is caught between the third and fourth finger. Always drink moderately. (6) After the event If you are the host, be sure to greet and thank your guests as they leave the event. If you are a guest, be sure to thank your hosts before leaving the occasion. After formal dinners, do not linger longer than is necessary unless the host insists that you stay longer. On the other hand, if you have to leave earlier than the other guests, politely apologize to the host and the other guests. A short explanation would be reassuring to the host. It is also acceptable to send a note of thanks the day after the event.


CHAPTER 9 ORGANIZING OFFICIAL FUNCTIONS (1) INVITATIONS Invitations to special occasions such as National Day receptions shall be printed with the seal of the Republic of the Philippines at the middle-top. Invitations to less formal invitations shall be made on printed forms with blank spaces left to be filled in with the name of the invitee, the time, and venue of the event. The occasion for inviting shall be indicated at the upper left side of the corner either printed or typewritten (or a slip of paper pasted). Illustration of an Invitation

In honor of ________________________________________

The Secretary of Foreign Affairs requests the pleasure of __________________________ (Invitee) to a dinner on _____________________ at 8:00 in the evening at ________________________________________________ (address) RSVP: Name of person to be notified Tel. No.__________________ Attire: Men

Business Suite / Barong Tagalog Ladies Long Gown / Cocktail or as appropriate

Formal invitations are phrased in the third person. 1.1. Wordings in an Invitation 1.1.1. To a person of higher rank Request the honor of 1.1.2. 1.2. To a person of equal or lower rank Request the pleasure of Cordially invite

RSVP Repondez sil vous plait (answer if you please). Invitations to receptions, garden parties, and teas do not require an answer unless a response is requested. When invitations are telephoned or issued verbally, cards reminding guests of their acceptance are usually sent. Appropriate word To remind you of. (function/ Date/time) An invitation from the President or Heads of State of host countries is not to be refused. It is always appropriate to prioritize these invitations even if there you have prior commitments. Invitations from ranking officials and superiors should also, as much as possible, be accepted.






There are only very few acceptable reasons for regretting an invitation, especially from ranking officials and superiors. These are recent death in the family, severe illness, or other emergencies. Appropriate wording: Regret exceedingly that an invitation of the President prevents their keeping their engagement to; Regret that owing to the recent death of or Regret owing to the severe illness of; They will be unable to accept the very kind invitation of because of Invitations must be conveyed through official channels such as the DFA, the Embassy of Invitee in Manila, the Philippine Embassy in Invitees Country. For meetings, an agenda is usually prepared and sent with the invitation. For conferences, a schedule of day-to-day activities and the topics to be discussed should be sent to the invitee. Acceptance of invitation Wordings of Acceptance to an invitation: The Government of the Republic of the Philippines is pleased to accept the invitation of ________________. ; The Minister of _____________________ has the honor to accept the kind invitation of _______________________.




1.10. Regret to invitation Wordings of Regrets to an invitation: The Government of the Philippines regrets the kind invitation of________________. ; The Minister of _________________ regrets being unable to accept the kind invitation of ______________________. 1.11. Acceptance or Regret to an invitation conveyed in same manner as the original invitation, that is, through official channels. (2) HOSTING OFFICIAL VISITS AND CONFERENCES 1.12. Kind of visit/purpose of visit 1. 2. 3. 4. Initial visit Return visit Conference State visit

1.13. Secretariat is responsible for the documentation of visit/conference, it is also responsible for the overall management of the event, from the preparation to the actual implementation. Check list for the Secretariat: 1.13.1. Delegation list Official Delegates names, titles, ranks, positions Alternate delegates Advisers Accompanying family members Accompanying support personnel Personal Data Health requirements Food restrictions Other information about Delegation



Travel Itinerary and Flight Details Chartered Flight / Carrier / Commercial Flight/Private Flight Date of departure from place of origin Date of Arrival Time of Arrival


Hotel Accommodations Advance registration Room assignment Information kits at Guests Rooms Flowers Welcome drinks Master list of Delegation members with room numbers


Local transportation Cars for Delegation, accompanying personnel Escorts Ambulance


Security requirements Police escort Security in Hotel


Conference venue Secretariat Supplies Communications and other logistics Seating arrangements Presidential tables or head table Flags Microphones and other equipment


Arrival of Guests at Airport Customs Immigration Quarantine Reception at planeside Flowers for Ladies / Garlands for Gentlemen Introduction of receiving officials Introduction of arriving guests Assignment of Protocol Assistants to each Delegate Collections of luggage and loading in Cars


From Airport to Hotel Itinerary Escorts and security


Arrival at hotel Distribution of keys Welcome drinks Welcome by Hotel Manager Flowers / Fruits in room


Information kit in Delegates Room Escorting to Rooms Demonstration on use of room facilities (if necessary) Hot / cold water, TV monitor, etc. Telephone connections (Note: Always allow guests to have a short rest in the room after arrival before proceeding to any activity such as the welcome dinner.) 1.13.10. Evening Activity
Welcome Dinner Reception Line Cocktails Welcome speech by Host Toast Response by Chief Delegate Return Toast Exchange of gifts Dinner proper Evening entertainment


First Day of Visit and Subsequent Days Courtesy call on President (optional) or on appropriate official Visit to Rizal Monument at the Luneta (optional) Start of official program of visit. A separate program for Spouses of Delegates may be prepared. Arrival at Conference Venue Flag Arrangement Seating Arrangement Principal guest Other Delegation Members Public / Gallery Conference kit containing Conference documents Conference Proper Presentation of Country Papers Simultaneous translation (if necessary) Distribution of copies of Country Paper to Delegates

1.13.12. 1.13.13.

Delegates consultation on side of meetings Preparation / drafting of Conference Communiqu Press Conference Signing of Conference Communiqu Alternate bilateral treaty Alphabetical order in French or English language of names of participating countries multilateral treaty.



Closing ceremonies Closing statement of Host Closing statement of Chief Delegate Media Coverage Exchange of Decoration (optional)



Free Day (optional) Sightseeing Shopping


Departure Advance check-in Gather luggage Motor to Airport Airport Ceremony Boarding Aircraft


Post conference activities by Host Settle hotel bills Clear Conference venue Take out equipment Prepare Conference report Send appreciation letters to those who assisted in visit/conference


CHAPTER 10 ETIQUETTE FOR EVERYDAY SITUATIONS (1) BUSINESS AND OFFICE SETTINGS 1.1. In business, assume all superiors and associates (those of equal rank) prefer to be addressed formally. The use of first names, however, is acceptable in many organizations, especially among peers. It is also perfectly normal, for employers, especially older ones, to call subordinates by first names provided this is always done professionally. Subordinates should never call their bosses by their first names, unless they have been given permission to do so. Even in such circumstances this should be done with respect. To be more respectful, especially in the Philippines, it is preferable to attach the customary Sir or Maam to the boss first name. It is very important to maintain a professional demeanor in all official and business situations. Never use foul language and avoid using slang words and terminologies. Meetings are very important in business, in the office, and especially in diplomacy. Make sure to be prepared and prompt in attending meetings. It is preferable to make an appointment if you would like to meet with or call on someone. It is always an inconvenience to everyone involved if a meeting is cancelled, especially on a very short notice, so unless it is necessary make sure that you keep your commitments in participating in meetings. Always be polite. Say Thank you, Please and Youre welcome. Be pleasant in greeting people with Good morning or Good afternoon or other appropriate greetings. Maintain amicable relations with officemates. Always be considerate of people around you. Avoid interrupting those who are working. Do not gossip. Stay away from office politics. Always dress appropriately for office work. Be professional by keeping your commitments.




1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9.

1.10. Always follow office rules and regulations. (2) TELEPHONE ETIQUETTE 2.1. Answer a telephone call promptly and politely. interrupting the caller if he is speaking. Have a paper and pencil ready for taking messages. If you have to put a caller on hold, tell him why and thank him afterwards for waiting. If the interruption will take a while, offer to call back and do call back. Be polite enough to give the caller your undivided attention during telephone conversations. End the call properly, dont abruptly end the conversation and put down the phone. Let the caller hang up first. For cellular phones or pagers, use the silent mode when you are in a meeting or in a public place or event such as a cinema, concert, lecture, program, presentation or a religious service. Speak clearly and avoid

2.2. Take the calls of your officemates if they are not present. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7.


2.8. 2.9.

It is also best to avoid entertaining calls during meetings and other functions. When you are talking with someone avoid reading messages from your hand phone. If it cannot be avoided, excuse yourself. This is also true when dealing with calls.

(3) IN A RESTAURANT 3.1. The man walks ahead of the woman as they step into the restaurant to direct her to their table. Although it is not necessary to open the door for a woman, this gesture is still commonly acceptable and many consider this as polite. Upon entering the restaurant, the man walks ahead of the woman to direct her to their table. If there is a waiter at the entrance to attend to them, the man should step back and allow the woman to enter before him. On arriving at the table, the waiter or the man pulls out the chair for the woman. When a group enters a restaurant and when one of them sees people he/she knows but whom the rest may not be familiar with, the person should merely nod or briefly greet his/her acquaintances while proceeding with the group to their table. Should it be necessary to make introductions, the man at the table must stand when presented to women. Women may remain seated when being introduced to other people. A womans seat in a restaurant is determined by the view the location provides. She should be given the seat that allows her to see and appreciate the view outside. Otherwise, she should have the seat from where she may look out into the main dining room of the restaurant. She should not be seated where passing people or a swinging door may hit her or where she has to face a wall. When two couples eat out together, the women take the wall seats, while the men occupy the aisle seats. The man should be seated facing the woman. Where a younger pair is out with an older pair, the older couple sits on the wall seats. When a woman is in the company of two men, she should be seated between them. The proper way to call a waiter to your table is to catch his eye and make a signal such as raising your hand for him or her to come over. Do not attract unnecessary attention to yourself by clapping your hands, whistling or calling out pssst to your waiter. These are rude habits. The host begins to settle the account with the restaurant. Call the waiter and ask him/her for the bill. A simple statement check please will do. If the waiter is at a distance, you can make a small card gesture designating the bill.


3.3. 3.4.


3.6. 3.7.



3.10. Upon receiving the bill, the host could look over it and should everything be in order, the host returns the bill with the payment. If there is a mistake, raise it over quietly to the waiters attention. 3.11. Tipping is optional as most restaurants include a service charge in your check. In many countries the usual tip is around 10% of the total charge. You may also tip through your credit card. Fill in the space for tip with the amount you want to leave for your waiter.


(4) ON THE ESCALATOR 4.1. Always occupy the right side of the moving stairway if you are not in the rush. Leave the left side free for those who are in a hurry to stride through it. If you are with a group, each of you should occupy only one step in the escalator and stand behind one another.


(5) ON THE ELEVATOR 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. Avoid talking out loud and attracting attention. Give way to passengers who are stepping out. Never smoke inside the elevator. When you find yourself standing nearest the control panel of the elevator and other passengers could not easily reach it, be gracious enough to ask what floor they are headed and press the button for them.

(6) AT THE CONCERT, PLAYS AND BALLETS 6.1. If you are the host or invited some guests to such events, make sure that their tickets and other arrangements are in order. It is best to accompany them until they are seated or, when ushers are available, endorse them to an usher. The host always lets his guests walk ahead of him. When a man accompanies a woman to a theater, the man should take the aisle seat. If two couples are attending such events, together, one man should enter their row of seats first, then the women follow and the other man would be the last to take his seat. On opening nights, gala performances, and other occasions requiring formal attire, women must be in a long gown or Filipino terno and the men should be in suits or barongs. It is best to check in the invitation or tickets if there is prescribed attire.




Baldrige, Letitia. New Manners for New Times: A Complete Guide to Etiquette. Scribner, New York, 2003 Bernardo, Conchitina S. The Compleat Filipino. Anvil Publishing Inc., Quezon City, 1997 Lott, James E. Practical Protocol. A Guide to International Courtesies. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, 1973 Mitchell, Mary. The Complete Idiots Guide to Etiquette; 3rd edition. Alpha (Penguin Group, USA) Inc. 2004 Powers, John Robert. Social Skills: A Modern Guide to Global Living. John Robert Powers International, Makati City, 2006 Radlovic, Monte. Etiquette and Protocol, 1957 Santos, Jerril. Procedures for Incoming and Outgoing Ambassadors and Presentation of Credentials. Office of Protocol and State Visits, Department Foreign Affairs. Pasay City, 5 May 2006

Ang Watawat ng Pilipinas. Philippine Centennial Commission, 1997 Executive Order No. 236: Establishing the Honors Code of the Philippines to Create an Order of Precedence of Honors Conferred and other Purposes. 19 September 2003 Kalayaan (Supplement of the 104th Anniversary of Philippine Independence. 12 June 2002) Regulations of the Department of Foreign Affairs. Pasay City, 28 April 1995. Republic Act No. 8491. An Act Prescribing the Code of the National Flag, Anthem, Motto, Coat of Arms and other Heraldic Items and Devices of the Philippines. 12 February 1998 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, 1961



This Handbook on Protocol, Social Graces and Etiquette was prepared under the direction of former FSI Director Jocelyn Batoon-Garcia. The draft of this Handbook was prepared by Ambassador (Retired) Fortunato D. Oblena, incorporating the comments and contributions from Chiefs of Mission, Ministers and Foreign Service Officers of the Department. Ambassador Oblena put together the materials from local and foreign sources, his experience of thirty-five years in the foreign service, and his association with and membership in the diplomatic corps in the countries where he served as a Philippine envoy. The personnel of the Department and the foreign service are invited to contribute their expertise and experience to enrich further this handbook to reflect the real and changing nature of its character and contents.


Foreign Service Institute

Minerva Jean A. Falcon

Staff Nomer B. Ado II Ritchelle J. Alburo John Marie T. Baguios Rhodora M. Joaquin Eivette P. Lagman Andres Astro Y. Marasigan Carmelita S. Marasigan Amaliarita H. Retumban Hope B. Tornilla Jemimah Joanne C. Villaruel Fortunato D. Oblena