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International Telecommunications Satellite

Organization -created in 1964 and 140 member countries It handles the technical and administrative problems associated with a world wide telecommunications systems. July 2001 INTELSAT - private company May 2002 the company -providing end-to-end solutions through a network of Teleports, leased fiber, and points of presence (PoPs) around the globe.

INTELSAT -I was launched (Early Bird satellite) -1965 and provided 480 voice channels. The series of satellites were INTELSAT I,II,III,IV,V and VII. The capacity - number of voice channels, increased as well as the design lifetime. These satellites are in geostationary orbit, meaning that they appear to be stationary in relation to the earth. INTELSAT covers three main regions- AOR, IOR and POR

Evolution of INTELSAT satellites


INTELSAT VII February 1997 to June 1998 , lifetime - 14 to 17 years The construction is similar to that for the V and VA/VB series Capacity - 18,000 two-way telephone circuits and three TV channels; - up to 90,000 two-way telephone circuits can be achieved with the use of digital circuit multiplication. VII series has solar sails rather than a cylindrical body

The VII series - service in the POR and also for some of the less demanding services in the AOR Antenna beam footprints for the C-band hemispheric cover- age and zone coverage and the spot beam coverage possible with the Ku-band antennas In POR, C band (6/4) MHZ antennas and Ku band (14/12) MHZ Antennas are used. Based on number of satellites, system includes ground spares and orbiting spares. In 1992 INTELSAT had 6 satellites in AOR at degrees east longitude (307,325.5, 332.5, 338.5, 341.5, 359)

3 in IOR at degrees 60,63,66 3 in POR at degrees 174,177 ,180 Traffic in AOR 3 times of IOR twice of IOR and POR combined INTELSAT VII/A Capacity - 22,500 two-way telephone circuits and three TV channels; up to 1,12500 two-way tele- phone circuits can be achieved with the use of digital circuit multiplication Services - Internet, DTH TV, tele-medicine, tele-education, and interactive video and multimedia.

Transponder One 36 MHz transponder is capable of carrying about 9000 voice channels, or two analog TV channels, or about eight digital TV channels. USES - domestic services within any given country - and regional services between countries - vista application (f-1.4)

U.S. Domsat
Provide various

telecommunications services, such as voice, data, and video transmissions, within a country.

Geostationary orbit TV channels, and carrying a large amount of commercial telecommunications traffic. Provide a DTH television service Classification High power, medium power and low power EIRP - 60 dBW for the high-power category 37 dBW for the low- power category, a difference of 23 dB.

High-power category, which allows much smaller antennas to be used with the receiver. High-power category - DBS service. Medium-power category- point-to-point services, Low-power category - no official DBS services are provided a wide range of radio and TV programming could be received on this band. North American C-band TV broadcasts are now encrypted, or scrambled, to prevent unauthorized access

These satellites are in geostationary orbit Broadband services- Internet at Ka-band frequencies.

orbital spacing U.S. FCC (Federal communications commission) adopted a policy 2r for satellites operating in the 6/4- Ghz (C band) 1.5r for those operating in the 14/12-GHz (Ku band) Interference - acceptable interference levels Home satellite receivers - 6/4-GHz band - excessive interference at 2r spacing

Polar orbiting satellites

To cover the north and south polar regions. RUSSIA -uses the highly elliptical orbits to cover the northern region. In fig.1.6 only one geostationary orbit, but an infinite number of polar orbits Orbits are generally LEO- So we call the polar orbiting satellites are LEOSAT.

Height of the orbit- 800 -900 Km above the earth compared to Geostationary orbit. Height of Geostationary orbit-36,000 Km above the earth

Generally Low earth orbit -circular orbit (SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT)- They cross the equator at the same local time. In U.S -weather satellite services National Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)

1. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space and Administration) 2. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Manages the program for series of Satellites known as Tiros-nseries. Tiros- Television and infrared observational satellite, mission of NOAA Environmental monitoring List of Instruments 1. AVHRR- Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. 2. SBUV Mod2 - Solar Backscatter ultraviolet radiometer mod2

3. Tovs- Tiros operational vertical sounder system. 4. SEM- Space Environmental monitor Uses: Weather forecasting, environmental data Argos data collection system (DCS)- collects environmental data. PTT (Platform transmitter terminal)-located at the polar region. NOAA satellites help locate ships and aircraft in distress. This service is known as SARSAT Application : Search and rescue satellites


Combined system of Russian and SARSAT. The satellite receives signal from an emergency beacon set off automatically at distress site. Satellites moves at velocity relative to the beacon. If received frequency >transmitted frequency of the satellite- so satellite approaches the beacon, otherwise recedes from the beacon. Whether beacon east or west of the orbit. Doppler shift cant determined by single pass. Two successive passes, Doppler shift can be determined.



Fig. Doppler shift in received frequency on successive passes of the satellite. ELTemergency locator transmitter.

Keplers First law

It states that the path followed by the satellite around the primary will be an ellipse. F1 & F2 Focal points The center of mass of the two body system termed the Barycenter. Enormous difference between the masses of the earth and the satellite, the center of mass coincides with the center of the earth. which is therefore always at one of the foci

Fig. The foci F1 and F2, the semimajor axis a and the semiminor axis b of an ellipse

Eccentricity e= squart(a2 - b2 )/a The semimajor axis of the ellipse is denoted by a, and the semiminor axis, by b. For an elliptical orbit, 0 < e < 1. When e = 0, the orbit becomes circular.

Keplers Second law

It states that, for equal time intervals, a satellite will sweep out equal areas in its orbital plane, focused at the barycenter. Assuming the satellite travels distances S1 and S2 meters in 1 s, then the areas A1 and A2 will be equal. Average velocity in each case is S1 and S2 m/s The satellite takes longer to travel a given distance when it is farther away from earth


Keplers Third law

Keplers third law states that the square of the periodic time of orbit is proportional to the cube of the mean distance between the two bodies The mean distance is equal to the semimajor axis a. a3 = /n2, = 3.986005 1014 m3/s2 where n is the mean motion of the satellite in radians per second and is the earths geocentric gravitational constant With n in radians per second, the orbital period in seconds is given by P =2n

Definitions of Terms for Earthorbiting Satellites

Sub satellite path: This is the path traced out on the earths surface directly below the satellite. Apogee: The point farthest from earth. Apogee height is shown as ha in Fig. below Perigee: The point of closest approach to earth. The perigee height is shown as hp in Fig. below

Apogee height ha, perigee height hp, and inclination i. la is the line of apsides

Line of apsides: The line joining the perigee and apogee through the center of the earth. Ascending node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from south to north. Descending node: The point where the orbit crosses the equatorial plane going from north to south.

Line of nodes: The line joining the ascending and descending nodes through the center of the earth. Inclination: 1. The angle between the orbital plane and the earths equatorial plane. 2. It is measured at the ascending node from the equator to the orbit, going from east to north.

Prograde orbit: 1. An orbit in which the satellite moves in the same direction as the earths rotation. 2. The prograde orbit is also known as a direct orbit. 3. The inclination of a prograde orbit always lies between 0r and 90r. 4.Most satellites are launched in a prograde orbit.

Fig. Prograde and retrograde orbits

Retrograde orbit: 1.An orbit in which the satellite moves in a direction counter to the earths rotation, as shown in Fig. 2.The inclination of a retrograde orbit always lies between 90r and 180r. Argument of perigee: The angle from ascending node to perigee, measured in the orbital plane at the earths center, in the direction of satellite motion. The argument of perigee is shown as w in Fig.

Fig. The argument of perigee w and the right ascension of the ascending node .

Right ascension of the ascending node: 1. To define completely the position of the orbit in space, the position of the ascending node is specified. 2. However, because the earth spins, while the orbital plane remains stationary. 3. For absolute measurement, fixed reference required. 4. Reference chosen FIRST POINT OF ARIES 5. Vernal equinox sun crosses the equator from S to N.

Mean anomaly: Mean anomaly M gives an average value of the angular position of the satellite with reference to the perigee True anomaly: 1. The true anomaly is the angle from perigee to the satellite position, measured at the earths center. 2. This gives the true angular position of the satellite in the orbit as a function of time.

Orbital Elements-Six Orbital elements

Six orbital elements referred keplerian element set. 1. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e give the shape of the ellipse. 2. The mean anomaly M0--- gives the position of the satellite in its orbit at a reference time known as the epoch.

The argument of perigee -- gives the rotation of the orbits perigee point relative to the orbits line of nodes in the earths equatorial plane. The inclination i and the right ascension of the ascending node -gives the orbital planes position to the earth

Apogee and Perigee Heights

Along with orbital elements, the apogee height and perigee height are often required. The length of the radius vectors at apogee and perigee can be obtained from the geometry of the ellipse ra= a(1+e) ha= ra-R R=earth rp = a(1-e) hb=rb-R radious The apogee and perigee heights, the radius of the earth must be subtracted from the radii lengths

Orbit Perturbations
Orbit- keplerian orbit ideal-elliptical. The earth - uniform spherical mass. The only force acting -the centrifugal force resulting from satellite motion balancing the gravitational pull of the earth. The gravitational forces of the sun and the moon and atmospheric drag. (negligible effect on low-orbiting satellites)

But they affect satellites in GEO. Atmospheric drag- negligible effect on geostationary satellites, but affect low orbiting earth satellites below about 1000 km.

Effects of a non-spherical earth

For a spherical earth of uniform mass, Keplers third law

The 0 subscript this result applies for a perfectly spherical earth of uniform mass But earth not perfectly spherical. Non-spherical earth- oblate spheroid.

Earth oblateness mean motion given by

K1= 66,063.1704 km, negligible effect on the semi major axis a The orbital period taking into account the earths oblateness - anomalistic period

The oblateness of the earth - produces two rotations of the orbital plane. 1) Regression of the nodes- Equatorial plane, rotates about the center of the earth. 2) Thus the right ascension of the ascending node, shifts its position.

If the orbit is prograde , the nodes slide westward. A satellite in prograde orbit moves eastward, and in a retrograde orbit, westward. The nodes therefore move in a direction opposite to the direction of satellite motion, hence the term regression of the nodes

Second effect Rotation of apsides in the orbital plane. Both effect depend on mean motion n,a,e

Rate of change of

with respect to time

The other major effect produced by the equatorial bulge is a rotation of the line of apsides. This line rotates in the orbital plane. The rate of change of argument of perigee

New values for and w at time t

Atmospheric drag
For near-earth satellites, below about 1000 km, the effects of atmospheric drag are significant. The drag is greatest at the perigee- to reduce the velocity at this point. The result that the satellite does not reach the same apogee height on successive revolutions.(a, e reduced)

The change of major axis is

Mean anomaly is also changed

Inclined Orbits
Satellite in an inclined elliptical orbit. The orbital elements are known with reference to the orbital plane. The location of the earth station - in terms of the local geographic coordinates. Calculations of satellite position and velocity in space-Represented in rectangular coordinates.(azimuth, elevation, angles & range).

Transformations between coordinate systems are therefore required. Determination of the look angles and range involves 1. Orbital elements- in the NASA bulletins. 2. Various measures of time 3. Perifocal coordinate system- based on orbital plane. 4. Geocentric-equatorial coordinate system-based on earths equatorial plane. 5. Topocentric-horizon coordinate system- based on observers horizon plane.

The two major coordinate transformations

The satellite position measured in the perifocal system. Transformed to the geocentric-horizon system (satellite position, earth station location). The satellite-to-earth station position- transformed to the topocentric-horizon system (look angles and range )

Calendar is a time-keeping device. Calendar days- units of time. year is divided into months, weeks, and days. Calendar days - based on the earths motion relative to the sun. The sun moving relative to the earth. Motion is not uniform- the mean sun.

A day measured relative to this mean sun is termed a mean solar day. A tropical year -365.2422 days (take real sun motion) The calendar year, also referred to as the civil year. After 100 years- 24 days between the calendar year and the tropical year.(to avoid discrepancy

Universal time
Universal time coordinated (UTC) - time used for all civil timekeeping . It is the time reference - by the National Bureau of Standards as a standard for setting clocks. The fundamental unit for UTC is the mean solar day. In terms of clock time, the mean solar day is divided into 24 h, an hour into 60 min, and a minute into 60 s. Thus there are 86,400 clock seconds in a mean solar day.

Universal time coordinated - equivalent to Greenwich mean time (GMT), as well as Zulu (Z) time. UT in two forms: as a fraction of a day and in degrees.

Julian dates
All events measured by reference time . Reference time -provided by the Julian zero time reference. The important point - ordinary calendar times are easily converted to Julian dates. (measured on a continuous time scale of Julian days). Eg. First determine the day of the year- (day zero) denoted as Jan 0.0

JAN 0 - December 31 JAN 0.5 - Noon on December 31 JAN 1.5 Noon on January 1 JD = JD0,0 + day number + UT day Number of methods calculating the Julian day



Sidereal time
Sidereal time is time measured relative to the fixed stars . one complete rotation of the earth relative to the fixed stars is not a complete rotation relative to the sun. The sidereal day is defined as one complete rotation of the earth relative to the fixed stars

1 sidereal day - 24 sidereal hours 1 sidereal hour - 60 sidereal minutes 1 sidereal minute - 60 sidereal seconds 1 mean solar day = 1.0027379093 mean sidereal days. = 24 h 3 m 56.55536 s sidereal time. = 86,636.55536 mean sidereal seconds


1 mean sidereal day = 0.9972695664 mean solar days = 23 h 56 m 04.09054 s mean solar time = 86,164.09054 mean solar seconds Measurements of longitude on earth surface- use sidereal time

The orbital plane

In the orbital plane, the position vector r and the velocity vector v specify the motion of the satellite. The magnitude of the position vector

To determining true anomaly - two stages. First, the mean anomaly M at time t is found.


Here, n is the mean motion . For NASA elements M0 = n(t0 T) T= t0