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H I S T O R I C A L BACKGROUND

Amis, as a martial art, was spawned in Philippine soil. It was known in ancient Philippines as Kali, an ancient Malayan word which implies a large bladed weapon longer than a knife. This art was practiced primarily to self-defense by the pre-Spanish Filipinos who were noted for their friendly nature and legendary hospitality. Kali must have been derived from tjakalele which is a native fencing in Indonesia. The linguistic kinship is not without basis considering that what is now Indonesia was once, in ancient times, a part of the Sri Vishayan and Madjapahit empires whose sphere of influence reached the Philippines. Scanty records show that it is possible that the ten Bomean datus who landed in the island of Panay in the 13 century were subjects of either of these two ancient empires. History is quite definite, however, that during the reign of the ten datus of Panay, kali was taught to children in a school called bothoan as part of their education. The art of hand-to-hand combat has always been an integral part of the Filipino in his long, turbulent and bloody history. By force of necessity and self-preservation he became an expert in fighting with his hands, either bare or with stick and a bladed weapon. Even before the introduction of the bladed weapon, the early Filipinos were a fighting people using the bow and arrow or the longbow. The primitive Negritos, coming from Central Asia during prehistoric times, were expert in these weapons. However, about 200 B.C., the Malaya migrated to the Philippines and brought with them the long knife. Their coming enriched the Filipino arsenal in the fighting arts. Besides thensticks and bows and arrows, the early Filipinos were now also experts in the use of bladed weapons and daggers. This is especially true with the Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu who have a special inclination of these weapons. Their skill in hand-to-hand combat with a bladed weapon had been proven in their untarnished history of successes in repelling foreign invaders in their land. The numerous attempts of the Spaniards, the Americans and the Japanese to conquer the Muslim and to colonize Mindanao always failed. As testimony of the Muslims' love for the bladed weapon is their variety of the styles and types of knives which include the kris, bolo, kalis, laring, barong, gunong, kampila, gayang, pira, punal, itak, banjal, bangkcon, lahot and the panabas. Even today, one can find the most artistic, knives in Mindanao and Sulu in different sizes ands styles. Thefreedom-lovingMuslims of Mindanao and Sulu are credited with the experimentation, systematization, and martial use of the bladed weapon. Inter-regional contact and influence brought about by trade and travel linked the Muslim fighting art with the bladed weapon in the South with the kalis, the forerunner of Amis of the Tagalogs, in the north. Kalis, a term which was shortened to Kali for convenience, is also a fighting art which uses a long-bladed weapon or knife/stick or cane and dagger. Amis de mono is the best known and the most systematic fighting art in the Philippines. It is perfected art after a long historical development from the Kali systems designed to train the students to defend himself against armed or unarmed attacks. Amis, as it is commonly called, has been also known in the other dialects as estocada among the Tagalog provinces and estoque or fraile in other regions. As a fighting art, Amis has three forms of play. They are the espada y daga (sword and dagger) in which a long wooden sword and a short wooden dagger is used; the solo baston
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(single stick) in which a single long muton or baston (wooden stick or rattan cane hardened by drying or heating) is used; and the sinawali, a native term applied because the intricate movements of the two muton resemble the weave of a sawali (crisscross fashion), the bamboo split weave pattern used in walling or matting. Amis is a close-combat affair, thus skill in parrying and striking must be developed with utmost dexterity. The expert use of the leg and the leg-hip fulcrum maneuver to outbalance and throw an opponent must be perfect. Unlike other martial arts which make use of complex body maneuvers. Amis as it was then and as it is now in its modem form, puts emphasis on the use of the stick and the hand-arm movements. Like in the early times, Amis today has three traditional training methods. They are (1) the muestrasion or pandlag which teaches the artistic execution of the swinging movements and stroking for offense and defense in repetitive drills, (2)the sangga or patama or sombra tabak wherein striking, thrusting and parrying in a prearranged manner is taught, and (3) the larga muton or labanang totohanan, in which two trainees engage in a free practice trying to outmaneuver each other using all their skills. This is the ultimate phase ofAmis training. This was Amis, the pre-Hispanic martial art which was the brawny and bloody power of the early Filipinos in the protection and preservation of their dignity and honor. The glorious lives of the Filipino heroes linked with the awesome power of the martial art of Amis. They triumphantly waged their heroic battles forfreedomand liberty as a testimony of the power and effectiveness of Amis. Their successful stand against their superiorly armed adversaries in mortal combat in the arena of battle is now held in immortal inviolability by history. It would not be far-fetched to surmise that one of the earliest Filipino heroes, Lapu-lapu, was a kali (Amis) expert. Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler and historian, recorded that on April 27, 1521, Lapu-lapu felled the great Spanish warrior with a bladed weapon thus making a Filipino's first victorious stand against a foreign invader. Pigafetta also recorded that many of the natives carried a pointed short hard wood stick which had been further hardened by the fire treatment and used in fighting. This stick may have been the forerunner of the present muton or baston in amis. In 1564, another conquistador, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, landed in Abuyog, Leyte where they were hospitably met by the chief of the island Malitik, and his son Kamutunan. Legaspi and his men were treated to feast and shown a sample of early Filipinos' skill in combat with kali as the best part of the show. Legaspi was given the same hospitality and display of Filipino dexterity in arms when they visited Limasawa, (Limasagua) and Camiging (Camiguing), the latter visit occurring in March 11, 1564. During both visits, the Spaniards were wined, dined, and shown the Filipinos' skill in kali (amis): When Legaspi and his men landed in Cebu in April 27, 1564, they were met by the native chief Tupas and his warriors. Again, they were treated hospitably and shown the Filipinos' skill in arms. Legaspi was so impressed with the Filipinos' skill in combat, especially in kali, he decided to befriend them fully. The bond between the two leaders grew so strong that on June 4,1564, chief Tupas entered the folds of Christianity. Hew was named "Felipe" in honor of King Philip of Spain. Kali (amis) became so popular during the early days that it was known as the sport of kings and of the members of the royal blood. The first and foremost experts of the arts were the rajah and maharlika of the Visayas and Tagalog regions, Amandakwa in Pangasinan, and Baruwang of the Cagayan valley region.
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3 The art was riot confined to the elite alone. Ordinary Filipinos practices kali not only for self defense but also for entertainment. It was the most awaited entertainment feature in fiestas and other gatherings. Sometimes, combatants used their skill in kali to settle their differences. Kali was a standard fighting technique in hand-to-hand combat of the Filipinos when they revolted against Spam. Using the itak or bolo the Katipuneros engaged the Spanish soldiers in savage skirmishes. History states that Bonifacio brandished a bolo, a standard weapon in kali in his famous "Cry of Balintawak". The greatest Filipino hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, studied kali or Amis before he left for Europe. Generals Gregorio del Pilar and Antonio Luna also studied Amis even before the start of the Revolutions. Rev. Fr. Gregorio Aglipay, was known to have practiced the art too. Acceptance of Amis became so widespread that in 1896 Jose de Azas starteda school for the study of Amis and foil fencing. Decline of kali and the emergence of the word Arnis Kali declined in popularity as early as 1596 when the Spanish authorities discouraged, and eventually banned the practice of the art in 1764. They said that Filipinos were so engrossed in the art that they left their land uniilled. The Spaniards also started that the practice of the art also led to death in injury to combatants especially when tempers got out of hand. Sources intimated that the Spaniards may have other reasons for discouraging the practice of kali. The Spaniards must have considered the art lethal or dangerous since they decreed that natives found practicing kali (Amis) would be considered Tulisanes or outlaws. In 1637, the friars introduced the moro-moro, a soico religious play dramatizing the triumph of the Christian Spaniards over the Muslim moors of Granada, Spain. The play called for the use of fighting techniques using a sword or similar bladed weapon. With the introduction of the moro-moro, the Filipinos again had a chance to practice their art, thus interest in kali (Amis) was revived. In said play, Spanish soldiers fighting for Christianity were supposed to wear amis, a Spanish word for the English harness, the colorful trappings worn by medieval soldiers. From the word amis, came the present Arnis. It may be recalled that the word Amis, was used in its true connotation by Francisco Balagtas in his Tagalong epic, Florante at Laura, when he wrote: "... larong buno 7 arnis (italics mine) na kinakitaan ng kaniyakaniyang liksi't karunungan". Amis, therefore, is the Tagalog orthographic translation of the Spanish arnis. However, some regions in the Philippines still retain the word kali in their vocabulary for this art. Thus, we have pagkaliliradman to the Visayans (escrima or garrote to the Cebuanos) and baston to the people of Panay and Negroes Occidental, and sinawali to the Pampangefios. Arnis today experienced changes in the weapons used. Although the art still, makes use of the itak or bolo now and then, it has relied considerably on the use of the cane as a selfdefense weapon. This is not because the cane is less deadly those bladed weapons but mainly because in the later years, Arnis is engaged in more as a sport. However, even in sporty competition in Arnis, a long bladed weapon is sometimes used. This as might well be, because concentration of the use of a cane in the game of Amis is relevant to the aims and programs of the New Society which abhor the use of guns and bladed weapons to keep peace and order in the country. This concentration will even benefit police agencies because the present world-wide trend policies tend to discourage the use of guns and side arms. The truncheon, a hard piece of wood much bigger in diameter but shorter than the cane, has replaced all these. Much of the antiquated techniques of the old Amis have been modernized to avoid injury to students. But more important, discipline and other moral values are impressed upon the students to strengthen not only the body but the spirit as well.

4 How modern Arnis was propagated. Before it was introduced in Manila, modem Arnis has its humble beginning in Bacolod City in the Visayas when the author first learned the techniques of the art. Being a master of many martial arts, the author was able to compare the intrinsic qualities of Arnis with other martial arts. And this comparison led him to improvise the antiquated techniques of Amis only for reasons of pacing with the times but also for utmost affectivity. These improved techniques were then taught for the first time to the students in that City. It was in Manila, however, where these modem techniques underwent thorough improvements and gained wider acceptance when the National College of Physical Education, through the encouragement and patronage of Co. Arsenio de Borja, director and secretarytreasurer of the Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation (PAAF), offered modem amis as a regular subject in Physical education to the students who major in the course. This was in 1969. The students in the NCPE were mostly teachers from different schools in the country who took PE as a degree or a special course. This enabled arnis to gain wider area of propagation as these teachers in turn taught Amis to their students. Besides these teachers, students who enrolled in Modem Amis in the school of the author, also help propagate the art. After completing the course, these students establish thenown schools in their respective provinces. The author was unsparing in his instructions to his students. The techniques he taught were complete and the training was rigid. He made it a point to teach them the advance course. That's why by the time these students taught Arnis, they were qualified teachers of the art having with them a full knowledge of the advanced arnis. The outcome is revealing. Modem Amis is now an institution in the world of martial arts. It has caught fire in the hearts of Filipino martial arts lovers. And the timing is perfect for we are now in the midst of national awakening to our true Filipino identity. The government is now exerting much effort to acquaint the Filipino people of their culture thus cementing nationalism in their hearts. Amis is one of our national cultural gems. The efforts of the author has become an instrument of this awakening to its worth. The chain of propagation that sprang from his unselfish and dedicated tutelage of the art has produced a nationwide fever that is now a pride of every Filipino for Amis is a true Filipino martial art. Someday, modem Arnis will become the martial art of the world.

BASIC CONCEPTS IN ARNIS


ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES: The true power of amis does not end with its techniques. Although, basically, the techniques are powerful enough, there still much power untapped if these techniques are not executed along the essential principles underlying its execution. Consequently, the usefulness of Amis itself will be in vain i f these principles are not observed. It is essential therefore that the learner should know these principles by heart and commit the techniques to memory.

These principles are classified into two: the physical and the psychological. THE PHYSICAL PRINCIPLE. The learner must always bear in mind speed- speed in delivering the strokes, speed with the hand, speed with the feet, and eVen with the eyes in spotting the weak points of the opponent. This speed develops in the player's agility which is one of the fine qualities of a good amis player. The learner must train himself to stare for long periods without winking- a wink in actual combat might prove fatal. The learner should also learn to swing the club. In swinging, the grip must be firm and the stroke must be delivered with jerk. He must also learn to relax his wrist after each stroke. A player should not allow distance to separate him from his opponent as distance makes him vulnerable. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLE. The learner must not be unruffled but composed and calm so as to able to concentrate on his opponent and have a full command of the situation. The learner must also constantly be aware of the ability of his opponent, knowing that his inability to assess every movement will be fatal to himself. But above all, the learner must have the will to fight and win. Without this attitude, a player's effort would be inefficacious. The presence of the opening will have no meaning at all i f the player does not have the will to seize the opportunity and exploit it to his advantage. Indecision in any given situation during combat in Amis usually ends in defeat for the player.

T H E GRIP
The grip is the soul of all fighting techniques in Amis. It is the correct grip that packs power and controls the cane. To do the correct grip, hold the cane an inch from the base and tighten you four fingers around it with your thumb pressed against for forefinger. The hold must be firm when striking. Relax your wrist a bit after a strike.

COURTESY
Courtesy means respect for one's opponent and for the cardinal rules and principles of sportsmanship. In the revered tradition of martial arts, courtesy in Modem Amis is the trademark which makes players worthy protagonists. At 45 degrees angle, heels closed, body erect, hands at 2 V2 inches apart holding cane, and feet together, how your head slightly towards your opponent. Courtesy in Arnis can also be executed with two canes.

CARDINAL RULES OR PRINCIPLES OF ARNIS By nature man is never violent. Unless otherwise affected by some physical or psychological affliction, or forced by outside reasons or provocations, no man will harm a fellow human being (or animal for that matter) let alone feast on their physical sufferings. Man is an "institution" of love and kindness. However, history, history is replete which stories of man's brutalities to his fellowman. Wars were waged and lives were laid in battlefield after battlefields. This is a sad commentary on man's true nature, or an irony of his being. But it must be remembered that this violent quality of man is forced upon him by the vicissitudes of time and circumstance. Outside forces edged him out of his human resistance which inevitably led him to react in order to preserve himself. Thus the truism of the "'survival of the fittest", the vagaries of cruel life led man to violence. This need forced man to devise arts and implements for fighting. From the first caveman to the present spaceman, tools for fighting were made and improved until sophisticated machines and implements of warfare become dreadful realities. Thus, the caveman had his stone clubs, the Europeans their epees and foils, the Chinese their Kung-Fu and the Japanese, their kendo and Karate, and many other with their forms of martial arts. The Filipinos are not spared of this need. The Filipinos were forced to devise their own Amis, the martial art of the cane which had its beginnings even before the coming of the Spaniards. Present trend, however, converted these martial arts into forms of sport. Although they are taught as defensive and offensive weapons, their concentration is now as a form of sports indulged in friendly competitions like all other wholesome sports. These arts have cardinal rules and principles to be observed and followed. Arnis has its own principles that have to be inculcated in the students. The cardinal principle in Arnis is respect for one's opponent as a person and as a fighter, and as a sportsman. It should always be remembered that an opponent is a human being with a dignity as you have and worthy or respect. (Also do not underrate his fighting ability. Overconfidence would be costly, i f not fatal, therefore never underestimate the ability of an opponent). Sportsmanship on the other hand is a measure of a fighter or player. The laurels of victory should never be worn with superiority but with humility. Victory is not a stamp of invulnerability but rather a reason for magnanimity. Besides these cardinal principles, there are other principles in Arnis that the students, must remember these are: Character, sincerity, discipline, self control etiquette and student's loyalty to his tutor. a. Character - a ruffian has no place in Arnis let alone in sports. Refinement in character is important. A student must be taught the moral (and religious) values of everything. It is an obligation of the teacher of Arnis to mold the character of the student in such a way that his behavioral structure would be motivated by righteous desire. It is what a man is that counts not the number of trophies he won. In spite of the abetted fallacies of values of the present world, it is who you are that will matter in the end. b. Sincerity - Sincerity for victory's sake is not at all - consuming end of an Arnis player. It is the sincerity in him to his fellowmen and to his art that makes him shines in the array of men. The will to win maybe inculcated, but such tutelage should never end after the tick of the ultimate seconds in the game but beyond the canvas and the arena of competition. The martial art of

arnis, it should be remembered, is a good medium of developing man's sense of dedication in all his everyday endeavor and involvement. Sincerity, is the mother of trust makes an institution of what has been shattered by doubts. A man who is not sincere will never have a true friend. c. Discipline - Arnis is a molder of discipline. It is the responsibility therefore, of the teacher of the art to guide the students to this end. Strict compliance of rules and norms of conduct is an athlete's obligation. Proper behavior in the sport and in life itself will be the gauge of success. Personal discipline is important. The kaleidoscopic invitations and temptations of life should never undermine man in his obligation to his art, to himself and his fellowman. A student should learn to control himself in the pursuance of his goal, not only to his art but also to life in general. d. Self-control-Losing one's head means defeat. One should learn to control his temper. If he hopes to achieve success in every endeavor. In Arnis, self -control is important for without it, life and the good health of another may be lost. The possession of an ability to kill or maim a person should be handled with the extreme caution and prudence. Man's clear perception of things is anchored on his ability to control the outbursts of his inner self. Provocation is dishonorable but hasty reaction to is just as dishonorable if not despicable. e. Etiquette - Etiquette is allied to the main cardinal rules in arnis. One's norm and standard should never be imposed upon others. One should learn to respect others. Giving credence to the standard and ability of another person should or will best prepare anybody in any endeavor. The pacific ways of human understanding will stay unruffled if exercise of proper etiquette and respect whether it be in sporty competition or in life itself is observed. You may be wrong after all and the other fellow is right. You might wind up holding an empty bag, so to speak, f. Student's loyalty - loyalty should be emphasized to the student, loyalty to the art, to a fellow player, and to his teacher. Ingratitude to one is ingratitude to the other. A student should be loyal to a fellow player because any disloyalty to him is disloyalty to the art itself. More important, a student should be loyal to his teacher. Everything one has learned is owed by him to his teacher. Personal whims should never cause one to be ungrateful to where he owes everything he knows. Even for the ultimate aim of the art is already achieved by a student that he can now manage on his own, he should never forget the teacher who labored for him. In the skirmishes of things, the students should be always loyal to him. Life has shown as many treacheries committed in the name of greed and personal gratification. This has no place in the art of Arnis or in sports for the matter. A true sportsman is always loyal to his art and to the prime movers of the art. He sees with gratitude in everything and everybody from whom he had owed everything he knows. In this world of muck and mire only those who look back with gratitude shall succeed. Loyalty to the fundamental basis of his achievements weighs for a greater measure in the merits of man.

8 Ingratitude is treachery and a traitor has no place in the forum of honorable men. THE 12 VITAL STRIKING POINTS OF THE BODY AREA 1. Left temple 2. Right temple 3. Left shoulder 4. Right shoulder 5. Stomach 6. Left Chest 7. Right Chest 8. Left Knee 9. Right Knee 10. Left eye 11. Right eye 12. Crown TYPE OF STRIKE USED Strike No. 1 Strike No. 2 Strike No. 3 Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. Strike No. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 REACTIONS Fatal. The least it will cause in internal hemorrhage in the brain or skull fracture. Same as in No. 1 Numbing pain. It may also cripple the shoulder. Same as in No. 3 Crippling pain and could be fatal. Could be fatal. Could be fatal. Dislocation or fracture. May also cripple. Same as in No. 8. Serious damage to the eye. Same as in No. 10 Fatal

It must be remembered though that the striking areas in Arnis play are not limited to the above. These are only areas to be hit in the 12 basic striking techniques. In actual Amis play, especially in defense, one has to use his hands, feet, and the base of the cane. You will note this is the final stroke (counterblows) of all defensive and offensive techniques presented in this handouts. Therefore, when one executes counterblows, he should deliver them to areas most effective. In the given illustration, these areas are identified by letters. These can also be targets in cane strikes. But these areas are easily convenient targets in defensive plays when the attacker is already out balanced. With the corresponding degree of punishment a person gets out after being hit, these areas are as follows: AREA A. B. C. D. E. F. Nose Back of the neck Side of the,neck Adam's apple Solar Plexus Side below the last rib REACTION Excruciating pain with the breaking of the nose. Fatal Fatal Fatal Excruciating pain and could be fatal. Excruciating pain and breaking of the rib. One should note that the last rib is very vulnerable because it is hanging Paralyzing and could possibly cause permanent injury. Could be also fatal. Fatal. Sharp pain and numbing.

G. Lower Abdomen H. Groin and Testicles I . Shin

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